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Sample records for hybrid capture assay

  1. Nucleic acid hybridization assays employing dA-tailed capture probes. II. Advanced multiple capture methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaker, W.R.; Badri, H.; Lombardo, M.; Collins, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A fourth capture is added to the reversible target capture procedure. This results in an improved radioisotopic detection limit of 7.3 x 10(-21) mol of target. In addition, the standard triple capture method is converted into a nonradioactive format with a detection limit of under 1 amol of target. The principal advantage of nonradioactive detection is that the entire assay can be performed in about 1 h. Nucleic acids are released from cells in the presence of the (capture probe) which contains a 3'-poly(dA) sequence and the (labeled probe) which contains a detectable nonradioactive moiety such as biotin. After a brief hybridization in solution, the target is captured on oligo(dT) magnetic particles. The target is further purified from sample impurities and excess labeled probe by recapture either once or twice more on fresh magnetic particles. The highly purified target is then concentrated to 200 nl by recapture onto a poly(dT) nitrocellulose filter and rapidly detected with streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase using bromochloroindolyl phosphate and nitroblue tetrazolium. Using this procedure, as little as 0.25 amol of a target plasmid has been detected nonradioactively in crude samples in just 1 h without prior purification of the DNA and RNA. Finally, a new procedure called background capture is introduced to complement the background-reducing power of RTC

  2. Cross-reactivity profiles of hybrid capture II, cobas, and APTIMA human papillomavirus assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Sarah Nørgaard; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2016-01-01

    evaluated to what extent these can be explained by cross-reactivity, i.e. positive test results without evidence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The patterns of cross-reactivity have been thoroughly studied for hybrid capture II (HC2) but not yet for newer HPV assays although the manufacturers claimed...... no or limited frequency of cross-reactivity. In this independent study we evaluated the frequency of cross-reactivity for HC2, cobas, and APTIMA assays. Methods Consecutive routine cervical screening samples from 5022 Danish women, including 2859 from women attending primary screening, were tested...... with normal cytology and positive high-risk HPV test results were invited for repeated testing in 18 months. Results Cross-reactivity to low-risk genotypes was detected in 109 (2.2 %) out of 5022 samples on HC2, 62 (1.2 %) on cobas, and 35 (0.7 %) on APTIMA with only 10 of the samples cross-reacting on all 3...

  3. Detection of human papillomavirus in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma by hybrid capture II and PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Y; Kubo, E; Tsuzuki, S; Akagi, Y

    2008-11-01

    To elucidate the putative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma. Hybrid capture II (HC-II) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect HPV in pterygium (42 samples obtained from 40 patients) and conjunctival papilloma (8 samples from 6 patients). The amount of HPV DNA was evaluated by measurement of relative light units (RLUs) on a luminometer. All papilloma samples were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and HC-II. The RLU values for specimens of recurrent and re-recurrent papilloma were markedly higher than those for specimens of primary lesions. HPV was detected by PCR in 2 of 42 (4.8%) beta-globin-positive pterygium specimens, whereas HC-II showed that HPV was negative in all pterygium samples. Our results support the hypothesis that HPV DNA is associated with the pathogenesis of conjunctival papilloma, but not pterygium. RLU measurement by HC-II may serve as a marker for evaluating the activity of HPV in conjunctival tumours.

  4. Comparison of Hybrid Capture 2 Assay with Real-time-PCR for Detection and Quantitation of Hepatitis B Virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Farjana; Jahan, Munira; Lutful Moben, Ahmed; Tabassum, Shahina

    2014-01-01

    Both real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay can detect and quantify hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA. However, real-time-PCR can detect a wide range of HBV DNA, while HC2 assay could not detect lower levels of viremia. The present study was designed to detect and quantify HBV DNA by real-time-PCR and HC2 assay and compare the quantitative data of these two assays. A cross-sectional study was conducted in between July 2010 and June 2011. A total of 66 serologically diagnosed chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were selected for the study. Real-time-PCR and HC2 assay was done to detect HBV DNA. Data were analyzed by statistical Package for the social sciences (SPSS). Among 66 serologically diagnosed chronic hepatitis B patients 40 (60.61%) patients had detectable and 26 (39.39%) had undetectable HBV DNA by HC2 assay. Concordant results were obtained for 40 (60.61%) out of these 66 patients by real-time-PCR and HC2 assay with mean viral load of 7.06 ± 1.13 log 10 copies/ml and 6.95 ± 1.08 log 10 copies/ml, respectively. In the remaining 26 patients, HBV DNA was detectable by real-time-PCR in 20 patients (mean HBV DNA level was 3.67 ± 0.72 log 10 copies/ml. However, HBV DNA could not be detectable in six cases by the both assays. The study showed strong correlation (r = 0.915) between real-time-PCR and HC2 assay for the detection and quantification of HBV DNA. HC2 assay may be used as an alternative to real-time-PCR for CHB patients. How to cite this article: Majid F, Jahan M, Moben AL, Tabassum S. Comparison of Hybrid Capture 2 Assay with Real-time-PCR for Detection and Quantitation of Hepatitis B Virus DNA. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):31-35.

  5. Hybrid Capture 2 and cobas human papillomavirus assays perform similarly on SurePath samples from women with abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornari, D; Rebolj, M; Bjerregaard, B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In two laboratories (Departments of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospitals of Herlev and Hvidovre), we compared cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) assays using SurePath® samples from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS......) at ≥30 years and women after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). METHODS: Samples from 566 women with ASCUS and 411 women after treatment were routinely tested with HC2 and, thereafter, with cobas. Histological outcomes were retrieved from the Danish Pathology Data Base. We calculated...... the overall agreement between the assays, and compared their sensitivity and specificity for ≥CIN2. RESULTS: In women with ASCUS, HC2 and cobas testing results were similar in the two laboratories. The overall agreement was 91% (95% CI, 88-93). After CIN treatment, the overall agreement was 87% (95% CI, 82...

  6. Comparison of Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV and Hybrid Capture 2 Assays for Detection of HPV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yu, Shinae; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Various assays for detecting high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) have been introduced recently, including the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV assay. We sought to compare the performance of Abbott PCR to Hybrid Capture 2 for the detection of HR HPV. A total of 941 cervical swab specimens were obtained. We submitted all specimens for HR HPV detection with HC2 and Abbott PCR, and then additionally analyzed discordant and concordant positive results using restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) genotyping analysis. HC2 detected one of 13 HR HPV types in 12.3% (116/941) of cases, while Abbott PCR detected one of 14 detectable HR HPV types in 12.9% (121/941) of cases. The overall agreement rate was 97.3% with a kappa coefficient of 0.879. Discordant results between these two assays were observed in 25 cases. HC2 showed a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 95.9%, while Abbott PCR showed a sensitivity of 98.0% and specificity of 96.8% when using RFMP results as the gold standard. For HPV 16/18 detection, Abbott PCR showed 95.8%/88.9% sensitivity and 99.2%/99.8% specificity, respectively. The overall coinfection rate between HPV 16, 18 and non-16/18 was 9.9% (12/121) in Abbott PCR analysis. Considering its high agreement rate with HC2, higher sensitivity/specificity compared to HC2, and ability to differentiate HPV 16/18 from other HPV types, Abbott PCR could be a reliable laboratory testing method for the screening of HPV infections. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  7. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay...... (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons...... were evaluated for 15 HPV types common in both assays. A slightly higher proportion of samples tested positive by the HPV multiplex PCR than by the HCII-LiPA v2 assay. The sensitivities of the multiplex PCR assay relative to those of the HCII-LiPA v2 assay for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, for example...

  8. Comparison of analytical and clinical performance of CLART HPV2 genotyping assay to Linear Array and Hybrid Capture 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    to the Danish nation-wide Pathology Data Bank. For comparison of CLART and LA in terms of genotype detection, we calculated κ-coefficients, and proportions of overall and positive agreement. For comparison of CIN detection between CLART, LA, and HC2, we calculated the relative sensitivity and specificity......), and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) using samples stored in SurePath. METHODS: Residual material from 401 routine samples from women with abnormal cytology was tested by CLART, LA, and HC2 (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01671462, Ethical Committee approval: H-2012-070). Histological outcomes were ascertained by linkage...... for high-grade CIN. RESULTS: The κ-coefficient for agreement in detection of genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, and 51 was ≥0.90 (overall agreement: 98-99%, positive agreement: 84-95%). The values were slightly lower, but still in the "substantial" range for genotypes 39, 45, 52, 56, 58, 59, and several low...

  9. Comparison of the analytical and clinical performances of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV, Hybrid Capture 2, and DNA Chip assays in gynecology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungman; Kang, Youjin; Kim, Dong Geun; Kim, Eui-Chong; Park, Sung Sup; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2013-08-01

    The detection of high-risk (HR) HPV in cervical cancer screening is important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer or pre-cancerous lesions. We evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of 3 HR HPV assays in Gynecology patients. A total of 991 specimens were included in this study: 787 specimens for use with a Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and 204 specimens for a HPV DNA microarray (DNA Chip). All specimens were tested using an Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (Real-time HR), PGMY PCR, and sequence analysis. Clinical sensitivities for severe abnormal cytology (severe than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) were 81.8% for Real-time HR, 77.3% for HC2, and 66.7% for DNA Chip, and clinical sensitivities for severe abnormal histology (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+) were 91.7% for HC2, 87.5% for Real-time HR, and 73.3% for DNA Chip. As compared to results of the sequence analysis, HC2, Real-time HR, and DNA Chip showed concordance rates of 94.3% (115/122), 90.0% (117/130), and 61.5% (16/26), respectively. The HC2 assay and Real-time HR assay showed comparable results to each other in both clinical and analytical performances, while the DNA Chip assay showed poor clinical and analytical performances. The Real-time HR assay can be a good alternative option for HR HPV testing with advantages of allowing full automation and simultaneous genotyping of HR types 16 and 18. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative bioanalysis of antibody-conjugated payload in monkey plasma using a hybrid immuno-capture LC-MS/MS approach: Assay development, validation, and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ang; Kozhich, Alexander; Passmore, David; Gu, Huidong; Wong, Richard; Zambito, Frank; Rangan, Vangipuram S; Myler, Heather; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex molecules composed of two pharmacologically distinct components, the cytotoxic payload and the antibody. The measurement of the payload molecules that are attached to the antibody in vivo is important for the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of ADCs, and can also provide distinct information compared to the antibody-related analytes. However, analyzing the antibody-conjugated payload is challenging and in some cases may not be feasible. The in vivo change in drug antibody ratio (DAR), due to deconjugation, biotransformation or other clearance phenomena, generates unique and additional challenges for ADC analysis in biological samples. Here, we report a novel hybrid approach with immuno-capture of the ADC, payload cleavage by specific enzyme, and LC-MS/MS of the cleaved payload to quantitatively measure the concentration of payload molecules still attached to the antibody via linker in plasma. The ADC reference material used for the calibration curve is not likely to be identical to the ADC measured in study samples due to the change in DAR distribution over the PK time course. The assay clearly demonstrated that there was no bias in the measurement of antibody-conjugated payload for ADC with varying DAR, which thus allowed accurate quantification even when the DAR distribution dynamically changes in vivo. This hybrid assay was fully validated based on a combination of requirements for both chromatographic and ligand binding methods, and was successfully applied to support a GLP safety study in monkeys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus in cervical swabs: routine use of the Digene Hybrid Capture assay and polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major causative agents in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, and more than twenty types are associated with its development. With the introduction of liquid-based preparation systems, it is envisaged that large-scale HPV testing will be established in the near future. Preliminary studies demonstrate the accessibility of these samples for DNA testing using both the Digene Hybrid Capture assay (DHCA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. This study aims to assess the validity and sensitivity of the DHCA system to detect high-risk HPV DNA, using two sets of HPV consensus primers (Gp5+\\/Gp6+ and MY09\\/MY11) in tandem with routine assessment of cervical smear and biopsy samples. Results indicate that the combination of DHCA and PCR detects more high-grade lesions than does the DHCA alone. DHCA-negative cases were categorised by subsequent PCR amplification into low-grade HPV-negative (12\\/16) cervical lesions and high-grade HPV-positive (7\\/9) cervical lesions. Gp5+\\/Gp6+ primers were less sensitive in detecting HPV-positive samples than was the MY09\\/MY11 primer set. These results support the use of high-risk HPV testing by DHCA, with subsequent analysis of DHCA-negative samples by PCR using the MY09\\/MY11 primers.

  12. Carbon capture by hybrid separation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthum, R.J.; van Kemenade, H.P.; Brouwers, J.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Even though there is an increasing development of carbon capture technology over the last decade, large-scale implementation is still far from common practice, mainly caused by the energy intensiveness of carbon capture processes and the lack of regulation. In absence of strict regulation, less

  13. Use of neutron-capture plastic fibers for nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, A.S.; Grazioso, R.F.; Mayo, D.R.; Ensslin, N.; Miller, M.C.; Huang, H.Y.; Russo, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron-capture plastic fibers can be used as a nondestructive assay tool. The detectors consist of an active region assembled from ribbons of boron-( 10 B) loaded optical fibers. The mixture of the moderator and thermal neutron absorber in the fiber yields a detector with high efficiency (var-epsilon) and a short die-away time (τ). The deposited energy of the resultant charged particles is converted to light that is collected by photomultiplier tubes mounted at both ends of the fiber. Thermal neutron coincidence counters (TNCC) made of these fibers can serve to verify fissile materials generated from the nuclear fuel cycle. This type of detector may extend the range of materials now accessible to assay by 3 He detectors. Experiments with single fibers of diameters 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mm test their ability to distinguish between the signals generated from neutron interactions and those from gamma rays. These results are compared with those obtained from simulation analyses for the same purpose. Light output and attenuation, neutron detection efficiency, and the signal-to-noise ratios of these fibers have also been investigated. The experimental results for light attenuation and neutron detection efficiency are consistent with the values obtained from simulation studies. A comparison of the performance of various configurations of the plastic scintillating fibers with that of other neutron-capture devices such as 3 He detectors is also discussed

  14. The illusion of specific capture: surface and solution studies of suboptimal oligonucleotide hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization based assays and capture systems depend on the specificity of hybridization between a probe and its intended target. A common guideline in the construction of DNA microarrays, for instance, is that avoiding complementary stretches of more than 15 nucleic acids in a 50 or 60-mer probe will eliminate sequence specific cross-hybridization reactions. Here we present a study of the behavior of partially matched oligonucleotide pairs with complementary stretches starting well below this threshold complementarity length – in silico, in solution, and at the microarray surface. The modeled behavior of pairs of oligonucleotide probes and their targets suggests that even a complementary stretch of sequence 12 nt in length would give rise to specific cross-hybridization. We designed a set of binding partners to a 50-mer oligonucleotide containing complementary stretches from 6 nt to 21 nt in length. Results Solution melting experiments demonstrate that stable partial duplexes can form when only 12 bp of complementary sequence are present; surface hybridization experiments confirm that a signal close in magnitude to full-strength signal can be obtained from hybridization of a 12 bp duplex within a 50mer oligonucleotide. Conclusions Microarray and other molecular capture strategies that rely on a 15 nt lower complementarity bound for eliminating specific cross-hybridization may not be sufficiently conservative. PMID:23445545

  15. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , a non-negligible fraction of the resulting sequence reads are not homologous to the bait. We demonstrate that during capture, the bait-hybridized library molecules add additional flanking library sequences iteratively, such that baits limited to targeting relatively short regions (e.g. few hundred...... nucleotides) can result in enrichment across entire mitochondrial and bacterial genomes. Our findings suggest that some of the off-target sequences derived in capture experiments are non-randomly enriched, and that CapFlank will facilitate targeted enrichment of large contiguous sequences with minimal prior...

  16. Hybrid capture 2 viral load and the 2-year cumulative risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Schiffman, Mark; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical value of a semiquantitative measure of human papillomavirus viral load by the hybrid capture 2 assay for stratification of the risk of histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma. The Atypical Cells of Unknown Significance and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Triage Study was a randomized clinical trial of 5060 women with 2 years of follow-up to evaluate treatment strategies for women with equivocal or mildly abnormal cervical cytologic condition. The usefulness of the continuous hybrid capture 2 output relative light units/positive controls that were above the positive threshold (1.0 relative light units/positive controls), which was a surrogate for human papillomavirus viral load, for distinguishing between hybrid capture 2 positive women who were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma during the study from those who were not diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma was examined with the use of receiver-operator characteristic analyses. Relative light units/positive controls values did not further discriminate between hybrid capture 2 positive women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma from those with less than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma. The use of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe or carcinoma case definition did not alter our findings. Among women with atypical cells of unknown significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cervical cytologic findings, the hybrid capture 2 viral load measurement did not improve the detection of 2-year cumulative cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma significantly.

  17. The Hybrid II assay: a sensitive and specific real-time hybridization assay for the diagnosis of Theileria parva infection in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Ronel; Potgieter, Fred T; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J

    2011-12-01

    Corridor disease is an acute, fatal disease of cattle caused by buffalo-adapted Theileria parva. This is a nationally controlled disease in South Africa and strict control measures apply for the movement of buffalo, which includes mandatory testing for the presence of T. parva and other controlled diseases. Accurate diagnosis of the T. parva carrier state in buffalo using the official real-time hybridization PCR assay (Sibeko et al. 2008), has been shown to be affected by concurrent infection with T. sp. (buffalo)-like parasites. We describe the Hybrid II assay, a real-time hybridization PCR method, which compares well with the official hybridization assay in terms of specificity and sensitivity. It is, however, not influenced by mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo)-like parasites and is as such a significant improvement on the current hybridization assay.

  18. Detecting West Nile virus in owls and raptors by an antigen-capture assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancz, Ady Y; Campbell, Douglas G; Barker, Ian K; Lindsay, Robbin; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    We evaluated a rapid antigen-capture assay (VecTest) for detection of West Nile virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, collected at necropsy from owls (N = 93) and raptors (N = 27). Sensitivity was 93.5%-95.2% for northern owl species but raptors.

  19. Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Gancz, Ady Y.; Campbell, Douglas G.; Barker, Ian K.; Lindsay, Robbin; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated a rapid antigen-capture assay (VecTest) for detection of West Nile virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, collected at necropsy from owls (N = 93) and raptors (N = 27). Sensitivity was 93.5%–95.2% for northern owl species but

  20. Non-destructive assay of 242Pu by resonance neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, W.R.; Lu, Ming-Shih; Aronson, A.; Forman, L.; Vanier, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    For the accurate assay of plutonium by neutron correlation measurements, especially for material derived from high-burnup reactor fuel, the content of 242 Pu in a sample must be determined. Since 242 Pu has a long half-life (387,000 yr) and decays to 238 U by alpha particle emission with the accompanying emission of only weak, low-energy gamma rays, gamma-ray spectrometry methods which are ordinarily employed to determine the isotopic composition of a plutonium sample are not feasible for 242 Pu. The existence of a resonance in the neutron capture cross section of 242 Pu at an energy of 2.67 electron volts (eV) with a large (72, 000 barn) cross section affords the possibility for the quantitative assay of this isotope by epithermal neutron capture. Essential for this purpose is an appropriately designed geometry of neutron moderators and absorbers which will provide maximum flux in the eV region while suppressing thermal neutron capture by the fissile plutonium isotopes. Signatures for neutron capture in 242 Pu include the decay of 243 Pu (4.9 hr), prompt capture gamma rays (total energy 5.034 MeV), and the decay of an isomeric state (330 nanosecond). Experiments to determine the feasibility of this approach are currently in progress

  1. A protein chip membrane-capture assay for botulinum neurotoxin activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marconi, Severine; Ferracci, Geraldine; Berthomieu, Maelys; Kozaki, Shunji; Miquelis, Raymond; Boucraut, Jose; Seagar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins A and B (BoNT/A and B) are neuromuscular blocking agents which inhibit neurotransmission by cleaving the intra-cellular presynaptic SNARE proteins SNAP-25 and VAMP2, localized respectively in plasma membrane and synaptic vesicles. These neurotoxins are both dangerous pathogens and powerful therapeutic agents with numerous clinical and cosmetic applications. Consequently there is a need for in vitro assays of their biological activity to screen for potential inhibitors and to replace the widely used in vivo mouse assay. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to measure membrane vesicle capture by antibodies against SNAP-25 and VAMP2. Substrate cleavage by BoNTs modified capture providing a method to assay toxin activity. Firstly using synaptic vesicles as a substrate, a comparison of the EC 50 s for BoNT/B obtained by SPR, ELISA or flow cytometry indicated similar sensitivity although SPR assays were more rapid. Sonication of brain or neuronal cultures generated plasma membrane fragments with accessible intra-cellular epitopes adapted to measurement of BoNT/A activity. SPR responses were proportional to antigen concentration permitting detection of as little as 4 pM SNAP-25 in crude lysates. BoNT/A activity was assayed using monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize a SNAP-25 epitope generated by the proteolytic action of the toxin. Incubation of intact primary cultured neurons with BoNT/A yielded an EC 50 of 0.5 pM. The SPR biosensor method was sensitive enough to monitor BoNT/A and B activity in cells cultured in a 96-well format providing an alternative to experimental animals for toxicological assays

  2. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    nucleotides) can result in enrichment across entire mitochondrial and bacterial genomes. Our findings suggest that some of the off-target sequences derived in capture experiments are non-randomly enriched, and that CapFlank will facilitate targeted enrichment of large contiguous sequences with minimal prior...

  3. Nucleic Acid Sandwich Hybridization Assay with Quantum Dot-Induced Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer for Pathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Chung; Huang, Yi-Han

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization assay with a quantum dot (QD)-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporter system. Two label-free hemagglutinin H5 sequences (60-mer DNA and 630-nt cDNA fragment) of avian influenza viruses were used as the targets in this work. Two oligonucleotides (16 mers and 18 mers) that specifically recognize two separate but neighboring regions of the H5 sequences were served as the capturing and reporter probes, respectively. The capturing probe was conjugated to QD655 (donor) in a molar ratio of 10:1 (probe-to-QD), and the reporter probe was labeled with Alexa Fluor 660 dye (acceptor) during synthesis. The sandwich hybridization assay was done in a 20 μL transparent, adhesive frame-confined microchamber on a disposable, temperature-adjustable indium tin oxide (ITO) glass slide. The FRET signal in response to the sandwich hybridization was monitored by a homemade optical sensor comprising a single 400 nm UV light-emitting diode (LED), optical fibers, and a miniature 16-bit spectrophotometer. The target with a concentration ranging from 0.5 nM to 1 μM was successfully correlated with both QD emission decrease at 653 nm and dye emission increase at 690 nm. To sum up, this work is beneficial for developing a portable QD-based nucleic acid sensor for on-site pathogen detection. PMID:23211753

  4. Development of a quantitative bead capture assay for soluble IL-7 receptor alpha in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Faucher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IL-7 is an essential cytokine in T-cell development and homeostasis. It binds to the IL-7R receptor, a complex of the IL-7Ralpha (CD127 and common gamma (CD132 chains. There is significant interest in evaluating the expression of CD127 on human T-cells as it often decreased in medical conditions leading to lymphopenia. Previous reports showed the usefulness of CD127 as a prognostic marker in viral infections such as HIV, CMV, EBV and HCV. A soluble CD127 (sCD127 is released in plasma and may contribute to disease pathogenesis through its control on IL-7 activities. Measuring sCD127 is important to define its role and may complement existing markers used in lymphopenic disease management. We describe a new quantitative assay for the measurement of sCD127 in plasma and report sCD127 concentrations in healthy adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a quantitative bead-based sCD127 capture assay. Polyclonal CD127-specific antibodies were chosen for capture and a biotinylated monoclonal anti-CD127 antibody was selected for detection. The assay can detect native sCD127 and recombinant sCD127 which served as the calibrator. The analytical performance of the assay was characterized and the concentration and stability of plasma sCD127 in healthy adults was determined. The assay's range was 3.2-1000 ng/mL. The concentration of plasma sCD127 was 164+/-104 ng/mL with over a log variation between subjects. Individual sCD127 concentrations remained stable when measured serially during a period of up to one year. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report on the quantification of plasma sCD127 in a population of healthy adults. Soluble CD127 plasma concentrations remained stable over time in a given individual and sCD127 immunoreactivity was resistant to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. This quantitative sCD127 assay is a valuable tool for defining the potential role of sCD127 in lymphopenic diseases.

  5. Assay of hybrid ribonuclease using a membrane filter-immobilized synthetic hybrid: application to the human leukemic cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaphilis, A.D.; Kamper, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    A method for assaying hybrid ribonuclease has been devised which utilizes as substrate the synthetic hybrid [ 3 H]polyriboadenylic acid [poly(rA)]:polydeoxythymidylic acid [poly(dT)] immobilized on the solid matrix of nitrocellulose filters. The hybridization on filter of [ 3 H]poly(rA) to poly(dT) has been explored in terms of efficacy of the process and the response of the product to RNase H. A pulse of uv irradiation of poly(dT) while in dry state on the filter increased its firm binding to the filter in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in a concomitant increase of the yield of hybrid formation. The filter-immobilized hybrid was 95% resistant to RNase A but sensitive to RNase H. When stored in toluene in the cold the hybrid maintained its stability for over 6 months, as judged by its resistance to RNase A. The method offers a number of advantages over assays that use solution hybrids as substrates and was readily applicable in the screening of leukemic patients, in the leukocytes of which it has demonstrated increased RNase H levels

  6. Electrokinetically-controlled RNA-DNA hybridization assay for foodborne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, X.; Jiang, H.; Li, D.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic chip for use in an RNA-DNA hybridization assay for foodborne pathogens. Automatic sequential reagent dispensing and washing was realized with a programmable DC voltage sequencer. Signal detection was achieved with a miniaturized optical detection module. Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes bacteria in different concentrations were quantitatively determined by this RNA-DNA hybridization assay in the microfluidic chip. The detection limit for the Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes bacteria is 10 3 to 10 4 CFU mL -1 . The method excels by a significant reduction in the consumption of sample and reagent, and a short assay time. This automatic-operating microfluidic RNA-DNA hybridization assay is promising for on-site pathogen detection. (author)

  7. A rapid and efficient branched DNA hybridization assay to titer lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ayyappan; Xie, Jinger; Joshi, Sarasijam; Harden, Paul; Davies, Joan; Hermiston, Terry

    2008-11-01

    A robust assay to titer lentiviral vectors is imperative to qualifying their use in drug discovery, target validation and clinical applications. In this study, a novel branched DNA based hybridization assay was developed to titer lentiviral vectors by quantifying viral RNA genome copy numbers from viral lysates without having to purify viral RNA, and this approach was compared with other non-functional (p24 protein ELISA and viral RT-qPCR) and a functional method (reporter gene expression) used commonly. The RT-qPCR method requires purification of viral RNA and the accuracy of titration therefore depends on the efficiency of purification; this requirement is ameliorated in the hybridization assay as RNA is measured directly in viral lysates. The present study indicates that the hybridization based titration assay performed on viral lysates was more accurate and has additional advantages of being rapid, robust and not dependent on transduction efficiency in different cell types.

  8. Antibody class capture assay (ACCA) for rubella-specific IgM antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, M; Payne, R A

    1982-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for IgM antirubella were carried out on 1,546 sera, using an IgM capture method with a F (ab')2 conjugate (ACCA). Under the conditions described, sera containing IgM antirubella bound up to 15 times as much enzyme activity as negative specimens. Paired serum specimens from 27 patients, serial serum specimens from 6 patients, and single serum specimens from 15 patients who had had recent rubella were examined by the haemagglutination inhibition test (HAI) in the presence and absence of 2-mercaptoethanol following sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC). ACCA confirmed all the results found with HAI following SDGC. Specimens were examined from ten patients with congenital rubella; ACCA confirmed the results found with both immunofluorescence following SDGC and radioimmunoassay. Pre- and post-vaccination specimens from 123 patients who had been vaccinated against rubella were examined. An IgM response could only be demonstrated in the 57 cases when IgG was absent in the first specimen. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by testing 31 serum specimens from rubella immune patients that also contained rheumatoid factor, 163 serum specimens from patients with acute infections other than rubella, and 12 serum specimens from infants with miscellaneous neonatal abnormalities other than congenital rubella. The ACCA proved a simple, sensitive, and specific test for IgM antirubella and the results compared favourably with those obtained by the SDGC technique.

  9. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  10. Sequence capture by hybridization to explore modern and ancient genomic diversity in model and nonmodel organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasc, Cyrielle; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre

    2016-06-02

    The recent expansion of next-generation sequencing has significantly improved biological research. Nevertheless, deep exploration of genomes or metagenomic samples remains difficult because of the sequencing depth and the associated costs required. Therefore, different partitioning strategies have been developed to sequence informative subsets of studied genomes. Among these strategies, hybridization capture has proven to be an innovative and efficient tool for targeting and enriching specific biomarkers in complex DNA mixtures. It has been successfully applied in numerous areas of biology, such as exome resequencing for the identification of mutations underlying Mendelian or complex diseases and cancers, and its usefulness has been demonstrated in the agronomic field through the linking of genetic variants to agricultural phenotypic traits of interest. Moreover, hybridization capture has provided access to underexplored, but relevant fractions of genomes through its ability to enrich defined targets and their flanking regions. Finally, on the basis of restricted genomic information, this method has also allowed the expansion of knowledge of nonreference species and ancient genomes and provided a better understanding of metagenomic samples. In this review, we present the major advances and discoveries permitted by hybridization capture and highlight the potency of this approach in all areas of biology. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. [Correlation of hybrid II capture cytologic exam in diagnosis of cervical lesions related to HPV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Ana Conceição Ribeiro Dantas; Diniz, Veruska Cassandra; Sisenando, Herbert Ary Arzabe Anteza Costa Nóbrega; de Souza, Eroisa Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Paiva, Magnus Sérgio Martins; de Brito, Maria Helena Marques Fonseca; Ramos, Eleni Souto Nóbrega

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was confront the results of the cytological examination with hybrid capture II in the diagnosis of induced cervical intraepithelial lesion-HPV, correlating the cytological findings with biomoleculares. The research was carried through in a group of 160 sexually active women who had espontaneamente looked its gynecologists for consultation of routine, having been submitted to the collection of cervicovaginal material for cytology and for examination of hybrid capture II in the Centro de Patologia Clínica and the Hospital e Maternidade Promater, in the city of the Natal-RN. The results had shown to relatively high numbers of positive cases for HPV using hybrid capture II (41.87%) and the cytology (23.75%). The agreement between the two studied methods relatively was raised (59.38%). It was evident also that the viruses with high oncogênico potential had presented found in the compatible cytology with Lesion of low risk (11.88%), followed of Lesion of high risk (NIC II and III); already the viruses with low oncogênico potential were more associates the Lesion of low risk (6.25%), followed of Lesion of high risk. The cytology, exactly with its limitations, is an important method in the detention of attributable patologias to the HPV, emphasizing that the molecular method comes to complement it and to consolidate the cytological findings.

  12. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Petit, Camille; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle using capture-ELISA assay for detecting antigen in faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Capture-ELISA assay is a diagnosis for antigen detection in the serum or faeces using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of capture-ELISA assay using polyclonal antibody for diagnosing Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle by detecting antigen in the faeces. In this study, faecal samples and livers were collected from 141 cattle slaughtered in the abattoir in Jakarta. From each animal, liver was processed for liver flukes count and the corresponding faecal sample was analysed for coproantigen. The result of capture-ELISA assay for antigen detection showed that from 85 cattle infected with Fasciola gigantica, 83 had OD > 0.52 (range from 0.52-1.39 and 2 cattle had OD < 0.52 (range from 0.17-0.51. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 97.6% and 92.8% respectively. The assay also able to detect 50 ng/ml of antigen in faecal supernatant. It suggests that this assay will have the advantage over the other methods on its ability to detect the active infection. Collection of faeces, rather than serum, will allow a more cost-effective and adaptable method.

  15. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  16. Comparison of the cobas Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 and Linear Array HPV DNA Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadorra, Mark; LaMere, Brandon J.; Kail, Randi; Aldrich, Carrie; Kinney, Walter; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.

    2012-01-01

    The cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test (cobas) was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and identifies HPV16 and HPV18 separately as well as detecting a pool of 11 HR-HPV genotypes (HPV31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -68) and also HPV66. We compared cobas, Linear Array (LA), and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assays for detection of carcinogenic HPV DNA, and cobas and LA for detection of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA, among the first 1,852 women enrolled in the HPV Persistence and Progression Cohort (PaP Cohort) study. Specimens were tested by all 3 assays 1 year after an HC2-positive result. In 1,824 specimens with cobas results, cobas had an 85.9% agreement with HC2 and 91.0% agreement with LA for carcinogenic HPV detection. When results between cobas and HC2 disagreed, cobas tended to call more women HPV positive (P < 0.01). Categorizing cobas and LA results hierarchically according to cancer risk (HPV16, HPV18, other carcinogenic HPV genotypes, or carcinogen negative), there was a 90% agreement for all categories of HPV (n = 1,824). We found good agreement between the two U.S. FDA-approved HPV tests, with discrepancies between the two assays due to specific characteristics of the individual assays. Additional studies are needed to compare HC2 and cobas for detecting and predicting CIN3 to understand the clinical implications of the discrepant test results between the two tests. PMID:22075592

  17. Standardization of a cytometric p24-capture bead-assay for the detection of main HIV-1 subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbah, Mélanie; Onkar, Sayali; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Vanpouille, Christophe; Biancotto, Angélique; Bonar, Lydia; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Kijak, Gustavo; Michael, Nelson; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence

    2016-04-01

    The prevailing method to assess HIV-1 replication and infectivity is to measure the production of p24 Gag protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since fluorescent bead-based technologies offer a broader dynamic range and higher sensitivity, this study describes a p24 capture Luminex assay capable of detecting HIV-1 subtypes A-D, circulating recombinant forms (CRF) CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG, which together are responsible for over 90% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. The success of the assay lies in the identification and selection of a cross-reactive capture antibody (clone 183-H12-5C). Fifty-six isolates that belonged to six HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs were successfully detected with p-values below 0.021; limits of detection ranging from 3.7 to 3 × 104 pg/ml. The intra- and inter-assay variation gave coefficient of variations below 6 and 14%, respectively. The 183-bead Luminex assay also displayed higher sensitivity of 91% and 98% compared to commercial p24 ELISA and a previously described Luminex assay. The p24 concentrations measured by the 183-bead Luminex assay showed a significant correlation (R=0.92, passay leverages the advantages of the Luminex platform, which include smaller sample volume and simultaneous detection of up to 500 analytes in a single sample, and delivers a valuable tool for the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of hybrid membrane and chemical absorption systems for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, Michael; Oh, Se-Young; Kwak, Dong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Amine-based absorption of CO 2 is currently the industry standard technology for capturing CO 2 emitted from power plants, refineries and other large chemical plants. However, more recently there have been a number of competing technologies under consideration, including the use of membranes for CO 2 separation and purification. We constructed and analyzed two different hybrid configurations combining and connecting chemical absorption with membrane separation. For a particular flue gas which is currently treated with amine-based chemical absorption at a pilot plant we considered and tested how membranes could be integrated to improve the performance of the CO 2 capture. In particular we looked at the CO 2 removal efficiency and the energy requirements. Sensitivity analysis was performed varying the size of the membranes and the solvent flow rate

  19. Correlation between atomic negative muon capture and electron distribution in organic sp2-hybridization compounds CxHyClz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yoichi; Tominaga, Takeshi; Ikuta, Shigeru

    1986-01-01

    The atomic negative muon capture ratios determined experimentally in organic sp 2 -hybridization compound, C x H y Cl z , were compared with the electron populations of carbon atomic orbitals obtained by an ab initio molecular orbital calculation in such systems. A clear positive correlation was found between the C 2s and C 2pz populations and the negative muon capture ratio A (C/Cl), suggesting the mesomolecular process in the initial stage of muon capture. (orig.)

  20. Label-free DNA hybridization detection and single base-mismatch discrimination using CE-ICP-MS assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Sun, Shao-kai; Yang, Jia-lin; Jiang, Yan

    2011-12-07

    Detecting a specific DNA sequence and discriminating single base-mismatch is critical to clinical diagnosis, paternity testing, forensic sciences, food and drug industry, pathology, genetics, environmental monitoring, and anti-bioterrorism. To this end, capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method is developed using the displacing interaction between the target ssDNA and the competitor Hg(2+) for the first time. The thymine-rich capture ssDNA 1 is interacted with the competitor Hg(2+), forming an assembled complex in a hairpin-structure between the thymine bases arrangement at both sides of the capture ssDNA 1. In the presence of a target ssDNA with stronger affinity than that of the competitor Hg(2+), the energetically favorable hybridization between capture ssDNA 1 and the target ssDNA destroys the hairpin-structure and releases the competitor as free Hg(2+), which was then read out and accurately quantified by CE-ICP-MS assay. Under the optimal CE separation conditions, free Hg(2+) ions and its capture ssDNA 1 adduct were baseline separated and detected on-line by ICP-MS; the increased peak intensity of free Hg(2+) against the concentration of perfectly complementary target ssDNA was linear over the concentration range of 30-600 nmol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 8 nmol L(-1) (3s, n = 11) in the pre-incubated mixture containing 1 μmol L(-1) Hg(2+) and 0.2 μmol L(-1) capture ssDNA 1. This new assay method is simple in design since any target ssDNA binding can in principle result in free Hg(2+) release by 6-fold Hg(2+) signal amplification, avoiding oligonucleotide labeling or assistance by excess signal transducer and signal reporter to read out the target. Due to element-specific detection of ICP-MS in our assay procedure, the interference from the autofluorescence of substrata was eliminated.

  1. Evaluation of Myc Gene Amplification in Prostate Cancer Using a Dual Color Chromogenic in-Situ Hybridization (Dual CISH) Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lerda; Marta Cabrera; Jorge Flores; Luis Gutierrez; Armando Chierichetti; Martin Revol; Hernan Garcia Onto

    2013-01-01

    Objetive: The overall purpose of the study was to demonstrate applicability of the Dako dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay (DAKO Denmark, Glostrup) with respect to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes MYC-C. Methods: MYC gene amplification by FISH and Dako dual-color CISH Results: The study showed that the dual-color CISH assay can convert Texas red and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) signals into chromogenic signals. The dual –color CISH assay was p...

  2. Simultaneous detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Didymella bryoniae in cucurbit seedlots using magnetic capture hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R

    2009-06-01

    To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae.

  3. Appendix: a solution hybridization assay to detect radioactive globin messenger RNA nucleotide sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J

    1976-09-15

    In view of the sensitivity and specificity of the solution hybridization assay for unlabeled globin mRNA a similar technique has been devised to detect radioactive globin mRNA sequences with unlabeled globin cDNA. Several properties of the hybridization reaction are presented since RNA kinetic experiments reported recently depend on the validity of this assay. Data on hybridization analysis of (/sup 3/H)RNA from mouse fetal liver or erythroleukemia cell cytoplasm are presented. These data indicate that the excess cDNA solution assay for radioactive globin mRNA detection is specific for globin mRNA sequences. It can be performed rapidly and is highly reproducible from experiment. It is at least 500-fold less sensitive than the assay for unlabeled globin mRNA, due to the RNAase backgrounds of 0.05 to 0.15 %. However, this limitation has not affected kinetic experiments with non-dividing fetal liver erythroid cells, which synthesize relatively large quantities of globin mRNA.

  4. Conversion of a Capture ELISA to a Luminex xMAP Assay using a Multiplex Antibody Screening Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Harold N.; Murphy, Robin; Lopez, Erica; Garcia, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has long been the primary tool for detection of analytes of interest in biological samples for both life science research and clinical diagnostics. However, ELISA has limitations. It is typically performed in a 96-well microplate, and the wells are coated with capture antibody, requiring a relatively large amount of sample to capture an antigen of interest . The large surface area of the wells and the hydrophobic binding of capture antibody can also lead to non-specific binding and increased background. Additionally, most ELISAs rely upon enzyme-mediated amplification of signal in order to achieve reasonable sensitivity. Such amplification is not always linear and can thus skew results. In the past 15 years, a new technology has emerged that offers the benefits of the ELISA, but also enables higher throughput, increased flexibility, reduced sample volume, and lower cost, with a similar workflow 1, 2. Luminex xMAP Technology is a microsphere (bead) array platform enabling both monoplex and multiplex assays that can be applied to both protein and nucleic acid applications 3-5. The beads have the capture antibody covalently immobilized on a smaller surface area, requiring less capture antibody and smaller sample volumes, compared to ELISA, and non-specific binding is significantly reduced. Smaller sample volumes are important when working with limiting samples such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, etc. 6. Multiplexing the assay further reduces sample volume requirements, enabling multiple results from a single sample. Recent improvements by Luminex include: the new MAGPIX system, a smaller, less expensive, easier-to-use analyzer; Low-Concentration Magnetic MagPlex Microspheres which eliminate the need for expensive filter plates and come in a working concentration better suited for assay development and low-throughput applications; and the xMAP Antibody Coupling (AbC) Kit, which includes a protocol, reagents, and

  5. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  6. A novel SERRS sandwich-hybridization assay to detect specific DNA target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Feuillie

    Full Text Available In this study, we have applied Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS technology to the specific detection of DNA. We present an innovative SERRS sandwich-hybridization assay that allows specific DNA detection without any enzymatic amplification, such as is the case with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. In some substrates, such as ancient or processed remains, enzymatic amplification fails due to DNA alteration (degradation, chemical modification or to the presence of inhibitors. Consequently, the development of a non-enzymatic method, allowing specific DNA detection, could avoid long, expensive and inconclusive amplification trials. Here, we report the proof of concept of a SERRS sandwich-hybridization assay that leads to the detection of a specific chamois DNA. This SERRS assay reveals its potential as a non-enzymatic alternative technology to DNA amplification methods (particularly the PCR method with several applications for species detection. As the amount and type of damage highly depend on the preservation conditions, the present SERRS assay would enlarge the range of samples suitable for DNA analysis and ultimately would provide exciting new opportunities for the investigation of ancient DNA in the fields of evolutionary biology and molecular ecology, and of altered DNA in food frauds detection and forensics.

