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Sample records for hybrid catfish fed

  1. Growth performance, survival, and processing characteristics of hybrid catfish fed pre And probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a lot of interest in the use of pre and probiotics to increase growth and improve disease resistance in the catfish industry. This study aimed to evaluate a commercially available prebiotic and probiotic under conditions simulating commercial production in hybrid catfish. The dietar...

  2. Growth and Survival of Catfish ( Clarias anguillaris ) Juveniles Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juveniles of catfish, Clarias anguillaris (mean weight, 119.8g) were fed unconventional diets for ten weeks in outdoor hapas (net cages, 1m3 dimension) and the growth responses and feed utilization by the juveniles were compared. The experimental diets were (i) live maggots, (ii) live tilapia fry, (iii) commercial catfish feed ...

  3. Induced spawning, survival and growth of an African catfish hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced spawning, survival and growth of an African catfish hybrid (female Clarias gariepinus and male Clarias anguillaris ) fingerlings relative to their parental species in the mount Cameroon region.

  4. Oxygen requirements of separated hybrid catfish female Ictalurus punctatus male I. furcatus eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg masses require ambient water with over 95% air saturation to maintain maximum oxygen consumption as they near hatch. Since hybrid catfish eggs (channel catfish ' X blue catfish I. furcatus ') are often kept separated after fertilization by the addition of full...

  5. Effect of Rearing Periods on the Production of Hybrid Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerling production of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Heterobanchus longifilis) was investigated over three rearing periods of 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks in fertilized earthen ponds during the rainy season. At harvest, fingerling mean weight was directly related to length of rearing period, while survival rate and ...

  6. Comparative study on the growth performance of the hybrid catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of the hybrid catfish Heteroclarias reared in concrete and earthen pond systems were investigated in a 92-day experiment. Experiment was conducted using four rectangular ponds (2 concrete and 2 earthen) each measuring 14 × 6 × 1.5 metres in duplicates. The ponds were uniformly limed, fertilized ...

  7. Oxygen requirement of separated hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish egg masses require hatchery water with over 7.8 ppm dissolved oxygen at 80° F (95% air saturation) to maintain maximum oxygen consumption as they near hatching. This concentration is called the critical oxygen requirement by scientists but for the purpose of this article we will call...

  8. Performance of Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of boiled mango seed kernel (MSK) as substitute for maize in diets of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings was investigated using four diets were formulated such that T2 , T3 and T4 contained boiled MSK as replacement for maize at 20%, 40% and 60% inclusion levels respectively, while T1 (control) contained ...

  9. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Clarias ngamensis) as predators for Schistosoma host snails was evaluated in 2014 by monitoring the consumption of snails by crayfish and catfish in experimental tanks over time under laboratory conditions. After 15 days, both crayfish and ...

  10. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Thillart, van den G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four

  11. Growth performance of African catfish (Clarias sp. juvenile fed on the diets containing various chromium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aryansyah

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary chromium level on the growth performance of catfish (Clarias sp. juvenile. Five experimental diets contain different chromium level, namely diet A (as a control diet 0.01; B 1.30; C 2.60; D 3.90 and E 5.20 mg/kg diet were used in this experiment. Fish with body weight of  5.57 ± 0.01 g/ind, fed on the experimental diet, twice a day, at satiation. Feeding trial was conducted for 60 days. Based on the evaluation of protein level of the whole body, protein and lipid retention, daily growth rate and feed efficiency, it was concluded that the optimum dietary chromium level for catfish  juvenile was 2.60 mg/kg diet. Keywords: chromium, growth, Clarias sp.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian kromium dengan level berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan ikan lele (Clarias sp. juvenil.  Lima jenis pakan yang mengandung kromium berbeda, yaitu pakan A  (kontrol 0,01; B 1,30; C 2,60; D 3,90 dan pakan E 5,20 mg/kg digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Ikan dengan bobot 5,57 ± 0,01 g/ind., diberi pakan 2 kali sehari secara satiasi.  Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 60 hari.  Berdasarkan analisa retensi protein, kandungan protein dan retensi lemak dalam tubuh ikan lele, disimpulkan bahwa kadar kromium yang optimum untuk juvenil ikan lele adalah 2,60 mg/kg pakan. Kata kunci: kromium, pertumbuhan, Clarias sp.

  12. Emergence of Edwardsiella piscicida in farmed channel femal, Ictalurus punctatus X blue male, Ictalurus furcatus, hybrid catfish cultured in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    here is a trend toward the increased incidence and prevalence of Edwardsiella piscicida septicemia in US catfish aquaculture, particularly in channel ', Ictalurus punctatus, × blue ', I. furcatus, hybrid catfish. From 2013 to 2017, a total of 3242 disease case submissions were made to the Aquatic Re...

  13. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as biological control agents for Schistosoma host snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.; Syampungani, S.; Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Clarias ngamensis) as predators for Schistosoma host snails was evaluated in 2014 by monitoring the consumption of snails by crayfish and catfish in experimental tanks over time under laboratory conditions. After

  14. Catfish Biology and Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Rex A; Elaswad, Ahmed

    2018-02-15

    This article summarizes the biology and culture of ictalurid catfish, an important commercial, aquaculture, and sport fish family in the United States. The history of the propagation as well as spawning of common catfish species in this family is reviewed, with special emphasis on channel catfish and its hybridization with blue catfish. The importance of the channel catfish female×blue catfish male hybrid, including current and future methods of hybrid catfish production, and the potential role it plays in the recovery of the US catfish industry are discussed. Recent advances in catfish culture elements, including environment, management, nutrition, feeding, disease control, culture systems, genetic improvement programs, transgenics, and the application of genome-based approaches in catfish production and welfare, are reviewed. The current status, needs, and future projections are discussed, as well as genetically modified organism developments that are changing the future.

  15. Portable canvas tanks for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by small-scale farmers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yaakob, W.A.A.; Ali, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the trials made with a simple portable canvas-tarpaulin tank system developed at the University Sains Malaysia for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by Malaysia small scale farmers.

  16. Survival and growth of catfish Pangasionodon sp. larvae fed on vitamin C-enriched Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The research was conducted to evaluate effect of the administration of Artemia enriched with vitamin C on the survival, total body length, and average body weight of Pangasionodon sp. larvae. Artemia were enriched with either 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg/L vitamin C immersed in the culture medium for 13 hours. Two days old larvae were fed on enriched Artemia 12 times/day for seven days. At the end of feeding experiment, it was found that fish fed on Artemia enriched with 100 mg/L culture medium had the highest survival, total length and body weight, respectively 76.17±12.78%, 1.63±0.34 cm, and 20.6±3.8 mg. Keywords: survival, growth, Artemia, vitamin C, catfish, Pangasionodon sp.  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh Artemia yang diperkaya dengan vitamin C dosis berbeda terhadap kelangsungan hidup, panjang total, dan bobot tubuh larva ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Pada penelitian ini, Artemia diperkaya dengan vitamin C dosis 0, 50, 100, atau 150 mg/L media pengayaan. Larva yang berumur dua hari diberi pakan Artemia hasil pengayaan sebanyak 12 kali sehari selama tujuh hari masa pemeliharaan. Pada akhir percobaan, didapatkan bahwa larva ikan yang diberi Artemia diperkaya vitamin C dosis 100 mg/L media pengayaan memberikan kelangsungan hidup 76,17±12,78%, panjang total 1,63±0,34 cm, dan bobot tubuh paling tinggi 20,6±3,8 mg. Kata kunci: kelangsungan hidup, pertumbuhan, Artemia, vitamin C, ikan patin, Pangasionodon sp. 

  17. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of a widely cultivated tree (moringa oleifera) on the health of commercially important hybrid catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamu, K.M.; Ahmed, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Plantations of the tree Moringa oleifera often lead to increase levels of leaf dust in nearby freshwater environments, and there is concern that, this could have a negative impact on catfish, which are important for aquaculture. Therefore, this study, determined the biochemical alterations in serum, liver and kidney of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus ( ) Heterobranchus bidorsalis ( ) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of M. oleifera leaf dust in a static renewable bioassay system during a medium term exposure period. The fish (mean length, 16.33 cm, mean weight, 9.90 g) were exposed to 0.16, 0.12, 0.08, 0.04 and 0.00 mg/L concentrations of the plant leaf dust in triplicate exposure. After 21-days of exposure period, the fish were sacrificed for the biochemical parameters: glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, g-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Fish exposed to leaf dust showed significant differences (P 0.05), in the liver and kidney, respectively, in the test fish. Other parameters were not significantly different (P>0.05) in their respective tissue-organs. Ipso-facto, the alteration in biochemical parameters of hybrid catfish exposed to M. oleifera leaf dust was concentration dependent with 0.16 mg/L showing the highest negative alterations thus fish exposed to concentrations above 0.16 mg/L for longer durations may suffer impaired health effect. (author)

  19. Effects of exercise on l-carnitine and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary l-carnitine and lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.O.A.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Bessa, R.J.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Huisman, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets (34 % crude protein), each containing one of two lipid (100 or 180 g/kg) and two l-carnitine (15 or 1000 mg/kg) levels. After 81 d of feeding, thirty-two fish (body weight 32 g) from each dietary group were randomly selected,

  20. Pond-raised hybrid catfish, male Ictalurus punctatus X female Ictalurus furcatus, do not respond to microbial phytase “super-dosing”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted in consecutive years to evaluate responses of hybrid catfish, male Ictalurus punctatus X female Ictalurus furcatus, to “super-dosing” of 6-phytase added to existing commercial catfish feeds. In each experiment, two diets with or without a phytase super-dose (2,500 and ...

  1. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver of catfish fed with different concentrations of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.B. Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The activities of enzymes from a number of metabolic pathways have been used as a tool to evaluate the best use of nutrients on fish performance. In the present study the catfish Rhamdia quelen was fed with diets containing crude protein-lipid-carbohydrate (% as follows: treatment (T T1: 19-19-44; T2: 26-15-39; T3: 33-12-33; and T4: 40-10-24. The fish were held in tanks of re-circulated, filtered water with controlled temperature and aeration in 2000L experimental units. The feeding experiment lasted 30 days. The following enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism were determined: Glucokinase (GK, Phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1, Pyruvate kinase (PK, Fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP-1. The activities of 6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH were also assayed. The influence of nutrient levels on the enzyme activities is reported. The increase of dietary protein plus reduction of carbohydrates and lipids attenuates the glycolytic activity and induces hepatic gluconeogenesis as a strategy to provide metabolic energy from amino acids. The fish performance was affected by the concentrations of protein, lipid and carbohydrates in the diet. The greatest weight gain was obtained in fish fed diet T4 containing 40.14% of crude protein, 9.70% of lipids, and 24.37% of carbohydrate, respectively.

  2. Respons of Erythrocytes, Hematocrit and Hemoglobin River Catfish (Mystus Nemurus) Combination Fed Guava Leaves (Psidium Guajava) and Bitter (Andrographis Paniculata Ness)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Mesi; Lukystiowati, Iesje; Syawal, Henni

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted from April-June 2013 in the Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fish Diseases and Parasites Laboratory Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences University of Riau. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of erythrocytes, hematocrit, and blood hemoglobin river catfish (Mystus nemurus) fed a combination of guava leaves and bitter infected with the bacterium A. hydrophila. This study used 5 treatments of: negative control (without any solution guava, bitter and...

  3. Henneguya laterocapsulata Landsberg, 1987 (Myxosporea, Myxozoa) in cultured hybrid African catfish: Ultrastructure of the parasite-host interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiekezie, A; Schmahl, G

    1993-02-19

    The ultrastructure of the host-parasite interface was studied in Henneguya laterocapsulata, parasitizing the skin of hybrid catfishes (Clarias gariepinus × Heterobranchus bidorsalis) in Nigeria. The plasmodia were located between malpighian cells, which are the main elements of the multilayered fish epidermis, and were bordered by a single cell membrane. The desmosomal junctions between the malpighian cells were forced apart by finger-like protrusions of the Plasmodium. These plasmodial protrusions finally ran into the host cell without disrupting of the host cell membrane and formed network-like extensions. At the margin of the plasmodium an extensive vacuolization occurred, leading to a wavy surface. Infections with H. laterocapsulata may be an adverse factor in the large-scale production of hybrid catfish fingerlings used for aquaculture in Africa. Copyright © 1993 Gustav Fischer Verlag · Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation of probiotic bacteria from the hybrid South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum × Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: A haematological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated bacterial strains with probiotic potential isolated from the middle portion of healthy hybrid surubim catfish foregut (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum female × P. corruscans male. Twenty surubims weighing 1.5 ± 0.3 kg were used for bacterial isolation. In total, 41 strains of bacteria were selected in vitro. Ten strains had inhibition zones >10 mm against Aeromonas hydrophila. Five of those strains presented inhibition zones > 9 mm against other pathogenic bacteria and reached concentrations greater than 105 CFU mL−1 in tubes containing de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS medium. In particular, Weissella cibaria (P36 reached 106 CFU mL−1 in MRS and was able to reduce the pH of the medium to 3.85. In the in vivo intestinal colonization studies, 72 healthy hybrid surubims were fed with a commercial diet supplemented with probiotic W. cibaria for 15 days. Changes in gut community composition were then analyzed, and probiotic profile of W. cibaria was determined molecularly by amplification of rRNA 16S gene was performed using PCR. Compared to control fish, W. cibaria-supplemented fish showed an increase in RBC. These results show the efficacy of our haematological approach to probiotic screening in hybrid sorubim.

  5. Vapor-fed bio-hybrid fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, Marcus S; Jahnke, Justin P; Mackie, David M

    2017-01-01

    Concentration and purification of ethanol and other biofuels from fermentations are energy-intensive processes, with amplified costs at smaller scales. To circumvent the need for these processes, and to potentially reduce transportation costs as well, we have previously investigated bio-hybrid fuel cells (FCs), in which a fermentation and FC are closely coupled. However, long-term operation requires strictly preventing the fermentation and FC from harming each other. We introduce here the concept of the vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC as a means of continuously extracting power from ongoing fermentations at ambient conditions. By bubbling a carrier gas (N 2 ) through a yeast fermentation and then through a direct ethanol FC, we protect the FC anode from the catalyst poisons in the fermentation (which are non-volatile), and also protect the yeast from harmful FC products (notably acetic acid) and from build-up of ethanol. Since vapor-fed direct ethanol FCs at ambient conditions have never been systematically characterized (in contrast to vapor-fed direct methanol FCs), we first assess the effects on output power and conversion efficiency of ethanol concentration, vapor flow rate, and FC voltage. The results fit a continuous stirred-tank reactor model. Over a wide range of ethanol partial pressures (2-8 mmHg), power densities are comparable to those for liquid-fed direct ethanol FCs at the same temperature, with power densities >2 mW/cm 2 obtained. We then demonstrate the continuous operation of a vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC with fermentation for 5 months, with no indication of performance degradation due to poisoning (of either the FC or the fermentation). It is further shown that the system is stable, recovering quickly from disturbances or from interruptions in maintenance. The vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC enables extraction of power from dilute bio-ethanol streams without costly concentration and purification steps. The concept should be scalable to both large and small

  6. Critical thermal maxima of two geographic strains of channel and hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical thermal maxima have been used extensively to provide physiologically and ecologically valuable reference points that identify early signs of thermal stress. In catfish pond culture, daily temperature maxima up to 36'C and daily fluctuations of as much as 6'Care observed. These extreme condi...

  7. Non specific immune response in the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non specific immune response in the African catfish, Heterobranchus longifilis fed diets fortified with ethanolic extracts of selected traditional medicinal plants and disease resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  8. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, C.R.; Lovell, R.T.

    2002-01-01

    Radiolabeled (U- 14 C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U- 14 C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14 C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U- 14 C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14 C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14 C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14 C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  9. Parametric study of lower-hybrid current drive in the FED-A design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, H.; Ehst, D.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1983-08-01

    In the FED-A concept, a quasi-steady-state operating scenario is conceived in which the plasma current is maintained by the transformer coil during burn at high density and by the lower hybrid wave during transformer recharge at low density. A parametric study is carried out to obtain optimum plasma and wave parameters in the recharging phase

  10. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  11. Effects of vitamin C on percent neurulation, hatch, growth, and survival of hybrid catfish challenged with virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is an essential micronutrient involved in several physiological processes such as growth, reproduction, and immune response. Requirements of vitamin C during gamete formation and early life stages of catfish are not known. Ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL/kg BW) was administered in...

  12. COCOON PRODUCTION OF THE SILKWORM, Bombyx mori L. (LEPIDOPTERA: BOMBYCIDAE, FED ON LEAVES OF MULBERRY HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERBSON AZEVEDO DE MENDONÇA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the fourth cocoon producer in the world. In São Paulo State there are mulberry some hybrids whose productivity are higher than the commonly cultivated varieties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mulberry hybrids (Morus spp. on the cocoon production of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.. The experiment was conducted at the Unidade Regional de Pesquisa de Gália do Instituto de Zootecnia, SP. The caterpillars were fed on leaves of the hybrids IZ-3/2, IZ-13/6, IZ-15/7, IZ-19/13, IZ-56/4, IZ-57/2, IZ- 40, IZ-64, in a rearing hut at 25 oC ± 3 oC and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. 'Korin' was used as standard. The hybrids affected the duration of the larval period and the weight of the caterpillars, prepupaes and the silk glands as well. There was a reduction in the duration of larval development when the caterpillars had been fed with hybrid IZ-56/4 and the 'Korin' variety. Hybrids IZ-57/2, IZ-56/4 and IZ-15/7 presented the highest cocoon production.

  13. Control Demonstration of Multiple Doubly-Fed Induction Motors for Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Bodson, Marc; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Hunker, Keith R.; Theman, Casey J.; Taylor, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application.The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application. DFIMs are attractive for several reasons, including but not limited to the ability to self-start, ability to operate sub- and super-synchronously, and requiring only fractionally rated power converters on a per-unit basis depending on the required range of operation. The focus of this paper is based specifically on the presentation and analysis of a novel strategy which allows for independent operation of each of the aforementioned doubly-fed induction motors. This strategy includes synchronization, soft-start, and closed loop speed control of each motor as a means of controlling output thrust; be it concurrently or differentially. The demonstration of this strategy has recently been proven out on a low power test bed using fractional horsepower machines. Simulation and hardware test results are presented in the paper.

  14. Evaluation of portable near infrared spectrophotometer to stage maturity in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadal maturity of channel catfish varies within the same cohort of fish. Female channel catfish with superior maturity need to be identified and staged for higher success to induce spawn wit ovulating hormones to produce channel x blue hybrid catfish fry in hatcheries. Maturation is not synchron...

  15. The growth performance of F1 transgenic mutiara catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar; Buwono, I. D.; Agung, M. U. K.

    2018-04-01

    The growth of catfish (African or Sangkuriang strain) these days is tend to decreased. One of the solutions due to this problem is to improve the genetics of growth using transgenesis technology, toward more profitable. The specific objective of the research is to detect the transmission of exogenous GH (African catfish GH inserts) inside the F1 transgenic Mutiara catfish using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method and to evaluate the growth performance of transgenic Mutiara catfish made using the parameters of feed conversion (FCR = Feed Conversion Ratio). Transgenic catfish (strain mutiara) F0 and F1 carried African catfish GH (600 bp) can be produced. Superiority characters of transgenic catfish represented heritability (h2 ) and heterosis (H), indicating that the offspring of hybrid F1 transgenic mutiara catfish had phenotypes rapid growth (h2 = 17.55 % and H = 42.83 %) compared to non-transgenic catfish (h 2 = 10.07 % and H = 18.56 %). Evaluation of the efficiency of feed use parameters feed conversion ratio, shows that F1 transgenic mutiara catfish (FCR = 0.85) more efficient in converting feed into meat.

  16. Ingestive behavior of Nellore steers in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the feeding behavior of Nellore beef cattle in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids. Twenty-seven animals averaging 350 ± 24 kg of body weight and 24 months of age, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T, where, T1-TDFC: total diet containing flint corn, T2-TDSFC: total diet containing semi-flint corn and T3-TDSDC: total diet containing semi-dent corn, with 9 replicates per treatment. The animals were fed ad libitum twice a day (at 8:00am and 4:00pm with a isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet, with 30% of sugar cane bagasse and 70% concentrate (88% maize, 8% soybean meal, 3% mineral and vitamin supplement and 1% urea for 95 days (14 days of adaptation and 3 experimental periods of 27 days each. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and after each period of 27 days, always in a fasting period of 16 hours. The evaluation of animals feeding behavior occurred at the last day of each period by visual observation every five minutes for full periods of 24 hours. Observations were made in four shifts: morning (06:00 to 12:00, afternoon (12:00 to 18:00, evening (18:00 to 00:00 and early morning (00:00 06:00 to determine the number of ruminal bolus, chewing time, total feeding time, total ruminating standing time, total ruminating lying time, total standing idle time and total lying idle time. During the night’s observations, the stalls received artificial illumination to facilitate the data collection and the animals were adapted with light at night for three days before observations. Animals fed with diets containing semi-dent corn had longer chew time and more ruminal bolus than those fed with flint corn, but did not differ from those that received semi-flint corn in the diet. The chewing time and number of ruminal bolus varied with the observation periods, being higher in the morning and decreasing in the

  17. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  18. Influence of Culture Water Draw-off on Growth of the African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out over a period of 10 weeks to investigate the influence of culture water draw-‐off on growth and feed utilization of the African catfish. Two similar fish culture tanks (designated A and B) were stocked with juveniles of African catfish at 43 fish per m3. The fish were fed twice daily at 3 % body ...

  19. Histopathological Alterations of Hybrid Walking Catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus in Acute and Subacute Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntiya Pantung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological alterations occur in the gills, livers and kidneys of 3-month old hybrid walking catsfich (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinos after acute and subacute cadmium exposure in water, and after intraperitoneal injection.The 96-h LC50 for cadmium in recirculation open systems was 13.6 mg/l, and the 96-h LD50 1.6 mg/kg of fish. Light microscopic studies were carried out in gills, livers and kidneys. Gill alterations included an increased number of chloride cells, breakdown of the pillar cells and edema of the epithelial cells. In the liver there was blood conjestion in sinusoids and swelling of hepatocytes. The kidneys showed vacuolation and necrosis of proximal tubular cells.

  20. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an

  1. Formulation, production and evaluation of floating catfish feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was carried out to compare the performance of catfish fed with four experimental diets; a reference foreign diet (Multifeed) and three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic locally formulated diets with different palm oil contents (1, 2 and 3 liters) coded as Feed 1, Feed 2, Feed 3 and Feed 4 respectively. The growth trial ...

  2. and Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEX

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... crossing Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) by ... Extensive culture of H. fossilis is prevalent in India, but with less growth, when ..... Kligerman AD, Bloom SE (1977).

  3. The effect of silage cutting height on the nutritive value of a normal corn silage hybrid compared with brown midrib corn silage fed to lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Moulder, B M; Mulrooney, C M; Teller, R S; Schmidt, R J

    2008-04-01

    A brown midrib (BMR) hybrid and a silage-specific non-BMR (7511FQ) hybrid were harvested at a normal cut height leaving 10 to 15 cm of stalk in the field. The non-BMR hybrid was also cut at a greater height leaving 45 to 50 cm of stalk. Cutting high increased the concentrations of dry matter (+4%), crude protein (+5%), net energy for lactation (+3%), and starch (+7%), but decreased the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (-9%), neutral detergent fiber (-8%), and acid detergent lignin (-13%) for 7511FQ. As expected, the BMR corn silage was 30% lower in lignin concentration than 7511FQ. After 30 h of in vitro ruminal fermentation, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber for normal cut 7511FQ, the same hybrid cut high, and the normal cut BMR hybrid were 51.7, 51.4, and 63.5%, respectively. Twenty-seven multiparous lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration composed of the respective silages (45% of dry matter) with alfalfa haylage (5%), alfalfa hay (5%), and concentrate (45%) (to make the TMR isocaloric and isonitrogenous) in a study with a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Milk production was greater for cows fed the BMR hybrid (48.8 kg/d) compared with those fed the normal cut 7511FQ (46.8 kg/d) or cut high (47.7 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Feed efficiency for cows fed the BMR silage (1.83) was greater than for those fed high-cut 7511FQ (1.75), but was not different from cows fed the normal cut 7511FQ (1.77). Cows fed the BMR silage had milk with greater concentrations of lactose but lower milk urea nitrogen than cows on other treatments. Harvesting a silage-specific, non-BMR corn hybrid at a high harvest height improved its nutritive content, but the improvement in feeding value was not equivalent to that found when cows were fed BMR corn silage.

  4. Exergy Analysis of an Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System Fed with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Tzorbatzoglou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an ethanol fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT system has been parametrically analyzed in terms of exergy and compared with a single SOFC system. The solid oxide fuel cell was fed with hydrogen produced from ethanol steam reforming. The hydrogen utilization factor values were kept between 0.7 and 1. The SOFC’s Current-Volt performance was considered in the range of 0.1–3 A/cm2 at 0.9–0.3 V, respectively, and at the intermediate operating temperatures of 550 and 600 °C, respectively. The curves used represent experimental results obtained from the available bibliography. Results indicated that for low current density values the single SOFC system prevails over the SOFC-GT hybrid system in terms of exergy efficiency, while at higher current density values the latter is more efficient. It was found that as the value of the utilization factor increases the SOFC system becomes more efficient than the SOFC-GT system over a wider range of current density values. It was also revealed that at high current density values the increase of SOFC operation temperature leads in both cases to higher system efficiency values.

  5. Comparison of adhesive gut bacteria composition, immunity, and disease resistance in juvenile hybrid tilapia fed two different Lactobacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenshu; Ren, Pengfei; He, Suxu; Xu, Li; Yang, Yaling; Gu, Zemao; Zhou, Zhigang

    2013-07-01

    This study compares the effects of two Lactobacillus strains, highly adhesive Lactobacillus brevis JCM 1170 (HALB) and less-adhesive Lactobacillus acidophilus JCM 1132 (LALB), on the survival and growth, adhesive gut bacterial communities, immunity, and protection against pathogenic bacterial infection in juvenile hybrid tilapia. During a 5-week feeding trial the fish were fed a diet containing 0 to 10(9) cells/g feed of the two Lactobacillus strains. Samples of intestine, kidney, and spleen were taken at the start and at 10, 20, and 35 days for analysis of stress tolerance and cytokine gene mRNA levels and to assess the diversity of adhesive gut bacterial communities. A 14-day immersion challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila NJ-1 was also performed following the feeding trial. The results showed no significant differences in survival rate, weight gain, or feed conversion in the different dietary treatments. The adhesive gut bacterial communities were strikingly altered in the fish fed either the HALB or the LALB, but the response was more rapid and substantial with the adhesive strain. The two strains induced similar changes in the patterns (upregulation or downregulation) of intestinal, splenic or kidney cytokine expression, but they differed in the degree of response for these genes. Changes in intestinal HSP70 expression levels coincided with changes in the similarity coefficient of the adhesive gut bacterial communities between the probiotic treatments. The highest dose of the HALB appeared to protect against the toxic effects of immersion in A. hydrophila (P Lactobacillus strains adhere to the gut may be a favorable criterion in selecting probiotic strain for aquaculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of dietary sweet potato leaf meal on the growth, non-specific immune responses, total phenols and antioxidant capacity in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, Rebecca T; Islam, Shahidul; Phillips, Harold; Adam, Zelalem; Everette, Jace

    2013-04-01

    Traditional energy sources in catfish diets have become costly, and economical alternatives are needed. Sweet potato leaves are underutilised agricultural by-products that provide energy and substantial amounts of phenols, which affect animal and human health. There is little information on the effects of these compounds on catfish, or the capacity of catfish to accumulate dietary phenols. Catfish enriched with phenols have marketing potential as functional foods. This study investigated the effects of diets with sweet potato leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performance, health and total phenolic compounds in catfish. SPLM was substituted for wheat middlings in three diets fed to groups of juvenile catfish for 10 weeks. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity were similar among diets. Haematocrit was lower in fish fed diets with SPLM, but within the normal range. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity in the whole body were similar among treatments. SPLM was an effective energy source for catfish up to the maximum level tested (230 g kg(-1) diet). SPLM did not enhance total phenols in catfish, but there were no apparent antinutritional effects of the meal on catfish growth, health or survival. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Transcriptome responses in the rectal gland of fed and fasted spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) determined by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Courtney A; McKay, Sheldon J; Fiedler, Tristan J; LeMoine, Christophe M R; Kajimura, Makiko; Nawata, C Michele; Wood, Chris M; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-12-01

    Prior studies of the elasmobranch rectal gland have demonstrated that feeding induces profound and rapid up regulation of the gland's ability to secrete concentrated NaCl solutions and the metabolic capacity to support this highly ATP consuming process. We undertook the current study to attempt to determine the degree to which up regulation of mRNA transcription was involved in the gland's activation. cDNA libraries were created from mRNA isolated from rectal glands of fasted (7days post-feeding) and fed (6h and 22h post-feeding) spiny dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias), and the libraries were subjected to suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) analysis. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was also used to ascertain the mRNA expression of several genes revealed by the SSH analysis. In total the treatments changed the abundance of 170 transcripts, with 103 up regulated by feeding, and 67 up regulated by fasting. While many of the changes took place in 'expected' Gene Ontology (GO) categories (e.g., metabolism, transport, structural proteins, DNA and RNA turnover, etc.), KEGG analysis revealed a number of categories which identify oxidative stress as a topic of interest for the gland. GO analysis also revealed that branched chain essential amino acids (e.g., valine, leucine, isoleucine) are potential metabolic fuels for the rectal gland. In addition, up regulation of transcripts for many genes in the anticipated GO categories did not agree (i.e., fasting down regulated in feeding treatments) with previously observed increases in their respective proteins/enzyme activities. These results suggest an 'anticipatory' storage of selected mRNAs which presumably supports the rapid translation of proteins upon feeding activation of the gland. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chlorella vulgaris as Protein Source in the Diets of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu D. Enyidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant proteins substitutes of fishmeal in aquafeed are usually lacking in some essential amino acids and fatty acids. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris has good-quality protein with amino acids rich in methionine, lysine and alanine. Four novel diets having C. vulgaris as the main source of protein were produced for African catfish Clarias gariepinus with an initial average weight of 1.09 ± 0.05 g. The diets were labeled Feed 1 (F1 to feed 4 (F4. The treatment diets were included 25% (F1, 15% (F2, 5% (F3 and 0% (F4 green algae meal. The basal ingredients of the feed were corn (maize included as F1, 40%, F2, 43%, F3, 53% and F4, 43%; and millet meal, which varied in F1 as 23%, F2, 30%, F3, 30% and F4, 30%. The ingredients were preconditioned at 110 °C and pelleted. Post-fingerling African catfish were stocked at 10 fish per aquarium. There were three replicate aquariums for each feed type and the fish were fed for 60 d. The specific growth rate was best for the catfish fed with 25% C. vulgaris diet 7.86 ± 0% day−1, and worst at 6.77 ± 0.07% day−1 for the control group F4, 0% algal meal. The food conversion ratio (FCR was lowest (1.88 ± 0.02 for 25% algal meal diet (F1 and highest (2.98 ± 0.01 for the 0% algal meal diet F4. Similarly, catfish had average weight gain of 121.02 ± 0.04 g for those fed with F1 compared to 62.50 ± 0.0 g for those fed with 0% algae F4. Protein efficiency ratio was highest for the F1-fed fish (2.46 ± 0.22 and lowest for those fed with F4 (2.02 ± 0.09. The hepatosomatic index was lowest for F1-fed fish (1.48 ± 0.01 and highest for catfish fed with F4 (2.50 ± 0.59. Based on the results, C. vulgaris is a good protein source for African catfish and can also substitute fishmeal in the catfish diets.

  9. Deposition of tocopherol and tocotrienol in the tissues of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., fed vitamin E-free diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Shern; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P vitamin E isomers present in plant oils. The type and concentration of endogenous vitamin E and the fatty acid composition of plant oils can affect the oxidative stability of tilapia tissues.

  10. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of 208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves, 45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight of fish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture of fillet fish more compact, elastic and color of fillet fish white. Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, fillet, shrimp head meal, feed formulated, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

  11. Utilization of Cinnamon Leaf and Shrimp Flour as an Enhancer of Catfish Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer  meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii  and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of  208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves,  45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight offish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture offillet fish more compact,  elastic and color of fillet fish white.

  12. Protein digestibility and ammonia excretion in catfish Clarias gariepinus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A series of experiments was performed to analyze protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, and also heterothropic bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics in the catfish Clarias gariepinus culture. In the digestibility experiment, catfish with an individual initial size of 43.67±0.83 g were stocked into 120 L conical fiberglass tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed on with commercial diet supplemented with Cr2O3 indicator at a concentration of 1%. In the ammonia excretion experiment, catfish with an individual size of 111.6±9.5 and 40.6±3.4 g, respectively,  were placed into a 10 L chamber filled with 8 L of water. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN in the chambers were monitored every hour for six consecutive hours. In the bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics experiment, catfish were stocked in the 25 m2 concrete tanks which was divided into two compartments (catfish 10 m2, and heterotrof compartments 15 m2. Catfish with individual size of 42,5±0 g were stocked into the tanks at a density of 100 fish per tank. Water was recirculated from catfish compartments to heterotrophic compartments. Fish were fed with floating feed. Molasses as carbon source for heterotrophic bacteria was applied daily. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The results showed that the protein digestibility was 61.97±7.24%. Larger fish (size of 111.6 g excreted ammonia at a rate of 0.008±0.003 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour, which was lower than that of the smaller catfish (size of 40.6 g, i.e. 0.012±0.004 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour. Keywords: protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, catfish  ABSTRAK Serangkaian penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menganalisis ketercernaan pakan dan protein, ekskresi amonia, serta dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton pada budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus. Pada penelitian ketercernaan pakan, ikan lele berukuran 43,67±0,83 g/ekor dipelihara dalam bak fiberglas berbentuk corong berukuran 120 L dengan kepadatan 20

  13. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  14. Catfish Farmers Perception of Training Effectiveness of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... terms of the communication methods used by the trainers ( x =1.83), clarity in ... In order to enhance the entrepreneurial skills of farmers involved in catfish ... Keywords: catfish production, entrepreneurial skills, training on catfish, West Africa

  15. Acute toxicity of cassava mill effluent to the African catfish fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bioassay test was performed on the toxic effect of Cassava Mill Effluent to the African Catfish - Heteroclarias Hybrid of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Male) and Clarias gariepinus (Female). The 96-h LC50 was determined as 50. 12 mgl -1. Exposed fish became darker in colour and showed signs of respiratory distress, ...

  16. 76 FR 10433 - Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... defining ``catfish'' after reviewing the legislative and regulatory history and scientific classification... sold as whole gutted fish (head on), mainly to restaurants and institutions. Waste materials and... 1991 NJ Restaurant Salmonella 10 6 0 1999 FL Private Home Unknown 2 0 0 1999 FL Restaurant/Deli...

  17. Bioaccumulation of P-32 in bluegill and catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.; Turgeon, K.S.; Martini, D.K.; Dunkerly, S.J.; El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Wilson, M.D.; Hammond, R.A.; Uribe, R.; Mizner, A.A.

    1985-02-01

    Bluegill and catfish were fed P-32 at a constant feeding rate per body weight to determine the bioaccummulation factor (BF/sub r/) for P-32 in muscle relative to water. The fish were maintained in flow-through tanks at two feeding levels. The bluegill accumulated P-32 for 51 days, followed by depuration for 28 days. The catfish study had to be teminated after 11 days. Fish were analyzed in triplicte for P-32 and phosphorus at intervals of 1 to 8 days. Additional aquaria experiments were performed to determine the effects of water temperature, feeding rate, and type of food (worms vs. pellets) on P-32 uptake, and to observe P-32 uptake from water by unfed fish (including fish with blocked esophagus). A simple calculational model was used to determine the phosphorus turnover constant from the specific activity in tissue relative to food. This ratio at steady state approaches the BF/sub r/BF ratio (where BF is the phosphorus bioaccumulation factor) if P-32 transfers rapidly from water to food. The bluegill showed a weight gain of 0.2 %/d, a phosphorous turnover constant in muscle of 0.43 %/d, and a BF/sub r//BF ratio of 0.081 at the higher feeding rate, and 0.05 %/d, 0.34 %/d, and 0.064 at the lower feeding rate. Hence, respective P-32 BF/sub r/ values are 6000 and 4000 at a phosphorus BF of 70,000. The BF/sub r/ values for catfish were approximately twice as high. The aquarium experiments suggest that the higher factors are due to a much higher phosphorus intake, higher water temperature, higher retention from pellets than from worms, and possible higher retention by catfish than bluegill under the same conditions. 36 references, 15 figures, 22 tables

  18. Both recombinant African catfish LH and FSH are able to activate the African catfish FSH receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischer, HF; Granneman, JCM; Linskens, MHK; Schulz, RW; Bogerd, J

    LH and FSH are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones, composed of a common alpha-subunit non-covalently associated with a hormone-specific beta-subunit. Repeated efforts to isolate catfish FSH (cfFSH) have not been successful and only catfish LH (cfLH) has been purified from catfish pituitaries.

  19. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth and survival after challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. Plant-source ingredients are considered to be low (taurine content. In add...

  20. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H.J.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the

  1. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  2. Rendimento corporal e composição química de jundiás alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína e energia na dieta, criados em tanques-rede Catfish (jundia body yield and chemical composition fed different protein and energy level in the diet, reared in net-tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Reidel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar o rendimento corporal e a composição química de jundiás, Rhamdia quelen, alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de proteína e energia e criados em sistema de tanques-rede. Utilizou-se a densidade inicial de 70 peixes/m³, em 18 tanques-rede (5,0 m³, durante 324 dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com dois fatores - níveis de proteína bruta (PB, 25, 30 ou 35%; e níveis de energia digestível (ED: 3.250 e 3.500 kcal - e três repetições. A dieta foi fornecida à vontade, mas mensurada diariamente. No início, um lote de peixes foi sacrificado para determinação dos parâmetros corporais e químicos. A cada 28 dias, dois peixes de cada unidade experimental foram abatidos para determinação dos comprimentos total e padrão, do peso total e dos pesos de fígado, gônadas, cabeça, tronco limpo e gordura visceral, respectivamente. Posteriormente, foram realizados cálculos dos índices hepatossomático e gonadossomático, da porcentagem de cabeça e do rendimento de carcaça e do rendimento de tronco limpo. A partir do mês de junho de 2006, também foram registrados o rendimento de filé e o sexo dos indivíduos. Para determinação da composição da carne do jundiá, foram realizadas as análises químicas de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídios e matéria mineral. O fornecimento da ração com 30% de PB resultou em maior rendimento de tronco limpo. A composição do músculo não foi influenciada pelas dietas testadas. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de dietas contendo 30% de PB e 3.250 kcal de energia digestível/kg.The objective of this study was to analyze the body yield and the chemical composition of catfish (jundia, Rhamdia quelen, reared in net-tanks and fed with diets containing different levels of protein and energy. An initial density of 70 fish/m³, in 18 net-tanks (5.0 m³ was used, for 324 days. A randomized complete design was used

  3. Control strategy of an autonomous desalination unit fed by PV-Wind hybrid system without battery storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Turki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to economic dispatch problems with valve point effects and multiple fuel options using a hybrid evolutionary programming method. Determination of global optimum solution for the practical economic dispatch problem having non smooth cost functions is difficult by using conventional mathematical approaches. Hence several evolutionary algorithm methods were proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, EP-LMO (Evolutionary Programming with Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization technique is proposed to solve economic dispatch problems with valve point effects and multiple fuel options. The EP-LMO is developed in such a way that a simple evolutionary programming (EP is applied as a base level search to find the direction of the optimal global region. And Levenberg-Marquardt Optimization (LMO method is used as a fine tuning to determine the optimal solution. To illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach, two bench mark problems are considered. First test problem considers multiple fuel options and next problem addresses both valve-point effects and multi-fuel options. To validate the obtained results, the proposed method is compared with the results of conventional numerical methods, Modified Hop-field Neural network, Evolutionary Programming approaches, Modified PSO, Improved PSO and Improved Genetic Algorithm with multiplier updating (IGA_MUmethod.

  4. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  5. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  6. The catfish genome database cBARBEL: an informatic platform for genome biology of ictalurid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Yang, Qing; Wang, Shaolin; Hu, Zhiliang; Reecy, James; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2011-01-01

    The catfish genome database, cBARBEL (abbreviated from catfish Breeder And Researcher Bioinformatics Entry Location) is an online open-access database for genome biology of ictalurid catfish (Ictalurus spp.). It serves as a comprehensive, integrative platform for all aspects of catfish genetics, genomics and related data resources. cBARBEL provides BLAST-based, fuzzy and specific search functions, visualization of catfish linkage, physical and integrated maps, a catfish EST contig viewer with SNP information overlay, and GBrowse-based organization of catfish genomic data based on sequence similarity with zebrafish chromosomes. Subsections of the database are tightly related, allowing a user with a sequence or search string of interest to navigate seamlessly from one area to another. As catfish genome sequencing proceeds and ongoing quantitative trait loci (QTL) projects bear fruit, cBARBEL will allow rapid data integration and dissemination within the catfish research community and to interested stakeholders. cBARBEL can be accessed at http://catfishgenome.org.

  7. The World Demand for Catfish Pangasius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Roth, Eva; Nielsen, Max

    2014-01-01

    flexibilities are less than 1. While there are many demand studies for other whitefish species and salmon, which are strongly competed by catfish in many markets, there is a lack of demand study for Pangasius catfish. Therefore, this study will supplement seafood demand literature and be meaningful for seafood......In this paper we present a world demand system for Pangasius catfish products. We use solely exporting data from Vietnam for estimating a non-linear Almost Ideal Demand System because Vietnam accounts for more than 90% catfish export value of the world and the products exported are mostly...... in filleted form. The demand system includes seven equations representing for most important markets that are ASEAN & EAST ASIA, NORTH AMERICA, OCEANIA, RUSIAN & EASTERN EU, SOUTH & CENTRAL AMERICA, WESTERN EU, and ROW (rest of the world) markets. The monthly data are updating from January 2007 to March 2014...

