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Sample records for hybrid artificial fish

  1. Application of hybrid artificial fish swarm algorithm based on similar fragments in VRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jinnuo; Zhou, Kang; Zhang, Xueyu; Tong, Xin; Hou, Lingyun; Jia, Shiyu; Zhen, Yiting

    2018-03-01

    Focused on the issue that the decrease of convergence speed and the precision of calculation at the end of the process in Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm(AFSA) and instability of results, a hybrid AFSA based on similar fragments is proposed. Traditional AFSA enjoys a lot of obvious advantages in solving complex optimization problems like Vehicle Routing Problem(VRP). AFSA have a few limitations such as low convergence speed, low precision and instability of results. In this paper, two improvements are introduced. On the one hand, change the definition of the distance for artificial fish, as well as increase vision field of artificial fish, and the problem of speed and precision can be improved when solving VRP. On the other hand, mix artificial bee colony algorithm(ABC) into AFSA - initialize the population of artificial fish by the ABC, and it solves the problem of instability of results in some extend. The experiment results demonstrate that the optimal solution of the hybrid AFSA is easier to approach the optimal solution of the standard database than the other two algorithms. In conclusion, the hybrid algorithm can effectively solve the problem that instability of results and decrease of convergence speed and the precision of calculation at the end of the process.

  2. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  3. A Hybrid Method for Image Segmentation Based on Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm and Fuzzy c-Means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation plays an important role in medical image processing. Fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering is one of the popular clustering algorithms for medical image segmentation. However, FCM has the problems of depending on initial clustering centers, falling into local optimal solution easily, and sensitivity to noise disturbance. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a hybrid artificial fish swarm algorithm (HAFSA. The proposed algorithm combines artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA with FCM whose advantages of global optimization searching and parallel computing ability of AFSA are utilized to find a superior result. Meanwhile, Metropolis criterion and noise reduction mechanism are introduced to AFSA for enhancing the convergence rate and antinoise ability. The artificial grid graph and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are used in the experiments, and the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has stronger antinoise ability and higher precision. A number of evaluation indicators also demonstrate that the effect of HAFSA is more excellent than FCM and suppressed FCM (SFCM.

  4. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  5. Hybrid Applications Of Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Gary C.

    1988-01-01

    STAR, Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning, is interactive, interpreted programming language for development and operation of artificial-intelligence application systems. Couples symbolic processing with compiled-language functions and data structures. Written in C language and currently available in UNIX version (NPO-16832), and VMS version (NPO-16965).

  6. Development of a hybrid system of artificial neural networks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a hybrid system of artificial neural networks and artificial bee colony algorithm for prediction and modeling of customer choice in the market. ... attempted to present a new method for the modeling and prediction of customer choice in the market using the combination of artificial intelligence and data mining.

  7. Artificial lateral line with biomimetic neuromasts to emulate fish sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yingchen; Chen Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Hu Huan; Liu Chang; Nguyen, Nam; Lockwood, Michael; Jones, Douglas L; Bleckmann, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic imaging using the lateral line plays a critical role in fish behavior. To engineer such a biologically inspired sensing system, we developed an artificial lateral line using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology and explored its localization capability. Arrays of biomimetic neuromasts constituted an artificial lateral line wrapped around a cylinder. A beamforming algorithm further enabled the artificial lateral line to image real-world hydrodynamic events in a 3D domain. We demonstrate that the artificial lateral line system can accurately localize an artificial dipole source and a natural tail-flicking crayfish under various conditions. The artificial lateral line provides a new sense to man-made underwater vehicles and marine robots so that they can sense like fish.

  8. Hybrid Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Carson; Chopski, Steven; Murad, Nohra; Allaire, Paul; Mentzer, Robert; Rossano, Joseph; Arabia, Francisco; Throckmorton, Amy

    2018-05-01

    Clinical studies using total artificial hearts (TAHs) have demonstrated that pediatric and adult patients derive quality-of-life benefits from this form of therapy. Two clinically-approved TAHs and other pumps under development, however, have design challenges and limitations, including thromboembolic events, neurologic impairment, infection risk due to large size and percutaneous drivelines, and lack of ambulation, to name a few. To address these limitations, we are developing a hybrid-design, continuous-flow, implantable or extracorporeal, magnetically-levitated TAH for pediatric and adult patients with heart failure. This TAH has only two moving parts: an axial impeller for the pulmonary circulation and a centrifugal impeller for the systemic circulation. This device will utilize the latest generation of magnetic bearing technology. Initial geometries were established using pump design equations, and computational modeling provided insight into pump performance. The designs were the basis for prototype manufacturing and hydraulic testing. The study results demonstrate that the TAH is capable of delivering target blood flow rates of 1-6.5 L/min with pressure rises of 1-92 mm Hg for the pulmonary circulation and 24-150 mm Hg for the systemic circulation at 1500-10 000 rpm. This initial design of the TAH was successful and serves as the foundation to continue its development as a novel, more compact, nonthrombogenic, and effective therapeutic alternative for infants, children, adolescents, and adults with heart failure. © 2018 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Conditions that impact artificial hybridization of Arachis hypogaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern farming is dependent on continual development of improved cultivars and efficient cultural management practices. In addition, dissecting genetic components of heritable traits also relies on the development of large mapping populations. Artificial hybridization is the critical initial step ...

  10. Improved Artificial Fish Algorithm for Parameters Optimization of PID Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang; Yourui Huang

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve problems such as initial weights are difficult to be determined, training results are easy to trap in local minima in optimization process of PID neural network parameters by traditional BP algorithm, this paper proposed a new method based on improved artificial fish algorithm for parameters optimization of PID neural network. This improved artificial fish algorithm uses a composite adaptive artificial fish algorithm based on optimal artificial fish and nearest artificial fi...

  11. Schooling increases risk exposure for fish navigating past artificial barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand H Lemasson

    Full Text Available Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.

  12. Schooling increases risk exposure for fish navigating past artificial barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Bertrand H; Haefner, James W; Bowen, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.

  13. Isogenic transgenic homozygous fish induced by artificial parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Y K; Cho, Y S; Kim, D S

    2000-12-01

    As a model system for vertebrate transgenesis, fish have many attractive advantages, especially with respect to the characteristics of eggs, allowing us to produce isogenic, transgenic, homozygous vertebrates by combining with chromosome-set manipulation. Here, we describe the large-scale production of isogenic transgenic homozygous animals using our experimental organism, the mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis, by the simple process of artificial parthenogenesis in a single generation. These isogenic fish have retained transgenic homozygous status in a stable manner during the subsequent 5 years, and exhibited increased levels of transgene expression. Furthermore, their isogenic nature was confirmed by cloned transgenic homozygous offspring produced via another step of parthenogenic reproduction of the isogenic homozygous transgenic fish. These results demonstrate that a combination of transgenesis and artificial parthenogenesis will make the rapid utilization of genetically pure homozygous transgenic system in vertebrate transgenesis possible.

  14. High Performance Artificial Muscles Using Nanofiber and Hybrid Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    2. Above advance led to “Artificial Muscles From Fishing Line and Sewing Thread”, which was patent filed and then published in Science in 2014...consuming significant energy. The publication of Artificial Muscles From Fishing Line and Sewing Thread (Science, 2014) generated TV, radio, and other...gn f cant energy. The pub cat on of “Art f c a Musc es From F sh ng L ne and Sew ng Thread” (Sc ence, 2014) generated TV, rad o, and other wor d-w de

  15. Improved Quantum Artificial Fish Algorithm Application to Distributed Network Considering Distributed Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tingsong; Hu, Yang; Ke, Xianting

    2015-01-01

    An improved quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (IQAFSA) for solving distributed network programming considering distributed generation is proposed in this work. The IQAFSA based on quantum computing which has exponential acceleration for heuristic algorithm uses quantum bits to code artificial fish and quantum revolving gate, preying behavior, and following behavior and variation of quantum artificial fish to update the artificial fish for searching for optimal value. Then, we apply the proposed new algorithm, the quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (QAFSA), the basic artificial fish swarm algorithm (BAFSA), and the global edition artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA) to the simulation experiments for some typical test functions, respectively. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can escape from the local extremum effectively and has higher convergence speed and better accuracy. Finally, applying IQAFSA to distributed network problems and the simulation results for 33-bus radial distribution network system show that IQAFSA can get the minimum power loss after comparing with BAFSA, GAFSA, and QAFSA.

  16. A novel artificial fish swarm algorithm for recalibration of fiber optic gyroscope error parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Guan, Lianwu; Wang, Tingjun; Sun, Yunlong

    2015-05-05

    The artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) is one of the state-of-the-art swarm intelligent techniques, which is widely utilized for optimization purposes. Fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) error parameters such as scale factors, biases and misalignment errors are relatively unstable, especially with the environmental disturbances and the aging of fiber coils. These uncalibrated error parameters are the main reasons that the precision of FOG-based strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) degraded. This research is mainly on the application of a novel artificial fish swarm algorithm (NAFSA) on FOG error coefficients recalibration/identification. First, the NAFSA avoided the demerits (e.g., lack of using artificial fishes' pervious experiences, lack of existing balance between exploration and exploitation, and high computational cost) of the standard AFSA during the optimization process. To solve these weak points, functional behaviors and the overall procedures of AFSA have been improved with some parameters eliminated and several supplementary parameters added. Second, a hybrid FOG error coefficients recalibration algorithm has been proposed based on NAFSA and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) approaches. This combination leads to maximum utilization of the involved approaches for FOG error coefficients recalibration. After that, the NAFSA is verified with simulation and experiments and its priorities are compared with that of the conventional calibration method and optimal AFSA. Results demonstrate high efficiency of the NAFSA on FOG error coefficients recalibration.