  7. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Srinivasachar, Srivats [Envergex LLC, Sturbridge, MA (United States); Laudal, Daniel [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Browers, Bruce [Barr Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using

  8. Preliminary carbon dioxide capture technical and economic feasibility study evaluation of carbon dioxide capture from existing fired plants by hybrid sorption using solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  9. Hybridization Capture Reveals Evolution and Conservation across the Entire Koala Retrovirus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Cui, Pin; Vielgrader, Hanna; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Roca, Alfred L.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2014-01-01

    The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin. PMID:24752422

  10. Hybridization capture reveals evolution and conservation across the entire Koala retrovirus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Tsangaras

    Full Text Available The koala retrovirus (KoRV is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin.

  11. Efficient capture of CO2 over ordered micro-mesoporous hybrid carbon nanosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changwei; Yu, Yanke; He, Chi; Wang, Li; Huang, Huang; Albilali, Reem; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zhengping

    2018-05-01

    Four kinds of carbon-based adsorbents (micro-mesoporous hybrid carbon nanosphere and N-doped hollow carbon sphere with single-, double- or ruga-shell morphology) with different structural and textural properties were prepared and systematically studied in CO2 capture. All synthesized samples possess high specific surface area (828-910 m2 g-1), large pore volume (0.71-1.81 cm3 g-1), and different micropore contents varied from 2.1% to 46.4%. Amongst, the ordered micro-mesoporous carbon nanosphere (OM-CNS) exhibits the best adsorption performance with CO2 uptake as high as 3.01 mmol g-1 under conditions of 298 K and 1.0 bar, better than most of the reported CO2 adsorbents. The excellent CO2 adsorption capacity of OM-CNS can be reasonably attributed to the synergistic effect of ordered mesopore channels and abundant structural micropores which are beneficial for the diffusion and trapping of CO2 adsorbate. Moreover, the OM-CNS shows excellent CO2 trapping selectivity and superior stability and recyclability, which endow the OM-CNS as a promising and environmental-friendly adsorbent for CO2 capture and separation under practical conditions.

  12. A two-hybrid assay to study protein interactions within the secretory pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle H Dube

    Full Text Available Interactions of transcriptional activators are difficult to study using transcription-based two-hybrid assays due to potent activation resulting in false positives. Here we report the development of the Golgi two-hybrid (G2H, a method that interrogates protein interactions within the Golgi, where transcriptional activators can be assayed with negligible background. The G2H relies on cell surface glycosylation to report extracellularly on protein-protein interactions occurring within the secretory pathway. In the G2H, protein pairs are fused to modular domains of the reporter glycosyltransferase, Och1p, and proper cell wall formation due to Och1p activity is observed only when a pair of proteins interacts. Cells containing interacting protein pairs are identified by selectable phenotypes associated with Och1p activity and proper cell wall formation: cells that have interacting proteins grow under selective conditions and display weak wheat germ agglutinin (WGA binding by flow cytometry, whereas cells that lack interacting proteins display stunted growth and strong WGA binding. Using this assay, we detected the interaction between transcription factor MyoD and its binding partner Id2. Interfering mutations along the MyoD:Id2 interaction interface ablated signal in the G2H assay. Furthermore, we used the G2H to detect interactions of the activation domain of Gal4p with a variety of binding partners. Finally, selective conditions were used to enrich for cells encoding interacting partners. The G2H detects protein-protein interactions that cannot be identified via traditional two-hybrid methods and should be broadly useful for probing previously inaccessible subsets of the interactome, including transcriptional activators and proteins that traffic through the secretory pathway.

  13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannisyan Galina G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology.

  14. A paper-based resonance energy transfer nucleic acid hybridization assay using upconversion nanoparticles as donors and quantum dots as acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughan, Samer; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Krull, Ulrich J

    2015-06-09

    Monodisperse aqueous upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) were covalently immobilized on aldehyde modified cellulose paper via reduction amination to develop a luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET)-based nucleic acid hybridization assay. This first account of covalent immobilization of UCNPs on paper for a bioassay reports an optically responsive method that is sensitive, reproducible and robust. The immobilized UCNPs were decorated with oligonucleotide probes to capture HPRT1 housekeeping gene fragments, which in turn brought reporter conjugated quantum dots (QDs) in close proximity to the UCNPs for LRET. This sandwich assay could detect unlabeled oligonucleotide target, and had a limit of detection of 13 fmol and a dynamic range spanning nearly 3 orders of magnitude. The use of QDs, which are excellent LRET acceptors, demonstrated improved sensitivity, limit of detection, dynamic range and selectivity compared to similar assays that have used molecular fluorophores as acceptors. The selectivity of the assay was attributed to the decoration of the QDs with polyethylene glycol to eliminate non-specific adsorption. The kinetics of hybridization were determined to be diffusion limited and full signal development occurred within 3 min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New Class of Hybrid Materials for Detection, Capture, and "On-Demand" Release of Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Lupan, Alexandru; Ellingford, Christopher; Attia, Amr A A; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2018-04-25

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is both a substance hazardous to health and a side product of a number of industrial processes, such as methanol steam reforming and large-scale oxidation reactions. The separation of CO from nitrogen (N 2 ) in industrial processes is considered to be difficult because of the similarities of their electronic structures, sizes, and physicochemical properties (e.g., boiling points). Carbon monoxide is also a major poison in fuel cells because of its adsorption onto the active sites of the catalysts. It is therefore of the utmost economic importance to discover new materials that enable effective CO capture and release under mild conditions. However, methods to specifically absorb and easily release CO in the presence of contaminants, such as water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, at ambient temperature are not available. Here, we report the simple and versatile fabrication of a new class of hybrid materials that allows capture and release of carbon monoxide under mild conditions. We found that carborane-containing metal complexes encapsulated in networks made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) react with CO, even when immersed in water, leading to dramatic color and infrared signature changes. Furthermore, we found that the CO can be easily released from the materials by simply dipping the networks into an organic solvent for less than 1 min, at ambient temperature and pressure, which not only offers a straightforward recycling method, but also a new method for the "on-demand" release of carbon monoxide. We illustrated the utilization of the on-demand release of CO from the networks by carrying out a carbonylation reaction on an electron-deficient metal complex that led to the formation of the CO-adduct, with concomitant recycling of the gel. We anticipate that our sponge-like materials and scalable methodology will open up new avenues for the storage, transport, and controlled release of CO, the silent killer and a major industrial poison.

  16. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing.We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later. Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent.During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (% when women were pregnant (n = 20 results compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum. In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test.These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  17. Combining hybrid cars and synthetic fuels with electricity generation and carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, Oscar van; Broek, Machteld van den; Turkenburg, Wim; Faaij, Andre

    2011-01-01

    We examined the co-evolution of the transportation, and electricity and heat generation sectors in the Netherlands until 2040 using a MARKAL bottom-up cost optimisation model. All scenario variants investigated indicate a switch away from crude oil-based diesel and petrol for transportation. Lowest overall CO 2 abatement cost is achieved by accommodating transportation first and using relatively expensive options for emissions reduction in electricity generation if needed. Biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) are used to full potential. Transportation CO 2 emissions are reduced by switching to ethanol or bio-based synthetic fuels combined with CCS, and series hybrid cars if needed. Depending on the availability of biomass and carbon storage capacity, electricity is produced from biomass, coal with CCS, or wind complemented with natural gas. Indirect greenhouse gas emissions rise to 34-54% of national emissions in 2040. The difference in annual investment required between the scenario variants with and without CO 2 emissions reductions of 68% by 2040 is 4-7 billion euro/year, or 0.5-1.2% of projected GDP. Investment costs are mostly determined by the cost of cars and electricity generation capacity. We observe competition for limited biomass supply and CO 2 storage capacity between the transportation and power sectors.

  18. Comparison of clinical and analytical performance of the Abbott Realtime High Risk HPV test to the performance of hybrid capture 2 in population-based cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Ostrbenk, Anja; Seme, Katja; Ucakar, Veronika; Hillemanns, Peter; Bokal, Eda Vrtacnik; Jancar, Nina; Klavs, Irena

    2011-05-01

    The clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV (human papillomavirus) test (RealTime) and that of the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA test (hc2) were prospectively compared in the population-based cervical cancer screening setting. In women >30 years old (n = 3,129), the clinical sensitivity of RealTime for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 (CIN2) or worse (38 cases) and its clinical specificity for lesions of less than CIN2 (3,091 controls) were 100% and 93.3%, respectively, and those of hc2 were 97.4% and 91.8%, respectively. A noninferiority score test showed that the clinical specificity (P laboratories. RealTime can be considered to be a reliable and robust HPV assay clinically comparable to hc2 for the detection of CIN2+ lesions in a population-based cervical cancer screening setting.

  19. Oligonucleotide PIK3CA/Chromosome 3 Dual in Situ Hybridization Automated Assay with Improved Signals, One-Hour Hybridization, and No Use of Blocking DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Hubbard, Antony; Baca-Parkinson, Leslie; Stanislaw, Stacey; Vladich, Frank; Robida, Mark D; Grille, James G; Maxwell, Daniel; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen; Carroll, William; Gardner, Tracie; Clements, June; Singh, Shalini; Tang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    The PIK3CA gene at chromosome 3q26.32 was found to be amplified in up to 45% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The strong correlation between PIK3CA amplification and increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activities suggested that PIK3CA gene copy number is a potential predictive biomarker for PI3K inhibitors. Currently, all microscopic assessments of PIK3CA and chromosome 3 (CHR3) copy numbers use fluorescence in situ hybridization. PIK3CA probes are derived from bacterial artificial chromosomes whereas CHR3 probes are derived mainly from the plasmid pHS05. These manual fluorescence in situ hybridization assays mandate 12- to 18-hour hybridization and use of blocking DNA from human sources. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization studies provide limited morphologic assessment and suffer from signal decay. We developed an oligonucleotide-based bright-field in situ hybridization assay that overcomes these shortcomings. This assay requires only a 1-hour hybridization with no need for blocking DNA followed by indirect chromogenic detection. Oligonucleotide probes produced discrete and uniform CHR3 stains superior to those from the pHS05 plasmid. This assay achieved successful staining in 100% of the 195 lung squamous cell carcinoma resections and in 94% of the 33 fine-needle aspirates. This robust automated bright-field dual in situ hybridization assay for the simultaneous detection of PIK3CA and CHR3 centromere provides a potential clinical diagnostic method to assess PIK3CA gene abnormality in lung tumors. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiology of Babesia, Anaplasma and Trypanosoma species using a new expanded reverse line blot hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletta, Martina Soledad; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Guillemi, Eliana Carolina; Luciani, Carlos; Sarmiento, Néstor Fabián; Mosqueda, Juan; Farber, Marisa Diana; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Vector-borne hemoparasitic infections are a major problem that affects livestock industries worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. In this work, a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of Anaplasma, Babesia and bovine trypanosomes, encompassing in this way the most relevant hemoparasites that affect cattle. A total of 186 bovine blood samples collected from two different ecoepidemiological regions of northeast Argentina, with and without tick control, were analyzed with this new RLB. High diversity of parasites, such as Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Anaplasma marginale and three different Trypanosoma species, was found. High rates of coinfections were also detected, and significant differences were observed not only in the prevalence of parasites but also in the level of coinfections between the two analyzed areas. Regarding the Trypanosoma genus, we provide molecular evidence of the presence of T. vivax and T. theileri for the first time in Argentina. Besides, since the RLB is a prospective tool, it allowed the identification of a yet unknown bovine trypanosome which could not be assigned to any of the bovine species known so far. In the present study we provide new insights on the prevalence of several pathogens that directly impact on livestock production in Argentina. The RLB assay developed here allows to identify simultaneously numerous pathogenic species which can also be easily expanded to detect other blood borne pathogens. These characteristics make the RLB hybridization assay an essential tool for epidemiological survey of all vector-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO{sub 2} Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngjune [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City (China); Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa, E-mail: ap2622@columbia.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Petit, Camille, E-mail: ap2622@columbia.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    CO{sub 2} capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO{sub 2} capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO{sub 2} capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO{sub 2} capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO{sub 2} capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO{sub 2} capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include ionic liquids, CO{sub 2}-triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO{sub 2}-binding organic liquids, reversible ionic liquids), and nanoparticle organic hybrid materials. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO{sub 2} capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO{sub 2} absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO{sub 2} capture media.

  2. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO2 Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUNGJUNE ePARK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available CO2 capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO2 capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO2 capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO2 capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO2 capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions, as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO2 capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO2 capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include: Ionic Liquids (ILs, CO2-triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO2 Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOLs, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO2 capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO2 absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO2 capture media.

  3. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO2 Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Youngjune; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Petit, Camille

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO 2 capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO 2 capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO 2 capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO 2 capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO 2 capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO 2 capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include ionic liquids, CO 2 -triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO 2 -binding organic liquids, reversible ionic liquids), and nanoparticle organic hybrid materials. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO 2 capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO 2 absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO 2 capture media.

  4. Luminescence resonance energy transfer-based nucleic acid hybridization assay on cellulose paper with upconverting phosphor as donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2014-03-04

    A bioassay based on DNA hybridization on cellulose paper is a promising format for gene fragment detection that may be suited for in-field and rapid diagnostic applications. We demonstrate for the first time that luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) associated with upconverting phosphors (UCPs) can be used to develop a paper-based DNA hybridization assay with high sensitivity, selectivity and fast response. UCPs with strong green emission were synthesized and subsequently functionalized with streptavidin (UCP-strep). UCP-strep particles were immobilized on cellulose paper, and then biotinylated single-stranded oligonucleotide probes were conjugated onto the UCPs via streptavidin-biotin linkage. The UCPs served as donors that were LRET-paired with Cy3-labeled target DNA. Selective DNA hybridization enabled the proximity required for LRET-sensitized emission from Cy3, which was used as the detection signal. Hybridization was complete within 2 min, and the limit of detection of the method was 34 fmol, which is a significant improvement in comparison to an analogous fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay based on quantum dots. The assay exhibited excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of noncomplementary short/long DNA and protein. The selectivity of the assay was further evaluated by one base pair mismatched (1BPM) DNA detection, where a maximum signal ratio of 3.1:1 was achieved between fully complementary and 1BPM samples. This work represents a preliminary but significant step for the development of paper-based UCP-LRET nucleic acid hybridization assays, which offer potential for lowering the limit of detection of luminescent hybridization assays due to the negligible background signal associated with optical excitation by near-infrared (NIR) light.

  5. Branched-DNA signal amplification combined with paper chromatography hybridization assay and used in hepatitis B virus DNA detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, F.Z.; Liu, L.X.; Wang, W.Q.; Sun, S. H.; Liu, L.B.

    2002-01-01

    Nucleic acids detection method is vital to the clinical pathogen diagnosis. The established method can be classified into target direct amplification and signal amplification format according to the target DNA or RNA being directly amplified or not. Those methods have advantages and disadvantages respectively in the clinical application. In the United States of American, branched-DNA as a strong signal amplifier is broadly used in the quantification of the nucleic acids. To gain satisfied sensitivity, some expensive label molecular and instruments should be adopted. Personnel should be special trained to perform. Hence, those can't be widely carried out in the Third World. To avoid those disadvantages, we used the branched-DNA amplifier in the paper chromatography hybridization assay. Methods: Branched DNA signal amplifier and series of probes complementary to the nucleic acid sequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been synthesized. HBV-DNA or it's capture probe were immobilized on the high flow nitrocellulose strip. Having loaded at one end of the strip in turn, probes or HBV-DNA in the hybridization solution migrate to the opposite end of the strip by capillary forces and hybridizes to the immobilized DNA. The branched-DNA signal amplifier and probe labeled with biotin or 32P were then loaded. Through streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase (SA-AP) conjugate and NBT/BCIP ( the specific chromogenic substrate of AP) or autoradiography, the result can be visualized by color reaction or image production on the X-ray film. Results: The sensitivity of this HBV-DNA detection method used probe labeled with biotin and 32P are 1ng and 10pg. The method using the probe labeled with biotin is simple and rapid (2h) without depending on special instruments, it also avoids the pollution of EtBr which can lead to tumor. And the method using the probe labeled with 32P is simple and sensitive, with the exception of long time autoradiography and the inconvenient isotopic disposal

  6. Evaluation of a reverse-hybridization StripAssay for the detection of genetic polymorphisms leading to acenocoumarol sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialeraki, Argyri; Markatos, Christos; Grouzi, Elisabeth; Merkouri, Efrosyni; Travlou, Anthi; Politou, Marianna

    2010-04-01

    Acenocoumarol is mainly catabolized by CYP2C9 isoform of cytochrome P450 (CYP) liver complex and exerts its anticoagulant effect through the inhibition of Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase (VKOR). The most important genetic polymorphisms which lead to an impaired enzymatic activity and therefore predispose to acenocoumarol sensitivity, are considered to be CYP2C9*2 (Arg144Cys), CYP2C9*3 (Ile359Leu) and VKORC1-1639G>A, respectively. In this study we compared the results of the PGXThrombo StripAssay kit (ViennaLab Diagnostics,Vienna, Austria) with direct DNA sequencing and in house Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) for the detection of the aforementioned Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The reverse hybridization StripAssay was found to be equally effective with RFLP and direct DNA sequencing for the detection of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms, respectively. The comparison of the RFLP reference method with the reverse hybridization StripAssay for the detection of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism showed that the reverse hybridization StripAsssay might misclassify some A/A homozygotes as heterozygotes. Optimization of the hybridization procedures may eliminate the extra low signal band observed in some samples at the reverse hybridization StripAssay and improve its diagnostic value.

  7. High affinity γPNA sandwich hybridization assay for rapid detection of short nucleic acid targets with single mismatch discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Johnathan M; Zhang, Li Ang; Manna, Arunava; Armitage, Bruce A; Ly, Danith H; Schneider, James W

    2013-07-08

    Hybridization analysis of short DNA and RNA targets presents many challenges for detection. The commonly employed sandwich hybridization approach cannot be implemented for these short targets due to insufficient probe-target binding strengths for unmodified DNA probes. Here, we present a method capable of rapid and stable sandwich hybridization detection for 22 nucleotide DNA and RNA targets. Stable hybridization is achieved using an n-alkylated, polyethylene glycol γ-carbon modified peptide nucleic acid (γPNA) amphiphile. The γPNA's exceptionally high affinity enables stable hybridization of a second DNA-based probe to the remaining bases of the short target. Upon hybridization of both probes, an electrophoretic mobility shift is measured via interaction of the n-alkane modification on the γPNA with capillary electrophoresis running buffer containing nonionic surfactant micelles. We find that sandwich hybridization of both probes is stable under multiple binding configurations and demonstrate single base mismatch discrimination. The binding strength of both probes is also stabilized via coaxial stacking on adjacent hybridization to targets. We conclude with a discussion on the implementation of the proposed sandwich hybridization assay as a high-throughput microRNA detection method.

  8. Performance of PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay for detection of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Kim, Hyunjung; Kim, Yeun; Bang, Hyeeun; Kim, Jong-Pill; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Cho, Sang-Nae; Kim, Tae Ue; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-10-01

    Drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae is a significant problem in countries where leprosy is endemic. A sensitive, specific, and high-throughput reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the detection of genotypic resistance to rifampicin (RIF) was designed and evaluated. It has been shown that resistance to RIF in M. leprae involves mutations in the rpoB gene encoding the -subunit of the RNA polymerase. The PCR-REBA simultaneously detects both 6 wild-type regions and 5 different mutations (507 AGC, 513 GTG, 516 TAT, 531 ATG, and 531 TTC) including the most prevalent mutations at positions 507 and 531. Thirty-one clinical isolates provided by Korea Institute of Hansen-s Disease were analyzed by PCR-REBA with RIF resistance of rpoB gene. As a result, missense mutations at codons 507 AGC and 531 ATG with 2-nucleotide substitutions were found in one sample, and a missense mutation at codon 516 TAT and ΔWT6 (deletion of 530-534) was found in another sample. These cases were confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. This rapid, simple, and highly sensitive assay provides a practical alternative to sequencing for genotypic evaluation of RIF resistance in M. leprae.

  9. Effects of Bonding Types and Functional Groups on CO 2 Capture using Novel Multiphase Systems of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) which possess unique features including negligible vapor pressure and a high degree of tunability were synthesized and their physical and chemical properties as well as CO 2 capture

  10. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature of the grafted polymeric canopy allows for enhanced CO 2 capture capacity and selectivity via the enthalpic intermolecular interactions between CO2 and the task-specific functional groups, such as amines. Interestingly, for the same amount of CO2 loading NOHMs have also exhibited significantly different swelling behavior compared to that of the corresponding polymers, indicating a potential structural effect during CO2 capture. If the frustrated canopy species favor spontaneous ordering due to steric and/or entropic effects, the inorganic cores of NOHMs could be organized into unusual structural arrangements. Likewise, the introduction of small gaseous molecules such as CO2 could reduce the free energy of the frustrated canopy. This entropic effect, the result of unique structural nature, could allow NOHMs to capture CO2 more effectively. In order to isolate the entropic effect, NOHMs were synthesized without the task-specific functional groups. The relationship between their structural conformation and the underlying mechanisms for the CO2 absorption behavior were investigated by employing NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results provide fundamental information needed for evaluating and developing novel liquid-like CO2 capture materials and give useful insights for designing and synthesizing NOHMs for more effective CO2 capture. © the Owner Societies 2011.

  11. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjune; Decatur, John; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-10-28

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature of the grafted polymeric canopy allows for enhanced CO(2) capture capacity and selectivity via the enthalpic intermolecular interactions between CO(2) and the task-specific functional groups, such as amines. Interestingly, for the same amount of CO(2) loading NOHMs have also exhibited significantly different swelling behavior compared to that of the corresponding polymers, indicating a potential structural effect during CO(2) capture. If the frustrated canopy species favor spontaneous ordering due to steric and/or entropic effects, the inorganic cores of NOHMs could be organized into unusual structural arrangements. Likewise, the introduction of small gaseous molecules such as CO(2) could reduce the free energy of the frustrated canopy. This entropic effect, the result of unique structural nature, could allow NOHMs to capture CO(2) more effectively. In order to isolate the entropic effect, NOHMs were synthesized without the task-specific functional groups. The relationship between their structural conformation and the underlying mechanisms for the CO(2) absorption behavior were investigated by employing NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results provide fundamental information needed for evaluating and developing novel liquid-like CO(2) capture materials and give useful insights for designing and synthesizing NOHMs for more effective CO(2) capture. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  12. Accurate detection of male subclinical genital tract infection via cervical culture and DNA hybridization assay of the female partner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trum, J. W.; Pannekoek, Y.; Spanjaard, L.; Bleker, O. P.; van der Veen, F.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of the PACE2 DNA hybridization assay of the cervix and cervical culture in female partners for the diagnosis of male subclinical genital tract infection were assessed in a male infertility population. A total of 184 men were screened for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma

  13. Development and evaluation of a Sarcocystis neurona-specific IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J E; Marsh, A E; Reed, S M; Meadows, C; Bolten, K; Saville, W J A

    2006-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease of horses caused primarily by the protozoal parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Currently available antemortem diagnostic testing has low specificity. The hypothesis of this study was that serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of horses experimentally challenged with S neurona would have an increased S neurona-specific IgM (Sn-IgM) concentration after infection, as determined by an IgM capture enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). The ELISA was based on the S neurona low molecular weight protein SNUCD-1 antigen and the monoclonal antibody 2G5 labeled with horseradish peroxidase. The test was evaluated using serum and CSF from 12 horses experimentally infected with 1.5 million S neurona sporocysts and 16 horses experimentally infected with varying doses (100 to 100,000) of S neurona sporocysts, for which results of histopathologic examination of the central nervous system were available. For horses challenged with 1.5 million sporocysts, there was a significant increase in serum Sn-IgM concentrations compared with values before infection at weeks 2-6 after inoculation (P neurona, there were significant increases in serum Sn-IgM concentration at various points in time after inoculation, depending on the challenge dose (P < .01). In addition, there was a significant increase between the CSF Sn-IgM concentrations before and after inoculation (P < .0001). These results support further evaluation of the assay as a diagnostic test during the acute phase of EPM.

  14. Sensitive electrochemical assaying of DNA methyltransferase activity based on mimic-hybridization chain reaction amplified strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linqun; Liu, Yuanjian; Li, Ying; Zhao, Yuewu; Wei, Wei; Liu, Songqin

    2016-08-24

    A mimic-hybridization chain reaction (mimic-HCR) amplified strategy was proposed for sensitive electrochemically detection of DNA methylation and methyltransferase (MTase) activity In the presence of methylated DNA, DNA-gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs) were captured on the electrode by sandwich-type assembly. It then triggered mimic-HCR of two hairpin probes to produce many long double-helix chains for numerous hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+), RuHex) inserting. As a result, the signal for electrochemically detection of DNA MTase activity could be amplified. If DNA was non-methylated, however, the sandwich-type assembly would not form because the short double-stranded DNAs (dsDNA) on the Au electrode could be cleaved and digested by restriction endonuclease HpaII (HapII) and exonuclease III (Exo III), resulting in the signal decrement. Based on this, an electrochemical approach for detection of M.SssI MTase activity with high sensitivity was developed. The linear range for M.SssI MTase activity was from 0.05 U mL(-1) to 10 U mL(-1), with a detection limit down to 0.03 U mL(-1). Moreover, this detecting strategy held great promise as an easy-to-use and highly sensitive method for other MTase activity and inhibition detection by exchanging the corresponding DNA sequence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of kDNA PCR-hybridization assay with three PCR methods for canines visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatti, Marcia M.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marciapilatti@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Ferreira, Sidney A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia], e-mail: saninoalmeida@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    The sensitivity of the kDNA PCR-Hybridization assay, which uses radioactive DNA probes (labeled with {sup 32}P), was compared with three conventional PCR methods used for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. All PCR methods had two steps: a first amplification followed by hybridization or by a new amplification (nested or semi nested). Two methods (kDNA PCR-Hybridization and kDNA snPCR) used primers addressed to kinetoplast minicircles and the other two methods to the coding (LnPCR) and intergenic noncoding regions (ITS-1 nPCR) of the ribosomal rRNA genes. The comparison was accomplished in two groups of 23 infected dogs using samples collected by the conjunctival swab procedure. In the Group 1 the DNA was extracted from cotton swabs by phenol-chloroform and in Group 2 by boiling. The most efficient PCR methods in the Group 1 were those based on kDNA targets. The kDNA PCR-Hybridization was able to detect parasites in 22/23 dogs (95.6%) and in 40/46 samples (86.9%). The kDNA snPCR was positive for 21/23 dogs (91.3%) and for 40/46 samples (86.9%). The positivities of the kDNA based methods were significantly higher than the positivities verified for the methods based on ribosomal rRNA genes (p<0.05). In the Group 2 the kDNA PCR- Hybridization showed a better performance detecting parasites in 18/23 dogs (78.3%) and in 31/46 samples (67.4%), significantly higher than the other three methods (p<0.05). The higher sensitivity of the minicircle kDNA based assays reported by others was confirmed in this study and kDNA PCR-Hybridization showed the best sensitivity among the assays evaluated. (author)

  16. Comparison of kDNA PCR-hybridization assay with three PCR methods for canines visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilatti, Marcia M.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Ferreira, Sidney A.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of the kDNA PCR-Hybridization assay, which uses radioactive DNA probes (labeled with 32 P), was compared with three conventional PCR methods used for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. All PCR methods had two steps: a first amplification followed by hybridization or by a new amplification (nested or semi nested). Two methods (kDNA PCR-Hybridization and kDNA snPCR) used primers addressed to kinetoplast minicircles and the other two methods to the coding (LnPCR) and intergenic noncoding regions (ITS-1 nPCR) of the ribosomal rRNA genes. The comparison was accomplished in two groups of 23 infected dogs using samples collected by the conjunctival swab procedure. In the Group 1 the DNA was extracted from cotton swabs by phenol-chloroform and in Group 2 by boiling. The most efficient PCR methods in the Group 1 were those based on kDNA targets. The kDNA PCR-Hybridization was able to detect parasites in 22/23 dogs (95.6%) and in 40/46 samples (86.9%). The kDNA snPCR was positive for 21/23 dogs (91.3%) and for 40/46 samples (86.9%). The positivities of the kDNA based methods were significantly higher than the positivities verified for the methods based on ribosomal rRNA genes (p<0.05). In the Group 2 the kDNA PCR- Hybridization showed a better performance detecting parasites in 18/23 dogs (78.3%) and in 31/46 samples (67.4%), significantly higher than the other three methods (p<0.05). The higher sensitivity of the minicircle kDNA based assays reported by others was confirmed in this study and kDNA PCR-Hybridization showed the best sensitivity among the assays evaluated. (author)

  17. Investigation of parameters that affect the success rate of microarray-based allele-specific hybridization assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Poulsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of microarray-based genetic tests for diseases that are caused by known mutations is becoming increasingly important. The key obstacle to developing functional genotyping assays is that such mutations need to be genotyped regardless of their location in genomic regions. These regions include large variations in G+C content, and structural features like hairpins. METHODS/FINDINGS: We describe a rational, stable method for screening and combining assay conditions for the genetic analysis of 42 Phenylketonuria-associated mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. The mutations are located in regions with large variations in G+C content (20-75%. Custom-made microarrays with different lengths of complementary probe sequences and spacers were hybridized with pooled PCR products of 12 exons from each of 38 individual patient DNA samples. The arrays were washed with eight buffers with different stringencies in a custom-made microfluidic system. The data were used to assess which parameters play significant roles in assay development. CONCLUSIONS: Several assay development methods found suitable probes and assay conditions for a functional test for all investigated mutation sites. Probe length, probe spacer length, and assay stringency sufficed as variable parameters in the search for a functional multiplex assay. We discuss the optimal assay development methods for several different scenarios.

  18. Double positive effect of adding hexaethyelene glycol when optimizing the hybridization efficiency of a microring DNA detection assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eeghem, Anabelle, E-mail: anabelle.vaneeghem@gmail.com [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University (Belgium); Center for Nano- and Biophotonics, Ghent University (Belgium); Werquin, Sam [Center for Nano- and Biophotonics, Ghent University (Belgium); Photonics Research Group, Department of Information Technology, Ghent University – IMEC (Belgium); Hoste, Jan-Willem, E-mail: janwillem.hoste@ugent.be [Center for Nano- and Biophotonics, Ghent University (Belgium); Photonics Research Group, Department of Information Technology, Ghent University – IMEC (Belgium); Goes, Arne [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University (Belgium); Agrosavfe NV, Technologiepark 4 (Bio-incubator), Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Vanderleyden, Els [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University (Belgium); Center for Nano- and Biophotonics, Ghent University (Belgium); Bienstman, Peter [Center for Nano- and Biophotonics, Ghent University (Belgium); Photonics Research Group, Department of Information Technology, Ghent University – IMEC (Belgium); Dubruel, Peter [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University (Belgium); Center for Nano- and Biophotonics, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • The hybridization efficiency of a DNA assay was investigated based on SOI microring resonators. • A 4-fold increase in efficiency was obtained by using HEG as backfilling agent, as well as improving robustness. • The dual polarization microring technique shows that HEG reorients the DNA in an upright position. • Hybridizing at 35 °C and with a buffer containing 50 v/v% of formamide greatly improves the robustness. - Abstract: In this paper, a method for detection of DNA molecules using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microring resonators is described. The influence of temperature and the use of formamide on the hybridization efficiency were studied. It was shown that 50 v/v% of formamide in the hybridization buffer can ensure hybridization when working close to physiological temperature. Furthermore, the use of hexaethylene glycol (HEG) as backfilling agent was studied in order to resolve issues of non-specific adsorption to the surface. The results indicated that not only non-specific binding was reduced significantly but also that HEG improves the orientation of the DNA probes on the surface. This led to a 4-fold increase in hybridization efficiency and thus in an equal decrease in the detection limit, compared to hybridization without the use of HEG. An improvement in robustness of the assay was also observed. This DNA reorientation hypothesis was confirmed by studying the thickness and density of the layers by using dual polarization microring sensing. Finally, the different steps in the sensing experiment were characterized in more detail by static contact angle (SCA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed quantitatively that the surface modifications were successful.

  19. Using a hybrid subtyping model to capture patterns and dimensionality of depressive and anxiety symptomatology in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Klaas J; Wanders, Rob B K; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; de Jonge, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Researchers have tried to identify more homogeneous subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD) with latent class analyses (LCA). However, this approach does no justice to the dimensional nature of psychopathology. In addition, anxiety and functioning-levels have seldom been integrated in subtyping efforts. Therefore, this study used a hybrid discrete-dimensional approach to identify subgroups with shared patterns of depressive and anxiety symptomatology, while accounting for functioning-levels. The Comprehensive International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 1.1 was used to assess previous-year depressive and anxiety symptoms in the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-1 (NEMESIS-1; n=5583). The data were analyzed with factor analyses, LCA and hybrid mixed-measurement item response theory (MM-IRT) with and without functioning covariates. Finally, the classes' predictors (measured one year earlier) and outcomes (measured two years later) were investigated. A 3-class MM-IRT model with functioning covariates best described the data and consisted of a 'healthy class' (74.2%) and two symptomatic classes ('sleep/energy' [13.4%]; 'mood/anhedonia' [12.4%]). Factors including older age, urbanicity, higher severity and presence of 1-year MDD predicted membership of either symptomatic class vs. the healthy class. Both symptomatic classes showed poorer 2-year outcomes (i.e. disorders, poor functioning) than the healthy class. The odds of MDD after two years were especially increased in the mood/anhedonia class. Symptoms were assessed for the past year whereas current functioning was assessed. Heterogeneity of depression and anxiety symptomatology are optimally captured by a hybrid discrete-dimensional subtyping model. Importantly, accounting for functioning-levels helps to capture clinically relevant interpersonal differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal Threshold for a Positive Hybrid Capture 2 Test for Detection of Human Papillomavirus: Data from the ARTISTIC Trial▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, A.; Bailey, A.; Turner, A.; Almonte, M.; Gilham, C.; Baysson, H.; Peto, J.; Roberts, C.; Thomson, C.; Desai, M.; Mather, J.; Kitchener, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present data on the use of the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) with different thresholds for positivity within a primary screening setting and as a method of triage for low-grade cytology. In the ARTISTIC population-based trial, 18,386 women were screened by cytology and for HPV. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions of grade two and higher (CIN2+ lesions) were identified for 453 women within 30 months of an abnormal baseline sample. When a relative light unit/cutoff (RLU/Co) ratio of ≥1 was used as the threshold for considering an HC2 result positive, 15.6% of results were positive, and the proportion of CIN2+ lesions in this group was 14.7%. The relative sensitivity for CIN2+ lesion detection was 93.4%. When an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2 was used as the threshold, there was a 2.5% reduction in positivity, with an increase in the proportion of CIN2+ lesions detected. The relative sensitivity decreased slightly, to 90.3%. Among women with low-grade cytology, HPV prevalences were 43.7% and 40.3% at RLU/Co ratios of ≥1 and ≥2, respectively. The proportions of CIN2+ lesions detected were 17.3% and 18.0%, with relative sensitivities of 87.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 84.2% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2. At an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1, 68.3% of HC2-positive results were confirmed by the Roche line blot assay, compared to 77.2% of those at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2. Fewer HC2-positive results were confirmed for 35- to 64-year-olds (50.3% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 63.2% at an RLU/Co ratio of >2) than for 20- to 34-year-olds (78.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 83.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of >2). If the HC2 test is used for routine screening as an initial test or as a method of triage for low-grade cytology, we would suggest increasing the threshold for positivity from the RLU/Co ratio of ≥1, recommended by the manufacturer, to an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2, since this study has shown that a beneficial balance

  1. Detection of target staphylococcal enterotoxin B antigen in orange juice and popular carbonated beverages using antibody-dependent antigen-capture assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principato, MaryAnn; Njoroge, Joyce M; Perlloni, Andrei; O' Donnell, Michael; Boyle, Thomas; Jones, Robert L

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need for qualitative and quantitative methodologies that provide the rapid and accurate detection of food contaminants in complex food matrices. However, the sensitivity of the assay can be affected when antigen-capture is applied to certain foods or beverages that are extremely acidic. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of orange juice and popular carbonated soft drink upon the fidelity of antibody-based antigen-capture assays and to develop simple approaches that could rescue assay performance without the introduction of additional or extensive extraction procedures. We examined the effects of orange juice and a variety of popular carbonated soft drink beverages upon a quantitative Interleukin-2 (IL-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay system and a lateral flow device (LFD) adapted for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in foods. Alterations in the performance and sensitivity of the assay were directly attributable to the food matrix, and alterations in pH were especially critical. The results demonstrate that approaches such as an alteration of pH and the use of milk as a blocking agent, either singly or in combination, will partially rescue ELISA performance. The same approaches permit lateral flow to efficiently detect antigen. Practical Application: The authors present ways to rescue an ELISA assay compromised by acidity in beverages and show that either the alteration of pH, or the use of milk as a blocking agent are not always capable of restoring the assay to its intended efficiency. However, the same methods, when employed with lateral flow technology, are rapid and extremely successful.