  8. Induced propagation of African clariid catfish, Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... Our present study which compared the effect of synthe- tic (ovaprim) .... was maintained with RESUN LP- 100 low noise air - pump. A sample of ..... reproduction and fingerling production of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus ...

  9. Feeding for larvae of catfish Pangasionodon sp. larvae in different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sludge worm (Tubifex sp. as natural feed on catfish (Pangasionodon sp. larvae rearing is available in limited amount especially during rainy season. It becomes a constraint factor for larvae rearing sector. This research was conducted to evaluate the appropriate initial age of catfish larvae to get artificial feed as sludge worm replacement. Evaluation was conducted on the growth and survival of catfish larvae in 14 days of culture. There were four treatments of feeding in triplicates i.e. larvae were given natural feed without artificial feed, given artificial feed started from d3, d6, and d9 with three replications. The results showed that larvae fed on artificial feed on d3 had the lowest growth compared to the other treatments, whereas the survival was not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments. As a conclusion, artificial feed could be used to replace natural feed for catfish larvae started at the age of nine days. Keywords: sludge worm, catfish larvae, artificial feed  ABSTRAK Cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. tersedia dalam jumlah terbatas terutama pada musim penghujan sebagai pakan alami dalam usaha pembenihan ikan patin (Pangasionodon sp.. Ini menjadi kendala dalam usaha pembenihan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi umur larva ikan patin yang tepat untuk mulai diberi pakan buatan menggantikan cacing sutra. Evaluasi dilakukan pada pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan patin umur 14 hari. Selama pemeliharaan, larva diberi pakan dengan empat perlakuan; pemberian pakan alami tanpa pakan buatan, pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3, d6, dan d9 dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3 memiliki pertumbuhan panjang yang terkecil dibandingkan perlakuan lain, sedangkan tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 antarperlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pakan buatan dapat digunakan

  10. Organoleptic Characteristics and Chemicals Ilabulo Catfish Fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marsuci Harmain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of traditional food ilabulo made from raw catfish (Pangasius sp. has the potential to be developed in Gorontalo province to substitute chicken viscera. The research aimed to make ilabulo substitute the raw material of chicken viscera with the catfish fortified Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed and catfish bone meal and to determine the organoleptic and chemical characteristics of ilabulo catfish fortification. Fortified treatment is K. alvarezii  and catfish bone (5 dan 10% ,  B (10 and 15% and  C (15 dan 20%. The organoleptic analysis used a hedonic scale of favorite criteria on the appearance, texture, color, flavor, and taste. The results of organoleptic analysis continued with Bayes test. The chemical analysis used the Association of Official Analytical Chemist method. The result of the hedonic characteristic of ilabulo catfish fortification was on the appearance  neutral criteria – like (5.53–7.03, texture neutral criteria – rather like (5.8–7.1, aroma rather like (6.3–6.73, color neutral – like (6.1–7.03 and taste (6.07–6.53 neutral criteria – rather like. The result of Bayes test obtained by a texture of importance value 5, appearance importance value 5, aroma of importance value 4, color of interest value 3 and taste of importance value 2. Characteristic of ilabulo culture of selected fortified catfish that was the fortification of K. alvarezii seaweed 15% and catfish  bone flour (20% (fortification C obtained by water content 56.46%, ash 11.54%, protein 7.78%, fat 8.91%, coarse fiber 0.61%, carbohydrate 22.07% and calcium 0.315 %.

  11. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  12. Changes in fatty acid concentrations in tissues of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, as a consequence of dietary carnitine, lysine and lipid supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, E.O.A.; Uktolseja, J.L.A.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of different dietary carnitine (200 and 1000 mg/kg diet) and fat (90 and 190 g/kg diet) supplementation on growth and fatty acid concentrations of fish fed either with a low- (13 g/kg) or a high-lysine (21 g/kg) diet. African catfish (22?7 g/fish),

  13. Isoenergetic Replacement of Fat by Starch in Diets for African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Effect on Water Fluxes in the Gastro Intestinal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harter, T.S.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schrama, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an isoenergetic replacement of dietary fat by starch, on chyme characteristics and water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) was assessed. Adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed a starch (SD) or fat (FD) diet and groups of fish were dissected at 2, 5 and 8 h after

  14. Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S

    2004-06-01

    Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites.

  15. Profitability analysis of catfish farming in Suleja local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of profitability and scale of production of catfish has not been properly addressed. This study was conducted in Suleja Local Government Area of Niger State to assess the profitability of catfish production. Forty (40) catfish farmers were selected from the study area using simple random sampling techniques.

  16. Profitability analysis of catfish production in Kaduna state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the profitability of catfish production in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The objective was to determine the costs and returns in catfish production and thus the profit. Data for the study were collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire. A total of 60 catfish farmers were randomly selected from four ...

  17. Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Duck Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of juvenile far eastern catfish. Six diets were formulated to contain three levels of protein (20%, 30% and 40% and two levels of lipid (9% and 17%. Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 7.6 g were hand-fed to apparent satiation for 66 days. Final mean weight was improved with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels, and the highest final mean weight was observed in fish fed the 40/17 (% protein/% lipid diet. No significant difference was observed in final mean weight for fish fed between 30/17 diet and 40/9 diet. Feed efficiency of fish fed the diets containing over 30% protein levels with 9% and 17% lipid levels were significantly higher than those of fish fed the 20% protein levels. Feed efficiency of fish fed the 30/17 diet was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 40/9 diet or 40/17 diet. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the 20% protein diets with 17% lipid level were significantly higher than those of fish fed 9% lipid diet. Daily feed intake of fish tended to decrease with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels. Moisture content of whole body in fish fed the 9% lipid diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed the 17% lipid diets at the same protein level, but the opposite trends were found for crude lipid content. Significant effects of dietary lipid were observed for most fatty acids, according to their relative values in the diets. The results of this study suggest that the protein requirement for maximum growth of juvenile far eastern catfish may be higher than 40%, and an increase of dietary lipid level from 9% to 17% can improve growth and feed utilization.

  18. Socio-economics of catfish production in Port Harcourt, Rivers State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The appraisal of profitability of catfish production in Port Harcourt metropolis Nigeria was carried out by identifying socio-economic characteristics of catfish farmers, cost and returns of catfish farming and the basic problems hindering effective catfish production. Thirty catfish farmers were randomly selected; administered a ...

  19. Partial replacement of protein in soybean meal by moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera in bocourti’s catfish (Pangasius bocourti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of a dietary of moringa seed cake on digestibility, growth performance, blood chemistry and histopathologic of bocourti’s catfish. Fish were fed with diets formulated by 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 of moringa seed cake to replace protein in soybean meal. Fish with mean wet weights of 21.50± 0.25 g per fish were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Significant differences (p<0.05 in weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate were detected between bocourti’s catfish given the experimental diets. All fish grew normally and no significant difference was observed for survival rate and feed conversion ratio among fish fed tested diets. The highest FCR was generally observed that as moringa seed cake inclusion increased in the diets that were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance, feed utilization and pepsin digestibility tested. Blood chemistry and hepatosomatic index did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. No histopathological changes were found in distal intestines and liver. The study indicated that the dietary moringa seed cake contains ingredients that could be used for bocourti’s catfish diets possibly not over up to for 500 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth, digestibility and histology.

  20. Novel transcripts of the estrogen receptor α gene in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Wu, Chunfa; Maule, Alec G.; Chang, Xiaotian

    2000-01-01

    Complementary DNA libraries from liver and ovary of an immature female channel catfish were screened with a homologous ERα cDNA probe. The hepatic library yielded two new channel catfish ER cDNAs that encode N-terminal ERα variants of different sizes. Relative to the catfish ERα (medium size; 581 residues) previously reported, these new cDNAs encode Long-ERα (36 residues longer) and Short-ERα (389 residues shorter). The 5′-end of Long-ERα cDNA is identical to that of Medium-ERα but has an additional 503-bp segment with an upstream, in-frame translation-start codon. Recombinant Long-ERα binds estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 3.4 nM), similar to that previously reported for Medium-ERα but lower than reported for catfish ERβ. Short-ERα cDNA encodes a protein that lacks most of the receptor protein and does not bind estrogen. Northern hybridization confirmed the existence of multiple hepatic ERα RNAs that include the size range of the ERα cDNAs obtained from the libraries as well as additional sizes. Using primers for RT-PCR that target locations internal to the protein-coding sequence, we also established the presence of several ERα cDNA variants with in-frame insertions in the ligand-binding and DNA-binding domains and in-frame or out-of-frame deletions in the ligand-binding domain. These internal variants showed patterns of expression that differed between the ovary and liver. Further, the ovarian library yielded a full-length, ERα antisense cDNA containing a poly(A) signal and tail. A limited survey of histological preparations from juvenile catfish by in situ hybridization using directionally synthesized cRNA probes also suggested the expression of ERα antisense RNA in a tissue-specific manner. In conclusion, channel catfish seemingly have three broad classes of ERα mRNA variants: those encoding N-terminal truncated variants, those encoding internal variants (including C-terminal truncated variants), and antisense mRNA. The sense variants may

  1. POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubirt, Madison M; Hanson, Larry A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Ford, Lorelei; Lemmons, Scott; Fioranelli, Paul; Cunningham, Fred L

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that is ubiquitous in freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments and infects fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain (VAH), which is genetically distinct from less-virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that A. hydrophila infects birds, we hypothesized that fish-eating birds may serve as a reservoir for VAH and spread the pathogen by flying to uninfected ponds. Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were used in this transmission model because these wading birds frequently prey on farmed catfish. Great Egrets that were fed VAH-infected catfish shed VAH in feces demonstrating their potential to spread VAH.

  2. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  3. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  4. Cellular biomarker responses of bagrid catfish, Chrysichthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the pollution status of Agboyi creek, a water body associated with various anthropogenic activities was carried out in order to determine responses induced in Catfishes, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus inhabiting it. Cellular biomarkers of stress including the antioxidative stress enzyme, catalase (CAT), lipid ...

  5. Applications of the Addition of extract and cinnamon leaf flour in the Diet on the Quality of Meat of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Laheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extract and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii leaf flour in the diet in increasing quality of meat of catfish (Pangsianodon hypopthalmus. Catfish with a weight of 319.64 ± 35.99 g/nets reared in 9 nets with dimension 2x1x1,5 m3 at a density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days of maintenance. The fish were fed with leaves of cinnamon at a dose that was: 0% cinnamon leaf, 0.1% cinnamon leaf extract, and 1% cinnamon leaf flour. The fish were fed 2 times a day with the feeding rate of 3% of the average weight of the body. The results showed the treatment of leaf extract and flour, cinnamon capable of decreasing levels of body fat, fat meat by 10,31-12,27%, 37,26-50,23%, respectively, compared to controls (p<0,05, however, cinnamon leaf extract treatment is more effective in improving the quality of meat catfish that looks meat texture compact, white flesh color and a slightly sweet taste.

  6. Applications of the Addition of extract and cinnamon leaf flour in the Diet on the Quality of Meat of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Laheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extract and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii leaf flourin the diet in increasing quality of meat of catfish (Pangsianodon hypopthalmus. Catfish with a weight of319.64 ± 35.99 g/nets reared in 9 nets with dimension 2x1x1,5 m3 at a density of 15 fish/nets for 60 daysof maintenance. The fish were fed with leaves of cinnamon at a dose that was: 0% cinnamon leaf, 0.1%cinnamon leaf extract, and 1% cinnamon leaf flour. The fish were fed 2 times a day with the feeding rate of3% of the average weight of the body. The results showed the treatment of leaf extract and flour, cinnamoncapable of decreasing levels of body fat, fat meat by 10,31-12,27%, 37,26-50,23%, respectively, compared tocontrols (p<0,05, however, cinnamon leaf extract treatment is more effective in improving the quality ofmeat catfish that looks meat texture compact, white flesh color and a slightly sweet taste.Keywords: cinnamon leaf, meat quality, Pangsianodon hypopthalmus

  7. Screening of selenium containing proteins in the Tris-buffer soluble fraction of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets by laser ablation-ICP-MS after SDS-PAGE and electroblotting onto membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrero, Z.; Madrid, Y.; Camara, C.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Feldmann, I.; Waentig, L.; Hayen, H.; Jakubowski, N.

    2009-01-01

    The anti-carcinogenic properties of selenium against certain types of cancer when present in organic forms justify the increasing interest in development of selenium fortified food. In this particular study, African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed with a Se-enriched diet in order to enhance

  8. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramoon, Kovit; Amsiri, Jarurat

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D 10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 10 3 . 2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  9. Performance of Nafion-TiO2 hybrid membranes and PtSn/C electrocatalysts in PEM type fuel cells fed with ethanol and H2/CO at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro, Roberta Alvarenga

    2010-01-01

    In this work, Nafion-TiO 2 hybrid electrolytes and PtSn/C electrocatalysts were synthesized for the application in direct ethanol fuel cell operating at high temperature (130 degree C). For this purpose, TiO 2 particles were incorporated in commercial Nafion membranes by an 'in situ' sol gel route. The resulting materials were characterized by gravimetric analysis, water uptake, DSC, XRD and EDX. Electrocatalysts based on carbon dispersed platinum-tin (PtSn/C), with different composition, were produced by alcohol-reduction method and were employed as anodic electrode. The electrocatalysts were characterized by XRD, EDX, XPS and transmission electronic spectroscopy. The electrochemical characterization was conducted by cyclic voltametry, carbon monoxide linear anodic voltammetry (CO stripping), and chronoamperometry. Membrane-electrodes assembly (MEAs) were formed with PtSn/C anodes, Pt/C cathodes and Nafion-TiO 2 hybrids. The performance of these MEA was evaluated in single-cell fed with H2/CO mixture or ethanol solution at the anode and oxygen at the cathode in the temperature range of 80-130 degree C. The analysis showed that the hybrid membranes improved the DEFC performance due to crossover suppression and that PtSn/C 70:30 electrocatalysts, prepared by an alcohol reduction process, showed better performance in ethanol oxidation. (author)

  10. Catfish science: Status and trends in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Thomas J.; Porath, Mark T.; Michaletz, Paul H.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2011-01-01

    Catfish science, the study of the fish order Siluriformes, is a diverse and expanding field in terms of advances and breadth of topics. We compiled literature from primary fisheries journals as an index of interest and advances in catfish science to examine temporal trends in the field. The number of catfish scientific publications varied over the past century with strong peaks during 1975–1979 and 2005–2010, which may be the result of interactive scientific and societal influences. Catfish biology was the predominant publication topic until the late 1990s, when ecology, techniques, and management publications became more prevalent. Articles on catfish ecology were most numerous in both the first and second international catfish symposia, but publications on techniques and conservation were more numerous in the second catfish symposium than the first. We summarize the state of knowledge, recent advances, and areas for future attention among topics in catfish science, including sampling and aging techniques, population dynamics, ecology, fisheries management, species diversity, nonnative catfish, and human dimensions, with an emphasis on the gains in this second symposium. Areas that we expect to be pursued in the future are development of new techniques and validation of existing methods; expansion of research to less-studied catfish species; broadening temporal, spatial, and organizational scales; interdisciplinary approaches; and research on societal views and constituent demands. Meeting these challenges will require scientists to span beyond their professional comfort zones to effectively reach higher standards. We look forward to the coming decade and the many advances in the conservation, ecology, and management of catfish that will be shared.

  11. GWAS analysis using interspecific backcross progenies reveals superior blue catfish alleles responsible for strong resistance against enteric septicemia of catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Suxu; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Wenwen; Jin, Yulin; Wang, Xiaozhu; Geng, Xin; Luo, Jian; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Shi, Huitong; Gao, Dongya; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2018-05-08

    Infectious diseases pose significant threats to the catfish industry. Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri is the most devastating disease for catfish aquaculture, causing huge economic losses annually. Channel catfish and blue catfish exhibit great contrast in resistance against ESC, with channel catfish being highly susceptible and blue catfish being highly resistant. As such, the interspecific backcross progenies provide an ideal system for the identification of quantitative trait locus (QTL). We previously reported one significant QTL on linkage group (LG) 1 using the third-generation backcrosses, but the number of founders used to make the second- and third-generation backcross progenies was very small. Although the third-generation backcross progenies provided a greater power for fine mapping than the first-generation backcrosses, some major QTL for disease resistance may have been missing due to the small numbers of founders used to produce the higher generation backcrosses. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study using first-generation backcrosses with the catfish 690 K SNP arrays to identify additional ESC disease resistance QTL, especially those at the species level. Two genomic regions on LG1 and LG23 were determined to be significantly associated with ESC resistance as revealed by a mixed linear model and family-based association test. Examination of the resistance alleles indicated their origin from blue catfish, indicating that at least two major disease resistance loci exist among blue catfish populations. Upon further validation, markers linked with major ESC disease resistance QTL should be useful for marker-assisted introgression, allowing development of highly ESC resistant breeds of catfish.

  12. Treating catfish diseases: walking the line between excess and moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost savings by using a cheaper disease treatment will increase profitability of any catfish farm. This invited producer presentation will discuss costs savings using copper sulfate in catfish production and a summation of our research, specifically in the hatchery. Copper sulfate is not approved ...

  13. Rheological and Functional Properties of Catfish Skin Protein Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish skin is an abundant and underutilized resource that can be used as a unique protein source to make fish skin hydrolysates. The objectives of this study were to: isolating soluble and insoluble proteins from hydrolyzed catfish skin and study the chemical and functional properties of the prote...

  14. Stress in African catfish (clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuel, R.; Boerrigter, J.; Roques, J.; Heul, van der J.W.; Bos, van den R.; Flik, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing

  15. Profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue state, Nigeria | Tsue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue State of Nigeria using a stochastic profit frontier approach. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 143 catfish farmers through a well structured questionnaire. The study used a Cobb-Douglas stochastic profit frontier function to ...

  16. Simulation and Modeling of a Five -Level (NPC Inverter Fed by a Photovoltaic Generator and Integrated in a Hybrid Wind-PV Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezki,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A distributed hybrid coordinated wind photovoltaic (PV power system was proposed in this paper. As oil and coal reserves are being depleted whilst at the same time the energy demand is growing, it is important to consider alternative energy generating techniques. Today, the five-level (NPC inverter represents a good alternative for several industrial applications. To take advantage of the five-level inverter topology and the benefits of renewable energy represented by a photovoltaic generator, a new scheme of these controllers is proposed in this work. This paper outlines the design of a hybrid power system consisting of a solar photovoltaic (PV and a wind power system. The system is modeled in Matlab Simulink and tested for various conditions. The model and results are discussed in this paper.

  17. Dataset of working conditions and thermo-economic performances for hybrid organic Rankine plants fed by solar and low-grade energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardigno, Domenico; Fanelli, Emanuele; Viggiano, Annarita; Braccio, Giacobbe; Magi, Vinicio

    2016-06-01

    This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of a hybrid organic Rankine plant generated by the optimization procedure employed in the research article "A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources" (Scardigno et al., 2015) [1]. The methodology used to obtain the data is described. The operating conditions are subdivided into two separate groups: feasible and unfeasible solutions. In both groups, the values of the design variables are given. Besides, the subset of feasible solutions is described in details, by providing the thermodynamic and economic performances, the temperatures at some characteristic sections of the thermodynamic cycle, the net power, the absorbed powers and the area of the heat exchange surfaces.

  18. Dataset of working conditions and thermo-economic performances for hybrid organic Rankine plants fed by solar and low-grade energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Scardigno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of a hybrid organic Rankine plant generated by the optimization procedure employed in the research article “A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources” (Scardigno et al., 2015 [1]. The methodology used to obtain the data is described. The operating conditions are subdivided into two separate groups: feasible and unfeasible solutions. In both groups, the values of the design variables are given. Besides, the subset of feasible solutions is described in details, by providing the thermodynamic and economic performances, the temperatures at some characteristic sections of the thermodynamic cycle, the net power, the absorbed powers and the area of the heat exchange surfaces.

  19. Nutritional evaluation of phosphorylated pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata) protein concentrate in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatto, Naglezi de Menezes; Goulart, Fernanda Rodrigues; de Freitas, Silvandro Tonetto; Mombach, Patricia Inês; Loureiro, Bruno Bianch; Bender, Ana Betine Beutinger; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Radünz Neto, João; da Silva, Leila Picolli

    2015-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with pumpkin seed meal (PSM) or phosphorylated protein concentrate of pumpkin seed meal (PPCPS) on growth and metabolic responses of silver catfish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated. Control diet contained fish meal as the main protein source. The treatment groups contained 25 and 50% of either PSM or PPCPS protein replaced the fishmeal protein. A total of 400 silver catfish, with initial mean weight of 24 ± 0.46 g, were distributed into 20 tanks. For data four orthogonal contrasts were applied: control diet versus PSM diets; control diets versus PPCPS diets; control versus other diets; PSM diets versus PPCPS diets. The results indicated that the fish fed PSM diets had lower weight gain when compared to either control diet or PPCPS. The PPCPS do not affect growth and protein efficiency ratio. Lower albumin contents were found for the control diet fish for the contrasts control diet versus PPCPS diet and control diet versus other diets. The hepatic ALAT enzyme activity was higher in the fish fed the control diet (P < 0.05). The hepatic ALP was most active in fish that received the PPCPS diets, when comparing control diet versus PPCPS diets and control diet versus other diets. The hepatosomatic index was higher for fish fed the PPCPS. Our results indicated that PPCPS presents relevant nutritional quality for fish and can replace the fish meal protein up to 50% without affecting growth, PER and intermediate metabolites in silver catfish.

  20. Estimates of population genetic diversity in brown bullhead catfish by DNA fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, A.C.; Wessendarp, T.K.; Gordon, D.A.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lattier, D.L. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hertzberg, V.; Leonard, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1994-12-31

    Estimates of population genetic diversity may be a sensitive indicator of environmental impact, since limiting the effective breeding population by any means will result in loss of some variant genotypes, as has been demonstrated by allozyme analysis. DNA fingerprinting techniques are also coming into use for population analyses, and the authors chose to apply fingerprinting analysis three populations of brown bullhead catfish collected in Northern Ohio. DNA was isolated from the red blood cells of individual fish. Purified DNAs were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme; the digests were then sized on a 1% agarose gel, transferred to nylon membranes and probed with a radiolabeled M13 probe using the Westneat hybridization protocol (Southern blotting). This method effects fragments containing VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) sequences complementary to the M13, which are highly variable among individual catfish. Hybridized bands were visualized by a Molecular Dynamics phosphorimager and recorded and analyzed with its proprietary Imagequant image analysis program, Excel and SAS. A total of 10 variable bands were identified and their presence or absence scored in each individual. These data were analyzed to determine between and within-population similarity indices as well as population heterozygosity and genetic diversity measures.

  1. Population structure of the Southeast Asian river catfish Mystus nemurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, S; Tan, S G; Siraj, S S; Yusoff, K

    2003-12-01

    A total of 143 microsatellites were isolated from Mystus nemurus using a 5' anchored polymerase chain reaction technique or the random amplified hybridization microsatellite method, the first set of microsatellite markers developed for the Southeast Asian river catfish. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite loci were used as markers for population characterization of M. nemurus from six different geographical locations in Malaysia (Perak, Kedah, Johor, UPM, Sarawak and Terengganu). The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11 with 6.3 as the average number of alleles per locus. Characterization of the populations showed relatively high levels of genetic variation compared with previous studies using allozyme markers. The highest genetic similarity was found between Perak and Kedah, while the highest genetic distance was found between Terengganu and Kedah. The majority of clustering was in accordance with geographical locations and the histories of the populations. Microsatellite analysis indicated that the Sarawak population might be genetically closer to the Peninsular Malaysian populations than has been previously shown by other molecular marker studies.

  2. Dietary beta-1,3 glucan potentiates innate immunity and disease resistance of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, J; Sahoo, P K

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of short and prolonged administration of a yeast beta-glucan on non-specific immune parameters, growth rate and the disease resistance of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus. Fish fed with a basal diet (control) and test diet (basal diet supplemented with 0.1% glucan) for 1, 2 and 3 weeks were assayed for superoxide production, serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) content, natural haemagglutinin level, complement and lysozyme activities. Fish were weighed at weekly intervals and specific growth rate (SGR, % increase in body weight per day) was determined. After each week, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila to measure the level of protection. Results showed that glucan administration at 0.1% in feed, significantly (Pcomplement activity and SGR were not affected by the dietary supplementation of yeast glucan. As glucan feeding at 0.1% for 1 week is able to enhance the non-specific immunity and disease resistance of catfish efficiently, short-term feeding might be used in farmed catfish diets to enhance disease resistance.

  3. Lipid profiles of blood serum and fatty acid composition of meat of hybrid duck fed diet supplemented with Noni (Morinda citrifolia fruit meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kurniawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Noni fruit is a medicinal plant with biological activity like antioxidant that could potentially be used as a feed additive in poultry. This research investigated the effect of noni fruit powder as feed additive on lipid profiles of blood and meat fatty acid compositions of meat of hybrid duck. One hundred twenty 2-week-old hybrid ducks crossing between Peking and Khaki Campbell duck were subjected. They were randomly allotted to 24 experimental units. Each experimental unit was 70x80x40 cm in size and it was used for 5 ducks up to they reached 56 days of age. Each unit was equipped with waterer and feeder. The ducks were raised on litter-type floor. The basal experimental diet was formulated according to the standards of National Research Council (1994. The method used for this study was experimental with 4 different treatments in 6 replications. The treatments were as follow: P0: basal feed without supplementation of noni fruit powder as control; P1: basal feed + 1 % noni fruit powder; P2: basal feed + 2 % noni fruit powder; P3: basal feed + 3 % noni fruit powder. Data were analyzed by one-way of Completely Randomized Design ANOVA and if there was significant effect followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Result showed that using noni fruit powder as feed additive had no significant effect (P>0.05 on lipid profiles of blood and fatty acid composition of meat.

  4. A solar PV augmented hybrid scheme for enhanced wind power generation through improved control strategy for grid connected doubly fed induction generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adikanda Parida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wind power generation scheme using a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG augmented with solar PV has been proposed. A reactive power-based rotor speed and position estimation technique with reduced machine parameter sensitivity is also proposed to improve the performance of the DFIG controller. The estimation algorithm is based on model reference adaptive system (MRAS, which uses the air gap reactive power as the adjustable variable. The overall generation reliability of the wind energy conversion system can be considerably improved as both solar and wind energy can supplement each other during lean periods of either of the sources. The rotor-side DC-link voltage and active power generation at the stator terminals of the DFIG are maintained constant with minimum storage battery capacity using single converter arrangement without grid-side converter (GSC. The proposed scheme has been simulated and experimentally validated with a practical 2.5 kW DFIG using dSPACE CP1104 module which produced satisfactory results.

  5. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks

  6. Elimination of {sup 137}Cs from Japanese Catfish Acutely Contaminated by Labelled Food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M. A. [Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nakahara, M. [Laboratory for Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki, Hitachinaka City, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs in acutely contaminated Japanese catfish was determined. The fish were fed with fish meal incorporated with {sup 137}CsCl and then released into aquaria. To assess the {sup 137}Cs activity retained in the fish body, the whole body radioactivity of each fish was measured at regular intervals for up to 157 days. The data were plotted with relative counts on the y-axis and corresponding elapsed time on the x-axis. Relative count plotted against elapsed time was found to consist of three components, namely the first fast, second fast and the slow component. The true elimination curves of the first components were calculated by the peeling off method. The effective half-life of the fast components was determined from the slope of the true curves. The effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs for the first fast, second fast and the slow component in Japanese catfish was found to be 1.27, 5.76 and 251 days, respectively. (author)

  7. Use of ß-adrenergic agonists in hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) is a potent ß-adrenergic agonist that has been used in some species of fish to improve growth performance and dress out characteristics. While this metabolic modifier has been shown to have positive effects on growth of fish, little research has focused on the mechani...

  8. Transgene transmission in South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    in this study was to evaluate different sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) methods to obtain transgenic silver catfish. .... by the critical point method, they were observed under a ..... protein is important for the maintenance of sperm quality in.

  9. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  10. 104 Key words: Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-16

    Jan 16, 2013 ... spoilage thus limiting economic loss and possible heath risk to consumers. Key words: Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke-dried. Introduction ..... were reared because E. coli is an indicator organism and its ...

  11. The Growth of Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) with Aquaponic System

    OpenAIRE

    Ridho, Ari; Tang, Usman M; Putra, Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted in May 2013 at the Fish Hatchery and Breeding Laboratory Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty, Riau University. The aim of the research to know the productivity of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with aquaponic system. The experimental methode with two treatments was applied in the research namely aquaponic and non-aquaponic. The result indicated that aquaponic have differential on growth of catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The best result was achieved by non-aquaponic. T...

  12. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.A.; Smith, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  13. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyun Yoon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4 as an alternative phosphorus (P source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP, dicalcium phosphate (DCP and tricalcium phosphate [TCP] as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank. Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE significantly higher (p0.05 among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (p<0.05 from that of fish fed MHP. Fish fed MCP and MHP had plasma P higher (p<0.05 than fish fed the other diets. Relative efficiencies of MCP, DCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish.

  14. Expression profiling of c-kit and its impact after esiRNA silencing during gonadal development in catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laldinsangi, C; Senthilkumaran, B

    2018-04-03

    C-kit receptor is a member of a family of growth factor receptors that have tyrosine kinase activity, and are involved in the transduction of growth regulatory signals across plasma membrane by activation of its ligand, kitl/scf. The present study analysed mRNA and protein expression profiles of c-kit in the gonads of catfish, Clarias gariepinus, using real time PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Tissue distribution analysis revealed higher expression mainly in the catfish gonads. Ontogeny studies showed minimal expression during early developmental stages and highest during 50-75 days post hatch, and the dimorphic expression in gonads decreased gradually till adulthood, which might suggest an important role for this gene around later stages of sex differentiation and gonadal development. Expression of C-kit was analysed at various phases of gonadal cycle in both male and female, which showed minimal expression during the resting phase, and higher expression in male compared to females during the pre-spawning phase. In vitro and in vivo induction using human chorionic gonadotropin elevated the expression of c-kit indicating the regulatory influence of hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. In vivo transient gene silencing using c-kit-esiRNA in adult catfish during gonadal recrudescence showed a decrease in c-kit expression, which affected the expression level of germ cell meiotic marker sycp3, as well as several factors and steroidogenic enzyme genes involved in germ cell development. Decrease in the levels of serum 11-KT and T were also observed after esiRNA silencing. The findings of this study suggest that c-kit has an important role in the process of germ cell proliferation, development and maturation during gonadal development and recrudescence in catfish. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Evaluation of Local Feed Ingredients Based Diets on Growth Performance of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahiyah, I. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulating the right feed based on the requirements of the fish species is the main solver to reduce the high cost of aquaculture production. In formulating suitable diet, factors such as the sustainability or availability of the feed sources used, quality of the feeds and price of raw materials, need to be taken into account as well so that the diets can be formulated at least cost. Low cost diets using local feed ingredients were formulated in pelleted and extruded forms and fed to juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, to determine their effect on the growth performance of the fish. Two formulations were tested: Diet A - Formula 1 MARDI and Diet B - Formula 2 MARDI, which were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous with 32 % digestible protein and energy value of 14 MJ/kg. A commercial diet (Diet C was included as a control. At 15 wk of culture, fish fed diet C showed the highest growth performance in terms of weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR and specific growth rate (SGR. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 found among diets for weight gain and feed intake. However, FCR and SGR of Diet C were significantly better (P<0.05 compared to the experimental diets. The best FCR was recorded in Diet C at 1.17, followed by Diet A (1.42 and Diet B (1.46. Diet C also had the highest SGR with 1.99%/day followed by Diet B (1.70 and Diet A (1.67. Cost of both diets, A and B, was RM 2.50/kg compared to RM 3.50/kg for Diet C. Although the FCR of the commercial feed was lower than the experimental diets, the production cost of fish was RM4.11/kg for the commercial feed compared to RM 3.54-3.65/kg for the experimental diets. It is concluded that local feed ingredients can be used in formulating diets for catfish and they have no detrimental effect on the growth of African catfish.

  16. Verification of otolith identity used by fisheries scientists for aging channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Previously published studies of the age estimation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus based on otoliths have reported using the sagittae, whereas it is likely they were actually using the lapilli. This confusion may have resulted because in catfishes (ostariophyseans) the lapilli are the largest of the three otoliths, whereas in nonostariophysean fish the sagittae are the largest. Based on (1) scanning electron microscope microphotographs of channel catfish otoliths, (2) X-ray computed tomography scans of a channel catfish head, (3) descriptions of techniques used to removed otoliths from channel catfish reported in the literature, and (4) a sample of channel catfish otoliths received from fisheries biologists from around the country, it is clear that lapilli are most often used for channel catfish aging studies, not sagittae, as has been previously reported. Fisheries scientists who obtain otoliths from channel catfish can use the information in this paper to correctly identify otolith age.

  17. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish Channel catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally channel catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  18. Cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in Aba South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. ... The constraints militating against catfish marketing were also identified. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  20. Effect of moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf supplementation on growth performance and feed utilization of Bocourti's catfish (Pangasius bocourti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Puycha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The optimal level of dietary moringa leaf was determined on the growth performance, feed utilization, digestibility and serum biochemistry of Bocourti's catfish with mean wet weights of 3.72 ± 0.06 g per fish. Fish were fed with diets containing isonitrogenouse (350 g/kg crude protein and isoenergetic (3000 kcal/kg supplemented with dietary moringa leaf at 0 g/kg fish, 100 g/kg fish, 150 g/kg fish and 200 g/kg fish for 60 d. Fish were hand fed to apparent satiation twice a day. At the end of the experiment, a significant (p  0.05. The study indicated that dietary moringa leaf could be included in the Bocourti's catfish diet at possibly not over 100 g/kg fish without a negative effect on the growth, feed utilization, digestibility and serum biochemistry.

  1. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal on the growth performance, immune response and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingzhi; Gong, Yulong; Cao, Shenping; Lu, Fei; Han, Dong; Liu, Haokun; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Zhu, Xiaoming; Xie, Shouqi

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diets containing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) meal in partial substitution of fishmeal on growth performance and immune responses of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Four diets were formulated to contain 0 (the control diet), 9, 18 and 27 g mealworm meal per 100 g diet with 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of fishmeal replacement, respectively. Yellow catfish were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates in each group. The fish in each group were fed with one of the four experimental diets for 5 weeks. Growth performance, plasma parameters (SOD, MDA, IgM, C3, lysozyme) and immune related genes (MHC II, IL-1, CypA, IgM, HE) of yellow catfish were determined at the end of the feeding trial, as well as 24 h post bacterial (Edwardsiella ictaluri) challenge. The present results showed that dietary inclusion of mealworm meal (MW) had no negative effects on the growth performance of the juvenile yellow catfish, compared to the control group. At the end of the feeding trial, plasma MDA contents of MW supplemented groups were significant lower than the control group. Plasma SOD activities increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial (pre-challenge) and 24 h post challenge with E. ictaluri. Significant increase of plasma lysozyme activity was found in MW supplemented groups compared to the control group 24 h post bacterial challenge. Plasma IgM levels increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial. Compared with the control group, the immune related genes of MHC II, IL-1, IgM and HE of the fish in the MW supplemented groups significantly upregulated pre-challenge or 24 h post bacterial challenge. Finally, it was observed that the survival rate of the 27% MW group was significant higher (P < 0.05) than the control group but was not significantly differed from the 18% MW group. The present results indicated that dietary

  2. Pyrethroid toxicity in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Montanha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine both the lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin in young Silver Catfish (Brazilian "Jundiá", Rhamdia quelen on aquatic environment during 96 hours, as well as to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development period of Rhamdia quelen, and to verify their respective rates of fertilization, hatching and survival. Pyrethroid nowadays is a widely used insecticide, which presents a high toxicity to fish. In order to determine lethal and sublethal concentrations, 120 silver catfish were used; each one had an average weight of 59.58±4.50g and an average size of 20.33±2.34cm. Concentrations used were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of Cypermethrin per liter of water (mg/L. Fish were exposed to the product in 30-liter fish tanks. In each fish tank there were four fishes and the product was applied three times, i.e., a total of twelve fish were exposed to the product at each application, and a total of 120 fish during the entire experiment (n=120. In order to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development, ovulation induction was performed on female fishes using hormones, and then and egg collection was performed. The eggs were then hydrated and fertilized in Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin in different concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0mg/L of Cypermethrin and 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L of Deltamethrin, in addition to the control group (0mg/L. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in containers with the respective pesticides of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin until hatching, when hatching rate was verified. Then the alevins, from the hatching, were kept on their respective concentrations of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin so that the survival rate could be analyzed regarding the tested insecticides, during both 12-hour and 24-hour periods

  3. Growth of monosex hybrid tilapia in the labortory and sewage oxidation ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suffern, J.S.; Adams, S.M.; Blaylock, B.G.; Coutant, C.C.; Guthrie, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of monosex hybrid tilapia (female T. mossambica x male T. hornorum) in waste-heat polyculture systems. The optimum growth temperature for this hybrid was found to be 32 0 C in laboratory experiments. Experiments in sewage pond cage culture in the temperature range of 23 to 33 0 C at stocking densities of approximately 53 fish/m 3 were also conducted. At fish sizes between 5 and 12 cm TL, estimated annual production is approximately 50,000 kg/ha/yr (50,000 lb/acre/yr). Fish in the sewage oxidation ponds grew significantly faster than fish fed trout chow at optimum temperature in the laboratory, even though temperatures in the sewage ponds averaged below the optimum growth temperature. Techniques to accelerate growth rates are being explored. Exposure to gamma radiation (500 rads), known to cause significant increases in channel catfish growth rate, was found to have a similar effect on tilapia. After a 20-week growth period, exposed fish weighed an average of 20% more than controls

  4. THE ADDED VALUE OF SHREDDED LELE AND PATIN CATFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristina Siti Sundari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish is not only perishable product but also has segmented market. Consumption market such wants the fresh fish and certainty size. The problem is when the size of fish is too big for consumption, so that product is not wanted by consumer anymore. This research aimed at knowing the added value of shredded Lele and Patin catfish agribusiness and increasing prosperity of humanitarian society throughout processing the shredded catfishes. The data of this research was analyzed by Added Value Analysis of Hayami. The result showed that the shredded product of Lele catfish gave the added value IDR 14.295,00 per kilograms with the added value ratio was 25,53 percent and Conversion value was 0,35. Whereas, the shredded product of Patin catfish gave the added value IDR 18.295,00 per kilogram with the added value ratio was 29,04 percent and Conversion value was 0,35. The agribusiness toward processing and marketing of shredded Lele and Patin catfish was innovative agribusiness that could develop business opportunity so that it could move on the economical wheel and increasing humanitarian society prosperity actively. The market demand was still very wide either in town or out of town. The partnership among various not only government but also non government associations would be a good matter toward this agribusiness is running well.

  5. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Fermented By-product of Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, as a Fish Meal Replacer in Juvenile Amur Catfish, Silurus asotus: Effects on Growth, Serological Characteristics and Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katya, Kumar; Yun, Yong-hyun; Park, Gunhyun; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yoo, Gwangyeol; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary fermented by-product of mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, (FBPM) as a fish meal (FM) replacer in juvenile Amur catfish, Silurus asotus. A total number of 225 fish averaging 5.7±0.1 g (mean±standard deviation) were fed one of the five experimental diets formulated to replace FM with FBPM at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% (FBPM0, FBPM5, FBPM10, FBPM20, and FBPM30, respectively). At the end of eight weeks of the experiment, average weight gain (WG) of fish fed FBPM0 or FBPM5 were significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). However, there was no significant differences in WG among the fish fed FBPM0, FBPM5 or FBPM10, and between fish fed FBPM10 or FBPM20, and also between those fed FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets. Lysozyme activity of fish fed FBPM0 or FBPM5 were significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM10, FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). The chemiluminescent response of fish fed FBPM5 was significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM0, FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). Broken line regression analysis of WG suggested that the maximal dietary inclusion level for FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% without any adverse effects on whole body composition and on serological characteristics. Therefore, these results may indicate that the maximal dietary inclusion level of FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% in juvenile Amur catfish. PMID:25178300

  6. Additional lime of CaO in rearing medium with salinity for growing of catfish Pangasius hypopthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Puji Hastuti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Catfish juvenile quality improvements sought through the addition of lime to the availability of minerals in the body. Media maintenance is set at 4‰ salinity aims to reduce the level of osmotic work to reduce energy used for osmoregulation and can be allocated to the growth of catfish. Juvenile-sized fish used 2.59±0.02 cm and weights 0.13±0.01 g. Aquarium measuring 20×20×20 cm3 used 15 units, filled with water salinity of 4% as 6 L per unit, and added lime CaO appropriate treatment. During the study, the fish were fed with 28% protein content three times a day with FR 5%. Addition of CaO treatment dose 0 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 60 mg/L, 80 mg/L result in the survival rate of 100%, 100%, 100%, 96.29%, and 100% (p>0.05. The growth rate of daily weight 5.196%, 5.212%, 6.596%, 5.35% and 5.101% (p>0.05. Long absolute yield significantly different values are 1.451 cm, 1.518 cm, 1.964 cm, 1.71 cm, and 1.546 cm (p<0.05. During the study, the water quality is within the range that can be tolerated by catfish juvenile. The use of lime in the salinity of 4% is suggested as many as 40 mg/L CaO with the turnover of water every day and feeding enough.Keywords: CaO, salinity, growth, Pangasius hypopthalmus

  7. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds.