  17. Artificial fish schools : Collective effects of school size, body size, and body form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, H.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    Individual-based models of schooling in fish have demonstrated that, via processes of self-organization. artificial fish may school in the absence of a leader or external stimuli, using local information only. We study for the first time how body size and body form of artificial fish affect school

  18. Triaxial Accelerometer Error Coefficients Identification with a Novel Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA is one of the state-of-the-art swarm intelligence techniques, which is widely utilized for optimization purposes. Triaxial accelerometer error coefficients are relatively unstable with the environmental disturbances and aging of the instrument. Therefore, identifying triaxial accelerometer error coefficients accurately and being with lower costs are of great importance to improve the overall performance of triaxial accelerometer-based strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS. In this study, a novel artificial fish swarm algorithm (NAFSA that eliminated the demerits (lack of using artificial fishes’ previous experiences, lack of existing balance between exploration and exploitation, and high computational cost of AFSA is introduced at first. In NAFSA, functional behaviors and overall procedure of AFSA have been improved with some parameters variations. Second, a hybrid accelerometer error coefficients identification algorithm has been proposed based on NAFSA and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS approaches. This combination leads to maximum utilization of the involved approaches for triaxial accelerometer error coefficients identification. Furthermore, the NAFSA-identified coefficients are testified with 24-position verification experiment and triaxial accelerometer-based SINS navigation experiment. The priorities of MCS-NAFSA are compared with that of conventional calibration method and optimal AFSA. Finally, both experiments results demonstrate high efficiency of MCS-NAFSA on triaxial accelerometer error coefficients identification.

  19. A Novel Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm for Recalibration of Fiber Optic Gyroscope Error Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Gao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA is one of the state-of-the-art swarm intelligent techniques, which is widely utilized for optimization purposes. Fiber optic gyroscope (FOG error parameters such as scale factors, biases and misalignment errors are relatively unstable, especially with the environmental disturbances and the aging of fiber coils. These uncalibrated error parameters are the main reasons that the precision of FOG-based strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS degraded. This research is mainly on the application of a novel artificial fish swarm algorithm (NAFSA on FOG error coefficients recalibration/identification. First, the NAFSA avoided the demerits (e.g., lack of using artificial fishes’ pervious experiences, lack of existing balance between exploration and exploitation, and high computational cost of the standard AFSA during the optimization process. To solve these weak points, functional behaviors and the overall procedures of AFSA have been improved with some parameters eliminated and several supplementary parameters added. Second, a hybrid FOG error coefficients recalibration algorithm has been proposed based on NAFSA and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS approaches. This combination leads to maximum utilization of the involved approaches for FOG error coefficients recalibration. After that, the NAFSA is verified with simulation and experiments and its priorities are compared with that of the conventional calibration method and optimal AFSA. Results demonstrate high efficiency of the NAFSA on FOG error coefficients recalibration.

  20. [Experimental study on novel hybrid artificial trachea transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenliang; Xiao, Peng; Liang, Hengxing; An, Ran; Cheng, Gang; Yu, Fenglei

    2014-04-01

    We developed and designed a new type of artificial trachea. The basic structure of the artificial trachea was polytetrafluoroethylene vascular prosthesis linked with titanium rings on both sides. Dualmesh was sutured on titanium rings. This experimentation follows the replacement of trachea in dogs with a combined artificial trachea to investigate the feasibility of this type of prosthesis. Sixteen dogs were implanted with the combined artificial trachea after resection of 5 cm of cervical trachea. The 5 cm-long trachea of dogs on the necks were resected and the reconstruction of the defect of the trachea was performed with trachea prosthesis. According to the method of trachea reconstruction, the models were divided into 2 groups, artificial trachea implantation group (the control group, n = 8) and group of artificial trachea implantation with growth factor (the experimental group, n = 8). Then computer tomography scan (CT), bronchoscope and pathologic examination were conducted periodically to observe the healing state of the hybrid artificial trachea. None of the dogs died during operation of cervical segmental trachea construction. But four dogs in the control group died of apnea in succession because artificial trachea was displaced and the lumen was obstructed, while 2 dogs died in the experimental group. In the first month there was granulation around anastomosis with slight stenosis. The rest of dogs were well alive until they were sacrificed 14 months later. The mean survival time of the experimental group was longer than that of the control group. The rate of infection, anastomotic dehiscence, severe stenosis and accidental death in the experimental group were lower than the control group (P anastomosis effectively but infections and split or displacement of the artificial trachea are still major problems affecting long-term survival of the animals. Application of growth factors to a certain extent promotes tissue healing by changing the local environment.

  1. Probabilistic Wind Power Forecasting with Hybrid Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Song, Yonghua; Xu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    probabilities of prediction errors provide an alternative yet effective solution. This article proposes a hybrid artificial neural network approach to generate prediction intervals of wind power. An extreme learning machine is applied to conduct point prediction of wind power and estimate model uncertainties...... via a bootstrap technique. Subsequently, the maximum likelihood estimation method is employed to construct a distinct neural network to estimate the noise variance of forecasting results. The proposed approach has been tested on multi-step forecasting of high-resolution (10-min) wind power using...... actual wind power data from Denmark. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid artificial neural network approach is effective and efficient for probabilistic forecasting of wind power and has high potential in practical applications....

  2. Intragenus (Campylomormyrus) and intergenus hybrids in mormyrid fish: Physiological and histological investigations of the electric organ ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Frank; Nguyen, Linh; Baumgartner, Stephanie; Chi, Hiu Wan Linda; Wolfart, Rene; Elarbani, Khouloud; Eppenstein, Hari; Korniienko, Yevheniia; Guido-Böhm, Lilian; Mamonekene, Victor; Vater, Marianne; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2016-10-01

    African weakly electric mormyrid fish show a high diversity of their electric organ discharge (EOD) both across and within genera. Thanks to a recently developed technique of artificial reproduction in mormyrid fish, we were able to perform hybridizations between different genera and within one genus (Campylomormyrus). The hybrids of intergenus hybridizations exhibited different degrees of reduced survival related to the phylogenetic distance of the parent species: hybrids of the crosses between C. rhynchophorus and its sister genus Gnathonemus survived and developed normally. Hybrids between C. rhynchophorus and a Mormyrus species (a more basal clade compared to Campylomormyrus s) survived up to 42days and developed many malformations, e.g., at the level of the unpaired fins. Hybrids between C. numenius and Hippopotamyrus pictus (a derived clade, only distantly related to Campylomormyrus) only survived for two days during embryological development. Eight different hybrid combinations among five Campylomormyrus species (C. tamandua, C. compressirostris, C. tshokwe, C. rhynchophorus, C. numenius) were performed. The aim of the hybridizations was to combine species with (1) either caudal or rostral position of the main stalk innervating the electrocytes in the electric organ and (2) short, median or long duration of their EOD. The hybrids, though they are still juveniles, show very interesting features concerning electrocyte geometry as well as EOD form and duration: the caudal position of the stalk is prevailing over the rostral position, and the penetration of the stalk is dominant over the non-penetrating feature (in the Campylomormyrus hybrids); in the hybrid between C. rhynchophorus and Gnathonemus petersii it is the opposite. When crossing species with long and short EODs, it is always the long duration EOD that is expressed in the hybrids. The F1-Hybrids of the cross C. tamandua×C. compressirostris are fertile: viable F2-fish could be obtained with artificial

  3. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  4. Artificial muscles from fishing line and sewing thread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Carter S; Lima, Márcio D; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Foroughi, Javad; Madden, John D W; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Fang, Shaoli; Jung de Andrade, Mônica; Göktepe, Fatma; Göktepe, Özer; Mirvakili, Seyed M; Naficy, Sina; Lepró, Xavier; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Kim, Seon Jeong; Xu, Xiuru; Swedlove, Benjamin J; Wallace, Gordon G; Baughman, Ray H

    2014-02-21

    The high cost of powerful, large-stroke, high-stress artificial muscles has combined with performance limitations such as low cycle life, hysteresis, and low efficiency to restrict applications. We demonstrated that inexpensive high-strength polymer fibers used for fishing line and sewing thread can be easily transformed by twist insertion to provide fast, scalable, nonhysteretic, long-life tensile and torsional muscles. Extreme twisting produces coiled muscles that can contract by 49%, lift loads over 100 times heavier than can human muscle of the same length and weight, and generate 5.3 kilowatts of mechanical work per kilogram of muscle weight, similar to that produced by a jet engine. Woven textiles that change porosity in response to temperature and actuating window shutters that could help conserve energy were also demonstrated. Large-stroke tensile actuation was theoretically and experimentally shown to result from torsional actuation.

  5. ANOMALY DETECTION IN NETWORKING USING HYBRID ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amutha Guka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Especially in today’s network scenario, when computers are interconnected through internet, security of an information system is very important issue. Because no system can be absolutely secure, the timely and accurate detection of anomalies is necessary. The main aim of this research paper is to improve the anomaly detection by using Hybrid Artificial Immune Algorithm (HAIA which is based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS and Genetic Algorithm (GA. In this research work, HAIA approach is used to develop Network Anomaly Detection System (NADS. The detector set is generated by using GA and the anomalies are identified using Negative Selection Algorithm (NSA which is based on AIS. The HAIA algorithm is tested with KDD Cup 99 benchmark dataset. The detection rate is used to measure the effectiveness of the NADS. The results and consistency of the HAIA are compared with earlier approaches and the results are presented. The proposed algorithm gives best results when compared to the earlier approaches.