  2. Detection of human papillomavirus by hybrid capture and real time PCR methods in patients with chronic cervicitis and cervical intraepithelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Khandker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Cervical cancer due to Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in women. Testing of HPV can identify women who are at risk of cervical cancer. Nowadays, molecular methods like real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and hybrid capture technique are applied for detecting HPV in cervical specimens. The objective of the present study was to determine the rate of HPV infection in women with chronic cervicitis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN by a commercial real time polymerase chain reaction test kit and by a hybrid capture HPV DNA test. Methods:Women aged between 20 to 55 years with chronic cervicitis and CIN were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. Cervical specimen was collected by using cervical brush and stored in transport medium until used. HPV was detected by High Risk Screen Real-TM Quant 2x (Sacace, Biotechnologies SrI, Italy real time PCR kit (HR RT-PCR and by Hybrid Capture-2 High-Risk HPV DNA (Hc-2; Digene Corporation, USA test. Results: Total 72 women with chronic cervicitis and CIN of different grades were included in the study. Out of this, HPV infection detected by HR RT-PCR was 31 (43% and by Hc-2 was 14 (19.4%. Both the tests were able to detect HPV infection in all the CIN 3 cases and in most of the CIN 2 cases. However, HR RT-PCR detected higher number of HPV in chronic cervicitis and CIN1 cases. Conclusion:The study has shown that HR RT-PCR and Hc-2 tests are equally effective in detecting HPV infection in patients with CIN 2 and CIN 3 lesions. However, HR RT-PCR is more sensitive test for detecting HPV in chronic cervicitis and early CIN lesions and, therefore can be used in epidemiological study to detect presence of HPV in general population. IMC J Med Sci 2016; 10(2: 45-48

  3. Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shiguang; Shou, S.; Pyrzynski, Travis; Makkuni, Ajay; Meyer, Howard

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes scientific/technical progress made for bench-scale membrane contactor technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0004787. Budget Period 1 (BP1) membrane absorber, Budget Period 2 (BP2) membrane desorber and Budget Period 3 (BP3) integrated system and field testing studies have been completed successfully and met or exceeded the technical targets (≥ 90% CO2 removal and CO2 purity of 97% in one membrane stage). Significant breakthroughs are summarized below: BP1 research: The feasibility of utilizing the poly (ether ether ketone), PEEK, based hollow fiber contractor (HFC) in combination with chemical solvents to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO2 from simulated flue gases has been successfully established. Excellent progress has been made as we have achieved the BP1 goal: ≥ 1,000 membrane intrinsic CO2 permeance, ≥ 90% CO2 removal in one stage, ≤ 2 psi gas side pressure drop, and ≥ 1 (sec)-1 mass transfer coefficient. Initial test results also show that the CO2 capture performance, using activated Methyl Diethanol Amine (aMDEA) solvent, was not affected by flue gas contaminants O2 (~3%), NO2 (66 ppmv), and SO2 (145 ppmv). BP2 research: The feasibility of utilizing the PEEK HFC for CO2-loaded solvent regeneration has been successfully established High CO2 stripping flux, one order of magnitude higher than CO2 absorption flux, have been achieved. Refined economic evaluation based on BP1 membrane absorber and BP2 membrane desorber laboratory test data indicate that the CO2 capture costs are 36% lower than DOE’s benchmark amine absorption technology. BP3 research: A bench-scale system utilizing a membrane absorber and desorber was integrated into a continuous CO2 capture process using contactors containing 10 to 20 ft2 of membrane area. The integrated process operation was stable through a 100-hour laboratory test, utilizing a simulated flue gas stream. Greater than 90% CO2 capture combined with 97

  4. Evaluation of Myc Gene Amplification in Prostate Cancer Using a Dual Color Chromogenic in-Situ Hybridization (Dual CISH Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lerda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The overall purpose of the study was to demonstrate applicability of the Dako dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH assay (DAKO Denmark, Glostrup with respect to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH probes MYC-C. Methods: MYC gene amplification by FISH and Dako dual-color CISH Results: The study showed that the dual-color CISH assay can convert Texas red and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC signals into chromogenic signals. The dual –color CISH assay was performed on 40 cases of prostate cancer. Amplification was identified in 12 of 40 (30% tumors. No amplification was seen in 28 of 40 (70% tumors. FISH data were available in total of 40 tumors. All tumors showed concordant results between dual-color CISH and FISH for classifying a tumor as MYC amplified or not amplified. Conclusions: We conclude that dual-color Dako CISH assay is an accurate method for determining MYC gene amplification with added advantages that make it a more practically useful method. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(2.000: 81-84

  5. Comparison of the accuracy of Hybrid Capture II and polymerase chain reaction in detecting clinically important cervical dysplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, Hung N; Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; VonVille, Helena M; Scheurer, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of screening programs for cervical cancer has benefited from the inclusion of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays; which assay to choose, however, is not clear based on previous reviews. Our review addressed test accuracy of Hybrid Capture II (HCII) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on studies with stronger designs and with more clinically relevant outcomes. We searched OvidMedline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for English language studies comparing both tests, published 1985–2012, with cervical dysplasia defined by the Bethesda classification. Meta-analysis provided pooled sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs); meta-regression identified sources of heterogeneity. From 29 reports, we found that the pooled sensitivity and specificity to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was higher for HCII than PCR (0.89 [CI: 0.89–0.90] and 0.85 [CI: 0.84–0.86] vs. 0.73 [CI: 0.73–0.74] and 0.62 [CI: 0.62–0.64]). Both assays had higher accuracy to detect cervical dysplasia in Europe than in Asia-Pacific or North America (diagnostic odd ratio – dOR = 4.08 [CI: 1.39–11.91] and 4.56 [CI: 1.86–11.17] for HCII vs. 2.66 [CI: 1.16–6.53] and 3.78 [CI: 1.50–9.51] for PCR) and accuracy to detect HSIL than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)/ low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (HCII-dOR = 9.04 [CI: 4.12–19.86] and PCR-dOR = 5.60 [CI: 2.87–10.94]). For HCII, using histology as a gold standard results in higher accuracy than using cytology (dOR = 2.87 [CI: 1.31–6.29]). Based on higher test accuracy, our results support the use of HCII in cervical cancer screening programs. The role of HPV type distribution should be explored to determine the worldwide comparability of HPV test accuracy

  6. Comparison of IgM Capture Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using Inhouse method and commercially available MRL kit for serological confirmation of dengue infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapugoda, D.M.; De Silva R, Nilanthi; Abeywickreme, W.; Gunasena, Sunethra; Prithimala, L.D.; Jayawardene, S.L.G.J.; Kumari, Thamara

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of dengue infection is important for the management of the patients. In this study igM capture ELISA using an inhouse method and commercially available kit (MRL diagnostics,USA) was compared to detect diagnostic capability of Inhouse IgM ELISA for provision of diagnostic facilities to the public at an affordable cost. Eighty acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from serologically confirmed dengue patients. Serological confirmation of patients were performed by Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) assay, gold standard assay for dengue on paired serum samples. All collected acute and convalescent sera were tested by IgM ELISA using the inhouse method and MRL kit. Antigen and conjugate for the inhouse IgM method were prepared in the laboratory. A cocktail of four dengue antigens containing 25 Antigen ELISA units of each type was prepared and used as the assay antigen. Conjugate was prepared using a serum sample with high dengue Anti flavi IgG antibody titre conjugated with Horseradish peroxidase. A prospective study of both IgM ELISA assays were performed using 113 acute sera collected from dengue suspected cases. Overall results showed that 46% and 52% acute sera collected from dengue confirmed patients were positive by inhouse ELISA assay and MRL kits respectively. In the prospective study done using acute sera collected from dengue suspected patients showed that 44% and 52% were positive by inhouse ELISA assay and MRL kits. There was no significant difference in positivity between these two assays. (P=0.18). Inhouse IgM ELISA can be used for provision of laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus infection more than 5 days. The assay is 10 times less costly than using MRL kits as assay antigen and conjugate can be prepared easily in the laboratory

  7. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Canopy Configurations in Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials of Various Grafting Densities during CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Camille; Park, Youngjune; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2012-01-01

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) made of polyetheramine chains tethered onto functionalized silica nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized before and after exposure to CO 2 using NMR, Raman, and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies in order to investigate the effect of the grafting densities on the NOHM canopy structure. Considering the promising tunable properties for CO 2 capture of NOHMs, this study was conducted to provide important structural information to better design NOHMs for CO 2 capture. In order to minimize the CO 2 absorption via enthalpic effect and provide a more accurate assessment of the structural effects, the NOHMs were synthesized without task-specific groups. A greater chain ordering and decreased intermolecular interactions were observed in NOHMs compared to the unbound polymer. This was attributed to the specific structural arrangement of the frustrated canopy. The distinct configuration of grafted polymer chains caused different CO 2 packing and CO 2-induced swelling behaviors between the NOHMs and the unbound polymer. The grafting density influenced the ordering and coupling of the polymer chains and CO 2-induced swelling. Its effect on the CO 2 packing behavior was less pronounced. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Canopy Configurations in Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials of Various Grafting Densities during CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Camille

    2012-01-12

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) made of polyetheramine chains tethered onto functionalized silica nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized before and after exposure to CO 2 using NMR, Raman, and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies in order to investigate the effect of the grafting densities on the NOHM canopy structure. Considering the promising tunable properties for CO 2 capture of NOHMs, this study was conducted to provide important structural information to better design NOHMs for CO 2 capture. In order to minimize the CO 2 absorption via enthalpic effect and provide a more accurate assessment of the structural effects, the NOHMs were synthesized without task-specific groups. A greater chain ordering and decreased intermolecular interactions were observed in NOHMs compared to the unbound polymer. This was attributed to the specific structural arrangement of the frustrated canopy. The distinct configuration of grafted polymer chains caused different CO 2 packing and CO 2-induced swelling behaviors between the NOHMs and the unbound polymer. The grafting density influenced the ordering and coupling of the polymer chains and CO 2-induced swelling. Its effect on the CO 2 packing behavior was less pronounced. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Population-based rare variant detection via pooled exome or custom hybridization capture with or without individual indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Enrique; Levinson, Benjamin T; Chasnoff, Sara; Hughes, Andrew; Young, Andrew L; Thornton, Katherine; Li, Allie; Vallania, Francesco L M; Province, Michael; Druley, Todd E

    2012-12-06

    Rare genetic variation in the human population is a major source of pathophysiological variability and has been implicated in a host of complex phenotypes and diseases. Finding disease-related genes harboring disparate functional rare variants requires sequencing of many individuals across many genomic regions and comparing against unaffected cohorts. However, despite persistent declines in sequencing costs, population-based rare variant detection across large genomic target regions remains cost prohibitive for most investigators. In addition, DNA samples are often precious and hybridization methods typically require large amounts of input DNA. Pooled sample DNA sequencing is a cost and time-efficient strategy for surveying populations of individuals for rare variants. We set out to 1) create a scalable, multiplexing method for custom capture with or without individual DNA indexing that was amenable to low amounts of input DNA and 2) expand the functionality of the SPLINTER algorithm for calling substitutions, insertions and deletions across either candidate genes or the entire exome by integrating the variant calling algorithm with the dynamic programming aligner, Novoalign. We report methodology for pooled hybridization capture with pre-enrichment, indexed multiplexing of up to 48 individuals or non-indexed pooled sequencing of up to 92 individuals with as little as 70 ng of DNA per person. Modified solid phase reversible immobilization bead purification strategies enable no sample transfers from sonication in 96-well plates through adapter ligation, resulting in 50% less library preparation reagent consumption. Custom Y-shaped adapters containing novel 7 base pair index sequences with a Hamming distance of ≥2 were directly ligated onto fragmented source DNA eliminating the need for PCR to incorporate indexes, and was followed by a custom blocking strategy using a single oligonucleotide regardless of index sequence. These results were obtained aligning raw

  10. Population-based rare variant detection via pooled exome or custom hybridization capture with or without individual indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Enrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rare genetic variation in the human population is a major source of pathophysiological variability and has been implicated in a host of complex phenotypes and diseases. Finding disease-related genes harboring disparate functional rare variants requires sequencing of many individuals across many genomic regions and comparing against unaffected cohorts. However, despite persistent declines in sequencing costs, population-based rare variant detection across large genomic target regions remains cost prohibitive for most investigators. In addition, DNA samples are often precious and hybridization methods typically require large amounts of input DNA. Pooled sample DNA sequencing is a cost and time-efficient strategy for surveying populations of individuals for rare variants. We set out to 1 create a scalable, multiplexing method for custom capture with or without individual DNA indexing that was amenable to low amounts of input DNA and 2 expand the functionality of the SPLINTER algorithm for calling substitutions, insertions and deletions across either candidate genes or the entire exome by integrating the variant calling algorithm with the dynamic programming aligner, Novoalign. Results We report methodology for pooled hybridization capture with pre-enrichment, indexed multiplexing of up to 48 individuals or non-indexed pooled sequencing of up to 92 individuals with as little as 70 ng of DNA per person. Modified solid phase reversible immobilization bead purification strategies enable no sample transfers from sonication in 96-well plates through adapter ligation, resulting in 50% less library preparation reagent consumption. Custom Y-shaped adapters containing novel 7 base pair index sequences with a Hamming distance of ≥2 were directly ligated onto fragmented source DNA eliminating the need for PCR to incorporate indexes, and was followed by a custom blocking strategy using a single oligonucleotide regardless of index sequence

  11. Hybrid Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan F [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Degnan, Jr, Thomas Francis [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); McCready, Mark J. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Stadtherr, Mark A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Stolaroff, Joshua K [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ye, Congwang [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and Phase Change Ionic Liquids (PCILs) are excellent materials for selective removal of carbon dioxide from dilute post-combustion streams. However, they are typically characterized as having high viscosities, which impairs their effectiveness due to mass transfer limitations, caused by the high viscosities. In this project, we are examining the benefits of encapsulating ILs and PCILs in thin polymeric shells to produce particles of approximately 100 to 600 µm in diameter that can be used in a fluidized bed absorber. The particles are produced by microencapsulation of the ILs and PCILs in CO2-permeable polymer shells. Here we report on the encapsulation of the IL and PCIL materials, thermodynamic testing of the encapsulated materials, mass transfer measurements in both a fluidized bed and a packed bed, determination of the effect of impurities (SO2, NOx and water) on the free and encapsulated IL and PCIL, recyclability of the CO2 uptake, selection and synthesis of kg quantities of the IL and PCIL, identification of scale-up methods for encapsulation and production of a kg quantity of the PCIL, construction and shakedown of the laboratory scale unit to test the encapsulated particles for CO2 capture ability and efficiency, use of our mass transfer model to predict mass transfer and identify optimal properties of the encapsulated particles, and initial testing of the encapsulated particles in the laboratory scale unit. We also show our attempts at developing shell materials that are resistant to water permeation. Overall, we have shown that the selected IL and PCIL can be successfully encapsulated in polymer shells and the methods scaled up to production levels. The IL/PCIL and encapsulated IL/PCIL react irreversibly with SO2 and NOx so the CO2 capture unit would need to be placed after the flue gas desulfurization and NOx reduction units. However

  12. Use of Molecular Assays in Diagnosis and Monitoring of Cytomegalovirus Disease following Renal Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken, Celia; Barrett-Muir, Winsome; Millar, Colin; Templeton, Kate; Thomas, Janice; Sheridan, Fran; Jeffries, Donald; Yaqoob, Magdi; Breuer, Judith

    1999-01-01

    We compared two commercial molecular assays (the Murex Hybrid Capture CMV DNA assay [HCA], version 2, and the Roche Amplicor plasma PCR assay) with a standard shell vial assay in detecting and predicting cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in a group of renal transplant patients and assessed the role of viral load measurements (using the HCA) in their management. The sensitivity of the HCA and Amplicor assay in terms of disease detection was 100%, compared to 71% for the shell vial assay. Both the ...

  13. Establishment of 60Co dose calibration curve using fluorescent in situ hybridization assay technique: Result of preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Noriah Jamal; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Juliana Mahamad Napiah; Nelly Bo Nai Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at establishing an in-vitro 60 Co dose calibration curve using Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization assay technique for the Malaysian National Bio dosimetry Laboratory. Blood samples collected from a female healthy donor were irradiated with several doses of 60 Co radiation. Following culturing of lymphocytes, microscopic slides are prepared, denatured and hybridized. The frequencies of translocation are estimated in the metaphases. A calibration curve was then generated using a regression technique. It shows a good fit to a linear-quadratic model. The results of this study might be useful in estimating absorbed dose for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation retrospectively. This information may be useful as a guide for medical treatment for the assessment of possible health consequences. (author)

  14. Hybrid Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan; Degnan, Thomas; McCready, Mark; Stadtherr, Mark; Stolaroff, Joshuah; Ye, Congwang

    2016-09-30

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and Phase Change Ionic Liquids (PCILs) are excellent materials for selective removal of carbon dioxide from dilute post-combustion streams. However, they are typically characterized as having high viscosities, which impairs their effectiveness due to mass transfer limitations, caused by the high viscosities. In this project, we are examining the benefits of encapsulating ILs and PCILs in thin polymeric shells to produce particles of approximately 100 to 600 μm in diameter that can be used in a fluidized bed absorber. The particles are produced by microencapsulation of the ILs and PCILs in CO2-permeable polymer shells. Here we report on the synthesis of the IL and PCIL materials, measurements of thermophysical properties including CO2 capacity and reprotonation equilibrium and kinetics, encapsulation of the ILs and PCILs, mechanical and thermodynamic testing of the encapsulated materials, development of a rate based model of the absorber, and the design of a laboratory scale unit to test the encapsulated particles for CO2 capture ability and efficiency. We show that the IL/PCIL materials can be successfully encapsulated, that they retain CO2 uptake capacity, and that the uptake rates are increased relative to a stagnant sample of IL liquid or PCIL powder.

  15. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction reverse hybridization line probe assay for the detection and identification of medically important fungi in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Hurk, P.J.J.C. van den; Jannes, G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    An assay system in which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS-1 region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is combined with a reverse-hybridization line probe assay (LiPA) was used for the identification of six Candida species and four Aspergillus species in pure cultures of clinical

  16. Paper-based solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Shahmuradyan, Anna; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-02-05

    A paper-based solid-phase assay is presented for transduction of nucleic acid hybridization using immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) were FRET-paired with Cy3 acceptor. Hybridization of Cy3-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity required for FRET-sensitized emission from Cy3, which served as an analytical signal. The assay exhibited rapid transduction of nucleic acid hybridization within minutes. Without any amplification steps, the limit of detection of the assay was found to be 300 fmol with the upper limit of the dynamic range at 5 pmol. The implementation of glutathione-coated QDs for the development of nucleic acid hybridization assay integrated on a paper-based platform exhibited excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides and showed no reduction in the performance of the assay in the presence of large quantities of noncomplementary DNA. The selectivity of nucleic acid hybridization was demonstrated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 19 to 1. The reuse of paper over multiple cycles of hybridization and dehybridization was possible, with less than 20% reduction in the performance of the assay in five cycles. This work provides an important framework for the development of paper-based solid-phase QD-FRET nucleic acid hybridization assays that make use of a ratiometric approach for detection and analysis.

  17. Detection of H5 Avian Influenza Viruses by Antigen-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using H5-Specific Monoclonal Antibody▿

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qigai; Velumani, Sumathy; Du, Qingyun; Lim, Chee Wee; Ng, Fook Kheong; Donis, Ruben; Kwang, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Asia and Europe is threatening animals and public health systems. Effective diagnosis and control management are needed to control the disease. To this end, we developed a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) and implemented an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) to detect the H5 viral antigen. Mice immunized with denatured hemagglutinin (H...

  18. Rapid detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) using a gold nanoparticle-based hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes fatal disease in common and koi carp Cyprinus carpio L. CyHV-3 detection is usually based on virus propagation or amplification of the viral DNA using the PCR or LAMP techniques. However, due to the limited susceptibility of cells used for propagation, it is not always possible to successfully isolate CyHV-3 even from tissue samples that have high virus titres. All previously described detection methods including PCR-based assays are time consuming, laborious and require specialized equipment. To overcome these limitations, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been explored for direct and sensitive detection of DNA. In this study, a label-free colorimetric nanodiagnostic method for direct detection of unamplified CyHV-3 DNA using gold nanoparticles is introduced. Under appropriate conditions, DNA probes hybridize with their complementary target sequences in the sample DNA, which results in aggregation of the gold nanoparticles and a concomitant colour change from red to blue, whereas test samples with non complementary DNA sequences remain red. In this study, gold nanoparticles were used to develop and evaluate a specific and sensitive hybridization assay for direct and rapid detection of the highly infectious pathogen termed Cyprinid herpesvirus-3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of a magnetic capture RT-LAMP assay for fast and real-time detection of potato virus Y and differentiation of N and O serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Krzysztof; Chołuj, Joanna; Zacharzewska, Bogumiła; Babujee, Lavanya; Mielczarek, Mateusz; Burzyński, Adam; Rakotondrafara, Aurélie M

    2018-02-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) infection has been a global challenge for potato production and the leading cause of downgrading and rejection of seed crops for certification. Accurate and timely diagnosis is a key for effective disease control. Here, we have optimized a reverse transcription loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to differentiate the PVY O and N serotypes. The RT-LAMP assay is based on isothermal autocyclic strand displacement during DNA synthesis. The high specificity of this method relies heavily on the primer sets designed for the amplification of the targeted regions. We designed specific primer sets targeting a region within the coat protein gene that contains nucleotide signatures typical for O and N coat protein types, and these primers differ in their annealing temperature. Combining this assay with total RNA extraction by magnetic capture, we have established a highly sensitive, simplified and shortened RT-LAMP procedure as an alternative to conventional nucleic acid assays for diagnosis. This optimized procedure for virus detection may be used as a preliminary test for identifying the viral serotype prior to investing time and effort in multiplex RT-PCR tests when a specific strain is needed.

  20. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate-Polymeric Micelles Incorporating Gadolinium Chelates for Imaging-Guided Gadolinium Neutron Capture Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Peng; Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Li, Yanmin; Aoki, Ichio; Ono, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-06-23

    Gadolinium (Gd) chelates-loaded nanocarriers have high potential for achieving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Gd neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) of tumors. Herein, we developed calcium phosphate micelles hybridized with PEG-polyanion block copolymers, and incorporated with the clinical MRI contrast agent Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA/CaP). The Gd-DTPA/CaP were nontoxic to cancer cells at the concentration of 100 μM based on Gd-DTPA, while over 50% of the cancer cells were killed by thermal neutron irradiation at this concentration. Moreover, the Gd-DTPA/CaP showed a dramatically increased accumulation of Gd-DTPA in tumors, leading to the selective contrast enhancement of tumor tissues for precise tumor location by MRI. The enhanced tumor-to-blood distribution ratio of Gd-DTPA/CaP resulted in the effective suppression of tumor growth without loss of body weight, indicating the potential of Gd-DTPA/CaP for safe cancer treatment.

  1. Real-time PCR Detection of Brucella Abortus: A Comparative Study of SYBR Green I, 5'-exonuclease, and Hybridization Probe Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newby, Deborah Trishelle; Hadfield, Ted; Roberto, Francisco Figueroa

    2003-08-01

    Real-time PCR provides a means of detecting and quantifying DNA targets by monitoring PCR product accumulation during cycling as indicated by increased fluorescence. A number of different approaches can be used to generate the fluorescence signal. Three approaches—SYBR Green I (a double-stranded DNA intercalating dye), 5'-exonuclease (enzymatically released fluors), and hybridization probes (fluorescence resonance energy transfer)—were evaluated for use in a real-time PCR assay to detect Brucella abortus. The three assays utilized the same amplification primers to produce an identical amplicon. This amplicon spans a region of the B. abortus genome that includes portions of the alkB gene and the IS711 insertion element. All three assays were of comparable sensitivity, providing a linear assay over 7 orders of magnitude (from 7.5 ng down to 7.5 fg). However, the greatest specificity was achieved with the hybridization probe assay.

  2. Chromogenic in situ hybridization is a reliable assay for detection of ALK rearrangements in adenocarcinomas of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Deml, Karl-Friedrich; Schmitz, Katja; Meiboom, Maren; Binot, Elke; Hauke, Sven; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Büttner, Reinhard

    2013-11-01

    Reliable detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements is a prerequisite for personalized treatment of lung cancer patients, as ALK rearrangements represent a predictive biomarker for the therapy with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Currently, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered to be the standard method for assessing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue for ALK inversions and translocations. However, FISH requires a specialized equipment, the signals fade rapidly and it is difficult to detect overall morphology and tumor heterogeneity. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) has been successfully introduced as an alternative test for the detection of several genetic aberrations. This study validates a newly developed ALK CISH assay by comparing FISH and CISH signal patterns in lung cancer samples with and without ALK rearrangements. One hundred adenocarcinomas of the lung were included in this study, among them 17 with known ALK rearrangement. FISH and CISH were carried out and evaluated according to the manufacturers' recommendations. For both assays, tumors were considered positive if ≥15% of tumor cells showed either isolated 3' signals or break-apart patterns or a combination of both. A subset of tumors was exemplarily examined by using a novel EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4) CISH probe. Red, green and fusion CISH signals were clearcut and different signal patterns were easily recognized. The percentage of aberrant tumor cells was statistically highly correlated (PCISH. On the basis of 86 samples that were evaluable by ALK CISH, we found a 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity of this assay. Furthermore, EML4 rearrangements could be recognized by CISH. CISH is a highly reliable, sensitive and specific method for the detection of ALK gene rearrangements in pulmonary adenocarcinomas. Our results suggest that CISH might serve as a suitable alternative to FISH, which is the current gold

  3. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-05

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation.

  4. Multiply osmium-labeled reporter probes for electrochemical DNA hybridization assays: detection of trinucleotide repeats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Havran, Luděk; Kizek, René; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2004), s. 985-994 ISSN 0956-5663 R&D Projects: GA MPO 1H-PK/42; GA AV ČR IAA4004108; GA AV ČR IBS5004355; GA AV ČR KJB4004302; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : electrochemical sensors * DNA hybridization * DNA labeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.251, year: 2004

  5. On-chip multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using spatial profiles of immobilized quantum dots and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Tavares, Anthony J; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-07-25

    A microfluidic based solid-phase assay for the multiplexed detection of nucleic acid hybridization using quantum dot (QD) mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is described herein. The glass surface of hybrid glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels was chemically modified to assemble the biorecognition interface. Multiplexing was demonstrated using a detection system that was comprised of two colors of immobilized semi-conductor QDs and two different oligonucleotide probe sequences. Green-emitting and red-emitting QDs were paired with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) labeled oligonucleotides, respectively. The QDs served as energy donors for the transduction of dye labeled oligonucleotide targets. The in-channel assembly of the biorecognition interface and the subsequent introduction of oligonucleotide targets was accomplished within minutes using a combination of electroosmotic flow and electrophoretic force. The concurrent quantification of femtomole quantities of two target sequences was possible by measuring the spatial coverage of FRET sensitized emission along the length of the channel. In previous reports, multiplexed QD-FRET hybridization assays that employed a ratiometric method for quantification had challenges associated with lower analytical sensitivity arising from both donor and acceptor dilution that resulted in reduced energy transfer pathways as compared to single-color hybridization assays. Herein, a spatial method for quantification that is based on in-channel QD-FRET profiles provided higher analytical sensitivity in the multiplexed assay format as compared to single-color hybridization assays. The selectivity of the multiplexed hybridization assays was demonstrated by discrimination between a fully-complementary sequence and a 3 base pair sequence at a contrast ratio of 8 to 1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hybrid capture vs. PCR screening of cervical human papilloma virus infections. Cytological and histological associations in 1270 women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Georgoulakis, John; Chranioti, Aikaterini; Voulgaris, Zanis; Psyrri, Amanda; Tsivilika, Angeliki; Panayiotides, John; Karakitsos, Petros

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated two molecular methods of HPV detection and their correlation with cytological and histological diagnosis in a large sample of Greek women. All women with liquid-based cytology performed at a University Hospital between 2000 and 2003 were included. The Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) kit and in house Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were used for HPV DNA detection. Cervical biopsy was performed for women with ASCUS+ cytology, HPV detection, or abnormal colposcopy. Positive (PLR) and negative (NLR) likelihood ratios were calculated for cytology and HPV molecular testing for the prediction of CIN2 and greater histology. Of the 1270 women evaluated 241 (18.5%) had abnormal cytology. Cytology diagnosed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or invasive carcinoma in 21(1.7%) cases whereas 26 (2%) women had CIN2+ or greater histology. PCR detected HPV in 397/1270 (31.3%) and HC2 in 260/1270 (20.4%) samples. Both molecular tests exhibited high reproducibility (Cohen's kappa value 0.691, 95% CI: 0.664 - 0.718). Positive likelihood ratios (PLR) of 9.4, 3.8 and 3.4 and negative likelihood ratios of 0.13, 0.21, and 0 were noted for ≥ LSIL, any positive HC2 or any positive PCR-HPV testing, for predicting CIN2+ histology, respectively. All CIN 3+ lesions harbored high risk oncogenic HPV type infections. HPV infection was found in a large proportion of this population and was associated with CIN 2/3 lesions and infiltrating carcinomas. Thin prep testing and HPV detection by HC2 or PCR performed very well with regards to identifying high grade lesions in an environment with experienced examiners

  7. [Effectiveness of FTA Elute® indicating cartridge in combination with hybrid capture 2 for cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Shaoming; Hu, Shangying; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Fanghui; He, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Qiao, Youlin

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of FTA Elute® Cartridge (GE healthcare, Kent, UK) in combination with hybrid capture 2 (HC2) testing for cervical cancer screening. From May to June 2012, 412 women aged 25 to 65 years in Jiangxi Tonggu were enrolled in the study. We used pathological outcome as the gold standard, and the accuracy of the FTA card in combination with HC2 testing was investigated from both physician- and self-sampling, respectively. Physician sampling using the FTA card in combination with HC2 testing showed a comparable sensitivity (12/13) with the liquid based medium, but a higher specificity 69.5% (266/383) vs (77.8%, 298/383) (P FTA card in combination with HC2 testing with liquid based medium was 10/13 vs 8/13(P = 0.625) and (62.3%, 238/382) vs (75.7%, 289/382) (P FTA and liquid-based sampling medium was 86.1% (340/395) and 79.5% (314/395). For physician-collected samples used for HC2 testing to detect CIN2+, the accuracy of the FTA card was superior to that of the liquid-based medium (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.898, 95%CI:0.838-0.958). FTA Elute® cartridge in combination with HC2 testing is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs with a good precision.With further optimization, it could become an effective method for cervical cancer screening in various economic levels of areas.

  8. Comparison of hybrid capture and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods in terms of diagnosing human cytomegalovirus infection in patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsal, Arif S.; Ozsan, M.; Dolapci, I.; Tekeli, A.; Becksac, M.

    2006-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a life threatening cause of infection among hematopoietic stem cell recipients. Developing reliable methods in detecting the CMV infection is important to identify the patients at risk of CMV infection and disease. The aim of this study was to compare the 2 tests- hybrid capture test, which is routinely used in the diagnosis of CMV infection among hematopoietic stem cell recipients, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detecting UL21.5 mRNA transcripts of the active virus. In this prospective study, a total of 178 blood samples obtained 35 patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit of the Hematology Department, Ibn-i-Sina Hospital of Ankara University School of Medicine, Turkey between January 2003 and September 2003 were analyzed. Hybrid capture and RT-PCR using UL21.5 gene transcript method to investigate HCMV in blood samples were performed at the department of Microbiology and Clinic Microbiology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Turkey. When Hybrid capture test was accepted as the golden standard, the sensitivity of Rt-PCR was 3%, specificity 100%, false negativity 67%, false positivity 0%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 74%, and accuracy was 77%. Improving this test by quantification, and application of additional gene transcripts, primarily the late gene transcripts can help increase the sensitivity and feasibility. (author)

  9. Diagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis in asymptomatic dogs by the KDNA PCR-hybridization assay using noninvasive samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Rodrigo Souza; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: rleite2005@gmail.com; Ferreira, Sydney de Almeida; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Melo, Maria Norma de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Parasitologia], e-mail: saninoalmeida@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and the asymptomatic dogs may transmit the parasite to sand flies vectors. The VL epidemiological control in Brazil involves the elimination of seropositive dogs, insecticide treatment and systematic treatment of human cases. Therefore, the accurate diagnosis is important in order to avoid the disease transmission or unnecessary culling of dogs. Serological tests are used for screening of dogs. However, these techniques present limitations. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an attractive alternative to the diagnosis in this context; but non-invasive samplings have great importance because they are simpler, painless and less resisted by dog-owners. This study aimed at evaluating conjunctival swab (CS) for canine VL diagnosis. In this methodology a sterile cotton swab is used to sampling the dog conjunctiva in both eyes. Thirty asymptomatic seropositive dogs were used. The samples were analyzed by the kDNA PCR-hybridization procedure in which the PCR products are hybridized with cloned kDNA mini-circles labeled with {sup 32}P[]dCTP. In addition, blood (B) was collected from each animal. L. chagasi was identified in 90% of CS samples and 13,6% of B samples. The high sensitivity obtained with asymptomatic dogs, in which the diagnosis is more difficult due the low number of parasites in the samples, allow concluding that the conjunctival swab associated to the kDNA PCR-hybridization assay provides a valuable alternative tool for the direct diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis. (author)

  10. Diagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis in asymptomatic dogs by the KDNA PCR-hybridization assay using noninvasive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Rodrigo Souza; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de; Ferreira, Sydney de Almeida; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Melo, Maria Norma de

    2009-01-01

    The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and the asymptomatic dogs may transmit the parasite to sand flies vectors. The VL epidemiological control in Brazil involves the elimination of seropositive dogs, insecticide treatment and systematic treatment of human cases. Therefore, the accurate diagnosis is important in order to avoid the disease transmission or unnecessary culling of dogs. Serological tests are used for screening of dogs. However, these techniques present limitations. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an attractive alternative to the diagnosis in this context; but non-invasive samplings have great importance because they are simpler, painless and less resisted by dog-owners. This study aimed at evaluating conjunctival swab (CS) for canine VL diagnosis. In this methodology a sterile cotton swab is used to sampling the dog conjunctiva in both eyes. Thirty asymptomatic seropositive dogs were used. The samples were analyzed by the kDNA PCR-hybridization procedure in which the PCR products are hybridized with cloned kDNA mini-circles labeled with 32 P[]dCTP. In addition, blood (B) was collected from each animal. L. chagasi was identified in 90% of CS samples and 13,6% of B samples. The high sensitivity obtained with asymptomatic dogs, in which the diagnosis is more difficult due the low number of parasites in the samples, allow concluding that the conjunctival swab associated to the kDNA PCR-hybridization assay provides a valuable alternative tool for the direct diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis. (author)

  11. Effects of Bonding Types and Functional Groups on CO 2 Capture using Novel Multiphase Systems of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2011-08-01

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) which possess unique features including negligible vapor pressure and a high degree of tunability were synthesized and their physical and chemical properties as well as CO 2 capture capacities were investigated. NOHMs can be classified based on the synthesis methods involving different bonding types, the existence of linkers, and the addition of task-specific functional groups including amines for CO 2 capture. As a canopy of polymeric chains was grafted onto the nanoparticle cores, the thermal stability of the resulting NOHMs was improved. In order to isolate the entropy effect during CO 2 capture, NOHMs were first prepared using polymers that do not contain functional groups with strong chemical affinity toward CO 2. However, it was found that even ether groups on the polymeric canopy contributed to CO 2 capture in NOHMs via Lewis acid-base interactions, although this effect was insignificant compared to the effect of task-specific functional groups such as amine. In all cases, a higher partial pressure of CO 2 was more favorable for CO 2 capture, while a higher temperature caused an adverse effect. Multicyclic CO 2 capture tests confirmed superior recyclability of NOHMs and NOHMs also showed a higher selectivity toward CO 2 over N 2O, O 2 and N 2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Paper-based solid-phase multiplexed nucleic acid hybridization assay with tunable dynamic range using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-08-06

    A multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay on a paper-based platform is presented using multicolor immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize two types of QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) and red-emitting QDs (rQDs) served as donors with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) acceptors. The gQD/Cy3 FRET pair served as an internal standard, while the rQD/A647 FRET pair served as a detection channel, combining the control and analytical test zones in one physical location. Hybridization of dye-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity for FRET sensitized emission from the acceptor dyes, which served as an analytical signal. Hybridization assays in the multicolor format provided a limit of detection of 90 fmol and an upper limit of dynamic range of 3.5 pmol. The use of an array of detection zones was designed to provide improved analytical figures of merit compared to that which could be achieved on one type of array design in terms of relative concentration of multicolor QDs. The hybridization assays showed excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides. Selectivity of the two-plex hybridization assay was demonstrated by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 50:1. Additionally, it is shown that the use of preformed QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates and consideration of the relative number density of the two types of QD-probe conjugates in the two-color assay format is advantageous to maximize assay sensitivity and the upper limit of dynamic range.

  13. Colorimetric microwell plate reverse-hybridization assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Tosi Michelon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct smear examination using Ziehl-Neelsen staining for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB diagnosis is inexpensive and easy to use, but has the major limitation of low sensitivity. Rapid molecular methods are becoming more widely available in centralized laboratories, but they depend on timely reporting of results and strict quality assurance obtainable only from costly commercial kits available in high burden nations. This study describes a pre-commercial colorimetric method, Detect-TB, for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in which an oligonucleotide probe is fixed onto wells of microwell plates and hybridized with biotinylated polymerase chain reaction amplification products derived from clinical samples. The probe is capable of hybridising with the IS6110 insertion element and was used to specifically recognise the M. tuberculosis complex. When combined with an improved silica-based DNA extraction method, the sensitivity of the test was 50 colony-forming units of the M. tuberculosis reference strain H37Rv. The results that were in agreement with reference detection methods were observed in 95.2% (453/476 of samples included in the analysis. Sensitivity and specificity for 301 induced sputum samples and 175 spontaneous sputum samples were 85% and 98%, and 94% and 100%, respectively. This colorimetric method showed similar specificity to that described for commercially available kits and may provide an important contribution for PTB diagnosis.

  14. Hybridization Capture Using RAD Probes (hyRAD, a New Tool for Performing Genomic Analyses on Collection Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Suchan

    Full Text Available In the recent years, many protocols aimed at reproducibly sequencing reduced-genome subsets in non-model organisms have been published. Among them, RAD-sequencing is one of the most widely used. It relies on digesting DNA with specific restriction enzymes and performing size selection on the resulting fragments. Despite its acknowledged utility, this method is of limited use with degraded DNA samples, such as those isolated from museum specimens, as these samples are less likely to harbor fragments long enough to comprise two restriction sites making possible ligation of the adapter sequences (in the case of double-digest RAD or performing size selection of the resulting fragments (in the case of single-digest RAD. Here, we address these limitations by presenting a novel method called hybridization RAD (hyRAD. In this approach, biotinylated RAD fragments, covering a random fraction of the genome, are used as baits for capturing homologous fragments from genomic shotgun sequencing libraries. This simple and cost-effective approach allows sequencing of orthologous loci even from highly degraded DNA samples, opening new avenues of research in the field of museum genomics. Not relying on the restriction site presence, it improves among-sample loci coverage. In a trial study, hyRAD allowed us to obtain a large set of orthologous loci from fresh and museum samples from a non-model butterfly species, with a high proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in all eight analyzed specimens, including 58-year-old museum samples. The utility of the method was further validated using 49 museum and fresh samples of a Palearctic grasshopper species for which the spatial genetic structure was previously assessed using mtDNA amplicons. The application of the method is eventually discussed in a wider context. As it does not rely on the restriction site presence, it is therefore not sensitive to among-sample loci polymorphisms in the restriction sites

  15. A Paper-Based Sandwich Format Hybridization Assay for Unlabeled Nucleic Acid Detection Using Upconversion Nanoparticles as Energy Donors in Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2015-09-24

    Bioassays based on cellulose paper substrates are gaining increasing popularity for the development of field portable and low-cost diagnostic applications. Herein, we report a paper-based nucleic acid hybridization assay using immobilized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as donors in luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET). UCNPs with intense green emission served as donors with Cy3 dye as the acceptor. The avidin functionalized UCNPs were immobilized on cellulose paper and subsequently bioconjugated to biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. Introduction of unlabeled oligonucleotide targets resulted in a formation of probe-target duplexes. A subsequent hybridization of Cy3 labeled reporter with the remaining single stranded portion of target brought the Cy3 dye in close proximity to the UCNPs to trigger a LRET-sensitized emission from the acceptor dye. The hybridization assays provided a limit of detection (LOD) of 146.0 fmol and exhibited selectivity for one base pair mismatch discrimination. The assay was functional even in undiluted serum samples. This work embodies important progress in developing DNA hybridization assays on paper. Detection of unlabeled targets is achieved using UCNPs as LRET donors, with minimization of background signal from paper substrates owing to the implementation of low energy near-infrared (NIR) excitation.

  16. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottari, F; Sideri, M; Gulmini, C

    2015-01-01

    and negative HC2 results, were prospectively enrolled for the study. The overall agreement between Onclarity and HC2 was 94.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 92.3% to 96.2%). In this population with a high prevalence of disease, the relative sensitivities (versus adjudicated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia......, to concurrent cytology and histology results, in order to evaluate its performance in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. A population of 567 women, including 325 with ≥ASCUS (where ASCUS stands for atypical cells of undetermined significance) and any HC2 result and 242 with both negative cytology...

  17. On-chip mitochondrial assay microfluidic devices and protein nanopore/nanotube hybrid transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taesun

    Tremendous efforts to understand the cause, mechanism of development and the way to treat various diseases as well as an early diagnosis have been made so far and people are still working hardly on these researches. Even now, countless people are suffering from diseases such as Alzhemer's disease, Parkinson's disease, diabetes and cancer without knowing clues to cure their diseases completely. Generally speaking, we still have a long way to go through to comprehensively figure out these our long-lasting homeworks. One of possible solutions is to merge current advanced technology and science together to find a powerful synergetic effect for a specific purpose that can be tailored depending on user's need. Here this research tried to put nanotechnology and biological science together to find a way to resolve current challenges by developing a new generation of the analytical sensing device. Mitochondrial functions and biological roles in regulating life and death control will be discussed indicating mitochondrion is a crucial organism to monitor to obtain important information regarding degenerative diseases and aging process. On-chip mitochondrial functional assay microsensor that could facilitate the mitochondrial evaluation will be extensively demonstrated and discussed in both technical and biological perspectives. The novel fusion technological approach will be demonstrated by combining artificial cell membrane with carbon nanotube electronics to interrogate interactions between biomolecules and electronic circuitries. In addition, molecular dynamics at the cell membrane could be investigated closely which can help understand the cell-cell communication and the regulation of ion transport.

  18. Comparison of the clinical performances of the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR, the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV Test, and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA Test for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hae-Sun; Hahm, Chorong; Lee, Miae

    2014-09-01

    The clinical performance of three human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA commercial assays for cervical cancer screening was evaluated; the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR (AdvanSure PCR; LG Life Sciences) that was developed recently for the detection of both high-risk and low-risk genotypes, the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV Test (Abbott PCR; Abbott Molecular) and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen). The three different HPV DNA tests were compared using cytology samples obtained from 619 women who underwent routine cervical cancer screening. The gold-standard assay was histopathological confirmation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse. The clinical sensitivities of the AdvanSure PCR, the Abbott PCR and the HC2 for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse were 95.5%, 95.5% and 100%, respectively, while the clinical specificities were 61.6%, 86.4% and 83.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the clinical sensitivities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR compared to the HC2. The clinical specificities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR for the detection of HPV types 16/18 were 97.8% and 98.5%, respectively. For cervical cancer screening, all three tests showed relatively good clinical sensitivities, but the AdvanSure PCR had lower clinical specificity than the Abbott PCR and the HC2. The AdvanSure PCR and the Abbott PCR assays have the advantage of being automated and the ability to distinguish between HPV types 16/18 and other HPV types. The two real-time PCR assays could be useful tools in HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and characterization of protein interactions in the mammalian mRNA processing body using a novel two-hybrid assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Donald B., E-mail: bloch@helix.mgh.harvard.edu; Nobre, Rita A.; Bernstein, Gillian A.; Yang, Wei-Hong

    2011-09-10

    Components of the mRNA processing body (P-body) regulate critical steps in mRNA storage, transport, translation and degradation. At the core of the P-body is the decapping complex, which removes the 5' cap from de-adenylated mRNAs and mediates an irreversible step in mRNA degradation. The assembly of P-bodies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster has been previously described. Less is known about the assembly of mammalian P-bodies. To investigate the interactions that occur between components of mammalian P-bodies, we developed a fluorescence-based, two-hybrid assay system. The assay depends on the ability of one P-body component, fused to an exogenous nuclear localization sequence (NLS), to recruit other P-body components to the nucleus. The assay was used to investigate interactions between P-body components Ge-1, DCP2, DCP1, EDC3, RAP55, and RCK. The results of this study show that the modified two-hybrid assay can be used to identify protein interactions that occur in a macromolecular complex. The assay can also be used to efficiently detect protein interaction domains. The results provide important insights into mammalian P-body assembly and demonstrate similarities, and critical differences, between P-body assembly in mammalian cells compared with that of other species. -- Research highlights: {yields} A two-hybrid assay was developed to study interactions in macromolecular complexes. {yields} The assay was applied to interactions between components of mRNA P-bodies. {yields} The assay effectively and efficiently identified protein interaction domains. {yields} P-body assembly in mammalian cells differs from that in other species.

  20. Identification and characterization of protein interactions in the mammalian mRNA processing body using a novel two-hybrid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Donald B.; Nobre, Rita A.; Bernstein, Gillian A.; Yang, Wei-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Components of the mRNA processing body (P-body) regulate critical steps in mRNA storage, transport, translation and degradation. At the core of the P-body is the decapping complex, which removes the 5' cap from de-adenylated mRNAs and mediates an irreversible step in mRNA degradation. The assembly of P-bodies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster has been previously described. Less is known about the assembly of mammalian P-bodies. To investigate the interactions that occur between components of mammalian P-bodies, we developed a fluorescence-based, two-hybrid assay system. The assay depends on the ability of one P-body component, fused to an exogenous nuclear localization sequence (NLS), to recruit other P-body components to the nucleus. The assay was used to investigate interactions between P-body components Ge-1, DCP2, DCP1, EDC3, RAP55, and RCK. The results of this study show that the modified two-hybrid assay can be used to identify protein interactions that occur in a macromolecular complex. The assay can also be used to efficiently detect protein interaction domains. The results provide important insights into mammalian P-body assembly and demonstrate similarities, and critical differences, between P-body assembly in mammalian cells compared with that of other species. -- Research highlights: → A two-hybrid assay was developed to study interactions in macromolecular complexes. → The assay was applied to interactions between components of mRNA P-bodies. → The assay effectively and efficiently identified protein interaction domains. → P-body assembly in mammalian cells differs from that in other species.

  1. Development of a PCR/LDR/flow-through hybridization assay using a capillary tube, probe DNA-immobilized magnetic beads and chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommatsu, Manami; Okahashi, Hisamitsu; Ohta, Keisuke; Tamai, Yusuke; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ligase detection reaction (LDR)/flow-through hybridization assay using chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for analyzing point mutations in gene fragments with high diagnostic value for colorectal cancers. A flow-through hybridization format using a capillary tube, in which probe DNA-immobilized magnetic beads were packed, provided accelerated hybridization kinetics of target DNA (i.e. LDR product) to the probe DNA. Simple fluid manipulations enabled both allele-specific hybridization and the removal of non-specifically bound DNA in the wash step. Furthermore, the use of CL detection greatly simplified the detection scheme, since CL does not require a light source for excitation of the fluorescent dye tags on the LDR products. Preliminary results demonstrated that this analytical system could detect both homozygous and heterozygous mutations, without the expensive instrumentation and cumbersome procedures required by conventional DNA microarray-based methods.