  8. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  9. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications The following technical papers, conference papers, and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hybrid electric fleet vehicle Class 8 Hybrid Electric Delivery Trucks. Mike Lammert. (2011) FedEx Delivery Trucks In-Use and Vehicle

  10. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative prey fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.; Prendergast, L.A.; Hansel, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983-1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes and smallmouth bass occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn and near midnight. Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length, for walleyes 201-250 mm, for smallmouth bass 176-200 mm, and for channel catfish 401-450 mm. Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April-August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass was about twice that of channel catfish, northern squawfish, and walleyes. However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids

  11. Designing Customer Education Activities to Change People’s Perception of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanus Pratama Suwito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most people see catfish as an unhygienic fish, so less people want to consume it. In fact, catfish has better nutrition compared to Gourami. Therefore, catfish producers need to educate people. The purpose of this research is to design customer education activities to change people’s perception towards catfish using marketing communication mix. This research is a qualitative research and it uses in-depth interview method in gathering the required data. Based on the preliminary survey conducted to 50 people in Surabaya, it is known that Surabaya people are considered novice customers. As such, catfish producers can conduct customer education activities until people want to taste the catfish. The company can add picture, video, and oral information about the benefits in consuming catfish or the nutrition and the certificate of hygienic cultivation system. The producers can provide tester for the catfish and show the customers the comparison between good and bad quality catfish. The producers can also add two more marketing communication activities i.e. events and experiences as well as public relations and publicity. The producers need to use reliable sources in informing the catfish’s nutrition facts such as the certificate of catfish breeder, and certification from BPOM.

  12. Digesta characteristiscs and performance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed cereal grains that differ in viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.I.; Veld, ter M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusion of cereal grains in fish diets may induce changes in digesta characteristics with possible consequences for fish performance. Especially viscosity characteristics of the dietary ingredients may induce these changes. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary cereal grains

  13. Dissolved oxygen and aeration in ictalurid catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed-based production of ictalurid catfish in ponds is the largest aquaculture sector in the United States. The feed biochemical oxygen demand (FBOD) typically is 1.1-1.2 kg O2/kg feed. Feed also results in a substantial increase of carbon dioxide, ammonia nitrogen, and phosphate to ponds, and this ...

  14. Culture of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hecht, T

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the proceedings of a two-day workshop held on the sharptooth catfish farm “Moirah” of Mr W Uys in the Eastern Transvaal in late January 1988. The overall aim of the workshop was to synthesize the available information...

  15. Hepatic pathologies in the brackish water catfish ( Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatic histopathology recorded in livers from feral populations of the brackish water catfish Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from locations on the Lagos lagoon complex with significant anthropogenic inputs from denizen populations and industries are presented. Liver sections from sixty specimens from two locations on the ...

  16. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and

  17. Food and feeding habits of the catfish, Bagrus docmak (Forsskal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The natural food of the catfish Bagrus docmak was studied from February 1995 to February 1996 in Lake Chamo, Ethiopia. The stomach contents of a total of 534 fish samples, ranging in size from 33—99 cm fork length (LF) and 500—17400 g in total weight (WT) were investigated. The diet of B. docmak was composed of ...

  18. Estimates of age, growth and mortality of spotted catfish, Arius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... the major by-catch species, and hence more attention should be paid to the dynamics of this stock. .... reflect the sea surface temperature of fishing ground (in this study, ... growth curve of spotted catfish is shown in Figure 4.

  19. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish,

  20. Study on Feeding Habit of Clariid Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the feeding habit of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in Otamiri River, South-Eastern Nigeria. Stomach items analyzed include mainly algae, fish scales, annelids, benthic invertebrates, and detritus confirmed the fish as omnivorous species. However, few stomach contents ...

  1. Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behavioural and serum liver enzyme responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were evaluated for 72 hours. Thirty-six (36) healthy fishes with standard weight, 20 ± 1.52 g and standard length, 18.25 ± 0.50 cm were used for the experiment in non-renewable bioassay system. The test fish exhibited stressful ...

  2. Lip histology of the adult farmed African Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lip histology of the adult farmed African catfish was investigated to fill the knowledge gap in available literature especially those from commercial concrete tanks. This microanatomy is important as the lip is the principal organ involved in prehension. The lip epidermis was lined by stratified squamous epithelium ...

  3. Anaemia in the freshwater catfish Clarias albopunctatus (Teleostei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological changes were studied in freshwater catfish Clarias albopunctatus exposed for 20 days to 25%, 50% and 100% concentrations of brewery wastewater prepared by dilution using tap water. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte counts in fish exposed to wastewater were significantly lower than in a ...

  4. Assessment of the nutritional quality of smoked catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the nutritional quality of smoked Catfish Clarias gariepinus obtained in three different markets in Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria for a period of three months. Proximate compositions of smoked Clarias gariepinus were determined. The highest protein content (49.27 ± 2.59) was recorded in smoked fish ...

  5. Occurrence and vulnerability of a giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and some biological characteristics of commercially important giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell, 1837) were studied in Mafia Island from October 2010 to October 2011. Samples were collected from artisanal fishing gear, mainly longlines, sharknets and ringnets, which yielded a total of 2,723 kg ...

  6. Nasal cavity of the farmed african catfish Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nasal cavity microanatomy of farmed fingerlings of African catfish, Clarias gariepunus was investigated to fill existing knowledge gap on its histology from available literatures. This becomes very important as no gustatory cell was reported from previous researches on the fingerling digestive tract. A slice of nasal cavity of ...

  7. Effects of Probiotic Bacillus sp. on Food Convertion and Growth of Catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Jusadi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A triplicate experiment was conducted to evaluate the addition of probiotic Bacillus sp. into the diet on feed convertion and growth of catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. Twenty fish with an initial body weight of 1,85 ± 0,09 g were stocked in a 60-1 aquarium. During rearing period, fish were fed on the diet three times a day at satiation. Prior the feeding, probiotic (contained Bacillus sp. 4,2x106 CFU.ml-1 were added into the diet at a dosage of 0, 5, 15 or 25 ml.kg-1 diet. The probiotic were added once a day at the noon. The results showed that maximum protein retention, lipid retention, growth rate, and minimum feed convertion was found in the group of fish fed on the diet supplemented with 15 ml probiotic kg-1 diet. Irrespective to the dosage of probiotic, food consumption and survival rate of fish were the same among the treatments. Key words : Probiotic. Bacillus sp.. catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dosis yang optimal dari probiotik Bacillus sp. yang ditambahkan pada pakan komersil terhadap konversi pakan dan pertumbuhan benih ikan patin Pangasius hypophthalmus. Dua puluh ekor ikan patin dengan bobot rata-rata 1.85 ± 0,09 g ditebar dalam setiap akuarium frekuensi 50x40x35 cm yang diisi air 60 1. Selama 40 had masa pemeliharaan. ikan diberi pakan buatan berkadar protein 27% dengan frekwensi tiga kali sehari, at satiation. Sebelum diberikan ke ikan, pakan tersebut ditambah produk probiotik (mengandung Bacillus sp. 4,2 x 106 CFU/ml dengan dosis 0, 5, 15 atau 25 ml/kg pakan. Pakan yang mengandung probiotik hanya diberikan sekali setiap hari, yakni pada pukul 13.00. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adanya penambahan probiotik dalam pakan sampai dosis 15 ml/kg pakan menyebabkan terjadinya peningkatan retensi protein, retensi lemak dan laju pertumbuhan harian ikan, serta menurunkan konversi pakan. Penambahan probiotik lebih lanjut (25 ml/kg pakan menurunkan kinerja pertumbuhan di atas

  8. Performance of juveniles of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum fed graded levels of corn gluten meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José de Almeida Bicudo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate corn gluten meal (CGM as a substitute for fish meal in diets for striped catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum juveniles. Eight isonitrogenous (46% crude protein and isoenergetic (3,450 kcal kg-1 digestible energy diets, with increasing levels of CGM - 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42% -, were fed to juvenile striped catfish (113.56±5.10 g for seven weeks. Maximum values for weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and feed conversion ratio, evaluated by polynomial quadratic regression, were observed with 10.4, 11.4, 15.4 and 15% of CGM inclusion, respectively. Feed intake decreased significantly from 0.8% CGM. Mesenteric fat index and body gross energy decreased linearly with increasing levels of CGM; minimum body protein contents were observed with 34.1% CGM. Yellow pigmentation of fillets significantly increased until 26.5% CGM, and decreased from this point forth. Both plasma glucose and protein concentrations decreased with increased CGM levels. The inclusion of 10-15% CGM promotes optimum of striped catfish juveniles depending on the parameter evaluated. Yellow coloration in fillets produced by CGM diets can have marketing implications.

  9. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  10. 76 FR 26655 - Public Meetings on the Proposed Rule for Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... for catfish under provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Act (7 U.S.C. 1622, 1624) and regulations..., large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's Target Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TTY). To... the Web site, FSIS is able to provide information to a much broader, more diverse audience. In...

  11. INTRA-PROCESSOR PRICE-SPREAD BEHAVIOR: IS THE U.S. CATFISH PROCESSING INDUSTRY COMPETITIVE?

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    An analysis was conducted of price-spread behavior in the catfish-processing sector of the United States. A model of imperfect competition using conjectural variations was used to test for significant deviations from competition. Results show no significant deviation from competitive behavior, suggesting that catfish processor behave competitively. However, this result is limited by the assumption of equal market shares by each catfish-processing firm.

  12. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and transcript localization of testicular orphan nuclear receptor 2 in the male catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugananthkumar, R; Akhila, M V; Rajakumar, A; Mamta, S K; Sudhakumari, C C; Senthilkumaran, B

    2016-12-01

    Testicular receptor 2 (TR2; also known as Nr2c1) is one of the first orphan nuclear receptors identified and known to regulate various physiological process with or without any ligand. In this study, we report the cloning of full length nr2c1 and its expression analysis during gonadal development, seasonal testicular cycle and after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induction. In addition, in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed to localize nr2c1 transcripts in adult testis and whole catfish (1day post hatch). Tissue distribution and gonadal ontogeny studies revealed high expression of nr2c1 in developing and adult testis. Early embryonic stage-wise expression of nr2c1 seems to emphasize its importance in cellular differentiation and development. Substantial expression of nr2c1 during pre-spawning phase and localization of nr2c1 transcripts in sperm/spermatids were observed. Significant upregulation after hCG induction indicate that nr2c1 is under the regulation of gonadotropins. Whole mount ISH analysis displayed nr2c1 expression in notochord indicating its role in normal vertebrate development. Taken together, our findings suggest that nr2c1 may have a plausible role in the testicular and embryonic development of catfish. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Growth of monosex hybrid tilapia in the labortory and sewage oxidation ponds. [Effects of water temperature, nutrient level, and. gamma. rays on growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suffern, J.S.; Adams, S.M.; Blaylock, B.G.; Coutant, C.C.; Guthrie, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of monosex hybrid tilapia (female T. mossambica x male T. hornorum) in waste-heat polyculture systems. The optimum growth temperature for this hybrid was found to be 32/sup 0/C in laboratory experiments. Experiments in sewage pond cage culture in the temperature range of 23 to 33/sup 0/C at stocking densities of approximately 53 fish/m/sup 3/ were also conducted. At fish sizes between 5 and 12 cm TL, estimated annual production is approximately 50,000 kg/ha/yr (50,000 lb/acre/yr). Fish in the sewage oxidation ponds grew significantly faster than fish fed trout chow at optimum temperature in the laboratory, even though temperatures in the sewage ponds averaged below the optimum growth temperature. Techniques to accelerate growth rates are being explored. Exposure to gamma radiation (500 rads), known to cause significant increases in channel catfish growth rate, was found to have a similar effect on tilapia. After a 20-week growth period, exposed fish weighed an average of 20% more than controls.

  14. Channel catfish response to ultraviolet-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, M.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Kocan, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to simulated ultraviolet-B radiation at an average daily dose of 2.9 J/cm2 were quite sensitive to the radiation. After a 24-h exposure, thinning of the most dorsal epidermis frequently was accompanied by edema. Compared with epidermis of unexposed fish, mucous cells in exposed fish were less superficial and club cells were less numerous both dorsally and high on the lateral surface of the body. Sunburn cells with pyknotic nuclei were evident in the epidermis of exposed fish. Among fish exposed for 48 h, focal necrosis and sloughing of the outer epidermal layer were widespread. A methanol-extractable skin substance that is associated with resistance to sunburn in other fish species was not detected in channel catfish.

  15. Energy costs of catfish space use as determined by biotelemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA. This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources.

  16. Cost Characteristics of the African Catfish Culture in Recirculating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost Characteristics of the African Catfish Culture in Recirculating Production Facilities in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Food Conversion Ratio also ranged from 0.60–0.78 for fingerlings, 1.01-‐ 2.08 for juveniles and 1.15-‐1.68 for grow out system. In all cases, variable cost accounts for more than 75% of total cost.

  17. Histopathological changes in the Brain Tissue of Africa Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty normal post juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) of both sexes with a mean weight of 135.44±1.99 g and mean length of 28.32±0.844 cm were purchased from Osayi farm. They were kept in 60 l aquaria at 27.5±0.4 ◦C, pH 7.3, with 12:12 h photoperiod, well aerated, provided with external filtration ...

  18. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  19. Celioscopic liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.S. Feranti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosurgery has been used for assessment of fish celomatic cavity, as well as for obtaining biopsies for organic analysis. Such minimally invasive access may also be used for the analysis of environmental impact on biomarkers of pollution. In Brazil, studies and literature regarding the use of celioscopy in fish are sparse. The purpose of the current study was to develop a two-port celioscopy technique to obtain liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. Six adult female silver catfish were used. The animals were anesthetized and the inspection of the celomatic cavity were performed using a telescope and celioscopic-guided liver biopsy were taken using laparoscopic Kelly forceps. On the early postoperative period, the animals were released in a confined water reservoir where mortality could be checked. The liver samples were sent for histological assessment. There were no complications during surgery on early postoperative period. It was possible to visualize meticulously several organs (liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, swim bladder, ovaries, bowel and transverse septum. In conclusion, the surgical technique and the anesthetic protocol proposed were suitable to perform liver biopsies in silver catfish and provided low morbidity.

  20. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822. Thematic bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of publications on certain issues of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus biology and cultivation in Ukraine and abroad, as well as concerning the effects of rearing conditions on physiological, biochemical and fish-breeding characteristics of clariids. Methods. The complete and selective methods were applied in the process of the systematic search. The bibliographic core have been formed with the publications in Ukrainian, Russian and English from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine. Results. There was composed the thematic list of publications with a total quantity of 112 sources covering the time interval from 1978 to 2017, as well as an article from the "Aquaculture" journal, dated 2018, and including the fish-biological characteristics of African catfish as representative of Siluriformes order, Clariidae family. The literary sources are arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 8302:2015 “ Information and documentation. Bibliographic reference. General principles and rules of composition”, with the amendments (code UKND 01.140.40, as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of cultivation and study of the biological features of African catfish.

  1. Remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater by sorption onto hydoxyapatite derived from catfish bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxyapatite was prepared from catfish bones, called catfish hydroxyapatite (CFHA), by mechanical and chemical treatment methods and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques to confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. The ability of CFHA to rem...

  2. Performance evaluation of intensive, pond-based culture systems for catfish production in Mississippi: year one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish farming is the leading form of aquaculture in the U.S. and has a significant economic impact in the southern states. Increased feed and energy costs, and competition from foreign imports have recently caused catfish farmers to intensify production as a means of improving efficiency and profi...

  3. Destiny-yield relationship for channel catfish reared in a biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of stocking density on yield of stocker channel catfish and water quality in a biofloc technology production system was studied in this completely randomized design experiment. Fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; 48.0 g/fish, 17.8 cm/fish) were stocked into nine continuously ...

  4. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  5. Efficiency of resource-use and elasticity of production among catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the empirical analysis of efficiency of resource-use and elasticity of production among catfish farmers in Kaduna, Nigeria. The simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting 60 catfish farmers drawn from the sampling frame ...

  6. Profitability and viability of catfish enterprises in Abia State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to analyze profitability and viability of catfish farming in Abia State of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting 50 catfish farmers that provided the data used for the study. The primary data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire, administered through ...

  7. Effect of Stocking Density on Growth and Survival of African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1882) fry were cultured at three different stocking densities in net hapas (submerged volume 0.75 m3) suspended in an outdoor concrete tank of the Aquaculture and Fisheries Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Catfish fry (mean weight 0.12 ± 0.10 g) were ...

  8. Dual-Electrical-Port Control of Cascaded Doubly-Fed Induction Machine for EV/HEV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Peng; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    that of the power machine in singly-fed operation mode, and only a half of that of the power machine in doubly-fed operation mode, which shows the urgent need for torque density enhancement of brushless doubly-fed machines for electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications. Computer simulations...

  9. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abernathy Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of 43,000 BAC end sequences and their applications for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Using these and the additional 20,000 existing BAC end sequences as a resource along with linkage mapping and existing physical map, conserved syntenic regions were identified between the catfish and zebrafish genomes. A total of 10,943 catfish BAC end sequences (17.3% had significant BLAST hits to the zebrafish genome (cutoff value ≤ e-5, of which 3,221 were unique gene hits, providing a platform for comparative mapping based on locations of these genes in catfish and zebrafish. Genetic linkage mapping of microsatellites associated with contigs allowed identification of large conserved genomic segments and construction of super scaffolds. Conclusion BAC end sequences and their associated polymorphic markers are great resources for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Highly conserved chromosomal regions were identified to exist between catfish and zebrafish. However, it appears that the level of conservation at local genomic regions are high while a high level of chromosomal shuffling and rearrangements exist between catfish and zebrafish genomes. Orthologous regions established through comparative analysis should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in catfish.

  10. Comparison of Channel Catfish and Blue Catfish Gut Microbiota Assemblages Shows Minimal Effects of Host Genetics on Microbial Structure and Inferred Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob W. Bledsoe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of teleost fish has gained a great deal of research attention within the past decade, with experiments suggesting that both host-genetics and environment are strong ecological forces shaping the bacterial assemblages of fish microbiomes. Despite representing great commercial and scientific importance, the catfish within the family Ictaluridae, specifically the blue and channel catfish, have received very little research attention directed toward their gut-associated microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Within this study we utilize multiple genetically distinct strains of blue and channel catfish, verified via microsatellite genotyping, to further quantify the role of host-genetics in shaping the bacterial communities in the fish gut, while maintaining environmental and husbandry parameters constant. Comparisons of the gut microbiota among the two catfish species showed no differences in bacterial species richness (observed and Chao1 or overall composition (weighted and unweighted UniFrac and UniFrac distances showed no correlation with host genetic distances (Rst according to Mantel tests. The microbiota of environmental samples (diet and water were found to be significantly more diverse than that of the catfish gut associated samples, suggesting that factors within the host were further regulating the bacterial communities, despite the lack of a clear connection between microbiota composition and host genotype. The catfish gut communities were dominated by the phyla Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes; however, differential abundance analysis between the two catfish species using analysis of composition of microbiomes detected two differential genera, Cetobacterium and Clostridium XI. The metagenomic pathway features inferred from our dataset suggests the catfish gut bacterial communities possess pathways beneficial to their host such as those involved in nutrient metabolism and antimicrobial biosynthesis, while

  11. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  12. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

  13. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  14. Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahdat Hossain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of a widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC on the bacterial microflora in two catfish species under artificial culture conditions in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in six aquaria (size 37 cm×30 cm×60 cm where three aquaria served as replicates of the antibiotic treatment groups and the remaining three aquaria served as an untreated control group. Each aquarium was stocked with 25 fish on an average body weight 15 g. OTC was administered to the fish in the treatment groups at the rate of 2 g/kg in-feed twice daily upto ad libitum, whereas fish in the untreated control groups were given the same feed without antibiotics for 20 d. During the experiment, bacterial loads were estimated as colony forming unit (CFU/g by every alternate day in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish. Results: The administration of OTC in feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial loads in the gills, intestine and skin of the two catfish species tested. In contrast, the bacterial loads remain unchanged or slightly increased in the control groups not fed with OTC. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were found to be within suitable range in the test aquaria but not in control aquarium throughout the experimental period. Conclusions: The results of this experiment showed that in-feed antibiotic OTC for a period of 20 d reduced the bacterial loads in the gills, intestines and skin of treated fish.

  15. Host Age Affects the Development of Southern Catfish Gut Bacterial Community Divergent From That in the Food and Rearing Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Dapeng; Refaey, Mohamed M; Xu, Weitong; Tang, Rong; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    Host development influences gut microbial assemblies that may be confounded partly by dietary shifts and the changing environmental microbiota during ontogenesis. However, little is known about microbial colonization by excluding dietary effects and compositional differences in microbiota between the gut and environment at different ontogenetic stages. Herein, a developmental gut microbial experiment under controlled laboratory conditions was conducted with carnivorous southern catfish Silurus meridionalis fed on an identical prey with commensal and abundant microbiota. In this study, we provided a long-term analysis of gut microbiota associated with host age at 8, 18, 35, 65, and 125 day post-fertilization (dpf) and explored microbial relationships among host, food and water environment at 8, 35, and 125 dpf. The results showed that gut microbial diversity in southern catfish tended to increase linearly as host aged. Gut microbiota underwent significant temporal shifts despite similar microbial communities in food and rearing water during the host development and dramatically differed from the environmental microbiota. At the compositional abundance, Tenericute s and Fusobacteria were enriched in the gut and markedly varied with host age, whereas Spirochaetes and Bacteroidetes detected were persistently the most abundant phyla in food and water, respectively. In addition to alterations in individual microbial taxa, the individual differences in gut microbiota were at a lower level at the early stages than at the late stages and in which gut microbiota reached a stable status, suggesting the course of microbial successions. These results indicate that host development fundamentally shapes a key transition in microbial community structure, which is independent of dietary effects. In addition, the dominant taxa residing in the gut do not share their niche habitats with the abundant microbiota in the surrounding environment. It's inferred that complex gut microbiota

  16. Magnesium Reduces Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Modulates Lipogenesis and Lipolysis via PPARA, JAK-STAT, and AMPK Pathways in Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuan-Chuan; Wu, Kun; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Li-Han; Li, Dan-Dan; Luo, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Background: Magnesium influences hepatic lipid deposition in vertebrates, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Objective: We used yellow catfish and their isolated hepatocytes to test the hypothesis that magnesium influences lipid deposition by modulating lipogenesis and lipolysis. Methods: Juvenile yellow catfish (mean ± SEM weight: 3.43 ± 0.02 g, 3 mo old, mixed sex) were fed a 0.14- (low), 0.87- (intermediate) or 2.11- (high) g Mg/kg diet for 56 d. Primary hepatocytes were incubated for 48 h in control or MgSO 4 -containing medium with or without 2-h pretreatment with an inhibitor (AG490, GW6471, or Compound C). Growth performance, cell viability, triglyceride (TG) concentrations, and expression of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism were measured. Results: Compared with fish fed low magnesium, those fed intermediate or high magnesium had lower hepatic lipids (18%, 22%) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD; 3.7%, 3.8%) and malic enzyme (ME; 35%, 48%) activities and greater mRNA levels of the lipolytic genes adipose triacylglyceride lipase ( atgl ; 82% and 1.7-fold) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ( ppara ; 18% and 1.0-fold), respectively ( P magnesium were higher (24% to 3.1-fold, P magnesium. Compared with cells incubated with MgSO 4 alone, those incubated with MgSO 4 and pretreated with AG490, GW6471, or Compound C had greater TG concentrations (42%, 31%, or 56%), g6pd (98%, 59%, or 51%), 6pgd (68%, 73%, or 32%) mRNA expression, and activities of G6PD (35%, 45%, or 16%) and ME (1.5-fold, 1.3-fold, or 13%), and reduced upregulation (61%, 25%, or 45%) of the lipolytic gene, atgl ( P Magnesium reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in yellow catfish and the variation might be attributed to inhibited lipogenesis and increased lipolysis. PPARA, JAK-STAT, and AMPK pathways mediated the magnesium-induced changes in lipid deposition and metabolism. These results offer new insight into magnesium nutrition in vertebrates. © 2017

  17. DNA barcoding of commercially important catfishes in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilang, Jonas P; Yu, Shiny Cathlynne S

    2015-06-01

    Many species of catfish are important resources for human consumption, for sport fishing and for use in aquarium industry. In the Philippines, some species are cultivated and some are caught in the wild for food and a few introduced species have become invasive. In this study, DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was done on commercially and economically important Philippine catfishes. A total of 75 specimens belonging to 11 species and 5 families were DNA barcoded. The genetic distances were computed and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees were constructed based on the Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) method. The average K2P distances within species, genus, family and order were 0.2, 8.2, 12.7 and 21.9%, respectively. COI sequences clustered according to their species designation for 7 of the 11 catfishes. DNA barcoding was not able to discriminate between Arius dispar and A. manillensis and between Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P. pardalis. The morphological characters that are used to distinguish between these species do not complement molecular identification through DNA barcoding. DNA barcoding also showed that Clarias batrachus from the Philippines is different from the species found in India and Thailand, which supports earlier suggestions based on morphology that those found in India should be designated as C. magur and those in mainland Southeast Asia as C. aff. batrachus "Indochina". This study has shown that DNA barcoding can be used for species delineation and for tagging some species for further taxonomic investigation, which has implications on proper management and conservation strategies.

  18. Pumpkin seed cake as a fishmeal substitute in fish nutrition: effects on growth performance, morphological traits and fillet colour of two freshwater salmonids and two catfish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiling, Alexander Michael; Schwarz, Christiane; Gierus, Martin; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2018-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the digestibility of pumpkin seed cake (PSC) for the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), and effects on performance and product quality traits of four different fish species when PSC partially replaced fishmeal in extruded diets. A digestibility trial was carried out to determine apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and gross energy (GE) of PSC fed to rainbow trout. In subsequent growth trials, effects on performance and morphological traits and fillet colour values of four different fish species [rainbow trout; brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814); African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822); and wels catfish, Silurus glanis (Linnaeus, 1758)] were evaluated when 60% of fishmeal protein of a reference diet was replaced by PSC protein (based on digestible CP). Nutrient ADC of PSC were high (CP: 89%, EE: 88% and GE: 84%). No significant effects on growth and only minor effects on fillet colour were detected in the trials. However, replacing fishmeal with PSC at the chosen level affected morphological traits and feed conversion in all four species to different extents. Replacement effects of PSC should be tested at lower levels of inclusion before conclusions are drawn on its suitability in fish diets.

  19. Optimal Incorporation Level of Dietary Alternative Phosphate (MgHPO and Requirement for Phosphorus in Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyun Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A growth trial was conducted to determine the optimal incorporation level of dietary magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4, which was manufactured from swine manure and phosphorus (P, required by juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus. Graded MHP of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%, and 2.0% monocalcium phosphate (MCP each was added to the basal diet (control in lieu of cellulose to become the range of available P (AP from 0.4% to 0.8% of which diets were designated as control, MHP0.5, MHP1.0, MHP1.5, MHP2.0, and MCP, respectively. Control diet contained fish meal (20%, soybean meal (40%, wheat flour (27%, corn gluten meal (5%, fish oil (2% and soy oil (2% as main ingredients. Following a 24 h fasting, 540 fish with a mean body weight of 11.8 g were randomly allotted to 6 groups in triplicate, whereby 18 tanks (0.4×0.6×0.36 cm, water volume of 66 L were prepared. The feeding experiment lasted for 8 weeks. Fish group fed the control diet showed the lowest weight gain (WG and feed efficiency (FE among treatments. The WG was, however, not significantly different (p>0.05 from that of fish group fed MHP0.5. Fish group fed MHP2.0 showed the highest WG and FE of which values were not significantly different from those of fish groups fed diets MHP1.0 and MHP1.5 as well as MCP (p>0.05 except fish groups fed control and MHP0.5. Aspartate aminotransferase was significantly decreased with an increase in available P, while alanine aminotransferase did not show a significant difference among treatment. The highest inorganic P in plasma was observed in fish fed MHP2.0. From the present results, a second-order regression analysis revealed that the optimal dietary MHP level and the AP requirement were found to be 1.62% and 0.7%, respectively.

  20. Eugenol as anesthetic for silver catfish (Rhamdia voulezi with different weightEugenol como anestésico para jundiá (Rhamdia voulezi em diferentes pesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogerio Boscolo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to find the better concentration of eugenol for anesthesia of silver catfish (Rhamdia voulezi with different weights. Were used 240 catfish distributed in randomized blocks in factorial scheme (5x4 total 20 treatments, in others words, five different weights: 32,5; 75; 150; 300 e 450g and four eugenol concentrations: 50, 75, 100 e 125 mg.l-1. For each treatment were used 12 fish randomly chosen and exposed individually for each concentration. After of anesthesia the fish were transferred for net-cage with 0,7m3, being fed and observed by 96 hours for monitoring of mortality. The eugenol was efficient for anesthesia in silver catfish all concentrations and weights and after of 96 hours no mortality have been verified. At these experimental conditions the best concentration of eugenol for anesthetic inducing and recuperation of silver catfish with weight varying from 32,5 and 450 g is 50 mg.l-1. O presente estudo teve como objetivo encontrar a melhor dose de eugenol para a anestesia do jundiá (Rhamdia voulezi em diferentes classes de peso. Foram utilizados 240 jundiás distribuídos em delineamento experimental em blocos em esquema fatorial (5 x 4 totalizando 20 tratamentos, ou seja, cinco diferentes classes de peso: 32,5; 75; 150; 300 e 450g e quatro concentrações de eugenol (50, 75, 100 e 125 mg.l-1. Para cada tratamento foram utilizados 12 peixes escolhidos aleatoriamente (n = 12 e expostos individualmente para cada concentração. Após o procedimento de anestesia os peixes foram transferidos para tanques-rede com 0,7m3, onde receberam alimentação e ficaram em observação durante 96 horas para o monitoramento da mortalidade. O eugenol foi eficiente para a anestesia em jundiás nas diferentes concentrações analisadas e nos distintos pesos, e após 96 horas de acompanhamento à recuperação anestésica, não foram verificadas mortalidades dos animais. Nas condições deste experimento a melhor concentração de eugenol

  1. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ernesto Balen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  2. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in aba south local

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the cost and returns of catfish marketing in Aba South ... significantly influenced net income should be considered in policy issues. ... entrepreneur/manager at a profit. .... marketers were well experienced in their business.

  4. The feeding ecology of schilbeid catfishes in river Ase, Niger delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding ecology of schilbeid catfishes in river Ase, Niger delta, Southern Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... in feeding intensity were described for Eutropius niloticus and Schilbe mystus which had adequate data.

  5. Draft genome sequences of three Aeromonas hybrophila isolates from catfish and tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacteria that is particularly adapted to freshwater environments and can cause severe infections in fish and humans. Here we report the draft genomes of three A. hydrophila catfish and tilapia isolates....

  6. Analysis Of Masamo Catfish Marketing By Analytical Approach At Farmer Group “Sumber Lancar”, Blimbing, Malang City

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Zainal; Handayani, Wahyu; Fattah, Mochammad

    2016-01-01

    Masamo as new variety of catfish cultivated by the farmer group "Sumber Lancar" in Blimbing, Malang currently has a lot of demand due to increasing consumers who like to eat fish to meet the need for protein for the body. Increasing of Masamo catfish demand followed by production and marketing efforts. This study wants to know whether the marketing efficient. Therefore, this study uses analytical approach approach in order to identify institutional and channel of Masamo Catfish marketing perf...

  7. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronje, Errol I; Barry, Kevin P; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A; Barros, Nélio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D; Wells, Randall S

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating

  8. Improvement of Nutritional Value of Instant Noodles by Fortifying with Catfish (Pangasius Hypophthalmus) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Gusriadi, Depri; Sukmiwati, Mery; ', Dahlia

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the nutritional value of instant noodlesfortified with catfish flour. Instant noodles were prepared from a mixture of wheatflour (50%), sweat potato flour (10%), egg (15%), salt (0,7%), water (23%),cooking oil (0,3%) and Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (1%). The noodles wereprepared by fortifying the mixture with catfish flour at a level of 0%, 5%, 10%,and 15 % respectively. Instant noodles was evaluated for sensory quality andproximate composition (moisture, prot...

  9. Effectiveness of ambon banana stem juice as immunostimulatory against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in catfish Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Qorie Astria; Sri Nuryati; Kukuh Nirmala; Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Outbreaks of infectious diseases due to Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish can cause high death rates (80–100%). Fish disease control can be done using phytopharmaceutical to prevent or treat diseases of fish. One of the phytopharmaceutical that known to prevent the fish diseases is ambon banana stem Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of catfish immersion using banana stem juice as an immunostimulant against bacterial infections A. hyd...

  10. Prevalence and contamination patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in catfish processing environment and fresh fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Yuan; Pyla, Rajkumar; Kim, Tae-Jo; Silva, Juan L; Jung, Yean-Sung

    2010-08-01

    Catfish skins, intestines, fresh fillets, processing surfaces at different production stages, chiller water and non-food contact surfaces were sampled for Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species. Among 315 samples, prevalence of L. monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and a group of Listeria seeligeri-Listeria welshimeri-Listeria ivanovii was 21.6, 13.0 and 29.5%, respectively. No Listeria grayi was detected in this survey. While no L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from catfish skins and intestines, the strains were found with a frequency of 76.7% in chilled fresh catfish fillets and 43.3% in unchilled fillets. L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were also detected in fish contact surfaces such as deheading machine, trimming board, chiller water, conveyor belts at different stages, and fillet weighing table. Among L. monocytogenes, 1/2b (47.0%), 3b (16.0%) and 4c (14%) were the predominant serotypes isolated, whereas 4b, 4e, 1/2c and 1/2a were detected at much lower frequencies. Genotype analyses of L. monocytogenes isolates using serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR revealed that chiller water represented an important contamination source of L. monocytogenes in the chilled catfish fillets of two processing facilities, whereas fillet weighing table significantly contributed to the catfish fillet contamination of the third facility. This study suggests that L. monocytogenes contamination in the processed catfish fillets originates from the processing environment, rather than directly from catfish. Results from this study can aid the catfish industry to develop a plant-specific proper cleaning and sanitation procedure for equipment and the processing environment designed to specifically target L. monocytogenes contamination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Output Price Risk, Material Input Price Risk, and Price Margins: Evidence from the US Catfish Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bouras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - To develop a conceptual model for analyzing the impact of output price risk and material input price risk on price margins. Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the combined effect of output price risk and material input risk on price margins, we use a series of comparative static analyses, GARCH models, and data ranging from 1990/01 to 2012/12. Findings - The theoretical results indicate that the impact of output price risk and the impact of material input price risk on price margins are ambiguous and, to a great extent, hinge on the correlation between output price and material input price. The empirical results show that whole frozen catfish price risk and live catfish price risk negatively affect the price margin for frozen catfish. The empirical results, however, indicate that the risk of the price of live catfish affects markedly the price margin for frozen whole catfish in contrast to the impact of the risk of the price of frozen whole catfish. Research implications/limitations - The empirical results have significant implications for managerial decision-making especially when crafting strategies for improving price margins. Accordingly, in order to beef up the price margin for frozen whole catfish, catfish processors may consider engaging in vertical integration. This paper has some limitations: first, it assumes that firms operate in competitive markets; second, it assumes that firms produce and sell a single product. Originality/value/contribution - Unlike earlier studies that focused solely on the effect of output price risk on price margins, this paper analyzes theoretically and empirically the impact of output price risk and material input price risk on price margins.

  12. Characteristics Of Smoked Catfish (Hemibagrus Nemurus) Prepared Frompond Culture, Cage And Wild Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Maskilin, Jippo; Hasan, Bustari; Leksono, Tjipto

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids profiles of smoked catfish prepared from pond, cage culture and wild fish. Catfish samples 300-350 grams in weight wastaken respectualy from wild (Kampar river), pond and cage culture in Sungai Paku, Kampar. The fish was smoked using hot smoking method, and the smoked fish was evaluated for smoking yield, sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profile.The smoking...

  13. Information Flow along Catfish Marketing Channels in Nigeria: Whither the Role of Mobile Telephony?

    OpenAIRE

    Animashaun, Jubril Olayinka; Fakayode, S.B.; Ayinde, Opeyemi Eyitayo

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were two-folds. First, examined the use of mobile phone technology to facilitate catfish marketing and second, identified the determinants of variations in the frequency of mobile phone use for catfish marketing among agents involved in the marketing chain. The study was carried out in Kwara-state, Nigeria. One hundred and forty respondents were stratified and randomly sampled and data was collected through the use of well-designed questionnaires. Descriptive and ...

  14. Genetic structure in the Amazonian catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii : influence of life history strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Vallejos, F. M.; Duponchelle, Fabrice; Desmarais, E.; Cerqueira, F.; Quérouil, Sophie; Nunez Rodriguez, Jesus; Garcia, C.; Renno, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The Dorado or Plateado (Gilded catfish) Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) is a commercially valuable migratory catfish performing the largest migration in freshwaters: from the Amazonian headwaters in the Andean foothills (breeding area) to the Amazon estuary (nursery area). In spite of its importance to inform management and conservation efforts, the genetic variability of this species has only recently begun to be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine ...

  15. Effects of starvation, refeeding, and insulin on energy-linked metabolic processes in catfish (Rhamdia hilarii) adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, C.R.; Garofalo, M.A.; Roselino, J.E.; Kettelhut, I.C.; Migliorini, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of starvation and of a short period of refeeding on energy-linked metabolic processes, as well as the effects of insulin administration, were investigated in an omnivorous fish (catfish, Rhamdia hilarii) previously adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet. Following food deprivation blood sugar levels declined progressively to about 50% of fed values after 30 days. During the same period plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration increased twofold. Starvation resulted in reduced concentrations of lipid and glycogen in the liver and of glycogen, lipid, and protein in white muscle. However, taking into account the initial and final concentrations of tissue constituents, the liver weight, and the large fractions of body weight represented by muscle, it could be estimated that most of the energy utilized during starvation derived from the catabolism of muscle lipid and protein. Refeeding starved fishes for 48 hr induced several-fold increases in the rates of in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [14C]glucose into liver and muscle lipid and of [14C]glycine into liver and muscle protein. Incorporation of [14C]glucose into liver glycogen was also increased. However; refeeding did not affect the incorporation of labeled glucose into muscle glycogen, neither in vivo nor in vitro. Administration of pharmacological doses of insulin to normally fed catfishes resulted in marked increases in the in vivo incorporation of 14C from glucose into lipid and protein in both liver and muscle. In contrast, labeled glucose incorporation into muscle glycogen was not affected by insulin and label incorporation into liver glycogen was actually lower than that in noninjected controls

  16. Study on preparation and effect of oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan on immune stimulation white patches in the internal organs disease on Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Dang Van Phu; Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Nguyen Quoc Hien; Pham Duy Hai

    2015-01-01

    Oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan were prepared by gamma Co-60 irradiation of β-glucan/H_2O_2 and chitosan/H_2O_2 solution. The efficiency of the degradation process was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) method. Results showed that the Mw decreased with increasing concentration of H_2O_2 and doses. For oligoβ-glucan, Mw reduced from 56.7 kDa to 7.1 kDa when β-glucan 10%/H_2O_2 1% solution was irradiated at 14 kGy. For oligochitosan, Mw reduced from 45.5 kDa to 5.0 kDa when chitosan 5%/H_2O_2 0.5% solution was irradiated at 21 kGy. Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was fed with oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan in various concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg feed for 45 days and then was challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri bacteria to investigate immune stimulation effect against white patches in the internal organs disease. The results indicated that oligoβ-glucan and oligochitosan exhibited good immune stimulation effect with optimum concentration of 100 mg/kg feed. Survival rate of Tra catfishes fed with oligochitosan and oligoβ-glucan is 47.62 ± 1.96% and 46.67 ± 2.58%, respectively. In addition, the mixture of oligochitosan 50 mg/kg + oligo?-glucan 50 mg/kg showed the highest survival rate (62.22 ± 1.96%). (author)

  17. Success of cuckoo catfish brood parasitism reflects coevolutionary history and individual experience of their cichlid hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polačik, Matej; Smith, Carl; Honza, Marcel; Reichard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Obligate brood parasites manipulate other species into raising their offspring. Avian and insect brood parasitic systems demonstrate how interacting species engage in reciprocal coevolutionary arms races through behavioral and morphological adaptations and counteradaptations. Mouthbrooding cichlid fishes are renowned for their remarkable evolutionary radiations and complex behaviors. In Lake Tanganyika, mouthbrooding cichlids are exploited by the only obligate nonavian vertebrate brood parasite, the cuckoo catfish Synodontis multipunctatus. We show that coevolutionary history and individual learning both have a major impact on the success of cuckoo catfish parasitism between coevolved sympatric and evolutionarily naïve allopatric cichlid species. The rate of cuckoo catfish parasitism in coevolved Tanganyikan hosts was 3 to 11 times lower than in evolutionarily naïve cichlids. Moreover, using experimental infections, we demonstrate that parasite egg rejection in sympatric hosts was much higher, leading to seven times greater parasite survival in evolutionarily naïve than sympatric hosts. However, a high rejection frequency of parasitic catfish eggs by coevolved sympatric hosts came at a cost of increased rejection of their own eggs. A significant cost of catfish parasitism was universal, except for coevolved sympatric cichlid species with previous experience of catfish parasitism, demonstrating that learning and individual experience both contribute to a successful host response.