  6. Multi-robot task allocation based on two dimensional artificial fish swarm algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Taixiong; Li, Xueqin; Yang, Liangyi

    2007-12-01

    The problem of task allocation for multiple robots is to allocate more relative-tasks to less relative-robots so as to minimize the processing time of these tasks. In order to get optimal multi-robot task allocation scheme, a twodimensional artificial swarm algorithm based approach is proposed in this paper. In this approach, the normal artificial fish is extended to be two dimension artificial fish. In the two dimension artificial fish, each vector of primary artificial fish is extended to be an m-dimensional vector. Thus, each vector can express a group of tasks. By redefining the distance between artificial fish and the center of artificial fish, the behavior of two dimension fish is designed and the task allocation algorithm based on two dimension artificial swarm algorithm is put forward. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the problem of multi-robot task allocation and comparer with GA and SA based algorithm is done. Simulation and compare result shows the proposed algorithm is effective.

  7. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  8. Parasitic fauna in hybrid tambacu from fish farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronilson Macedo Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitic fauna of hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus from fish farms and the host-parasite relationship. A hundred and fourteen fish were collected from four fish farms in Macapá, in the state of Amapá, Brazil, 80.7% of which were infected by: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora; Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida; Anacanthorus spatulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis, and Mymarothecium viatorum (Monogenoidea; Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae (Acanthocephala; Cucullanus colossomi (Nematoda; Perulernaea gamitanae (Lernaeidae; and Proteocephalidae larvae (Cestoda. A total of 8,136,252 parasites were collected from the examined fish. This is the first record of N. buttnerae, C. colossomi, N. janauachensis, M. viatorum, and Proteocephalidae for hybrid tambacu in Brazil. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most prevalent parasite, whereas endohelminths were the less. A positive correlation was observed between number of I. multifiliis and total length and weight of fish, as well as between number of P. gamitanae and total length. The infection by I. multifiliis had association with the parasitism by Monogenoidea. Low water quality contributes to high parasitism of hybrid tambacu by ectoparasites, which, however, does not influence the relative condition factor of fish.

  9. Improved Quantum Artificial Fish Algorithm Application to Distributed Network Considering Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingsong Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (IQAFSA for solving distributed network programming considering distributed generation is proposed in this work. The IQAFSA based on quantum computing which has exponential acceleration for heuristic algorithm uses quantum bits to code artificial fish and quantum revolving gate, preying behavior, and following behavior and variation of quantum artificial fish to update the artificial fish for searching for optimal value. Then, we apply the proposed new algorithm, the quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (QAFSA, the basic artificial fish swarm algorithm (BAFSA, and the global edition artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA to the simulation experiments for some typical test functions, respectively. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can escape from the local extremum effectively and has higher convergence speed and better accuracy. Finally, applying IQAFSA to distributed network problems and the simulation results for 33-bus radial distribution network system show that IQAFSA can get the minimum power loss after comparing with BAFSA, GAFSA, and QAFSA.

  10. The application of hybrid artificial intelligence systems for forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Brian; Corchado, Juan

    1999-03-01

    The results to date are presented from an ongoing investigation, in which the aim is to combine the strengths of different artificial intelligence methods into a single problem solving system. The premise underlying this research is that a system which embodies several cooperating problem solving methods will be capable of achieving better performance than if only a single method were employed. The work has so far concentrated on the combination of case-based reasoning and artificial neural networks. The relative merits of artificial neural networks and case-based reasoning problem solving paradigms, and their combination are discussed. The integration of these two AI problem solving methods in a hybrid systems architecture, such that the neural network provides support for learning from past experience in the case-based reasoning cycle, is then presented. The approach has been applied to the task of forecasting the variation of physical parameters of the ocean. Results obtained so far from tests carried out in the dynamic oceanic environment are presented.

  11. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH... Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4700 Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration... Hybridization (FISH) Enumeration Systems.” See § 866.1(e) for the availability of this guidance document. [70 FR...

  12. Development of hybrid artificial intelligent based handover decision algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Aibinu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of seamless handover remains a mirage despite the plethora of existing handover algorithms. The underlying factor responsible for this has been traced to the Handover decision module in the Handover process. Hence, in this paper, the development of novel hybrid artificial intelligent handover decision algorithm has been developed. The developed model is made up of hybrid of Artificial Neural Network (ANN based prediction model and Fuzzy Logic. On accessing the network, the Received Signal Strength (RSS was acquired over a period of time to form a time series data. The data was then fed to the newly proposed k-step ahead ANN-based RSS prediction system for estimation of prediction model coefficients. The synaptic weights and adaptive coefficients of the trained ANN was then used to compute the k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction model coefficients. The predicted RSS value was later codified as Fuzzy sets and in conjunction with other measured network parameters were fed into the Fuzzy logic controller in order to finalize handover decision process. The performance of the newly developed k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction algorithm was evaluated using simulated and real data acquired from available mobile communication networks. Results obtained in both cases shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of predicting ahead the RSS value to about ±0.0002 dB. Also, the cascaded effect of the complete handover decision module was also evaluated. Results obtained show that the newly proposed hybrid approach was able to reduce ping-pong effect associated with other handover techniques.

  13. The chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5S rDNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Ye, Lihai; Chen, Yiyi; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Tao, Min; Xiao, Yamei; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-12-03

    The establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = AA) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 2n = 100, 2n = BB) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies. The chromosomal inheritance of diploid and allotetraploid hybrid progenies in successive generations, was studied by applying 5S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Signals of 5S rDNA distinguished the chromosomal constitution of common carp (B-genome) from red crucian carp (A-genome), in which two strong signals were observed on the first submetacentric chromosome, while no major signal was found in common carp. After fish hybridization, one strong signal of 5S rDNA was detected in the same locus on the chromosome of diploid hybrids. As expected, two strong signals were observed in 4nF3 tetraploid hybrids offspring and it is worth mentioning that two strong signals were detected in a separating bivalent of a primary spermatocyte in 4nF3. Furthermore, the mitosis of heterozygous chromosomes was shown normal and stable with blastular tissue histological studies. We revealed that 5S rDNA signal can be applied to discern A-genome from B-genome, and that 5S rDNA bearing chromosomes can be stably passed down in successive generations. Our work provided a significant method in fish breeding and this is important for studies in fish evolutionary biology.

  14. Artificial root foraging optimizer algorithm with hybrid strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new plant-inspired optimization algorithm namely the hybrid artificial root foraging optimizion (HARFO is proposed, which mimics the iterative root foraging behaviors for complex optimization. In HARFO model, two innovative strategies were developed: one is the root-to-root communication strategy, which enables the individual exchange information with each other in different efficient topologies that can essentially improve the exploration ability; the other is co-evolution strategy, which can structure the hierarchical spatial population driven by evolutionary pressure of multiple sub-populations that ensure the diversity of root population to be well maintained. The proposed algorithm is benchmarked against four classical evolutionary algorithms on well-designed test function suites including both classical and composition test functions. Through the rigorous performance analysis that of all these tests highlight the significant performance improvement, and the comparative results show the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Log-linear model based behavior selection method for artificial fish swarm algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhehuang; Chen, Yidong

    2015-01-01

    Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) is a population based optimization technique inspired by social behavior of fishes. In past several years, AFSA has been successfully applied in many research and application areas. The behavior of fishes has a crucial impact on the performance of AFSA, such as global exploration ability and convergence speed. How to construct and select behaviors of fishes are an important task. To solve these problems, an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm based on log-linear model is proposed and implemented in this paper. There are three main works. Firstly, we proposed a new behavior selection algorithm based on log-linear model which can enhance decision making ability of behavior selection. Secondly, adaptive movement behavior based on adaptive weight is presented, which can dynamically adjust according to the diversity of fishes. Finally, some new behaviors are defined and introduced into artificial fish swarm algorithm at the first time to improve global optimization capability. The experiments on high dimensional function optimization showed that the improved algorithm has more powerful global exploration ability and reasonable convergence speed compared with the standard artificial fish swarm algorithm.

  16. Log-Linear Model Based Behavior Selection Method for Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhehuang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA is a population based optimization technique inspired by social behavior of fishes. In past several years, AFSA has been successfully applied in many research and application areas. The behavior of fishes has a crucial impact on the performance of AFSA, such as global exploration ability and convergence speed. How to construct and select behaviors of fishes are an important task. To solve these problems, an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm based on log-linear model is proposed and implemented in this paper. There are three main works. Firstly, we proposed a new behavior selection algorithm based on log-linear model which can enhance decision making ability of behavior selection. Secondly, adaptive movement behavior based on adaptive weight is presented, which can dynamically adjust according to the diversity of fishes. Finally, some new behaviors are defined and introduced into artificial fish swarm algorithm at the first time to improve global optimization capability. The experiments on high dimensional function optimization showed that the improved algorithm has more powerful global exploration ability and reasonable convergence speed compared with the standard artificial fish swarm algorithm.