  2. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune; Decatur, John; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature

  3. Interfacial chemistry and the design of solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assays using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, W Russ; Krull, Ulrich J

    2011-01-01

    The use of quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) offer several advantages for the development of multiplexed solid-phase QD-FRET nucleic acid hybridization assays. Designs for multiplexing have been demonstrated, but important challenges remain in the optimization of these systems. In this work, we identify several strategies based on the design of interfacial chemistry for improving sensitivity, obtaining lower limits of detection (LOD) and enabling the regeneration and reuse of solid-phase QD-FRET hybridization assays. FRET-sensitized emission from acceptor dyes associated with hybridization events at immobilized QD donors provides the analytical signal in these assays. The minimization of active sensing area reduces background from QD donor PL and allows the resolution of smaller amounts of acceptor emission, thus lowering the LOD. The association of multiple acceptor dyes with each hybridization event can enhance FRET efficiency, thereby improving sensitivity. Many previous studies have used interfacial protein layers to generate selectivity; however, transient destabilization of these layers is shown to prevent efficient regeneration. To this end, we report a protein-free interfacial chemistry and demonstrate the specific detection of as little as 2 pmol of target, as well as an improved capacity for regeneration.

  4. CO 2 Capture Capacity and Swelling Measurements of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials via Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune

    2012-01-12

    Novel nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), which are comprised of organic oligomers or polymers tethered to an inorganic nanosized cores of various sizes, have been synthesized, and their solvating property for CO 2 was investigated using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of CO 2 capture capacity and swelling behaviors of polyetheramine (Jeffamine M-2070) and its corresponding NOHMs (NOHM-I-PE2070) were reported at temperatures of (298, 308, 323 and 353) K and CO 2 pressure conditions ranging from (0 to 5.5) MPa. The polymeric canopy, or polymer bound to the nanoparticle surface, showed significantly less swelling behavior with enhanced or comparable CO 2 capture capacity compared to pure unbound polyetheramine. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. FRET two-hybrid assay by linearly fitting FRET efficiency to concentration ratio between acceptor and donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mengyan; Yang, Fangfang; Mai, Zihao; Qu, Wenfeng; Lin, Fangrui; Wei, Lichun; Chen, Tongsheng

    2018-04-01

    We here introduce a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) two-hybrid assay method to measure the maximal donor(D)- and acceptor(A)-centric FRET efficiency (ED,max and EA,max) of the D-A complex and its stoichiometry by linearly fitting the donor-centric FRET efficiency (ED) to the acceptor-to-donor concentration ratio (RC) and acceptor-centric FRET efficiency (EA) to 1/RC, respectively. We performed this method on a wide-field fluorescence microscope for living HepG2 cells co-expressing FRET tandem constructs and free donor/acceptor and obtained correct ED, EA, and stoichiometry values of those tandem constructs. Evaluation on the binding of Bad with Bcl-XL in Hela cells showed that Bad interacted strongly with Bcl-XL to form a Bad-Bcl-XL complex on mitochondria, and one Bad interacted mainly with one Bcl-XL molecule in healthy cells, while with multiple (maybe 2) Bcl-XL molecules in apoptotic cells.

  6. Effect of water on the physical properties and carbon dioxide capture capacities of liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials and their corresponding polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Camille; Bhatnagar, Sonali; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2013-01-01

    Binary systems composed of liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs) and the secondary fluid (i.e., water) were prepared, and their thermal stabilities, densities, viscosities, and CO2 absorption capacities were investigated. Recent work has suggested NOHMs as an alternative CO2 capture media with interesting chemical and physical tunability. Anhydrous CO2 capture solvents often degrade when they are exposed to water, while flue gas generally contains about 8-16% water. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of water on the NOHMs' properties relevant to CO2 capture as well as the chemical and thermal stabilities of H2O-loaded NOHMs. It was found that water acted as an antisolvent of NOHMs, and therefore, caused a decreased CO2 capture capacity. On the other hand, the results indicated that while water did not affect the NOHMs' thermal stability, it significantly helped lowering their density and viscosity. In order to investigate the effect of intermolecular interactions among two fluids on the density and viscosity, the excess volumes and viscosity deviations were calculated and correlated with Redlich-Kister equations. The trends revealed the existence of strong intermolecular interactions between water molecules and the poly(ethlyne glycol) component of NOHMs, which may have caused the drastic decrease in the NOHMs' viscosity with the addition of water. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effect of water on the physical properties and carbon dioxide capture capacities of liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials and their corresponding polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Camille

    2013-10-01

    Binary systems composed of liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs) and the secondary fluid (i.e., water) were prepared, and their thermal stabilities, densities, viscosities, and CO2 absorption capacities were investigated. Recent work has suggested NOHMs as an alternative CO2 capture media with interesting chemical and physical tunability. Anhydrous CO2 capture solvents often degrade when they are exposed to water, while flue gas generally contains about 8-16% water. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of water on the NOHMs\\' properties relevant to CO2 capture as well as the chemical and thermal stabilities of H2O-loaded NOHMs. It was found that water acted as an antisolvent of NOHMs, and therefore, caused a decreased CO2 capture capacity. On the other hand, the results indicated that while water did not affect the NOHMs\\' thermal stability, it significantly helped lowering their density and viscosity. In order to investigate the effect of intermolecular interactions among two fluids on the density and viscosity, the excess volumes and viscosity deviations were calculated and correlated with Redlich-Kister equations. The trends revealed the existence of strong intermolecular interactions between water molecules and the poly(ethlyne glycol) component of NOHMs, which may have caused the drastic decrease in the NOHMs\\' viscosity with the addition of water. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Referral population studies underestimate differences between human papillomavirus assays in primary cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, M.; Njor, S.; Lynge, E.

    2017-01-01

    with SurePath® cytology, and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART and APTIMA HPV assays. Women with positive test results were offered a follow-up. For all detected HPV infections and HPV-positive high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (≥CIN2), we studied the distributions of assay-specific signal...

  9. Detection of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ΔF508 gene mutation using a paper-based nucleic acid hybridization assay and a smartphone camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Karan; Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2018-05-29

    Diagnostic technology that makes use of paper platforms in conjunction with the ubiquitous availability of digital cameras in cellular telephones and personal assistive devices offers opportunities for development of bioassays that are cost effective and widely distributed. Assays that operate effectively in aqueous solution require further development for implementation in paper substrates, overcoming issues associated with surface interactions on a matrix that offers a large surface-to-volume ratio and constraints on convective mixing. This report presents and compares two related methods for determination of oligonucleotides that serve as indicators of cystic fibrosis, differentiating between the normal wild-type sequence, and a mutant-type sequence that has a 3-base replacement. The transduction strategy operates by selective hybridization of oligonucleotide probes that are conjugated to fluorescent quantum dots, where hybridization of target sequences causes a molecular fluorophore to approach the quantum dot and become emissive through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Detection can rely on hybridization of a target that is labelled with Cy3 fluorophore, or in the presence of an unlabelled target when a sandwich assay format is implemented with a labelled reporter oligonucleotide. Selectivity to determine the presence of mismatched sequences involves appropriate selection of nucleotide sequences to set melt temperatures, in conjunction with control of stringency conditions using formamide as a chaotrope. It was determined that both direct and sandwich assays on paper substrates are able to distinguish between wild-type and mutant-type samples.

  10. Rapid and Simple Detection of Hot Spot Point Mutations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, BRAF, and NRAS in Cancers Using the Loop-Hybrid Mobility Shift Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukuma, Shoichi; Yoshihara, Mitsuyo; Kasai, Fumio; Kato, Akinori; Yoshida, Akira; Akaike, Makoto; Kobayashi, Osamu; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Sakuma, Yuji; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Kameda, Yoichi; Tsuchiya, Eiju; Miyagi, Yohei

    2006-01-01

    A simple and rapid method to detect the epidermal growth factor receptor hot spot mutation L858R in lung adenocarcinoma was developed based on principles similar to the universal heteroduplex generator technology. A single-stranded oligonucleotide with an internal deletion was used to generate heteroduplexes (loop-hybrids) bearing a loop in the complementary strand derived from the polymerase chain reaction product of the normal or mutant allele. By placing deletion in the oligonucleotide adjacent to the mutational site, difference in electrophoretic mobility between loop-hybrids with normal and mutated DNA was distinguishable in a native polyacrylamide gel. The method was also modified to detect in-frame deletion mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor in lung adenocarcinomas. In addition, the method was adapted to detect hot spot mutations in the B-type Raf kinase (BRAF) at V600 and in a Ras-oncogene (NRAS) at Q61, the mutations commonly found in thyroid carcinomas. Our mutation detection system, designated the loop-hybrid mobility shift assay was sensitive enough to detect mutant DNA comprising 7.5% of the total DNA. As a simple and straightforward mutation detection technique, loop-hybrid mobility shift assay may be useful for the molecular diagnosis of certain types of clinical cancers. Other applications are also discussed. PMID:16931592

  11. Capturing multi-stage fuzzy uncertainties in hybrid system dynamics and agent-based models for enhancing policy implementation in health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyong; Triantis, Konstantinos P; Zhao, Li; Wang, Youfa

    2018-01-01

    In practical research, it was found that most people made health-related decisions not based on numerical data but on perceptions. Examples include the perceptions and their corresponding linguistic values of health risks such as, smoking, syringe sharing, eating energy-dense food, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages etc. For the sake of understanding the mechanisms that affect the implementations of health-related interventions, we employ fuzzy variables to quantify linguistic variable in healthcare modeling where we employ an integrated system dynamics and agent-based model. In a nonlinear causal-driven simulation environment driven by feedback loops, we mathematically demonstrate how interventions at an aggregate level affect the dynamics of linguistic variables that are captured by fuzzy agents and how interactions among fuzzy agents, at the same time, affect the formation of different clusters(groups) that are targeted by specific interventions. In this paper, we provide an innovative framework to capture multi-stage fuzzy uncertainties manifested among interacting heterogeneous agents (individuals) and intervention decisions that affect homogeneous agents (groups of individuals) in a hybrid model that combines an agent-based simulation model (ABM) and a system dynamics models (SDM). Having built the platform to incorporate high-dimension data in a hybrid ABM/SDM model, this paper demonstrates how one can obtain the state variable behaviors in the SDM and the corresponding values of linguistic variables in the ABM. This research provides a way to incorporate high-dimension data in a hybrid ABM/SDM model. This research not only enriches the application of fuzzy set theory by capturing the dynamics of variables associated with interacting fuzzy agents that lead to aggregate behaviors but also informs implementation research by enabling the incorporation of linguistic variables at both individual and institutional levels, which makes unstructured linguistic data

  12. Hybrid Capture-Based Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Identifies Lung Cancer Patients with Well-Characterized Sensitizing Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Point Mutations That Were Not Detected by Standard of Care Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, James H; Schrock, Alexa B; Johnson, Adrienne; Lipson, Doron; Gay, Laurie M; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Elvin, Julia A; Shakir, Abdur; Ruehlman, Peter; Reckamp, Karen L; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Ross, Jeffrey S; Stephens, Philip J; Miller, Vincent A; Ali, Siraj M

    2018-03-14

    In our recent study, of cases positive for epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) exon 19 deletions using comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP), 17/77 (22%) patients with prior standard of care (SOC) EGFR testing results available were previously negative for exon 19 deletion. Our aim was to compare the detection rates of CGP versus SOC testing for well-characterized sensitizing EGFR point mutations (pm) in our 6,832-patient cohort. DNA was extracted from 40 microns of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 6,832 consecutive cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of various histologies (2012-2015). CGP was performed using a hybrid capture, adaptor ligation-based next-generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 576×. Genomic alterations (pm, small indels, copy number changes and rearrangements) involving EGFR were recorded for each case and compared with prior testing results if available. Overall, there were 482 instances of EGFR exon 21 L858R (359) and L861Q (20), exon 18 G719X (73) and exon 20 S768I (30) pm, of which 103 unique cases had prior EGFR testing results that were available for review. Of these 103 cases, CGP identified 22 patients (21%) with sensitizing EGFR pm that were not detected by SOC testing, including 9/75 (12%) patients with L858R, 4/7 (57%) patients with L861Q, 8/20 (40%) patients with G719X, and 4/7 (57%) patients with S768I pm (some patients had multiple EGFR pm). In cases with available clinical data, benefit from small molecule inhibitor therapy was observed. CGP, even when applied to low tumor purity clinical-grade specimens, can detect well-known EGFR pm in NSCLC patients that would otherwise not be detected by SOC testing. Taken together with EGFR exon 19 deletions, over 20% of patients who are positive for EGFR -activating mutations using CGP are previously negative by SOC EGFR mutation testing, suggesting that thousands of such patients per year in the U.S. alone could experience improved clinical

  13. The use of Taka-diastase in a [3H]poly(A) hybridization assay of oligo(U) sequences in RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Herdt, E.; Kondo, M.; Slegers, H.

    1981-01-01

    A reliable assay for uridylate sequences longer than 10 is described. The procedure is based on the hybridization of [ 3 H]poly(A) with poly(U) or oligo(U) sequences in high ionic conditions and a subsequent degradation of single stranded polynucleotides with purified Taka-diastase. A 1:2 complex between poly(A) and poly(U) is formed on which one poly(U) strand is digested by Taka-diastase. The procedure is especially suitable for the detection and quantitation of Usub(n) (n > 10) in RNA preparations. (Auth.)

  14. NEBNext Direct: A Novel, Rapid, Hybridization-Based Approach for the Capture and Library Conversion of Genomic Regions of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerman, Amy B; Bowman, Sarah K; Barry, Andrew; Henig, Noa; Patel, Kruti M; Gardner, Andrew F; Hendrickson, Cynthia L

    2017-07-05

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool for genomic studies, translational research, and clinical diagnostics that enables the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions and deletions, copy number variations, and other genetic variations. Target enrichment technologies improve the efficiency of NGS by only sequencing regions of interest, which reduces sequencing costs while increasing coverage of the selected targets. Here we present NEBNext Direct ® , a hybridization-based, target-enrichment approach that addresses many of the shortcomings of traditional target-enrichment methods. This approach features a simple, 7-hr workflow that uses enzymatic removal of off-target sequences to achieve a high specificity for regions of interest. Additionally, unique molecular identifiers are incorporated for the identification and filtering of PCR duplicates. The same protocol can be used across a wide range of input amounts, input types, and panel sizes, enabling NEBNext Direct to be broadly applicable across a wide variety of research and diagnostic needs. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Ultrasensitive Faraday cage-type electrochemiluminescence assay for femtomolar miRNA-141 via graphene oxide and hybridization chain reaction-assisted cascade amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Lin; Hu, Yufang; Wang, Sui; Guo, Zhiyong

    2018-06-30

    In this study, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for sensitive detection of femtomolar miRNA-141 was constructed on the basis of Faraday cage-type strategy via graphene oxide (GO) and hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-assisted cascade amplification. A capture probe (CP) was immobilized on Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Au nanoparticles as capture unit, which could catch the miRNA-141, and the immobilization of the signal unit (Ru(phen) 3 2+ -HCR/GO) was allowed via nucleic acid hybridization. The prepared biosensor exhibited two advantages for signal amplification: firstly, GO could lap on the electrode surface directly, extending Outer Helmholtz Plane (OHP) of the sensor due to the large surface area and good electronic transport property; secondly, HCR-assisted cascade amplification was designed by anchoring all HCR products on the GO surface, then embedding Ru(phen) 3 2+ as a signal readout pathway. All these signal molecules could take part in electrochemical reactions, thus further enhancing the ECL signal drastically. Therefore, the proposed sensor constructed by integrating HCR with Faraday cage-type strategy displayed an ultrasensitive detection platform for the miRNA-141 with a low detection limit of 0.03 fM. In addition, this proposed biosensor provides a universal platform for analysis of other microRNAs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward a solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay within microfluidic channels using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Algar, W Russ; Tavares, Anthony J; Krull, Ulrich J

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties and surface area of quantum dots (QDs) have made them an attractive platform for the development of nucleic acid biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Solid-phase assays based on FRET using mixtures of immobilized QD-oligonucleotide conjugates (QD biosensors) have been developed. The typical challenges associated with solid-phase detection strategies include non-specific adsorption, slow kinetics of hybridization, and sample manipulation. The new work herein has considered the immobilization of QD biosensors onto the surfaces of microfluidic channels in order to address these challenges. Microfluidic flow can be used to dynamically control stringency by adjustment of the potential in an electrokinetic-based microfluidics environment. The shearing force, Joule heating, and the competition between electroosmotic and electrophoretic mobilities allow the optimization of hybridization conditions, convective delivery of target to the channel surface to speed hybridization, amelioration of adsorption, and regeneration of the sensing surface. Microfluidic flow can also be used to deliver (for immobilization) and remove QD biosensors. QDs that were conjugated with two different oligonucleotide sequences were used to demonstrate feasibility. One oligonucleotide sequence on the QD was available as a linker for immobilization via hybridization with complementary oligonucleotides located on a glass surface within a microfluidic channel. A second oligonucleotide sequence on the QD served as a probe to transduce hybridization with target nucleic acid in a sample solution. A Cy3 label on the target was excited by FRET using green-emitting CdSe/ZnS QD donors and provided an analytical signal to explore this detection strategy. The immobilized QDs could be removed under denaturing conditions by disrupting the duplex that was used as the surface linker and thus allowed a new layer of QD biosensors to be re-coated within the channel

  17. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Henrickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category “A” bioterrorism agents. The “Bio T” DNA assay was developed to detect: Variola major (VM, Bacillus anthracis (BA, Yersinia pestis (YP, Francisella tularensis (FT and Varicella zoster virus (VZV. The “Bio T” RNA assay (mRT-PCR-EHA was developed to detect: Ebola virus (Ebola, Lassa fever virus (Lassa, Rift Valley fever (RVF, Hantavirus Sin Nombre species (HSN and dengue virus (serotypes 1-4. Sensitivity and specificity of the 2 assays were tested by using genomic DNA, recombinant plasmid positive controls, RNA transcripts controls, surrogate (spiked clinical samples and common respiratory pathogens. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD of the DNA asssay for genomic DNA was 1×100~1×102 copies/mL for BA, FT and YP. The LOD for VZV whole organism was 1×10-2 TCID50/mL. The LOD for recombinant controls ranged from 1×102~1×103copies/mL for BA, FT, YP and VM. The RNA assay demonstrated LOD for RNA transcript controls of 1×104~1×106 copies/mL without extraction and 1×105~1×106 copies/mL with extraction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. The LOD for dengue whole organisms was ~1×10-4 dilution for dengue 1 and 2, 1×104 LD50/mL and 1×102 LD50/mL for dengue 3 and 4. The LOD without extraction for recombinant plasmid DNA controls was ~1×103 copies/mL (1.5 input copies/reaction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. No cross-reactivity of primers and probes used in both assays was detected with common respiratory pathogens or between targeted analytes. Clinical sensitivity was estimated using 264 surrogate clinical samples tested with the BioT DNA assay and 549 samples tested with the BioT RNA assay. The clinical specificity is 99.6% and 99.8% for BioT DNA assay and BioT RNA assay, respectively. The

  18. Staphylococcus aureus DNA ligase: characterization of its kinetics of catalysis and development of a high-throughput screening compatible chemiluminescent hybridization protection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sheraz; Brown, Richard; May, Earl; Mazzulla, Marie; Smyth, Martin G; Berry, Colin; Morby, Andrew; Powell, David J

    2004-11-01

    DNA ligases are key enzymes involved in the repair and replication of DNA. Prokaryotic DNA ligases uniquely use NAD+ as the adenylate donor during catalysis, whereas eukaryotic enzymes use ATP. This difference in substrate specificity makes the bacterial enzymes potential targets for therapeutic intervention. We have developed a homogeneous chemiluminescence-based hybridization protection assay for Staphylococcus aureus DNA ligase that uses novel acridinium ester technology and demonstrate that it is an alternative to the commonly used radiometric assays for ligases. The assay has been used to determine a number of kinetic constants for S. aureus DNA ligase catalysis. These included the K(m) values for NAD+ (2.75+/-0.1 microM) and the acridinium-ester-labelled DNA substrate (2.5+/-0.2 nM). A study of the pH-dependencies of kcat, K(m) and kcat/K(m) has revealed values of kinetically influential ionizations within the enzyme-substrate complexes (kcat) and free enzyme (kcat/K(m)). In each case, the curves were shown to be composed of one kinetically influential ionization, for k(cat), pK(a)=6.6+/-0.1 and kcat/K(m), pK(a)=7.1+/-0.1. Inhibition characteristics of the enzyme against two Escherichia coli DNA ligase inhibitors have also been determined with IC50 values for these being 3.30+/-0.86 microM for doxorubicin and 1.40+/-0.07 microM for chloroquine diphosphate. The assay has also been successfully miniaturized to a sufficiently low volume to allow it to be utilized in a high-throughput screen (384-well format; 20 microl reaction volume), enabling the assay to be used in screening campaigns against libraries of compounds to discover leads for further drug development.

  19. Investigation of Parameters that Affect the Success Rate of Microarray-Based Allele-Specific Hybridization Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lena; Søe, Martin Jensen; Moller, Lisbeth Birk

    2011-01-01

    Background: The development of microarray-based genetic tests for diseases that are caused by known mutations is becoming increasingly important. The key obstacle to developing functional genotyping assays is that such mutations need to be genotyped regardless of their location in genomic regions...

  20. 11th GCC Closed Forum: cumulative stability; matrix stability; immunogenicity assays; laboratory manuals; biosimilars; chiral methods; hybrid LBA/LCMS assays; fit-for-purpose validation; China Food and Drug Administration bioanalytical method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rafiq; Briscoe, Chad; Bower, Joseph; Cape, Stephanie; Arnold, Mark; Hayes, Roger; Warren, Mark; Karnik, Shane; Stouffer, Bruce; Xiao, Yi Qun; van der Strate, Barry; Sikkema, Daniel; Fang, Xinping; Tudoroniu, Ariana; Tayyem, Rabab; Brant, Ashley; Spriggs, Franklin; Barry, Colin; Khan, Masood; Keyhani, Anahita; Zimmer, Jennifer; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Couerbe, Philippe; Khadang, Ardeshir; Bourdage, James; Datin, Jim; Zemo, Jennifer; Hughes, Nicola; Fatmi, Saadya; Sheldon, Curtis; Fountain, Scott; Satterwhite, Christina; Colletti, Kelly; Vija, Jenifer; Yu, Mathilde; Stamatopoulos, John; Lin, Jenny; Wilfahrt, Jim; Dinan, Andrew; Ohorodnik, Susan; Hulse, James; Patel, Vimal; Garofolo, Wei; Savoie, Natasha; Brown, Michael; Papac, Damon; Buonarati, Mike; Hristopoulos, George; Beaver, Chris; Boudreau, Nadine; Williard, Clark; Liu, Yansheng; Ray, Gene; Warrino, Dominic; Xu, Allan; Green, Rachel; Hayward-Sewell, Joanne; Marcelletti, John; Sanchez, Christina; Kennedy, Michael; Charles, Jessica St; Bouhajib, Mohammed; Nehls, Corey; Tabler, Edward; Tu, Jing; Joyce, Philip; Iordachescu, Adriana; DuBey, Ira; Lindsay, John; Yamashita, Jim; Wells, Edward

    2018-04-01

    The 11th Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held in Universal City, CA, USA on 3 April 2017. Representatives from international CRO members offering bioanalytical services were in attendance in order to discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The second CRO-Pharma Scientific Interchange Meeting was held on 7 April 2017, which included Pharma representatives' sharing perspectives on the topics discussed earlier in the week with the CRO members. The issues discussed at the meetings included cumulative stability evaluations, matrix stability evaluations, the 2016 US FDA Immunogenicity Guidance and recent and unexpected FDA Form 483s on immunogenicity assays, the bioanalytical laboratory's role in writing PK sample collection instructions, biosimilars, CRO perspectives on the use of chiral versus achiral methods, hybrid LBA/LCMS assays, applications of fit-for-purpose validation and, at the Global CRO Council Closed Forum only, the status and trend of current regulated bioanalytical practice in China under CFDA's new BMV policy. Conclusions from discussions of these topics at both meetings are included in this report.

  1. Clinical and analytical performance of the BD Onclarity™ HPV assay for detection of CIN2+ lesions on SurePath samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Junge, Jette; Franzmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The novel BD Onclarity(TM) HPV assay (Onclarity) on the BD Viper™ LT system (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), detects E6/E7 DNA from 13 high-risk HPV genotypes and HPV66. We compared the analytical and clinical performance of the Onclarity Assay to that of Hybrid Capture 2 and LINEAR ARRAY...

  2. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  3. Development of highly reliable in silico SNP resource and genotyping assay from exome capture and sequencing: an example from black spruce (Picea mariana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavy, Nathalie; Gagnon, France; Deschênes, Astrid; Boyle, Brian; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Picea mariana is a widely distributed boreal conifer across Canada and the subject of advanced breeding programmes for which population genomics and genomic selection approaches are being developed. Targeted sequencing was achieved after capturing P. mariana exome with probes designed from the sequenced transcriptome of Picea glauca, a distant relative. A high capture efficiency of 75.9% was reached although spruce has a complex and large genome including gene sequences interspersed by some long introns. The results confirmed the relevance of using probes from congeneric species to perform successfully interspecific exome capture in the genus Picea. A bioinformatics pipeline was developed including stringent criteria that helped detect a set of 97,075 highly reliable in silico SNPs. These SNPs were distributed across 14,909 genes. Part of an Infinium iSelect array was used to estimate the rate of true positives by validating 4267 of the predicted in silico SNPs by genotyping trees from P. mariana populations. The true positive rate was 96.2% for in silico SNPs, compared to a genotyping success rate of 96.7% for a set 1115 P. mariana control SNPs recycled from previous genotyping arrays. These results indicate the high success rate of the genotyping array and the relevance of the selection criteria used to delineate the new P. mariana in silico SNP resource. Furthermore, in silico SNPs were generally of medium to high frequency in natural populations, thus providing high informative value for future population genomics applications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Gene protein detection platform--a comparison of a new human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assay with conventional immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhammar, Gustav; Farrajota, Pedro; Olsson, Ann; Silva, Cristina; Hartman, Johan; Elmberger, Göran

    2015-08-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are widely used semiquantitative assays for selecting breast cancer patients for HER2 antibody therapy. However, both techniques have been shown to have disadvantages. Our aim was to test a recent automated technique of combined IHC and brightfield dual in situ hybridization-gene protein detection platform (GPDP)-in breast cancer HER2 protein, gene, and chromosome 17 centromere status evaluations, comparing the results in accordance to the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists recommendations for HER2 testing in breast cancer from both 2007 and 2013. The GPDP technique performance was evaluated on 52 consecutive whole slide invasive breast cancer cases with HER2 IHC 2/3+ scoring results. Applying in turns the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists recommendations for HER2 testing in breast cancer from 2007 and 2013 to both FISH and GPDP DISH assays, the HER2 gene amplification results showed 100% concordance among amplified/nonamplified cases, but there was a shift in 4 cases toward positive from equivocal results and toward equivocal from negative results. This might be related to the emphasis on the average HER2 copy number in the 2013 criteria. HER2 expression by IVD market IHC kit (Pathway®) has a strong correlation with GPDP HER2 protein, including a full concordance for all cases scored as 3+ and a reduction from 2+ to 1+ in 7 cases corresponding to nonamplified cases. Gene protein detection platform HER2 protein "solo" could have spared the need for 7 FISH studies. In addition, the platform offered advantages on interpretation reassurance including selecting areas for counting gene signals paralleled with protein IHC expression, on heterogeneity detection, interpretation time, technical time, and tissue expense. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved testing of recent HIV-1 infections with the BioRad avidity assay compared to the limiting antigen avidity assay and BED Capture enzyme immunoassay: evaluation using reference sample panels from the German Seroconverter Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hauser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The variety and limitations of current laboratory methods for estimating HIV-incidence has driven attempts to improve and standardize the performance of serological 'Tests for Recent HIV-Infections' (TRI. Primary and follow-up HIV-1 positive plasma samples from individuals with well-defined dates of infection collected as part of the German Seroconverter Cohort provided specimens highly suitable for use in comparing the performance of three TRIs: the AWARE™ BED™ EIA HIV-1 Incidence test (BED-CEIA, Genetic systems HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA antibody avidity-based assay (BioRad Avidity and Sedia™ HIV-1 LAg Avidity EIA (LAg Avidity. METHODS: The evaluation panel included 180 specimens: 44 from antiretroviral (ARV-naïve individuals with recently acquired HIV-infection (≤ 130 days; 25 B and 19 non-B subtypes and 136 from long-term (>12 months infected individuals [101 ARV-naïve subtype B, 16 non-B subtypes, 14 ARV-treated individuals, 5 slow progressors (SLP]. RESULTS: For long-term infected, ARV-naïve individuals the false recent rates (FRR of both the BioRad and LAg Avidity assays were 2% (2/101 for subtype B and 6% (1/16 for subtype 'non-B', while the FRR of the BED-CEIA was 7% (7/101 for subtype B and 25% (4/16 for subtype 'non-B' (all p>0.05. Misclassification of ARV-treated individuals and SLP was rare by LAg (1/14, 0/5 and BioRad Avidity assays (2/14, 1/5 but more frequent by BED-CEIA (5/14, 3/5. Among recently-infected individuals (subtype B, 60% (15/25 were correctly classified by BED-CEIA, 88% (22/25 by BioRad Avidity and significantly fewer by LAg (48%, 12/25 compared to BioRad Avidity (p = 0.005 with a higher true-recency rate among non-B infections for all assays. CONCLUSIONS: This study using well-characterized specimens demonstrated lower FRRs for both avidity methods than with the BED-CEIA. For recently infected individuals the BioRad Avidity assay was shown to give the most accurate results.

  6. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays are increasingly used for primary cervical screening and HPV vaccination effect monitoring. We undertook a systematic literature review to determine the concordance in positive test results (i.e., detection of HPV infections) between Hybrid Capture 2 ...

  7. Comparison of RT-PCR-Dot blot hybridization based on radioisotope 32P with conventional RT-PCR and commercial ELISA Assays for blood screening of HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Lina R; Andi Yasmon

    2011-01-01

    There are many commercial ELISA and rapid test kits that have been used for blood screening; however, the kits can give false positive and negative results. Therefore, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) - Dot Blot Hybridization based on radioisotope 32 P (RDBR) method was developed in this research, to compare the method with the conventional RT-PCR and commercial ELISA Enzyme-Linked lmmunosorbent Assay) kit. This method is efficient for screening of large blood specimens and surveillance study. Eighty seven samples were used and serum of the samples were tested by ELISA to detect HIV-1. The HIV-l RNA genome was extracted from plasma samples and tested using the RT-PCR and RDBR methods. Of 87 samples that were tested, the rates of positive testing of the RT-PCR, the RDBR, and the ELISA were 71.26%, 74.71%, and 80.46%, respectively. The RDBR (a combination of RTPCR and dot blot hybridization) was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR by showing 3.45% in increase number of positive specimens. The results showed that of 9 samples (10.34%) were negative RDBR and positive ELISA, while 4 samples (4.60%) were negative ELISA and positive RDBR. The two methods showed slightly difference in the results but further validation is still needed. However, RDBR has high potential as an alternative method for screening of blood in large quantities when compared to method of conventional RT-PCR and ELISA. (author)

  8. Non-destructive assay system for uranium and plutonium in reprocessing input solutions. Hybrid K-edge/XRF Densitometer. JASPAS JC-11 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surugaya, N.; Abe, K.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, H.; Kuno, Y.

    1997-05-01

    As a part of JASPAS programme, a non-radioactive assay system for the accountability of uranium and plutonium in input dissolver solutions of a spent fuel reprocessing plant, called Hybrid K-edge/XRF Densitometer, has been developed at the Tokai Reprocessing plant (TRP) since 1991. The instrument is the one of the hybrid type combined K-edge densitometry (KED) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The KED is used to determine the uranium concentration and the XRF is used to determine the U/Pu ratio. These results give the plutonium concentration in consequence. It is considered that the instrument has the capability of timely on-site verification for input accountancy. The instrument had been installed in the analytical hot cell at the TRP and the experiments comparing with Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) method have been carried out. As the results of measurements for the actual input solutions in the acceptance and performance tests, it was typically confirmed that the precision for determining uranium concentration by the KED was within 0.2%, whereas the XRF for plutonium performed within 0.7%. This final report summarizes the design information and performance data so as to end the JASPAS programme. (author)

  9. Development and evaluation of GRAL-C dispersion model, a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian approach capturing NO-NO 2-O 3 chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettl, Dietmar; Uhrner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    Based on two recent publications using Lagrangian dispersion models to simulate NO-NO 2-O 3 chemistry for industrial plumes, a similar modified approach was implemented using GRAL-C ( Graz Lagrangian Model with Chemistry) and tested on two urban applications. In the hybrid dispersion model GRAL-C, the transport and turbulent diffusion of primary species such as NO and NO 2 are treated in a Lagrangian framework while those of O 3 are treated in an Eulerian framework. GRAL-C was employed on a one year street canyon simulation in Berlin and on a four-day simulation during a winter season in Graz, the second biggest city in Austria. In contrast to Middleton D.R., Jones A.R., Redington A.L., Thomson D.J., Sokhi R.S., Luhana L., Fisher B.E.A. (2008. Lagrangian modelling of plume chemistry for secondary pollutants in large industrial plumes. Atmospheric Environment 42, 415-427) and Alessandrini S., Ferrero E. (2008. A Lagrangian model with chemical reactions: application in real atmosphere. Proceedings of the 12th Int. Conf. on Harmonization within atmospheric dispersion modelling for regulatory purposes. Croatian Meteorological Journal, 43, ISSN: 1330-0083, 235-239) the treatment of ozone was modified in order to facilitate urban scale simulations encompassing dense road networks. For the street canyon application, modelled daily mean NO x/NO 2 concentrations deviated by +0.4%/-15% from observations, while the correlations for NO x and NO 2 were 0.67 and 0.76 respectively. NO 2 concentrations were underestimated in summer, but were captured well for other seasons. In Graz a fair agreement for NO x and NO 2 was obtained between observed and modelled values for NO x and NO 2. Simulated diurnal cycles of NO 2 and O 3 matched observations reasonably well, although O 3 was underestimated during the day. A possible explanation here might lie in the non-consideration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) chemistry.

  10. Evaluation of adjunctive HPV testing by Hybrid Capture II® in women with minor cytological abnormalities for the diagnosis of CIN2/3 and cost comparison with colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyi May S

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a proportion of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3 are associated with equivocal cervical smears, which show borderline or mild dyskaryosis, follow up with repeat smears, colposcopy and biopsy is required. Since infection with oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HR HPV has been found to be associated with the development of cervical cancer, HRHPV testing appears to be an alternative. Objective The present study assesses if HRHPV testing can predict CIN2/3 in women referred for mild dyskaryosis and borderline cytological changes in an health authority with a referral policy to colposcopy after one single mild dyskaryotic Pap smear. Study design The HPV DNA Hybrid Capture II (Digene/Abbott, Maidenhead was evaluated on 110 consenting women with mild dyskaryosis and 23 women with persistent borderline changes, who were referred for colposcopy between May and November 2001. A cost comparison between two referral policies was performed. Results CIN2/3 was diagnosed histologically in 30 of 133 women (22% with minor cytological abnormalities. As the Receiver Operator Characteristics plot suggested a cut-off of 3 pg/ml the HRHPV HCII was evaluated at 3 RLU (relative light units and at the manufacturer's recommendation of 1 RLU. At both cut-offs sensitivity and negative predictive value were high at 97%. Specificity was low at 37% at a cut-off of 1 pg/ml and 46% at a cut-off of 3 RLU. To remain cost neutral in comparison to immediate colposcopy the costs for one HR HPV HC II must not exceed £34.37 per test at a cut off of 3 pg/ml. Conclusion The negative likelihood ratio (NLR was of good diagnostic value with 0.089 at 1 RLU and 0.072 at 3 RLU, which reduces the post-test probability for CIN2/3 to 2% in this population. Women with minor cytological disorders can be excluded from colposcopy on a negative HR HPV result. Specificity can be improved by restricting HR HPV testing to women with persistent borderline

  11. [HPV primary test in the cervical cancer screening: reproducibility assessment and investigation on cytological outcome of Hybrid Capture 2 borderline samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Elena; Sani, Cristina; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Ocello, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the reproducibility of the High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2-HR, Qiagen) test within the frame of cervical cancer screening with HPV, for samples with values very close to the cut-off (borderline), that is 0.80≤RLU/CO≤0.99 (RLU/CO: relative light units/cut-off) and to assess any possible presence of high grade lesions. all borderline samples collected from January 2014 to August 2015 were repeated with HR-HC2 test within two weeks from the first test. For HPV-positive samples, cytology and colposcopy results (if present) were analysed. national and international directions recommend the use of HPV testing as a primary test for cervical cancer screening for women aged 30/34-64 years. In Tuscany Region (Central Italy) the primary screening with HPV test was introduced in 2013 and the HPV test currently used, HR-HC2, has a positive cut-off≥1 RLU/CO. proportion of HPV-positive tests at repetition, then stratified by type of material (ThinPrep, STM) and for the following subclasses of RLU/CO: 0.80-0.89 and 0.90-0.99. 253 samples were borderline at first test with HR-HC2 (about 0.4% of all samples tested). About 83% (209/253) of the samples was confirmed to be negative at the HPV test repetition: 88% for RLU/CO=0.80-0.89 and 76% for RLU/CO=0.90-0.99 (p-value=0.014). Median RLU/CO value of 44 HPV-positive samples at repetition is 1.4, with a maximum RLU/CO value of 16.7. In addition, 90% of HPV-positive samples at repetition has a RLU/CO values below or equal to 3.6. Even the used sampling system affects reproducibility: 26.4% (33/125) of the samples resulted positive at the repetition were in ThinPrep vs. 8.6% (11/128) of those in STM (p-valuecut-off (0.90-0.99), confirming the intrinsic limit to all analytical methods near to the cut-off. Moreover, even if the difference in reproducibility between the two systems of sampling is statistically significant, in samples that resulted positive at repetition high-grade lesions were not found at the time of HPV

  12. Evaluation of HER-2/neu status in breast cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) & fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, Kalal Iravathy; Dayakar, Seetha; Vijayalaxmi, Kolanupaka; Babu, Saidam Jangu; Reddy, P Vijay Anand

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is increasingly being recognized as the most accurate and predictive test for HER 2/neu gene amplification and response to therapy in breast cancer. In the present study we investigated HER-2/neu gene amplification by FISH in breast carcinoma tissue specimens and compared the results with that of immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. A total of 90 breast carcinoma tissue samples were used for immunohistochemical (IHC) and FISH analysis. IHC was performed by using mouse monoclonal antibody to the intracellular domain of HER-2/neu protein. Each slide was scored in a blinded fashion by two pathologists according to the manufacturer's recommended criteria. FISH analysis was performed on paraffin embedded breast tumour tissue sections. The polysomy for centromere 17 (Spec green signal) was read as green signals less than 4 as moderate polysomy, and more than 4 as highly polysomy. Thirty of the 90 patients had negative results by IHC and FISH. Of the 28 patients with the score of 2+ by IHC, 20 were FISH positive for HER-2/neu gene amplification, three were FISH negative and five patients showed equivocal (1.8-2.2) results by FISH. These five cases were retested for IHC and FISH on different paraffin embedded tissue blocks, and all five were found positive for HER-2/neu gene amplification. Twenty five patients with the score of 3+ by IHC were FISH positive for HER-2/neu gene amplification (>2.2). Seven cases with the score of 3+ by IHC were FISH negative for HER-2/neu gene amplification (>2.2), and showed polysomy of chromosome number 17 high polysomy > 4. Our results indicated that HER-2/neu status by FISH should be performed in all cases of breast tumour with a 2+ score by IHC. Cases demonstrating a 3+ score by IHC may be subjected to FISH to rule out polysomy of chromosome 17 which could be falsely interpreted as HER-2/neu overexpression by IHC analysis. There is also a need for establishing a clinically validated cut-off value

  13. Bioinspired near-infrared-excited sensing platform for in vitro antioxidant capacity assay based on upconversion nanoparticles and a dopamine-melanin hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Chuan; Ke, Xuebin; Kang, Ning; Shen, Yuqing; Liu, Yongliang; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Hongjun; Chen, Changqing; Ren, Lei

    2015-02-11

    A novel core-shell structure based on upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) and dopamine-melanin has been developed for evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of biological fluids. In this approach, dopamine-melanin nanoshells facilely formed on the surface of UCNPs act as ultraefficient quenchers for upconversion fluorescence, contributing to a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism. This spontaneous oxidative polymerization of the dopamine-induced quenching effect could be effectively prevented by the presence of various antioxidants (typically biothiols, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), and Trolox). The chemical response of the UCNPs@dopamine-melanin hybrid system exhibited great selectivity and sensitivity toward antioxidants relative to other compounds at 100-fold higher concentration. A satisfactory correlation was established between the ratio of the "anti-quenching" fluorescence intensity and the concentration of antioxidants. Besides the response of the upconversion fluorescence signal, a specific evaluation process for antioxidants could be visualized by the color change from colorless to dark gray accompanied by the spontaneous oxidation of dopamine. The near-infrared (NIR)-excited UCNP-based antioxidant capacity assay platform was further used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of cell extracts and human plasma, and satisfactory sensitivity, repeatability, and recovery rate were obtained. This approach features easy preparation, fluorescence/visual dual mode detection, high specificity to antioxidants, and enhanced sensitivity with NIR excitation, showing great potential for screening and quantitative evaluation of antioxidants in biological systems.

  14. Simultaneous detection of viruses and Toxoplasma gondii in cerebrospinal fluid specimens by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based reverse hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Raffaele; Di Taranto, Anna Maria; Lipsi, Maria Rosaria; Natalicchio, Maria Iole; Antonetti, Raffaele; Miragliotta, Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    The lack of rapidity and the low sensitivity and specificity of traditional laboratory methods limits their usefulness in the laboratory diagnosis of viral central nervous system (CNS) infections. This study describes the use of a commercially available multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR)-based reverse hybridization assay (RHA) for the simultaneous detection of the genomes of 8 viruses and Toxoplasma gondii in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from 181 patients suspected of having viral meningitis. Twenty-two/181 (12.15%) CSF samples resulted positive by mPCR. Eighteen/22 were positive for 1 viral pathogen, whereas a dual infection was detected in 4/22 samples. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the most commonly detected virus (6/22), followed by herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) (5/22) and -2 (HSV-2) (4/22). Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were detected in 1 specimen each. Two CSF samples were co-infected by HSV-1/HSV-2, 1 sample by HHV-6/T. gondii, and 1 sample by EBV/EV, respectively. Our data support the usefulness of mPCR as a rapid molecular method for the simultaneous detection of major viral pathogens and T. gondii in aseptic meningitis also to allow the earlier application of specific antiviral therapy.