  18. Characterisation of Catfish (Clarias Batrachus) Oil: β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaibunnisa Abdul Haiyee; Nor Izzatul Adyani Yahya; Norizzah Abd Rashid; Dzulkifly Mat Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Catfish is a cheap source of essential omega-3 fatty acids especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Catfish oil was extracted and clean-up using pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) from the viscera of catfish (Clarias batrachus). However, the characteristics of catfish oils are sticky, strong fishy odour and can easily be oxidised with short shelf-life. In this study, catfish oil was converted into powder by formation of inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin. Inclusion complex was prepared by using co-precipitation and kneading methods and compared with physical mixture. The inclusion complex formed were characterised by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FESEM images revealed that inclusion complex using co-precipitation and kneading methods has smaller in crystal sizes and appeared as different morphology compared to physical mixture. DSC proved that co-precipitation method was able to form new solid phase due to shifting of melting point to higher temperature (145.22 degree Celcius). FTIR supported the result by proving strengthening of carbonyl group (C=O). Therefore, co-precipitation method was able to successfully produce inclusion complex of catfish oil, β-cyclodextrin. (author)

  19. Diversity, threats and conservation of catfish fauna of the Krishna River, Sangli District, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kumbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of freshwater catfish species of the Krishna River, Sangli District was studied from June 2009 to July 2012. The study area covered 105km from Karad City where the Koyna tributary joins the Krishna River up to Mhaishal, the state border of Maharashtra. It was divided into three streams for convenience, i.e., the upper stream starts from Karad and goes up to Takari, the middle stream from Takari to Bhilawadi and downstream from Bhilawadi to Mhaishal. A total of 13 species of catfish belonging to five families and 10 genera were recorded. The Bagridae family was dominant with six species, whereas Siluridae, Schilbidae and Clariidae had two species each and Sisoridae with one species. We have provided range extension for an endemic and threatened sisorid catfish Glyptothorax poonaensis. The occurrence and distribution of catfishes was more or less equal in number along the study area. The maximum number of species recorded was nine from the upper stream, whereas the middle and down streams had eight and seven species respectively. The distribution of catfish along the Krishna River system may be due to the slow and steady state water movement and its width that ensure the continuous availability of nutrition. It is suggested that the Krishna River would be a suitable habitat for the conservation of freshwater catfish if the threats are minimized.

  20. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  1. Discrepancy between molecular structure and ligand selectivity of a testicular follicle-stimulating hormone receptor of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, J.; Blomenröhr, M.; Andersson, E.; van der Putten, H.; Tensen, C.P.; Vischer, H F; Granneman, Joke C M; Janssen-Dommerholt, C; Goos, H.J.; Schulz, Rüdiger W

    A putative FSH receptor (FSH-R) cDNA was cloned from African catfish testis. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence with other (putative) glycoprotein hormone receptors and analysis of the African catfish gene indicated that the cloned receptor belonged to the FSH receptor subfamily. Catfish

  2. Biofilm formation by Salmonella spp. in catfish mucus extract under industrial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhowlaghar, Nitin; De Abrew Abeysundara, Piumi; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, Mark W; Chang, Sam; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Sharma, Chander S

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of strain and temperature on the growth and biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. in high and low concentrations of catfish mucus extract on different food-contact surfaces at 22 °C and 10 °C. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants at recommended concentrations and contact times for removing Salmonella biofilms cells on a stainless steel surface containing catfish mucus extract. Growth and biofilm formation of all Salmonella strains increased with higher concentrations of catfish mucus extract at both 10 °C and 22 °C. In 15 μg/ml of catfish mucus extract inoculated with 3 log CFU/ml, the biofilm levels of Salmonella on stainless steel surface reached to 3.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 10 °C or 5.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 22 °C in 7 days. In 375 μg/ml of catfish mucus extract inoculated with 3 log CFU/ml, the biofilm levels of Salmonella on the stainless steel surface reached 4.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 10 °C and 6.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 22 °C in 7 days. No differences were observed between Salmonella strains tested for biofilm formation in catfish mucus extract on the stainless steel surface. The biofilm formation by Salmonella Blockley (7175) in catfish mucus extract was less (P stainless steel, polyethylene and polyurethane surfaces. Salmonella biofilm cells were not detectable on the stainless steel surface after treatment with a mixture of disinfectants but were still present when single compound disinfectants were used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Copper use and accumulation in catfish culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Helle; Løjmand, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hai, Dao M; Holm, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture of Pangasius hypophthalmus (striped catfish) in Vietnam reached 1.1 million tonnes in 2011 and catfish fillets are exported worldwide. The intensive cultures of catfish mainly in earth ponds have made it necessary to apply CuSO4 and other chemicals to control external parasites and other pathogens. However, accumulation of Cu in aquaculture ponds may pose a hazard to growth of fish or to the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to determine accumulation of Cu in sediment, water and fish in a catfish pond with a history of repeated treatment with CuSO4 in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Copper concentrations in pond sediment were in the interval 21.3-45.7 mg kg(-1) dw and did not exceed the Vietnamese values for soil to be used for agricultural production (70 mg kg(-1) dw.). During three samplings the total mean concentration of Cu in pond water (4 μg L(-1)) did not exceed the LC50-value (70 μg L(-1)) for catfish and the mean dissolved concentration of Cu (0.986 μg L(-1)) did not seem to constitute a risk for the stability of the aquatic ecosystem. No significant variation in Cu concentrations between sampling sites in the pond and depth of sediment profile were determined. The accumulation of Cu in catfish was highest in the liver compared to the skin, gills and muscle tissue. With the current practice of removing pond sludge three to four times during a production cycle little if any Cu seems to accumulate in catfish ponds despite repeated anti-parasite treatments with CuSO4. Further studies are needed to assess the eco-toxicity and impact on agricultural production when pond sediment is discharged into aquatic recipients and used as soil fertilizer.

  4. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Ataguba, Gabriel Arome; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly ( p meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.

  5. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  6. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1991 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service’s Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during ...

  7. Localization of 18S ribosomal genes in suckermouth armoured catfishes Loricariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes with discussion on the Ag-NOR evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world’s largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919, Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995, Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828 and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758. All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae.

  8. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).

  9. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  10. Protein Hydrolysis from Catfish Prepared by Papain Enzyme and Antioxidant Activity of Hydrolyzate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ace Baehaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to make a protein hydrolysates from catfish (Pangasius pangasius enzymatically using papain enzyme and analyzed the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates produced. The research used the method completely randomized design with two replications the treatment were the difference concentration of the papain enzyme (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6%. The parameters of research were antioxidative activity using DPPH (2,2-difenil-1–pikrilhidrazil, protein content, and molecular weight using SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The results showed that catfish protein hydrolysates prepared by papain enzyme has antioxidative activity. The highest degree of hydrolysis was 71.98% at enzyme concentration of 6%. Based on the DPPH scavenging method catfish protein hydrolysates has the antioxidative activity with the value 37.85-67.62%. The protein content of catfish protein hydrolysates were 20.86-54.47 mg/ml. The molecular weight of catfish protein hydrolyzates were 11.90-65.20 kDa.

  11. The efficacy of mass-marking channel catfish fingerlings by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been extensively used for marking a variety of fish species, but has never been successfully used to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Channel catfish fingerlings (~ 25 mm TL) obtained from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation at Byron Fish Hatchery were kept in Living Streams (791 to 1,018 L) equipped with recirculation units. Marking trials consisted of immersing channel catfish in one of three concentrations (250, 450, and 700 mg/L) OTC hydrochloride [HCl] for 6 hours. Samples of channel catfish were obtained from each group at 1-week and 4-week postimmersion. Lapilli otoliths and pectoral spines were removed to assess mark presence with an epi-fluorescent compound microscope. After one week, no marks were detected on pectoral spines for all treatments, mark detection on otoliths depended on concentration, but never exceeded 43% (700 mg/L). After four weeks, all otoliths and pectoral spines were determined marked for 700 mg/L OTC, 20% for fish immersed in 450 mg/L OTC, and 0% were marked after four weeks at the 250 mg/L OTC. Results show, channel catfish fingerlings can be successfully marked with immersion in OTC at 700 mg/L for at least 6 hours.

  12. Age, growth and fall diet of channel catfish in Cheat Lake, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilling, Corbin D.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Smith, Dustin M.

    2016-01-01

    Acidification has historically impaired Cheat Lake's fish community, but recent mitigation efforts within the Cheat River watershed have improved water quality and species richness. Presently, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus are abundant and attain desirable sizes for anglers. We evaluated the age, growth, and fall diet of the population. We collected a sample of 155 channel catfish from Cheat Lake from 5 August to 4 December 2014, a subset of which we aged (n = 148) using lapillus otoliths. We fit four growth models (von Bertalanffy, logistic, Gompertz, and power) to length-at-age data and compared models using an information theoretic approach. We collected fall diets from 55 fish sampled from 13 October to 4 December 2014. Total lengths of individuals in the sample ranged from 154 to 721 mm and ages ranged from 2 to 19 y. We AICc-selected the von Bertalanffy growth model as the best approximating model, and the power and Gompertz models also had considerable support. Diets were numerically dominated by Diptera larvae, specifically Chironomidae and Chaoboridae, while 39% of stomachs contained terrestrial food items. This study provides baseline data for management of Cheat Lake's channel catfish population. Further, this study fills a knowledge gap in the scientific literature on channel catfish, because few previously published studies have examined the population ecology of channel catfish in the Central Appalachian region.

  13. Seasonal food habits of introduced blue catfish in Lake Oconee, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.; Mitchell, Geoffrey E.; Nelson, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are native to the Coosa River drainage in northwest Georgia but have been widely introduced outside of this range including Lake Oconee, a 7677-ha impoundment on the Oconee River in central Georgia. Blue catfish abundance and growth rates have increased dramatically since their introduction in Lake Oconee, but their food habits are unknown. Therefore, food habits of blue catfish in this impoundment were determined by examining the stomachs of 808 specimens in the reservoir’s upper and lower regions across all seasons from summer 2012 to summer 2013. Diet was summarized using the Relative Importance of specific prey by weight. In the upper region of the reservoir, Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) were the dominant prey item during the summer (75.7%), fall (66.4%), and winter (37.6%); whereas crappie (Pomoxis spp.) was the dominant prey item in the spring (38.7%). Asian clams also were the dominant prey items in the lower region during the fall (68.4%), winter (33.9%), and spring (36.4%). Blue catfish seemed to feed opportunistically on seasonally abundant prey items in both the upper riverine and lower lacustrine portions of the reservoir. Of the many sportfishes in the reservoir, only crappie was an important prey item, and then only in the upper region during the spring. Our results do not support concerns that blue catfish are an apex predator that would decimate the sportfish assemblage in this recently colonized reservoir.

  14. Evaluation of the Biochemical Responses of Catfish (Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in MDA formation in fish fed olive oil ... cost-effective, non- conventional and terrestrial alternative ingredients .... vegetable oils as energy sources in fish diets yielded positive growth ...

  15. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat; Wongrat, Ladda

    2006-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) was studied in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the phytoplankton Chlorella vulgaris as the primary producer, the zooplankton Moina macrocopa as the primary consumer, and the catfish Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus as the secondary consumer. C. vulgaris was first exposed to Cd solutions at 0.00, 0.35, and 3.50 mg l -1 , referred to as control group and experimental groups 1 and 2, respectively. Subsequently, each group was fed to three corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. Finally, three groups of catfish were fed these corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. After C. vulgaris was exposed to 3.50 mg l -1 Cd (experimental group 2), the residual Cd in solution was only 4.01 μg l -1 , lower than the maximum allowable limit of Cd in natural water sources (5 μg l -1 ). Cd concentrations in C. vulgaris were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g -1 (dry wt) in the control group, 194 ± 1.80 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 1140 ± 20.06 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in M. macrocopa were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g -1 (dry wt) in the control group, 16.48 ± 2.23 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 56.6 ± 3.23 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in catfish muscle increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. After 60 days of fish culture, the mean concentrations of Cd in fish muscle were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g -1 (dry wt) in the control group, 0.61 ± 0.02 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1 and 1.04 ± 0.06 μg g -1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. Cd concentration in fish muscle of experimental group 2 was equal to the permissible limit. Cd accumulation affected fish growth: at the end of the study, the mean fresh weight (12.81 g) of catfish in the control group, was significantly higher than those experimental group 1 (10.43 g) and experimental group 2 (10.00 g). The results showed that the measurement of Cd concentration in water does not

  16. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat [Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)]. E-mail: krsuneer@kmitl.ac.th; Wongrat, Ladda [Faculty of Fishery, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2006-06-10

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) was studied in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the phytoplankton Chlorella vulgaris as the primary producer, the zooplankton Moina macrocopa as the primary consumer, and the catfish Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus as the secondary consumer. C. vulgaris was first exposed to Cd solutions at 0.00, 0.35, and 3.50 mg l{sup -1}, referred to as control group and experimental groups 1 and 2, respectively. Subsequently, each group was fed to three corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. Finally, three groups of catfish were fed these corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. After C. vulgaris was exposed to 3.50 mg l{sup -1} Cd (experimental group 2), the residual Cd in solution was only 4.01 {mu}g l{sup -1}, lower than the maximum allowable limit of Cd in natural water sources (5 {mu}g l{sup -1}). Cd concentrations in C. vulgaris were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 194 {+-} 1.80 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 1140 {+-} 20.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in M. macrocopa were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 16.48 {+-} 2.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 56.6 {+-} 3.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in catfish muscle increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. After 60 days of fish culture, the mean concentrations of Cd in fish muscle were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 0.61 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1 and 1.04 {+-} 0.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. Cd concentration in fish muscle of experimental group 2 was equal to the permissible limit. Cd accumulation affected fish growth: at the end of the study, the mean fresh weight (12.81 g) of catfish in the control group, was significantly higher than those experimental group 1 (10.43 g) and

  17. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  18. Prospect use of Phaleria macrocarpa to prevent motile aeromonad septicaemia disease in Patin Catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia (MAS disease is one of bacterial disease frequently infecting freshwater fishes including patin catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.  This study was performed to determine antimicrobial of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM and its potency against MAS disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila.  The in vitro susceptibility test was performed by pour plate methods at the dosages of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/l PM. At the in vivo test, fish were fed with the addition of PM into the diet at a dosage of 6, 12, and 18 g/l and 0 g/l as a control for 8 days. At ninth day, fish were infected with A.hydrophila. For seven days after infection the clinical signs and blood pictures were observed. The in vitro test indicated that PM had an antibacterial effect to A.hydrophila at the dosage of 6 g/l. Addition of PM in the diet for 8 days increased haemoglobine. The results showed that lowest clinical sign and smallest number of in fected fish was found at dosage of 12 g/l PM. PM can be used as a preventive method for MAS. Keywords:  Phaleria macrocarpa, antibacterial, "patin", MAS disease, Aeromonas hydrophila   Abstrak Penyakit MAS (Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia merupakan penyakit bakterial yang banyak menyerang ikan-ikan air tawar termasuk patin Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat kemampuan antibakteri dari mahkota dewa (MD Phaleria macrocarpa terhadap Aeromonas hydrophila penyebab penyakit MAS dan potensinya dalam pencegahan penyakit ini.  Pada uji in vitro dilakukan pengujian aktivitas antibakteri MD terhadap A. hydrophila dengan metode hitungan cawan pada dosis MD 2, 4, 6, 8, dan 10 g/l. Pada uji in vivo, ikan uji diberi pakan yang dicampur MD dengan dosis berbeda yaitu 0 g/l (kontrol +, 6, 12, dan 18 g/l, selama 8 hari. Pada hari kesembilan ikan disuntik dengan A. hydrophila dan pengamatan dilanjutkan selama 7 hari, meliputi pengamatan gejala klinis dan gambaran darah.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa MD

  19. Small molecules targeting LapB protein prevent Listeria attachment to catfish muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akgul

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive foodborne pathogen and the causative agent of listeriosis. L. monocytogenes lapB gene encodes a cell wall surface anchor protein, and mutation of this gene causes Listeria attenuation in mice. In this work, the potential role of Listeria LapB protein in catfish fillet attachment was investigated. To achieve this, boron-based small molecules designed to interfere with the active site of the L. monocytogenes LapB protein were developed, and their ability to prevent L. monocytogenes attachment to fish fillet was tested. Results indicated that seven out of nine different small molecules were effective in reducing the Listeria attachment to catfish fillets. Of these, three small molecules (SM3, SM5, and SM7 were highly effective in blocking Listeria attachment to catfish fillets. This study suggests an alternative strategy for reduction of L. monocytogenes contamination in fresh and frozen fish products.

  20. The physico-chemical properties of pangas catfish (Pangasius pangasius) skin gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradarameswari, K. A.; Zaelani, K.; Waluyo, E.; Nurdiani, R.

    2018-04-01

    Gelatin can be used as emulsifier and stabilizer in food products. Until now, the most widely used raw materials for the production of gelatin industry are cow bone, cow skin and pig skin. Fish gelatin has been highlighted as a better alternative to replace mammals gelatin based on ethical and religious perspective. Fish gelatin was extracted from Pangas catfish skin to determine its physico-chemical properties. Different temperatures (45 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C) were employed during gelatin extraction. Higher temperature increased the yield and fat contents of Pangas catfish skin gelatin. In contrary, higher water, protein, ash contents were observed during lower temperature. Temperature significantly (p fish skin gelatin. Based on the FTIR spectrum catfish skin gelatin functional groups can be identified as N-H, O-H, C = H, C-O and C-H.

  1. Increasing Thai Catfish's Immunity (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler Using Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Ilmiah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed.  Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria.  Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day.  The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day.   The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words :  Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan.  Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah.  Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi

  2. FedScope Employment Cubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope...

  3. Spatial variability and macro‐scale drivers of growth for native and introduced Flathead Catfish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Danielle L.; Smith, Geoffrey; Bonvechio, Timothy F.; Bunch, Aaron J.; Lucchesi, David O.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying spatial variability in fish growth and identifying large‐scale drivers of growth are fundamental to many conservation and management decisions. Although fish growth studies often focus on a single population, it is becoming increasingly clear that large‐scale studies are likely needed for addressing transboundary management needs. This is particularly true for species with high recreational value and for those with negative ecological consequences when introduced outside of their native range, such as the Flathead Catfish Pylodictis olivaris. This study quantified growth variability of the Flathead Catfish across a large portion of its contemporary range to determine whether growth differences existed between habitat types (i.e., reservoirs and rivers) and between native and introduced populations. Additionally, we investigated whether growth parameters varied as a function of latitude and time since introduction (for introduced populations). Length‐at‐age data from 26 populations across 11 states in the USA were modeled using a Bayesian hierarchical von Bertalanffy growth model. Population‐specific growth trajectories revealed large variation in Flathead Catfish growth and relatively high uncertainty in growth parameters for some populations. Relatively high uncertainty was also evident when comparing populations and when quantifying large‐scale patterns. Growth parameters (Brody growth coefficient [K] and theoretical maximum average length [L∞]) were not different (based on overlapping 90% credible intervals) between habitat types or between native and introduced populations. For populations within the introduced range of Flathead Catfish, latitude was negatively correlated with K. For native populations, we estimated an 85% probability that L∞ estimates were negatively correlated with latitude. Contrary to predictions, time since introduction was not correlated with growth parameters in introduced populations of Flathead Catfish

  4. Sound production and pectoral spine locking in a Neotropical catfish (Iheringichthys labrosus, Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier S. Tellechea

    Full Text Available Catfishes may have two sonic organs: pectoral spines for stridulation and swimbladder drumming muscles. The aim of this study was to characterize the sound production of the catfish Iheringichthys labrosus. The I. labrosus male and female emits two different types of sounds: stridulatory sounds (655.8 + 230 Hz consisting of a train of pulses, and drumming sounds (220 + 46 Hz, which are composed of single-pulse harmonic signals. Stridulatory sounds are emitted during abduction of the pectoral spine. At the base of the spine there is a dorsal process that bears a series of ridges on its latero-ventral surface, and by pressing the ridges against the groove (with an unspecialized rough surface during a fin sweep, the animal produce a series of short pulses. Drumming sound is produced by an extrinsic sonic muscle, originated on a flat tendon of the transverse process of the fourth vertebra and inserted on the rostral and ventral surface of the swimbladder. The sounds emitted by both mechanisms are emitted in distress situation. Distress was induced by manipulating fish in a laboratory tank while sounds were recorded. Our results indicate that the catfish initially emits a stridulatory sound, which is followed by a drumming sound. Simultaneous production of stridulatory and drumming sounds was also observed. The catfish drumming sounds were lower in dominant frequency than stridulatory sounds, and also exhibited a small degree of dominant frequency modulation. Another behaviour observed in this catfish was the pectoral spine locking. This reaction was always observed before the distress sound production. Like other authors outline, our results suggest that in the catfish I. labrosus stridulatory and drumming sounds may function primarily as a distress call.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Freshwater Catfish Rita rita (Siluriformes, Bagridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashari, Punhal; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Catfish, Rita rita, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and Red Listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,449 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 33.40% A, 27.43% C, 14.26% G and 24.89% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Rita rita provides the basis for genetic breeding and conservation studies.

  6. Streptococcus agalactiae impairs cerebral bioenergetics in experimentally infected silver catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Parmeggiani, Belisa S; Santos, Roberto C V; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-10-01

    It is becoming evident that bacterial infectious diseases affect brain energy metabolism, where alterations of enzymatic complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) lead to an impairment of cerebral bioenergetics which contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether alterations in the activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain and CK contribute to impairment of cerebral bioenergetics during Streptococcus agalactiae infection in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain in brain increased, while the CK activity decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Brain histopathology revealed inflammatory demyelination, gliosis of the brain and intercellular edema in infected animals. Based on this evidence, S. agalactiae infection causes an impairment in cerebral bioenergetics through the augmentation of complex IV activity, which may be considered an adaptive response to maintain proper functioning of the electron respiratory chain, as well as to ensure ongoing electron flow through the electron transport chain. Moreover, inhibition of cerebral CK activity contributes to lower availability of ATP, contributing to impairment of cerebral energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproductive strategy of the Patagonian catfish Hatcheria macraei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello-Sosa, J M; Battini, M A; Barriga, J P

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the reproductive strategy of the stream-dwelling catfish Hatcheria macraei in the Pichileufu River, Argentina. Gonad maturity phases, classified on the basis of histological analysis, stages of gamete development and the frequency distribution of oocyte size, were correlated with macroscopic features of the gonads. Hatcheria macraei has a cystovarian ovary, asynchronous oocyte development and lobular testes. Five oocyte and four spermatogenic stages were identified and related to macroscopic gonad characteristics, making it possible to divide gonad development into five phases for females and males. Mature oocyte diameter ranged from 922 to 1935 µm. Absolute fecundity in mature females varied from 115 to 480 oocytes. Hatcheria macraei has multiple spawning during a protracted reproductive season that extends from December to April. This, together with its small size, is characteristic of an opportunistic reproductive strategy, commonly found in species that inhabit adverse and unpredictable environments, such as the low-order rivers of Patagonia. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Proteomic profiling of white muscle from freshwater catfish Rita rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharjee, Soma; Mahanty, Arabinda; Ganguly, Satabdi; Purohit, Gopal Krishna; Karunakaran, Dhanasekar; Mohanty, Sasmita

    2015-06-01

    Muscle tissues contribute 34-48 % of the total body mass in fish. Proteomic analysis enables better understanding of the skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism. A proteome map reflects the general fingerprinting of the fish species and has the potential to identify novel proteins which could serve as biomarkers for many aspects of aquaculture including fish physiology and growth, flesh quality, food safety and aquatic environmental monitoring. The freshwater catfish Rita rita of the family Bagridae inhabiting the tropical rivers and estuaries is an important food fish with high nutritive value and is also considered a species of choice in riverine pollution monitoring. Omics information that could enhance utility of this species in molecular research is meager. Therefore, in the present study, proteomic analysis of Rita rita muscle has been carried out and functional genomics data have been generated. A reference muscle proteome has been developed, and 23 protein spots, representing 18 proteins, have been identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS. Besides, transcript information on a battery of heat shock proteins (Hsps) has been generated. The functional genomics information generated could act as the baseline data for further molecular research on this species.

  9. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  10. Selected egg parameters and hatching time of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg weight, diameter and mean number per gram were determined for fertilized eggs from broodfish of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis and F1, hybrid broodfish (C. gariepinus x H. longifilis). Mean egg weight was least in C. gariepinus (1.30 mg) followed by H. longifilis (1.80 mg) and highest in the F1 hybrid ...

  11. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) in south-eastern Mexico: implications for invasion and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Nico, Leo G.; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Arevalo-Frias, Wendi; Ropicki, Andrew J.; Heilpern, Sebastian A.; Rodiles-Hernandez, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    1. Salinity tolerance is one of several important physiological attributes that determine invasion success and the pattern of dispersal of introduced aquatic organisms. Introduced freshwater fishes able to tolerate elevated salinities have the potential to invade and exploit brackish-water (mixohaline) environments and use estuaries and coastal waters as 'bridges' for dispersing from one coastal river system to another. 2. Several members of the neotropical suckermouth armoured catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) have established non-native populations in inland waters of North and Central America, Asia and islands in the Caribbean, and Pacific and Indian oceans. Loricariids are generally considered to be strictly freshwater; but a few naturally occur in mesohaline habitats. 3.Catch and habitat data from 2004–2005 and 2009–2011 fish surveys in the Grijalva–Usumacinta River delta region (south-eastern Mexico) confirmed that introduced Pterygoplichthys populations established in upstream freshwater sites (where these catfish are abundant) have recently dispersed into downstream oligohaline and mesohaline estuarine habitats. During 2009–2011 surveys, these non-native catfish — tentatively identified as P. pardalis or its hybrids — were found in sites with salinities ranging from 1 to 8 ppt (mean 5.2 ppt). 4.Acute-salinity experiments were conducted with Pterygoplichthys (110–302 mm standard length, N=140) captured in the Grijalva–Usumacinta Basin to determine upper salinity tolerance levels. Tests demonstrated that individuals maintained in salinities of 0.2 ppt were able to survive abrupt (acute) exposure to salinities up to 10 ppt with little mortality over 10 days (240 h experimental endpoint). A few individuals survived abrupt exposure to 11 and 12 ppt for 20 or more hours, although none survived more than a few hours at 16 ppt or greater. 5.These field and experimental results provide quantitative evidence that non

  12. Does magnesium hardness in hatching waters affect the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryonic development is deemed to be the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on egg development and embryo survival. Ca2+ and Mg2+ contribute to water har...

  13. Utilization of cinnamon Cinnamomum burmannii leaves and shrimp head in the feed on growth performance of catfish Pangasianodon hypopthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suclyadi Dairun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCatfish farming has confronted with the problem of slow growth to reach the fillet size and less tender of fish fillets. This study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon leaf flour and shrimp head flour in formulated diets on growth of catfish Pangasianodon hypopthalamus. Catfish with an initial weight of 207.04 ± 2.70 g/fish reared in 12 cages with a dimension of  2×1×1.5 m3 (L×W×H  and its fish density was 15 fishes for 60 days. Fish were fed with following experimental diets: (1 Control; (2 cinnamon leaf (1% (CL; (3 45% of protein source from shrimp head (SH; (4 CL+SH mix.  The fishes fed twice a day with feeding rate 3.5% of fish biomass. The study found that the use of cinnamon leaf and shrimp head increased the specific growth rate 1.67-1.70%, the feed efficiency 57.55-57.67%, and protein retention 55.61% compared to its control (P<0.05. Triglyceride level, cholesterol, and blood HDL were 416.00-524.05 mg/dL, 139.65-156.68 mg/dL, 73.18-103.70 mg/dL (P>0.05, respectively. HSI value ranged between 0.3-1.9% compared to its control (P<0.05.Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, feed, growth, Pangasianodon hypopthalmus, shrimp head.  ABSTRAKBudidaya ikan patin dihadapkan pada permasalahan pertumbuhan dan kualitas daging yaitu pertumbuhan yang lambat untuk mencapai ukuran fillet serta tekstur daging kurang kompak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh penggunaan tepung daun kayu manis dan tepung kepala udang dalam pakan terhadap pertumbuhan ikan patin Pangasianodon hypopthalmus. Ikan patin dengan bobot 207,04 ± 2,70 g/ekordipelihara selama 60 hari di hapa sebanyak 12 buah (berukuran 2×1×1,5 m3dengan padat tebar 15 ekor/jaring. Ikan diberi pakan perlakuan yang terdiri dari: (1 Kontrol; (2 daun kayu manis 1% (DKM; (3 45% sumber protein dari kepala udang (TKU; dan (4 campuran DKM+TKU. Pemberian pakan sebanyak 2 kali sehari dengan feeding rate 3,5% dari biomassa ikan. Hasil dari penelitian penggunaan daun kayu manis

  14. Earthy and musty off-flavor episodes in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) by the southeastern U.S. catfish farming industry continues to grow. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to improve management of dissolved oxygen levels and fish waste products (e.g., ammonia) compared to conv...

  15. Maternal Transfer of Vitamin C in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Effects Reproduction and Progeny Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two routes of maternal transfer of vitamin C in channel catfish female broodfish prior to spawning were explored as a strategy to incorporate the vitamin to determine its effect on reproduction and subsequent performance of the progeny. Accumulation of vitamin C was higher (p<0.05) in ovarian tissu...

  16. Biofilm formation by Salmonella spp. in catfish mucus extract under industrial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of strain and temperature on the growth and biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. in high and low concentrations of catfish mucus extract on different food-contact surfaces at 22°C and 10°C. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the...

  17. Food and condition of the catfish Synodontis in Upper Benue River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation was carried out on food and condition of the Catfish, Synodontis species in the Upper Benue River Basin, Nigeria from March to June, 2000. Fish samples were obtained twice monthly from different fish landing sites. Analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the sizes of males and ...

  18. Biomarker assessment of the effects of strip mine contamination on channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.K. Jr.; Black, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    A suite of biomarkers were used to evaluate acute (1 day) to semi-chronic (3 month) heavy metal-induced toxicity in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, caged at an abandoned strip mine and a noncontaminated reference site. Assays performed include indicators of metabolic, hematological, osmoregulatory, and genotoxic stress. Two cage designs were utilized to evaluate the importance of exposure routes; one allowing exclusive contact with the water column and the other allowing contact with water and sediments. Significant DNA strand breakage was observed in catfish exposed in both regimes, but DNA repair was observed only in water-exposed catfish. Transient increases in hemoglobin, ALAD, and hematocrit levels were observed at 1 month for both exposure regimes, followed by a return to control levels for the duration of the study. Environmental conditions (i.e., changes in water quality and temperature) may have contributed to the variable plasma chloride and glucose levels observed in all catfish exposed to strip mine wastes. Further analysis of the data with non-metric clustering techniques and correlations with tissue metal residues may yield more insights into causal relationships

  19. In situ assessment of two catfish species (pisces, Ariidae) to evaluate pollution in a harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Junior, Audalio Rebelo Torres; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; de Sousa de Oliveira Mota Andrade, Ticianne; Torres, Hetty Salvino; da Silva Castro, Jonatas; da Silva de Almeida, Zafira; Santos, Débora Martins Silva; Tchaicka, Lígia

    2016-12-01

    A histopathological and biometric database for the catfish Sciades herzbergii and Bagre bagre from São Luís Island (Harbor area) and Caranguejos Island (reference area) in Brazil is presented. Branchial and hepatic lesions were classified into three reaction patterns: 1) circulatory or inflammatory disturbances; 2) regressive changes; 3) progressive changes. The total length (Lt), standard length (Ls), furcal length (Lf), total weight (Wt), and gonad weight (Wg) of each fish were recorded. As expected, most populations of catfish considered in this study are highly heterogeneous, with lengths and weights deviating from the reference sample. No histopathological lesions were observed in Sciades herzbergii examined at the reference site (Caranguejos Island). In contrast, 90% of the catfish S. herzbergii from sites located in the Harbor Area (São Luís Island) had one or more types of branchial and hepatic lesions. As opposed to what was observed in S. herzbergii, more than 86.33% of Bagre bagre individuals showed histopathological alterations in both areas. The utility of histopathological lesions and biometric data as sensitive indicators of the health of wild catfish populations has been demonstrated. Sciades herzbergii proved to be a better species for biomonitoring because it was able to differentiate one impacted site (Port Area/ São Luís Island) from a region relatively free of contaminants (Reference Area/ Caranguejos Island).

  20. Structure of the Helminth Assemblage of and Endemic Madtom Catfish (Noturus Lachneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo A. Fiorillo; R. Brent Thomas; Melvin L. Warren; Christopher M. Taylor

    1999-01-01

    The Ouachita madtom, Noturus lachneri, is a small, uniformly-colored catfish endemic to the upper Saline and Ouachita river drainages in central Arkansas (Robison and Buchanan, 1988), where it is often found in shallow pools associated with clear, high gradient, rock-bottomed streams (Robison and Harp, 1985). Distribution, habitat, diet, and conservation status of...

  1. Utilization of solid catfish manure waste as carbon and nutrient source for lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Suan; Li, Jing; Blersch, David M

    2018-04-19

    The aim of this work was to study the solid waste (manure) produced by catfish as a potential feedstock for the production of lactic acid (LA) via fermentation. The solid waste contains high levels of both carbohydrates and nutrients that are sufficient for LA bacteria. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) was applied using enzyme and Lactobacillus pentosus, and different loadings of enzyme and solid waste were tested. Results showed LA concentrations of 35.7 g/L were obtained at 15% solids content of catfish waste. Because of the high nutrient content in the fish waste, it could also be used as supplementary substrate for nitrogen and carbon sources with other lignocellulosic materials. A combined feedstock of catfish waste and paper mill sludge was tested, increasing the final LA concentration to 43.1 g/L at 12% solids loading. The catfish waste was shown to be a potential feedstock to provide both carbon and nutrients for LA production, suggesting its use as a sole substrate or in combination with other lignocellulosic materials.

  2. The South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1976-01-01

    Two species of South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 are redescribed and figured from type-specimens and additional material: Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840), and Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904). Since the provenance of the holotype of P.

  3. Three new South American mailed catfishes of the genera Rineloricaria and Loricariichthys (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Three new species belonging to two different genera of South American mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae are described and figured. A discussion of and comparative notes on related species are added. Rineloricaria formosa n. sp. is described from the Río Inírida/Río Orinoco drainage in

  4. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  5. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, a model for the study of reproductive endocrinology in teleosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.

    1987-01-01

    In their natural habitat African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, show a discontinuous reproductive cycle. This cycle follows changes in the gonadotropic activity of the pituitary. Gonadotropin release has been shown to be under dual hypothalamic control, i.e. a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and

  6. Streptococcal Arthritis, Osteolysis, Myositis, and Spinal Meningitis in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Broodstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details findings of an investigation into complaints by commercial fingerling producers of low-grade mortalities, poor reproductive success, emaciation, skin lesions, and severely arched backs among broodstock of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Gross lesions involved the jaw, fin ba...

  7. Treating a natural outbreak of columnaris in channel catfish with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An F. Columnare-exclusive epizootic occurred in fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during normal tank culture practices at SNARC. Fish were transferred to the ultra low-flow system and 2.1 mg/L copper sulfate or 3 mg/L potassium permanganate was administered; an untreated control was ...

  8. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  9. Sequence genomic organization and expression of two channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ghrelin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) genes were isolated from channel catfish tissue and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The two receptors were characterized by determining tissue distribution, ontogeny of receptor mRNA expression, and effects of exogenous homologous ghrelin administration ...

  10. Influence of native catfish mucus on Flavobacterium columnare growth and proteolytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease of farmed and wild freshwater fish. Skin mucus is an important factor in early stages of columnaris pathogenesis, albeit little studied. Our objectives were to 1) characterize the terminal glycosylation pattern (TGP) of catfish mucus, 2) determine t...

  11. Impact of Copper Sulfate on Plankton in Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fish culturists are interested in applying copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds as a prophylactic treatment for trematode infection and proliferative gill disease by killing snails and Dero sp., respectively, before stocking fry. However, copp...

  12. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB. The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.

  13. Effects of oxytocin on semen release response in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.; Jatzkowski, A.; Komen, J.

    2003-01-01

    In silurid fishes, semen collection is practically impossible, even after hormonal stimulation. Instead, males are killed and testes macerated to obtain sperm. To understand the endocrine control of semen release in catfishes, we investigated the role of smooth muscle contractors in semen release

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822 STRAINS INTRODUCED TO INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 has become a great important species in Indonesian aquaculture. Several strains of the African catfish have been introduced to Indonesia for aquaculture purposes, initiated by Dumbo strain from Taiwan in 1985, followed by Paiton strain from Thailand in 1998, then Egypt strain from Egypt in 2007, Masamo strain from Thailand in 2010 and later Kenya strain from Kenya in 2011. Since its introductions, there were no reports yet on their characterization studies. The present study was conducted to morphologically characterize the strains of African catfish introduced to Indonesia, i.e. Dumbo, Paiton, Egypt, Masamo, and Kenya strains. Morphometric and meristic data obtained were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis. Results of the morphometric characterization in the present study revealed that Dumbo, Paiton, Masamo, and Kenya strains were indistinguishable, while morphometric characteristic of Egypt strain was more or less different from those of the other strains. On the other hand, results of the meristic characterization suggested that meristic characteristics of all strains of the introduced African catfish were not different from each other. Therefore, to keep the genetic purity of those introduced strains, they should be properly maintained in isolated places.

  15. Utilization of laserpuncture induction as spawning stimulation in catfish (Clarias spp. crossbreeding toward egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky S.W. Kusuma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The induction of laserpuncture on the reproductive acupoint of catfish can accelerate gonadotropin hormone formation from the pituitary especially gonadotropin II (GTH-II which has a role in the final stage of oocyte maturation, ovulation and spawning stimulation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of laserpuncture induction toward the egg quality from crossbreeding catfish male var. Paiton and female var. Sangkuriang. The egg quality was measured by the following parameters: fertilization rate (FR, egg hatching rate (HR, and larvae survival rate (SR. The research treatments were conducted using two levels along with eight repetitions. The results show that the crossbreed catfish using laserpuncture induction affected the parameters by increasing the mean value of fertilization rate, egg hatching rate and larvae survival rate significantly (P < 0.05 compared with mean value of fish without induction. This study concluded that laserpuncture induction on the crossbreeding between broodstock of male catfish var. Paiton and female var. Sangkuriang will increase FR, HR and SR.

  16. Gender nor sex hormones alter the disease susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of monosex populations for aquaculture is becoming widely used for several species. Monosex populations are not in wide use in the catfish industry but techniques to develop all male populations have been developed. These studies were conducted to determine if there were any differences be...

  17. Zinc effects on the embryos and larvae of the sharptooth catfish, Claias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of early life stages of Sharp tooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), to determine which stage to use during effluent assessment. The target water quality of zinc was used ranging from 0...

  18. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  19. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects: Vertical Integration and Contracts in the Catfish Sector in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment on p...

  20. The Case Against Using Organic Fertilizers in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Nursery Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the assumed advantages and disadvantages of organic fertilizers and presents the case that the risks outweigh the benefits for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery pond fertilization. Under certain conditions, organic fertilizers may be beneficial to provide forage for z...

  1. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The

  2. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of Salmonella biofilms on various food-contact surfaces in catfish mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth and survival of Salmonella enterica in the presence of high and low concentrations (375 µg/ml and 15 µg/ml) of catfish mucus extract at 10 °C and 22 °C for 63 days. The second objective of this study was to investigate the biofilm formation of ...

  4. Developing a low cortisol responsive line of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj G. Chatakondi and Brian C. Peterson USDA ARS Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. nagaraj.chatakondi@ars.usda.gov Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is the most important farm-raised aquacultured species in the USA. Stressors in aquacultu...

  5. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  6. Efficacy of Sodium Carbonate Peroxyhydrate as A Catfish Egg Disinfectant and Comparison to Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (SCP) for improving channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus hatching success when used as a prophylactic chemotherapeutant during egg incubation. In the first experiment, efficacy of SCP was evaluated in 379-L, al...

  7. PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in catfish from U.S. Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for the safety of meat, poultry, egg products, and farm-raised catfish marketed in the United States. As such the USDA conducts statistical surveys to determine chemical residue concentrations in these domestic products. Little background data...

  8. The effects of brood stock size on the economy of catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty nine ripe female brooders of the catfish, Clarias anguillaris (Body weight. range: 150 1,200 g) were induced to spawn by hormone (Ovaprim®) induced natural spawning technique over a period of 10 weeks. Matching ripe males were used for pairing the females at the ratio of two males to a female. Six ranges of ...

  9. Bagrichthys vaillantii (Popta, 1906), a valid species of bagrid catfish from eastern Borneo (Teleostei: Siluriformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    Bagrichthys vaillantii (Popta, 1906), a species of bagrid catfish previously considered a junior synonym of B. macracanthus Bleeker, 1854, is found to be a valid species distinct from the latter. It can be differentiated from B. macracanthus in having a shorter dorsal spine, smaller eye and steeper

  10. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahjahan, M.; Kabir, M.F.; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur

    2017-01-01

    Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250

  11. The use of trilene- as anesthesia and triquilizer for catfish Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus is developing fast that more easier way of handling bigger fish is required both in the transportation and hypophysation/breeding. Such inputs like tranquilizer/anesthesia would help to reduce handling stress thereby reduce injury and death after operation. Trilene ...

  12. Chemical alarm cues in juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell: A potential stressor in aquaculture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.; Zhao, H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of stocking density on the behaviour of African catfish have shown that at low densities, especially directly after restocking of tanks, increased aggression might occur. This aggression may directly affect the welfare of the fish. In addition, the resulting skin

  13. The use of cold shock in inducing triploidy in African mud catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study was conducted to induce triploidy in African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus using cold shock. The fertilized eggs were exposed at one temperature regime of 0°C with varied shock treatments of 0, 15, 25 and 30 min. Some 3 min after fertilization, the success of triploidy was determined by the presence or absence of ...