  17. Fish attraction to artificial reefs not always harmful: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A; Lowry, Michael B; Suthers, Iain M

    2015-10-01

    The debate on whether artificial reefs produce new fish or simply attract existing fish biomass continues due to the difficulty in distinguishing these processes, and there remains considerable doubt as to whether artificial reefs are a harmful form of habitat modification. The harm typically associated with attraction is that fish will be easier to harvest due to the existing biomass aggregating at a newly deployed reef. This outcome of fish attraction has not progressed past an anecdotal form, however, and is always perceived as a harmful process. We present a numerical model that simulates the effect that a redistributed fish biomass, due to an artificial reef, has on fishing catch per unit effort (CPUE). This model can be used to identify the scenarios (in terms of reef, fish, and harvest characteristics) that pose the most risk of exploitation due to fish attraction. The properties of this model were compared to the long-standing predictions by Bohnsack (1989) on the factors that increase the risk or the harm of attraction. Simulations revealed that attraction is not always harmful because it does not always increase maximum fish density. Rather, attraction sometimes disperses existing fish biomass making them harder to catch. Some attraction can be ideal, with CPUE lowest when attraction leads to an equal distribution of biomass between natural and artificial reefs. Simulations also showed that the outcomes from attraction depend on the characteristics of the target fish species, such that transient or pelagic species are often at more risk of harmful attraction than resident species. Our findings generally agree with Bohnsack's predictions, although we recommend distinguishing "mobility" and "fidelity" when identifying species most at risk from attraction, as these traits had great influence on patterns of harvest of attracted fish biomass.

  18. A biologically inspired artificial fish using flexible matrix composite actuators: analysis and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhiye; Philen, Michael; Neu, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    A bio-inspired prototype fish using the flexible matrix composite (FMC) muscle technology for fin and body actuation is developed. FMC actuators are pressure driven muscle-like actuators capable of large displacements as well as large blocking forces. An analytical model of the artificial fish using FMC actuators is developed and analysis results are presented. An experimental prototype of the artificial fish having FMC artificial muscles has been completed and tested. Constant mean thrusts have been achieved in the laboratory for a stationary fish for different undulation frequencies around 1 Hz. The experimental results demonstrate that a nearly constant thrust can be achieved through tuning of excitation frequency for given body stiffness. Free swimming results show that the prototype can swim at approximately 0.3 m s −1

  19. Estimation of interfacial heat transfer coefficient in inverse heat conduction problems based on artificial fish swarm algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Huiping; Li, Zhichao

    2018-04-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is one of the most important thermal physical parameters which have significant effects on the calculation accuracy of physical fields in the numerical simulation. In this study, the artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) was used to evaluate the IHTC between the heated sample and the quenchant in a one-dimensional heat conduction problem. AFSA is a global optimization method. In order to speed up the convergence speed, a hybrid method which is the combination of AFSA and normal distribution method (ZAFSA) was presented. The IHTC evaluated by ZAFSA were compared with those attained by AFSA and the advanced-retreat method and golden section method. The results show that the reasonable IHTC is obtained by using ZAFSA, the convergence of hybrid method is well. The algorithm based on ZAFSA can not only accelerate the convergence speed, but also reduce the numerical oscillation in the evaluation of IHTC.

  20. Polypyrrol/chitosan hydrogel hybrid microfiber as sensing artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yahya A.; Martínez, Jose G.; Al Harrasi, Ahmad S.; Kim, Seon J.; Fernández Otero, Toribio F.

    2011-04-01

    An electrochemical actuator demands that it should act as a sensor of the working conditions for its efficient application in devices. Actuation and sensing characteristics of a biopolymer/conducting polymer hybrid microfiber artificial muscle fabricated through wet spinning of a chitosan solution followed by in situ chemical polymerization with pyrrol employing bis(triflouro methane sulfonyl) imide as dopant and ferric chloride as a catalyst is presented. The polypyrrol/chitosan hybrid microfiber was investigated by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical conductivity measurement, cyclic voltammetric and chronopotentiometric methods. The electrochemical measurements related to the sensing abilities were performed as a function of applied current, concentration and temperature keeping two of the variables constant at a given time using NaCl as electrolyte. Cyclic voltammograms confirmed that the electro activity is imparted by polypyrrol (pPy). The fiber showed an electrical conductivity of 3.21x10-1 Scm-1and an average linear electrochemical actuation strain of 0.54%. The chronopotentiometric responses during the oxidation/reduction processes of the microfiber for the different anodic/cathodic currents and the linear fit observed for the consumed electrical energy during the reaction for various applied currents suggested that it can act as a sensor of applied current. The chronopotentiometric responses and the linear fit of consumed electrical energy at different temperatures suggested that the actuator can act as a temperature sensor. Similarly a semi logarithmic dependence of the consumed electrical energy with concentration of the electrolyte during reaction is suggestive of its applicability as a concentration sensor. The demand that an electrochemical actuator to be a sensor of the working conditions, for its efficient application in devices is thus verified in this material.

  1. Cooperative Search and Rescue with Artificial Fishes Based on Fish-Swarm Algorithm for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Tang, Zhenmin; Yang, Yuwang; Wang, Lei; Lan, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a searching control approach for cooperating mobile sensor networks. We use a density function to represent the frequency of distress signals issued by victims. The mobile nodes' moving in mission space is similar to the behaviors of fish-swarm in water. So, we take the mobile node as artificial fish node and define its operations by a probabilistic model over a limited range. A fish-swarm based algorithm is designed requiring local information at each fish node and maximizing the joint detection probabilities of distress signals. Optimization of formation is also considered for the searching control approach and is optimized by fish-swarm algorithm. Simulation results include two schemes: preset route and random walks, and it is showed that the control scheme has adaptive and effective properties. PMID:24741341

  2. Cooperative Search and Rescue with Artificial Fishes Based on Fish-Swarm Algorithm for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a searching control approach for cooperating mobile sensor networks. We use a density function to represent the frequency of distress signals issued by victims. The mobile nodes’ moving in mission space is similar to the behaviors of fish-swarm in water. So, we take the mobile node as artificial fish node and define its operations by a probabilistic model over a limited range. A fish-swarm based algorithm is designed requiring local information at each fish node and maximizing the joint detection probabilities of distress signals. Optimization of formation is also considered for the searching control approach and is optimized by fish-swarm algorithm. Simulation results include two schemes: preset route and random walks, and it is showed that the control scheme has adaptive and effective properties.

  3. A hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm for numerical function optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqattan, Zakaria N.; Abdullah, Rosni

    2015-02-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence algorithms; it has been introduced by Karaboga in 2005. It is a meta-heuristic optimization search algorithm inspired from the intelligent foraging behavior of the honey bees in nature. Its unique search process made it as one of the most competitive algorithm with some other search algorithms in the area of optimization, such as Genetic algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). However, the ABC performance of the local search process and the bee movement or the solution improvement equation still has some weaknesses. The ABC is good in avoiding trapping at the local optimum but it spends its time searching around unpromising random selected solutions. Inspired by the PSO, we propose a Hybrid Particle-movement ABC algorithm called HPABC, which adapts the particle movement process to improve the exploration of the original ABC algorithm. Numerical benchmark functions were used in order to experimentally test the HPABC algorithm. The results illustrate that the HPABC algorithm can outperform the ABC algorithm in most of the experiments (75% better in accuracy and over 3 times faster).

  4. Effects of artificial feeds on growth and production of fishes in Polyculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hosen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effects of artificial feeds on growth and production of fishes along with some limnological conditions were conducted in polyculture system. Species of Indian major carp (Cirrhinus mrigala and exotic fishes (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix and Oreochromis niloticus were stocked in six ponds under two treatments, each with three replications. Stocking rate in both treatments was 100 fish per decimal at the ratio of silver carp: tilapia: mrigal = 2: 2: 1. Fertilization and artificial feeds were given in Ttreatment 1 (T1 and only fertilization was done in Treatment 2 (T2. Wheat bran, rice bran and soybean meal were given daily as artificial feed in T1 in the ratio of wheat bran: rice bran: soybean meal = 2: 2: 1 (by wt. Urea, T.S.P and cow dung were applied fortnightly at the rate of 60 g deci-1, 90 g deci-1 and 2 kg deci-1 respectively. Water temperature, transparency, pH, dissolved oxygen, free CO2, total alkalinity, PO4-P and NO3-N were determined fortnightly and phytoplankton and zooplankton were studied fortnightly. These limnological conditions were more or less similar in the ponds under two treatments and were within suitable ranges. Calculated gross and net yields of fish were 16.56 and 12.48 ton ha-1 respectively in case of fertilization and artificial feeding application (T1 and 9.99 and 5.91 ton ha-1 respectively in case of only fertilization (T2. Application of artificial feed in T1 significantly increased the growth and production of fish more than two times which indicates that artificial feeding in polyculture is very useful for increasing fish production.

  5. Optimization of pump parameters for gain flattened Raman fiber amplifiers based on artificial fish school algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai Ming; Xie, Kang; Wang, Ya Fei

    2011-11-01

    In this work, a novel metaheuristic named artificial fish school algorithm is introduced into the optimization of pump parameters for the design of gain flattened Raman fiber amplifiers for the first time. Artificial fish school algorithm emulates three simple social behaviors of a fish in a school, namely, preying, swarming and following, to optimize a target function. In this algorithm the pump wavelengths and power levels are mapped respectively to the state of a fish in a school, and the gain of a Raman fiber amplifier is mapped to the concentration of a food source for the fish school to search. Application of this algorithm to the design of a C-band gain flattened Raman fiber amplifier leads to an optimized amplifier that produces a flat gain spectrum with 0.63 dB in band ripple for given conditions. This result demonstrates that the artificial fish school algorithm is efficient for the optimization of pump parameters of gain flattened Raman fiber amplifiers.