  15. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Unselected SurePath Samples Using the APTIMA HPV mRNA Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte M

    2013-01-01

    The APTIMA Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay detects E6/E7 mRNA from 14 human papillomavirus genotypes. Horizon was a population-based split-sample study among well-screened women, with an aim to compare APTIMA, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), and liquid-based cytology (LBC) using SurePath samples. APTIMA...

  16. Calibration and LOD/LOQ estimation of a chemiluminescent hybridization assay for residual DNA in recombinant protein drugs expressed in E. coli using a four-parameter logistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K R; Dipaolo, B; Ji, X

    2000-06-01

    Calibration is the process of fitting a model based on reference data points (x, y), then using the model to estimate an unknown x based on a new measured response, y. In DNA assay, x is the concentration, and y is the measured signal volume. A four-parameter logistic model was used frequently for calibration of immunoassay when the response is optical density for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or adjusted radioactivity count for radioimmunoassay (RIA). Here, it is shown that the same model or a linearized version of the curve are equally useful for the calibration of a chemiluminescent hybridization assay for residual DNA in recombinant protein drugs and calculation of performance measures of the assay.

  17. CO 2 Capture Capacity and Swelling Measurements of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials via Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune; Shin, Dolly; Jang, Young Nam; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2012-01-01

    attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of CO 2 capture capacity and swelling behaviors of polyetheramine (Jeffamine M-2070) and its corresponding NOHMs (NOHM-I-PE2070) were reported

  18. The hybrid MPC-MINLP algorithm for optimal operation of coal-fired power plants with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda Abdul Manaf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm that combines model predictive control (MPC with MINLP optimization and demonstrates its application for coal-fired power plants retrofitted with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC plant. The objective function of the optimization algorithm works at a primary level to maximize plant economic revenue while considering an optimal carbon capture profile. At a secondary level, the MPC algorithm is used to control the performance of the PCC plant. Two techno-economic scenarios based on fixed (capture rate is constant and flexible (capture rate is variable operation modes are developed using actual electricity prices (2011 with fixed carbon prices ($AUD 5, 25, 50/tonne-CO2 for 24 h periods. Results show that fixed operation mode can bring about a ratio of net operating revenue deficit at an average of 6% against the superior flexible operation mode.

  19. Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Conjugated Therapeutic Oligonucleotides: A High-Throughput Method Based Upon Serial Blood Microsampling Coupled to Peptide Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Bruno M D C; Gilbert, James W; Haraszti, Reka A; Coles, Andrew H; Biscans, Annabelle; Roux, Loic; Nikan, Mehran; Echeverria, Dimas; Hassler, Matthew; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), hold great promise for the treatment of incurable genetically defined disorders by targeting cognate toxic gene products for degradation. To achieve meaningful tissue distribution and efficacy in vivo, siRNAs must be conjugated or formulated. Clear understanding of the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic behavior of these compounds is necessary to optimize and characterize the performance of therapeutic oligonucleotides in vivo. In this study, we describe a simple and reproducible methodology for the evaluation of in vivo blood/plasma PK profiles and tissue distribution of oligonucleotides. The method is based on serial blood microsampling from the saphenous vein, coupled to peptide nucleic acid hybridization assay for quantification of guide strands. Performed with minimal number of animals, this method allowed unequivocal detection and sensitive quantification without the need for amplification, or further modification of the oligonucleotides. Using this methodology, we compared plasma clearances and tissue distribution profiles of two different hydrophobically modified siRNAs (hsiRNAs). Notably, cholesterol-hsiRNA presented slow plasma clearances and mainly accumulated in the liver, whereas, phosphocholine-docosahexaenoic acid-hsiRNA was rapidly cleared from the plasma and preferably accumulated in the kidney. These data suggest that the PK/biodistribution profiles of modified hsiRNAs are determined by the chemical nature of the conjugate. Importantly, the method described in this study constitutes a simple platform to conduct pilot assessments of the basic clearance and tissue distribution profiles, which can be broadly applied for evaluation of new chemical variants of siRNAs and micro-RNAs.

  20. Gravitational capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)

  1. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-08-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (≈50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix ( d = 0.253 g cm -3). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and quantifying

  2. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (∼50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3 ) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix (d = 0.253 g cm -3 ). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and

  3. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in {alpha} low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallu, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, DEN, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, Bat. 224, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)], E-mail: fanny.jallu@cea.fr; Loche, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, DEN, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, Bat. 224, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2008-08-15

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low {alpha}-activity fissile masses (mainly {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating {alpha} low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[{alpha}] per gram of crude waste ({approx}50 {mu}g Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm{sup -3}) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix (d = 0.253 g cm{sup -3}). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction

  4. Una prueba de captura rápida de antígenos con tiras reactivas para el diagnóstico de malaria por P. falciparum A rapid dipstick antigen capture assay for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Los avances recientes en el diagnóstico de infecciones causadas por Plasmodium falciparum han permitido considerar la posibilidad de complementar la microscopia óptica con una prueba estandarizada de captura de antígenos con tiras reactivas basada en la detección de una proteína específica del parásito, que es segregada por los estadios sanguíneos asexuados y los gametocitos inmaduros, pero no por otros estadios. Los ensayos de campo indican que esta prueba proporciona resultados replicables con un umbral de detección de parasitemia de P. falciparum similar al obtenido con microscopia habitual de alta calidad para malaria y una especificidad y sensibilidad de alrededor de 90% en comparación con la microscopia habitual con extensión de sangre en capa gruesa. La estabilidad, reproducibilidad y facilidad de uso de la prueba indican claramente sus posibilidades de aplicación en el tratamiento de la malaria, particularmente en el nivel de atención de salud periférico, siempre y cuando se pueda garantizar su precisión y su costo sea módico. También debe considerarse la posibilidad de usarla más ampliamente donde lo justifiquen los requisitos operativos y los recursos y donde las decisiones se basen en una evaluación adecuada de los sistemas de prestación de asistencia de salud existentes.Recent advances in the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections have made it possible to consider supplementing light microscopy with a standardized dipstick antigen capture assay based on the detection of a parasite-specific protein, which is secreted by the asexual blood stages and immature gametocytes but not by the other stages. Field trials indicate that this dipstick assay provides consistently reproducible results, with a threshold of detection of P. falciparum parasitaemia similar to that obtained by high quality routine malaria microscopy and a specificity and sensitivity of around 90% compared with standard thick blood film

  5. Chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity of small cell lung cancer cell lines studied by a newly developed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) hybrid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hida, T.; Ueda, R.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, H.; Kato, T.; Suyama, M.; Sugiura, T.; Ariyoshi, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) hybrid assay was developed by technically combining the human tumor clonogenic assay and the MTT assay to make the most of both assays. This assay was able to estimate the in vitro growth of cultured cell lines and of tumor cells in pleural effusion, suggesting the possibility of its use for assessment of chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity of fresh tumor samples. Multiple cell lines [including morphological and/or phenotypical in vitro converters and cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant lines] were established from three patients with small cell lung cancer at different stages of the disease. Chemosensitivity of these cell lines to four commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs was tested by the MTT hybrid assay. SK1 and SK3 lines were established from Patient S. K. before and after chemotherapy and radiotherapy, respectively. SK3/CDDP, a CDDP-resistant line derived from the SK3 line, was 30-fold more resistant to CDDP [50% inhibiting dose (IC50), 21.5 micrograms/ml] than the SK1 line. In Patient M. O., MOA2/CDDP, a CDDP-resistant line derived from MOA2 (an in vitro converter from the MO line), was 41-fold more resistant to CDDP (IC50, 37 micrograms/ml) than the parent MO line. From Patient T. M., TM1 and TM2 lines were established before and after chemotherapy, respectively. The latter showed 6-fold more resistance to CDDP than the former. Chemosensitivity of these lines to three other drugs, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, and etoposide, suggested cross-resistance between CDDP and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. Radiosensitivity study was also carried out with the MTT hybrid assay. The MOA2 line was more resistant [Do, 3.0 Gy; extrapolation number (n), 4.0] than the parental MO line (Do, 1.6 Gy; n, 2.1). There was no clear difference in radiosensitivity between the cell lines established before and after radiation therapy in Patient S. K

  6. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  7. Non-Enzymatic Detection of Bacterial Genomic DNA Using the Bio-Barcode Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Haley D.; Vega, Rafael A.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of bacterial genomic DNA through a non-enzymatic nanomaterials based amplification method, the bio-barcode assay, is reported. The assay utilizes oligonucleotide functionalized magnetic microparticles to capture the target of interest from the sample. A critical step in the new assay involves the use of blocking oligonucleotides during heat denaturation of the double stranded DNA. These blockers bind to specific regions of the target DNA upon cooling, and prevent the duplex DNA from re-hybridizing, which allows the particle probes to bind. Following target isolation using the magnetic particles, oligonucleotide functionalized gold nanoparticles act as target recognition agents. The oligonucleotides on the nanoparticle (barcodes) act as amplification surrogates. The barcodes are then detected using the Scanometric method. The limit of detection for this assay was determined to be 2.5 femtomolar, and this is the first demonstration of a barcode type assay for the detection of double stranded, genomic DNA. PMID:17927207

  8. Development of an in situ hybridization assay for the detection of ostreid herpesvirus type 1 mRNAs in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; Faury, Nicole; Segarra, Amélie; Renault, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization protocol for detecting mRNAs of ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) which infects Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, was developed. Three RNA probes were synthesized by cloning three partial OsHV-1 genes into plasmids using three specific primer pairs, and performing a transcription in the presence of digoxigenin dUTP. The RNA probes were able to detect the virus mRNAs in paraffin sections of experimentally infected oysters 26 h post-injection. The in situ hybridization showed that the OsHV-1 mRNAs were mainly present in connective tissues in gills, mantle, adductor muscle, digestive gland and gonads. DNA detection by in situ hybridization using a DNA probe and viral DNA quantitation by real-time PCR were also performed and results were compared with those obtained using RNA probes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of a Receptor-Binding Capture Quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay To Concentrate Human Norovirus from Sewage and To Study the Distribution and Stability of the Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, David; Pan, Liangwen; Mandrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Water is an important route for human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission. Using magnetic beads conjugated with blood group-like antigens (HuNoV receptors), we developed a simple and rapid receptor-binding capture and magnetic sequestration (RBCMS) method and compared it to the existing negatively charged membrane absorption/elution (NCMAE) method for concentrating HuNoV from sewage effluent. RBCMS required 6-fold-less sample volume than the NCMAE method and also resulted in a significantly higher yield of HuNoV. The NCMAE and RBCMS concentrations of genogroup I (GI) HuNoV measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) resulted in average threshold cycle (CT) values of 34.68 (8.68 copies, 252-fold concentration) versus 34.07 (13.05 copies, 477-fold concentration), respectively; the NCMAE and RBCMS concentrations of genogroup II (GII) HuNoV were measured as average CT values of 33.32 (24.7 copies, 239-fold concentration) versus 32.38 (46.9 copies, 333-fold concentration), respectively. The specificity of qRT-PCR was confirmed by traditional RT-PCR and an RNase I protection assay. The qRT-PCR signal from RBCMS-concentrated HuNoV treated with RNase I indicated that it was from encapsidated RNA and, probably, viable virus. In contrast, the qRT-PCR signal from NCMAE-concentrated HuNoV was not protected from RNase I and, likely, degradation. Both GI and GII HuNoV were detected from sewage effluent samples collected between April and July with average concentrations of 7.8 × 103 genomic copies per liter (gc/liter) and 4.3 × 104 gc/liter, respectively. No GI and sewage samples stored at room temperature for 4 weeks. We conclude that RBCMS requires less sample volume, has better recovery and sensitivity, and is faster than NCMAE for detection of HuNoV in sewage. PMID:22101044

  10. Process development and exergy cost sensitivity analysis of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Ansarinasab, Hojat; Moftakhari Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-10-01

    An integrated power plant with a net electrical power output of 3.71 × 105 kW is developed and investigated. The electrical efficiency of the process is found to be 60.1%. The process includes three main sub-systems: molten carbonate fuel cell system, heat recovery section and cryogenic carbon dioxide capturing process. Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic methods are used for analyzing the process. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is a comprehensive evaluation tool which combines an exergetic approach with economic analysis procedures. With this method, investment and exergy destruction costs of the process components are divided into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts. Results of the conventional exergoeconomic analyses demonstrate that the combustion chamber has the largest exergy destruction rate (182 MW) and cost rate (13,100 /h). Also, the total process cost rate can be decreased by reducing the cost rate of the fuel cell and improving the efficiency of the combustion chamber and heat recovery steam generator. Based on the total avoidable endogenous cost rate, the priority for modification is the heat recovery steam generator, a compressor and a turbine of the power plant, in rank order. A sensitivity analysis is done to investigate the exergoeconomic factor parameters through changing the effective parameter variations.

  11. Continuously tunable nucleic acid hybridization probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lucia R; Wang, Juexiao Sherry; Fang, John Z; Evans, Emily R; Pinto, Alessandro; Pekker, Irena; Boykin, Richard; Ngouenet, Celine; Webster, Philippa J; Beechem, Joseph; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-12-01

    In silico-designed nucleic acid probes and primers often do not achieve favorable specificity and sensitivity tradeoffs on the first try, and iterative empirical sequence-based optimization is needed, particularly in multiplexed assays. We present a novel, on-the-fly method of tuning probe affinity and selectivity by adjusting the stoichiometry of auxiliary species, which allows for independent and decoupled adjustment of the hybridization yield for different probes in multiplexed assays. Using this method, we achieved near-continuous tuning of probe effective free energy. To demonstrate our approach, we enforced uniform capture efficiency of 31 DNA molecules (GC content, 0-100%), maximized the signal difference for 11 pairs of single-nucleotide variants and performed tunable hybrid capture of mRNA from total RNA. Using the Nanostring nCounter platform, we applied stoichiometric tuning to simultaneously adjust yields for a 24-plex assay, and we show multiplexed quantitation of RNA sequences and variants from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

  12. Development and performance assessment of a luminex xMAP® direct hybridization assay for the detection and identification of indoor air fungal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Xavier; Packeu, Ann; Bureau, Fabrice; Roosens, Nancy H; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J

    2017-01-01

    Considered as a public health problem, indoor fungal contamination is generally monitored using classical protocols based on culturing. However, this culture dependency could influence the representativeness of the fungal population detected in an analyzed sample as this includes the dead and uncultivable fraction. Moreover, culture-based protocols are often time-consuming. In this context, molecular tools are a powerful alternative, especially those allowing multiplexing. In this study a Luminex xMAP® assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of 10 fungal species which are most frequently in indoor air and that may cause health problems. This xMAP® assay was found to be sensitive, i.e. its limit of detection is ranging between 0.05 and 0.01 ng of gDNA. The assay was subsequently tested with environmental air samples which were also analyzed with a classical protocol. All the species identified with the classical method were also detected with the xMAP® assay, however in a shorter time frame. These results demonstrate that the Luminex xMAP® fungal assay developed in this study could contribute to the improvement of public health and specifically to the indoor fungal contamination treatment.

  13. Development and performance assessment of a luminex xMAP® direct hybridization assay for the detection and identification of indoor air fungal contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Libert

    Full Text Available Considered as a public health problem, indoor fungal contamination is generally monitored using classical protocols based on culturing. However, this culture dependency could influence the representativeness of the fungal population detected in an analyzed sample as this includes the dead and uncultivable fraction. Moreover, culture-based protocols are often time-consuming. In this context, molecular tools are a powerful alternative, especially those allowing multiplexing. In this study a Luminex xMAP® assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of 10 fungal species which are most frequently in indoor air and that may cause health problems. This xMAP® assay was found to be sensitive, i.e. its limit of detection is ranging between 0.05 and 0.01 ng of gDNA. The assay was subsequently tested with environmental air samples which were also analyzed with a classical protocol. All the species identified with the classical method were also detected with the xMAP® assay, however in a shorter time frame. These results demonstrate that the Luminex xMAP® fungal assay developed in this study could contribute to the improvement of public health and specifically to the indoor fungal contamination treatment.

  14. Tail-labelling of DNA probes using modified deoxynucleotide triphosphates and terminal deoxynucleotidyl tranferase. Application in electrochemical DNA hybridization and protein-DNA binding assays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáková Brázdilová, Petra; Macíčková-Cahová, Hana; Pivoňková, Hana; Špaček, Jan; Havran, Luděk; Hocek, Michal; Fojta, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2011), s. 1366-1371 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA MŠk(CZ) LC512; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : DNA tail- labelling * protein-DNA binding * DNA hybridization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  15. A highly sensitive, multiplex broad-spectrum PCR-DNA-enzyme immunoassay and reverse hybridization assay for rapid detection and identification of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quint, K.D.; Doorn, L.J. van; Kleter, B.; Koning, M.N. de; Munckhof, H.A. van den; Morre, S.A.; Harmsel, B. ter; Weiderpass, E.; Harbers, G.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Quint, W.G.V.

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) comprises distinct serogroups and serovars. The present study evaluates a novel Ct amplification, detection, and genotyping method (Ct-DT assay). The Ct-DT amplification step is a multiplex broad-spectrum PCR for the cryptic plasmid and the VD2-region of ompl. The Ct-DT

  16. Comparison of HPV detection technologies: Hybrid capture 2, PreTect HPV-Proofer and analysis of HPV DNA viral load in HPV16, HPV18 and HPV33 E6/E7 mRNA positive specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing using molecular methods in liquid based cytology (LBC) specimens may be useful as an adjunct to cervical screening by cytology. We compared the positivity rate of the commercially available HPV DNA method hybrid capture 2 (hc2) and the commercially available E6\\/E7 mRNA method PreTect HPV-Proofer in cytological specimens (n=299). LBC specimens collected (n=299) represented the following cervical cytological disease categories: Normal (n=60), borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA) (n=34), CIN1 (n=121), CIN2 (n=60), CIN3 (n=24). Overall, 69% (205\\/299) of the cases were positive by hc2 and 38% (112\\/299) of the cases were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. Concordance rates between the two tests were highest in the high-grade cytology cases (CIN2: 67% and CIN3: 83%) and the normal cytology cases (88%) and lowest in the BNA and CIN1 categories (56% and 52%). HPV DNA viral load analyses were carried out on HPV16 (n=55), HPV18 (n=9) and HPV33 (n=13) samples that were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. The sensitivity and specificity of PreTect HPV-Proofer and the hc2 DNA test for the detection of high-grade cytology (i.e. CIN2+) were 71.4% and 75.8% vs 100% and 43.7%, respectively. The relatively low detection rate observed by PreTect HPV-Proofer in the whole range of cytological positive cases, combined with a relatively higher specificity and PPV, suggests that PreTect HPV-Proofer may be more useful than hc2 for triage and in predicting high-grade disease.

  17. The hybrid EIA test: a specific and sensitive assay for the detection of woodchuck antibody to hepatitis surface antigen (anti-WHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, I; Glass, R G

    1988-05-01

    'Ausria II' polystyrene beads (Abbott Labs, N. Chicago) are reacted with woodchuck serum positive for WHsAg in a dilution predetermined by titration. This modified bead is used in a blocking assay to detect the presence of antibody to the surface antigen of woodchuck hepatitis virus (anti-WHs). Serum containing woodchuck anti-WHs and commercial horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled anti-HBs are sequentially added. A drop in optical density at 492 nm of 50% or more due to the blocking of HRP conjugated anti-HBs by anti-WHs compared with a control (negative woodchuck serum) is a measure of anti-WHs. The ease and simplicity of converting readily available 'Ausria II' beads to specific reagents for detecting anti-WHs should be welcomed by investigators studying WHV. The method described is both sensitive and reproducible.

  18. Break-apart interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization assay in papillary thyroid carcinoma: on the road to optimizing the cut-off level for RET/PTC rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colato, Chiara; Vicentini, Caterina; Cantara, Silvia; Pedron, Serena; Brazzarola, Paolo; Marchetti, Ivo; Di Coscio, Giancarlo; Chilosi, Marco; Brunelli, Matteo; Pacini, Furio; Ferdeghini, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene is one of the most common molecular events in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, their pathogenic role and clinical significance are still debated. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangement in a cohort of BRAF WT PTCs by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and to search a reliable cut-off level in order to distinguish clonal or non-clonal RET changes. Forty BRAF WT PTCs were analyzed by FISH for RET rearrangements. As controls, six BRAFV600E mutated PTCs, 13 follicular adenomas (FA), and ten normal thyroid parenchyma were also analyzed. We performed FISH analysis on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using a commercially available RET break-apart probe. A cut-off level equivalent to 10.2% of aberrant cells was accepted as significant. To validate FISH results, we analyzed the study cohort by qRT-PCR. Split RET signals above the cut-off level were observed in 25% (10/40) of PTCs, harboring a percentage of positive cells ranging from 12 to 50%, and in one spontaneous FA (1/13, 7.7%). Overall, the data obtained by FISH matched well with qRT-PCR results. Challenging findings were observed in five cases showing a frequency of rearrangement very close to the cut-off. FISH approach represents a powerful tool to estimate the ratio between broken and non-broken RET tumor cells. Establishing a precise FISH cut-off may be useful in the interpretation of the presence of RET rearrangement, primarily when this strategy is used for cytological evaluation or for targeted therapy. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Four-channel asymmetric Real-Time PCR hybridization probe assay: a rapid pre-screening method for critical BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Serra, Jordi; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Marcús, Toni F; Soverini, Simona; Amat, Juan Carlos; Navarro-Palou, María; Ros, Teresa; Bex, Teresa; Ballester, Carmen; Bauça, Josep Miquel; SanFelix, Sara; Novo, Andrés; Vidal, Carmen; Santos, Carmen; Besalduch, Joan

    2012-03-01

    Within the laboratory protocols, used for the study of BCR-ABL resistance mutations in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with Imatinib, direct sequencing remains the reference method. Since the incidence of patients with a mutation-related loss of response is not very high, it is very useful in the routine laboratory to perform a fast pre-screening method. With this in mind, we have designed a new technique, based on a single Real-Time FRET-based PCR, followed by a study of melting peaks. This new tool, developed in a LightCycler 2.0, combines four different fluorescence channels for the simultaneous detection, in a single close tube, of critical mutations within the ABL kinase domain. Assay evaluation performed on 33 samples, previously genotyped by sequentiation, resulted in full concordance of results. This new methodology detects in a few steps the presence of critical mutations associated to Imatinib resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synovectomy by Neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu 239 Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  1. Quantitation of TGF-beta1 mRNA in porcine mesangial cells by comparative kinetic RT/PCR: comparison with ribonuclease protection assay and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceol, M; Forino, M; Gambaro, G; Sauer, U; Schleicher, E D; D'Angelo, A; Anglani, F

    2001-01-01

    Gene expression can be examined with different techniques including ribonuclease protection assay (RPA), in situ hybridisation (ISH), and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR). These methods differ considerably in their sensitivity and precision in detecting and quantifying low abundance mRNA. Although there is evidence that RT/PCR can be performed in a quantitative manner, the quantitative capacity of this method is generally underestimated. To demonstrate that the comparative kinetic RT/PCR strategy-which uses a housekeeping gene as internal standard-is a quantitative method to detect significant differences in mRNA levels between different samples, the inhibitory effect of heparin on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced-TGF-beta1 mRNA expression was evaluated by RT/PCR and RPA, the standard method of mRNA quantification, and the results were compared. The reproducibility of RT/PCR amplification was calculated by comparing the quantity of G3PDH and TGF-beta1 PCR products, generated during the exponential phases, estimated from two different RT/PCR (G3PDH, r = 0.968, P = 0.0000; TGF-beta1, r = 0.966, P = 0.0000). The quantitative capacity of comparative kinetic RT/PCR was demonstrated by comparing the results obtained from RPA and RT/PCR using linear regression analysis. Starting from the same RNA extraction, but using only 1% of the RNA for the RT/PCR compared to RPA, significant correlation was observed (r = 0.984, P = 0.0004). Moreover the morphometric analysis of ISH signal was applied for the semi-quantitative evaluation of the expression and localisation of TGF-beta1 mRNA in the entire cell population. Our results demonstrate the close similarity of the RT/PCR and RPA methods in giving quantitative information on mRNA expression and indicate the possibility to adopt the comparative kinetic RT/PCR as reliable quantitative method of mRNA analysis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Performance of ProEx C and PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA tests in comparison with the hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test for triaging ASCUS and LSIL cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghehbandan, Reza; Fontaine, Daniel; Bentley, James; Escott, Nicholas; Ghatage, Prafull; Lear, Adrian; Coutlee, Francois; Ratnam, Samuel

    2013-09-01

    The clinical usefulness of the ProEx C (Becton Dickinson) and PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA tests (Proofer; Norchip) for the triage of ASCUS and LSIL cytology was determined in comparison with the Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen). The study population consisted of women with a history of abnormal cytology referred to colposcopy. Histology-confirmed CIN 2+ served as the disease endpoint. The study was based on 1,360 women (mean age 30.7 years), of whom 380 had CIN 2+. Among 315 with ASCUS (CIN 2+, n = 67), the sensitivities of ProEx C, Proofer, and HC2 to detect CIN 2+ were, 71.6, 71.6, and 95.5%, respectively, with a corresponding specificity of 74.6, 74.2, and 35.1%. Among 363 with LSIL (CIN 2+, n = 108), the sensitivities of ProEx C, Proofer, and HC2 were, 67.6, 74.1, and 96.3%, respectively, with a corresponding specificity of 60, 68.2, and 18.4%. Among 225 HC2-positive ASCUS (CIN 2+, n = 64), 105 tested positive by ProEx C, reducing colposcopy referral by 53.3% and detecting 71.9% of CIN 2+; Proofer was positive in 112/225, reducing colposcopy referral by 50.2% and detecting 75.0% of CIN 2+. Among 312 HC2-positive LSIL (CIN 2+, n = 104), 160 tested positive by ProEx C, reducing coloposcopy referral by 48.7% and detecting 66.3% of CIN 2+; Proofer was positive in 159/312, reducing colposcopy referral by 49.0% and detecting 75.0% of CIN 2+. In conclusion, both ProEx C and Proofer have a similar performance profile with a significantly higher specificity but lower sensitivity than HC2 for the detection of CIN 2+. Consequently, although they can reduce colposcopy referral, they will miss a proportion of CIN 2+ cases. This is a major limitation and should be taken into account if these tests are considered for ASCUS or LSIL triage. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  3. Differential Detection of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia by Four Commercial Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in 2.5 years after the baseline testing were determined from the national pathology register. HPV-positive women undergoing primary screening having concordant samples were more likely to harbor high-risk infections and less likely to harbor only low-risk infections than women......Laboratories can nowadays choose from >100 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays for cervical screening. Our previous analysis based on the data from the Danish Horizon study, however, showed that four widely used assays, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART and APTIMA, frequently do not detect...... the same HPV infections. Here, we determined the characteristics of the concordant (all four assays returning a positive HPV test result) and discordant samples (all other HPV-positive samples) in primary cervical screening at 30-65 years (n=2859) and in a concurrent referral population from the same...

  4. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  5. Assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  6. h5-HT1B receptor-mediated constitutive Gαi3-protein activation in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells: an antibody capture assay reveals protean efficacy of 5-HT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Cussac, Didier; Marini, Laetitia; Touzard, Manuelle; Millan, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT1B receptors couple to G-proteins of the Gi/o family. However, their activation of specific G-protein subtypes is poorly characterised. Using an innovative antibody capture/guanosine-5′-0-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]GTPγS) binding strategy, we characterised Gαi3 subunit activation by h5-HT1B receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The agonists, 5-HT, alniditan and BMS181,101, stimulated Gαi3, whereas methiothepin and SB224,289 behaved as inverse agonists. The selective 5-HT1B receptor ligand, S18127, modestly stimulated Gαi3 and reversed the actions of both 5-HT and methiothepin. S18127 (1 μM) also produced parallel, dextral shifts of the 5-HT and methiothepin isotherms. Isotopic dilution experiments ([35S]GTPγS versus GTPγS) revealed high-affinity [35S]GTPγS binding to Gαi3 subunits in the absence of receptor ligands indicating constitutive activity. High-affinity [35S]GTPγS binding was increased 2.8-fold by 5-HT with an increase in the affinity of GTPγS for Gαi3 subunits. In contrast, methiothepin halved the number of high-affinity binding sites and decreased their affinity. h5-HT1B receptor-mediated Gαi3 subunit activation was dependent on the concentration of NaCl. At 300 mM, 5-HT stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding, basal Gαi3 activation was low and methiothepin was inactive. In contrast, at 10 mM NaCl, basal activity was enhanced and the inverse agonist activity of methiothepin was accentuated. Under these conditions, 5-HT decreased Gαi3 activation. In conclusion, at h5-HT1B receptors expressed in CHO cells: (i) inverse agonist induced inhibition of Gαi3, and its reversal by S18127, reveals constitutive activation of this Gα subunit; (ii) constitutive Gαi3 activation can be quantified by isotopic dilution [35S]GTPγS binding and (iii) decreasing NaCl concentrations enhances Gαi3 activation and leads to protean agonist properties of 5-HT: that is a switch to inhibition of Gαi3. PMID:12684263

  7. h5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated constitutive Galphai3-protein activation in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells: an antibody capture assay reveals protean efficacy of 5-HT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Cussac, Didier; Marini, Laetitia; Touzard, Manuelle; Millan, Mark J

    2003-03-01

    1. Serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptors couple to G-proteins of the Gi/o family. However, their activation of specific G-protein subtypes is poorly characterised. Using an innovative antibody capture/guanosine-5'-0-(3-[(35)S]thio)-triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding strategy, we characterised Galpha(i3) subunit activation by h5-HT(1B) receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. 2. The agonists, 5-HT, alniditan and BMS181,101, stimulated Galpha(i3), whereas methiothepin and SB224,289 behaved as inverse agonists. The selective 5-HT(1B) receptor ligand, S18127, modestly stimulated Galpha(i3) and reversed the actions of both 5-HT and methiothepin. S18127 (1 micro M) also produced parallel, dextral shifts of the 5-HT and methiothepin isotherms. 3. Isotopic dilution experiments ([(35)S]GTPgammaS versus GTPgammaS) revealed high-affinity [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding to Galpha(i3) subunits in the absence of receptor ligands indicating constitutive activity. High-affinity [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was increased 2.8-fold by 5-HT with an increase in the affinity of GTPgammaS for Galpha(i3) subunits. In contrast, methiothepin halved the number of high-affinity binding sites and decreased their affinity. 4. h5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated Galpha(i3) subunit activation was dependent on the concentration of NaCl. At 300 mM, 5-HT stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding, basal Galpha(i3) activation was low and methiothepin was inactive. In contrast, at 10 mM NaCl, basal activity was enhanced and the inverse agonist activity of methiothepin was accentuated. Under these conditions, 5-HT decreased Galpha(i3) activation. 5. In conclusion, at h5-HT(1B) receptors expressed in CHO cells: (i) inverse agonist induced inhibition of Galpha(i3), and its reversal by S18127, reveals constitutive activation of this Galpha subunit; (ii) constitutive Galpha(i3) activation can be quantified by isotopic dilution [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding and (iii) decreasing NaCl concentrations enhances Galpha(i3

  8. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. A fluorometric lateral flow assay for visual detection of nucleic acids using a digital camera readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Maria; Sevastou, Areti; Kalogianni, Despina P

    2018-06-04

    A fluorometric lateral flow assay has been developed for the detection of nucleic acids. The fluorophores phycoerythrin (PE) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as labels, while a common digital camera and a colored vinyl-sheet, acting as a cut-off optical filter, are used for fluorescence imaging. After DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the biotinylated PCR product is hybridized to its complementary probe that carries a poly(dA) tail at 3΄ edge and then applied to the lateral flow strip. The hybrids are captured to the test zone of the strip by immobilized poly(dT) sequences and detected by streptavidin-fluorescein and streptavidin-phycoerythrin conjugates, through streptavidin-biotin interaction. The assay is widely applicable, simple, cost-effective, and offers a large multiplexing potential. Its performance is comparable to assays based on the use of streptavidin-gold nanoparticles conjugates. As low as 7.8 fmol of a ssDNA and 12.5 fmol of an amplified dsDNA target were detectable. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of a fluorometric lateral flow assay based on fluorescein and phycoerythrin fluorescent labels for the detection of single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sequences and using a digital camera readout. SA: streptavidin, BSA: Bovine Serum Albumin, B: biotin, FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate, PE: phycoerythrin, TZ: test zone, CZ: control zone.

  11. A dual amplification strategy for DNA detection combining bio-barcode assay and metal-enhanced fluorescence modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenpeng; Li, Tian; Huang, Hongduan; Chen, Yang; Liu, Feng; Huang, Chengzhi; Li, Na

    2014-11-11

    Silver-enhanced fluorescence was coupled with a bio-barcode assay to facilitate a dual amplification assay to demonstrate a non-enzymatic approach for simple and sensitive detection of DNA. In the assay design, magnetic nanoparticles seeded with silver nanoparticles were modified with the capture DNA, and silver nanoparticles were modified with the binding of ssDNA and the fluorescently labeled barcode dsDNA. Upon introduction of the target DNA, a sandwich structure was formed because of the hybridization reaction. By simple magnetic separation, silver-enhanced fluorescence of barcode DNAs could be readily measured without the need of a further step to liberate barcode DNAs from silver nanoparticles, endowing the method with simplicity and high sensitivity with a detection limit of 1 pM.

  12. Radiative electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, J.A.; Appleton, B.R.; Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Neelavathi, V.N.; Noggle, T.S.; Ritchie, R.H.; VerBeek, H.

    1975-01-01

    Some data are presented for radiative electron capture by fast moving ions. The radiative electron capture spectrum is shown for O 8+ in Ag, along with the energy dependence of the capture cross-section. A discrepancy between earlier data, theoretical prediction, and the present data is pointed out. (3 figs) (U.S.)

  13. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  14. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  15. Stimulus-driven capture and contingent capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Belopolsky, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    Whether or not certain physical events can capture attention has been one of the most debated issues in the study of attention. This discussion is concerned with how goal-directed and stimulus-driven processes interact in perception and cognition. On one extreme of the spectrum is the idea that

  16. Evaluation of the Clinical Performance of the HPV-Risk Assay Using the VALGENT-3 Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, N J; Oštrbenk, A; Xu, L; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Poljak, M; Heideman, D A M; Arbyn, M

    2017-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is increasingly being incorporated into cervical cancer screening. The Validation of HPV Genotyping Tests (VALGENT) is a framework designed to evaluate the clinical performance of various HPV tests relative to that of the validated and accepted comparator test in a formalized and uniform manner. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV-Risk assay with samples from the VALGENT-3 panel and to compare its performance to that of the clinically validated Hybrid Capture 2 assay (HC2). The VALGENT-3 panel comprises 1,300 consecutive samples from women participating in routine cervical cancer screening and is enriched with 300 samples from women with abnormal cytology. DNA was extracted from original ThinPrep PreservCyt medium aliquots, and HPV testing was performed using the HPV-Risk assay by investigators blind to the clinical data. HPV prevalence was analyzed, and the clinical performance of the HPV-Risk assay for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) and CIN2 or worse (CIN2+) relative to the performance of HC2 was assessed. The sensitivity of the HPV-Risk assay for the detection of CIN3+ was similar to that of HC2 (relative sensitivity, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.05; P = 1.000), but the specificity of the HPV-Risk assay was significantly higher than that of HC2 (relative specificity, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.04; P performance of the HPV-Risk assay for the detection of CIN3+ and CIN2+ was noninferior to that of HC2, with all P values being ≤0.006. In conclusion, the HPV-Risk assay demonstrated noninferiority to the clinically validated HC2 by the use of samples from the VALGENT-3 panel for test validation and comparison. Copyright © 2017 Polman et al.

  17. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  18. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  19. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  20. Interatomic Coulombic electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhberg, K.; Cederbaum, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous publication [K. Gokhberg and L. S. Cederbaum, J. Phys. B 42, 231001 (2009)] we presented the interatomic Coulombic electron capture process--an efficient electron capture mechanism by atoms and ions in the presence of an environment. In the present work we derive and discuss the mechanism in detail. We demonstrate thereby that this mechanism belongs to a family of interatomic electron capture processes driven by electron correlation. In these processes the excess energy released in the capture event is transferred to the environment and used to ionize (or to excite) it. This family includes the processes where the capture is into the lowest or into an excited unoccupied orbital of an atom or ion and proceeds in step with the ionization (or excitation) of the environment, as well as the process where an intermediate autoionizing excited resonance state is formed in the capturing center which subsequently deexcites to a stable state transferring its excess energy to the environment. Detailed derivation of the asymptotic cross sections of these processes is presented. The derived expressions make clear that the environment assisted capture processes can be important for many systems. Illustrative examples are presented for a number of model systems for which the data needed to construct the various capture cross sections are available in the literature.

  1. CAPHIGAS Project: Design of a Novel WGS-Adsorbent-Membrane Hybrid System for the Simultaneous Capture of CO2 and Production of H2 (Ref.: Ene2009-08002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, M.; Barreiro, M. M.; Sanchez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the general objective, tasks and main results and conclusions drawn within CAPHIGAS Project, Plan Nacional de I+D+I 2008-2011, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and carried out by the Valorization of Fuels and Wastes Group of Ciemat. The general objective of the project was the design and development of a novel hybrid system for the simultaneous removal of CO 2 and production of H 2 using a WGS catalyst-adsorbent membrane configuration. The novel system proposed has provided new insight into the adsorption and reaction processes and has allowed an optimization of the operating conditions to take advantage of the synergies between both processes. In this report main future activities are also reported. (Author)

  2. Optional carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, T.; Scott, S.; Griffiths, J. [Jacobs Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In the case of IGCC power plants, carbon capture can be carried out before combustion. The carbon monoxide in the syngas is catalytically shifted to carbon dioxide and then captured in a standard gas absorption system. However, the insertion of a shift converter into an existing IGCC plant with no shift would mean a near total rebuild of the gasification waste heat recovery, gas treatment system and HRSG, with only the gasifier and gas turbine retaining most of their original features. To reduce the extent, cost and time taken for the revamping, the original plant could incorporate the shift, and the plant would then be operated without capture to advantage, and converted to capture mode of operation when commercially appropriate. This paper examines this concept of placing a shift converter into an IGCC plant before capture is required, and operating the same plant first without and then later with CO{sub 2} capture in a European context. The advantages and disadvantages of this 'capture ready' option are discussed. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  4. Optimization of AFP-radioimmunoassay using Antibody Capture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a substance produced by the unborn baby. When the neural tube is not properly formed large amounts of AFP pass into the amniotic fluid and reach the mother's blood. By measuring AFP in the mother's blood and amniotic fluid, it is possible to tell whether or not there is a chance that the unborn baby has a neural tube defect. AFP also used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. There are many different techniques for measuring AFP in blood, but the most accurate one is the immunoassay technique. The immunoassays can be classified on the basis of methodology into three classes; (1) the antibody capture assays, (2) the antigen capture assay, (3)the two-antibody sandwich assays. In this present study, the antibody capture assay in which the antigen is attached to a solid support, and labeled antibody is allowed to bind, will be optimized

  5. Direct RNA detection without nucleic acid purification and PCR: Combining sandwich hybridization with signal amplification based on branched hybridization chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-05-15

    We have developed a convenient, robust and low-cost RNA detection system suitable for high-throughput applications. This system uses a highly specific sandwich hybridization to capture target RNA directly onto solid support, followed by on-site signal amplification via 2-dimensional, branched hybridizing chain polymerization through toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction. The assay uses SYBR Green to detect targets at concentrations as low as 1 pM, without involving nucleic acid purification or any enzymatic reaction, using ordinary oligonucleotides without modification or labeling. The system was demonstrated in the detection of malaria RNA in blood and GAPDH gene expression in cell lysate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Desempenho do exame colpocitológico com revisão por diferentes observadores e da captura híbrida II no diagnóstico da neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical graus 2 e 3 Performance of cervical cytology with review by different observers and hybrid capture II in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Ferreira Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia (CO de encaminhamento e daquela coletada no serviço de referência, com revisão por diferentes técnicas e observadores, e da captura híbrida II (CH II no diagnóstico da neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical (NIC de alto grau, foram incluídas 105 mulheres atendidas entre agosto de 2000 e junho de 2001 por atipias pré-neoplásicas na CO. Todas foram submetidas à coleta de nova CO e CH II para detecção do DNA-HPV. Foi realizada biópsia cervical em 91, sendo o diagnóstico histológico considerado padrão ouro. Foram descritas a sensibilidade, especificidade e razão de verossimilhança positiva (RVP dos métodos propedêuticos com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%. A sensibilidade e especificidade da CO de encaminhamento foi de 57% e 82% para o diagnóstico de NIC 2 e 3, e a RVP de 3,2 (IC95%: 1,5-6,8. A CO do serviço mostrou uma sensibilidade e especificidade 79% e 84%, respectivamente e RVP de 5,0 (IC95%: 2,5-10,0. A sensibilidade (86%, especificidade (80% e RVP (4,3 foram semelhantes com a revisão lenta realizada pelo segundo observador, havendo uma queda significativa da sensibilidade (64% à revisão rápida pelo terceiro observador. A CH II mostrou alta sensibilidade (100%, baixa especificidade (43% e baixa RVP (1,7, IC95%: 1,4-2,2.To evaluate the performance of initial cervical cytology and that collected at the reference service with a review conducted by different observers and techniques, as well as hybrid capture II, in the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, 105 women attended from August 2000 to June 2001 for preneoplastic atypia upon cervical cytology were included. A new cervical cytology and hybrid capture II for DNA-HPV were conducted in all the patients. Cervical biopsies were taken in 91 women. Performance of the investigative procedures was described by estimating the sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio (PLR, with a 95

  7. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  8. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of ∼ ±22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than ∼ 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance ∼ 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance ∼ 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  9. Low prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa by hybrid capture 2 Baixa prevalência de papilomavírus humano de alto risco na mucosa oral normal através de Captura Híbrida 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Refugio González-Losa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV are recognized as a necessary factor to development cervical cancer. During the last decade many studies have found HR-HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and normal oral mucosa, however the association between HR-HPV and OSCC is still uncertain. The aim of the study was to determine DNA HR-HPV in normal oral cavity of healthy adults. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 77 patients with normal oral cavity were collected at the Dentistry school, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV was detected by hybrid capture 2. One sample out of 77(1.2% was positive for HR-PVH. It was from a man of 50 years old. HR-HPV is present in low rate among healthy oral mucosa. Hybrid capture 2 could be a good methodology for large epidemiology studies.Papilomavírus humano de alto risco (HR-HPV é um fator reconhecido como necessário para o desenvolvimento de câncer cervical. Na última década vários estudos encontraram HR-HPV em OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma e em mucosa oral normal, mas a associação entre HR-HPV e OSCC não é bem conhecida. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar DNA de HR-HPV na cavidade oral normal de adultos saudáveis. Realizou-se um estudo cross-sectional com amostras da cavidade oral normal de 77 pacientes da Escola de Odontologia da Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV foi detectado através de Captura Híbrida 2. Uma amostra em 77 (1,2% foi positiva para HR-PVH e era proveniente de um homem de 50 anos de idade. Concluiu-se que HR-HPV tem baixa prevalência na mucosa oral normal e a Captura Híbrida 2 pode ser um método adequado para estudos epidemiológicos.