  14. Effects of Eryngii mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) and Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, immunity and disease resistance of Pangasius catfish (Pangasius bocourti, Sauvage 1880).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doan, Hien; Doolgindachbaporn, Sompong; Suksri, Amnuaysilpa

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Eryngii mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii (PE), and Lactobacillus plantarum single or combined on growth, innate immune response and disease resistance of the Pangasius catfish, Pangasius bocourti. Two hundred forty fish were divided into four treatments, i.e., 0 g kg(-1) PE (Control, Diet 1), 3 g kg(-1) PE (Diet 2), 10(8) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum (Diet 3) and 3 g kg(-1) PE + 10(8) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum (Diet 4). Fish were culture in glass tanks with water volume approximately of 150 l, and each treatment had four replications with 15 fish per replication. Following 30, 60 and 90 days of the feeding trial, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activities were measured. SGR and FCR were significantly improved in fish fed supplemented diets after 90 days of the feeding trial. Serum lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of fish were significantly stimulated by both PE and L. plantarum diets; however, the highest innate immune response was observed in fish fed synbiotic diet. At the end of the experiment, five fish were randomly selected for a challenge test against Aeromonas hydrophila. The post-challenge survival rate of the fish fed supplemented diets was significantly greater than the control treatment, and the highest post-challenge survival rate was observed in synbiotic diet. The results revealed that dietary supplementation of PE and L. plantarum stimulated growth, immunity and disease resistance of the P. bocourti.

  15. Growth Performance of Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Cultured in High Density on the Biofloc System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Fajar; Yuniarti, Tristiana; Harwanto, Dicky; Susilowati, Titik

    2018-02-01

    Start your The fish farmers and researchers have made efforts to increase catfish production through high levels of dispersal and application of biofloc systems. This system, in addition to increase production, can also predict when the harvest is done, control the quality of water causing death so that the Survival Rate (SR) is high. The purpose of this study is to determine the growth performance and predict the harvest weight and catfish survival rate (SR) that are cultured with different high density on the biofloc system. The research method used is experimental with test fish in the form of catfish seeds weighing of 8 ± 0.2 gram/fish with each density as treatment: P1. Density of 1,100 fish/m3; P2. Density of 1,200 fish/m3 and P3. Density of 1,300 fish/m3. Pond: The pond used is made of 3m in diameter of tarpaulin, equipped with a 6mm diameter of iron frame. Total volume of water in each pond is 3 m3. Catfish seeds have been adapted and put into the pond at random with the length of cultivation period is 4 weeks. Growth performance analysis uses the SPSS regression statistic series 20. The research results showed that the growth performance for 4 weeks showed that P1 generates the regression equation Y1 = 6.46 +7.81 X with r2 = 0.971 means that if the harvest is done at week 12th then the weight of catfish has reached 100 grams; P2 generates the regression equation Y2 = 6.53 + 6.0 X den r2 = 0.969 means if the harvest is done at week 12th then the weight of new catfish has reached 78.53 grams and P3 generates the regression equation Y3 = 6.71 + 5.94 X with r2 = 0.976 means if harvest is done on week 12th then the weight of new catfish has reached 77.99 grams. Survival rate at P1 = 97.73%; P2 = 95.91% and P3 = 94.55% while the oxygenated water quality is more than 3.5 ppm; pH ranged from 6.7-7 and ammonia content at week 3 is P1 = 0.04 mg/l; P2 = 0.13 mg/l and P3 = 0.27 mg/l.

  16. Air breathing and aquatic gas exchange during hypoxia in armoured catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Matey, Victoria; Mendoza, Julie-Anne; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Perry, Steve F; Almeida-Val, Vera M F; Val, Adalberto L

    2017-01-01

    Air breathing in fish is commonly believed to have arisen as an adaptation to aquatic hypoxia. The effectiveness of air breathing for tissue O 2 supply depends on the ability to avoid O 2 loss as oxygenated blood from the air-breathing organ passes through the gills. Here, we evaluated whether the armoured catfish (Hypostomus aff. pyreneusi)-a facultative air breather-can avoid branchial O 2 loss while air breathing in aquatic hypoxia, and we measured various other respiratory and metabolic traits important for O 2 supply and utilization. Fish were instrumented with opercular catheters to measure the O 2 tension (PO 2 ) of expired water, and air breathing and aquatic respiration were measured during progressive stepwise hypoxia in the water. Armoured catfish exhibited relatively low rates of O 2 consumption and gill ventilation, and gill ventilation increased in hypoxia due primarily to increases in ventilatory stroke volume. Armoured catfish began air breathing at a water PO 2 of 2.5 kPa, and both air-breathing frequency and hypoxia tolerance (as reflected by PO 2 at loss of equilibrium, LOE) was greater in individuals with a larger body mass. Branchial O 2 loss, as reflected by higher PO 2 in expired than in inspired water, was observed in a minority (4/11) of individuals as water PO 2 approached that at LOE. Armoured catfish also exhibited a gill morphology characterized by short filaments bearing short fused lamellae, large interlamellar cell masses, low surface area, and a thick epithelium that increased water-to-blood diffusion distance. Armoured catfish had a relatively low blood-O 2 binding affinity when sampled in normoxia (P 50 of 3.1 kPa at pH 7.4), but were able to rapidly increase binding affinity during progressive hypoxia exposure (to a P 50 of 1.8 kPa). Armoured catfish also had low activities of several metabolic enzymes in white muscle, liver, and brain. Therefore, low rates of metabolism and gill ventilation, and a reduction in branchial gas

  17. FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOME ORGANS OF AIRBREATHING CATFISH (CLARIIDAE IN EARLY ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pirog

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Airbreathing catfish (CLARIIDAE - is one of the most promising specie of artificial breeding. However, for the reproduction of this specie it is required to conduct appropriate studies. In particular, it is necessary to review the features of morphogenesis during early ontogeny of this type of fish. We investigated prelarvae of airbreathing catfish (CLARIIBAE in 2,3 and 4 days of life. In the embryos, the spinal cord was formed on the 2nd day of life. At this stage, organs of vision were sufficiently developed. On the 4th day, we found hyaline cartilage at the base of the gill arch, arcs were covered with gill filaments; we also discovered fully formed mesonephros, renal corpuscles, renal tubules and intratubular liquid in the kidneys. The heart of the embryo consisted of atrium and voluminous ventricle.Methods. The research of development of airbreathing catfish in early ontogenesis has been carried out on the basis of "RENTOP Agro-5" Ltd. under the conditions of RAS in the Krasnodar region in the spring – summer period of years 2013-14. For morphological analysis we used serial histological sections on prelarvae of 40 airbreathing catfish at age 2, 3 and 4 days developing normally and atypically. The research combines some complex biological methods: ichthyologic, histological, physiological. Materials for the research were handled with the methods of classical histology. Viewing and imaging of the sections were made using Mikmed 6 microscope with a digital camera for imaging and computer analysis.Results. The finding of the study has been the analysis of the morphological structure of airbreathing catfish during early ontogeny, which can contribute to improving the biotechnology of breeding of airbreathing catfish under RAS.Main conclusions. First, in the early ontogenesis of airbreathing catfish we have discovered heterochrony in the development of basic systems: rapidly developing central nervous system and the digestive system

  18. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  19. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  20. Effects of fasting and feeding on the fast-start swimming performance of southern catfish Silurus meridionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, G J; He, X K; Cao, Z D; Fu, S J

    2015-01-21

    This study investigated the effects of fasting and feeding on the fast-start escape swimming performance of juvenile southern catfish Silurus meridionalis, a sit-and-wait forager that encounters extreme fasting and famine frequently during its lifespan. Ten to 30 days of fasting resulted in no significant change in most of the variables measured in the fast-start response except a 20-30% decrease in the escape distance during the first 120 ms (D 120ms ) relative to the control group (48 h after feeding). The ratio of the single-bend (SB) response (lower energetic expenditure) to the double-bend (DB) response increased significantly from 0% in the control group to 75 and 82·5% in the 20 and 30 day fasting groups, respectively. Satiated feeding (25% of body mass) resulted in a significantly lower (36·6%) maximum linear velocity (V max ) and a significantly lower (43·3%) D 120ms than in non-fed fish (control group, 48 h after feeding). Half-satiated feeding (12·5% of body mass), however, showed no significant effects on any of the measured variables of the fast-start response relative to control fish. It is suggested that the increase in the ratio of SB:DB responses with fasting in S. meridionalis may reflect a trade-off between energy conservation and maintaining high V max , while variables of fast-start performance were more sensitive to feeding than fasting might be an adaptive strategy to their foraging mode and food availability in their habitat. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Evaluation of a modified pH-shift process to reduce 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in spiked catfish and produce a consumer acceptable fried catfish nugget-like product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T M; Cerruto-Noya, C A; Schrader, K K; Kleinholz, C W; DeWitt, C A Mireles

    2012-10-01

    Muddy and/or musty off-flavors in farmed-raised catfish occur as a result of the absorption of geosmin (GEO) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), compounds produced by algae. Previous research suggests the acid pH-shift method may be able to reduce off-flavors to produce a consumer acceptable product. The objective of this research was to evaluate application of the acid pH-shift method using a shaker sieve for protein recovery and to evaluate consumer acceptability of a resultant batter-coated fried nugget-like catfish product. Farm-raised catfish were either allowed to depurate (control) or treated with 1 ppb GEO or MIB. Fillets from each replicate were collected and ground and treated by the acid pH-shift process. Samples from all treatments and replicates were evaluated for residual GEO and MIB. In addition, batter-coated fried catfish samples were prepared for a consumer sensory evaluation. Results demonstrated that the pH-shift process decreased moisture, ash, and collagen content of catfish fillet tissue (P evaluated for removing off-flavors from catfish. Difficulties were encountered with regard to protein recovery using the sieve and suggestions are made to, perhaps, make the process more applicable for a sieve-based recovery step. The process as described reduced off-flavors, but only 2-fold suggesting the process would work best on catfish near or just over off-flavor thresholds. Results also indicated the pH-shift process could be used to improve texture of a fried catfish product designed to be similar to chicken nuggets. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. 6-Desaturase-Like Encoding Gene Introduction in Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Hary Ayu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus is one of the economically valuable aquaculture fish species in Indonesia. This research was aimed to produce F0 transgenic catfish carrying masou salmon Δ6-desaturase-like (OmΔ6FAD gene. The Δ6-desaturase enzyme is involved in highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Transgenic catfish was produced by sperm-mediated gene transfer using electroporation method. In this study, as the first step, sperms were electroporated with three different OmΔ6FAD concentration (25, 50, and 100 µg mL-1 to have the highest sperm viability after electroporation (125 V/cm, pulse frequency 5 times, pulse length 30 millisecond, pulse interval 0.1 second. The highest sperm viability and sperm carrying OmΔ6FAD were obtain at 100 µg mL-1. This concentration was then used to produce F0 transgenic catfish in the second step. Sperm motility, sperm viability, fertilization rate, hatching rate, and larval survival at 14 days after hatching were the same as the controls (p>0.05. Genomic DNA was extracted from caudal fin and then used as template to identify transgenic F0 by PCR method using specific primer for OmΔ6FAD gene. The PCR result showed that 53.84% of F0 carried OmΔ6FAD gene. The result of fatty acid analysis showed that EPA and DHA contents of F0 transgenic fish and non-transgenic fish were similar.   Keywords: catfish, Δ6-desaturase-like gene, fatty acids, electroporation

  3. Development and performance evaluation of air fine bubbles on water quality of thai catfish rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Ujang; Muthukannan, Vanitha; Azhary, Sundoro Yoga; Mulhadi, Muhammad Fakhri; Rochima, Emma; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency and productivity of aquaculture strongly depends on the development of advanced technology for water quality management system. The most important factor for the success of intensive aquaculture system is controlling the water quality of fish rearing media. This paper reports the design of fine bubbles (FBs) generator and performance evaluation of the system to improve water quality in thai catfish media (10 g/ind) with density (16.66 ind./L). The FBs generator was designed to control the size distribution of bubble by controlling its air flow rate entry to the mixing chamber of the generator. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the produced debit, dissolved oxygen rate and ammonia content in the catfish medium. The size distribution was observed by using a high speed camera image followed by processing using ImageJ. freeware application. The results show that air flow rate 0.05 L/min and 0.1 L/min received average bubble size of 29 µm and 31 µm respectively. The generator produced bubbles with capacity of 6 L/min and dissolved oxygen rate 0.2 ppm/min/L. The obtained DO growth was 0.455 ppm/second/L while the average decay rate was 0.20 ppm/second/L. (0.011/0.005 fold). In contrast, the recieved DO growth rate is faster compared to the DO consumption rate of the Thai catfish. This results indicated that the potential application of FBs enhanced the density of thai catfish seed rearing. In addition, ammonia can be reduced at 0.0358 ppm/hour/L and it is also observed that the inhibition of bacterial growth of air FBs is postive to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria compared to the negative control. It is concluded that as-developed FBs system can be potentially applied for intensive thai catfish culture and expected to improve the feeding efficiency rate.

  4. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  5. Empowering Farmer’s Wife Makes Catfish Feed (Pellet) in Nagari Limau Gadang Pesisir Selatan District, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armen, A.

    2018-04-01

    The life of Nagari Limau Gadang, Pesisir Selatan District, West Sumatra, Indonesia is poor. They conduct economic activities in Kerinci Seblat National Park (TNKS), so that TNKS become damaged. Catfish farming can serve as the main effort to increase family income. Economically catfish farming is very profitable. Catfish farming is not difficult and can be done by farmers who do not usually cultivate freshwater fish. The right family member is empowered to improve the family economy through the cultivation of catfish is the farmer's wife. Farmers' wives in Nagari Limau Gadang tend not to improve the family economically, they play the role of taking care of children, doing housework and sometimes delivering food to the fields and to the fields. How to research, selected 20 poor farmer’s wife, then trained to make ponds and pellets. The pool made are the main pond, spawning pond, nursery pool and pond enlargement. Pellet made from raw trash fish, quail feces, fine bran and cassava. The pellet formulation is made of 4 kinds. Each formulation produces a quality pellet. Based on laboratory test produced pellet contains very good nutrition for enlargement catfish. The nutritional range of protein is 21,79%-34,60%, fat is 1,95%-2,32% and carbohydrate is 26,55%-39,65%. The goal to be achieved in this research is for the wife of farmers can contribute to improve the family economy. Specific targets to be achieved in this study is the wife of skilled farmers cultivate catfish.

  6. KANDUNGAN ASAM LEMAK DAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK IKAN LELE DAN MINYAK IKAN LELE TERFERMENTASI (FATTY ACID CONTENTS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATFISH OIL AND FERMENTED CATFISH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskari Ngadiarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Catfish oil and fermented catfish oil have not been developed and commercially produced as catfish derived products. Various processing of catfish oil will change both the composition and physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify the composition of fatty acids and physico-chemical characteristics of both catfish oil (MIL and fermented catfish oil (MILT. Results showed that fatty acid composition of catfish oil was MUFA (36.12%> PUFA> (32.43%> SFA (31.45%, while the composition of fermented catfish oil was MUFA (42.96%> SFA (42.32%> PUFA (15.39%. The fermentation process with lactic acid bacteria increased the content of stearic acid but decreased the content of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Physical and chemical characteristics of MIL and MILT were almost similar, they indicated oxidation process, based on melting point, viscosity, and thiobarbituric acid values. Therefore, in the production of catfish oil or fermented cat fish oil, it is necessary to add spices and/or nutrient as antioxidants sources. Keywords: catfish oil, PUFA, MUFA, SFA and CLA  ABSTRAK Minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT sebagai produk turunan dari ikan lele masih belum banyak dikembangkan dan diproduksi secara komersial. Berbagai proses pengolahan minyak dapat mengubah komposisi dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia minyak ikan lele. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi komposisi asam lemak dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia dari minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT. Komposisi asam lemak pada MIL secara berurutan adalah MUFA (36,12% > PUFA (32,43% > SFA (31,45%, sedangkan setelah difermentasi menjadi MILT terjadi perubahan yaitu MUFA (42,96% > SFA (42,32% > PUFA (15,39%. Jenis asam lemak jenuh yang mengalami peningkatan  pada MILT adalah asam lemak stearat, sedangkan asam lemak tidak jenuh ganda yang mengalami penurunan adalah asam linoleat dan linolenat yang

  7. Effect of Stocking Density on Growth Performance of Hybrids of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus♀ and Oreochromis urolepis urolepis♂ hybrids were reared at stocking densities of control, 5, 10, 15 and 20 fish/m3 at 15 Practical Salinity Units (PSU) in 1m3 plastic tanks for 63 days. They were kept at low, intermediate and high densities respectively. All hybrids were fed on a ...

  8. Evaluation of integrated sludge worm and catfish farming with biofloc system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Pardiansyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCurrently, supply of sludge worm (Tubifex sp. merely came from wild, so that it could not meet demand for fish hatchery. Additionally, harvest from the wild did not have a quality assurance, due to the possibility of sludge worm becoming an agent of disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the production of sludge worm culture by utilizing catfish culture waste (Clarias sp. in bioflok system. In this system, water from catfish culture media flowed into sludge worm culture media using recirculation systems. This study used a completely randomized design with four treatments and two replications, in which treatment A (addition of catfish culture waste from intensive system, treatment B (addition of catfish culture waste from biofloc system, treatment C (the addition of fermented chicken manure at the beginning of experiment as negative control, and treatment D (addition of fermented chicken manure at the beginning of experiment and then every five days as positive control. The results showed that the highest production was obtained by treatment B at biomass growth of 0.97 kg/m2 and sludge worm density of 388.000 individu/m2. Keywords: sludge worm, biofloc, chicken manure, catfish, catfish culture waste  ABSTRAK Saat ini pasokan cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. hanya berasal dari alam, sehingga belum mencukupi permintaan untuk kegiatan pembenihan ikan. Selain itu, hasil tangkapan dari alam tidak memiliki jaminan kualitas, karena cacing sutra dapat menjadi agen penyakit. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi hasil produksi budidaya cacing sutra dengan memanfaatkan limbah budidaya ikan lele (Clarias sp. sistem bioflok. Pada sistem ini, air dari media budidaya ikan lele dialirkan ke media pemeliharaan cacing sutra menggunakan sistem resirkulasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan dua ulangan, yaitu perlakuan A (pemberian limbah ikan lele sistem intensif, perlakuan B (pemberian limbah ikan lele

  9. Study on Serum Lipoprotein Profile of Exclusive Breast Fed, Mixed Fed and Formula Fed Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Jaiswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus (DM and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is growing evidence that risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD begins to emerge from infancy. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy. Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant. Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Group A were Exclusively Breast Fed (EBF, Group B were Mixed Fed (MF and Group C were Formula/bovine milk Fed (FF infants. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD, less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study. Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age. Results: At four weeks of age, Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001, EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 and MF vs. FF (p=0.005 infants. At 16 weeks also, TC and HDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, this difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001 and EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly (p<0.001 in EBF and MF group, a significant (p<0.05 rise for TC was seen in FF group. At 16 weeks of age, there was no significant rise in HDL in EBF infants, but

  10. Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Oberle, Charisse S.; Oberle, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P 90%) and with relatively low rates (≤5%) of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed. PMID:24287526

  11. Catfish thrombocytes express an integrin-like CD41/CD61 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passer, B J; Chen, C H; Miller, N W; Cooper, M D

    1997-08-01

    A thrombocyte-specific antigen was identified in two closely related catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and Ictalurus furcatus, by monoclonal antibodies 4-20 and 7-2. The antibodies immunoprecipitate two noncovalently associated glycoprotein chains of Mr 180,000 and Mr 95,000. Under reducing conditions the Mr 180,000 chain is resolved into Mr 150,000 and 32,000 subcomponents. Analysis of N-terminal amino acid sequences indicates homology of the Mr 95,000 chain with the beta3 integrin subunit and homology of the Mr 150,000 chain with the alphaIIb integrin subunit. These antibodies induce catfish thrombocyte aggregation and alteration of cell shape. The data indicate conservation of the megakaryocyte/platelet-restricted CD41/CD61 complex in bony fish.

  12. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luciana Segura de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control. Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with chloramphenicol presented higher survival than the treatment with oxytetracycline and both showed significantly higher survival than control. Swimming activity was higher in the fish treated with antibiotics and salt compared to control fish. A combination of the studied antibiotics plus salt is more effective to treat both A. hydrophila infection and I. multifiliis infestation in silver catfish, but since the use of chloramphenicol is not allowed in Brazil, oxytetracycline plus salt seems to be the best treatment option.

  13. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  14. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  15. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparison of cadmium and chromium bioconcentration factors between scaled and scale less fish species: common carp and sutchi (striped catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sideh Zainab Abedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne, indissoluble heavy metals are bioaccumulated in fish (human food source. In this research, chromium (Cr and cadmium (Cd bioconcentration factors (BCFs in the skin, gills, scales, livers and muscles of two widely-consumed fish species, scaled common carp Cyprinus carpio and scaleless catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus were compared. Material and Methods: Lethal concentrations of Cd and Cr (64.89 & 7.46, and 84.8 & 17.05 mg/L for the catfish and carp, respectively were determined during 96 hrs (96 h LC50, and the fishes were exposed for 15 days. Then the tissue samples were chemically digested and the contents of Cd and Cr were determined using atomic absorption. Results: Total contents of Cr and Cd in the catfish's tissues were 2286.11 & 360.73, and those of Cr & Cd in carp were 734.71 & 725.67 μg/g.dw (excluding the scales, respectively. Metal concentrations in the water residues (day 15 revealed lower Cr and Cd (0.059 & 0.0036 mg/L in the catfish than those in the carp media (0.1 & 0.0412 mg/L, respectively. In common carp, BCF of Cd was as liver > skin > gills > muscle > scales, and those in the catfish marked as liver>muscle >gills >skin. The BCF of Cr in common carp ranked as gills>liver>skin>scales>muscle, and the catfish showing a BCF pattern of Cr as liver> muscle>skin>gills. Conclusion: This study signifies that small amounts of cadmium and chromium with high BCFs especially in the muscles of scale less fish (catfish threat consumers’ health.

  17. Distribution and relative abundance of the marine catfish (Siluriformes, Ariidae) in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Márcia Cristina Costa de; Araújo, Francisco Gerson; Cruz Filho, Antônio Gomes da; Santos, Alexandre Clístenes de Alcântara

    1998-01-01

    Marine catfish (Ariidae) are abundant resources in otter trawl fisheries carried out at Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Lat. 22º54, 23º04'S; Long. 43º34 44º10'W). Relative abundance and distribution were assessed, based in 158 fishing sampling at seven sites in the Bay, between July-1993 e June-1996. Five species were recorded in the following abundance rank order: Genidens genidens (Valenciennes, 1839), Caihorops spixii (Agassiz,1829), Sciadeichthys lunisculis (Valenciennes, 1840), Nelunia bar...

  18. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to pangasius catfish, basa, and tra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, K G; Chen, Y-T; Hsieh, Y-H P

    2009-04-01

    Four IgG (subclass IgG1) class monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) strongly reactive to Asian farm-raised Pangasius catfish, tra (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and basa (Pangasius bocourti), have been developed. These MAbs were raised by immunizing an animal with thermal-stable crude sarcoplasmic protein extract of cooked tra. The MAbs were selected by screening hybridoma clones against more than 70 common fish and meat protein extracts. Two MAbs, T7E10 and T1G11, were found to be specific to the Asian Pangasius catfish, tra, and basa, with no cross-reactions with any of the common fish and meat species or with the food additive proteins (bovine serum albumin, soy proteins, milk proteins, egg proteins, and gelatin) tested. MAb T7E10 recognized 2 antigenic proteins (molecular weight approximately 36 and 75 kDa) in raw and cooked tra and basa extracts, while T1G11 bound to several proteins (molecular weight between 13 and 18 kDa) in tra and basa extracts. Two other MAbs, F7B8 and F1G11, recognized a common protein (36 KDa) and cross-reacted with all the fish extracts tested and with several mammalian species. These MAbs can be employed individually or in combination in various formats of immunoassays for rapid identification of Pangasius catfish, either raw or cooked. They can also be used to study the biological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of thermal-stable antigenic proteins. This is the first study identifying these thermal-stable antigenic proteins present in Pangasius catfish as species-specific biomarkers.

  19. Trails of river monsters: Detecting critically endangered Mekong giant catfish Pangasianodon gigas using environmental DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellemain Eva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pressures on freshwater biodiversity in Southeast Asia are accelerating, yet the status and conservation needs of many of the region’s iconic fish species are poorly known. The Mekong is highly species diverse and supports four of the six largest freshwater fish globally, three of which, including Mekong giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas, are Critically Endangered. Emerging environmental DNA (eDNA techniques have potential for monitoring threatened freshwater biodiversity, yet have not been applied in complex and biodiverse tropical ecosystems such as the Mekong. We developed species-specific primers for amplifying Mekong giant catfish DNA. In situ validation demonstrated that the DNA amplification was successful for all samples taken in reservoirs with known presence of Mekong giant catfish independent of fish density. We collected water samples from six deep pools on the Mekong, identified through Local Ecological Knowledge, in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Thailand. DNA was extracted and amplified from these samples using the designed primers and probes. Mekong giant catfish DNA was detected from one sample from the species’ presumed spawning grounds on the Mekong mainstream, near the border between northern Thailand and Lao PDR. eDNA sampling using species-specific primers has potential for surveying and monitoring poorly known species from complex tropical aquatic environments. However accounting for false absences is likely to be required for the method to function with precision when applied to extremely rare species that are highly dispersed within a large river system. We recommend that such approach be utilised more widely by freshwater conservation practitioners for specific applications. The method is best suited for baseline biodiversity assessments or to identify and prioritise locations for more rigorous sampling. Our methods are particularly relevant for systems or species with limited baseline data or with physical characteristics

  20. Stress and Welfare of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in a Coupled Aquaponic System

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Baßmann; Matthias Brenner; Harry W. Palm

    2017-01-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were investigated for physiological stress parameters to assess the influence of different cultivation techniques on fish welfare. The fish were reared in two conceptually identical recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) constructed in a greenhouse. One system was combined with a floating raft hydroponic unit to culture cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) only using the process water. The second system remained without the plant cultivation unit and functioned as...

  1. Revision of Wenyonia Woodland, 1923 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) from catfishes (Siluriformes) in Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C.; Jirků, Miloslav; Mahmoud, Z. N.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2011), s. 83-107 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA AV ČR KJB600960813; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Wenyonia * catfishes * Africa * key to the identification * phylogenetic analysis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2011

  2. Burrowing by Sailfin Catfish (Pterygoplichthys sp.): A Potential Cause of Erosion in Disturbed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    originates at a large levee, which was built to create a water retention (to control excess water) and water bird management area. The levee and canal...each sample was dried in stainless steel trays in a 60 °C convection oven . Two methods of quantitative analysis were performed to determine the...ERDC/TN ANSRP-14-1 March 2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Burrowing by Sailfin Catfish (Pterygoplichthys sp.): A

  3. Reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe vera plant was studied using twelve male fish weighing 500-560g.The fish were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C with four fish in each group. Group A was treated with 2% Aloe vera gel while group B was treated with 3% and Group C the control was ...

  4. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  5. Invasion of South American suckermouth armoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. (Loricariidae) in Kerala, India - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bijukumar; R. Smrithy; U. Sureshkumar; S. George

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the occurrence of the exotic South American suckermouth armoured catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys spp. in the drainages of Thiruvananthapuram City, Kerala.  The morphological taxonomy revealed that the specimens are closely related to Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991) and P. pardalis (Castelnau, 1855), in addition to intermediary forms of unknown identity.  DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) also failed t...

  6. Histopathology of the gill and liver tissues of the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the effect of the heavy metal, lead (Pb) on the gill and liver of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. One hundred and sixty (160) fingerlings of the fish were exposed to continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (0.006 mg/l and 0.008 mg/l) of lead for a period of ...

  7. Isolation and characterization of 5S rDNA sequences in catfishes genome (Heptapteridae and Pseudopimelodidae): perspectives for rDNA studies in fish by C0t method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Juceli Gonzalez; Wolf, Ivan Rodrigo; de Moraes-Manécolo, Vivian Patrícia Oliveira; Bardella, Vanessa Belline; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; da Rosa, Renata; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2016-12-01

    Sequences of 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are extensively used in fish cytogenomic studies, once they have a flexible organization at the chromosomal level, showing inter- and intra-specific variation in number and position in karyotypes. Sequences from the genome of Imparfinis schubarti (Heptapteridae) were isolated, aiming to understand the organization of 5S rDNA families in the fish genome. The isolation of 5S rDNA from the genome of I. schubarti was carried out by reassociation kinetics (C 0 t) and PCR amplification. The obtained sequences were cloned for the construction of a micro-library. The obtained clones were sequenced and hybridized in I. schubarti and Microglanis cottoides (Pseudopimelodidae) for chromosome mapping. An analysis of the sequence alignments with other fish groups was accomplished. Both methods were effective when using 5S rDNA for hybridization in I. schubarti genome. However, the C 0 t method enabled the use of a complete 5S rRNA gene, which was also successful in the hybridization of M. cottoides. Nevertheless, this gene was obtained only partially by PCR. The hybridization results and sequence analyses showed that intact 5S regions are more appropriate for the probe operation, due to conserved structure and motifs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the organization of multigene families in catfish's genomes.

  8. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture. PMID:25897517

  9. Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9 indicating a significant difference at (P < 0.05. The A32S e-nose effectively discriminated between good-flavor and off-flavor catfish at high levels of accuracy (>90% and with relatively low rates (≤5% of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed.

  10. Survival strategies of sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in desiccating pans in the northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.W. Van der Waal

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations in drying out pans showed that small (26-37 cm sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus can hide at the bottom of small pools filled with sticky mud whereas larger fish stay afloat at the surface in larger pools with sloppy mud, where they easily become prey or succumb to heat stress. The inability of larger fish to keep down in the sloppy mud of up to 40 cm depth is the result of their large bulk and high density of the mud. This may indicate a survival advantage for smaller fish in the final dry-out phase of pools and is supported by the presence of only small fish remains in the last drying up pools of dry pans. Another adaptation of smaller fish includes the temporary congregation outside the water enabling concealment under dense vegetation as a means to escape adverse environmental conditions, including high water temperatures and avian predation. The advantage small fish have over larger catfish under these extreme conditions may explain why catfish are known to show a wide variation in growth rate under natural and aquaculture conditions.

  11. Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Donovan P

    2009-11-01

    To better understand the structure and function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of wood-eating catfishes, the gross morphology, length, and microvilli surface area (MVSA) of the intestines of wild-caught Panaque nocturnus, P. cf. nigrolineatus "Marañon", and Hypostomus pyrineusi were measured, and contrasted against these same metrics of a closely related detritivore, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus. All four species had anatomically unspecialized intestines with no kinks, valves, or ceca of any kind. The wood-eating catfishes had body size-corrected intestinal lengths that were 35% shorter than the detritivore. The MVSA of all four species decreased distally in the intestine, indicating that nutrient absorption preferentially takes place in the proximal and mid-intestine, consistent with digestive enzyme activity and luminal carbohydrate profiles for these same species. Wild-caught Pt. disjunctivus, and P. nigrolineatus obtained via the aquarium trade, poorly digested wood cellulose (<33% digestibility) in laboratory feeding trials, lost weight when consuming wood, and passed stained wood through their digestive tracts in less than 4 h. Furthermore, no selective retention of small particles was observed in either species in any region of the gut. Collectively, these results corroborate digestive enzyme activity profiles and gastrointestinal fermentation levels in the fishes' GI tracts, suggesting that the wood-eating catfishes are not true xylivores such as beavers and termites, but rather, are detritivores like so many other fishes from the family Loricariidae.

  12. Evaluation of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate as a potential catfish egg disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brian C

    2009-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (SCP) in improving the hatching success of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus when used as a prophylactic chemotherapeutant during egg incubation. In the first experiment, the efficacy of SCP was evaluated in 379-L aluminum incubation troughs similar to those used in commercial hatcheries. Egg masses treated daily with 254 mg of SCP/L of water had significantly higher mean hatching success than untreated controls, and a pathogen-inhibiting effect was also evident (i.e., no gross infection was observed on the treated egg masses). In the second experiment, the hatching success of egg masses treated daily with 254 mg/L was compared with that of egg masses treated daily with hydrogen peroxide (70 mg/L). The effects of both treatments on the pH, dissolved oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the trough were also examined. Both SCP and hydrogen peroxide significantly improved hatching success. Unlike in the treatment with hydrogen peroxide, water pH increased during the treatment with SCP; however, no negative effects on hatching success were observed. The results of this research suggest that SCP acts similarly to hydrogen peroxide in improving channel catfish hatching success and warrants further research to determine whether it could be a practical and effective alternative for managing catfish egg infections in commercial hatcheries.

  13. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Phu

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  14. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture.

  15. Comparing the efficacy of four immersion flush and static hydorgen peroxide and copper sulfate treatments on channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water mold infestations on channel catfish eggs lower the hatch rate (egg survival) and ultimately the number of catfish fry available for stocking in production ponds. This study compared the potential of two hydrogen peroxide (HP) and two copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) treatments to increase c...

  16. Carcass characteristics, non-carcass components and meat quality of Nellore cattle in a feedlot and fed with different corn hybridsCaracterísticas de carcaça, de componentes não carcaça e qualidade da carne de bovinos nelore em confinamento e alimentados com diferentes híbridos de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Prado Rosolem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass characteristics, non-carcass components and meat quality of Nellore cattle in feedlot and fed with different corn hybrids (flint, semi-flint and semi-dent in the diet. Twenty-seven animals averaging 350 ± 24 kg of body weight and 24 months of age were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T, where, T1- diet with flint corn (TDFC, T2- diet with semi-flint corn (TDSFC and T3- diet with semi-dent corn (TDSDC, with 9 replicates per treatment. The animals were fed ad libitum twice daily (at 8:00 am and 4:00pm with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet, with 30% of sugar cane bagasse and 70% concentrate (88% maize, 8% soybean meal, 3% mineral and vitamin supplement and 1% urea for 95 days (14 days of adaptation and 3 experimental periods of 27 days each. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and after each period of 27 days, always in a fasting period of 16 hours. At the end of the experiment, the animals were slaughtered in commercial slaughterhouse, measuring non-carcass components (weight of blood, feet, hide, head, tail, organs, fat removed for cleaning, gastrointestinal tract (pharynx, esophagus, stomach and intestines and carcass characteristics (hot carcass, cold carcass yield, carcass length, leg length, thigh thickness, perimeter of leg, arm length, arm thickness, arm perimeter, front weight, rear weight and conformation. Sample was collected from HH joint for evaluation of the percentage of bone, muscle and fat and subsequent use of the Longissimus dorsi muscle for evaluation of fat cover thickness, marbling, Longissimus muscle área (LMA, degree of finish, water loss, pH, beef color, fat color and proximate analysis of meat. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 between treatments for the evaluated parameters for carcass characteristics and non-carcass components. For the parameters of meat quality, there was

  17. Example of the application the microsatellite DNA fragments in the study of farmed European catfish (Silurus glanis, L. broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuciñski Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available European catfish, Silurus glanis L., is the second largest freshwater fish in Europe. The species is very popular among the farmers, as it is one of the most promising European aquaculture species. Despite the growing importance of European catfish in freshwater aquaculture, the genetic data available on this species are still limited. The main purpose of the present study was to develop a reliable, feasible genetic protocol for future studies on European catfish populations and broodstocks in Poland. The genetic characteristics of the tested fish group were based on genetic parameters such as the polymorphism information content (PIC, the effective population size (Ne, the inbreeding coefficient (Fis, and the Garza-Williamson index (M, among others. Additionally, the potential effects of a genetic bottleneck on the genetic variation of the broodstock were examined. The genetic analysis protocol described in this study can be used to establish genetic-based records for European catfish broodstocks, including for sperm cryobanking. This approach will be useful for elaborating the selection procedures that allow for optimal assemblages of spawning pairs in artificial reproduction. The application of the genetic analysis protocol in practice will permit maintaining high quality in European catfish broodstocks.

  18. Frequency and gravity of human envenomations caused by marine catfish (suborder siluroidei): a clinical and epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Vidal; Martins, Itamar Alves

    2006-06-15

    Catfish occur in marine and freshwater environments worldwide. They have three serrated venomous bony stings in the dorsal and pectoral fins that are used for defence against predators and are refilled by glandular tissues under the epithelium. However, some catfishes do not have poisonous glands next to the sting and cause traumatic wounds without poisoning. The objective of this study was to provide data for, and comment on, the epidemiological and clinical problems caused by marine catfish. The authors have observed, followed and documented 127 injuries caused by marine catfish stings during different phases of the envenoming over a time period of 8 years at three points along the Western Atlantic Ocean coast. The patients presented intense pain during the acute phase of envenoming and complications, such as bacterial and fungi infections and retention of bony fragments, in the later phase. Immersion of the affected extremity in hot water was used in about 20% of cases with excellent results. Injuries caused by marine catfish are common (about 20% of injuries caused by marine animals in a series of more than 700 injuries recorded by the author) and cause intense pain and later complications. Immersion of the affected extremity in hot water results in improvement in the acute phase, but does not prevent the appearance of secondary infection or foreign body reactions.

  19. Determination and health risk assessment of enrofloxacin, flumequine and sulfamethoxazole in imported Pangasius catfish products in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansomboon, Worawat; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Boontanon, Narin; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2018-02-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the levels of three antibiotics - enrofloxacin, flumequine and sulfamethoxazole - in Pangasius catfish products imported into Thailand and to assess the health risks from consumption. To extract these antibiotic residues, acetonitrile, methanol and a small amount of formic acid were used as solvents. Determination of the antibiotics after extraction steps was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. The results showed that 14 and 3 samples of Pangasius catfish products were contaminated with enrofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole, respectively. No flumequine residue was found. While the concentration levels of these antibiotics in most contaminated samples were lower than the European Union (EU) standard, one sample was found to contain sulfamethoxazole at 245.91 µg kg -1 , which was higher than the EU standard (100 µg kg -1 ), indicating the likelihood that some contaminated freshwater fish products are widely distributed in Thai markets. Notably, the concentration levels of enrofloxacin in samples of Pangasius catfish with skin were higher than in non-skin products, suggesting that products with skin might retain more antibiotic residues than non-skin products. Although the hazard quotient showed that consuming imported Pangasius catfish products, based on the current consumption rate, will not adversely affect consumer health, antibiotic residues in Pangasius catfish products imported into Thailand should be continually monitored.

  20. Potential interactions between metazoan parasites of the Mayan catfish Ariopsis assimilis and chemical pollution in Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Noreña-Barroso, E; Gold-Bouchot, G; Caballero-Pinzón, P I

    2003-06-01

    The effect of pollutants on the intensity of infection of metazoan parasites in the Mayan catfish, Ariopsis assimilis was investigated. Data were collected on pollutants and metazoan parasites from 76 catfish from five localities in Chetumal Bay in October, 1996. Nineteen pollutants (pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) were found in the catfish livers. Heavy metal content was not determined. Nineteen metazoan parasite species were recovered. After controlling for fish length and sampling station, there was a significant negative linear relationship between the intensity of the larval digenean Mesostephanus appendiculatoides and 1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) concentrations. This negative relationship may be explained either by the effect of the pesticide on the mortality of (i) free-living larval forms, (ii) metacercariae in the fish, (iii) infected fish or (iv) intermediate host snails. There were significant differences between fish parasitized and not parasitized with M. appendiculatoides with respect to their DDT concentrations. There were also significant differences between the variances of the mean Clark's coefficient of condition values between catfish parasitized and not parasitized by M. appendiculatoides, with the variance of non-parasitized catfish being significantly larger. The results provided statistical evidence that DDT has a detrimental effect on M. appendiculatoides infection intensity. Furthermore, the significantly larger variance value of Clark's coefficient for non-parasitized fish suggested that DDT affects both the parasite and general host condition.

  1. A comparison of dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar PCBs in uncooked and broiled ground beef, catfish and bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, A; Dellarco, M; Päpke, O; Olson, J

    1998-01-01

    The primary source of dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar PCBs for the general population is food, especially meat, fish, and dairy products. However, most data on the levels of these chemicals is from food in the raw or uncooked state. We report here the effect of one type of cooking (broiling) on the levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in ground beef (hamburger), bacon and catfish. Samples of hamburger, bacon, and catfish were broiled and compared to uncooked samples in order to measure changes in the amounts of dioxins in cooked food. The total amount of PCDD, PCDF, and coplanar PCB TEQ decreased by approximately 50% on average for each portion as a result of broiling the hamburger, bacon and catfish specimens. The mean concentration (pg TEQ/kg, wet weight) of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs, however, remained the same in the hamburger, increased by 83% in the bacon, and decreased by 34% in the catfish. On average, the total measured concentration (pg/kg) of the congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs increased 14% in the hamburger, increased 29% in the bacon, and decreased 33% in the catfish.

  2. Evaluation of the flathead catfish population and fishery on Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma, with emphasis on the effects of noodling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Dana L.; Michaletz, Paul H.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2011-01-01

    I conducted a 3-year study at Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma to estimate effects of various fishing gears on the flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris population. Managers were particularly interested in the effect of handfishing or noodling on this population. I used a phone survey to assess angler effort and electrofishing and gill nets to calculate standard population metrics to assess composition of the current population. Survey data indicated that fishing effort and harvest were highest for trotlines and juglines and lowest for noodling. Size distribution of fish harvested by noodlers was not different from sizes that were available in the fishery and was similar to those fish harvested with other gears. Flathead catfish Sampled in Lake Carl Blackwell ranged in size from 38 to 1,220 mm total length, and 77% of the population was less than 508 mm (minimum legal size). Estimated total annual mortality was about 11%. Proportional size distribution (PSD) of flathead catfish for Lake Carl Blackwell indicates that about 70% of legal-sized flathead catfish were over the preferred size of 710 mm. Overall, the Lake Carl Blackwell flathead catfish population appeared healthy. There were a wide range of sizes and ages in the population, and PSD indicated a well-balanced population with many preferred and memorable-sized fish. Due to its rarity, noodling is probably not adversely influencing the population. Additionally, noodling at Lake Carl Blackwell does not appear to be as size-selective as previously thought. 