  6. Fish species composition and abundance on a subtropical, artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition and abundance of fish species on a derelict rocky pier on the Durban beachfront, KwaZulu-. Natal, South Africa, were assessed by means of underwater visual census, using transects. A total of 74 spe- cies were recorded on the reef, with convict surgeons (Acanthurus triostegus), sash damsels ...

  7. Use of a parallel artificial membrane system to evaluate passive absorption and elimination in small fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Katz, Lynn E; Liljestrand, Howard M

    2006-12-01

    A parallel artificial lipid membrane system was developed to mimic passive mass transfer of hydrophobic organic chemicals in fish. In this physical model system, a membrane filter-supported lipid bilayer separates two aqueous phases that represent the external and internal aqueous environments of fish. To predict bioconcentration kinetics in small fish with this system, literature absorption and elimination rates were analyzed with an allometric diffusion model to quantify the mass transfer resistances in the aqueous and lipid phases of fish. The effect of the aqueous phase mass transfer resistance was controlled by adjusting stirring intensity to mimic bioconcentration rates in small fish. Twenty-three simple aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model compounds for purposes of evaluation. For most of the selected chemicals, literature absorption/elimination rates fall into the range predicted from measured membrane permeabilities and elimination rates of the selected chemicals determined by the diffusion model system.

  8. Reduction of herbivorous fish pressure can facilitate focal algal species forestation on artificial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Laura; Mangialajo, Luisa

    2018-07-01

    Coastal areas have been transformed worldwide by urbanization, so that artificial structures are now widespread. Current coastal development locally depletes many native marine species, while offering limited possibilities for their expansion. Eco-engineering interventions intend to identify ways to facilitate the presence of focal species and their associated functions on artificial habitats. An important but overlooked factor controlling restoration operations is overgrazing by herbivores. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of different potential feeders on Cystoseira amentacea, a native canopy-forming alga of the Mediterranean infralittoral fringe, and test whether manipulation of grazing pressure can facilitate the human-guided installation of this focal species on coastal structures. Results of laboratory tests and field experiments revealed that Sarpa salpa, the only strictly native herbivorous fish in the Western Mediterranean Sea, can be a very effective grazer of C. amentacea in artificial habitats, up to as far as the infralittoral fringe, which is generally considered less accessible to fishes. S. salpa can limit the success of forestation operations in artificial novel habitats, causing up to 90% of Cystoseira loss after a few days. Other grazers, such as limpets and crabs, had only a moderate impact. Future engineering operations,intended to perform forestation of canopy-forming algae on artificial structures, should consider relevant biotic factors, such as fish overgrazing, identifying cost-effective techniques to limit their impact, as is the usual practice in restoration programmes on land. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fish habitat preferences in an artificial reservoir system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchalová, Marie; Kubečka, Jan; Hladík, Milan; Hohausová, Eva; Čech, Martin; Frouzová, Jaroslava

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2006), s. 1890-1894 ISSN 0368-0770. [Congress of SIL - International association of theoretical and applied limnology /29./. Lahti, 08.08.2004-14.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : multivariate analysis * fish community * reservoirs * spatial distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. A novel artificial fish swarm algorithm for solving large-scale reliability-redundancy application problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Hu, Xiangtao; Ren, Hong; Zhang, Hongqi

    2015-11-01

    A novel artificial fish swarm algorithm (NAFSA) is proposed for solving large-scale reliability-redundancy allocation problem (RAP). In NAFSA, the social behaviors of fish swarm are classified in three ways: foraging behavior, reproductive behavior, and random behavior. The foraging behavior designs two position-updating strategies. And, the selection and crossover operators are applied to define the reproductive ability of an artificial fish. For the random behavior, which is essentially a mutation strategy, the basic cloud generator is used as the mutation operator. Finally, numerical results of four benchmark problems and a large-scale RAP are reported and compared. NAFSA shows good performance in terms of computational accuracy and computational efficiency for large scale RAP. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of F1 interspecies hybrid offspring with cryopreserved sperm from a live-bearing fish, the swordtail Xiphophorus helleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiping; Hazlewood, Leona; Heater, Sheila J; Guerrero, Paula A; Walter, Ronald B; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2007-03-01

    Despite study of sperm cryopreservation in more than 200 fish species, production of broods from cryopreserved sperm in live-bearing fish has not been demonstrated. This has not been due to a lack of effort, but instead is a result of the unique morphology, biology, and biochemistry of reproduction in viviparous fishes. For example, sperm of Xiphophorus helleri have a cylindrical nucleus, can swim for days after being activated, have glycolytic capabilities, and can reside in the female reproduction tract for months before fertilization. These traits are not found in fishes with external fertilization. The long-standing research use of the genus Xiphophorus has led to development of over 60 pedigreed lines among the 26 species maintained around the world. These species and lines serve as contemporary models in medical research, although they must be maintained as live populations. Previous attempts at establishing sperm cryopreservation protocols for Xiphophorus have not produced live young. To address this we have been studying the parameters surrounding cryobiology of Xiphophorus sperm and applying this information to an improved understanding of internal fertilization and reproduction. Here we report the first successful fertilization and offspring production by cryopreserved sperm in any live-bearing fish. This claim is supported by our use of artificial insemination between two species that yield distinct hybrid offspring to verify paternity via cryopreserved sperm. We provide a practical approach for preservation of valuable genetic resources from live-bearing fish species, a group that is rapidly being lost due to destruction of native habitats.

  12. ANALYSIS DATA SETS USING HYBRID TECHNIQUES APPLIED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS INTEGRATED DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel-Petru GHENCEA; Miron ZAPCIU; Claudiu-Florinel BISU; Elena-Iuliana BOTEANU; Elena-Luminiţa OLTEANU

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a prediction model of behavior spindle from the point of view of the thermal deformations and the level of the vibrations by highlighting and processing the characteristic equations. This is a model analysis for the shaft with similar electro-mechanical characteristics can be achieved using a hybrid analysis based on artificial intelligence (genetic algorithms - artificial neural networks - fuzzy logic). The paper presents a prediction mode obtaining valid range of values f...

  13. A Review of Artificial Lateral Line in Sensor Fabrication and Bionic Applications for Robot Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guijie; Wang, Anyi; Wang, Xinbao; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lateral line is a system of sense organs that can aid fishes to maneuver in a dark environment. Artificial lateral line (ALL) imitates the structure of lateral line in fishes and provides invaluable means for underwater-sensing technology and robot fish control. This paper reviews ALL, including sensor fabrication and applications to robot fish. The biophysics of lateral line are first introduced to enhance the understanding of lateral line structure and function. The design and fabrication of an ALL sensor on the basis of various sensing principles are then presented. ALL systems are collections of sensors that include carrier and control circuit. Their structure and hydrodynamic detection are reviewed. Finally, further research trends and existing problems of ALL are discussed.

  14. A Review of Artificial Lateral Line in Sensor Fabrication and Bionic Applications for Robot Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijie Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral line is a system of sense organs that can aid fishes to maneuver in a dark environment. Artificial lateral line (ALL imitates the structure of lateral line in fishes and provides invaluable means for underwater-sensing technology and robot fish control. This paper reviews ALL, including sensor fabrication and applications to robot fish. The biophysics of lateral line are first introduced to enhance the understanding of lateral line structure and function. The design and fabrication of an ALL sensor on the basis of various sensing principles are then presented. ALL systems are collections of sensors that include carrier and control circuit. Their structure and hydrodynamic detection are reviewed. Finally, further research trends and existing problems of ALL are discussed.

  15. Special Issue: New trends and applications on hybrid artificial intelligence systems

    OpenAIRE

    Corchado Rodríguez, Emilio; Graña Romay, Manuel; Woźniak, MichaŁ

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue is an outgrowth of the HAIS'10, the 5th International Conference on Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems, which was held in San Sebastián, Spain, 23–25 June 2010. The HAIS conference series is devoted to the presentation of innovative techniques involving the hybridization of emerging and active topics in data mining and decision support systems, information fusion, evolutionary computation, visualization techniques, ensemble models, intelligent agent-based systems (compl...

  16. Optimization of Artificial Propagation in Piracanjuba Fish Brycon orbignyanus Using Cryopreserved Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizardo, V O; Melo, C C V; Murgas, L D S; Andrade, E S; Navarro, R D; Ftreitas, T F

    BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved semen could facilitate procedures during the artificial reproduction in fish. Factors affecting cryopreservation efficiency are important to define efficient protocols. This study investigated the application of cryoprotectants on the quality of piracanjuba fish semen, the sperm concentration required for oocyte fertilization and spermatic activation. We evaluated two intracellular cryoprotectant solutions (DMSO and methanol) and two extracellular cryoprotectant solutions (egg yolk and lactose) to cryopreserved piracanjuba semen. Sperm motility rate, motility duration and spermatic alterations were assessed. The protocol for piracanjuba semen cryopreservation can use solutions including either DMSO or methanol as intracellular cryoprotectant and egg yolk or lactose as extracellular cryoprotectants.

  17. Quantum Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on Artificial Fish Swarm

    OpenAIRE

    Yumin, Dong; Li, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Quantum behaved particle swarm algorithm is a new intelligent optimization algorithm; the algorithm has less parameters and is easily implemented. In view of the existing quantum behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm for the premature convergence problem, put forward a quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm based on artificial fish swarm. The new algorithm based on quantum behaved particle swarm algorithm, introducing the swarm and following activities, meanwhile using the a...