  10. Motion Capturing Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood Karen; Cisneros Rosemary E.; Whatley Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The ...

  11. Nuclear muon capture

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, N C

    1977-01-01

    Our present knowledge of the nuclear muon capture reactions is surveyed. Starting from the formation of the muonic atom, various phenomena, having a bearing on the nuclear capture, are reviewed. The nuclear reactions are then studied from two angles-to learn about the basic muon+nucleon weak interaction process, and to obtain new insights on the nuclear dynamics. Future experimental prospects with the newer generation muon 'factories' are critically examined. Possible modification of the muon+nucleon weak interaction in complex nuclei remains the most important open problem in this field. (380 refs).

  12. Proton capture resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bilpuch, E.G. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bybee, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Cox, J.M.; Fittje, L.M. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Labonte, M.A.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Vavrina, G.A. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Wallace, P.M. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708

    1997-02-01

    The fluctuation properties of quantum systems now are used as a signature of quantum chaos. The analyses require data of extremely high quality. The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction is being used to establish a complete level scheme of {sup 30}P to study chaos and isospin breaking in this nuclide. Determination of the angular momentum J, the parity {pi}, and the isospin T from resonance capture data is considered. Special emphasis is placed on the capture angular distributions and on a geometric description of these angular distributions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Electrochemical Branched-DNA Assay for Polymerase Chain Reaction-Free Detection and Quantification of Oncogenes in Messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ai Cheng; Dai, Ziyu; Chen, Baowei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Aiguo; Zhang, Lurong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-12-01

    We describe a novel electrochemical branched-DNA (bDNA) assay for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free detection and quantification of p185 BCR-ABL leukemia fusion transcript in the population of messenger RNA (mRNA) extracted from cell lines. The bDNA amplifier carrying high loading of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) tracers was used to amplify targets signal. The targets were captured on microplate well surfaces through cooperative sandwich hybridization prior to the labeling of bDNA. The activity of captured ALP was monitored by square-wave voltammetric (SWV) analysis of the electroactive enzymatic product in the presence of 1-napthyl-phosphate. The specificity and sensitivity of assay enabled direct detection of target transcript in as little as 4.6 ng mRNA without PCR amplification. In combination with the use of a well-quantified standard, the electrochemical bDNA assay was capable of direct use for a PCR-free quantitative analysis of target transcript in total mRNA population. The approach thus provides a simple, sensitive, accurate and quantitative tool alternate to the RQ-PCR for early disease diagnosis.

  14. Novel concepts for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, J.W.; Jansen, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the possibilities for power generation with CO 2 capture using envisaged key technologies: gas turbines, membranes and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). First, the underlying programs in the Netherlands and at ECN are introduced. Then the key technologies are introduced, and concepts using these technologies are discussed. A literature overview of systems for power generation with fuel cells in combination with CO 2 capture is presented. Then a novel concept is introduced. This concept uses a water gas shift membrane reactor to convert the CO and H 2 in the SOFC anode off-gas to gain a CO 2 rich stream, which can be used for sequestration without elaborate treatment. Several implementation schemes of the technique are discussed such as atmospheric systems and hybrid SOFC-GT systems

  15. Muon capture in deuterium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, Emil; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 837, - (2010), s. 110-144 ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Negative muon capture * Deuteron * Potential models Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2010

  16. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    materials, the affinity ligand would need identification , as well as chemistries that graft the affinity ligand onto the surface of magnetic...ACTIVE CAPTURE MATRICES FOR THE DETECTION/ IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS...6 As shown in Figure 2.3-1a, the spectra exhibit similar baselines and the spectral peaks lineup . Under these circumstances, the spectral

  17. Capacitance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landskron, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO 2 into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Capacitance for carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landskron, Kai [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO{sub 2} into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Embedded enzymes catalyse capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Membrane technologies for carbon capture can offer economic and environmental advantages over conventional amine-based absorption, but can suffer from limited gas flux and selectivity to CO2. Now, a membrane based on enzymes embedded in hydrophilic pores is shown to exhibit combined flux and selectivity that challenges the state of the art.

  20. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  1. CO2 capture by Li-functionalized silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie; Chroneos, Alexander; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    CO2 capture and storage technology is of key importance to reduce the greenhouse effect. By its large surface area and sp3 hybridization, Li-functionalized silicene is demonstrated to be a promising CO2 absorbent that is stable up to at least 500 K

  2. Some options for the muon collider capture and decay solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report discusses some of the problems associated with using solenoid magnets to capture the secondary particles that are created when an intense beam of 8 to 10 GeV protons interacts with the target at the center of the capture region. Hybrid capture solenoids with inductions of 28 T and a 22T are described. The first 14 to 15 T of the solenoid induction will be generated by a superconducting magnet. The remainder of the field will be generated by a Bitter type of water cooled solenoid. The capture solenoids include a transition section from the high field solenoid to a 7 T decay channel where pions and kaons that come off of the target decay into muons. A short 7 T solenoidal decay channel between the capture solenoid system and the phase rotation system is described. A concept for separation of negative and positive pions and kaons is briefly discussed

  3. Competitive Reporter Monitored Amplification (CMA) - Quantification of Molecular Targets by Real Time Monitoring of Competitive Reporter Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Thomas; Ermantraut, Eugen; Schulz, Torsten; Steinmetzer, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Background State of the art molecular diagnostic tests are based on the sensitive detection and quantification of nucleic acids. However, currently established diagnostic tests are characterized by elaborate and expensive technical solutions hindering the development of simple, affordable and compact point-of-care molecular tests. Methodology and Principal Findings The described competitive reporter monitored amplification allows the simultaneous amplification and quantification of multiple nucleic acid targets by polymerase chain reaction. Target quantification is accomplished by real-time detection of amplified nucleic acids utilizing a capture probe array and specific reporter probes. The reporter probes are fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides that are complementary to the respective capture probes on the array and to the respective sites of the target nucleic acids in solution. Capture probes and amplified target compete for reporter probes. Increasing amplicon concentration leads to decreased fluorescence signal at the respective capture probe position on the array which is measured after each cycle of amplification. In order to observe reporter probe hybridization in real-time without any additional washing steps, we have developed a mechanical fluorescence background displacement technique. Conclusions and Significance The system presented in this paper enables simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple targets. Moreover, the presented fluorescence background displacement technique provides a generic solution for real time monitoring of binding events of fluorescently labelled ligands to surface immobilized probes. With the model assay for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV 1/2), we have been able to observe the amplification kinetics of five targets simultaneously and accommodate two additional hybridization controls with a simple instrument set-up. The ability to accommodate multiple controls and targets into a

  4. Competitive reporter monitored amplification (CMA--quantification of molecular targets by real time monitoring of competitive reporter hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ullrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: State of the art molecular diagnostic tests are based on the sensitive detection and quantification of nucleic acids. However, currently established diagnostic tests are characterized by elaborate and expensive technical solutions hindering the development of simple, affordable and compact point-of-care molecular tests. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The described competitive reporter monitored amplification allows the simultaneous amplification and quantification of multiple nucleic acid targets by polymerase chain reaction. Target quantification is accomplished by real-time detection of amplified nucleic acids utilizing a capture probe array and specific reporter probes. The reporter probes are fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides that are complementary to the respective capture probes on the array and to the respective sites of the target nucleic acids in solution. Capture probes and amplified target compete for reporter probes. Increasing amplicon concentration leads to decreased fluorescence signal at the respective capture probe position on the array which is measured after each cycle of amplification. In order to observe reporter probe hybridization in real-time without any additional washing steps, we have developed a mechanical fluorescence background displacement technique. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The system presented in this paper enables simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple targets. Moreover, the presented fluorescence background displacement technique provides a generic solution for real time monitoring of binding events of fluorescently labelled ligands to surface immobilized probes. With the model assay for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV 1/2, we have been able to observe the amplification kinetics of five targets simultaneously and accommodate two additional hybridization controls with a simple instrument set-up. The ability to accommodate multiple controls

  5. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko

    1993-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  6. A multiplex reverse transcription PCR and automated electronic microarray assay for detection and differentiation of seven viruses affecting swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, A; Fisher, M; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ambagala, A; Hodko, D; Pasick, J; King, D P; Nfon, C; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O

    2018-04-01

    Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2]). The novel electronic microarray assay utilizes a single, user-friendly instrument that integrates and automates capture probe printing, hybridization, washing and reporting on a disposable electronic microarray cartridge with 400 features. This assay accurately detected and identified a total of 68 isolates of the seven targeted virus species including 23 samples of FMDV, representing all seven serotypes, and 10 CSFV strains, representing all three genotypes. The assay successfully detected viruses in clinical samples from the field, experimentally infected animals (as early as 1 day post-infection (dpi) for FMDV and SVDV, 4 dpi for ASFV, 5 dpi for CSFV), as well as in biological material that were spiked with target viruses. The limit of detection was 10 copies/μl for ASFV, PCV2 and PRRSV, 100 copies/μl for SVDV, CSFV, VESV and 1,000 copies/μl for FMDV. The electronic microarray component had reduced analytical sensitivity for several of the target viruses when compared with the multiplex RT-PCR. The integration of capture probe printing allows custom onsite array printing as needed, while electrophoretically driven hybridization generates results faster than conventional

  7. Analytical applications of neutron capture gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Paul, R.L.; Anderson, D.L.; Paul, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Field and industrial applications of neutron capture gamma-ray spectrometry with isotopic sources or neutron generators are economically important. Geochemical exploration in boreholes is done routinely with neutron probes. Coal and ores are assayed with analyzers adjacent to a conveyor belt in dozens of industrial facilities. The use of capture gamma rays for explosives detection has been described in the literature, both for scanning airline baggage and for characterizing obsolete munitions; a packaged system for the latter is available commercially. Generalizations are drawn from the history of the field, and predictions are made about the future usefulness of capture gamma rays. (author)

  8. Development and characterization of a magnetic bead-quantum dot nanoparticles based assay capable of Escherichia coli O157:H7 quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gha-Young [Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Son, Ahjeong, E-mail: ason@auburn.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-09-10

    The development and characterization of a magnetic bead (MB)-quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles based assay capable of quantifying pathogenic bacteria is presented here. The MB-QD assay operates by having a capturing probe DNA selectively linked to the signaling probe DNA via the target genomic DNA (gDNA) during DNA hybridization. The signaling probe DNA is labeled with fluorescent QD{sub 565} which serves as a reporter. The capturing probe DNA is conjugated simultaneously to a MB and another QD{sub 655}, which serve as a carrier and an internal standard, respectively. Successfully captured target gDNA is separated using a magnetic field and is quantified via a spectrofluorometer. The use of QDs (i.e., QD{sub 565}/QD{sub 655}) as both a fluorescence label and an internal standard increased the sensitivity of the assay. The passivation effect and the molar ratio between QD and DNA were optimized. The MB-QD assay demonstrated a detection limit of 890 zeptomolar (i.e., 10{sup -21} mol L{sup -1}) concentration for the linear single stranded DNA (ssDNA). It also demonstrated a detection limit of 87 gene copies for double stranded DNA (dsDNA) eaeA gene extracted from pure Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 culture. Its corresponding dynamic range, sensitivity, and selectivity were also presented. Finally, the bacterial gDNA of E. coli O157:H7 was used to highlight the MB-QD assay's ability to detect below the minimum infective dose (i.e., 100 organisms) of E. coli O157:H7 in water environment.

  9. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  10. A murine monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for almond (Prunus dulcis L.) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Liu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2013-11-13

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-almond soluble protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and murine monoclonal antibody 4C10 as the detection antibodies was developed. The assay is specific and sensitive (3-200 ng almond protein/mL) for almond detection. The standardized assay is accurate (assay variability assay did not register any cross-reactivity with the tested food matrices, suggesting the assay to be almond amandin specific. The assay could detect the presence of declared almond in the tested matched commercial samples. Further, the assay reliably detected the presence of almonds in the laboratory prepared food samples spiked with almond flour.

  11. Motion Capturing Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Karen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The study embraced four dance genres: Ballet, Contemporary, Flamenco and Greek Folk dance. We are specifically interested in the kinesthetic and emotional engagement with the moving body and what new corporeal awareness may be experienced. Positioning the moving, dancing body as fundamental to technological advancements, we discuss the importance of considering the dancer’s experience in the real and virtual space. Some of the artists involved in the project have offered their experiences, which are included, and they form the basis of the discussion. In addition, we discuss the affect of immersive environments, how these environments expand reality and what effect (emotionally and otherwise that has on the body. The research reveals insights into relationships between emotion, movement and technology and what new sensorial knowledge this evokes for the dancer.

  12. Cloth-based hybridization array system for expanded identification of the animal species origin of derived materials in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johanna; Armour, Jennifer; Blais, Burton W

    2007-12-01

    A cloth-based hybridization array system (CHAS) previously developed for the detection of animal species for which prohibited materials have been specified (cattle, sheep, goat, elk, and deer) has been expanded to include the detection of animal species for which there are no prohibitions (pig and horse) in Canadian and American animal feeds. Animal species were identified by amplification of mitochondrial DNA sequences by PCR and subsequent hybridization of the amplicons with an array of species-specific oligonucleotide capture probes immobilized on a polyester cloth support, followed by an immunoenzymatic assay of the bound PCR products. The CHAS permitted sensitive and specific detection of meat meals from different animal species blended in a grain-based feed and should provide a useful adjunct to microscopic examination for the identification of prohibited materials in animal feeds.

  13. Laser capture microdissection: Arcturus(XT) infrared capture and UV cutting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rosa I; Blakely, Steven R; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a technique that allows the precise procurement of enriched cell populations from a heterogeneous tissue under direct microscopic visualization. LCM can be used to harvest the cells of interest directly or can be used to isolate specific cells by ablating the unwanted cells, resulting in histologically enriched cell populations. The fundamental components of laser microdissection technology are (a) visualization of the cells of interest via microscopy, (b) transfer of laser energy to a thermolabile polymer with either the formation of a polymer-cell composite (capture method) or transfer of laser energy via an ultraviolet laser to photovolatize a region of tissue (cutting method), and (c) removal of cells of interest from the heterogeneous tissue section. Laser energy supplied by LCM instruments can be infrared (810 nm) or ultraviolet (355 nm). Infrared lasers melt thermolabile polymers for cell capture, whereas ultraviolet lasers ablate cells for either removal of unwanted cells or excision of a defined area of cells. LCM technology is applicable to an array of applications including mass spectrometry, DNA genotyping and loss-of-heterozygosity analysis, RNA transcript profiling, cDNA library generation, proteomics discovery, and signal kinase pathway profiling. This chapter describes the unique features of the Arcturus(XT) laser capture microdissection instrument, which incorporates both infrared capture and ultraviolet cutting technology in one instrument, using a proteomic downstream assay as a model.

  14. An Aptamer Bio-barCode (ABC) assay using SPR, RNase H, and probes with RNA and gold-nanorods for anti-cancer drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jacky Fong-Chuen; Yang, Chengbin; Tsang, Hing Lun; Lau, Pui Man; Yong, Ken-Tye; Ho, Ho Pui; Kong, Siu Kai

    2017-10-07

    With modifications to an ultra-sensitive bio-barcode (BBC) assay, we have developed a next generation aptamer-based bio-barcode (ABC) assay to detect cytochrome-c (Cyto-c), a cell death marker released from cancer cells, for anti-cancer drug screening. An aptamer is a short single-stranded DNA selected from a synthetic DNA library that is capable of binding to its target with high affinity and specificity based on its unique DNA sequence and 3D structure after folding. Similar to the BBC assay, Cyto-c is captured by a micro-magnetic particle (MMP) coated with capturing antibodies (Ab) and an aptamer specifically against Cyto-c to form sandwich structures ([MMP-Ab]-[Cyto-c]-[Aptamer]). After washing and melting, our aptamers, acting as a DNA bio-barcode, are released from the sandwiches and hybridized with the probes specially designed for RNase H for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. In an aptamer-probe duplex, RNase H digests the RNA in the probe and releases the intact aptamer for another round of hybridization and digestion. With signal enhancement effects from gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on probes for SPR sensing, the detection limit was found to be 1 nM for the aptamer and 80 pM for Cyto-c. Without the time-consuming DNA amplification steps by PCR, the detection process of this new ABC assay can be completed within three hours. As a proof-of-concept, phenylarsine oxide was found to be a potent agent to kill liver cancer cells with multi-drug resistance at the nano-molar level. This approach thus provides a fast, sensitive and robust tool for anti-cancer drug screening.

  15. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  16. Fragment capture device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  17. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  18. The Baseline Positron Production and Capture Scheme for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dadoun, Olivier; Lepercq, Pierre; Poirier, Freddy; Variola, Alessandro; Chehab, Robert; Rinolfi, Louis; Vivoli, Alessandro; Strakhovenko, Vladimir; Xu, Chengai

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC study considers the hybrid source using channeling as the baseline for unpolarised positron production. The hybrid source uses a few GeV electron beam impinging on a tungsten crystal target. With the crystal oriented on its axis it results an intense relatively low energy photon beam. The later is then impinging on an amorphous tungsten target producing positrons by e+e− pair creation. Downstream the amorphous target, a capture section based on an adiabatic matching device followed by a 2 GHz Pre- Injector Linac focuses and accelerates the positron beam up to around 200 MeV

  19. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  20. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  1. Interaction of the heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunit SSG-1 of Sporothrix schenckii with proteins related to stress response and fungal pathogenicity using a yeast two-hybrid assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Méndez Ricardo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important biological processes require selective and orderly protein-protein interactions at every level of the signalling cascades. G proteins are a family of heterotrimeric GTPases that effect eukaryotic signal transduction through the coupling of cell surface receptors to cytoplasmic effector proteins. They have been associated with growth and pathogenicity in many fungi through gene knock-out studies. In Sporothrix schenckii, a pathogenic, dimorphic fungus, we previously identified a pertussis sensitive G alpha subunit, SSG-1. In this work we inquire into its interactions with other proteins. Results Using the yeast two-hybrid technique, we identified protein-protein interactions between SSG-1 and other important cellular proteins. The interactions were corroborated using co-immuneprecipitation. Using these techniques we identified a Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD, a glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (GAPDH and two ion transport proteins, a siderophore-iron transporter belonging to the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS and a divalent-cation transporter of the Nramp (natural resistance-associated macrophage protein family as interacting with SSG-1. The cDNA's encoding these proteins were sequenced and bioinformatic macromolecular sequence analyses were used for the correct classification and functional assignment. Conclusions This study constitutes the first report of the interaction of a fungal G alpha inhibitory subunit with SOD, GAPDH, and two metal ion transporters. The identification of such important proteins as partners of a G alpha subunit in this fungus suggests possible mechanisms through which this G protein can affect pathogenicity and survival under conditions of environmental stress or inside the human host. The two ion transporters identified in this work are the first to be reported in S. schenckii and the first time they are identified as interacting with fungal G protein alpha subunits. The association

  2. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, B. J.

    1998-11-01

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  5. Captured by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  6. Developments in capture-γ libraries for nonproliferation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, A. M.; Firestone, R. B.; Sleaford, B. W.; Bleuel, D. L.; Basunia, M. S.; Bečvář, F.; Belgya, T.; Bernstein, L. A.; Carroll, J. J.; Detwiler, B.; Escher, J. E.; Genreith, C.; Goldblum, B. L.; Krtička, M.; Lerch, A. G.; Matters, D. A.; McClory, J. W.; McHale, S. R.; Révay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Turkoglu, D.; Ureche, A.; Vujic, J.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron-capture reaction is fundamental for identifying and analyzing the γ-ray spectrum from an unknown assembly because it provides unambiguous information on the neutron-absorbing isotopes. Nondestructive-assay applications may exploit this phenomenon passively, for example, in the presence of spontaneous-fission neutrons, or actively where an external neutron source is used as a probe. There are known gaps in the Evaluated Nuclear Data File libraries corresponding to neutron-capture γ-ray data that otherwise limit transport-modeling applications. In this work, we describe how new thermal neutron-capture data are being used to improve information in the neutron-data libraries for isotopes relevant to nonproliferation applications. We address this problem by providing new experimentally-deduced partial and total neutron-capture reaction cross sections and then evaluate these data by comparison with statistical-model calculations.

  7. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  8. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  9. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  10. Carbon captured from the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This article presented an innovative way to achieve the efficient capture of atmospheric carbon. A team of scientists from the University of Calgary's Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy have shown that it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a simple machine that can capture the trace amount of CO{sub 2} present in ambient air at any place on the planet. The thermodynamics of capturing the small concentrations of CO{sub 2} from the air is only slightly more difficult than capturing much larger concentrations of CO{sub 2} from power plants. The research is significant because it offers a way to capture CO{sub 2} emissions from transportation sources such as vehicles and airplanes, which represent more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted on Earth. The energy efficient and cost effective air capture technology could complement other approaches for reducing emissions from the transportation sector, such as biofuels and electric vehicles. Air capture differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology used at coal-fired power plants where CO{sub 2} is captured and pipelined for permanent storage underground. Air capture can capture the CO{sub 2} that is present in ambient air and store it wherever it is cheapest. The team at the University of Calgary showed that CO{sub 2} could be captured directly from the air with less than 100 kWhrs of electricity per tonne of CO{sub 2}. A custom-built tower was able to capture the equivalent of 20 tonnes per year of CO{sub 2} on a single square meter of scrubbing material. The team devised a way to use a chemical process from the pulp and paper industry to cut the energy cost of air capture in half. Although the technology is only in its early stage, it appears that CO{sub 2} could be captured from the air with an energy demand comparable to that needed for CO{sub 2} capture from conventional power plants, but costs will be higher. The simple, reliable and scalable technology

  11. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Carbon captured from the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article presented an innovative way to achieve the efficient capture of atmospheric carbon. A team of scientists from the University of Calgary's Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy have shown that it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) using a simple machine that can capture the trace amount of CO 2 present in ambient air at any place on the planet. The thermodynamics of capturing the small concentrations of CO 2 from the air is only slightly more difficult than capturing much larger concentrations of CO 2 from power plants. The research is significant because it offers a way to capture CO 2 emissions from transportation sources such as vehicles and airplanes, which represent more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted on Earth. The energy efficient and cost effective air capture technology could complement other approaches for reducing emissions from the transportation sector, such as biofuels and electric vehicles. Air capture differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology used at coal-fired power plants where CO 2 is captured and pipelined for permanent storage underground. Air capture can capture the CO 2 that is present in ambient air and store it wherever it is cheapest. The team at the University of Calgary showed that CO 2 could be captured directly from the air with less than 100 kWhrs of electricity per tonne of CO 2 . A custom-built tower was able to capture the equivalent of 20 tonnes per year of CO 2 on a single square meter of scrubbing material. The team devised a way to use a chemical process from the pulp and paper industry to cut the energy cost of air capture in half. Although the technology is only in its early stage, it appears that CO 2 could be captured from the air with an energy demand comparable to that needed for CO 2 capture from conventional power plants, but costs will be higher. The simple, reliable and scalable technology offers an opportunity to build a commercial-scale plant. 1 fig

  13. The narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin and assay variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S S; Bibler, I; Charles, M A

    1999-12-01

    Glycated hemoglobin is measured by a variety of assays, each of which has a unique normal level. Our purpose is to show that among the different assays available in the United States, using the same patient's blood sample, assay results may vary widely and may more or less easily achieve a glycated hemoglobin value within the normal range. The following assays were compared using the same patient's blood sample for each pair of assays: glycohemoglobin affinity assay (GHB Reader; Isolab, Akron, OH) versus gel electrophoresis assay (n = 76); Isolab versus ion capture assay (IMX; Abbott Laboratories, Irving, TX) (n = 57); monoclonal antibody assay (DCA2000; Bayer Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, PA) versus IMX (n = 100); and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay (Bio-Rad Variant A1c; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Richmond, CA) versus IMX assay (n = 55). Our analyses indicate that a relative ranking can be established for the ease of achieving a normal glycated hemoglobin level. The ranking indicates that the most stringent or difficult assays for achieving a normal level are the Isolab and DCA2000 assays. The intermediate assays are the IMX and Bio-Rad Variant, and the easiest method for achieving a normal value is the gel electrophoresis assay. Our results indicate that various glycated hemoglobin assays vary widely and are associated with more or less difficulty for an individual patient to achieve a glycated hemoglobin level within the normal range. These results are especially significant with respect to (1) the clinically narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin values in type 1 diabetes to avoid rapidly advancing severe hypoglycemia rates and chronic microvascular complication rates, and (2) the glycated hemoglobin threshold for rapidly advancing macrovascular disease in both type 1 and type 2 patients.

  14. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  15. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  16. Fish welfare in capture fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about the welfare of production animals have extended from farm animals to fish, but an overview of the impact of especially capture fisheries on fish welfare is lacking. This review provides a synthesis of 85 articles, which demonstrates that research interest in fish welfare in capture

  17. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  18. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  20. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Factor VII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  2. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  3. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  4. An allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    designated as species A, B (Green and Miles 1980), C. (Subbarao et al 1983), ... 3 | September 2004. O P Singh et al. 276 able to distinguish species A from species B/C when sin- gle mosquito-extract was diluted to 1/200. However such hybridization assay .... in Rameshwaram Island and Sri Lanka only) are not pre- sent.

  5. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-06-20

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making materials, methods of capturing gas (e.g., CO.sub.2), and the like, and the like.

  6. Serotype determination of Salmonella by xTAG assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhibei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Haoqiu; Pan, Jincao; Pu, Xiaoying

    2017-10-01

    Currently, no protocols or commercial kits are available to determine the serotypes of Salmonella by using Luminex MAGPIX®. In this study, an xTAG assay for serotype determination of Salmonella suitable for Luminex MAGPIX® is described and 228 Salmonella isolates were serotype determined by this xTAG assay. The xTAG assay consists of two steps: 1) Multiplex PCR to amplify simultaneously O, H and Vi antigen genes of Salmonella, and 2) Magplex-TAG™ microsphere hybridization to identify accurately the specific PCR products of different antigens. Compared with the serotyping results of traditional serum agglutination test, the sensitivity and specificity of the xTAG assay were 95.1% and 100%, respectively. The agreement rate of these two assays was 95.2%. Compared with Luminex xMAP® Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA) kit, the advantages of this xTAG assay are: First, the magnetic beads make it applicable to both the Luminex®100/200™ and MAGPIX® systems. Second, only primers rather than both primers and probes are needed in the xTAG assay, and the process of coupling antigen-specific oligonucleotide probes to beads is circumvented, which make the xTAG assay convenient to be utilized by other laboratories. The xTAG assay may serve as a rapid alternative or complementary method for traditional Salmonella serotyping tests, especially for laboratories that utilize the MAGPIX® systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electron capture and stellar collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    In order, to investigate the function of electron capture in the phenomenon of pre-supernovae gravitacional collapse, an hydrodynamic caculation was carried out, coupling capture, decay and nuclear reaction equation system. A star simplified model (homogeneous model) was adopted using fermi ideal gas approximation for tthe sea of free electrons and neutrons. The non simplified treatment from quasi-static evolution to collapse is presented. The capture and beta decay rates, as wellas neutron delayed emission, were calculated by beta decay crude theory, while the other reaction rates were determined by usual theories. The preliminary results are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Proton capture by magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaussen, K.; Olsen, H.A.; Oeverboe, I.; Osland, P.

    1983-09-01

    In the Kazama-Yang approximation, the lowest monopole-proton bound states have binding energies of 938 MeV, 263 keV, 105 eV, and 0.04 eV. The cross section for radiative capture to these states is for velocities β = 10 -5 - 10 -3 found to be of the order of 10 -28 - 10 -26 cm 2 . For the state that has a binding energy of 263 keV, the capture length in water is 171 x (β/10 -4 )sup(0.48) m. Observation of photons from the capture process would indicate the presence of monopoles. (orig.)

  9. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  10. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  11. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    Carbon capture and sequestration (or storage)known as CCShas attracted interest as a : measure for mitigating global climate change because large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) : emitted from fossil fuel use in the United States are potentiall...

  12. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  13. Alignment in double capture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N 7+ +He and Ne 8+ +He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3 ell 3 ell ' lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned

  14. Alignment in double capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))

    1993-06-05

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  15. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  16. Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    whereas laboratory-scale experiments typically seek to validate or obtain data for specific components of a system. Laboratory- and bench-scale processes...Plant,” Energy, vol. 35 (2010), pp. 841-850. E. Favre, R. Bounaceur, and D. Roizard, “ Biogas , Membranes and Carbon Dioxide Capture,” Journal of...pp. 1-49. 64 Favre, “ Biogas , Membranes.” Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment Congressional Research Service 42 materials have pore sizes

  17. Negative meson capture in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The processes of deexcitation and capture of negative mesons and hadrons in atomic hydrogen are investigated. Only slow collisions in which the projectile-atom relative velocity is less than one atomic unit are considered, and the motion of the incident particle is treated classically. For each classical trajectory the probability of ionizing the hydrogen atom is determined, together with the energy spectrum of the emitted electron. Ionization probabilities are calculated using the time-dependent formulation of the perturbed stationary state method. Exact two-center electronic wave functions are used for both bound and continuum states. The total ionization cross section and electron energy spectrum have been calculated for negative muons, kaons and antiprotons at incident relative velocities between 0.04 and 1.0 atomic units. The electron energy spectrum has a sharp peak for electron kinetic energies on the order of 10 -3 Rydbergs. The ionization process thus favors the emission of very slow electrons. The cross section for ionization with capture of the incident particle was calculated for relative kinetic energies greater than 1.0 Rydberg. Since ionization was found to occur with the emission of electrons of nearly zero kinetic energy, the fraction of ionizing collisions which result in capture decreases very rapidly with projectile kinetic energy. The energy distributions of slowed down muons and hadrons were also computed. These distributions were used together with the capture cross section to determine the distribution of kinetic energies at which capture takes place. It was found that most captures occur for kinetic energies slightly less than 1.0 Rydbergs with relatively little capture at thermal energies. The captured particles therefore tend to go into very large and loosely found orbits with binding energies less than 0.1 Rydbergs

  18. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertl, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Schott, W.; Wright, D.H.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Azuelos, G.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Von Egidy, T.; Zhang, N.S.; Robertson, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    The radiative capture of negative muons by protons can be used to measure the weak induced pseudoscalar form factor. Brief arguments why this method is preferable to ordinary muon capture are given followed by a discussion of the experimental difficulties. The solution to these problems as attempted by experiment no. 452 at TRIUMF is presented together with preliminary results from the first run in August 1990. An outlook on the expected final precision and the experimental schedule is also given. (orig.)

  19. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  2. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  3. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l ) Abstract A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  4. Scintillation proximity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  5. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  6. Sensitive electrochemical monitoring of nucleic acids coupling DNA nanostructures with hybridization chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Junyang; Fu, Libing; Xu, Mingdi; Yang, Huanghao; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new signal-on metallobioassay was developed for detection of nucleic acids. •Target-triggered long-range self-assembled DNA nanostructures are used for amplification of electronic signal. •Hybridization chain reaction is utilized for construction of long-range DNA nanostructures. -- Abstract: Methods based on metal nanotags have been developed for metallobioassay of nucleic acids, but most involve complicated labeling or stripping procedures and are unsuitable for routine use. Herein, we report the proof-of-concept of a novel and label-free metallobioassay for ultrasensitive electronic determination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related gene fragments at an ultralow concentration based on target-triggered long-range self-assembled DNA nanostructures and DNA-based hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The signal is amplified by silver nanotags on the DNA duplex. The assay mainly consists of capture probe, detection probe, and two different DNA hairpins. In the presence of target DNA, the capture probe immobilized on the sensor sandwiches target DNA with the 3′ end of detection probe. Another exposed part of detection probe at the 5′ end opens two alternating DNA hairpins in turn, and propagates a chain reaction of hybridization events to form a nicked double-helix. Finally, numerous silver nanotags are immobilized onto the long-range DNA nanostructures, each of which produces a strong electronic signal within the applied potentials. Under optimal conditions, the target-triggered long-range DNA nanostructures present good electrochemical behaviors for the detection of HIV DNA at a concentration as low as 0.5 fM. Importantly, the outstanding sensitivity can make this approach a promising scheme for development of next-generation DNA sensors without the need of enzyme labeling or fluorophore labeling

  7. Capture by colour: evidence for dimension-specific singleton capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    Previous work on attentional capture has shown the attentional system to be quite flexible in the stimulus properties it can be set to respond to. Several different attentional "modes" have been identified. Feature search mode allows attention to be set for specific features of a target (e.g., red). Singleton detection mode sets attention to respond to any discrepant item ("singleton") in the display. Relational search sets attention for the relative properties of the target in relation to the distractors (e.g., redder, larger). Recently, a new attentional mode was proposed that sets attention to respond to any singleton within a particular feature dimension (e.g., colour; Folk & Anderson, 2010). We tested this proposal against the predictions of previously established attentional modes. In a spatial cueing paradigm, participants searched for a colour target that was randomly either red or green. The nature of the attentional control setting was probed by presenting an irrelevant singleton cue prior to the target display and assessing whether it attracted attention. In all experiments, the cues were red, green, blue, or a white stimulus rapidly rotated (motion cue). The results of three experiments support the existence of a "colour singleton set," finding that all colour cues captured attention strongly, while motion cues captured attention only weakly or not at all. Notably, we also found that capture by motion cues in search for colour targets was moderated by their frequency; rare motion cues captured attention (weakly), while frequent motion cues did not.

  8. Hybridization chain reaction amplification for highly sensitive fluorescence detection of DNA with dextran coated microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Jing; Peng, Hongzhen; Su, Shao; Li, Qian; Zhu, Changfeng; Zuo, Xiaolei; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lianhui; Wang, Lihua

    2016-07-15

    Microarrays of biomolecules hold great promise in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and clinical assays on account of their remarkably parallel and high-throughput assay capability. However, the fluorescence detection used in most conventional DNA microarrays is still limited by sensitivity. In this study, we have demonstrated a novel universal and highly sensitive platform for fluorescent detection of sequence specific DNA at the femtomolar level by combining dextran-coated microarrays with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) signal amplification. Three-dimensional dextran matrix was covalently coated on glass surface as the scaffold to immobilize DNA recognition probes to increase the surface binding capacity and accessibility. DNA nanowire tentacles were formed on the matrix surface for efficient signal amplification by capturing multiple fluorescent molecules in a highly ordered way. By quantifying microscopic fluorescent signals, the synergetic effects of dextran and HCR greatly improved sensitivity of DNA microarrays, with a detection limit of 10fM (1×10(5) molecules). This detection assay could recognize one-base mismatch with fluorescence signals dropped down to ~20%. This cost-effective microarray platform also worked well with samples in serum and thus shows great potential for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  10. Microchemiluminescent assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, J.L.

    1986-04-09

    The patent concerns a microchemiluminescent assay system, which can be used to detect ionizing radiation, heat or specific substances. The method involves the use of a complex formed from serum albumin and a luminescer which, in the presence of ionizing radiation (heat, or a specific analyte), will emit light in an amount proportional to the amount of radiation, etc. (U.K.).

  11. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  12. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  13. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  14. Development of a genotype-by-sequencing immunogenetic assay as exemplified by screening for variation in red fox with and without endemic rabies exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Michael E; Rico, Yessica; Hueffer, Karsten; Rando, Halie M; Kukekova, Anna V; Kyle, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    Pathogens are recognized as major drivers of local adaptation in wildlife systems. By determining which gene variants are favored in local interactions among populations with and without disease, spatially explicit adaptive responses to pathogens can be elucidated. Much of our current understanding of host responses to disease comes from a small number of genes associated with an immune response. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, such as genotype-by-sequencing (GBS), facilitate expanded explorations of genomic variation among populations. Hybridization-based GBS techniques can be leveraged in systems not well characterized for specific variants associated with disease outcome to "capture" specific genes and regulatory regions known to influence expression and disease outcome. We developed a multiplexed, sequence capture assay for red foxes to simultaneously assess ~300-kbp of genomic sequence from 116 adaptive, intrinsic, and innate immunity genes of predicted adaptive significance and their putative upstream regulatory regions along with 23 neutral microsatellite regions to control for demographic effects. The assay was applied to 45 fox DNA samples from Alaska, where three arctic rabies strains are geographically restricted and endemic to coastal tundra regions, yet absent from the boreal interior. The assay provided 61.5% on-target enrichment with relatively even sequence coverage across all targeted loci and samples (mean = 50×), which allowed us to elucidate genetic variation across introns, exons, and potential regulatory regions (4,819 SNPs). Challenges remained in accurately describing microsatellite variation using this technique; however, longer-read HTS technologies should overcome these issues. We used these data to conduct preliminary analyses and detected genetic structure in a subset of red fox immune-related genes between regions with and without endemic arctic rabies. This assay provides a template to assess immunogenetic variation

  15. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  16. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  17. CHAOTIC CAPTURE OF NEPTUNE TROJANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David

    2009-01-01

    Neptune Trojans (NTs) are swarms of outer solar system objects that lead/trail planet Neptune during its revolutions around the Sun. Observations indicate that NTs form a thick cloud of objects with a population perhaps ∼10 times more numerous than that of Jupiter Trojans and orbital inclinations reaching ∼25 deg. The high inclinations of NTs are indicative of capture instead of in situ formation. Here we study a model in which NTs were captured by Neptune during planetary migration when secondary resonances associated with the mean-motion commensurabilities between Uranus and Neptune swept over Neptune's Lagrangian points. This process, known as chaotic capture, is similar to that previously proposed to explain the origin of Jupiter's Trojans. We show that chaotic capture of planetesimals from an ∼35 Earth-mass planetesimal disk can produce a population of NTs that is at least comparable in number to that inferred from current observations. The large orbital inclinations of NTs are a natural outcome of chaotic capture. To obtain the ∼4:1 ratio between high- and low-inclination populations suggested by observations, planetary migration into a dynamically excited planetesimal disk may be required. The required stirring could have been induced by Pluto-sized and larger objects that have formed in the disk.