  3. Hematologic and plasma chemistry RIs for cultured Striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagarza, Oscar A; Kuhn, David D; Smith, Stephen A; Hrubec, Terry C

    2017-09-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) is a valuable aquaculture fish species produced primarily in Southeast Asia. In the United States, it is bred as an ornamental species. Striped catfish has high productivity and great demand in numerous countries around the world, yet little is known about its normal physiology. The objective of this study was to establish hematologic and blood chemistry RIs for healthy juvenile Striped catfish. Blood samples were collected from 70 Striped catfish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems. Whole blood and plasma samples were analyzed for multiple hematologic and chemistry variables using standard techniques. The RIs for hematology were as follows: PCV 23.5-35.9%, MCV 106.3-156.6 fL, RBC count 1.79-2.75 × 10 6 cells/μL, thrombocytes 26,318-73,333 cells/μL, total WBC count 36,294-94,286 cells/μL, total lymphocytes 18,997-59,998 cells/μL, small lymphocytes 13,763-51,490 cells/μL, large lymphocytes 715-21,200 cells/μL, granulocytes 4504-18,291 cells/μL, and monocytes 0-7549 cells/μL. Plasma chemistry RIs were the following: ALP 32.7-74.6 U/L, AST 20.3-1235.8 U/L, sodium 135.2-147.7 mmol/L, potassium 3.3-5.0 mmol/L, chloride 120.1-133.6 mmol/L, calcium 2.7-3.6 mmol/L, magnesium 0.9-1.3 mmol/L, phosphorous 1.4-2.7 mmol/L, glucose 4.6-7.6 mmol/L, cholesterol 2.8-5.3 mmol/L, total protein 30-42 g/L, albumin 7-11 g/L, globulin 22-32 g/L, albumin:globulin ratio 0.27-0.37, creatinine 0-8 μmol/L, and osmolality 251.8-327.9 mOsm/kg. Reference intervals reported here can help veterinarians and fish health specialists monitor the health status of Striped catfish under recirculating aquaculture conditions for research, exhibition, and production purposes. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  5. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  6. The effect of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Liu, Li; Yuan, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Yuan-Yuan; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance, postprandial metabolic response and their interaction in a sedentary fish species, either satiation-fed or starved juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were exercised at 25 °C under three water velocities, i.e., nearly still water (control), 1 body length (bl) s(-1) and 2 bl s(-1), for eight weeks. Then, the feed intake (FI), food conversion efficiency (FCE), specific growth rate (SGR), morphological parameters, resting ṀO2 (ṀO2rest) and postprandial ṀO2 responses of the experimental fish were measured. Exercise at a low velocity (1 bl s(-1)) showed no effect on any growth performance parameter, whereas exercise at a high velocity (2 bl s(-1)) exhibited higher FI but similar SGR due to the extra energy expenditure from swimming and consequent decreased FCE. Starvation led to a significant body mass loss, whereas the effect intensified in both exercise groups. Exercise resulted in improved cardio-respiratory capacity, as indicated by increased gill and heart indexes, whereas it exhibited no effect on resting and postprandial metabolism in S. meridionalis. The starved fish displayed significantly larger heart, gill and digestive tract indexes compared with the feeding fish, suggesting selective maintenance of cardio-respiratory and digestive function in this fish species during starvation. However, starved fish still exhibited impaired digestive performance, as evidenced by the prolonged duration and low postprandial metabolic increase, and this effect was further exacerbated in both the 1 and 2 bl s(-1) exercise groups. These data suggest the following: (1) aerobic exercise produced no improvement in growth performance but may have led to the impairment of growth under insufficient food conditions; (2) the mass of different organs and tissues responded differently to aerobic exercise and starvation due to the different physiological roles they play; and (3

  7. Exploration of indigenous bacteria in an intensive aquaculture system of African catfish (Clarias sp.) in Banyuwangi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogo; Rahardja, B. S.; Asshanti, A. N.; Dewi, N. N.; Santanumurti, M. B.

    2018-04-01

    Intensive African catfish culture in tarpaulin pond was popular in Banyuwangi, Indonesia since the government supported the fisheries sector. Unfortunately, the failure of African catfish culture still occurred since the waste from fish metabolite process and feed residue decreased the water quality. Bacteria in the water could be the solution to increase the success rate of aquaculture by improving the water quality. This study purpose was to obtained indigenous bacteria in intensive aquaculture system of African catfish to improve water quality. This study successfully isolated bacteria contained with amylase, protease and lipase characteristic. Isolated bacteria in this study were identified as Pseudomonas pseudomallei (97.81%), Bacillus subtilis (95.81%) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (61.21%).

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the threatened Neotropical catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri (Silurifomes: Pseudopimelodidae and phylogenomic analysis indicate monophyly of Pimelodoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic catfish from the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil popularly known as pacamã, which has economic potential for aquaculture farming. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the threatened Neotropical catfish L. alexandri. Assembly into scaffolds using MIRA and MITObim software produced the whole, circularized mitochondrial genome, which comprises 16,445 bp and presents the typical gene arrangement of Teleostei mitochondria. A phylogenomic analysis was performed after the concatenation of all proteins obtained from whole mitogenomes of 20 Siluriformes and two outgroups. The results confirmed the monophyly of nine families of catfishes and also clustered L. alexandri as a sister group to the family Pimelodidae, thus confirming the monophyly of the superfamily Pimelodoidea. This is the first mitochondrial phylogenomics study for Pimelodoidea and the first mitogenome described for the Pseudopimelodidae family, representing an important resource for phylogeography, evolutionary biology, and conservation genetics studies in Neotropical fishes.

  9. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, Farman Ullah; Tu, Jiagang; Xiong, Yang; Lan, Jiangfeng; Dong, Xing Xing; Liu, Xiaoling; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Mei, Jie; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA), a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS). The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals) at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:27589721

  10. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Dawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA, a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS. The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  11. A model to environmental monitoring based on glutathione-S-transferase activity and branchial lesions in catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Torres, Audalio Rebelo

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we validate the glutathione-S-transferase and branchial lesions as biomarkers in catfish Sciades herzbergii to obtain a predictive model of the environmental impact effects in a harbor of Brazil. The catfish were sampled from a port known to be contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds and from a natural reserve in São Marcos Bay, Maranhão. Two biomarkers, hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and branchial lesions were analyzed. The values for GST activity were modeled with the occurrence of branchial lesions by fitting a third order polynomial. Results from the mathematical model indicate that GST activity has a strong polynomial relationship with the occurrence of branchial lesions in both the wet and the dry seasons, but only at the polluted port site. Our mathematic model indicates that when the GST ceases to act, serious branchial lesions are observed in the catfish of the contaminated port area.

  12. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2017-09-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  13. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, William F.; Reid, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys are now common throughout much of peninsular Florida. In this paper, we present preliminary observations on interactions between a Pterygoplichthys species, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), and endangered native Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824), in artesian spring systems in Florida's St. Johns River drainage. The introduced catfish have become abundant in spring habitats, sites used by manatees as winter thermal refuges. In the spring runs, Pterygoplichthys regularly attaches to manatees and grazes the epibiota on their skin. On occasion, dozens of Pterygoplichthys congregate on individual manatees. Manatee responses varied widely; some did not react visibly to attached catfish whereas others appeared agitated and attempted to dislodge the fish. The costs and/or benefits of this interaction to manatees remain unclear.

  14. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  15. Spatial and seasonal variations on Henneguya exilis prevalence on cage intensive cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Luis Rábago-Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diseases are of particular importance for aquaculture worldwide, particularly in intensive culture. In Mexico, intensive culture of channel catfish is mainly done in floating cages. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of the myxozoan Henneguya and the effect of site, period and host length on its prevalence in cage-cultured channel catfish. Over a year, fish were examined on six different sites. Results showed the presence of Henneguya exilis in all the farms. However, no significant effects were observed for site and season on prevalence, nor was there a correlation between host length and infection prevalence.

  16. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  17. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  18. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-11-09

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  19. The influence of supplemented Curcuma in feed formulation to improve growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, M. M.; Zubaidah, M.; Arief, M.; Prayogo

    2018-04-01

    Catfish (Clarias sp.) is very potential to be developed as a food fish. The use of the feed additive in feed intended to improve the health, productivity and compliance with animal nutrition. Feed additive is to use ginger are derived from nature.The purpose of this study was to determine the potential increase in feed formulation. The Curcuma effect on growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.). The method used experimental methods and design complete random with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The parameters examined in this study aregrowth rate and efficiency feed.The research showed that the ANOVA markedly dissimilar ( Padditive on formulations feed.

  20. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 130 ... Vol 13 (2015), Feed utilization and growth performance of cockerels fed with soldier ants (Dorylus spp Fabricius) as protein source, Abstract ... Vol 7 (2009), Growth performance and survival of hybrid African catfish larvae (Clarias gariepinus x Heterobranchus bidorsalis) fed on different diets, Abstract.

  2. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing substitutions of soyabean meal for breadfruit meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings led to weight increases in all dietary types with exception of diet G and higher growth induction in catfishes fed all diets with exception of diet B. Diets C had induced better ...

  3. Impacts of Catfish Effluents on Water Quality Parameters of Majidun Stream, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Omofunmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great concern about the level of safety of surface waters, especially in developing countries where there is an exponential increase in water pollution and water-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of catfish pond effluents on water quality of stream water where five catfish farms were located. Water samples were taken on monthly basis, 20 cm of below water surface from the streams that receive effluents from neighboring fishponds. Water quality indicators like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, nitrate, nitrite, water temperature, ammonia and Hydrogen ion Concentration (pH were examined in the sampled waters in accordance with the American Public Health Association standards. The average values of water quality indicators examined at effluents and non-effluents discharged sites of the stream indicated that water (24.6 ± 0.2, 24.2 ±0.1, (7.29±0.30, 7.30±0.10, (6.90±0.4, 7.07±0.1 mg/l, (0.40±0.04, 0.27±0.01, (3.77±0.26, 2.34±0.16 mg/l, (3.59±0.11, 2.80±0.02 mg/l and (3.51±0.24, 2.46±0.21 mg/l at (p≥0.05 respectively for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and BODs. They were significant differences (P 0.05 excepts temperature and pH, between values obtained at effluents discharged and non-effluents discharged sites, indicating that improper discharges of catfish pond effluents could resulted into environmental contamination

  4. THE ABILITY OF FAST-GROWING TRANSGENIC AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus ON PREDATOR AVOIDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Institute for Fish Breeding has produced transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus containing stripped catfish growth hormone gene (PccBA-PhGH with growth 19.86% faster than that of non-transgenic fish. This fish has high potential to be released and utilized for fish farming sector to increase national production. However, there is not yet information about environmental risk of this fish. One of the major fitness traits determining potential environmental risk is predator avoidance. This study aimed to determine the predator avoidance ability of transgenic African catfish in an experimental laboratory condition. In this study, thirty five individuals each of transgenic and non-transgenic with body weight of about 0.1 ± 0.019 g were communally stocked in 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm aquarium with limited feeding frequency (ad libitum twice a day. One day after the fish were stocked, the predators were added to each aquarium. The non-transgenic and transgenic with body weight of 1.0 ± 0.024 g were stocked as predators as many as five individual in each aquarium. After approximately two weeks of predation, all remaining fish were collected for transgenic verification by PCR method. Genomic DNA was isolated from fin tissue of individually survivors. The results of this study showed that the transgenic fish had worse predator avoidance and lower cannibal than non-transgenic (P0.05 in limited food. The transgenic fish may have lower fitness than non-transgenic.

  5. Bioaccumulation factor for 32P measured in bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, and catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.; Turgeon, K.S.; Martini, D.K.; Dunkerly, S.J.; el-Shinawy, R.M.; Wilson, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ratio of the bioaccumulation factors for 32 P and phosphorus was determined for edible tissue in two species of freshwater fish by measuring the specific activity ( 32 P activity per milligram phosphorus) in muscle relative to feed. The 32 P tracer was added to the feed at a uniform level throughout the study. Feeding was at two levels: ad libitum and at a lower but constant intake per body weight. In the main experiment, bluegill were maintained in a large flow-through tank and sacrificed at approximately weekly intervals for 51 d of 32 P accumulation and 28 d of depuration to compare the specific activity with values predicted with a calculational model. In experiments performed in smaller aquaria, the specific activity in bluegill and catfish muscle was compared at two feeding levels and two temperatures. In addition, unfed fish were exposed to 32 P in water at a known specific activity to determine the extent of phosphorus uptake directly from water. The pattern of specific activity increase and decrease in fish muscle during the accumulation/depuration experiment was consistent with a one-compartment model, so that specific activity ratios at steady state could be predicted from measurements during relatively brief exposures. On this basis, the ratio of the bioaccumulation factors of 32 P and phosphorus in fish feeding ad libitum was 0.081 for bluegill and 0.17 for catfish. Hence, at a mean phosphorus bioaccumulation factor of 70,000, the factors for 32 P are 6000 and 12,000, respectively. The ratios were less at lower phosphorus intakes associated with lower feeding rates; moreover, the lesser value for bluegill occurred at a much lower phosphorus intake than by catfish

  6. Constraints to adoption of improved hatchery management practices among catfish farmers in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenetejiri DIGUN-AWETO

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has shown capacities to serve as means of livelihood, improve living standards, provide employment and generate foreign exchange in many countries. Recent investment in Nigerian aquaculture has been target towards catfish farming. However, small quantity and poor quality fish seeds are one of the problems limiting production. Consequently, Lagos State government introduced improved breeding and hatchery management practices as a package to fish hatchery operators with the aim of improving fish seed quantity and quality in the state. Nevertheless, the dissemination of the package has not yielded the desired result. This study assessed the constraints to adoption of improved hatchery management practices among catfish farmers in Lagos State. With structured questionnaire, 150 catfish farmers, randomly selected from 12 local government areas spread across Lagos State were interviewed. Despite that majority of the respondents strongly agreed or agreed to the fact that improved hatchery management practices have positive impacts on breeding, hatching, and survival of fish fry, majority of them affirmed that high cost of acquisition, high technicality in using the improved management practices as well as inadequate information about the improved management practices are primary reasons for non-adoption of some of the improved practices. Some of the limitations faced by the respondents include insufficient capital, lack of technical expertise to use the methods adequately, non-availability of inputs, expensive cost of facility maintenance, poor information dissemination and insufficient technical support from the extension agents and the state government. Although the adoption of improved practices has not been total, due to these constraints, the farmers’ knowledge of the improved hatchery management practices is broad. There is a need for the state government to subsidize the improved hatchery technologies and inputs, in addition to

  7. MOTIVATIONS FOR INVOLVEMENT IN URBAN CATFISH FARMING AND SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Monisola TUNDE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish farming is known as one of the ways of ensuring food security and alleviating poverty through income generation. It is very common in the urban areas of Nigeria because of great demand for fish. This study determines motivations for involvement in urban catfish farming and sustainable food security in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identifies fish farmers and their socio-demographic characteristics in the study area; it examines motives of fish farming; examines the contributions of fish farming to household food security; and assesses the challenges faced by fish farmers for increased production. Both primary and secondary sources of information were employed and a total of 120 fish farmers were sampled randomly with copies of structured questionnaire. Frequency counts, percentages, tabulations and matrix ranking were employed to analyze the gathered data. The findings revealed that catfish production has actually contributed immensely to sustainable food security by making fish available, accessible and stable within the study area. The main motive for involvement in fish farming by the farmers includes food security (with a mean value of 3.80. This was followed by income supplement (x = 3.50, source of employment (x = 3.42 and increase in price of meat (x = 3.37. It can therefore be concluded that catfish farming in the study area has not only improve practitioners’ food security but has also contributed immensely to their income. The paper recommends the need to include fish farming in urban planning and that it should be encouraged in both rural and urban areas so as to have sustainable food security in the country as a whole.

  8. MICROSATELLITE GENETIC VARIATION IN CULTURED POPULATIONS OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Imron

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, is one of economically important farmed species in Indonesia. To support the development of aquaculture industry, high genetic quality of both broodstock and seeds is required and breeding program is considered as viable option. Information on genetic variation of the populations being considered to form a base population may give insight toward the appropriate strategy to be implemented in breeding program. This study was aimed to assess genetic variation in farmed populations of catfish in Indonesia using microsatellite markers with special emphasis on their use to develop breeding program. Three populations of farmed catfish, namely Dumbo, Paiton, and Sangkuriang were collected. Fifteen individuals representing each population were screened for microsatellite variability using seven primer sets (cga01, cga02, cga03, cga05, cga06, cga09, cga10. Results found that with exception of two loci (cga01 and cg02 which had a slight increase, the other four loci showed reduction in the number of alleles ranging from 35% to 80% depending on loci. Farmed populations also showed heterozygote deficient and inbreeding level, being the highest was found in Sangkuriang and the least was observed in Dumbo population. Individuals within populations contributed most (95% while interpopulation variation accounted for only 5% of the total genetic variation. Populations of Dumbo and Sangkuriang were genetically similar while populations of Paiton were genetically different from both Dumbo and Sangkuriang. Viewed from genetic perspective, by combining all information emerging from this study, the best possible strategy to establish a base population with broad genetic base and less inbreeding would be to combine all the populations into a synthetic base population.

  9. Digestive enzyme activities and gastrointestinal fermentation in wood-eating catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Donovan P; Bittong, Rosalie A

    2009-11-01

    To determine what capabilities wood-eating and detritivorous catfishes have for the digestion of refractory polysaccharides with the aid of an endosymbiotic microbial community, the pH, redox potentials, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the activity levels of 14 digestive enzymes were measured along the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of three wood-eating taxa (Panaque cf. nigrolineatus "Marañon", Panaque nocturnus, and Hypostomus pyrineusi) and one detritivorous species (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus) from the family Loricariidae. Negative redox potentials (-600 mV) were observed in the intestinal fluids of the fish, suggesting that fermentative digestion was possible. However, SCFA concentrations were low (<3 mM in any intestinal region), indicating that little GI fermentation occurs in the fishes' GI tracts. Cellulase and xylanase activities were low (<0.03 U g(-1)), and generally decreased distally in the intestine, whereas amylolytic and laminarinase activities were five and two orders of magnitude greater, respectively, than cellulase and xylanase activities, suggesting that the fish more readily digest soluble polysaccharides. Furthermore, the Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) of the fishes' beta-glucosidase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase enzymes were significantly lower than the K(m) values of microbial enzymes ingested with their food, further suggesting that the fish efficiently digest soluble components of their detrital diet rather than refractory polysaccharides. Coupled with rapid gut transit and poor cellulose digestibility, the wood-eating catfishes appear to be detritivores reliant on endogenous digestive mechanisms, as are other loricariid catfishes. This stands in contrast to truly "xylivorous" taxa (e.g., beavers, termites), which are reliant on an endosymbiotic community of microorganisms to digest refractory polysaccharides.

  10. Does the hearing sensitivity in thorny catfishes depend on swim bladder morphology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Zebedin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thorny catfishes exhibit large variations in swim bladder morphology. These organs are of different sizes, forms and may have simple or branched diverticula. The swim bladder plays an important role in otophysans because it enhances their hearing sensitivity by transmitting sound pressure fluctuations via ossicles to the inner ear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate if a form-function relationship exists, the swim bladder morphology and hearing ability were analyzed in six species. The morphology was quantified by measuring the length, width and height and calculating a standardized swim bladder length (sSBL, which was then used to calculate the relative swim bladder length (rSBL. Hearing was measured using the auditory evoked potential (AEP recording technique. Two species had simple apple-shaped and four species heart-shaped (cordiform bladders. One of the latter species had short unbranched diverticula on the terminal margin, two had a secondary bladder and two had many long, branched diverticula. The rSBL differed significantly between most of the species. All species were able to detect frequencies between 70 Hz and 6 kHz, with lowest thresholds found between 0.5 and 1 kHz (60 dB re 1 µPa. Hearing curves were U-shaped except in Hemidoras morrisi in which it was ramp-like. Mean hearing thresholds of species possessing smaller rSBLs were slightly lower (maximum 8.5 dB than those of species having larger rSBLs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current findings reveal a relationship between swim bladder form and its function among thorny catfishes. Relatively smaller swim bladders resulted in relatively better hearing. This is in contrast to a prior inter-familial study on catfishes in which species with large unpaired bladders possessed higher sensitivity at higher frequencies than species having tiny paired and encapsulated bladders.

  11. Microglanis pataxo, a new catfish from southern Bahia coastal rivers, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento-Soares,Luisa M.; Martins-Pinheiro,Ronaldo F.; Aranda,Arion T.; Chamon,Carine C.

    2006-01-01

    A new pseudopimelodid catfish of the genus Microglanis, collected in small rivers at the lower and middle Peruípe, middle Jucuruçu and Cahy basins, in the southeastern coast of the Bahia state, is described. The new species has a comparatively high number of anal fin proximal radials, 12, shaped as thin tubes, the last one bearing a laminar extension; a pectoral fin spine with a bony point and with a smaller number of serrations on its posterior border; seven pleural ribs and a narrow head wi...

  12. In vivo near real time imaging of oxygen partial pressures in the glass catfish (Kryptopterus bichirris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    of the transparent glass catfish (Kryptopterus bichirris), it is possible to measure near realtime oxygen partial pressure in vivo. We used a commercially-available digital single-lens reflex camera mounted with an optical long pass filter (II = 490 nm) and excited the phosphorescent dye in the microspheres inside...... the fish with externally-mounted blue light emitting diodes (lip = 470 nm) to image the oxygen partial pressure. This method makes it possible to investigate oxygen partial pressures in the vascular system and different tissues of fish without having to insert any probes into the animal. After injection...

  13. Molecular analysis reveals hidden diversity in Zungaro (Siluriformes: Pimelodidade): a genus of giant South American catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Antonio A; Ramirez, Jorge L; Galetti, Pedro M; Troy, Waldo P; Freitas, Patricia D

    2017-06-01

    The genus Zungaro contains some of the largest catfish in South America. Two valid species are currently recognized: Zungaro jahu, inhabiting the Paraná and Paraguay basins, and Zungaro zungaro, occurring in the Amazonas and Orinoco basins. Analysing Zungaro specimens from the Amazonas, Orinoco, Paraguay and Paraná basins, based on the sequencing of COI and D-loop, we found at least three MOTUs, indicating the existence of hidden diversity within this fish group. Considering the ecological and economic values of this fish, our results are surely welcomed for its conservation, disclosing new findings on its diversity and pointing out the necessity for a detailed taxonomic revision.

  14. Toxicity of Buprofezin on the Survival of Embryo and Larvae of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Bloch)

    OpenAIRE

    Marimuthu, Kasi; Muthu, Narmataa; Xavier, Rathinam; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Rahman, M. Aminur; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-01-01

    Buprofezin is an insect growth regulator and widely used insecticide in Malaysia. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of buprofezin on the embryo and larvae of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a model organism. The embryos and larvae were exposed to 7 different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L) of buprofezin. Each concentration was assessed in five replicates. Eggs were artificially fertilized and 200 eggs and larvae were subjected to a static bath treatme...

  15. Role of various fishmeal ingredients on sangkuriang catfish Clarias sp. growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was aimed to evaluate the role of fish meal from different raw materials in improving growth performance of sangkuriang catfish Clarias sp. The source of raw materials used were derived from trash fish, salted fish, and head fish eal. Fish reared for 44 days and were given feed test three times per day at 08.00, 12.00, and 16.00. Biomass weight of the experimental fish used were 38.49±1.61 g. The fish reared on the aquarium of 60x50x40 cm3 and by using recirculation system. The results showed that fish meal derived from trash fish provide the best result for feed consumption, daily growth rate, absolute length, biomass, retention of protein, retention of fat, feed efficiency, feed conversion (P>0.05. However, it does not significantly different on the survival of fish (P>0.05. The data showed that the use of trash fish meal resulted on the best growth performance of sangkuriang catfish. It was indicated that the trash-fish meal might be used as the main protein source of sangkuriang catfish feed. Keywords: catfish, growth, at satiation, fish meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pakan uji yang menggunakan sumber tepung ikan dari bahan baku berbeda dalam meningkatkan kinerja pertumbuhan lele sangkuriang Clarias sp. Sumber tepung ikan yang digunakan berasal dari ikan rucah, ikan asin, dan kepala ikan, yang memiliki umum digunakan sebagai salah satu bahan baku pakan lokal. Ikan diberi pakan at satiation selama 44 hari dengan frekuensi tiga kali sehari, yaitu pada pukul 08.00, 12.00, dan 16.00. Biomassa rata-rata ikan uji yang digunakan adalah 38,49±1,61 g. Ikan dipelihara dalam akuarium berukuran 60x50x40 cm3 dan dengan menerapkan sistem resirkulasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tepung ikan yang berasal dari ikan rucah mampu memberikan hasil terbaik dalam meningkatkan kinerja pertumbuhan ikan uji. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh nilai kinerja pertumbuhan seperti jumlah konsumsi pakan, laju

  16. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  17. A Novel Dual-input Isolated Current-Fed DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel isolated current-fed DC-DC converter (boost-type) with two input power sources based on multi-transformer structure, which is suitable for fuel cells and super-capacitors hybrid energy system, is proposed and designed. With particular transformer windings connection strategy...

  18. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  19. PV source based high voltage gain current fed converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soumya; Poddar, Sahityika; Chimonyo, Kudzai B.; Arunkumar, G.; Elangovan, D.

    2017-11-01

    This work involves designing and simulation of a PV source based high voltage gain, current fed converter. It deals with an isolated DC-DC converter which utilizes boost converter topology. The proposed converter is capable of high voltage gain and above all have very high efficiency levels as proved by the simulation results. The project intends to produce an output of 800 V dc from a 48 V dc input. The simulation results obtained from PSIM application interface were used to analyze the performance of the proposed converter. Transformer used in the circuit steps up the voltage as well as to provide electrical isolation between the low voltage and high voltage side. Since the converter involves high switching frequency of 100 kHz, ultrafast recovery diodes are employed in the circuitry. The major application of the project is for future modeling of solar powered electric hybrid cars.

  20. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  1. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3, isolated from catfish and antagonistic against hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3 was isolated from a catfish that survived from lethal challenge with hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). When assayed in vitro, the bacterium showed antagonism against vAh. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome of P. mosselii Gil3 encodes numerous aromatic metabo...

  2. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  3. Effects of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis parasitism on the survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) parasitism on survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri was studied. Fish were exposed to E. ictaluri one day prior to Ich in the following treatments: 1)- infected by...

  4. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  5. HPLC Determination and MS Confirmation of Malachite Green, Gentian Violet, and Their Leuco Metabolites in Catfish Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residues of malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV), and their leuco metabolites in catfish muscle were individually determined by HPLC using visible and fluorescence detectors. This detection scheme obviated a PbO2 column that converts leuco forms to chromatic forms for visible detection, thus el...

  6. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  7. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Microwave Cooked Catfish Fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and to a lesser extent fish products such as tilapia. However, there are few US catfish products designed to be microwave cooked or reheated in the market place. The first objecti...

  8. Genome-wide identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 50 catfish ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Li, Qi; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Although a large set of full-length transcripts was recently assembled in catfish, annotation of large gene families, especially those with duplications, is still a great challenge. Most often, complexities in annotation cause mis-identification and thereby much confusion in the scientific literature. As such, detailed phylogenetic analysis and/or orthology analysis are required for annotation of genes involved in gene families. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene superfamily is a large gene family that encodes membrane proteins that transport a diverse set of substrates across membranes, playing important roles in protecting organisms from diverse environment. In this work, we identified a set of 50 ABC transporters in catfish genome. Phylogenetic analysis allowed their identification and annotation into seven subfamilies, including 9 ABCA genes, 12 ABCB genes, 12 ABCC genes, 5 ABCD genes, 2 ABCE genes, 4 ABCF genes and 6 ABCG genes. Most ABC transporters are conserved among vertebrates, though cases of recent gene duplications and gene losses do exist. Gene duplications in catfish were found for ABCA1, ABCB3, ABCB6, ABCC5, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF2 and ABCG2. The whole set of catfish ABC transporters provide the essential genomic resources for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of ABC drug efflux transporters. The establishment of orthologies should allow functional inferences with the information from model species, though the function of lineage-specific genes can be distinct because of specific living environment with different selection pressure.

  9. Rapid screening of oxytetracycline residue in catfish muscle by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and europium-sensitized luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in catfish muscle was screened by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). After extraction in EDTA, HCl, and acetonitrile, cleanup was carried out by DLLME, and ESL was measured at microgram = 385 nm and wavelength = ...

  10. Can reduced stocking rates and natural forage utilization produce market sized catfish from fingerlings in one growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of growing marketable channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus from pond-run fingerlings (15.9 g/fish) using low stocking densities (7,413 or 14,826 fish/ha) and electrified bug lights to enhance natural forage available to fish. Even at low sto...

  11. Effect of ingredient particle sizes and dietary viscosity on digestion and faecal waste of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tu; Hien, T.T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    The ingredients' particle size and dietary viscosity may alter digestion, performance and faecal waste management of fish. This study aimed to assess the effect of grinding screen sizes of feed ingredients and dietary viscosity on digestibility, faecal waste and performance of striped catfish

  12. Male-biased genes in catfish as revealed by RNA-Seq analysis of the testis transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyue Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Catfish has a male-heterogametic (XY sex determination system, but genes involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, and sex determination are poorly understood. As a first step of understanding the transcriptome of the testis, here, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis using high throughput Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 269.6 million high quality reads were assembled into 193,462 contigs with a N50 length of 806 bp. Of these contigs, 67,923 contigs had hits to a set of 25,307 unigenes, including 167 unique genes that had not been previously identified in catfish. A meta-analysis of expressed genes in the testis and in the gynogen (double haploid female allowed the identification of 5,450 genes that are preferentially expressed in the testis, providing a pool of putative male-biased genes. Gene ontology and annotation analysis suggested that many of these male-biased genes were involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, gametogenesis, gonad differentiation, and possibly sex determination. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first transcriptome-level analysis of the catfish testis. Our analysis would lay the basis for sequential follow-up studies of genes involved in sex determination and differentiation in catfish.

  13. Head-only electrical stunning and bleeding of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): assessment of loss of consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the welfare implications of electrical stunning prior to gill-cutting of farmed African catfish as an alternative to live chilling in combination with gutting. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings, in combination with observation of

  14. Retention of health-related beneficial components during household preparation of selenium-enriched African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Larsen, R.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial processing and heat treatment of fish muscle generally lead to losses of water-soluble components, some of which may have beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to determine the retention of taurine, selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids when preparing African catfish

  15. Effect of refrigeration time on the lipid oxidation and fatty acid profiles of catfish (Arius maculatus) commercialized in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenyang, N.; Womeni, H.M.; Tiencheu, B.; Villeneuve, P.; Linder, M.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of refrigeration at 4 °C during 9 days on the quality and stability of catfish oil were evaluated using a change in fatty acid composition by gas chromatography (GC), commonly used analytical indexes (acid and peroxide values), and analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that lipid deterioration, hydrolysis and oxidation occurred throughout the cold storage (4 °C). Refrigeration induced the lipolysis of triglycerides by lipases and phospholipases. It also affected the fatty acids composition of the catfish. The progressive loss of unsaturation was monitored by the decrease in the absorbance band at 3012 cm−1on FTIR spectra and the lowest value was observed in the catfish muscle at 9 days of refrigeration. Eicosapentaenoic C20:5ω3 (EPA) and docosahexaenoic C22:6ω3 (DHA) acids were the polyunsaturated fatty acids most affected during refrigeration. Refrigeration for less than 5 days was found to be the best conditions for the preservation of the catfish. [es

  16. Seasonal changes in steroid metabolism in the male reproductive organ-system of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, J.W.; Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Hurk, R. van den; Viveen, W.J.A.R.; Lambert, J.G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Steroid and steroid glucuronide synthesis in feral male African catfish was investigated in vitro by incubating testes with [3H]-pregnenolone and seminal vesicles with [3H]-androstenedione. In testes, the capacity to form progestins, androgens, especially 11-oxygenated ones, and steroid glucuronides

  17. Extensive jaw mobility in suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae): a morphological and kinematic analysis of substrate scraping mode of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Dominique; Geerinckx, Tom; Vlassenbroeck, Jelle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Loricariidae, or suckermouth armored catfishes, possess upper and lower jaws that are ventrally oriented and that bear teeth that touch the substrate from which algae and other food items are scraped. The ventral orientation and the highly specialized morphology of the jaws, characterized by protrusible upper jaws and left-right decoupled lower jaws, are observed in Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, the species investigated here. Kinematic data of the scraping feeding movements, obtained by external high-speed and x-ray recordings, are used to quantify jaw movement, especially to test for upper jaw mobility and versatility during substrate scraping. Our results show that the mobility of the jaws is indeed high compared with what is standard for catfishes. The upper jaw's ability to perform a substantial degree of rostrocaudal movement is quite unique for catfishes. The ventromedially oriented lower jaws, with the teeth and the coronoid process at opposite sides, display an extensive mobility: they rotate around the suspensorial articulation and around their longitudinal axis, resulting in an extended scraping movement and thereby covering a large surface area. The lower jaws also show a left-right asymmetry in their movements during scraping. Thus, our results suggest that the extreme morphological specializations of the jaws in loricariid catfishes are linked to an increased mobility and functional versatility, allowing these animals to efficiently scrape algae from substrates with irregular surfaces.

  18. In vivo activity of native GnRHs and their analogues on ovulation in the American catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, T.; Radics, F.; Barth, Tomislav; Horváth, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2007), s. 140-146 ISSN 1355-557X R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3028; GA MZe QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : GnRH * ovulation * African catfish Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2007

  19. Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Ejby Jensen, Lasse; Cao, Renhai; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2009-01-01

    and lymphatic perfusion. Here we show in the adult zebrafish and glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) that blood-lymphatic conduits directly connect arterial vessels to the lymphatic system. Under hypoxic conditions, arterial-lymphatic conduits (ALCs) became highly dilated and linearized by NO...

  20. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and

  1. Characterization of an Oct1 orthologue in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: A negative regulator of immunoglobulin gene transcription?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennard, M.L.; Hikima, J.I.; Ross, D.A.; Kruiswijk, C.P.; Wilson, M.R.; Miller, N.W.; Warr, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background - The enhancer (E¿3') of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) has been well characterized. The functional core region consists of two variant Oct transcription factor binding octamer motifs and one E-protein binding ¿E5 site. An

  2. Effects of acute stress on aggression and the cortisol response in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuel, R.; Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Cloosterman, M.; Gorissen, M.; Flik, G.; Bos, van den R.; Vis, van de H.

    2016-01-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were housed under continuous dim light (1lx) or 12L:12D (350-0lx) cycles. The number of skin lesions, as indicator of aggressive acts, and plasma cortisol levels, as indicator of stress-axis activity, were measured at baseline as well as following a

  3. Selection of lactic acid bacteria as a probiotic and evaluated its performance on gnotobiotic catfish Clarias sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enita Romasni Turnip

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to select lactic acid bacteria (LAB as a potential probiotic that producing anti‒microbial compounds in order to treat motile aeromonads septicemia diseases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila on catfish Clarias sp. and evaluated its performance on gnotobiotic catfish. The in vitro assay was done to select several LAB isolates based on antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria. The selected isolate was tested in vivo to observe their ability to improve growth performances of catfish. The study was conducted with five treatments consists of K‒ (normal catfish without addition probiotic, without challenge test, K+ (normal catfish without addition of probiotic, with challenge test, Np (normal catfish with addition of probiotic and challenge test, G (gnoto catfish without addition of probiotic, with challenge test, and Gp (gnoto catfish with addition of probiotic and challenge test. The results showed that the addition of Pediococcus pentosaceus E2211 as selected probiotic could increase survival rate, specific growth rate, and immune response towards infection of A. hydrophila. The best survival rate after challenge test was obtained in Np and Gp treatments (88.46%, followed by G treatment (65.38%, while the K+ was only 53.84%. The conclusion of this study was P. pentosaceus E2211 potentially used as a probiotic candidate for normal and gnotobiotic catfish. The presence of normal microflora with P. pentosaceus E2211 in Np treatment showed the best probiotic performance with daily growth rate 3.28%, feed conversion ratio 1.79, and total intestinal bacteria reached 108 CFU/mL significantly different from other treatments (P<0.05.Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, catfish, LAB, probiotic, screening  ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menyeleksi bakteri asam laktat (BAL sebagai probiotik potensial penghasil senyawa antimikrob guna menanggulangi penyakit motile aeromonad septicemia akibat Aeromonas hydrophila pada ikan

  4. Gene expression analysis in gonads and brain of catfish Clarias batrachus after the exposure of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, Y; Murugananthkumar, R; Rajakumar, A; Laldinsangi, C; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides like malathion have the potential to disrupt development and reproduction of aquatic organisms including fishes. To investigate the likely consequences of malathion exposure at low doses in juvenile catfish, Clarias batrachus, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding certain transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes which are known to be involved in gonadal development along with histological changes. To compare further, we also analyzed certain brain specific genes related to gonadal axis. Fifty days post hatch catfish fingerlings were exposed continuously to 1 and 10 µg/L of malathion for 21 days. Results from these experiments indicated that transcript levels of various genes were altered by the treatments, which may further affect the gonadal development either directly or indirectly through brain. Histological analysis revealed slow progression of spermatogenesis in testis, while in ovary, the oil droplet oocytes were found to be higher after treatment (10 µg/L). Our findings revealed that the exposure of malathion, even at low doses, hinder or modulate early gonadal development differentially by targeting gene expression pattern of transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes with an evidence on histological changes. Further, some of the genes showed differential expression at the level of brain in male and female sex after the exposure of malathion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Convergence among cave catfishes: long-branch attraction and a Bayesian relative rates test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, T P; García de León, F J; Hendrickson, D A; Hillis, D M

    2004-06-01

    Convergence has long been of interest to evolutionary biologists. Cave organisms appear to be ideal candidates for studying convergence in morphological, physiological, and developmental traits. Here we report apparent convergence in two cave-catfishes that were described on morphological grounds as congeners: Prietella phreatophila and Prietella lundbergi. We collected mitochondrial DNA sequence data from 10 species of catfishes, representing five of the seven genera in Ictaluridae, as well as seven species from a broad range of siluriform outgroups. Analysis of the sequence data under parsimony supports a monophyletic Prietella. However, both maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses support polyphyly of the genus, with P. lundbergi sister to Ictalurus and P. phreatophila sister to Ameiurus. The topological difference between parsimony and the other methods appears to result from long-branch attraction between the Prietella species. Similarly, the sequence data do not support several other relationships within Ictaluridae supported by morphology. We develop a new Bayesian method for examining variation in molecular rates of evolution across a phylogeny.

  6. Effect of Salinity Adaptation Technique on Survival and Growth Rate of Patin Catfish, Pangasius sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nirmala

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of salinity adaptation techniques on growth and survival of patin catfish Pangasius sp. fry.  Fry of 1.5-2.0 inch in length were reared in the water with different of the initial salinity of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ppt.  Salinity was then daily increased by duplicated the initial water salinity until fish died.  The results of study showed that fry could survive by initial salinity adaptation of 1 ppt and then increasing the salinity by 1 ppt/day to reach 27 ppt.  In the other treatments, all fry died after the salinity reach 18-25 ppt. Keywords: patin catfish, Pangasius, adaptation, salinity   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh teknik adaptasi salinitas terhadap pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup benih ikan patin Pangasius sp.  Benih patin ukuran 1,5-2 inci dipelihara pada salinitas awal berbeda, yaitu 1, 2, 3, 4 dan 5 ppt. Salinitas air pemeliharaan ditingkatkan kelipatan dari salinitas awal setiap hari hingga ikan mati.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adaptasi salinitas awal 1 ppt dan peningkatan sebesar 1ppt/hari menyebabkan ikan dapat bertahan hidup sampai pada salinitas 27 ppt. Pada perlakuan lainnya, benih ikan mengalami kematian masal ketika salinitas mencapai 18-25 ppt. Kata kunci: ikan patin, Pangasius, adaptasi, salinitas

  7. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S.

    2013-01-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  8. The effect of environmental hypercapnia and size on nitrite toxicity in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Malthe; Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are farmed intensively at high stocking densities in Vietnam where they are likely to encounter environmental hypercapnia as well as occasional high levels of aquatic nitrite. Nitrite competes with Cl- for uptake at the branchial HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, ...... the ambient concentration, while small fish did not. Small P. hypophthalmus instead had significantly higher plasma [nitrate], and haemoglobin concentrations, revealing greater capacity for detoxifying nitrite by oxidising it to nitrate.......Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are farmed intensively at high stocking densities in Vietnam where they are likely to encounter environmental hypercapnia as well as occasional high levels of aquatic nitrite. Nitrite competes with Cl- for uptake at the branchial HCO3-/Cl- exchanger...... to a reduced nitrite uptake. To assess the effect of hypercapnia on nitrite uptake, fish were cannulated in the dorsal aorta, allowing repeated blood sampling for measurements of haemoglobin derivatives, plasma ions and acid-base status during exposure to 0.9 mM nitrite alone and in combination with acute...