  18. Dynamic Analysis of a Phytoplankton-Fish Model with Biological and Artificial Control

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yapei; Zhao, Min; Pan, Xinhong; Dai, Chuanjun

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a nonlinear model of the interaction between phytoplankton and fish, which uses a pair of semicontinuous systems with biological and artificial control. First, the existence of an order-1 periodic solution to the system is analyzed using a Poincaré map and a geometric method. The stability conditions of the order-1 periodic solution are obtained by a theoretical mathematical analysis. Furthermore, based on previous analysis, we investigate the bifurcation in the order-1 periodi...

  19. Generation of New Genotypic and Phenotypic Features in Artificial and Natural Yeast Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter P. Pfliegler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution and genome stabilization have mostly been studied on the Saccharomyces hybrids isolated from natural and alcoholic fermentation environments. Genetic and phenotypic properties have usually been compared to the laboratory and reference strains, as the true ancestors of the natural hybrid yeasts are unknown. In this way the exact impact of different parental fractions on the genome organization or metabolic activity of the hybrid yeasts is difficult to resolve completely. In the present work the evolution of geno- and phenotypic properties is studied in the interspecies hybrids created by the cross-breeding of S. cerevisiae with S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii auxotrophic mutants. We hypothesized that the extent of genomic alterations in S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii should affect the physiology of their F1 offspring in different ways. Our results, obtained by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping and karyotyping analyses, showed that both subgenomes of the S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and of S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids experienced various modifications. However, the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii F1 hybrids underwent more severe genomic alterations than the S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum ones. Generation of the new genotypes also influenced the physiological performances of the hybrids and the occurrence of novel phenotypes. Significant differences in carbohydrate utilization and distinct growth dynamics at increasing concentrations of sodium chloride, urea and miconazole were observed within and between the S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids. Parental strains also demonstrated different contributions to the final metabolic outcomes of the hybrid yeasts. A comparison of the genotypic properties of the artificial hybrids with several hybrid isolates from the wine-related environments and wastewater demonstrated a greater genetic variability of

  20. Energy profiling of demersal fish: a case-study in wind farm artificial reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troch, Marleen; Reubens, Jan T; Heirman, Elke; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-12-01

    The construction of wind farms introduces artificial hard substrates in sandy sediments. As Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and pouting (Trisopterus luscus) tend to aggregate in order to feed around these reefs, energy profiling and trophic markers were applied to study their feeding ecology in a wind farm in the Belgian part of the North Sea. The proximate composition (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) differed significantly between liver and muscle tissue but not between fish species or between their potential prey species. Atlantic cod showed to consume more energy than pouting. The latter had a higher overall energy reserve and can theoretically survive twice as long on the available energy than cod. In autumn, both fish species could survive longer on their energy than in spring. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in high concentrations in fish liver. The prey species Jassa and Pisidia were both rich in EPA while Jassa had a higher DHA content than Pisidia. Energy profiling supported the statement that wind farm artificial reefs are suitable feeding ground for both fish species. Sufficient energy levels were recorded and there is no indication of competition.

  1. Analysis of micro-failure behaviors in artificial muscles based on fishing line and sewing thread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. B.; Cheng, K. F.; Tu, S. L.; He, X. M.; Ma, C.; Jin, Y. Z.; Kang, X. N.; Sun, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to discuss a new and effective method for testing artificial muscles based on micro-failure behaviors analysis. Thermo-mechanical actuators based on fishing line and sewing thread, also, the capability of responding to ambient temperature variations producing a large amount of shrinkage ratio of a resulting variation in longitudinal length. The minimum micro-failure value is 0.02μm and the maximum value is 1.72μm with nylon twist pattern. The discovery of an innovative effective testing of artificial muscles based on polymeric fibers specimens on micro-failure, rupture, slippage, etc. This research finds out a micro-failure behavior analysis of thermo-mechanical actuators based on fishing line and sewing thread. The specimens show large deformations when heated together with warping performance in terms of shrinkage of energy and densities. With the purpose of providing useful analysis data for the further technology applications, we attempt micrometre-sized artificial muscles which were also tested was readily accessible and also can be applied to other polymeric fibers. Effective use of this technique achievement relies on rotate speed, temperature and tensile direction. The results of the tensile testing experiments were outstanding with respect to some important issues related to the response of micro-structure, twisted polymeric fibers and shrinkage ratio.

  2. A review on robotic fish enabled by ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    A novel actuating material, which is lightweight, soft, and capable of generating large flapping motion under electrical stimuli, is highly desirable to build energy-efficient and maneuverable bio-inspired underwater robots. Ionic polymer-metal composites are important category of electroactive polymers, since they can generate large bending motions under low actuation voltages. IPMCs are ideal artificial muscles for small-scale and bio-inspired robots. This paper takes a system perspective to review the recent work on IPMC-enabled underwater robots, from modeling, fabrication, and bio-inspired design perspectives. First, a physics-based and control-oriented model of IPMC actuator will be reviewed. Second, a bio-inspired robotic fish propelled by IPMC caudal fin will be presented and a steady-state speed model of the fish will be demonstrated. Third, a novel fabrication process for 3D actuating membrane will be introduced and a bio-inspired robotic manta ray propelled by two IPMC pectoral fins will be demonstrated. Fourth, a 2D maneuverable robotic fish propelled by multiple IPMC fin will be presented. Last, advantages and challenges of using IPMC artificial muscles in bio-inspired robots will be concluded.

  3. Hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as light harvesters and biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can

    2013-11-19

    Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the

  4. ACOUSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: EVALUATION OF THE MODEL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnaen Fahmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroacoustic techniques are a valuable tool for the stock assessments of many fish species. Nonetheless, such techniques are limited by problems of species identification. Several methods and techniques have been used in addressing the problem of acoustic identification species and one of them is Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs. In this paper, Back propagation (BP and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP of the Artificial Neural Network were used to classify carp (Cyprinus carpio, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and catfish (Pangasius hypothalmus. Classification was done using a set of descriptors extracted from the acoustic data records, i.e. Volume Back scattering (Sv, Target Strength (TS, Area Back scattering Strength, Skewness, Kurtosis, Depth, Height and Relative altitude. The results showed that the Multi Layer Perceptron approach performed better than the Back propagation. The classification rates was 85.7% with the multi layer perceptron (MLP compared to 84.8% with back propagation (BP ANN.

  5. Control of a hybrid compensator in a power network by an artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shaw

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the elimination of distortion in electrical power networks has led to the development of various compensator topologies. The increasing cost of electrical energy necessitates the cost-effective operation of any of these topologies. This paper considers the development of an artificial neural network based controller, trained by means of the backpropagation method, that ensures the cost-effective operation of the hybrid compensator consisting of various converters and filters.

  6. Artificial marine habitats favour a single fish species on a long-term scale: the dominance of Boops boops around off-shore fish cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Riera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Off-shore fish cages are new artificial habitats that can affect pelagic fish assemblages and constitute an important food source for wild fish assemblages. This aggregation has noticeable ecological consequences in cage areas in impoverished ecosystems such as those in the Canary archipelago (NE Atlantic Ocean. However, this new habitat could be dominated by a single species, reducing its positive ecological effects. Wild fish assemblages associated with an off-shore fish lease on the northeastern coast of Tenerife (Canary Islands were sampled for six years. Fish assemblage structure beneath fish cages and at controls ( > 500 m from cages differed significantly between locations, with 13 times greater abundance at cage locations. These differences were mainly explained by the dominance of bogue (Boops boops around fish cages. This trend was consistent in the long-term throughout the study period (2004-2009, affecting local fisheries. The presence of fish cages significantly altered wild fish assemblages in the study area, enhancing mainly biomass and abundance of one species, bogue, and causing shifts in species composition.

  7. Influence of environment and mitochondrial heritage on the ecological characteristics of fish in a hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stolzenberg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological characteristics (growth, morphology, reproduction arise from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Genetic analysis of individuals' life history traits might be used to improve our understanding of mechanisms that form and maintain a hybrid zone.A fish hybrid zone was used to characterize the process of natural selection. Data were collected during two reproductive periods (2001 and 2002 and 1117 individuals (nase, Chondrostama nasus nasus, sofie C. toxostoma toxostoma and hybrids were sampled. Reproductive dates of the two parental species overlapped at sympatric sites. The nase had an earlier reproductive period than the sofie; males had longer reproductive periods for both species. Hybridisation between female nase and male sofie was the most likely. Hybrids had a reproductive period similar to the inherited parental mitochondrial type. Growth and reproductive information from different environments has been synthesised following a bayesian approach of the von Bertalanffy model. Hybrid life history traits appear to link with maternal heritage. Hybrid size from the age of two and size at first maturity appeared to be closer to the size of the maternal origin species (nase or sofie. Median growth rates for hybrids were similar and intermediate between those of the parental species. We observed variable life history traits for hybrids and pure forms in the different parts of the hybrid zone. Geometrical analysis of the hybrid fish shape gave evidence of two main morphologies with a link to maternal heritage.Selective mating seemed to be the underlying process which, with mitochondrial heritage, could explain the evolution of the studied hybrid zone. More generally, we showed the importance of studies on hybrid zones and specifically the study of individuals' ecological characteristics, to improve our understanding of speciation.