  18. Carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The author first defines what carbon capture and storage (CCS)is, describes more precisely the various technologies, methods and processes involved in carbon capture, carbon transport, and carbon geological storage. He briefly evokes the various applications and uses of CCS. In the second part, he proposes an overview of advances and deadlocks of CCS in the world, of the status of installations and projects, of the development of capture practices in the industry, of some existing and important storage sites, of some pilot installations developed by various industrial actors in different countries (26 installations in the world). He indicates power stations equipped for CCS (in Canada, USA, United-Kingdom, Netherlands, Norway, China, South Korea and United Arab Emirates). He evokes projects which have been given up or postponed. He proposes an overview of policies implemented in different countries (USA, Canada, European Union, Australia, and others) to promote CCS

  19. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  20. Fast and automated DNA assays on a compact disc (CD)-based microfluidic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guangyao

    Nucleic acid-based molecular diagnostics offers enormous potential for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. However, most of the existing commercial tests are time-consuming and technically complicated, and are thus incompatible with the need for rapid identification of infectious agents. We have successfully developed a CD-based microfluidic platform for fast and automated DNA array hybridization and a low cost, disposable plastic microfluidic platform for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These platforms have proved to be a promising approach to meet the requirements in terms of detection speed and operational convenience in diagnosis of infectious diseases. In the CD-based microfluidic platform for DNA hybridization, convection is introduced to the system to enhance mass transport so as to accelerate the hybridization rate since DNA hybridization is a diffusion limited reaction. Centrifugal force is utilized for sample propulsion and surface force is used for liquid gating. Standard microscope glass slides are used as the substrates for capture probes owing to their compatibility with commercially available instrumentation (e.g. laser scanners) for detection. Microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures are used to accomplish the fluidic functions required by the protocols for DNA hybridization. The assembly of the PDMS structure and the glass slide forms a flow-through hybridization unit that can be accommodated onto the CD platform for reagent manipulation. The above scheme has been validated with oligonucleotides as the targets using commercially available enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF 97) for detection of the hybridization events, and tested with amplicons of genomic staphylococcus DNA labeled with Cy dye. In both experiments, significantly higher fluorescence intensities were observed in the flow-through hybridization unit compared to the passive assays. The CD fluidic scheme was also adapted to the immobilization of

  1. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, K.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3 H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. (author)

  2. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  3. Evaluación de las técnicas de detección del VPH en los programas de cribado para cáncer de cuello uterino Assessment of hpv detection assays for use in cervical cancer screening programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Paz Cañadas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: La identificación de la infección por tipos de alto riesgo del virus del papiloma humano (VPH es una herramienta útil para el cribado de cáncer del cuello uterino. Las distintas técnicas aplicadas para su detección deben contrastarse y validarse para su empleo en la tamización poblacional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evalúan tres técnicas para la detección del VPH en 166 muestras cervicales procedentes de mujeres atendidas en una clínica de dermatología en Oviedo (España: a PCR-EIA mediante consensos MY09/MY011; b PCR con line blot hybridization (PCR-LBH con consensos PGMY; y c hybrid capture 2. RESULTADOS: El ADN-VPH se reconoció en 29.5%, 25.3% y 24.7%, de acuerdo con el ensayo. La concordancia global entre PCR-EIA, PCR-LBH y HC2 fue de 73.5% con los valores de kappa superiores a 0.56 entre los ensayos (pOBJECTIVE: Detection of high-risk human papillomavirus types (HPV infection is an important tool in the screening of cervical cancer and triage of cytological abnormalities. The different techniques for detection of this cancer need to be contrasted and validated for use in population screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cervical cell samples were collected from 166 women attending a dermatology clinic in Oviedo (Spain. We evaluated the performance of three different assays for VPH detection. The methods utilized were 1 In-house PCR-EIA using L1 consensus primers MY09/MY11, 2 A PCR-reverse line blot hybridization (PCR-LBH that uses L1 consensus PGMY primers. 3 Hybrid Capture 2. All assays were performed blinded. The kappa statistic was used to test for global agreement between assay pairs. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in 24,7%, 25,3% and 29,5% of the women, respective to the assay. The overall agreement between the in-house PCR, PCR-LBH and HC2 was (73.5% with all kappa values between assay pairs exceeding 0.56 (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The three HPV assays were equally accurate in estimating high-risk HPV prevalence and HPV

  4. CO2 Capture and Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambimuthu, K.; Gupta, M.; Davison, J.

    2003-01-01

    CO2 capture and storage including its utilization or reuse presents an opportunity to achieve deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy use. The development and deployment of this option could significantly assist in meeting a future goal of achieving stabilization of the presently rising atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. CO2 capture from process streams is an established concept that has achieved industrial practice. Examples of current applications include the use of primarily, solvent based capture technologies for the recovery of pure CO2 streams for chemical synthesis, for utilization as a food additive, for use as a miscible agent in enhanced oil recovery operations and removal of CO2 as an undesired contaminant from gaseous process streams for the production of fuel gases such as hydrogen and methane. In these applications, the technologies deployed for CO2 capture have focused on gas separation from high purity, high pressure streams and in reducing (or oxygen deficient) environments, where the energy penalties and cost for capture are moderately low. However, application of the same capture technologies for large scale abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use poses significant challenges in achieving (at comparably low energy penalty and cost) gas separation in large volume, dilute concentration and/or low pressure flue gas streams. This paper will focus on a review of existing commercial methods of CO2 capture and the technology stretch, process integration and energy system pathways needed for their large scale deployment in fossil fueled processes. The assessment of potential capture technologies for the latter purpose will also be based on published literature data that are both 'transparent' and 'systematic' in their evaluation of the overall cost and energy penalties of CO2 capture. In view of the of the fact that many of the existing commercial processes for CO2 capture have seen applications in

  5. Carbon nanotube-polyamidoamine dendrimer hybrid-modified electrodes for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of microRNA24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengye; Peng, Jing; Zheng, Qiong; Guo, Xiang; Tang, Hao; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-01-01

    A simple and ultrasensitive microRNA (miRNA) electrochemical biosensor employing multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and methylene blue (MB) redox indicator is reported in this work. The assay utilizes a glass carbon (GC) electrode modified with MWCNT-PAMAM, on which the oligonucleotide capture probes are immobilized. The electrochemical detection of miRNAs is completed by measuring the reduction signal change of MB before and after the probe hybridization with target miRNA (miRNA24 is used as a model case). The MWCNT-PAMAM/GC electrode shows greatly enhanced signal to MB reduction in contrast to bare GC electrode. The functionalization of MWCNT with PAMAM maintains the electrochemical property of MWCNT to MB reduction but minimizes the undesired adsorption of MB on the MWCNT surface. The effect of experimental variables on the miRNA detection is investigated and optimized. A detection limit of 0.5 fM and a linear peak current density-concentration relationship up to 100 nM are obtained following 60 min hybridization. The proposed assay is successfully used to detect miRNA24 in total RNA sample extracted from HeLa cells.

  6. Rapid Active Assay for the Detection of Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Chickens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groves, Stephanie S; Turell, Michael J; Bailey, Charles L; Morozov, Victor N

    2008-01-01

    ... by detection of bound IgM molecules with functionalized magnetic beads as active labels. This assay takes only 15 minutes and has the same sensitivity as a commercially available human WNV IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...

  7. Hydrogen fluoride capture by imidazolium acetate ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, we evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

  8. Electron capture in asymmetric collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graviele, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    It is calculated the electronic capture of K shell by protons using the on-shell impulsive wave functions, exact and eikonal, in the initial and final channels respectively. Both wave functions are normalized and have the correct asyntotic conditions. A good agreement to the experimental data is found. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  9. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  10. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Zhang, N.S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; von Egidy, T.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Wright, D.H.; Henderson, R.S.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Doyle, B.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Bertl, W.; Gorringe, T.P.; Robertson, B.C.

    1991-03-01

    The induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, g P , of the weak hadronic current can be determined from the measurement of the branching ratio of radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen. This rare process is being investigated in the TRIUMF RMC experiment which is now taking data. This paper describes the experiment and indicates the status of the data analysis. (Author) 8 refs., 7 figs

  11. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  12. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  13. Specific RNP capture with antisense LNA/DNA mixmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogell, Birgit; Fischer, Bernd; Rettel, Mandy; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Castello, Alfredo; Hentze, Matthias W

    2017-08-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play essential roles in RNA biology, responding to cellular and environmental stimuli to regulate gene expression. Important advances have helped to determine the (near) complete repertoires of cellular RBPs. However, identification of RBPs associated with specific transcripts remains a challenge. Here, we describe "specific ribonucleoprotein (RNP) capture," a versatile method for the determination of the proteins bound to specific transcripts in vitro and in cellular systems. Specific RNP capture uses UV irradiation to covalently stabilize protein-RNA interactions taking place at "zero distance." Proteins bound to the target RNA are captured by hybridization with antisense locked nucleic acid (LNA)/DNA oligonucleotides covalently coupled to a magnetic resin. After stringent washing, interacting proteins are identified by quantitative mass spectrometry. Applied to in vitro extracts, specific RNP capture identifies the RBPs bound to a reporter mRNA containing the Sex-lethal (Sxl) binding motifs, revealing that the Sxl homolog sister of Sex lethal (Ssx) displays similar binding preferences. This method also revealed the repertoire of RBPs binding to 18S or 28S rRNAs in HeLa cells, including previously unknown rRNA-binding proteins. © 2017 Rogell et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  14. Heated oligonucleotide ligation assay (HOLA): an affordable single nucleotide polymorphism assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W C; Gorrochotegui-Escalante, N; Duteau, N M

    2006-03-01

    Most single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection requires expensive equipment and reagents. The oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is an inexpensive SNP assay that detects ligation between a biotinylated "allele-specific detector" and a 3' fluorescein-labeled "reporter" oligonucleotide. No ligation occurs unless the 3' detector nucleotide is complementary to the SNP nucleotide. The original OLA used chemical denaturation and neutralization. Heated OLA (HOLA) instead uses a thermal stable ligase and cycles of denaturing and hybridization for ligation and SNP detection. The cost per genotype is approximately US$1.25 with two-allele SNPs or approximately US$1.75 with three-allele SNPs. We illustrate the development of HOLA for SNP detection in the Early Trypsin and Abundant Trypsin loci in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and at the a-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s.

  15. Radiorespirometic assay device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.V.; Straat, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiorespirometic assay device is described in which the presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by placing the sample in contact with a metabolisable radioactive labelled substrate, collecting any gas evolved, exposing a photosensitive material to the gas and determining if a spot is produced on the material. A spot indicates the presence of radioactivity showing that the substrate has been metabolized by a microorganism. Bacteria may be detected in body fluids, hospital operating rooms, water, food, cosmetics and drugs. (U.K.)

  16. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  17. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  18. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  19. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  20. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  1. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Patil, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making

  2. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  3. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  4. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  6. Experimental studies of electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis discusses the main results of recent experimental studies of electron capture in asymmetric collisions. Most of the results have been published, but the thesis also contains yet unpublished data, or data presented only in unrefereed conference proceedings. The thesis aims at giving a coherent discussion of the understanding of the experimental results, based first on simple qualitative considerations and subsequently on quantitative comparisons with the best theoretical calculations currently available. (Auth.)

  7. Hybrid nuclear reactors and muon catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Three methods are described of the conversion of isotope 238 U to 239 Pu by neutron capture in fast breeder reactors, in the breeding blanket of hybrid thermonuclear reactors using neutrons generated by fusion and electronuclear breeding in which the target is bombarded with 1 GeV protons. Their possible use in power production is discussed. Another prospective energy source is the use of muon catalysis in the fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei. (J.P.)

  8. What controls the hybridization thermodynamics of spherical nucleic acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeria, Pratik S; Jones, Matthew R; Kohlstedt, Kevin L; Banga, Resham J; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-03-18

    The hybridization of free oligonucleotides to densely packed, oriented arrays of DNA modifying the surfaces of spherical nucleic acid (SNA)-gold nanoparticle conjugates occurs with negative cooperativity; i.e., each binding event destabilizes subsequent binding events. DNA hybridization is thus an ever-changing function of the number of strands already hybridized to the particle. Thermodynamic quantification of this behavior reveals a 3 orders of magnitude decrease in the binding constant for the capture of a free oligonucleotide by an SNA conjugate as the fraction of pre-hybridized strands increases from 0 to ∼30%. Increasing the number of pre-hybridized strands imparts an increasing enthalpic penalty to hybridization that makes binding more difficult, while simultaneously decreasing the entropic penalty to hybridization, which makes binding more favorable. Hybridization of free DNA to an SNA is thus governed by both an electrostatic barrier as the SNA accumulates charge with additional binding events and an effect consistent with allostery, where hybridization at certain sites on an SNA modify the binding affinity at a distal site through conformational changes to the remaining single strands. Leveraging these insights allows for the design of conjugates that hybridize free strands with significantly higher efficiencies, some of which approach 100%.

  9. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  10. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  11. Development of a VHH-Based Erythropoietin Quantification Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Stefan; Beuchert Kallehauge, Thomas; Adema, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) quantification during cell line selection and bioreactor cultivation has traditionally been performed with ELISA or HPLC. As these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, we developed a novel EPO quantification assay. A camelid single-domain antibody fragment directed against...... human EPO was evaluated as a capturing antibody in a label-free biolayer interferometry-based quantification assay. Human recombinant EPO can be specifically detected in Chinese hamster ovary cell supernatants in a sensitive and pH-dependent manner. This method enables rapid and robust quantification...

  12. Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alfredo A; Cortés, Cristián E

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems develops methods for the design of predictive control strategies for nonlinear-dynamic hybrid discrete-/continuous-variable systems. The methodology is designed for real-time applications, particularly the study of dynamic transport systems. Operational and service policies are considered, as well as cost reduction. The control structure is based on a sound definition of the key variables and their evolution. A flexible objective function able to capture the predictive behaviour of the system variables is described. Coupled with efficient algorithms, mainly drawn from the area of computational intelligence, this is shown to optimize performance indices for real-time applications. The framework of the proposed predictive control methodology is generic and, being able to solve nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problems dynamically, is readily extendable to other industrial processes. The main topics of this book are: ●hybrid predictive control (HPC) ...

  13. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  14. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125 I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125 I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125 I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  15. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  16. Hybrid male sterility is caused by mitochondrial DNA deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Although it is known that the hybrid male mouse is sterile just like any other animal's heterogametic sex, the reason why only the male germ cells are impaired has yet to be discovered. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay using a confocal fluorescence microscope and DNA fragmentation assay of hybrid testis indicated destruction of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rather than the nuclear DNA. Previously we reported that maternal mtDNA inheritance is through selective sperm mtDNA elimination based on the sperm factor and two egg factors, and expression of these three factors was recognized in the hybrid testis. It was thereby assumed that mtDNA destruction caused by the expression of maternal mtDNA inheritance system in male germ cells is implicated in the hybrid male sterility of mice.

  17. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  18. Hybrid Droop Control Strategy Applied to Grid-Supporting Converters in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a hybrid droop control strategy to enhance the stability and increase maximum constant power loads (CPLs) capability of DC microgrids in a realistic scenario. By capturing the detailed model of inner control loops and hybrid droop control and general dc MG topology, a thorough...

  19. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  20. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  1. Negative muon capture in noble gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, R.L.; Knight, J.D.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; Knowles, H.B.; Reidy, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    We have determined the probabilities of atomic negative muon capture in binary mixtures of the gases He, Ne, Ar, and Kr at partial pressures near five atmospheres. Relative capture rates were deduced from measured muonic X-ray yields. (orig.)

  2. CAPTURING REALITY AT CENTRE BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boulanger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Centre Block of Canada’s Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  3. Adaptive capture of expert knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hand, Un Kyong [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[US Navy (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

  4. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  5. Giant resonance effects in radiative capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snover, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of capture reaction studies of giant resonance properties is described, and a number of examples are given. Most of the recent work of interest has been in proton capture, in part because of the great utility (and availability) of polarized beams; most of the discussion concerns this reaction. Alpha capture, which has been a useful tool for exploring isoscalar E2 strength, and neutron capture are, however, also treated. 46 references, 14 figures

  6. DNA hybridization sensing for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dapra, Johannes; Brøgger, Anna Line

    2013-01-01

    are rearrangements between two chromosome arms that results in two derivative chromosomes having a mixed DNA sequence. The current detection method is a Fluorescent In situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the DNA sequences of two chromosomes involved...... in the translocation (Kwasny et al., 2012). We have developed a new double hybridization assay that allows for sorting of the DNA chromosomal fragments into separate compartment, moreover allowing for detection of the translocation. To detect the translocation it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences...... forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The first example of the translocation detection was presented on lab-on-a-disc using fluorescently labeled DNA fragments, representing the derivative chromosome (Brøgger et al., 2012). To allow...

  7. Engineering cholesterol-based fibers for antibody immobilization and cell capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Celine

    abilities of the CSS fibers were compared to that of hydrophobic polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers and hydrophilic plasma-treated PCL fibers. Electrospun CSS fibers were found to immobilize equivalent amounts of protein as hydrophobically immobilized proteins. However, these proteins captured 6 times more cells, indicative of retained protein function. The second key concept was the design and fabrication of a hybridized lipid fiber. Lipid fibers provide improved protein function but fabrication difficulties have limited their adoption. Thus, we sought to fabricate a lipid-polymer hybrid that is easily fabricated while maintaining protein function. The hybrid fiber consists of a PCL backbone with conjugated CSS. The hybrid lipid fibers showed improved protein function. In addition, higher lipid concentrations were directly correlated to higher cell capture efficiencies. The third key concept was on the development of dually functionalized lipid fibers and understanding the resulting cell capture efficiencies. Many platforms are unable to simultaneously search for heterogeneous populations of CTCs -- the ability to dually functionalize cell-capturing platforms would address this technological weakness. Studies indicated that dually functionalizing the lipid fibers did not compromise the platforms' abilities to capture the cells of interest. Such dually functionalized fibers allow for a single cell-capture platform to successfully detect heterogeneous populations of CTCs. The body of work encompassed herein describes the use of lipid fibers for antibody immobilization and cell capture. Data from various projects indicate that the use of cholesterol-based fibers produced from electrospun CSS are well suited for protein immobilization. The CSS fibers are able to immobilize equivalent amounts of protein as compared to other immobilization techniques. However, the benefit of these fibers is illustrated by the strong cell-capturing efficiencies, indicating that the immobilized

  8. CO_2 capture by amine-functionalized nanoporous materials: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chao; Kim, Jun; Ahn, Wha-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Amine-functionalized nanoporous materials can be prepared by the incorporation of diverse organic amine moieties into the pore structures of a range of support materials, such as mesoporous silica and alumina, zeolite, carbon and metal organic frameworks (MOFs), either by direct functionalization or post-synthesis through physical impregnation or grafting. These hybrid materials have great potential for practical applications, such as dry adsorbents for postcombustion CO_2 capture, owing to their high CO_2 capture capacity, high capture selectivity towards CO_2 compared to other gases, and excellent stability. This paper summarizes the preparation methods and CO_2 capture performance based on the equilibrium CO_2 uptake of a range of amine-functionalized nanoporous materials

  9. Genome-wide mapping in a house mouse hybrid zone reveals hybrid sterility loci and Dobzhansky-Muller interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; Harr, Bettina

    2014-12-09

    Mapping hybrid defects in contact zones between incipient species can identify genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation and reveal genetic mechanisms of speciation. The house mouse features a rare combination of sophisticated genetic tools and natural hybrid zones between subspecies. Male hybrids often show reduced fertility, a common reproductive barrier between incipient species. Laboratory crosses have identified sterility loci, but each encompasses hundreds of genes. We map genetic determinants of testis weight and testis gene expression using offspring of mice captured in a hybrid zone between M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. Many generations of admixture enables high-resolution mapping of loci contributing to these sterility-related phenotypes. We identify complex interactions among sterility loci, suggesting multiple, non-independent genetic incompatibilities contribute to barriers to gene flow in the hybrid zone.

  10. The Effectiveness of Classroom Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Maire B.; Burns, Colleen E.; Mitch, Nathan; Gomez, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of classroom capture systems (systems that capture audio and video footage of a lecture and attempt to replicate a classroom experience) is becoming increasingly popular at the university level. However, research on the effectiveness of classroom capture systems in the university classroom has been limited due to the recent development and…

  11. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  12. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  13. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  14. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  15. Construction and characterisation of a modular microfluidic system: coupling magnetic capture and electrochemical detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godino, N.; Snakenborg, Detlef; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2010-01-01

    , and a polycarbonate base where permanent magnets are hosted; these parts are designed to fit so that wire bonding and encapsulation are avoided. This system can perform bioassays over the surface of magnetic beads and uses only 50 mu L of bead suspension per assay. Following detection, captured beads are released...

  16. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  17. A two-magnet strategy for improved mixing and capture from biofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Andrew B.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic beads are a popular method for concentrating biomolecules from solution and have been more recently used in multistep pre-arrayed microfluidic cartridges. Typical processing strategies rely on a single magnet, resulting in a tight cluster of beads and requiring long incubation times to achieve high capture efficiencies, especially in highly viscous patient samples. This report describes a two-magnet strategy to improve the interaction of the bead surface with the surrounding fluid inside of a pre-arrayed, self-contained assay-in-a-tube. In the two-magnet system, target biomarker capture occurs at a rate three times faster than the single-magnet system. In clinically relevant biomatrices, we find a 2.5-fold improvement in biomarker capture at lower sample viscosities with the two-magnet system. In addition, we observe a 20% increase in the amount of protein captured at high viscosity for the two-magnet configuration relative to the single magnet approach. The two-magnet approach offers a means to achieve higher biomolecule extraction yields and shorter assay times in magnetic capture assays and in self-contained processor designs. PMID:27158286

  18. Expression of endogenous proteins in maize hybrids in a multi-location field trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R; Purushottam, Divakar; Veeramachaneni, Aruna; Tigulla, Sarita; Kodappully, Vikas; Enjala, Chandana; Rajput, Hitendrasinh; Anderson, Jennifer; Hong, Bonnie; Schmidt, Jean; Bagga, Shveta

    2018-05-17

    Genetically modified (GM) crops undergo large scale multi-location field trials to characterize agronomics, composition, and the concentration of newly expressed protein(s) [herein referred to as transgenic protein(s)]. The concentration of transgenic proteins in different plant tissues and across the developmental stages of the plant is considered in the safety assessment of GM crops. Reference or housekeeping proteins are expected to maintain a relatively stable expression pattern in healthy plants given their role in cellular functions. Understanding the effects of genotype, growth stage and location on the concentration of endogenous housekeeping proteins may provide insight into the contribution these factors could have on transgenic protein concentrations in GM crops. The concentrations of three endogenous proteins (actin, elongation factor 1-alpha, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were measured in several different maize hybrids grown across multiple field locations over 2 years. Leaf samples were collected from healthy plants at three developmental stages across the growing seasons, and protein concentrations were quantified by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each protein. In general, the concentrations of these three endogenous proteins were relatively consistent across hybrid backgrounds, when compared within one growth stage and location (2-26%CV), whereas the concentrations of proteins in the same hybrid and growth stage across different locations were more variable (12-64%CV). In general, the protein concentrations in 2013 and 2014 show similar trends in variability. Some degree of variability in protein concentrations should be expected for both transgenic and endogenous plant-expressed proteins. In the case of GM crops, the potential variation in protein concentrations due to location effects is captured in the current model of multi-location field testing.

  19. Assays for chloramphenicol compared: radioenzymatic, gas chromatographic with electron capture, and gas chromatographic-mass specteometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, L.K.; Hoecker, J.L.; Kramer, W.G.; Liehr, J.G.; Caprioli, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    We compared these three techniques for measuring chloramphenicol in serum or urine. Although each has its particular advantages, any of them is shown to be satisfactory and may appropriately be used by clinical laboratories, according to the facilities available

  20. Destination bonding: Hybrid cognition using Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research has identified the phenomenon of destination bonding as a result of summated physical and emotional values associated with the destination. Physical values, namely natural landscape & other physical settings and emotional values, namely the enculturation processes, have a significant role to play in portraying visitors’ cognitive framework for destination preference. The physical values seemed to be the stimulator for bonding that embodies action or behavior tendencies in imagery. The emotional values were the conditions that lead to affective bonding and are reflected in attitudes for a place which were evident in text narratives. Social networking on virtual platforms offers the scope for hybrid cognitive expression using imagery and text to the visitors. Instagram has emerged as an application-window to capture these hybrid cognitions of visitors. This study focuses on assessing the relationship between hybrid cognition of visitors expressed via Instagram and their bond with the destination. Further to this, the study attempts to examine the impact of hybrid cognition of visitors on the behavioral pattern of prospective visitors to the destination. The study revealed that sharing of visual imageries and related text by the visitors is an expression of the physico-emotional bonding with the destination. It was further established that hybrid cognition strongly asserts destination bonding and has been also found to have moderating impact on the link between destination bonding and electronic-word-of-mouth.

  1. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  2. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Brownian motion using video capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, Reese; Robbins, Candace; Forinash, Kyle

    2002-01-01

    Although other researchers had previously observed the random motion of pollen grains suspended in water through a microscope, Robert Brown's name is associated with this behaviour based on observations he made in 1828. It was not until Einstein's work in the early 1900s however, that the origin of this irregular motion was established to be the result of collisions with molecules which were so small as to be invisible in a light microscope (Einstein A 1965 Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement ed R Furth (New York: Dover) (transl. Cowper A D) (5 papers)). Jean Perrin in 1908 (Perrin J 1923 Atoms (New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold) (transl. Hammick D)) was able, through a series of painstaking experiments, to establish the validity of Einstein's equation. We describe here the details of a junior level undergraduate physics laboratory experiment where students used a microscope, a video camera and video capture software to verify Einstein's famous calculation of 1905. (author)

  4. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  5. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  6. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Muon capture by helium-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual de Sanz, R.

    1966-01-01

    In this paper we study the capture of a negative muon by H e 3 in the channel μ-+H e 3 +V. Following Primakoff we use the V-A theory of the weak interactions. We include also first order relativistic terms. To describe the initial and final nuclei we have used the most general wave function allowed by the Paul is exclusion principle, assuming that these nuclei are a mixture of an isospin doublet and quadruplet. For the part of the wave function depending on the inter nucleonic distances, we have taken four different function without hard-core, a gaussian and three kinds of Irving type. We present in several tables the results obtained varying g p /g v and g A /g y as well as the amplitudes of the fourteen terms forming the nuclear wave function. (Author) 35 refs

  8. Subsurface capture of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Gerald; Siddal, Alvin A.; Falta, Ronald W.

    2014-07-22

    A process and apparatus of separating CO.sub.2 gas from industrial off-gas source in which the CO.sub.2 containing off-gas is introduced deep within an injection well. The CO.sub.2 gases are dissolved in the, liquid within the injection well while non-CO.sub.2 gases, typically being insoluble in water or brine, are returned to the surface. Once the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid is present within the injection well, the injection well may be used for long-term geologic storage of CO.sub.2 or the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid can be returned to the surface for capturing a purified CO.sub.2 gas.

  9. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR) This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters. This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic. This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  10. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior

  11. State-selective electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R.W.; Liu, C.J.; Berry, H.G.; Pardo, R.C.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    We report results from a new atomic physics program using the Argonne PII ECR ion source which is being built as part of the upgrade of the Argonne Tandem-Linear Accelerator (ATLAS). Our initial experiments have been aimed at studying state-selective electron capture in ion-atom collisions using the technique of Photon Emission Spectroscopy. We are extending existing cross section measurements at low energy ( 6+ and O 7+ on He and H 2 targets in the energy range from 1-105 keV/amu. We also present uv spectra obtained in collisions of O 6+ , O 5+ and N 5+ on a sodium target. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Radiative capture versus Coulomb dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbensen, H.; Physics

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8 B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7 Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed

  13. Radiative Capture versus Coulomb Dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbensen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed

  14. Collisional Cascades Following Triton's Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Matija; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, Sarah T.

    2017-10-01

    Neptune's moon Triton is widely thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbit, most likely through binary dissociation (Agnor and Hamilton, 2006). Triton's original eccentric orbit must have been subsequently circularized by satellite tides (Goldreich et al. 1989). Cuk and Gladman (2005) found that Kozai oscillations make early tidal evolution inefficient, and have proposed that collisions between Triton and debris from pre-existing satellites was the dominant mechanism of shrinking Triton's large post-capture orbit. However, Cuk and Hamilton (DPS 2016), using numerical simulations and results of Stewart and Leinhardt (2012), have found that collisions between regular satellites are unlikely to be destructive, while collisions between prograde moons and Triton are certainly erosive if not catastrophic. An obvious outcome would be pre-existing moon material gradually grinding down Triton and making it reaccrete in the local Laplace plane, in conflict with Triton's large current inclination. We propose that the crucial ingredient for understanding the early evolution of the Neptunian system are the collisions between the moons and the prograde and retrograde debris originating from the pre-existing moons and Triton. In particular, we expect early erosive impact(s) on Triton to generate debris that will, in subsequent collisions, disrupt the regular satellites. If the retrograde material were to dominate at some planetocentric distances, the end result may be a large cloud or disk of retrograde debris that would be accreted by Triton, shrinking Triton's orbit. Some of the prograde debris could survive in a compact disk interior to Triton's pericenter, eventually forming the inner moons of Neptune. We will present results of numerical modeling of these complex dynamical processes at the meeting.

  15. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.H.; Ahmad, S.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Bertl, W.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Zhang, N.S.; Henderson, R.; McDonald, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Robertson, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the Standard Model, the weak interaction is purely V-A in character. However in semileptonic reactions the strong force induces additional couplings. One of these, the induced pseudoscalar coupling g p , is still very poorly determined experimentally. Using PCAC and the Goldberger-Treiman relation, one can obtain the estimate g p /g a = 6.8 for the nucleon. At present, the world average of 5 measurements of the rate of ordinary muon capture (each with an error in excess of 40%) yields g p /g a = 6.9 ± 1.5. Radiative Muon Capture (RMC) is considerably more sensitive to the pseudoscalar coupling. Due to the extremely small branching ratio (∼ 6 x 10 -8 ), the elementary reaction μ - p→ μnγ has never been measured. Effort to date has concentrated on nuclear RMC where the branching ratio is much larger, but the interpretation of these results is hindered by nuclear structure uncertainties. A measurement is being carried out at TRIUMF to determine the rate of RMC on hydrogen to a precision of 8% leading to a determination of g p with an error of 10%. The detection system is based on a large-volume drift chamber acting as a pair spectrometer. The drift chamber covers a solid angle of about 2π. At a magnetic field of 2.4 kG the acceptance for 70 MeV photons is about 0.9% using a 1.2 mm thick Pb photon converter. The expected photon energy resolution is about 10% FWHM. A detailed discussion of the systematic errors expected in the experiment and the preliminary results on the performance of the detector will be presented

  16. Mixed DNA/Oligo(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Gold Surface Improve DNA Hybridization in Complex Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Gamble, L.; Grainger, D.; Castner, D.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable, direct 'sample-to-answer' capture of nucleic acid targets from complex media would greatly improve existing capabilities of DNA microarrays and biosensors. This goal has proven elusive for many current nucleic acid detection technologies attempting to produce assay results directly from complex real-world samples, including food, tissue, and environmental materials. In this study, we have investigated mixed self-assembled thiolated single-strand DNA (ssDNA) monolayers containing a short thiolated oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) surface diluent on gold surfaces to improve the specific capture of DNA targets from complex media. Both surface composition and orientation of these mixed DNA monolayers were characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). XPS results from sequentially adsorbed ssDNA/OEG monolayers on gold indicate that thiolated OEG diluent molecules first incorporate into the thiolated ssDNA monolayer and, upon longer OEG exposures, competitively displace adsorbed ssDNA molecules from the gold surface. NEXAFS polarization dependence results (followed by monitoring the N 1s→π* transition) indicate that adsorbed thiolated ssDNA nucleotide base-ring structures in the mixed ssDNA monolayers are oriented more parallel to the gold surface compared to DNA bases in pure ssDNA monolayers. This supports ssDNA oligomer reorientation towards a more upright position upon OEG mixed adlayer incorporation. DNA target hybridization on mixed ssDNA probe/OEG monolayers was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Improvements in specific target capture for these ssDNA probe surfaces due to incorporation of the OEG diluent were demonstrated using two model biosensing assays, DNA target capture from complete bovine serum and from salmon genomic DNA mixtures. SPR results demonstrate that OEG incorporation into the ssDNA adlayer improves surface resistance to both nonspecific DNA and protein

  17. Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Ken-Ji; Carle, G. C.; Bunch, T. E.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE) will develop technologies and engineering techniques necessary to capture nearly intact, uncontaminated cosmic and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). Successful capture of such particles will benefit the exobiology and planetary science communities by providing particulate samples that may have survived unaltered since the formation of the solar system. Characterization of these particles may contribute fundamental data to our knowledge of how these particles could have formed into our planet Earth and, perhaps, contributed to the beginnings of life. The term 'uncontaminated' means that captured cosmic and IDP particles are free of organic contamination from the capture process and the term 'nearly intact capture' means that their chemical and elemental components are not materially altered during capture. The key to capturing cosmic and IDP particles that are organic-contamination free and nearly intact is the capture medium. Initial screening of capture media included organic foams, multiple thin foil layers, and aerogel (a silica gel); but, with the exception of aerogel, the requirements of no contamination or nearly intact capture were not met. To ensure no contamination of particles in the capture process, high-purity aerogel was chosen. High-purity aerogel results in high clarity (visual clearness), a useful quality in detection and recovery of embedded captured particles from the aerogel. P. Tsou at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) originally described the use of aerogel for this purpose and reported laboratory test results. He has flown aerogel as a 'GAS-can Lid' payload on STS-47 and is evaluating the results. The Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE), a Eureca 1 experiment, is also flying aerogel and is scheduled for recovery in late April.

  18. CAPHIGAS Project: Design of a Novel WGS-Adsorbent-Membrane Hybrid System for the Simultaneous Capture of CO{sub 2} and Production of H2 (Ref.: Ene2009-08002); Proyecto CAPHIGAS: Diseno de un Sistema Hibrido WGS-Adsorbente-Membrana para la Captura de CO{sub 2} con Produccion de H{sub 2} (Ref: Ene2009-08002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, M.; Barreiro, M. M.; Sanchez, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    This report describes the general objective, tasks and main results and conclusions drawn within CAPHIGAS Project, Plan Nacional de I+D+I 2008-2011, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and carried out by the Valorization of Fuels and Wastes Group of Ciemat. The general objective of the project was the design and development of a novel hybrid system for the simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2} and production of H{sub 2} using a WGS catalyst-adsorbent membrane configuration. The novel system proposed has provided new insight into the adsorption and reaction processes and has allowed an optimization of the operating conditions to take advantage of the synergies between both processes. In this report main future activities are also reported. (Author)

  19. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeonhu; Park, Minwoo; Jang, Byungryul; Kang, Yura; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hosik; Chung, Haegeun; Chung, ChiHye; Hong, Suklyun; Kwon, Yongkyung; Yakobson, Boris I; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-02-23

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures (~10(-3) bar) at 300 K and release it at ~450 K. CO2 binding to elements involves hybridization of the metal d orbitals with the CO2 π orbitals and CO2-transition metal complexes were observed in experiments. This result allows us to perform high-throughput screening to discover novel promising CO2 capture materials with empty d orbitals (e.g., Sc- or V-porphyrin-like graphene) and predict their capture performance under various conditions. Moreover, these findings provide physical insights into selective CO2 capture and open a new path to explore CO2 capture materials.

  20. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeonhu; Park, Minwoo; Jang, Byungryul; Kang, Yura; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hosik; Chung, Haegeun; Chung, Chihye; Hong, Suklyun; Kwon, Yongkyung; Yakobson, Boris I.; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures (~10-3 bar) at 300 K and release it at ~450 K. CO2 binding to elements involves hybridization of the metal d orbitals with the CO2 π orbitals and CO2-transition metal complexes were observed in experiments. This result allows us to perform high-throughput screening to discover novel promising CO2 capture materials with empty d orbitals (e.g., Sc- or V-porphyrin-like graphene) and predict their capture performance under various conditions. Moreover, these findings provide physical insights into selective CO2 capture and open a new path to explore CO2 capture materials.

  1. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  2. Carbon dioxide capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.

    2011-01-01

    The author first highlights the reasons why storing carbon dioxide in geological formations could be a solution in the struggle against global warming and climate change. Thus, he comments various evolutions and prospective data about carbon emissions or fossil energy consumption as well as various studies performed by international bodies and agencies which show the interest of carbon dioxide storage. He comments the evolution of CO 2 contributions of different industrial sectors and activities, notably in France. He presents the different storage modes and methods which concern different geological formations (saline aquifers, abandoned oil or gas fields, not exploitable coal seams) and different processes (sorption, carbonation). He discusses the risks associated with these storages, the storable quantities, evokes some existing installations in different countries. He comments different ways to capture carbon dioxide (in post-combustion, through oxy-combustion, by pre-combustion) and briefly evokes some existing installations. He evokes the issue of transport, and discusses efficiency and cost aspects, and finally has few words on legal aspects and social acceptability

  3. CO2 capture by Li-functionalized silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-05-18

    CO2 capture and storage technology is of key importance to reduce the greenhouse effect. By its large surface area and sp3 hybridization, Li-functionalized silicene is demonstrated to be a promising CO2 absorbent that is stable up to at least 500 K and has a very high storage capacity of 28.6 mol/kg (55.7 wt%). The adsorption energy of CO2 on Li-functionalized silicene is enhanced as compared to pristine silicene, to attain an almost ideal value that still facilitates easy release. In addition, the band gap is found to change sensitively with the CO2 coverage. (© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  4. A survey of the Carbon Capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokrllova, J.; Cik, G.; Takacova, A.; Smolinska, M.

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide, one of the most important representatives of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere continues to rise. Fossil fuels burned in thermal power plants currently represent 80% of total energy production around the world and are the largest point sources of CO 2 , accounting for approximately 40% of total CO 2 emissions. There are several options for reducing CO 2 emissions: reducing demand, improving production efficiency and carbon capture and storage (CCS, carbon capture and storage). Capture and storage of carbon dioxide is generally a three-step process: 1 st Capture and compression of combustion products, 2 nd transport (mostly pipeline) and 3 rd utilization (eg. production of urea, beverage industry, production of dry ice, etc.). Technologies for CO 2 capturing used in power plants burning fossil fuels can be divided into four groups, each of which requires a completely different approach to CO 2 capture.

  5. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Device of capturing for radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the area of contact between the capturing materials for the radioactive corrosion products contained in the coolants and the coolants by producing stirred turbulent flows in the coolant flow channel of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Constituent materials for the nuclear fuel elements or the reactor core structures are activated under the neutron irradiation, corroded and transferred into the coolants. While capturing devices made of pure metal nickel are used for the elimination of the corrosion products, since the coolants form laminar flows due to the viscosity thereof near the surface of the capturing materials, the probability that the corrosion products in the coolants flowing through the middle portion of the channel contact the capturing materials is reduced. In this invention, rotating rolls and flow channels in which the balls are rotated are disposed at the upstream of the capturing device to forcively disturb the flow of the liquid sodium, whereby the radioactive corrosion products can effectively be captured. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  8. Translating tumor biology into personalized treatment planning: analytical performance characteristics of the Oncotype DX? Colon Cancer Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Clark-Langone, Kim M; Sangli, Chithra; Krishnakumar, Jayadevi; Watson, Drew

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay is a new diagnostic test for determining the likelihood of recurrence in stage II colon cancer patients after surgical resection using fixed paraffin embedded (FPE) primary colon tumor tissue. Like the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay, this is a high complexity, multi-analyte, reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that measures the expression levels of specific cancer-related genes. By capturing the biology unde...

  9. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  10. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238 U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  11. Attentional capture under high perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2010-12-01

    Attentional capture by abrupt onsets can be modulated by several factors, including the complexity, or perceptual load, of a scene. We have recently demonstrated that observers are less likely to be captured by abruptly appearing, task-irrelevant stimuli when they perform a search that is high, as opposed to low, in perceptual load (Cosman & Vecera, 2009), consistent with perceptual load theory. However, recent results indicate that onset frequency can influence stimulus-driven capture, with infrequent onsets capturing attention more often than did frequent onsets. Importantly, in our previous task, an abrupt onset was present on every trial, and consequently, attentional capture might have been affected by both onset frequency and perceptual load. In the present experiment, we examined whether onset frequency influences attentional capture under conditions of high perceptual load. When onsets were presented frequently, we replicated our earlier results; attentional capture by onsets was modulated under conditions of high perceptual load. Importantly, however, when onsets were presented infrequently, we observed robust capture effects. These results conflict with a strong form of load theory and, instead, suggest that exposure to the elements of a task (e.g., abrupt onsets) combines with high perceptual load to modulate attentional capture by task-irrelevant information.

  12. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  13. Phylogenetic tests of a Cercopithecus monkey hybrid reveal X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A captive Cercopithecus nictitans × C. cephus male was examined at loci on the X- and Y-chromosomes as a test of previously described phylogenetic methods for identifying hybrid Cercopithecus monkeys. The results confirm the reliability of such assays, indicating that they can be of immediate utility for studies of wild ...

  14. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, Elin; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is a nonclonogenic microplate-based cell viability assay used for measurement of the cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effect of different compounds in vitro. The assay is based on hydrolysis of the probe, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by esterases in cells with intact plasma membranes. The assay is available as both a semiautomated 96-well plate setup and a 384-well plate version fully adaptable to robotics. Experimental plates are prepared with a small amount of drug solution and can be stored frozen. Cells are seeded on the plates and cell viability is evaluated after 72 h. The protocol described here is applicable both for cell lines and freshly prepared tumor cells from patients and is suitable both for screening in drug development and as a basis for a predictive test for individualization of anticancer drug therapy.

  15. Solution assay instrument operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.; Marks, T.; Parker, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    An at-line solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed and installed in a plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and americium/plutonium ratios and for routine operation by process technicians who lack instrumentation background. The SAI, based on transmission-corrected, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, has two measurement stations attached to a single multichannel analyzer/computer system. To ensure the quality of assay results, the SAI has an internal measurement control program, which requires daily and weekly check runs and monitors key aspects of all assay runs. For a 25-ml sample, the assay precision is 5 g/l within a 2000-s count time

  16. A highly scalable peptide-based assay system for proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A Kozlov

    Full Text Available We report a scalable and cost-effective technology for generating and screening high-complexity customizable peptide sets. The peptides are made as peptide-cDNA fusions by in vitro transcription/translation from pools of DNA templates generated by microarray-based synthesis. This approach enables large custom sets of peptides to be designed in silico, manufactured cost-effectively in parallel, and assayed efficiently in a multiplexed fashion. The utility of our peptide-cDNA fusion pools was demonstrated in two activity-based assays designed to discover protease and kinase substrates. In the protease assay, cleaved peptide substrates were separated from uncleaved and identified by digital sequencing of their cognate cDNAs. We screened the 3,011 amino acid HCV proteome for susceptibility to cleavage by the HCV NS3/4A protease and identified all 3 known trans cleavage sites with high specificity. In the kinase assay, peptide substrates phosphorylated by tyrosine kinases were captured and identified by sequencing of their cDNAs. We screened a pool of 3,243 peptides against Abl kinase and showed that phosphorylation events detected were specific and consistent with the known substrate preferences of Abl kinase. Our approach is scalable and adaptable to other protein-based assays.

  17. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  18. Radioligand assay in reproductive biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenman, S.G.; Sherman, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioligand assays have been developed for the principal reproductive steroids and peptide hormones. Specific binding reagents have included antibodies, plasma binders, and intracellular receptors. In each assay, problems of specificity, sensitivity, and nonspecific inhibitors were encountered. Many features of the endocrine physiology in childhood, during puberty, and in adulthood have been characterized. Hormonal evaluations of endocrine disorders of reproduction are characterized on the basis of their characteristic pathophysiologic alterations. (U.S.)

  19. Post-synthetic halide conversion and selective halogen capture in hybrid perovskites† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1048945–1048947. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01135c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Ibarra, D.; Smith, I. C.

    2015-01-01

    Reaction with halogen vapor allows us to post-synthetically exchange halides in both three- (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) organic–inorganic metal-halide perovskites. Films of 3D Pb–I perovskites cleanly convert to films of Pb–Br or Pb–Cl perovskites upon exposure to Br2 or Cl2 gas, respectively. This gas–solid reaction provides a simple method to produce the high-quality Pb–Br or Pb–Cl perovskite films required for optoelectronic applications. Reactivity with halogens can be extended to the organic layers in 2D metal-halide perovskites. Here, terminal alkene groups placed between the inorganic layers can capture Br2 gas through chemisorption to form dibromoalkanes. This reaction's selectivity for Br2 over I2 allows us to scrub Br2 to obtain high-purity I2 gas streams. We also observe unusual halogen transfer between the inorganic and organic layers within a single perovskite structure. Remarkably, the perovskite's crystallinity is retained during these massive structural rearrangements. PMID:29218171

  20. Direct Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Thomas O; Ascoli, Carl A

    2017-07-05

    The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (cELISA; also called an inhibition ELISA) is designed so that purified antigen competes with antigen in the test sample for binding to an antibody that has been immobilized in microtiter plate wells. The same concept works if the immobilized molecule is antigen and the competing molecules are purified labeled antibody versus antibody in a test sample. Direct cELISAs incorporate labeled antigen or antibody, whereas indirect assay configurations use reporter-labeled secondary antibodies. The cELISA is very useful for determining the concentration of small-molecule antigens in complex sample mixtures. In the direct cELISA, antigen-specific capture antibody is adsorbed onto the microtiter plate before incubation with either known standards or unknown test samples. Enzyme-linked antigen (i.e., labeled antigen) is also added, which can bind to the capture antibody only when the antibody's binding site is not occupied by either the antigen standard or antigen in the test samples. Unbound labeled and unlabeled antigens are washed away and substrate is added. The amount of antigen in the standard or the test sample determines the amount of reporter-labeled antigen bound to antibody, yielding a signal that is inversely proportional to antigen concentration within the sample. Thus, the higher the antigen concentration in the test sample, the less labeled antigen is bound to the capture antibody, and hence the weaker is the resultant signal. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  2. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  5. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  6. Grafted Cross-Linked Polyolefin Substrates for Peptide Synthesis and Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    suited for use in solid-phase biosystems, notably bioassays, such as immunoassays, DNA hybridization assays or PCR amplification. The grafted chains may bear substituents which are such that the polymer-grafted cross-linked polyolefin substrate is swellable by water or aqueous media, in other words...