  9. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Mohamed Zaidul Islam; Selamat, Jinap; Habib, Abu Sayem Md. Ahsan; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Mohamed Jahurul Haque; Jaffri, Juliana Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method. PMID:23109854

  10. Antibacterial efficacies of some plant extracts against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of farmed catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Ekanem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases are responsible for mortalities of some farmed catfish in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to investigate the efficacies of extracts of some plants against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of Heterobranchus longifilis. Ethanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus, Allium sativum, Artemisia annua, Citrus limon, Moringa oleifera, Allium cepa and Azadirachta indica were tested against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of H. longifilis by disc diffusion assay. Extracts of P. amarus, A. sativum, A. annua and C. limon were significantly (P<0.05 more sensitive to A. hydrophila and P. flourescens than M. oleifera, A. cepa and A. indica which were effective against P. flourescens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the extracts were 25mg/ml for P. amarus and A. annua; 25 and 100mg/ml for C. lemon and A. cepa respectively and 50mg/ml for A. indica.  Alkaloid was demonstrated in all plants except A. annua by qualitative methods. Moderate amount (++ of cardiac glycosides was demonstrated in A. sativum, M. oleifera and P. amarus. Saponin (+++ was present in M. oleifera and A. indica while, tannin (++ was present in M. oleifera, P. amarus and A. indica respectively. Phlobatanins and Anthraquinones (++ were present in P. amarus and M. oleifera respectively.  Extracts of aforementioned plants have potentials as therapy against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of farmed catfish.

  11. First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML. Martins

    Full Text Available This study characterises morphologically Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body and gill smears were air-dried at room temperature, impregnated with silver nitrate and/or stained with Giemsa. Ten characteristics were selected to compare the present material with other morphological characterisations of T. heterodentata. Prevalence rate was 100%, mean intensity 89,333.70 (3,125 to 299,100 parasites per host. Trichodina heterodentata was considered medium-sized trichodinid with mean body diameter 59.4 ± 8.5 μm, denticulate ring 38.5 ± 4.5 μm, adhesive disc 60.2 ± 6.7 μm diameter and 24.4 ± 1.6 denticles. In relation to previous reports of T. heterodentata this material resembles in 90% of the analysed characters. This work confirms the biometrical variation that exists in the different populations of T. heterodentata. A list of hosts and comparative measurements of T. heterodentata are presented and the channel catfish is considered a new host.

  12. Toxicity of buprofezin on the survival of embryo and larvae of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Bloch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasi Marimuthu

    Full Text Available Buprofezin is an insect growth regulator and widely used insecticide in Malaysia. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of buprofezin on the embryo and larvae of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus as a model organism. The embryos and larvae were exposed to 7 different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L of buprofezin. Each concentration was assessed in five replicates. Eggs were artificially fertilized and 200 eggs and larvae were subjected to a static bath treatment for all the concentrations. The mortality of embryos was significantly increased with increasing buprofezin concentrations from 5 to 100 mg/L (p0.05 in the LC50 values obtained at 24 and 48 h exposure times. Malformations were observed when the embryos and larvae exposed to more than 5 mg/L. The results emerged from the study suggest that even the low concentration (5 mg/L of buprofezin in the aquatic environment may have adverse effect on the early embryonic and larval development of African catfish.

  13. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mariliasemmler@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S., E-mail: tony8013@hotmail.com, E-mail: insaurraldemar9@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (FCV/UNA), San Lorenzo (Paraguay). Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura

    2013-07-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  14. Molecular phylogeny of the highly diversified catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) reveals incongruences with morphological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covain, Raphaël; Fisch-Muller, Sonia; Oliveira, Claudio; Mol, Jan H; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I; Dray, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The Loricariinae belong to the Neotropical mailed catfish family Loricariidae, the most species-rich catfish family. Among loricariids, members of the Loricariinae are united by a long and flattened caudal peduncle and the absence of an adipose fin. Despite numerous studies of the Loricariidae, there is no comprehensive phylogeny of this morphologically highly diversified subfamily. To fill this gap, we present a molecular phylogeny of this group, including 350 representatives, based on the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes (8426 positions). The resulting phylogeny indicates that Loricariinae are distributed into two sister tribes: Harttiini and Loricariini. The Harttiini tribe, as classically defined, constitutes a paraphyletic assemblage and is here restricted to the three genera Harttia, Cteniloricaria, and Harttiella. Two subtribes are distinguished within Loricariini: Farlowellina and Loricariina. Within Farlowellina, the nominal genus formed a paraphyletic group, as did Sturisoma and Sturisomatichthys. Within Loricariina, Loricaria, Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria are also paraphyletic. To solve these issues, and given the lack of clear morphological diagnostic features, we propose here to synonymize several genera (Quiritixys with Harttia; East Andean members of Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria with Rhadinoloricaria; Ixinandria, Hemiloricaria, Fonchiiichthys, and Leliella with Rineloricaria), to restrict others (Crossoloricaria, and Sturisomatichthys to the West Andean members, and Sturisoma to the East Andean species), and to revalidate the genus Proloricaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parasites of two coexisting invasive sailfin catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae in a tropical region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Rodríguez-Santiago

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently many species of Amazon sailfin catfishes (Loricariidae have been introduced to wild environments outside their native range. There is, however, little knowledge about their role as vectors of parasites that can infect native fish or even humans through its consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the parasitic fauna of the invasive sailfin catfish species Pterygoplichthys pardalis (leopard pleco and P. disjunctivus (vermiculated pleco from freshwater systems in the southeast of Mexico. Four ectoparasite species were found in P. pardalis (1 protozoan: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis ; 2 monogeneans: Urocleidoides vaginoclastrum and Heteropriapulus heterotylus ; 1 digenean: Clinostomum sp., and only one in Heteropriapulus disjunctivus (H. heterotylus . No endoparasites were found. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis , U. vaginoclaustrum and Clinostomum sp. , were considered as rare species (prevalence <5% since they were found in a single individual of P. pardalis . H. heterotylus was the only species shared among both host species and it occurs throughout the year. This monogenean species represents 96% of total parasites recorded in P. pardalis and 100% in P. disjunctivus. Monthly values of prevalence, intensity and abundance of H. heterotylus in both host species showed important intra-annual variations, but not differ significantly between both hosts.

  16. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

  17. Genetic structure in the Amazonian catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii: influence of life history strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Vallejos, F M; Duponchelle, F; Desmarais, E; Cerqueira, F; Querouil, S; Nuñez, J; García, C; Renno, J-F

    2014-08-01

    The Dorado or Plateado (Gilded catfish) Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) is a commercially valuable migratory catfish performing the largest migration in freshwaters: from the Amazonian headwaters in the Andean foothills (breeding area) to the Amazon estuary (nursery area). In spite of its importance to inform management and conservation efforts, the genetic variability of this species has only recently begun to be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine the population genetic structure of B. rousseauxii in two regions: the Upper Madera Basin (five locations in the Bolivian Amazon) and the Western Amazon Basin (one regional sample from the Uyucalí-Napo-Marañon-Amazon basin, Peru). Length polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci (284 individuals) was used to determine genetic variability and to identify the most probable panmictic units (using a Bayesian approach), after a significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the overall dataset (Western Amazon + Upper Madera). Bayesian analyses revealed at least three clusters in admixture in the five locations sampled in the Bolivian Amazon, whereas only two of these clusters were observed in the Western Amazon. Considering the migratory behaviour of B. rousseauxii, different life history strategies, including homing, are proposed to explain the cluster distribution. Our results are discussed in the light of the numerous threats to the species survival in the Madera basin, in particular dam and reservoir construction.

  18. Spontaneous behavior of basal Copionodontinae cave catfishes from Brazil (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Rantin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are particularly interesting due to their behavioral specializations, resultant from evolution in isolation. We present data from a spontaneous behavior study (spatial distribution and preference for microhabitats of two troglobitic catfish from Brazil: Glaphyropoma spinosum and a new species of Copionodon. We compared the data with those obtained of a sympatric epigean species, Copionodon pecten. These Trichomycteridae species belong to a basal and apparently monophyletic subfamily – Copionodontinae, endemic to Chapada Diamantina, central Bahia state, eastern Brazil. We observed the fishes in natural and laboratory conditions through ad libitum and focal animal methods. Each spatial behavioral category (hidden, bottom, midwater, surface and wall swimming and stationary in the bottom was timed individually, with a sample of 12 specimens per species. Unlike most troglobitic fishes, cave copionodontines tested herein did not extend exploratory behavior to midwater, with benthonic and thigmotactic-related exploratory behavior. This behavior is possibly related to its feeding behavior specializations, strong territorialism and photophobic behavior. The epigean Copionodon species is also benthonic. The spatial behavior of the cave Copionodontinae could be interpreted as a retained and plesiomorphic character-state in relation to other trichomycterid catfishes.

  19. Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise de Lima Silva

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1 promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use

  20. Effect injection of Ginger Extract on Development and Nucleus position of “Sangkuriang” Catfish Clarias sp. eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zairin Junior

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available One of methods could be applied to continuously meet the need of fish fry including catfish (Clarias sp. is artificial propagation by inducing ovulation and spawning.   As an alternative of existing method, in this study, ginger extract was intramuscularly injected to induce development of catfish eggs.  Ginger is known as an important regulator of the balance of arachidonat cycle.  The dose of ginger extract injected was 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg broodstock.  The results of study showed that injection 100% of ginger extracts in all doses was insignificantly inducing development of egg diameter and its nucleus position of catfish.  Other chemicals exist in ginger extract might be functions as an obstacle for egg development of catfish. Keywords: catfish, Clarias sp., ginger, ovulation, egg   ABSTRAK Salah satu cara untuk memenuhi kebutuhan benih ikan termasuk lele (Clarias sp. secara kontinyu adalah penggunaan teknologi pembiakan buatan melalui perangsangan ovulasi dan pemijahan. Sebagai alternatif teknik yang sudah ada, dicobakan perangsangan perkembangan telur ikan lele menggunakan bahan ekstrak jahe yang dilakukan melalui penyuntikan secara intramuskular. Jahe telah dikenal sebagai suatu pengatur penting atas keseimbangan siklus arakidonat. Dosis ekstrak jahe yang disuntikkan adalah 0, 0,5, 1 dan 1,5 mL/kg induk. Penyuntikan 100% ekstrak jahe pada semua dosis perlakuan belum dapat merangsang perkembangan diameter dan posisi inti sel telur ikan lele sangkuriang. Adanya bahan lain yang terdapat pada jahe diduga sebagai penghambat bagi perkembangan telur ikan lele. Kata kunci: Ikan lele, Clarias sp., jahe, ovulasi,  sel telur

  1. Using 1-D 1H and 2-D 1H J-resolved NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  2. Using 1-D and 2-D J-resolved 1H-NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  3. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  4. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Hegg

    Full Text Available Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum. We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87Sr/(86Sr recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87Sr/(86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related

  5. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii), and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum). We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related the geology

  6. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Preziosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05, clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05, and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05, whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01 after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  7. Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Pernilla L; Vestman, Nelly R; Claesson, Rolf; Ohman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne C R; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri. Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis. The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  8. Comparative analysis of the aquaculture potential of hybrid Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , on the growth rate, feeding efficiency and mortality rates of hybrid tilapia — Tilapia zillii (male) x T. guineensis (female) — was evaluated for 233 days. Fish of average weight 12.59g were stocked at a density of 20 fish m–³ and were fed a 30% ...

  9. Co-located hAT transposable element and 5S rDNA in an interstitial telomeric sequence suggest the formation of Robertsonian fusion in armored catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glugoski, Larissa; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo R; Nogaroto, Viviane

    2018-04-15

    Co-located 5S rDNA genes and interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) revealed the involvement of multiple 5S rDNA clusters in chromosome rearrangements of Loricariidae. Interstitial (TTAGGG)n vestiges, in addition to telomeric sites, can coincide with locations of chromosomal rearrangements, and they are considered to be hotspots for chromosome breaks. This study aimed the molecular characterization of 5S rDNA in two Rineloricaria latirostris populations and examination of roles of 5S rDNA in breakpoint sites and its in situ localization. Rineloricaria latirostris from Brazil's Das Pedras river (2n = 46 chromosomes) presented five pairs identified using a 5S rDNA probe, in addition to a pair bearing a co-located ITS/5S rDNA. Rineloricaria latirostris from the Piumhi river (2n = 48 chromosomes) revealed two pairs containing 5S rDNA, without ITS. A 702-bp amplified sequence, using 5S rDNA primers, revealed an insertion of the hAT transposable element (TE), referred to as a degenerate 5S rDNA. Double-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) demonstrated co-localization of 5S rDNA/degenerate 5S rDNA, 5S rDNA/hAT and ITS/5S rDNA from the Das Pedras river population. Piumhi river isolates possessed only 5S rDNA sites. We suggest that the degenerate 5S rDNA was generated by unequal crossing over, which was driven by invasion of hAT, establishing a breakpoint region susceptible to chromosome breakage, non-homologous recombination and Robertsonian (Rb) fusion. Furthermore, the presence of clusters of 5S rDNA at fusion points in other armored catfish species suggests its re-use and that these regions represent hotspots for evolutionary rearrangements within Loricariidae genomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tokamak-FED plasma-engineering assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Lyon, J.F.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of plasma assumptions and scenarios has been examined for the current US tokamak FED concept, which aims to provide a controlled, long pulse (approx. 100 s) burning plasma with an energy amplification of greater than or equal to 5, a fusion power of 180 MW, and a neutron wall load of greater than or equal to 0.4 MW/m 2 . The results of the assessment suggest that the current FED baseline parameters of R = 5.0 m, B/sub t/ = 3.6 T, a = 1.3 m, b = 2.1 m (D-shape), and I/sub p/ = 5.4 MA are appropriate in reaching the above plasma performance, despite uncertainties in several plasma physics areas, such as confinement scaling, achievable beta, impurity control, etc. To enhance the probability of achieving fusion ignition and to provide some margin against a short fall in our physics projections in FED, a limited operating capability at B/sub t/ = 4.6 T and I/sub p/ = 6.5 MA is incorporated. Various other options and remedies have also been assessed aiming to alleviate the impact of the uncertainties on the FED design concept. These approaches appear promising because they can be studied within the current fusion physics program and may lead to drastically more cost-effective FED concepts

  11. Histomorphological and mucin histochemical study of the alimentary canal of pangas catfish, Pangasius pangasius (Hamilton 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javd Sadeghinezhad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the histological and mucin histochemical properties of the alimentary canal (AC of the pangas catfish, Pangasius pangasius. The results revealed that the mucosa of the oesophagus was lined by a stratified epithelium containing chloride cells and taste buds which suggested mechanic, gustatory and physiologic roles of the oesophagus in this species. The stomach mucosa was lined by a simple columnar epithelium. The lamina propria-submucosa in cardiac and fundic stomach contained gastric glands. The pyloric stomach had the thickest muscularis layer among all the parts of the AC. The villi showed the maximum height and width in the middle intestine. The tunica muscularis and serosa showed the thinnest thickness among all parts of AC. The mucin histochemistry showed that the goblet cells of oesophagus and intestine contained both neutral and acidic with carboxylated and sulfated mucins and there was not acidic mucins in epithelial cells of the stomach.

  12. Microglanis pataxo, a new catfish from southern Bahia coastal rivers, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa M. Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available A new pseudopimelodid catfish of the genus Microglanis, collected in small rivers at the lower and middle Peruípe, middle Jucuruçu and Cahy basins, in the southeastern coast of the Bahia state, is described. The new species has a comparatively high number of anal fin proximal radials, 12, shaped as thin tubes, the last one bearing a laminar extension; a pectoral fin spine with a bony point and with a smaller number of serrations on its posterior border; seven pleural ribs and a narrow head width. We provide information on the external morphology and also on some osteological features for the new species. A key to species is presented for the coastal drainages between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia states.

  13. Effectiveness of ambon banana stem juice as immunostimulatory against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qorie Astria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Outbreaks of infectious diseases due to Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish can cause high death rates (80–100%. Fish disease control can be done using phytopharmaceutical to prevent or treat diseases of fish. One of the phytopharmaceutical that known to prevent the fish diseases is ambon banana stem Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of catfish immersion using banana stem juice as an immunostimulant against bacterial infections A. hydrophila. The observed parameters were a total performance of production, hematological test, and water quality. Immersion of catfish seeds with stem juice was performed at a concentration of 5 mL/L, 13 mL/L, and 21 mL/L for 30 minutes. Each treatment consisted of three replications. A  total of 15 fishes were immersed in 1.5 L water. At day-9 after immersion, fish was infected by A. hydrophila bacteria at a dose of 104 cfu/mL. The results showed that fish treated with banana stem juice at a concentration of 13 mL/L had the survival rate of 53.33±6.67% which is higher than positive control (33.33±6.67%. Based on hematology observations on the 3rd day post-challenge test (H12 with A. hydrophila, total erythrocytes, hemoglobin, total leukocytes, phagocytic activity, differential leukocyte, and lysozyme activity was highest in treatment13 mL/L. Lower feed conversion ratio (1.08±0.04 were also obtained in treatment 13 mL/L. Thus Immersion of seeds in stem juice can boost the immune system against infections A. hydrophila. Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, ambon banana stem juice, soaking, catfish, immune system  ABSTRAK Wabah penyakit akibat infeksi Aeromonas hydrophila pada ikan lele dapat menyebabkan tingkat kematian yang tinggi (80–100%. Penanggulangan penyakit ikan dapat dilakukan menggunakan fitofarmaka untuk mencegah ataupun mengobati penyakit ikan. Salah satu fitofarmaka yang dapat digunakan dalam upaya pencegahan penyakit ikan adalah batang

  14. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Provenzano R.

    Full Text Available Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the body light or dark yellow with numerous, round black spots; posterior region of the body light or dark yellow with five black transverse bands, dorsal central area of the two anterior bands diffused. The discovery of this new species extends the distribution of the genus northwest to include the Orinoco River basin on the northern slope of the Guyana shield.

  15. De novo Assembly and Analysis of the Chilean Pencil Catfish Trichomycterus areolatus Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Thomas T.; Ali, Jonathan M.; Bartlett, Maggie L.; McFarland, Madalyn M.; Clement, Emalie J.; Won, Harim I.; Sanford, Austin G.; Monzingo, Elyssa B.; Martens, Matthew C.; Hemsley, Ryan M.; Kumar, Sidharta; Gouin, Nicolas; Kolok, Alan S.; Davis, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomycterus areolatus is an endemic species of pencil catfish that inhabits the riffles and rapids of many freshwater ecosystems of Chile. Despite its unique adaptation to Chile's high gradient watersheds and therefore potential application in the investigation of ecosystem integrity and environmental contamination, relatively little is known regarding the molecular biology of this environmental sentinel. Here, we detail the assembly of the Trichomycterus areolatus transcriptome, a molecular resource for the study of this organism and its molecular response to the environment. RNA-Seq reads were obtained by next-generation sequencing with an Illumina® platform and processed using PRINSEQ. The transcriptome assembly was performed using TRINITY assembler. Transcriptome validation was performed by functional characterization with KOG, KEGG, and GO analyses. Additionally, differential expression analysis highlights sex-specific expression patterns, and a list of endocrine and oxidative stress related transcripts are included. PMID:27672404

  16. Henneguya exilis Kudo associated with granulomatous branchitis of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, G E; Kent, M L; Dybdal, N O; Hedrick, R P

    1986-07-01

    Outbreaks of a chronic branchitis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) were observed on four fish farms throughout the state of California from November 1982 to April 1984. Severe granulomatous inflammation of the gill filaments with necrosis of the cartilage of the gill ray and diffuse epithelial hyperplasia, resulting in extensive fusion of gill lamellae, was present on histologic examination of gill specimens from 35 out of 44 fish examined. Numerous, small trophozoites morphologically consistent with presporogonic myxosporean parasites were consistently associated with the inflammatory process. Mature spores of Henneguya exilis Kudo were present in large numbers in gill specimens from two fish and only occasionally in 22 others. Similar cases referred to as "Hamburger Gill Disease" or "proliferative gill disease" have been known to occur in the south-central United States. This report describes the morphologic changes of this condition and discusses its possible pathogenesis.

  17. Hypoxia tolerance and partitioning of bimodal respiration in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Air-breathing fish are common in the tropics, and their importance in Asian aquaculture is increasing, but the respiratory physiology of some of the key species such as the striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage 1878 is unstudied. P. hypophthalmus is an interesting species...... to air-breathe. The possibility of reducing air-breathing frequency may be energetically beneficial for the fish, leaving more of the aerobic scope for growth and other activities, due to the proposed energetic costs of surfacing behavior....... as it appears to possess both well-developed gills and a modified swim bladder that functions as an air-breathing organ indicating a high capacity for both aquatic and aerial respiration. Using newly developed bimodal intermittent-closed respirometry, the partitioning of oxygen consumption in normoxia...

  18. Liquid-chromatographic determination of sarafloxacin residues in channel catfish muscle-tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Dawson, V.K.; Gingerich, W.H.; Cheng, B.; Tubergen, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of sarafloxacin hydrochloride residues i n channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Sarafloxacin was extracted from fillet tissue with acetonitrile=water (1 + 1). The extract was centrifuged and the supernatant was partitioned with hexane. The aqueous fraction was filtered through a 0.45 Mum filter and evaporated to dryness. The sample was redissolved with 20% acetonitrile-methanol (3 + 2) and 80% trifluoroacetic acid (0.1%), Centrifuged, and filtered to remove proteins. Samples were analyzed by chromatography with gradient elution on a c18 column and with fluorescence detection (excitation at 280 nm and emission above 389 nm). Mean recoveries ranged from 85.4 To 104%, and relative standard deviations ranged from 1.06 To 5.58% In samples spiked at concentrations of 10.0-863.8 Ng/g. The method detection limit for sarafloxacin was 1.4 Ng/g.

  19. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of copper changes biochemistry parameters in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, Quoy & Gaimard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, Alexandra; Loro, Vania Lucia; Silva, Vera M Machado; Salbego, Joseânia; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Souza, Carine de Freitas; Gioda, Carolina Rosa; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2014-04-01

    The effects of Cu exposure on catalase (CAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and metabolic parameters were evaluated in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The fish were exposed for 45 days to 0, 16 and 29 μg/L Cu. The fish that were exposed to Cu exhibited lower TBARS levels in the muscle and higher TBARS levels in the liver. They also showed lower CAT activity in the liver and lower AChE activity in the brain and muscle. Higher glucose and lactate and lower protein plasma levels were observed in the fish exposed to Cu. The changes in the hepatic metabolic parameters were Cu concentration dependent. In the muscle, lower glycogen and higher lactate levels were observed in the fish exposed to Cu. Alterations in the metabolic parameters showed a preference for the anaerobic pathway of energy production and liver protein catabolism to supply the energy demand.

  20. Invasion of South American suckermouth armoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. (Loricariidae in Kerala, India - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bijukumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the occurrence of the exotic South American suckermouth armoured catfishes (Loricariidae of the genus Pterygoplichthys spp. in the drainages of Thiruvananthapuram City, Kerala.  The morphological taxonomy revealed that the specimens are closely related to Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991 and P. pardalis (Castelnau, 1855, in addition to intermediary forms of unknown identity.  DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1 also failed to establish the identity of the invaded species.  There may be possible hybridisation in aquariums or in fish farms or in the wild, but this needs to be found out aided by detailed studies incorporating different molecular markers and with sequences of topotypes.  The possible threats due to Pterygoplichthys spp. invasion and management options are discussed in the paper. 

  1. FED-R2: concept and magnet design of a low-cost FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Blackfield, D.; Bobrov, E.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Diatchenko, N.; LeClaire, R.

    1982-12-01

    High performance resistive magnet technology was used to develop a design for a compact, low cost version of the fusion engineering device FED. We refer to this design as FED-R2, for FED-resistive magnet design 2 to distinguish it from the larger resistive magnet design for FED which uses demountable coils (FED-R1). The main objectives of FED-R2 are: (1) to demonstrate reliable, quasi-steady state (long pulse, high duty factor) operation with Q/sub p/ approx. 5; (2) to demonstrate Q/sub p/ > 5 operation for a limited number of pulses; (3) to provide high neutron flux for irradiation of nuclear test modules with a total area greater tha 20m 2 ; (4) to utilize steady-state RF current drive if this option appears promising. Based upon the costing codes at the Fusion Engineering Design Center and upon TFTR costs, the estimated direct costs of FED-R2 would be on the range 380 to 460M, a factor of about 2 below that of the baseline FED design

  2. Catalysis of Silver catfish Major Hepatic Glutathione Transferase proceeds via rapid equilibrium sequential random Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    Full Text Available Fish hepatic glutathione transferases are connected with the elimination of intracellular pollutants and detoxification of organic micro-pollutants in their aquatic ecosystem. The two-substrate steady state kinetic mechanism of Silver catfish (Synodontis eupterus major hepatic glutathione transferases purified to apparent homogeneity was explored. The enzyme was dimeric enzyme with a monomeric size of 25.6 kDa. Initial-velocity studies and Product inhibition patterns by methyl glutathione and chloride with respect to GSH-CDNB; GSH-ρ-nitrophenylacetate; and GSH-Ethacrynic acid all conforms to a rapid equilibrium sequential random Bi Bi kinetic mechanism rather than steady state sequential random Bi Bi kinetic. α was 2.96 ± 0.35 for the model. The pH profile of Vmax/KM (with saturating 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and variable GSH concentrations showed apparent pKa value of 6.88 and 9.86. Inhibition studies as a function of inhibitor concentration show that the enzyme is a homodimer and near neutral GST. The enzyme poorly conjugates 4-hydroxylnonenal and cumene hydroperoxide and may not be involved in oxidative stress protection. The seGST is unique and overwhelmingly shows characteristics similar to those of homodimeric class Pi GSTs, as was indicated by its kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity and inhibition studies. The rate- limiting step, probably the product release, of the reaction is viscosity-dependent and is consequential if macro-viscosogen or micro-viscosogen. Keywords: Silver catfish, Glutathione transferase, Steady-state, Kinetic mechanism, Inhibition

  3. Pentachlorophenol-Induced Cytotoxic, Mitogenic, and Endocrine-Disrupting Activities in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a biocide in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. Although it has been shown to induce systemic toxicity and carcinogenesis in several experimental studies, the literature is scarce regarding its toxic mechanisms of action at the cellular and molecular levels. Recent investigations in our laboratory have shown that PCP induces cytotoxicity and transcriptionally activates stress genes in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells [1]. In this research, we hypothesize that environmental exposure to PCP may trigger cytotoxic, mitogenic, and endocrine-disrupting activities in aquatic organisms including fish. To test this hypothesis, we carried out in vitro cultures of male channel catfish hepatocytes, and performed the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA to assess for cell viability, and the Western Blot analysis to assess for vitellogenin expression following exposure to PCP. Data obtained from FDA experiments indicated a strong dose-response relationship with respect to PCP cytotoxicity. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, the chemical dose required to cause 50% reduction in cell viability (LD50 was computed to be 1,987.0 + 9.6 μg PCP/mL. The NOAEL and LOAEL were 62.5 + 10.3 μg PCP/mL and 125.0+15.2 μg PCP/mL, respectively. At lower levels of exposure, PCP was found to be mitogenic, showing a strong dose- and time-dependent response with regard to cell proliferation. Western Blot analysis demonstrated the potential of PCP to cause endocrine-disrupting activity, as evidenced by the up regulation of the 125-kDa vitellogenin protein the hepatocytes of male channel catfish.

  4. Temperature dependence of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolemma in the ventricle of catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sabry Abu-Amra

    2015-10-01

    The sarcolemmal Ca2+ contribution of activator Ca2+ was greater at a test temperature of 30 °C as assessed by verapamil. Whereas the SR-Ca2+ contribution was higher at 20 and 30 °C and a frequency rate of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz as assessed by caffeine and adrenaline, respectively. Bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF7 which was isolated from jelly fish (Cassiopea andromeda decreased the cardiac force developed at a frequency rate of 0.2 Hz and a temperature of 20 °C, whereas it increased the force developed at frequency rates of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz at 30 °C. These results indicate that BPF7 may act like verapamil in reducing the cardiac force through blocking the sarcolemmal Ca2+ channels at low temperature and like adrenaline in an increase of the cardiac force developed at warm temperature and the high frequency rate through stimulation of SR-Ca2+ activator. Therefore, this study indicates that the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx and the SR-Ca2+ release contributors of activator Ca2+ for cardiac force development in the catfish heart were significantly greater at warm temperature and at the pacing frequency rates of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz as assessed by verapamil, adrenaline, caffeine and BPF7. However, the relative contribution of the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx in the development of cardiac force in the catfish heart was greater than that of SR-Ca2+ release.

  5. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING TIME ON FEED UTILIZATION BY SIAMESE CATFISH, Pangasius hypophthalmus JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Meilisza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Siamese catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus at juvenile stage is used as ornamental fish by fish hobbies because of their beautiful shape and movement. Feeding time is a part of feeding management to get the best and effective strategy on feed input. This study aimed to determine the growth of Siamese catfish juvenile by looking at the influence of feeding time on feed utilization. The average individual weight of juveniles used was ± 3.2 g stocked 15 fish per aquarium equipped with recirculation system. Two level factors in the factorial design consisted of 4 feeding times (at 8:00, at 12:00, at 16:00, and as control (8:00, 12:00, 16:00 and feeding level (45 g feed kg-1 fish, 90 g feed kg-1 fish. Interaction between feeding time and feeding level resulting eight types of treatments research, namely A (8/45, B (12/45, C (16/45, D (8:12:16/45, E (8:12:16/90, F (8/90, G (12/90, and H (16/90. The results showed that feeding time had significant effect on the specific growth rate, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratio and were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05. Besides feeding time control (treatments D and E, treatment C also showed the highest of specific growth rate (2.03%, protein efficiency ratio (1.46, and the lowest feed conversion ratio (1.85.

  6. Effects of strains on growth performances of triploid bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satid Chatchaiphan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance, limited empirical information is available on the effects of parental strains on the performance of triploid aquatic animals, especially of tropical species. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of strains on the growth performance of the triploid bighead catfish (Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864 which was produced using cold shock (7 °C, 25 min shock duration, applied to newly fertilized eggs obtained from all possible crosses between two catfish strains. The fingerlings of each group were reared until they were age 240 d. At age 60 d, the triploid fish had a lower specific growth rate (SGR, absolute growth rate (AGR, body length and body weight than the diploid counterparts. However, at harvest (age 240 d body length and body weight were not different between the two groups while SGR of the cold shock group was higher than the diploid during age 121–240 d. The results revealed that parental strains did not show significant direct effects on the growth performance of triploids, but the interaction between paternal strain × shock was significant for the following traits: body length at age 90 d, body weight at age 90 d and 120 d, AGR for age 61–90 d, and SGR for age 61–90 d and 91–120 d. The interaction between paternal × maternal strain × shock was significant for body length, body weight at age 180 d and AGR for age 121–180 d. These results suggested that the growth performance of triploid C. macrocephalus cannot be enhanced by improving the parental strains; rather, improvement may be accomplished by selecting the parental strains based on triploid performance.

  7. Toxicity of buprofezin on the survival of embryo and larvae of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Kasi; Muthu, Narmataa; Xavier, Rathinam; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Rahman, M Aminur; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-01-01

    Buprofezin is an insect growth regulator and widely used insecticide in Malaysia. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of buprofezin on the embryo and larvae of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a model organism. The embryos and larvae were exposed to 7 different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L) of buprofezin. Each concentration was assessed in five replicates. Eggs were artificially fertilized and 200 eggs and larvae were subjected to a static bath treatment for all the concentrations. The mortality of embryos was significantly increased with increasing buprofezin concentrations from 5 to 100 mg/L (pbuprofezin acute toxicity tests were evaluated using probit analysis. The 24 h LC50 value (with 95% confidence limits) of buprofezin for embryos was estimated to be 6.725 (3.167-15.017) mg/L. The hatching of fish embryos was recorded as 68.8, 68.9, 66.9, 66.4, 26.9, 25.1 and 0.12% in response to 7 different concentrations of buprofezin, respectively. The mortality rate of larvae significantly (pbuprofezin concentrations exposed to 24-48 h. The 24 and 48 h LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of buprofezin for the larvae was estimated to be 5.702 (3.198-8.898) and 4.642 (3.264-6.287) mg/L respectively. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the LC50 values obtained at 24 and 48 h exposure times. Malformations were observed when the embryos and larvae exposed to more than 5 mg/L. The results emerged from the study suggest that even the low concentration (5 mg/L) of buprofezin in the aquatic environment may have adverse effect on the early embryonic and larval development of African catfish.

  8. Molecular systematic and historical biogeography of the armored Neotropical catfishes Hypoptopomatinae and Neoplecostominae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiachio, Márcio Cesar; Oliveira, Claudio; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2008-11-01

    The Neotropics possess the greatest freshwater fish diversity of the world, rendering the study of their evolutionary history extremely challenging. Loricariidae catfishes are one of the most diverse components of the Neotropical ichthyofauna and despite a long history of classification, major issues still need elucidation. Based on a nuclear gene, we present a robust phylogeny of two former loricariid subfamilies: Hypoptopomatinae and Neoplecostominae. Our results show that Neoplecostominae is nested within Hypoptopomatinae, and is the sister group to the former Otothyrini tribe. According to our results, supplemented by morphological observations, we erect two new subfamilies, the Otothyrinae and a new Hypoptopomatinae, and modify the Neoplecostominae by including the genus Pseudotocinclus. The uncovered evolutionary relationships allow a detailed analysis of their historical biogeography. We tested two Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis models for inferring the distribution range evolution of the new subfamilies, and show that the model having no constrains performs better than a model constraining long-range dispersal. The Maximum Likelihood reconstructions of ancestral ranges showed a marked division between the Amazonian origin of the Hypoptopomatinae and the eastern coastal Brazil+Upper Paraná origin of the Neoplecostominae and Otothyrinae. Markedly few instances of dispersal across the border separating the Amazon basin and the Paraná-Paraguay+eastern coastal Brazil+Uruguay were reconstructed. This result is in clear contrast with the historical biogeography of many Neotropical fishes, including other Loricariidae. Part of the dispersal limitation may be explained by divergent ecological specialization: lowland rivers versus mountain streams habitats. Moreover, because most species of the new subfamilies are small, we hypothesize that body size-related effects might limit their dispersal, like predation and energetic cost to migration. Finally

  9. Biochemistry, cytogenetics and bioaccumulation in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to different thorium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Lizelia M; Kochhann, Daiani; Becker, Alexssandro G; Pavanato, Maria A [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Llesuy, Susana F [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Loro, Vania L; Raabe, Alice [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mesko, Marcia F [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Polo em Cruz Alta, Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul, 98025-810 Cruz Alta, RS (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M.; Dressler, Valderi L [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Baldisserotto, Bernardo [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thorium (Th) bioaccumulation on the metabolism of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through biochemical parameters of the muscle (glycogen, glucose, lactate, protein, and ammonia). In addition, lipidic peroxidation levels (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the gills and in hepatic and muscular tissues were also analyzed. Cytogenetic parameters were studied through the evaluation of nuclear abnormalities in red blood cells. Silver catfish juveniles were exposed to different waterborne Th levels (in {mu}g L{sup -1}): 0 (control), 25.3 {+-} 3.2, 69.2 {+-} 2.73, 209.5 {+-} 17.6, and 608.7 {+-} 61.1 for 15 days. The organs that accumulated the highest Th levels were the gills and skin. The increase of waterborne Th concentration corresponded to a progressive increase of Th levels in the gills, liver, skin and kidneys, with the highest accumulation in the gills and skin. Metabolic intermediates in the muscle were altered by Th exposure, but no clear relationship was found. CAT and GST activities in the hepatic and muscular tissues of this species suggest that the enzymatic activities can be stimulated at the lowest Th levels and inhibited at the higher levels (mainly in 608.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}). The results of the cytogenetic assay contribute to this hypothesis because the higher toxicity in blood samples was found in juveniles exposed to 69.2 and 209.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} Th.

  10. Distribution, Innervation, and Cellular Organization of Taste Buds in the Sea Catfish, Plotosus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Matsuyama, Naoki; Kirino, Masato; Kasai, Masanori; Kiyohara, Sadao; Ikenaga, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    The gustatory system of the sea catfish Plotosus japonicus, like that of other catfishes, is highly developed. To clarify the details of the morphology of the peripheral gustatory system of Plotosus, we used whole-mount immunohistochemistry to investigate the distribution and innervation of the taste buds within multiple organs including the barbels, oropharyngeal cavity, fins (pectoral, dorsal, and caudal), and trunk. Labeled taste buds could be observed in all the organs examined. The density of the taste buds was higher along the leading edges of the barbels and fins; this likely increases the chance of detecting food. In all the fins, the taste buds were distributed in linear arrays parallel to the fin rays. Labeling of nerve fibers by anti-acetylated tubulin antibody showed that the taste buds within each sensory field are innervated in different ways. In the barbels, large nerve bundles run along the length of the organ, with fascicles branching off to innervate polygonally organized groups of taste buds. In the fins, nerve bundles run along the axis of fin rays to innervate taste buds lying in a line. In each case, small fascicles of fibers branch from large bundles and terminate within the basal portions of the taste buds. Serotonin immunohistochemistry demonstrated that most of the taste buds in all the organs examined contained disk-shaped serotonin-immunopositive cells in their basal region. This indicates a similar organization of the taste buds, in terms of the existence of serotonin-immunopositive basal cells, across the different sensory fields in this species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  12. Sound production and pectoral spine locking in a Neotropical catfish (Iheringichthys labrosus, Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier S. Tellechea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Catfishes may have two sonic organs: pectoral spines for stridulation and swimbladder drumming muscles. The aim of this study was to characterize the sound production of the catfish Iheringichthys labrosus. The I. labrosus male and female emits two different types of sounds: stridulatory sounds (655.8 + 230 Hz consisting of a train of pulses, and drumming sounds (220 + 46 Hz, which are composed of single-pulse harmonic signals. Stridulatory sounds are emitted during abduction of the pectoral spine. At the base of the spine there is a dorsal process that bears a series of ridges on its latero-ventral surface, and by pressing the ridges against the groove (with an unspecialized rough surface during a fin sweep, the animal produce a series of short pulses. Drumming sound is produced by an extrinsic sonic muscle, originated on a flat tendon of the transverse process of the fourth vertebra and inserted on the rostral and ventral surface of the swimbladder. The sounds emitted by both mechanisms are emitted in distress situation. Distress was induced by manipulating fish in a laboratory tank while sounds were recorded. Our results indicate that the catfish initially emits a stridulatory sound, which is followed by a drumming sound. Simultaneous production of stridulatory and drumming sounds was also observed. The catfish drumming sounds were lower in dominant frequency than stridulatory sounds, and also exhibited a small degree of dominant frequency modulation. Another behaviour observed in this catfish was the pectoral spine locking. This reaction was always observed before the distress sound production. Like other authors outline, our results suggest that in the catfish I. labrosus stridulatory and drumming sounds may function primarily as a distress call.Bagres podem apresentar dois órgãos sonoros: o espinho peitoral para o som peitoral ou estridulatório e o músculo sonoro da bexiga natatória. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a produ

  13. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment

  14. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years

  15. Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava and Piper betle as Prevention on Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia Infection in African Catfish (Clarias sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available An effort to prevent Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia (MAS disease in African catfish (Clarias sp. performed using antibiotic was less safety and expensive ways.  An herbal medicine may be able to be a safety and cheap way to prevent of the MAS disease.  This study was conducted to determine efficacy of herbal medicine combination of sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata, daun jambu (Psidium guajava and daun sirih (Piper betle. Herbal medicines were mixed to diet and fish were fed on the diet containing the herbal medicine for 7 days of rearing.  The dosage of herbal medicine per 100 gram of diet was PI (1.0 g sambiloto, 0.75 g daun jambu and 0.25 g daun sirih, PII (1.0 g sambiloto,  0.50 g daun jambu,  0.50 g daun sirih, and PIII (1.0 g sambiloto, 0.25 g daun jambu, and 0.75 g daun sirih.  On 8th day, fish were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of Aeromonas hydrophila (105 cfu/ml every 1 kg of fish.  Clinical symptom, feed response, fish weight, number of fish survive and visually changing of internal organs.  The results of study indicated that administration of herbal medicine A. paniculata, P. guajava and P. betle mixed into the diet effectively prevented A. hydrophila infection.  Combination of 1.0 gram A. paniculata, 0.75 gram P. guajava and 0.25 gram P. betle gave higher efficacy against A. hydrophila infection. Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava, Piper betle, Motile Aeromonad septicaemia, African catfish   ABSTRAK Upaya penanggulangan penyakit MAS (Motil Aeromonad Septicaemia pada ikan lele dumbo (Clarias sp. yang dilakukan menggunakan antibiotik cenderung kurang aman dan mahal. Pencegahan menggunakan obat herbal diharapkan dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut secara aman dan murah.  Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas obat herbal kombinasi sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata, daun jambu biji (Psidium guajava dan sirih (Piper betle dengan dosis berbeda yang diberikan melalui pakan selama 7 hari.

  16. Isolation and initial characterisation of complement components C3 and C4 of the nurse shark and the channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, A W; Smith, S L; Levine, R P; Willis, A C

    1998-01-01

    Complement components C3 and C4 have been isolated from the serum of the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) and of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). As in the higher vertebrates, the fish C4 proteins have three-chain structures while the C3 proteins have two-chain structures. All four proteins have intra-chain thioesters located within their highest molecular mass polypeptides. N-terminal sequence analysis of the polypeptides has confirmed the identity of the proteins. In all cases except the catfish C3 alpha-chain, which appears to have a blocked N-terminus, sequence similarities are apparent in comparisons with the chains of C3 and C4 from higher vertebrates. We have confirmed that the activity/protein previously designated C2n is the nurse shark analogue of mammalian C4. This is the first report of structural evidence for C4 in both the bony and cartilaginous fish.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants and histological lesions in Mayan catfish Ariopsis assimilis from the Bay of Chetumal, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreña-Barroso, E; Simá-Alvarez, R; Gold-Bouchot, G; Zapata-Pérez, O

    2004-02-01

    Livers of catfish (Ariopsis assimilis) from the Bay of Chetumal were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and hydrocarbons as part of a study to diagnose the environmental health of the Bay after a catfish mass mortality that occurred in 1996. The presence of histological lesions in several organs of the fish as result of chemical exposure was also evaluated. The concentrations of organic pollutants found in the Bay may be considered high if compared to the levels reported for sites affected by chemical pollution. High prevalences of cellular alteration histopathologies were found in liver, including hepatic tumors. The presence of some lesions may be related statistically to environmental pollution in the Bay, specially with chlorinated compounds.