  8. Influence of environment and mitochondrial heritage on the ecological characteristics of fish in a hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Nicolas; Nguyen The, Bénédicte; Salducci, Marie Dominique; Cavalli, Laurent

    2009-06-18

    Ecological characteristics (growth, morphology, reproduction) arise from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Genetic analysis of individuals' life history traits might be used to improve our understanding of mechanisms that form and maintain a hybrid zone. A fish hybrid zone was used to characterize the process of natural selection. Data were collected during two reproductive periods (2001 and 2002) and 1117 individuals (nase, Chondrostama nasus nasus, sofie C. toxostoma toxostoma and hybrids) were sampled. Reproductive dates of the two parental species overlapped at sympatric sites. The nase had an earlier reproductive period than the sofie; males had longer reproductive periods for both species. Hybridisation between female nase and male sofie was the most likely. Hybrids had a reproductive period similar to the inherited parental mitochondrial type. Growth and reproductive information from different environments has been synthesised following a bayesian approach of the von Bertalanffy model. Hybrid life history traits appear to link with maternal heritage. Hybrid size from the age of two and size at first maturity appeared to be closer to the size of the maternal origin species (nase or sofie). Median growth rates for hybrids were similar and intermediate between those of the parental species. We observed variable life history traits for hybrids and pure forms in the different parts of the hybrid zone. Geometrical analysis of the hybrid fish shape gave evidence of two main morphologies with a link to maternal heritage. Selective mating seemed to be the underlying process which, with mitochondrial heritage, could explain the evolution of the studied hybrid zone. More generally, we showed the importance of studies on hybrid zones and specifically the study of individuals' ecological characteristics, to improve our understanding of speciation.

  9. Introgressive hybridization in Iberian cyprinid fishes:a cytogenomic approach to homoploid Leuciscinae

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carla Sofia Alves, 1983-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 Hybridization is currently a well-recognized process amongst animals responsible for biodiversity, evolution and speciation processes while defying most species concepts. Hybridization is prevalent among fishes, particularly cyprinids, which therefore constitute good models of study (1) to access general patterns of genomic variation, (2) to identify the genetic basis and the evolutiona...

  10. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act As Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, S.; Nelson, P.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai'i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special status fish is needed to facilitate project siting, design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs). We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by comparing them to surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelp vegetation, floating and sunken debris, oil and gas platforms, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net cages used for mariculture, and piers and marinas. We also conducted guided discussions with scientists and resource managers to provide unpublished observations. Our findings indicate the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai`i likely will function as small scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef associated fishes and the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai`i likely will function as de facto FADs.

  11. ANALYSIS DATA SETS USING HYBRID TECHNIQUES APPLIED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS INTEGRATED DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Petru GHENCEA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a prediction model of behavior spindle from the point of view of the thermal deformations and the level of the vibrations by highlighting and processing the characteristic equations. This is a model analysis for the shaft with similar electro-mechanical characteristics can be achieved using a hybrid analysis based on artificial intelligence (genetic algorithms - artificial neural networks - fuzzy logic. The paper presents a prediction mode obtaining valid range of values for spindles with similar characteristics based on measured data sets from a few spindles test without additional measures being required. Extracting polynomial functions of graphs resulting from simultaneous measurements and predict the dynamics of the two features with multi-objective criterion is the main advantage of this method.

  12. Introgressive hybridization as a promoter of genome reshuffling in natural homoploid fish hybrids (Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pereira, C. S.; Aboim, M. A.; Ráb, Petr; Collares-Pereira, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 3 (2014), s. 343-350 ISSN 0018-067X Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : comparative genome hybridization * hybrid zones * introgression Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.805, year: 2014

  13. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Tommerup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the process continues to be a manual, labour intensive, expensive and time consuming technique, often taking over 3–5 days, even in dedicated labs. We have developed a novel microFISH device to perform metaphase FISH on a chip which overcomes many shortcomings of the current laboratory protocols. This work also introduces a novel splashing device for preparing metaphase spreads on a microscope glass slide, followed by a rapid adhesive tape-based bonding protocol leading to rapid fabrication of the microFISH device. The microFISH device allows for an optimized metaphase FISH protocol on a chip with over a 20-fold reduction in the reagent volume. This is the first demonstration of metaphase FISH on a microfluidic device and offers a possibility of automation and significant cost reduction of many routine diagnostic tests of genetic anomalies.

  14. Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm-Based Particle Filter for Li-Ion Battery Life Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent online prognostic approach is proposed for predicting the remaining useful life (RUL of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries based on artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA and particle filter (PF, which is an integrated approach combining model-based method with data-driven method. The parameters, used in the empirical model which is based on the capacity fade trends of Li-ion batteries, are identified dependent on the tracking ability of PF. AFSA-PF aims to improve the performance of the basic PF. By driving the prior particles to the domain with high likelihood, AFSA-PF allows global optimization, prevents particle degeneracy, thereby improving particle distribution and increasing prediction accuracy and algorithm convergence. Data provided by NASA are used to verify this approach and compare it with basic PF and regularized PF. AFSA-PF is shown to be more accurate and precise.

  15. Does interspecies hybridization affect the host specificity of parasites in cyprinid fish?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Dávidová, M.; Papoušek, Ivo; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 95 (2013), s. 95 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cyprinid fish * Interspecies hybridization * Metazoan parasites * Monogenea * Host specificity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.251, year: 2013

  16. Widespread hybridization and bidirectional introgression in sympatric species of coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2017-10-28

    Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, where numerous closely related species often coexist. How new species arise and are maintained in these high geneflow environments have been long-standing conundrums. Hybridization and patterns of introgression between sympatric species provide a unique insight into the mechanisms of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. In this study, we investigate the extent of hybridization between two closely related species of coral reef fish: the common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) and the bar-cheek coral trout (Plectropomus maculatus). Using a complementary set of 25 microsatellite loci, we distinguish pure genotype classes from first- and later-generation hybrids, identifying 124 interspecific hybrids from a collection of 2,991 coral trout sampled in inshore and mid-shelf reefs of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Hybrids were ubiquitous among reefs, fertile and spanned multiple generations suggesting both ecological and evolutionary processes are acting to maintain species barriers. We elaborate on these finding to investigate the extent of genomic introgression and admixture from 2,271 SNP loci recovered from a ddRAD library of pure and hybrid individuals. An analysis of genomic clines on recovered loci indicates that 261 SNP loci deviate from a model of neutral introgression, of which 132 indicate a pattern of introgression consistent with selection favouring both hybrid and parental genotypes. Our findings indicate genome-wide, bidirectional introgression between two sympatric species of coral reef fishes and provide further support to a growing body of evidence for the role of hybridization in the evolution of coral reef fishes.

  17. Hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm for parameter optimization of five-parameter bidirectional reflectance distribution function model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Jing; Gong, Yong; Hao, Qun; Peng, Zhong

    2017-11-20

    A hybrid artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm inspired by the best-so-far solution and bacterial chemotaxis was introduced to optimize the parameters of the five-parameter bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model. To verify the performance of the hybrid ABC algorithm, we measured BRDF of three kinds of samples and simulated the undetermined parameters of the five-parameter BRDF model using the hybrid ABC algorithm and the genetic algorithm, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the hybrid ABC algorithm outperforms the genetic algorithm in convergence speed, accuracy, and time efficiency under the same conditions.

  18. Feature Selection and Parameter Optimization of Support Vector Machines Based on Modified Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Cheng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in information and communication technology have made ubiquitous computing and the Internet of Things popular and practicable. These applications create enormous volumes of data, which are available for analysis and classification as an aid to decision-making. Among the classification methods used to deal with big data, feature selection has proven particularly effective. One common approach involves searching through a subset of the features that are the most relevant to the topic or represent the most accurate description of the dataset. Unfortunately, searching through this kind of subset is a combinatorial problem that can be very time consuming. Meaheuristic algorithms are commonly used to facilitate the selection of features. The artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA employs the intelligence underlying fish swarming behavior as a means to overcome optimization of combinatorial problems. AFSA has proven highly successful in a diversity of applications; however, there remain shortcomings, such as the likelihood of falling into a local optimum and a lack of multiplicity. This study proposes a modified AFSA (MAFSA to improve feature selection and parameter optimization for support vector machine classifiers. Experiment results demonstrate the superiority of MAFSA in classification accuracy using subsets with fewer features for given UCI datasets, compared to the original FASA.

  19. Behavioural isolation may facilitate homoploid hybrid speciation in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selz, O. M.; Thommen, R.; Maan, M. E.; Seehausen, O.

    Hybrid speciation is constrained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow from the parental species. In the absence of post-mating isolation due to structural changes in the genome, or temporal or spatial premating isolation, another form of reproductive isolation would be needed for homoploid

  20. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH Signal Analysis Using Automated Generated Projection Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH tests provide promising molecular imaging biomarkers to more accurately and reliably detect and diagnose cancers and genetic disorders. Since current manual FISH signal analysis is low-efficient and inconsistent, which limits its clinical utility, developing automated FISH image scanning systems and computer-aided detection (CAD schemes has been attracting research interests. To acquire high-resolution FISH images in a multi-spectral scanning mode, a huge amount of image data with the stack of the multiple three-dimensional (3-D image slices is generated from a single specimen. Automated preprocessing these scanned images to eliminate the non-useful and redundant data is important to make the automated FISH tests acceptable in clinical applications. In this study, a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system was applied to scan four specimen slides with FISH-probed chromosome X. A CAD scheme was developed to detect analyzable interphase cells and map the multiple imaging slices recorded FISH-probed signals into the 2-D projection images. CAD scheme was then applied to each projection image to detect analyzable interphase cells using an adaptive multiple-threshold algorithm, identify FISH-probed signals using a top-hat transform, and compute the ratios between the normal and abnormal cells. To assess CAD performance, the FISH-probed signals were also independently visually detected by an observer. The Kappa coefficients for agreement between CAD and observer ranged from 0.69 to 1.0 in detecting/counting FISH signal spots in four testing samples. The study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH signal analysis that applying a CAD scheme to the automated generated 2-D projection images.