  7. Electrochemical DNA sandwich assay with a lipase label for attomole detection of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferapontova, Elena; Hansen, Majken Nørgaard; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    2010-01-01

    A fast and sensitive electrochemical lipase-based sandwich hybridization assay for detection of attomole levels of DNA has been developed. A combination of magnetic beads, used for pre-concentration and bioseparation of the analyte with a lipase catalyst label allowed detection of DNA with a limi...

  8. Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.

  9. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  10. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  11. Development of a lion-specific interferon-gamma assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M; van Kooten, P J S; Schreuder, J; Morar, D; Tijhaar, E; Michel, A L; Rutten, V P M G

    2012-10-15

    The ongoing spread of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African free-ranging lion populations, for example in the Kruger National Park, raises the need for diagnostic assays for BTB in lions. These, in addition, would be highly relevant for zoological gardens worldwide that want to determine the BTB status of their lions, e.g. for translocations. The present study concerns the development of a lion-specific IFN-γ assay, following the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for lion interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Recombinant lion IFN-γ (rLIFN-γ) was produced in mammalian cells and used to immunize mice to establish hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies. These were used to develop a sensitive, lion IFN-γ-specific capture ELISA, able to detect rLIFN-γ to the level of 160 pg/ml. Recognition of native lion IFN-γ was shown in an initial assessment of supernatants of mitogen stimulated whole blood cultures of 11 known BTB-negative lions. In conclusion, the capture ELISA shows potential as a diagnostic assay for bovine tuberculosis in lions. Preliminary results also indicate the possible use of the test for other (feline) species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  13. Visual Field Asymmetry in Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the spatial distribution of involuntary attentional capture over the two visual hemi-fields. A new experiment, and an analysis of three previous experiments showed that distractors in the left visual field that matched a sought-for target in color produced a much larger capture effect than identical distractors in the…

  14. Capturing, annotating and reflecting video footage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Max Roald; Wagner, Johannes

    A presentation of interaction field data capturing setups for uninterrupted long term capturing. Two setups were described: the AMU forklift driving school with 17 cameras and the Digital Days 2016 at University College Nord in Aalborg with 16 kameras, 14 audio recorders, and two HDMI recorders....

  15. Atomic capture of negative mesons in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1979-01-01

    After a brief description of the present state of theoretical understanding of atomic capture of negative mesons, a very simple model calculation of negative muon capture by the simplest atoms, hydrogen is described. Also the possibility of generalizing these results to more complicated atoms and even molecules is noted. 15 references

  16. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  17. Screen captures to support switching attention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, M.R.M.; van der Meij, Hans

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with

  18. Capture, transport and storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, B.

    2008-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gas CO2 in industrial processes and electricity production can be reduced on a large scale. Available techniques include post-combustion, pre-combustion, the oxy-fuel process, CO2 fixation in industrial processes and CO2 mineralization. In the Netherlands, plans for CO2 capture are not developing rapidly (CCS - carbon capture and storage). [mk] [nl

  19. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  20. Confusion noise from LISA capture sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barack, Leor; Cutler, Curt

    2004-01-01

    Captures of compact objects (COs) by massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei will be an important source for LISA, the proposed space-based gravitational wave (GW) detector. However, a large fraction of captures will not be individually resolvable - either because they are too distant, have unfavorable orientation, or have too many years to go before final plunge - and so will constitute a source of 'confusion noise', obscuring other types of sources. In this paper we estimate the shape and overall magnitude of the GW background energy spectrum generated by CO captures. This energy spectrum immediately translates to a spectral density S h capt (f) for the amplitude of capture-generated GWs registered by LISA. The overall magnitude of S h capt (f) is linear in the CO capture rates, which are rather uncertain; therefore we present results for a plausible range of rates. S h capt (f) includes the contributions from both resolvable and unresolvable captures, and thus represents an upper limit on the confusion noise level. We then estimate what fraction of S h capt (f) is due to unresolvable sources and hence constitutes confusion noise. We find that almost all of the contribution to S h capt (f) coming from white dwarf and neutron star captures, and at least ∼30% of the contribution from black hole captures, is from sources that cannot be individually resolved. Nevertheless, we show that the impact of capture confusion noise on the total LISA noise curve ranges from insignificant to modest, depending on the rates. Capture rates at the high end of estimated ranges would raise LISA's overall (effective) noise level [fS h eff (f)] 1/2 by at most a factor ∼2 in the frequency range 1-10 mHz, where LISA is most sensitive. While this slightly elevated noise level would somewhat decrease LISA's sensitivity to other classes of sources, we argue that, overall, this would be a pleasant problem for LISA to have: It would also imply that detection rates for CO captures

  1. Capture of Planetesimals into a Circumterrestrial Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    The lunar origin model considered in this report involves processing of protolunar material through a circumterrestrial swarm of particles. Once such a swarm has formed, it can gain mass by capturing infalling planetesimals and ejecta from giant impacts on the Earth, although the angular momentum supply from these sources remains a problem. The first stage of formation of a geocentric swarm by capture of planetesimals from initially heliocentric orbits is examined. The only plausible capture mechanism that is not dependent on very low approach velocities is the mutual collision of planetesimals passing within Earth's sphere of influence. The dissipation of energy in inelastic collisions or accretion events changes the value of the Jacobi parameter, allowing capture into bound geocentric orbits. This capture scenario was tested directly by many body numerical integration of planetesimal orbits in near Earth space.

  2. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  3. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonchev A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  4. Automated 5 ' nuclease assay for detection of virulence factors in porcine Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.; Imberechts, H.; Lehmann, S.

    2001-01-01

    (STa, STb, EAST1) and heat labile LT) enterotoxins and the verocytotoxin variant 2e (VT2e). To correctly identify false negative results, an endogenous internal control targeting the E. coil 16S rRNA gene was incorporated in each test tube. The assay was evaluated using a collection of E. coil...... reference strains which have previously been examined with phenotypical assays or DNA hybridization. Furthermore, the assay was evaluated by testing porcine E. coil field strains, previously characterized. The 5' nuclease assay correctly detected the presence of virulence genes in all reference strains....... When testing field strains there was generally excellent agreement with results obtained by laboratories in Belgium and Germany. In conclusion, the 5' nuclease assay developed is a fast and specific tool for detection of E. coli virulence genes in the veterinary diagnostic laboratory....

  5. Co-ordinated research program on development of kits for radioimmunometric assays of tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Castro, B.E.; Perera Negrin, Y.; Pichardo Diaz, D.; Murugiah, R.; Ayala Avila, M.; Gavilondo Cowley, J.; Ruiz Pena, M.; Caso Pena, R.; Hernandez Pagarizabal, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mice were immunized with semen and natural PSA, following three different schemes. Splenocytes from two hyper immune animals were fused with the P3/x63.Ag8.653 myeloma under conventional hybridoma procedures. Stable hybrid cell cultures secreting antibodies specific to natural PSA were obtained by cloning dilutions procedures. With a group of stable hybridoma cultures we developed epitope characterization assays to determine whether the antibodies were capable of recognizing PSA. According to the recognition level in ELISA, the hybridomas were classified in different groups,. We select the best pairs of Mabs for developing a total and free PSA assays based on ELISA or IRMA format. Our total-PSA based on IRMA format presented a good correlation in comparison with CIS bio total PSA assay. We recommend our anti-PSA monoclonal antibodies to develop an IRMA assay for total PSA. Cuban free-PSA assay is under evaluation at present. (author)

  6. Rapid detection of EBOLA VP40 in microchip immunofiltration assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miethe, Peter; Gary, Dominik; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Gad, Anne-Marie

    2015-05-01

    In the spring of 2014, the Ebola virus (EBOV) strain Zaire caused a dramatic outbreak in several regions of West Africa. The RT-PCR and antigen capture diagnostic proved to be effective for detecting EBOV in blood and serum. In this paper, we present data of a rapid antigen capture test for the detection of VP40. The test was performed in a microfluidic chip for immunofiltration analysis. The chip integrates all necessary assay components. The analytical sensitivity of the rapid test was 8 ng/ml for recombinant VP40. In serum and whole blood samples spiked with virus culture material, the detection limit was 2.2 x 102 PFU/ml. The performance data of the rapid test (15 min) are comparable to that of the VP40 laboratory ELISA.

  7. A homogeneous fluorometric assay platform based on novel synthetic proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardar-Schara, Goenuel; Krab, Ivo M.; Yi, Guohua; Su, Wei Wen

    2007-01-01

    Novel synthetic recombinant sensor proteins have been created to detect analytes in solution, in a rapid single-step 'mix and read' noncompetitive homogeneous assay process, based on modulating the Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) property of the sensor proteins upon binding to their targets. The sensor proteins comprise a protein scaffold that incorporates a specific target-capturing element, sandwiched by genetic fusion between two molecules that form a FRET pair. The utility of the sensor proteins was demonstrated via three examples, for detecting an anti-biotin Fab antibody, a His-tagged recombinant protein, and an anti-FLAG peptide antibody, respectively, all done directly in solution. The diversity of sensor-target interactions that we have demonstrated in this study points to a potentially universal applicability of the biosensing concept. The possibilities for integrating a variety of target-capturing elements with a common sensor scaffold predict a broad range of practical applications

  8. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  9. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  10. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  11. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  12. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  13. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  14. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  15. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  16. Degradation of Akt using protein-catalyzed capture agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Ryan K; Varghese, Joseph O; Das, Samir; Nag, Arundhati; Tang, Grace; Tang, Kevin; Sutherland, Alexander M; Heath, James R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal signaling of the protein kinase Akt has been shown to contribute to human diseases such as diabetes and cancer, but Akt has proven to be a challenging target for drugging. Using iterative in situ click chemistry, we recently developed multiple protein-catalyzed capture (PCC) agents that allosterically modulate Akt enzymatic activity in a protein-based assay. Here, we utilize similar PCCs to exploit endogenous protein degradation pathways. We use the modularity of the anti-Akt PCCs to prepare proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules that are shown to promote the rapid degradation of Akt in live cancer cells. These novel proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules demonstrate that the epitope targeting selectivity of PCCs can be coupled with non-traditional drugging moieties to inhibit challenging targets. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  18. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  19. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  20. Evaluation of environmental genotoxicity by comet assay in Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acevedo, Anahi; García-Salas, Juan A; Gosálvez, Jaime; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Méndez-López, Luis F; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of recognized or suspected genotoxic and carcinogenic agents found in the air of large cities and, in particular, developing countries, have raised concerns about the potential for chronic health effects in the populations exposed to them. The biomonitoring of environmental genotoxicity requires the selection of representative organisms as "sentinels," as well as the development of suitable and sensitive assays, such as those aimed at assessing DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage levels in erythrocytes from Columba livia living in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico, compared with control animals via comet assay, and to confirm the results via Micronuclei test (MN) and DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). Our results showed a significant increase in DNA migration in animals from the area assayed compared with that observed in control animals sampled in non-contaminated areas. These results were confirmed by MN test and DBD-FISH. In conclusion, these observations confirm that the examination of erythrocytes from Columba livia via alkaline comet assay provides a sensitive and reliable end point for the detection of environmental genotoxicants.

  1. Rapid hybridization of nucleic acids using isotachophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Moran; Han, Crystal M.; Liao, Joseph C.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2012-01-01

    We use isotachophoresis (ITP) to control and increase the rate of nucleic acid hybridization reactions in free solution. We present a new physical model, validation experiments, and demonstrations of this assay. We studied the coupled physicochemical processes of preconcentration, mixing, and chemical reaction kinetics under ITP. Our experimentally validated model enables a closed form solution for ITP-aided reaction kinetics, and reveals a new characteristic time scale which correctly predicts order 10,000-fold speed-up of chemical reaction rate for order 100 pM reactants, and greater enhancement at lower concentrations. At 500 pM concentration, we measured a reaction time which is 14,000-fold lower than that predicted for standard second-order hybridization. The model and method are generally applicable to acceleration of reactions involving nucleic acids, and may be applicable to a wide range of reactions involving ionic reactants. PMID:22733732

  2. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10 –8 . This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  3. Recent development of capture of CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Rosa Hilda

    2014-01-01

    "Recent Technologies in the capture of CO2" provides a comprehensive summary on the latest technologies available to minimize the emission of CO2 from large point sources like fossil-fuel power plants or industrial facilities. This ebook also covers various techniques that could be developed to reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. The contents of this book include chapters on oxy-fuel combustion in fluidized beds, gas separation membrane used in post-combustion capture, minimizing energy consumption in CO2 capture processes through process integration, characterization and application of structured packing for CO2 capture, calcium looping technology for CO2 capture and many more. Recent Technologies in capture of CO2 is a valuable resource for graduate students, process engineers and administrative staff looking for real-case analysis of pilot plants. This eBook brings together the research results and professional experiences of the most renowned work groups in the CO2 capture field...

  4. ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

  5. Enzyme activity assay of glycoprotein enzymes based on a boronate affinity molecularly imprinted 96-well microplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaodong; Liu, Zhen

    2014-12-16

    Enzyme activity assay is an important method in clinical diagnostics. However, conventional enzyme activity assay suffers from apparent interference from the sample matrix. Herein, we present a new format of enzyme activity assay that can effectively eliminate the effects of the sample matrix. The key is a 96-well microplate modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) prepared according to a newly proposed method called boronate affinity-based oriented surface imprinting. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a glycoprotein enzyme that has been routinely used as an indicator for several diseases in clinical tests, was taken as a representative target enzyme. The prepared MIP exhibited strong affinity toward the template enzyme (with a dissociation constant of 10(-10) M) as well as superb tolerance for interference. Thus, the enzyme molecules in a complicated sample matrix could be specifically captured and cleaned up for enzyme activity assay, which eliminated the interference from the sample matrix. On the other hand, because the boronate affinity MIP could well retain the enzymatic activity of glycoprotein enzymes, the enzyme captured by the MIP was directly used for activity assay. Thus, additional assay time and possible enzyme or activity loss due to an enzyme release step required by other methods were avoided. Assay of ALP in human serum was successfully demonstrated, suggesting a promising prospect of the proposed method in real-world applications.

  6. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  7. Radiative electron capture by channeled ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitarke, J.M.; Ritchie, R.H.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1989-01-01

    Considerable experimental data have been accumulated relative to the emission of photons accompanying electron capture by swift, highly stripped atoms penetrating crystalline matter under channeling conditions. Recent data suggest that the photon energies may be less than that expected from simple considerations of transitions from the valence band of the solid to hydrogenic states on the moving ion. We have studied theoretically the impact parameter dependence of the radiative electron capture (REC) process, the effect of the ion's wake and the effect of capture from inner shells of the solid on the photon emission probability, using a statistical approach. Numerical comparisons of our results with experiment are made. 13 refs., 6 figs

  8. The carbon dioxide capture and geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the carbon dioxide capture and geological storage. One possible means of climate change mitigation consists of storing the CO 2 generated by the greenhouse gases emission in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations. This sheet presents the CO 2 capture from lage fossil-fueled combustion installations, the three capture techniques and the CO 2 transport options, the geological storage of the CO 2 and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  9. BioAssay templates for the semantic web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Annotation of bioassay protocols using semantic web vocabulary is a way to make experiment descriptions machine-readable. Protocols are communicated using concise scientific English, which precludes most kinds of analysis by software algorithms. Given the availability of a sufficiently expressive ontology, some or all of the pertinent information can be captured by asserting a series of facts, expressed as semantic web triples (subject, predicate, object. With appropriate annotation, assays can be searched, clustered, tagged and evaluated in a multitude of ways, analogous to other segments of drug discovery informatics. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO has been previously designed for this express purpose, and provides a layered hierarchy of meaningful terms which can be linked to. Currently the biggest challenge is the issue of content creation: scientists cannot be expected to use the BAO effectively without having access to software tools that make it straightforward to use the vocabulary in a canonical way. We have sought to remove this barrier by: (1 defining a BioAssay Template (BAT data model; (2 creating a software tool for experts to create or modify templates to suit their needs; and (3 designing a common assay template (CAT to leverage the most value from the BAO terms. The CAT was carefully assembled by biologists in order to find a balance between the maximum amount of information captured vs. low degrees of freedom in order to keep the user experience as simple as possible. The data format that we use for describing templates and corresponding annotations is the native format of the semantic web (RDF triples, and we demonstrate some of the ways that generated content can be meaningfully queried using the SPARQL language. We have made all of these materials available as open source (http://github.com/cdd/bioassay-template, in order to encourage community input and use within diverse projects, including but not limited to our own

  10. Synovectomy by Neutron capture; Sinovectomia por captura de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C. [Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu{sup 239} Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  11. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproductive isolation and the expansion of an invasive hybrid swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Michael J.; Walters, David M.; Burkhead, Noel M.; Freeman, Byron J.; Porter, Brady A.

    2010-01-01

    Biological invasions involving hybridization proceed according to prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms. Yet few comparisons of reproductive isolation have been carried out to understand how different mechanisms prevent or promote invasions involving hybridization. Here we present a study of prezygotic and postzygotic isolation between non-native red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) from the Coosa River basin (USA) to better understand the formation and expansion of invasive hybrid swarms. We conducted spawning trials to measure mating preferences and raised broods from crosses to assay hybrid viability through early juvenile development. Females of both species were more responsive to conspecific mates, although blacktail shiner females responded more often to heterospecific mates than did red shiner females. Fecundity of red shiner females was also higher than blacktail shiner females. Heterospecific crosses resulted in lower fertilization and egg hatching rates, but we found no other evidence of inviability. Rather, we found comparatively low larval mortality of F1 hybrids, which is suggestive of heterosis. These findings support prior inferences of assortative mating from genetic descriptions of hybridization, and that the invasion in the Coosa River is likely proceeding due to interspecific competition and intrinsic hybrid viability.

  13. A Fully Automated High-Throughput Zebrafish Behavioral Ototoxicity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Douglas W; Philip, Rohit C; Niihori, Maki; Ringle, Ryan A; Coyle, Kelsey R; Zehri, Sobia F; Zabala, Leanne; Mudery, Jordan A; Francis, Ross H; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Jacob, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    Zebrafish animal models lend themselves to behavioral assays that can facilitate rapid screening of ototoxic, otoprotective, and otoregenerative drugs. Structurally similar to human inner ear hair cells, the mechanosensory hair cells on their lateral line allow the zebrafish to sense water flow and orient head-to-current in a behavior called rheotaxis. This rheotaxis behavior deteriorates in a dose-dependent manner with increased exposure to the ototoxin cisplatin, thereby establishing itself as an excellent biomarker for anatomic damage to lateral line hair cells. Building on work by our group and others, we have built a new, fully automated high-throughput behavioral assay system that uses automated image analysis techniques to quantify rheotaxis behavior. This novel system consists of a custom-designed swimming apparatus and imaging system consisting of network-controlled Raspberry Pi microcomputers capturing infrared video. Automated analysis techniques detect individual zebrafish, compute their orientation, and quantify the rheotaxis behavior of a zebrafish test population, producing a powerful, high-throughput behavioral assay. Using our fully automated biological assay to test a standardized ototoxic dose of cisplatin against varying doses of compounds that protect or regenerate hair cells may facilitate rapid translation of candidate drugs into preclinical mammalian models of hearing loss.

  14. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  15. Multi-parameter study of gammas capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samama, R.; Nifenecker, H.; Carlos, P.; Delaitre, B.

    1966-06-01

    This equipment is intended for analyzing, recording, and reading simultaneous information from several 'gamma' detectors. It allows multiparameter study of γ-γ cascades emitted after thermal neutrons capture. (authors) [fr

  16. Preclinical studies on gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki

    1994-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy is based on radiations (photons and electrons) produced in the tumor by a nuclear reaction between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons. Studies with Chinese hamster cells have shown that the radiation effect resulting from gadolinium neutron capture reactions is mostly of low LET and that released electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. Biological dosimetry revealed that the dose does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, leading to a conclusion that there is a range of gadolinium concentrations most efficient for gadolinium neutron capture therapy. The in vivo studies with transplantable tumors in mice and rabbits have revealed that close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation and that gadolinium delivery selective to tumors is crucial. The results show that the potential of gadolinium neutron capture therapy as a therapeutic modality appears very promising. (author)

  17. Attentional capture by masked colour singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Horstmann, Gernot; Worschech, Franziska

    2010-09-15

    We tested under which conditions a colour singleton of which an observer is unaware captures attention. To prevent visual awareness of the colour singleton, we used backward masking. We find that a masked colour singleton cue captures attention if it matches the observer's goal to search for target colours but not if it is task-irrelevant. This is also reflected in event-related potentials to the visible target: the masked goal-matching cue elicits an attentional potential (N2pc) in a target search task. By contrast, a non-matching but equally strong masked colour singleton cue failed to elicit a capture effect and an N2pc. Results are discussed with regard to currently pertaining conceptions of attentional capture by colour singletons. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How Airbnb Captures and Disseminates Value

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses two of the six vital business model elements, explaining the functioning of peer-to-peer accommodation networks: value capture and dissemination. The other elements are discussed in detail in Chapter 4. We focus on Airbnb because it is the international market leader. Separate business analyses are necessary for other peer-to-peer accommodation networks given that each functions in a slightly different way. In this chapter the business model value capture and value disse...

  19. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajzikova, Anna; Smrcek, Stanislav; Kozempel, Jan; Vlk, Martin; Barta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide ( 227 Ac, 227 Th, 223 Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  20. Field Testing of Cryogenic Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Aaron [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Frankman, Dave [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Baxter, Andrew [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Stitt, Kyler [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Baxter, Larry [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2017-07-17

    Sustainable Energy Solutions has been developing Cryogenic Carbon Capture™ (CCC) since 2008. In that time two processes have been developed, the External Cooling Loop and Compressed Flue Gas Cryogenic Carbon Capture processes (CCC ECL™ and CCC CFG™ respectively). The CCC ECL™ process has been scaled up to a 1TPD CO2 system. In this process the flue gas is cooled by an external refrigerant loop. SES has tested CCC ECL™ on real flue gas slip streams from subbituminous coal, bituminous coal, biomass, natural gas, shredded tires, and municipal waste fuels at field sites that include utility power stations, heating plants, cement kilns, and pilot-scale research reactors. The CO2 concentrations from these tests ranged from 5 to 22% on a dry basis. CO2 capture ranged from 95-99+% during these tests. Several other condensable species were also captured including NO2, SO2 and PMxx at 95+%. NO was also captured at a modest rate. The CCC CFG™ process has been scaled up to a .25 ton per day system. This system has been tested on real flue gas streams including subbituminous coal, bituminous coal and natural gas at field sites that include utility power stations, heating plants, and pilot-scale research reactors. CO2 concentrations for these tests ranged from 5 to 15% on a dry basis. CO2 capture ranged from 95-99+% during these tests. Several other condensable species were also captured including NO2, SO2 and PMxx at 95+%. NO was also captured at 90+%. Hg capture was also verified and the resulting effluent from CCC CFG™ was below a 1ppt concentration. This paper will focus on discussion of the capabilities of CCC, the results of field testing and the future steps surrounding the development of this technology.

  1. Development and field evaluation of the sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian J.; Kerlin, Tim; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Cortis, Giles; Doggett, Stephen L.; Toi, Cheryl; Fall, Ken; McMahon, Jamie L.; Townsend, Michael; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although sentinel animals are used successfully throughout the world to monitor arbovirus activity, ethical considerations and cross-reactions in serological assays highlight the importance of developing viable alternatives. Here we outline the development of a passive sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK) that allows for the detection of arboviruses on honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards (Flinders Technology Associates; FTA®) and has a similar trap efficacy as s...

  2. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  3. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  4. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  5. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  6. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ∼5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) × 10 –7 for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) × 10 7 planetesimals with absolute magnitude H disk ∼ 14-28 M Earth , is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  7. Automation of the dicentric chromosome assay and related assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) is considered to be the 'gold standard' for personalized dose assessment in humans after accidental or incidental radiation exposure. Although this technique is superior to other cytogenetic assays in terms of specificity and sensitivity, its potential application to radiation mass casualty scenarios is highly restricted because DCA is time consuming and labor intensive when performed manually. Therefore, it is imperative to develop high throughput automation techniques to make DCA suitable for radiological triage scenarios. At the Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory in Oak Ridge, efforts are underway to develop high throughput automation of DCA. Current status on development of various automated cytogenetic techniques in meeting the biodosimetry needs of radiological/nuclear incident(s) will be discussed

  8. Assay strategies and methods for phospholipases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, L.J.; Washburn, W.N.; Deems, R.A.; Dennis, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Of the general considerations discussed, the two issues which are most important in choosing an assay are (1) what sensitivity is required to assay a particular enzyme and (2) whether the assay must be continuous. One can narrow the options further by considering substrate availability, enzyme specificity, assay convenience, or the presence of incompatible side reactions. In addition, the specific preference of a particular phospholipase for polar head group, micellar versus vesicular substrates, and anionic versus nonionic detergents may further restrict the options. Of the many assays described in this chapter, several have limited applicability or serious drawbacks and are not commonly employed. The most commonly used phospholipase assays are the radioactive TLC assay and the pH-stat assay. The TLC assay is probably the most accurate, sensitive assay available. These aspects often outweigh the disadvantages of being discontinuous, tedious, and expensive. The radioactive E. coli assay has become popular recently as an alternative to the TLC assay for the purification of the mammalian nonpancreatic phospholipases. The assay is less time consuming and less expensive than the TLC assay, but it is not appropriate when careful kinetics are required. Where less sensitivity is needed, or when a continuous assay is necessary, the pH-stat assay is often employed. With purified enzymes, when free thiol groups are not present, a spectrophotometric thiol assay can be used. This assay is ∼ as sensitive as the pH-stat assay but is more convenient and more reproducible, although the substrate is not available commercially. Despite the many assay choices available, the search continues for a convenient, generally applicable assay that is both sensitive and continuous

  9. Cystatin capture elisa immunodiagnosis of human fasciolosis at Chupaca-Junin Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, W.; Alva, P.; Sevilla, C.; Huiza, A.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2003-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of human fasciolosis in an endemic area by means of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using cystatin as a capture agent for the detection of specific antibodies to fasciola hepatica cysteine proteinases. An ELISA plate was sensitized with cystatin, incubated with excretory-secretory products of adult flukes, and followed by standard ELISA procedures. Clinical applicability of the cystatin capture ELISA for the immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis was tested with 200 serum samples of children and adults from an endemic area in Chupaca province, Junin department. Serum samples from the endemic area tested by cystatin capture ELISA showed 27/200 (13,5%) of positive cases. Fasciolosis remains a major health problem at Chupaca province, Junin department

  10. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  11. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  12. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  13. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  14. Assessment of a New Lower-Cost Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus: Useful for Cervical Screening in Limited-Resource Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokom Domgue, Joel; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas H; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Poitras, Nancy E; Befano, Brian; Xie, Yi; Miachon, Lais S; Dean, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Inexpensive and easy-to-perform human papillomavirus (HPV) tests are needed for primary cervical cancer screening in lower-resource regions. In a convenience sample of 516 residual exfoliative cervical specimens from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California and U.S. National Cancer Institute Persistence and Progression Study, we assessed the agreement and clinical performance of a simple, inexpensive real-time PCR assay for the detection of 13 carcinogenic HPV types (the H13 assay; Hybribio, Hong Kong) that is marketed in limited-resource settings compared to previous testing by the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (HC2; Qiagen, Germantown, MD) and the Onclarity assay (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD). The test set was chosen to include many HPV-positive specimens. The reference standard was a combination of HC2 and Onclarity results for HPV detection and histologic diagnosis of controls (less than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 [

  15. Early events in speciation: Polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Laura K.; Markow, Therese A.

    2004-01-01

    Capturing the process of speciation early enough to determine the initial genetic causes of reproductive isolation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We have found, to our knowledge, the first example of substantial intraspecific polymorphism for genetic factors contributing to hybrid male sterility. Specifically, we show that the occurrence of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila arizonae, is controlled by factors p...

  16. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  17. Validation of an immunodiagnostic assay for detection of 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-specific polysaccharides in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, Michael W; Huijts, Susanne M; Wu, Kangjian; Souza, Victor; Passador, Sherry; Tinder, Chunyan; Song, Esther; Elfassy, Arik; McNeil, Lisa; Menton, Ronald; French, Roger; Callahan, Janice; Webber, Chris; Gruber, William C; Bonten, Marc J M; Jansen, Kathrin U

    2012-08-01

    To improve the clinical diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in bacteremic and nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a Luminex technology-based multiplex urinary antigen detection (UAD) diagnostic assay was developed and validated. The UAD assay can simultaneously detect 13 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capturing serotype-specific S. pneumoniae polysaccharides (PnPSs) secreted in human urine. Assay specificity is achieved by capturing the polysaccharides with serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on spectrally unique microspheres. Positivity for each serotype was based on positivity cutoff values calculated from a standard curve run on each assay plate together with positive- and negative-control urine samples. The assay is highly specific, since significant signals are detected only when each PnPS was paired with its homologous MAb-coated microspheres. Validation experiments demonstrated excellent accuracy and precision. The UAD assay and corresponding positivity cutoff values were clinically validated by assessing 776 urine specimens obtained from patients with X-ray-confirmed CAP. The UAD assay demonstrated 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity using samples obtained from patients with bacteremic, blood culture-positive CAP. Importantly, the UAD assay identified Streptococcus pneumoniae (13 serotypes) in a proportion of individuals with nonbacteremic CAP, a patient population for which the pneumococcal etiology of CAP was previously difficult to assess. Therefore, the UAD assay provides a specific, noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tool to support vaccine efficacy as well as epidemiological evaluation of pneumococcal disease, including CAP, in adults.

  18. Advances in hybrid optics physical sensors for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2010-04-01

    Highlighted are novel innovations in hybrid optical design physical sensors for extreme environments. Various hybrid design compositions are proposed that are suited for a particular sensor application. Examples includes combining freespace (wireless) and fiber-optics (wired) for gas turbine sensing and combining single crystal and sintered Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials for robust extreme environment Coefficent of Thermal Expansion (CTE) matched frontend probe design. Sensor signal processing also includes the hybrid theme where for example Black-Body radiation thermometry (pyrometry) is combined with laser interferometry to provide extreme temperature measurements. The hybrid theme also operates on the optical device level where a digital optical device such as a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is combined with an analog optical device such as an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal Length Lens (ECVFL) to deliver a smart and compressive Three Dimensional (3-D) imaging sensor for remote scene and object shape capture including both ambient light (passive) mode and active laser targeting and receive processing. Within a device level, the hybrid theme also operates via combined analog and digital control such as within a wavelength-coded variable optical delay line. These powerful hybrid design optical sensors have numerous applications in engineering and science applications from the military to the commercial/industrial sectors.

  19. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fleissner, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  20. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  1. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, K [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    Measurement method of somatomedian A by radioreceptor assay using the human placenta membrane was described and discussed. Binding rate of /sup 125/I-somatomedin A to its receptors was studied under various conditions of time and temperature of the incubation, and pH of the system. The influence of somatomedin A, porcine insulin, and porcine calcitonin, on /sup 125/I-somatomedin A bound receptors was studied, and these hormones showed the competitive binding to somatomedin A receptors in some level. The specificity, recovery rate, and clinical applications of somatomedin A were also discussed. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedine A provided easier, faster, and more accurate measurements than conventional bioassay. This technique would be very useful to study somatomedin A receptor and functions of insulin.

  2. Capture of DNA in microfluidic channel using magnetic beads: increasing capture efficiency with integrated microfluidic mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Dufva, Hans Martin; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the hybridization of target DNA in solution with probe DNA on magnetic beads immobilized on the channel sidewalls in a magnetic bead separator. The hybridization is carried out under a liquid flow and is diffusion limited. Two systems are compared: one with a straight microfluidic...... place on the surface in a microfluidic system....

  3. Detection of proteins using a colorimetric bio-barcode assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Jang, Kyung-Jin; Groves, Jay T

    2007-01-01

    The colorimetric bio-barcode assay is a red-to-blue color change-based protein detection method with ultrahigh sensitivity. This assay is based on both the bio-barcode amplification method that allows for detecting miniscule amount of targets with attomolar sensitivity and gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric DNA detection method that allows for a simple and straightforward detection of biomolecules of interest (here we detect interleukin-2, an important biomarker (cytokine) for many immunodeficiency-related diseases and cancers). The protocol is composed of the following steps: (i) conjugation of target capture molecules and barcode DNA strands onto silica microparticles, (ii) target capture with probes, (iii) separation and release of barcode DNA strands from the separated probes, (iv) detection of released barcode DNA using DNA-modified gold nanoparticle probes and (v) red-to-blue color change analysis with a graphic software. Actual target detection and quantification steps with premade probes take approximately 3 h (whole protocol including probe preparations takes approximately 3 days).

  4. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  5. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  6. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, K.C.; Carrick, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  7. Assay of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, C.; Berry, J.

    1987-01-01

    Assays of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) can be used to illustrate many properties of photosynthetic systems. Many different leaves have been assayed with this standard procedure. The tissue is ground with a mortar and pestle in extraction buffer. The supernatant after centrifugation is used as the source of enzyme. Buffer, RuBP, [ 14 C]-NaHCO 3 , and enzyme are combined in a scintillation vial; the reaction is run for 1 min at 30 0 . The acid-stable products are counted. Reproducibility in student experiments has been excellent. The assay data can be combined with analyses of leaf properties such as fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein content, etc. Students have done projects such as the response of enzyme to temperature and to various inhibitors. They also report on the use of a transition state analog, carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate, to titrate the molar concentration of rubisco molecules (active sites) in an enzyme sample. Thus, using crude extracts the catalytic activity of a sample can be compared to the absolute quantity of enzyme or to the turnover number

  8. Ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of DNA based on Zn²⁺ assistant DNA recycling followed with hybridization chain reaction dual amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yong; Wang, Chunyan; Gao, Fenglei

    2015-01-15

    A new strategy to combine Zn(2+) assistant DNA recycling followed with hybridization chain reaction dual amplification was designed for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of target DNA. A gold electrode was used to immobilize molecular beacon (MB) as the recognition probe and perform the amplification procedure. In the presence of the target DNA, the hairpin probe 1 was opened, and the DNAzyme was liberated from the caged structure. The activated DNAzyme hybridized with the MB and catalyzed its cleavage in the presence of Zn(2+) cofactor and resulting in a free DNAzyme strand. Finally, each target-induced activated DNAzyme underwent many cycles triggering the cleavage of MB, thus forming numerous MB fragments. The MB fragments triggered the HCR and formed a long double-helix DNA structure. Because both H1 and H2 were labeled by biotin, a lot of SA-ALP was captured on the electrode surface, thus catalyzing a silver deposition process for electrochemical stripping analysis. This novel cascade signal amplification strategy can detect target DNA down to the attomolar level with a dynamic range spanning 6 orders of magnitude. This highly sensitive and specific assay has a great potential to become a promising DNA quantification method in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple Sensor Camera for Enhanced Video Capturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Hajime; Kanki, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yoshio; Yachida, Masahiko

    A resolution of camera has been drastically improved under a current request for high-quality digital images. For example, digital still camera has several mega pixels. Although a video camera has the higher frame-rate, the resolution of a video camera is lower than that of still camera. Thus, the high-resolution is incompatible with the high frame rate of ordinary cameras in market. It is difficult to solve this problem by a single sensor, since it comes from physical limitation of the pixel transfer rate. In this paper, we propose a multi-sensor camera for capturing a resolution and frame-rate enhanced video. Common multi-CCDs camera, such as 3CCD color camera, has same CCD for capturing different spectral information. Our approach is to use different spatio-temporal resolution sensors in a single camera cabinet for capturing higher resolution and frame-rate information separately. We build a prototype camera which can capture high-resolution (2588×1958 pixels, 3.75 fps) and high frame-rate (500×500, 90 fps) videos. We also proposed the calibration method for the camera. As one of the application of the camera, we demonstrate an enhanced video (2128×1952 pixels, 90 fps) generated from the captured videos for showing the utility of the camera.

  10. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  11. Formation of double galaxies by tidal capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alladin, S.M.; Potdar, A.; Sastry, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The conditions under which double galaxies may be formed by tidal capture are considered. Estimates for the increase in the internal energy of colliding galaxies due to tidal effects are used to determine the magnitudes Vsub(cap) and Vsub(dis) of the maximum relative velocities at infinite separation required for tidal capture and tidal disruption respectively. A double galaxy will be formed by tidal capture without tidal disruption of a component if Vsub(cap)>Vsub(i) and Vsub(cap)>Vsub(dis) where Vsub(i) is the initial relative speed of the two galaxies at infinite separation. If the two galaxies are of the same dimension, formulation of double galaxies by tidal capture is possible in a close collision either if the two galaxies do not differ much in mass and density distribution or if the more massive galaxy is less centrally concentrated than the other. If it is assumed as statistics suggest, that the mass of a galaxy is proportional to the square of its radius, it follows that the probability of the formation of double galaxies by tidal capture increases with the increase in mass of the galaxies and tidal distribution does not occur in a single collision for any distance of closest approach of the two galaxies. (Auth.)

  12. Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    As long as fossil fuels and carbon-intensive industries play dominant roles in our economies, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will remain a critical greenhouse gas reduction solution. This CCS roadmap aims at assisting governments and industry in integrating CCS in their emissions reduction strategies and in creating the conditions for scaled-up deployment of all three components of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport and storage. To get us onto the right pathway, this roadmap highlights seven key actions needed in the next seven years to create a solid foundation for deployment of CCS starting by 2020. IEA analysis shows that CCS is an integral part of any lowest-cost mitigation scenario where long-term global average temperature increases are limited to significantly less than 4 °C, particularly for 2 °C scenarios (2DS). In the 2DS, CCS is widely deployed in both power generation and industrial applications. The total CO2 capture and storage rate must grow from the tens of megatonnes of CO2 captured in 2013 to thousands of megatonnes of CO2 in 2050 in order to address the emissions reduction challenge. A total cumulative mass of approximately 120 GtCO2 would need to be captured and stored between 2015 and 2050, across all regions of the globe.

  13. EVOLUTION OF PROGENITORS FOR ELECTRON CAPTURE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We provide progenitor models for electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) with detailed evolutionary calculation. We include minor electron capture nuclei using a large nuclear reaction network with updated reaction rates. For electron capture, the Coulomb correction of rates is treated and the contribution from neutron-rich isotopes is taken into account in each nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) composition. We calculate the evolution of the most massive super asymptotic giant branch stars and show that these stars undergo off-center carbon burning and form ONe cores at the center. These cores become heavier up to the critical mass of 1.367 M ☉ and keep contracting even after the initiation of O+Ne deflagration. Inclusion of minor electron capture nuclei causes convective URCA cooling during the contraction phase, but the effect on the progenitor evolution is small. On the other hand, electron capture by neutron-rich isotopes in the NSE region has a more significant effect. We discuss the uniqueness of the critical core mass for ECSNe and the effect of wind mass loss on the plausibility of our models for ECSN progenitors.

  14. Audiovisual Capture with Ambiguous Audiovisual Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Hupé

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual capture happens when information across modalities get fused into a coherent percept. Ambiguous multi-modal stimuli have the potential to be powerful tools to observe such effects. We used such stimuli made of temporally synchronized and spatially co-localized visual flashes and auditory tones. The flashes produced bistable apparent motion and the tones produced ambiguous streaming. We measured strong interferences between perceptual decisions in each modality, a case of audiovisual capture. However, does this mean that audiovisual capture occurs before bistable decision? We argue that this is not the case, as the interference had a slow temporal dynamics and was modulated by audiovisual congruence, suggestive of high-level factors such as attention or intention. We propose a framework to integrate bistability and audiovisual capture, which distinguishes between “what” competes and “how” it competes (Hupé et al., 2008. The audiovisual interactions may be the result of contextual influences on neural representations (“what” competes, quite independent from the causal mechanisms of perceptual switches (“how” it competes. This framework predicts that audiovisual capture can bias bistability especially if modalities are congruent (Sato et al., 2007, but that is fundamentally distinct in nature from the bistable competition mechanism.

  15. High-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Hidenori; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Miyata, Ryo; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Noda, Naohiro

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.

  16. Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, John

    2006-04-01

    Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

  17. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-02

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  18. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  19. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  20. Enzyme-linked electrochemical DNA ligation assay using magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskalová, Eva; Horáková, Petra; Vacek, Jan; Bowater, Richard P; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    DNA ligases are essential enzymes in all cells and have been proposed as targets for novel antibiotics. Efficient DNA ligase activity assays are thus required for applications in biomedical research. Here we present an enzyme-linked electrochemical assay based on two terminally tagged probes forming a nicked junction upon hybridization with a template DNA. Nicked DNA bearing a 5' biotin tag is immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and ligated product is detected via a 3' digoxigenin tag recognized by monoclonal antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. Enzymatic conversion of napht-1-yl phosphate to napht-1-ol enables sensitive detection of the voltammetric signal on a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The technique was tested under optimal conditions and various situations limiting or precluding the ligation reaction (such as DNA substrates lacking 5'-phosphate or containing a base mismatch at the nick junction, or application of incompatible cofactor), and utilized for the analysis of the nick-joining activity of a range of recombinant Escherichia coli DNA ligase constructs. The novel technique provides a fast, versatile, specific, and sensitive electrochemical assay of DNA ligase activity.