  18. Changes in brain monoamine levels and monoamine oxidase activity in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, during chronic treatments with mercurials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirubagaran, R.; Joy, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    In mammals, the central nervous system is the primary target for CH 3 Hg poisoning which is clinically known as Minamata disease. Hg is a widely recognized neurotoxin and has been reported to impair brain monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism. Reports on effects of Hg on brain monoamine activity in fishes are scarce. In the present study, therefore, changes in the brain monoamine levels and the degradation enzyme, monoamine oxidase (MAO), are described in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, exposed to sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 -inorganic Hg), methylmercuric chloride (CH 3 HgCl-organic Hg), and a commercial mercurial fungicide formulation, emisan 6 (methoxyethyl Hg-organic Hg) for 45, 90 and 180 d during gonadal recrudescence. These intervals correspond to late preparatory, prespawning and spawning phases, respectively, of the annual reproductive cycle of the catfish

  19. Discovering the African freshwater "torpedo": legendary Ethiopia, religious controversies, and a catfish capable of reanimating dead fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolino, Marco; Finger, Stanley; Barbara, Jean-Gaël

    2011-07-01

    The electric catfishes of African rivers and lakes, once depicted on Egyptian tomb art, have been largely overlooked in histories and reviews of electric fish biology and animal electricity. This article examines how Westerners, especially Dominican and Jesuit missionaries, discovered them in Ethiopia and other parts of Africa at the beginning of the seventeenth century. What transpired took place against the backdrop of tales involving the Bible, Prester John's mythical empire, and imaginary animals with fabulous powers. In effect, how they were found is related to attempts to convert Ethiopian Christians to true Catholicism, hopes of discovering great riches, and opportunities to trade, and not with the efforts of skilled natural philosophers to document and conduct experiments on the wildlife of this continent. Nevertheless, the early descriptions by Europeans circulated, and during the next century these catfishes began to be used in experiments that helped to make animal electricity a reality.

  20. Status of FED/INTOR electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.

    1983-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the electromagnetic studies, calculations, and conclusions in the evolution of the base design of FED/INTOR (Fusion Engineering Device/International Tokamak Reactor). The electromagnetic feastures include the startup, control, disruptions, and design of structures. This report provides information concerning the evolution of the electromagnetic studies on FED and the justification for the eddy current design feature. The report shows that a major design feature required is the provision of a low induction and resistive path for toroidal currents to flow in the structures in order to provide self-stabilization and to manage the disruption energy dissipation

  1. First record of the Indo-Pacific striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787 from Turkish marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Ahmet Doğdu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three specimens of striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787 were caught by a spear gun at depths of 20 m on 4 April 2016 from Iskenderun Bay (Çevlik harbour, Northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. With the present study, P. lineatus is the first time reported from Turkish marine waters, in the Iskenderun Bay, the Northeastern Mediterranean and also this is the first Plotosid species recorded from Turkish Seas.

  2. The Indo-Pacific striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787, (Osteichtyes: Siluriformes, a new record from the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Golani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787, is recorded for the first time from the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel. Seventeen specimens of this highly-venomous fish were caught by a commercial trawler at depths of 20 m. This species´ occurrence in the Mediterranean is the result of migration from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal (Lessepsian migration.

  3. Gelatin hydrolysates from farmed Giant catfish skin using alkaline proteases and its antioxidative function of simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2016-02-01

    This work aims to evaluate the ability of different alkaline proteases to prepare active gelatin hydrolysates. Fish skin gelatin was hydrolysed by visceral alkaline-proteases from Giant catfish, commercial trypsin, and Izyme AL®. All antioxidant activity indices of the hydrolysates increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (Pfish skin, could serve as a potential source of functional food ingredients for health promotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex-biased miRNAs in gonad and their potential roles for testis development in yellow catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  5. Stable carbon and nitrogen incorporation in blood and fin tissue of the catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    German, Donovan P.; Miles, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    A feeding trial was performed in the laboratory with the catfish species Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus to determine stable carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15 N) turnover rates and discrimination factors in non-lethally sampled tissues (red blood cells, plasma solutes, and fin). A second feeding trial was conducted to determine what P. disjunctivus could assimilate from low-quality wood-detritus—refractory polysaccharides (e.g., cellulose), or soluble wood-degradation products inherent in wood-detr...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECEPTOR FOR GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN THE PITUITARY OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH, CLARIAS-GARIEPINUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, R.; Conn, P. M.; van't Veer, C.; Goos, H. J.; van Oordt, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were characterized using a radioligand prepared from a superactive analog of salmon GnRH (sGnRH), D-Arg(6)-Pro(9)-sGnRH-NEt (sGnRHa). Binding of(125)I-sGnRHa to catfish pituitary membrane fractions reached equilibrium after 2 h incubation at 4°C.

  7. Redescription of Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of clariid catfishes in Africa with a unique glandular apical organ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.; Beletew, M.; Mahmoud, Z. N.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2009), s. 443-449 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Proteocephalidae * Africa * catfishes * apical organ * morphology * redescription Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  8. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 2: Technology definition package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). The demonstration plan would culminate with test firings of a 3.05 m (120 inch) diameter hybrid booster.

  9. Determination of Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability in the Small Intestine of Catfish (Pangasius djambal by Using the 32P Radioisotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sugoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotic potency in the small instestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish.The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days.

  10. Determination of Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability in the Small Intestine of Catfish (Pangasius djambal by Using the 32P Radioisotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sugoro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotic potency in the small instestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish.The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days. Received: 04 October 2014 Revised: 26 March 2015; Accepted: 05 April 2015

  11. Impact of feed additives on surface mucosal health and columnaris susceptibility in channel catfish fingerlings, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Honggang; Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin H; Zhang, Ran; Thongda, Wilawan; Davis, D Allen; Peatman, Eric

    2015-10-01

    One of the highest priority areas for improvement in aquaculture is the development of dietary additives and formulations which provide for complete mucosal health and protection of fish raised in intensive systems. Far greater attention has been paid to dietary impact on gut health than to protective effects at other mucosal surfaces such as skin and gill. These exterior surfaces, however, are important primary targets for pathogen attachment and invasion. Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease, is among the most prevalent of all freshwater disease-causing bacteria, impacting global aquaculture of catfish, salmonids, baitfish and aquaria-trade species among others. This study evaluated whether the feeding of a standard catfish diet supplemented with Alltech dietary additives Actigen(®), a concentrated source of yeast cell wall-derived material and/or Allzyme(®) SSF, a fermented strain of Aspergillus niger, could offer protection against F. columnare mortality. A nine-week feeding trial of channel catfish fingerlings with basal diet (B), B + Allzyme(®) SSF, B + Actigen(®) and B + Actigen(®)+Allzyme(®) SSF revealed good growth in all conditions (FCR additives may provide protection extending beyond the gut to surface mucosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of lactic acid bacteria viability in the small intestine of catfish (Pangasius Djambal) by using the 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugoro, I.; Citraresmini, A.; Murni, A.P.; Fairuz, D.

    2015-01-01

    The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotics potency in the small intestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish. The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the small intestine of fish by using the 32 P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal) was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32 P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32 P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days. (author)

  13. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Stafford, James L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W; Blazer, Vicki S

    2014-09-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Goliath catfish spawning in the far western Amazon confirmed by the distribution of mature adults, drifting larvae and migrating juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthem, Ronaldo B; Goulding, Michael; Leite, Rosseval G; Cañas, Carlos; Forsberg, Bruce; Venticinque, Eduardo; Petry, Paulo; Ribeiro, Mauro L de B; Chuctaya, Junior; Mercado, Armando

    2017-02-06

    We mapped the inferred long-distance migrations of four species of Amazonian goliath catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, B. platynemum, B. juruense and B. vaillantii) based on the presence of individuals with mature gonads and conducted statistical analysis of the expected long-distance downstream migrations of their larvae and juveniles. By linking the distribution of larval, juvenile and mature adult size classes across the Amazon, the results showed: (i) that the main spawning regions of these goliath catfish species are in the western Amazon; (ii) at least three species-B. rousseauxii, B. platynemum, and B. juruense-spawn partially or mainly as far upstream as the Andes; (iii) the main spawning area of B. rousseauxii is in or near the Andes; and (iv) the life history migration distances of B. rousseauxii are the longest strictly freshwater fish migrations in the world. These results provide an empirical baseline for tagging experiments, life histories extrapolated from otolith microchemistry interpretations and other methods to establish goliath catfish migratory routes, their seasonal timing and possible return (homing) to western headwater tributaries where they were born.

  15. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  16. Environmental comparison of intensive and integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems for striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, based on two existing case studies using life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluts, I.N.; Potting, J.M.B.; Bosma, R.H.; Phong, L.T.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is the largest producer for the export of striped catfish. Traditionally striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta took place in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems, but has shifted recently to intensive systems to meet increasing export demands. A recent study quantified the

  17. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Rothe, K.E.; Minkoff, M.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  18. FUZZY SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER FOR DOUBLY FED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-31

    Dec 31, 2010 ... against internal and external perturbations, but the FSMC is superior to ... controller, doubly fed induction motor, fuzzy logic control. 1. ... capabilities in accounting for modeling imprecision and bounded disturbances. It ..... To show the effect of the parameters uncertainties, we have simulated the system with.

  19. FED, Geometry Input Generator for Program TRUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Elrod, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP (NESC 771). TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, or three dimensions. 2 - Method of solution: The region of interest must first be divided into areas which may consist of a common material. The boundaries of these areas are the required FED input. Each area is subdivided into volume nodes, and the geometrical properties are calculated. Finally, FED connects the adjacent nodes to one another, using the proper surface area, interface distance, and, if specified, radiation form factor and interface conductance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Rectangular bodies can only be approximated by using a very large radius of revolution compared to the total radial thickness and by considering only a small angular segment in the circumferential direction

  20. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  1. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  2. Isolation and Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Floating cages in Bozem Moro Krembangan Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, Rahayu; Kismiyati; Sudarno; Kurniawan, Hendi; Teguh Prayogi, Yudha

    2017-02-01

    Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is one of the familiar freshwater fish cultured in Indonesia farmer. One of the reason is the high mortality of the catfish infected by Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) is a common bacterial disease, caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which affects freshwater fish. In Southeast Asia, the outbreak of this disease was firstly reported from West Java in 1980, when a total of 82.5 tons a month of catfish were lost, while in Central Java in 1984, the total loss was 1.6 tons. Saprolegniosis can cause economic loss due to high mortality from its case reaching 10% to 50%. This research aimed to identify and determine the percentage of A. hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. the catfish farmed in bozem Moro Krembangan, Surabaya, East Java. Meanwhile, a supporting parameter in this research is the value of water quality parameter including pH, temperature, ammonia and dissolved oxygen that were measured during sampling. The results showed that of the 20 samples taken from the two cages, 19 fish were positively infected by A. drophila. percentage of infections of A. hydrophila that infect umbo catfish in Moro Krembangan, was 95%, while the percentage Saprolegnia sp. was 90%.

  3. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunhua Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS, caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh, is emerging as a major disease in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that predispose catfish to vAh infection and establish a waterborne challenge model that mimics natural occurrence of MAS. Results of this study indicated that wounding on the fish body surface was one of the key factors that predisposed catfish to vAh infection via waterborne route. Relatively uniform wounds were created by clipping part of the fish adipose fin. Adipose fin clipped (Af-clipped fish behaved normally in terms of swimming and feeding and no mortality occurred in the control treatment (a mock challenge. When subjected to challenge in vAh-infected water, Af-clipped fish were highly susceptible, showing typical symptoms of MAS observed in the field. The mortality rate of Af-clipped fish was significantly associated with vAh concentration, challenge time and water temperature. About 90% mortality occurred within 48 h when Af-clipped fish were challenged for 1 h with vAh at the concentration of 2 × 107 colony forming units per mL of water (27 ± 1 °C. The waterborne challenge model was further tested using four field isolates including A. hydrophila and A. veronii. All vAh isolates caused about 90% mortality of Af-clipped fish and one isolate of Aeromonas veronii caused no mortality under the same challenge conditions. The waterborne challenge model described in this study would facilitate urgently-needed studies of MAS prevention (such as wound avoidance and healing and control (such as prophylactic vaccination; antibiotics treatment and probiotics screening. Keywords: Adipose fin, Channel catfish, Motile Aeromonas septicemia, Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, Waterborne challenge

  4. General concept of a gas engine for a hybrid vehicle, operating on methanol dissociation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Aleinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Schindler, Y.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a general concept of a hybrid propulsion system, based on an SI internal combustion engine fueled by methanol dissociation products (MDP). The proposed hybrid propulsion scheme is a series hybrid, which allows the engine to be operated in an on-off mode at constant optimal regime. The engine is fed by gaseous products of methanol dissociation (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) emerging from an on-board catalytic reformer. The general scheme and base operation features of the propulsion system are described. The benefits that may be achieved by combining the well-known idea of on-board methanol dissociation with the hybrid vehicle concept are discussed. The proposed scheme is compared with those of systems operating on gasoline, liquid methanol, hydrogen and also with the multi-regime (not hybrid) engine fed by MDP

  5. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  6. sharptooth catfish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-28

    Feb 28, 2010 ... metal toxicity (Muramoto, 1980; James et al., 1998). Effects of ...... non-nutritive molecules (Hopson and Wessels, 1990; Sorensen,. 1991; Kimball, 1983) ..... DURAL M, GÖKSU MZL and ÖZAK AA (2007) Investigation of heavy metal ... HEM JD (1977) Reactions of metal ions at surfaces of hydrous iron oxide.

  7. Human Blood Feeding Activity of Female Hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Manabu; Mine, Mariko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Oda, Tsutomu; Kato, Katsutomo; Ogawa, Yasunori; Eshita, Yuuki; Uchida, Keikichi

    2007-01-01

    Human blood feeding activity was examined in females of hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus during long photoperiod at 25℃. Blood feeding rates of hybrids were lower than in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pallens, and higher than in Culex pipiens pipiens, because no females fed on human blood in Culex pipiens pipiens.

  8. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, A.; Singh, R.; Chakrabarty, S.; Murugananthkumar, R.; Laldinsangi, C.; Prathibha, Y.; Sudhakumari, C.C.; Dutta-Gupta, A. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Senthilkumaran, B., E-mail: bsksl@uohyd.ernet.in [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 {mu}g/L) and flutamide (33 {mu}g/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100

  9. Growth and survival of silver catfish larvae, Rhamdia quelen (Heptapteridae, at different calcium and magnesium concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise Vargas Flores da Silva

    Full Text Available Since the relative ratios of Ca2+ and Mg2+ can vary greatly from one water body to another, and lime used for the increase of water hardness or pH can have different ratios of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in its composition, the objective of this study was to analyze the growth and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, larvae at different calcium and magnesium concentrations. After fertilization, eggs were randomly divided into 4 treatments (three replicates per treatment with different concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ at hardness values of 70 mg.L-1 CaCO3 (mg.L-1 : 5.2 Ca2+ and 14.12 Mg2+; 13.11 Ca2+ and 7.11 Mg2+; 20.26 Ca2+ and 2.86 Mg2+; 24.95 Ca2+ and 0.95 Mg2+ and 150 mg.L-1 CaCO3 (mg.L-1 : 5.2 Ca2+ and 32.70 Mg2+; 28.63 Ca2+ and 16.44 Mg2+; 44.68 Ca2+and 6.44 Mg2+; 62.78 Ca2+ and 0.95 Mg2+. There was also another group exposed to water hardness of 20 mg.L-1 CaCO3 (Ca2+ 5.2 mg.L-1 and Mg2+ 0.95 mg.L-1 at both experiments. The post-hatch larvae were transferred to continuously aerated 40 L polyethylene aquaria (400 larvae/tank containing the same water as used for incubation. Samples of larvae were collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 21, and the length, weight, and specific growth rate were determined for each collection. Survival and biomass were calculated on day 21. At water hardness of 70 mg.L-1 CaCO3, the best survival and growth of silver catfish larvae was observed at water with 20.26 mg.L-1 Ca2+ and 2.89 mg.L-1 Mg2+, with similar results to the group exposed to water hardness of 20 mg.L-1 CaCO3. However, compared to the group exposed to water hardness of 20 mg.L-1 CaCO3, survival and growth were lower at 150 mg.L-1 CaCO3. Therefore, a hardness range of 20 to 70 mg.L-1 CaCO3 is recommended for silver catfish larviculture, but with 20.26 mg.L-1 Ca2+ and 2.89 mg.L-1 Mg2+ at 70 mg.L-1 CaCO3. Water hardness of 150 mg.L-1 CaCO3 is not recommended for this species.

  10. A deletion in the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 4 (Hps4) gene appears to be responsible for albinism in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueru; Geng, Xin; Bao, Lisui; Elaswad, Ahmed; Huggins, Kevin W; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-06-01

    Albinism is caused by a series of genetic abnormalities leading to reduction of melanin production. Albinism is quite frequent in catfish, but the causative gene and the molecular basis were unknown. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the 250 K SNP array. The GWAS analysis allowed mapping of the albino phenotype in the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 4 (Hps4) gene, which is known to be involved in melanosome biosynthesis. Sequencing analysis revealed that a 99-bp deletion was present in all analyzed albino catfish at the intron 2 and exon 3 junction. This deletion led to the skipping of the entire exon 3 which was confirmed by RT-PCR. Therefore, Hps4 was determined to be the candidate gene of the catfish albinism.

  11. Active load current sharing in fuel cell and battery fed DC motor drive for electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pany, Premananda; Singh, R.K.; Tripathi, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Load current sharing in FC and battery fed dc drive. • Active current sharing control using LabVIEW. • Detail hardware implementation. • Controller performance is verified through MATLAB simulation and experimental results. - Abstract: In order to reduce the stress on fuel cell based hybrid source fed electric drive system the controller design is made through active current sharing (ACS) technique. The effectiveness of the proposed ACS technique is tested on a dc drive system fed from fuel cell and battery energy sources which enables both load current sharing and source power management. High efficiency and reliability of the hybrid system can be achieved by proper energy conversion and management of power to meet the load demand in terms of required voltage and current. To overcome the slow dynamics feature of FC, a battery bank of adequate power capacity has to be incorporated as FC voltage drops heavily during fast load demand. The controller allows fuel cell to operate in normal load region and draw the excess power from battery. In order to demonstrate the performance of the drive using ACS control strategy different modes of operation of the hybrid source with the static and dynamic behavior of the control system is verified through simulation and experimental results. This control scheme is implemented digitally in LabVIEW with PCI 6251 DAQ I/O interface card. The efficacy of the controller performance is demonstrated in system changing condition supplemented by experimental validation.

  12. Histological development of the digestive system of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, E; Moreira, C; Castro-Ruiz, D; Oztürk, S; Fernández, C; Gilles, S; Nuñez, J; Duponchelle, F; Tello, S; Renno, J F; García-Dávila, C; Darias, M J

    2014-11-01

    The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this

  13. Lens proteome map and alpha-crystallin profile of the catfish Rita rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Bhattacharjee, Soma; Das, Manas Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Crystallins are a diverse group of proteins that constitute nearly 90% of the total soluble proteins of the vertebrate eye lens and these tightly packed crystallins are responsible for transparency of the lens. These proteins have been studied in different model and non-model species for understanding the modifications they undergo with ageing that lead to cataract, a disease of protein aggregation. In the present investigation, we studied the lens crystallin profile of the tropical freshwater catfish Rita rita. Profiles of lens crystallins were analyzed and crystallin proteome maps of Rita rita were generated for the first time. alphaA-crystallins, member of the alpha-crystallin family, which are molecular chaperons and play crucial role in maintaining lens transparency were identified by 1- and 2-D immunoblot analysis with anti-alphaA-crystallin antibody. Two protein bands of 19-20 kDa were identified as alphaA-crystallins on 1-D immunoblots and these bands separated into 10 discrete spots on 2-D immunoblot. However, anti-alphaB-crystallin and antiphospho-alphaB-crystallin antibodies were not able to detect any immunoreactive bands on 1- and 2-D immunoblots, indicating alphaB-crystallin was either absent or present in extremely low concentration in Rita rita lens. Thus, Rita rita alpha-crystallins are more like that of the catfish Clarias batrachus and the mammal kangaroo in its alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin content (contain low amount from 5-9% of alphaB-crystallin) and unlike the dogfish, zebrafish, human, bovine and mouse alpha-crystallins (contain higher amount of alphaB-crystallin from 25% in mouse and bovine to 85% in dogfish). Results of the present study can be the baseline information for stimulating further investigation on Rita rita lens crystallins for comparative lens proteomics. Comparing and contrasting the alpha-crystallins of the dogfish and Rita rita may provide valuable information on the functional attributes of alphaA- and alphaB-isoforms, as

  14. Suplementação de fitase microbiana na dieta de alevinos de jundiá: efeito sobre o desempenho produtivo e as características de carcaça Dietary microbial phytase supplementation of silver catfish fingerlings: effect of performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Bastos Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da adição de diferentes níveis de fitase na dieta sobre o desempenho produtivo e as características de carcaça de alevinos de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen. Foram utilizados 208 alevinos com peso vivo inicial médio de 2,92±0,59g, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0, 500, 1.000 e 1.500FTU kg-1 e quatro repetições. Na composição das dietas, foram utilizados somente ingredientes de origem vegetal e o alimento foi fornecido duas vezes ao dia. A cada quinzena, foram avaliados os parâmetros produtivos e, ao término do período experimental (45 dias, foram ainda realizadas avaliações nas carcaças. O ganho de peso médio foi significativamente crescente (PThis study evaluated the effects of adding increasing levels of microbial phytase to diets on performance and carcass traits of silver catfish fingerlings (Rhamdia quelen. Two-hundred and eight silver catfish fingerlings (average initial weight: 2.92±0.59g were randomly allotted to 4 treatments (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 phytase units kg-1 of diet with 4 replications, in a completely randomized design. No animal protein was added to the diets. The experiment was conducted for 45 days and fish were fed twice daily. Effects of phytase on performance were measured each 15 days and carcass traits were evaluated at the end of trial. Increasing levels of phytase linearly improved weight gain, from 1.24±0.27g (no phytase to 1.73±0.23g (1500PU kg-1 of diet (P<0.05; and rate of specific growth, from 0.78±0.12% (no phytase to 1.07±0.11% (1500PU kg-1 of diet (P<0.05. However, ether extract of carcass was linearly reduced, from 13.54±0.02% (no phytase to 10.59±0.10% (1500PU kg-1 of diet (P<0.05. Increasing levels of dietary microbial phytase, up to 1500PU kg-1 of diet, improve performance and carcass traits of silver catfish fingerlings.

  15. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  16. Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor induction motor ... at speeds up to double rated without the magnetic flux reducing is presented. ... Keywords: power, double-fed wound-rotor induction motor drive, steel and ...

  17. Engineering testing requirements in FED/INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Nygren, R.E.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.A.; Wire, G.; Oppermann, E.; Puigh, R.; Gold, R.E.

    1982-10-01

    The FED/INTOR critical issues activity has addressed three key testing requirements that have the largest impact on the design, operation and cost of FED/INTOR. These are: (1) the total testing time (fluence) during the device lifetime, (2) the minimum number of back-to-back cycles, and (3) the neutron wall load (power density in the first wall/blanket). The testing program activities were structured into three tasks in order to define the benefits, and in some cases, costs and risks of these testing requirements. The three tasks were carried out with wide participation of experts from a number of organizations in the United States. Similar effort was performed by Japan, the European Community and the Soviet Union

  18. An Unusual Accumulation of Ribosomal Multigene Families and Microsatellite DNAs in the XX/XY Sex Chromosome System in the Trans-Andean Catfish Pimelodella cf. chagresi (Siluriformes:Heptapteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Saldaña, Cristhian Camilo; Barreto, Cynthia Aparecida Valiati; Villa-Navarro, Francisco Antonio; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2018-02-01

    This work constitutes the first cytogenetic characterization of a trans-Andean species of Heptapteridae. The catfish Pimelodella cf. chagresi from the Upper Rio Magdalena was studied, applying standard cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa, C-banding, and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region [Ag-NOR]) and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques using repetitive DNA probes: microsatellites (CA 15 and GA 15 ) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) multigene families (18S and 5S recombinant DNA [rDNA] probes). The species showed a unique diploid chromosome number 2n = 50 (32m [metacentrics] +14sm [submetacentrics] +4st [subtelocentrics]) and a XX/XY sex chromosomal system, where the heteromorphic Y-chromosome revealed a conspicuous accumulation of all the assayed domains of repetitive DNA. P. cf. chagresi karyotype shares common features with other Heptapteridae, such as the predominance of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, and one pair of subtelomeric nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). These results reflect an independent karyological identity of a trans-Andean species and the relevance of repetitive DNA sequences in the process of sex chromosome differentiation in fish; it is the first case of syntenic accumulation of rRNA multigene families (18S and 5S rDNA) and microsatellite sequences (CA 15 and GA 15 ) in a differentiated sex chromosome in Neotropical fish.

  19. Determination of niclosamide residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillet tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Dawson, V.K.; Cho, Yirang; Spanjers, N.J.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Bayluscide [the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide (NIC)] is a registered piscicide used in combination with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to control sea lamprey populations in streams tributary to the Great Lakes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of NIC residues in muscle fillet tissues of fish exposed to NIC and TFM during sea lamprey control treatments. NIC was extracted from fortified channel catfish and rainbow trout fillet tissue with a series of acetone extractions and cleaned up on C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. NIC concentrations were determined by HPLC with detection at 360 and 335 nm for rainbow trout and catfish, respectively. Recovery of NIC from rainbow trout (n = 7) fortified at 0.04 mu g/g was 77 +/- 6.5% and from channel catfish (n = 7) fortified at 0.02 mu g/g was 113 +/- 11%. NIC detection limit was 0.0107 mu g/g for rainbow trout and 0.0063 mu g/g for catfish. Percent recovery of incurred radioactive residues by this method from catfish exposed to [C-14]NIC was 89.3 +/- 4.1%. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for rainbow trout (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 78 +/- 5.1 and 68 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for channel catfish (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 88 +/- 13 and 76 +/- 21%, respectively.

  20. Sky Subtraction with Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Myriam

    2017-09-01

    "Historically, fiber-fed spectrographs had been deemed inadequate for the observation of faint targets, mainly because of the difficulty to achieve high accuracy on the sky subtraction. The impossibility to sample the sky in the immediate vicinity of the target in fiber instruments has led to a commonly held view that a multi-object fibre spectrograph cannot achieve an accurate sky subtraction under 1% contrary to their slit counterpart. The next generation of multi-objects spectrograph at the VLT (MOONS) and the planed MOS for the E-ELT (MOSAIC) are fiber-fed instruments, and are aimed to observed targets fainter than the sky continuum level. In this talk, I will present the state-of-art on sky subtraction strategies and data reduction algorithm specifically developed for fiber-fed spectrographs. I will also present the main results of an observational campaign to better characterise the sky spatial and temporal variations ( in particular the continuum and faint sky lines)."

  1. Pemberian Pakan Yang Difermentasikan Dengan Probiotik Untuk Pemeliharaan Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias Gariepinus) Pada Teknologi Bioflok Feed Fermented Using Probiotic for African Catfish in Biofloc Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yulianingrum, Triwahyu; Pamukas, Niken Ayu; Putra, Iskandar

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of feeding fermented with probiotic on, absolute body weight, absolute body length, specific growth rate, survival, feed efficiency and feed conversion rate of African catfish preserved biofloc techniques. The treatment in this study was the dose used for the fermentation of feed are 2 ml / kg (P1), 4 ml / kg (P2), 6 ml / kg (P3), and control (feed without fermented). Each treatment was repeated 3 times. 4-5 cm catfish were kept in the plastic tank wit...

  2. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) chetumalensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from the Mayan sea catfish, Ariopsis assimilis, off the Caribbean coast of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2002-08-01

    Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) chetumalensis n. sp. is described from the stomach and intestine of the Mayan sea catfish Ariopsis assimilis (Günther, 1864), from the Bay of Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México. It is characterized by bifurcate deirids; males have 3 pairs of preanal papillae, 6 pairs of postanal papillae, 2 pairs of transverse elongate adanal papillae surrounding the cloacal aperture, wide caudal alae, spicules of unequal length, and a gubernaculum, and females have a rounded tail bearing a digit-like process terminating in 2 spines. This is the seventh Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) species reported from fishes in Mexico and the first one recorded in sea catfishes of the Ariidae.

  3. Records of the endemic and threatened catfish, Hemibagrus punctuates from the southern Western Ghats with notes on its distribution, ecology and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nilgiri Mystus, Hemibagrus punctatus, a rare bagrid catfish endemic to the Western Ghats, has been currently listed in the IUCN Red List, as Critically Endangered with a possibility that it could be extinct. The last validated record of H. punctatus was known to be in 1998, and several surveys since then have not been able to collect the species from its native range. In this paper, we provide information on new records of this rare catfish from the Western Ghats after a period of 14 years, and discuss its distribution, ecology and conservation. An updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List Criteria is also provided.

  4. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  5. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  6. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  7. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  8. Age and growth of the Duckbill Catfish (Sorubim cf. lima in the Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. F. Penha

    Full Text Available The Duckbill Catfish, Sorubim lima, is a predator of large South American rivers. The age and growth of S. lima were studied based on the pectoral fin-spines of samples collected from the Cuiabá River, Pantanal. The samples were taken from commercial and experimental hook-and-line fishing. An analysis of the marginal increment suggests that the growth rings are formed once a year during the dry season, from July to September (ANOVA type I: F = 4.183; g.l. = 3 and 104; p = 0.008. The estimate of the parameters that describe von Bertalanffy's growth curve by nonlinear regression of the observed lengths in the age were: L¥ = 56.0 cm (fork length; k = 0.245 year-1; t o = -2.605 years. The animals were estimated to have a life span of 9.6 years. The findings indicate that the fork length is a good predictor of the age of individuals of this fish species.

  9. Sound production to electric discharge: sonic muscle evolution in progress in Synodontis spp. catfishes (Mochokidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kelly S; Colleye, Orphal; Parmentier, Eric

    2014-09-22

    Elucidating the origins of complex biological structures has been one of the major challenges of evolutionary studies. Within vertebrates, the capacity to produce regular coordinated electric organ discharges (EODs) has evolved independently in different fish lineages. Intermediate stages, however, are not known. We show that, within a single catfish genus, some species are able to produce sounds, electric discharges or both signals (though not simultaneously). We highlight that both acoustic and electric communication result from actions of the same muscle. In parallel to their abilities, the studied species show different degrees of myofibril development in the sonic and electric muscle. The lowest myofibril density was observed in Synodontis nigriventris, which produced EODs but no swim bladder sounds, whereas the greatest myofibril density was observed in Synodontis grandiops, the species that produced the longest sound trains but did not emit EODs. Additionally, S. grandiops exhibited the lowest auditory thresholds. Swim bladder sounds were similar among species, while EODs were distinctive at the species level. We hypothesize that communication with conspecifics favoured the development of species-specific EOD signals and suggest an evolutionary explanation for the transition from a fast sonic muscle to electrocytes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of artificial photoperiod on the blood cell indices of the catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srivastava

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to assess the influence of artificial photoperiod on the blood cell indices of an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus(Linn.. Blood samples taken from adult fishes exposed to artificial photoperiod of 24L:0D and 0L:24D for a short period of 24 hrs, were analyzed for total RBC, total WBC, differential leukocyte count (DLC and some physiological variables – glucose and chloride. The total RBC and WBC counts were unaffected by both the artificial photoperiod regimes. However, lymphopenia (p<.05 and neutrophilia (p<.05 were observed under 24L:0D photoperiod. Blood chloride levels were significantly higher (p<.05 in 24L:0D whereas blood glucose levels remained unchanged in both the photoperiod treatments. The 0L:24D photoperiod did not produce any significant change in the blood cell indices neither in the physiological variables. The findings indicate that exposure to continuous light for as short a duration as of 24 hrs elicits stress responses in the leukocyte profile of this nocturnal fish and highlights the role of leukocyte profile as potential stress biomarkers in vertebrates.

  11. Stress and Welfare of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 in a Coupled Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Baßmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were investigated for physiological stress parameters to assess the influence of different cultivation techniques on fish welfare. The fish were reared in two conceptually identical recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS constructed in a greenhouse. One system was combined with a floating raft hydroponic unit to culture cucumbers (Cucumis sativus only using the process water. The second system remained without the plant cultivation unit and functioned as the control. Water quality was monitored regularly by measuring dissolved nutrients and physical water parameters. During 87 days, a total of 71 fish from each system (n = 142 were studied, with a final sampling of all fish (n = 107 at the end of the experiment. Blood from the caudal vein was analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol and the glucose concentration. In addition, fish were investigated for external injuries on their skin, fins and barbels. The results demonstrate that the system design had no influence on fish mortalities and growth rates. Furthermore, cortisol and blood glucose levels did not differ significantly between the two systems. However, the number of external injuries was significantly lower in the aquaponics, providing evidence that co-cultivation of fish and plants might offer benefits to the welfare of the fish.

  12. Growth, feeding and reproduction of the catfish Eremophilus mutisii (Pisces: Trichomycteridae), from artificial reservoirs in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Gabriel; Abril, Maritza; González, Esperanza

    2006-06-01

    The catfish, Eremophilus mutisii, was cultured under different densities in artificial rainfall reservoirs at Caldas, Boyacá, Colombia. At capture, the average total length of the animals was 10 cm and the weight ranged between 9 and 10 g. These fish were in initial stages of sexual development. After a year in the reservoirs, they had increased in length and weight as follows (densities in parentheses): 5.22 cm and 27.23 g (0.5 individuals/m2); 1.98 cm and 8.79 g (1 individual/m2), and 2.45 cm and 0.82 g (2 individuals/m2). They were at the early stages of sexual maturity, and their condition factor fluctuated between 0.61 and 0.96. They preferably ingested insect larvae that were found in benthic and littoral communities of the reservoirs. The benthos was dominated by ephippia of Daphnia, lumbriculids, and chironomid larvae. The biomass of benthic organisms ranged between 0.1126 and 1.3847 g/m2. In the littoral community aquatic insects were the most important component, especially the hemipterans. The biomass of the littoral fauna ranged between 0.14 and 4.05 g/m2.

  13. Impact of Red Water System (RWS) application on water quality of catfish culture using aquaponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahidah; Dhahiyat, Y.; Andriani, Y.; Sahidin, A.; Farizi, I.

    2018-03-01

    This study aim was to analyze the effect of Red Water System (RWS) probiotics application on water quality in aquaponic system. The research used experimental method using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments and three replications. Treatment A: RWS 7.5 μL·L-1/week without aquaponic probiotic, Treatment B: aquaponic without RWS probiotics, treatment C: RWS probiotic addition in aquaponic media at 7.5 μL·L-1/week, treatment D: addition of RWS probiotics in aquaponic media at 10 μL·L-1/week and treatment E: addition of RWS probiotics in in aquaponic media at 12.8 μL·L-1/week. Parameters measured were pH, temperature, ammonia, nitrate and phosphate. The results showed that water temperature and pH relatively unchanged in all treatments. The addition of RWS probiotics did not improve the concentration of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate. In fact, the catfish culture with only aquaponic resulted lower concentration of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate than other treatment. The lowest value of ammonia, nitrate and phosphates was obtained in the experimental groups of aquaponic with RWS of 10 μL·L-1/week (Treatment D). Treatment D has the lowest average ammonia of 0.50 ppm, reduced nitrate up to 60.78 % and temperature and pH relatively unchanged.

  14. Prediction of Toxin Genes from Chinese Yellow Catfish Based on Transcriptomic and Proteomic Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish venom remains a virtually untapped resource. There are so few fish toxin sequences for reference, which increases the difficulty to study toxins from venomous fish and to develop efficient and fast methods to dig out toxin genes or proteins. Here, we utilized Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco as our research object, since it is a representative species in Siluriformes with its venom glands embedded in the pectoral and dorsal fins. In this study, we set up an in-house toxin database and a novel toxin-discovering protocol to dig out precise toxin genes by combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing. Finally, we obtained 15 putative toxin proteins distributed in five groups, namely Veficolin, Ink toxin, Adamalysin, Za2G and CRISP toxin. It seems that we have developed a novel bioinformatics method, through which we could identify toxin proteins with high confidence. Meanwhile, these toxins can also be useful for comparative studies in other fish and development of potential drugs.

  15. Ecological implications of floods on the parasite communities of two freshwater catfishes in a Neotropical floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Priscilla de Oliveira Fadel; Yamada, Fabio Hideki; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Anjos, Luciano Alves Dos

    2017-06-01

    The parasite communities of two freshwater catfishes (Auchenipterus osteomystax and Trachelyopterus galeatus) were analyzed during the dry and rainy seasons in a Neotropical floodplain. The nature of river-floodplain systems places specific demands on parasite community structure, due to changes in the host environment. It was therefore hypothesized that flood conditions lead to an increase in the richness and abundance of fish parasites in the rainy season at the mouth of Aguapeí River floodplain. The Auchenipterus osteomystax parasite community was richer (11 vs. eight) in species than T. galeatus, although the latter exhibited a greater parasite burden (F1,108 = 126.99, PFlood conditions during the rainy season caused a change in the composition and structure of the parasitic communities. The results corroborate the hypothesis that floods are one of the most significant influences on shaping the parasite communities of fish in floodplains. Our greatest concern is the reduction these dynamics and effects bring about on local biota and, consequently, in host-parasite interaction. We would therefore like to take this opportunity to warn environmental agencies and hydroelectric companies about the importance of the conservation of the diversity of this location.

  16. A fossil loricariid catfish (Siluriformes: Loricarioidea from the Taubaté Basin, eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Malabarba

    Full Text Available A new loricariid catfish is described from the Tremembé Formation (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene sediments of the Taubaté Basin in eastern São Paulo State, Brazil. Taubateia paraiba, new genus and species, is based on a single specimen preserved as a ventral-side impression of an articulated partial neurocranium, dorsal elements of the pectoral girdle and anterior vertebrae. The fossil is identified as belonging to family Loricariidae based on obvious overall similarity and the presence of diagnostic derived characters such as: odontodes, dorsal margin of metapterygoid contacting lateral ethmoid, presence of mesethmoid disk (condyle, and compound pterotic-supracleithrum bone. Also, as in most loricariids, the ossified transcapular (Baudelot's ligament plus basiocciptal lateral process form a prominent transverse wall at the occiput. Other derived characters preserved in Taubateia are synapomorphies at different levels within Loricariidae, including a wide and low parasphenoid, form of pterotic-supracleithrum, shape and position of the mesethmoid disk, a triangular lateral ethmoid with expanded posterolateral corner and a rounded and low ridge articulating with the metapterygoid, and a pointed distal margin of transverse process of the Weberian compound centrum. The derived characters recognized in this fossil are a distinctive combination for diagnosing a new genus and species but not for its unambiguous placements in any of the currently recognized loricariid subfamilies.

  17. Generation of viable progeny from dead brooders of endangered catfish Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip Kumar Majhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C. magur. Three hours after death, the gonads were excised, macroscopically examined and gamete viability was evaluated. Artificial fertilization was performed by mixing the sperm suspension with the eggs. Water was added after 1 min of mixing to activate the fertilization process. We observed 85%-93% fertilization success from gametes derived from dead donors as opposed to 90%-95% from those derived from live control donors. The embryos showed normal development and resulted in the generation of 88%-92% viable progeny, which was similar to the progeny derived from control donors (92%-93%. The results obtained in this study will have profound implications in enhancing the seed production of endangered C. magur and could potentially be applied to other key commercially or endangered fish species. Keywords: Biological sciences, Developmental biology, Zoology

  18. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis, to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.

  19. Otocinclus batmani, a new species of hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Colombia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lehmann A.

    Full Text Available A new species of the hypoptopomatine catfish genus Otocinclus is described from two localities in the upper Río Amazonas basin: a tributary of the Río Puré in Colombia and two tributaries to the Río Amazonas near Iquitos in Peru. The new taxon can be easily distinguished from all congeners, except Otocinclus cocama, by having a single, intensely pigmented, vertical W-shaped caudal fin spot and by having three discrete dark bands on dorsum, between the dorsal-fin base and the caudal fin. Otocinclus batmani differs from O. cocama by the absence of vertically elongated blotches from the dorsal midline to the ventral border of flanks, and by lacking a posterior extension of black pigmentation on the base of two central caudal-fin rays. Phylogenetic relationships of the new species are investigated and it is possibly more closely related to a clade formed by O. huaorani, O. mariae, O. bororo, O. mura, and O. cocama.

  20. A novel male-associated marker for sex identification in Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuankun; Pan, Zhengjun; Wang, Hui; Chang, Guoliang; Ding, Huaiyu

    2017-08-01

    The Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis is a promising aquaculture fish with sexual dimorphism that males grow 2-3 times faster than females. Therefore, all-male breeding could increase production of this fish, and sex-linked markers would be useful during the breeding process. In this study, a male-associated marker named PuGT54 was isolated in P. ussuriensis from a previously constructed microsatellite library. A total of 185 P. ussuriensis individuals containing 95 females and 90 males were used to test the usage of this maker. And results showed that sexes of all individuals were successfully identified, indicating the high reliability and accuracy of this marker for sex identification. Furthermore, the male-specific fragment amplified by this maker was cloned and sequenced, which was 118 base pairs in length. As homologous genes of this fragment was not found through BLASTn, detailed information of the male-specific fragment is unknown presently. Nevertheless, this marker would be helpful in conservation, breeding and ecological study of P. ussuriensis.