  1. A Soft Total Artificial Heart-First Concept Evaluation on a Hybrid Mock Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Nicholas H; Petrou, Anastasios; Loepfe, Michael; Yliruka, Maria; Schumacher, Christoph M; Kohll, A Xavier; Starck, Christoph T; Schmid Daners, Marianne; Meboldt, Mirko; Falk, Volkmar; Stark, Wendelin J

    2017-10-01

    The technology of 3D-printing has allowed the production of entirely soft pumps with complex chamber geometries. We used this technique to develop a completely soft pneumatically driven total artificial heart from silicone elastomers and evaluated its performance on a hybrid mock circulation. The goal of this study is to present an innovative concept of a soft total artificial heart (sTAH). Using the form of a human heart, we designed a sTAH, which consists of only two ventricles and produced it using a 3D-printing, lost-wax casting technique. The diastolic properties of the sTAH were defined and the performance of the sTAH was evaluated on a hybrid mock circulation under various physiological conditions. The sTAH achieved a blood flow of 2.2 L/min against a systemic vascular resistance of 1.11 mm Hg s/mL (afterload), when operated at 80 bpm. At the same time, the mean pulmonary venous pressure (preload) was fixed at 10 mm Hg. Furthermore, an aortic pulse pressure of 35 mm Hg was measured, with a mean aortic pressure of 48 mm Hg. The sTAH generated physiologically shaped signals of blood flow and pressures by mimicking the movement of a real heart. The preliminary results of this study show a promising potential of the soft pumps in heart replacements. Further work, focused on increasing blood flow and in turn aortic pressure is required. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of Fluorescence In situ Hybridization (FISH) Analysis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Patrick R; Mikhail, Fady M

    2017-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic neoplasia consisting of incompletely differentiated hematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage that proliferate in the bone marrow, blood, and/or other tissues. Clinical implementation of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in cytogenetic laboratories allows for high-resolution analysis of recurrent structural chromosomal rearrangements specific to AML, especially in AML with normal karyotypes, which comprises approximately 33-50% of AML-positive specimens. Here, we review the use of several FISH probe strategies in the diagnosis of AML. We also review the standards and guidelines currently in place for use by clinical cytogenetic laboratories in the evaluation of AML. Updated standards and guidelines from the WHO, ACMG, and NCCN have further defined clinically significant, recurring cytogenetic anomalies in AML that are detectable by FISH. FISH continues to be a powerful technique in the diagnosis of AML, with higher resolution than conventional cytogenetic analysis, rapid turnaround time, and a considerable diagnostic and prognostic utility.

  3. Effect of citric acid on the acidification of artificial pepsin solution for metacercariae isolation from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Young-Sang; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Ki Hwan; Ko, Seong-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2013-11-15

    Artificial digestive solution based on pepsin is essential for collecting metacercariae from fish. To promote the enzymatic reactivity of pepsin, the pH of the solution has to be adjusted to pH 1.0-2.0. Hydrochloride (HCl) is usually used for this purpose, but the use of HCl raises safety concerns. The aim of this work was to address the usefulness of citric acid as an alternative for HCl for the acidification of pepsin solution, and to examine its potential to damage metacercariae during in vitro digestion as compared with HCl. Changes in pH after adding 1-9% of citric acid (m/v) to pepsin solution were compared to a 1% HCl (v/v) addition. Digestion of fish muscle was evaluated by measuring released protein concentrations by spectrophotometry. In addition, survival rates of metacercariae in pepsin solution were determined at different citric acid concentrations and were compared that of with 1% HCl. The present study shows that addition of citric acid reduced the pH of pepsin solutions to the required level. Addition of more than 5% of citric acid resulted in the effective digestion of fish muscle over 3h in vitro, and 5% citric acid was less lethal to metacercariae than 1% HCl in pepsin solution. Pepsin solution containing 5% citric acid had digestive capacity superior to pepsin solution containing 1% HCl after 3h incubation with released protein concentrations of 12.0 ng/ml for 5% citric acid and 9.6 ng/ml for 1% HCl. Accordingly, the present study suggests that the addition of 5% citric acid to pepsin solution is a good alternative to 1% HCl in infection studies because citric acid is a stable at room temperature and has a good safety profile. In addition, we suggest that the use of citric acid enables the preparation of commercial digestive solutions for the detection of microorganisms in fish and other vertebrate muscle tissue. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hybrid Spectral Unmixing: Using Artificial Neural Networks for Linear/Non-Linear Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmau M. Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectral unmixing is a key process in identifying spectral signature of materials and quantifying their spatial distribution over an image. The linear model is expected to provide acceptable results when two assumptions are satisfied: (1 The mixing process should occur at macroscopic level and (2 Photons must interact with single material before reaching the sensor. However, these assumptions do not always hold and more complex nonlinear models are required. This study proposes a new hybrid method for switching between linear and nonlinear spectral unmixing of hyperspectral data based on artificial neural networks. The neural networks was trained with parameters within a window of the pixel under consideration. These parameters are computed to represent the diversity of the neighboring pixels and are based on the Spectral Angular Distance, Covariance and a non linearity parameter. The endmembers were extracted using Vertex Component Analysis while the abundances were estimated using the method identified by the neural networks (Vertex Component Analysis, Fully Constraint Least Square Method, Polynomial Post Nonlinear Mixing Model or Generalized Bilinear Model. Results show that the hybrid method performs better than each of the individual techniques with high overall accuracy, while the abundance estimation error is significantly lower than that obtained using the individual methods. Experiments on both synthetic dataset and real hyperspectral images demonstrated that the proposed hybrid switch method is efficient for solving spectral unmixing of hyperspectral images as compared to individual algorithms.

  5. Organoleptic, physical, and chemical tests of artificial feed for milk fish substituted by earthworm meal (Lumbricus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aslamyah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp. is very prospective as milkfish feed raw materials to substitute fish meal. Type of raw material and the exact composition will generate artificial feed quality with high levels of water stability, desirable, and safe for the fish. The purpose of this study to evaluate the quality of milkfish feed at different levels of fish meal substitution with earthworms (Lumbricus sp. based on organoleptic, physical, and chemical tests. The treatments tested levels of substitution of fish meal with earthworms meal in artificial feed milkfish, namely: feed A (0%; feed B (34,62%; feed C (65,38% and feed D (100%. The organoleptic and physical test showed that all the feed has a smooth texture, pungent aroma, and brown in color, with good water stability (rupture velocity ranged from 91,25±1,47 up to 92,87±1,67 minutes and dispersion of solids 11,14±1,55 up to 11,87±1,3%, hardness 84±0,18 up to 84,71±1,24%, sinking velocity 5,07±0,68 up to 5,64±0,17 cm/sec, the level of homogeneity of 81,34±0,17 up to 85,68±1,85%, the allure of 0,62±0,58 up to 0,65±0,12 cm/sec and delicious power of 0,059±0,024 up to 0,067±0,032 g/fish weight/day. The quality of feed is chemically with moisture content ranging from 8,4–9,1%, 16,7–19,46% ash, 31,07–32,37%, protein, 6,67–7,58% fat, crude fiber 7,45–7,87%, NFE (nitrogen free extracts 35,35–35,48%. Results show that different levels of substitution of fish meal with earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp. produces the same feed quality and contains nutrients in a range requirement milkfish. Accordingly, earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp. can be substituted for fish meal in fish milk feed artificial up to 100%.Keywords: substitution, fish meal, earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp., artificial feed, milkfish

  6. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  7. Engineering functional artificial hybrid proteins between poplar peroxiredoxin II and glutaredoxin or thioredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhier, Nicolas; Gama, Filipe; Wingsle, Gunnar; Gelhaye, Eric; Gans, Pierre; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The existence of natural peroxiredoxin-glutaredoxin hybrid enzymes in several bacteria is in line with previous findings indicating that poplar peroxiredoxin II can use glutaredoxin as an electron donor. This peroxiredoxin remains however unique since it also uses thioredoxin with a quite good efficiency. Based on the existing fusions, we have created artificial enzymes containing a poplar peroxiredoxin module linked to glutaredoxin or thioredoxin modules. The recombinant fusion enzymes folded properly into non-covalently bound homodimers or homotetramers. Two of the three protein constructs exhibit peroxidase activity, a reaction where the two modules need to function together, but they also display enzymatic activities specific of each module. In addition, mass spectrometry analyses indicate that the Prx module can be both glutathiolated or overoxidized in vitro. This is discussed in the light of the Prx reactivity

  8. Beyond AI: Multi-Intelligence (MI Combining Natural and Artificial Intelligences in Hybrid Beings and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Fox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Framing strongly influences actions among technology proponents and end-users. Underlying much debate about artificial intelligence (AI are several fundamental shortcomings in its framing. First, discussion of AI is atheoretical, and therefore has limited potential for addressing the complexity of causation. Second, intelligence is considered from an anthropocentric perspective that sees human intelligence, and intelligence developed by humans, as superior to all other intelligences. Thus, the extensive post-anthropocentric research into intelligence is not given sufficient consideration. Third, AI is discussed often in reductionist mechanistic terms. Rather than in organicist emergentist terms as a contributor to multi-intelligence (MI hybrid beings and/or systems. Thus, current framing of AI can be a self-validating reduction within which AI development is focused upon AI becoming the single-variable mechanism causing future effects. In this paper, AI is reframed as a contributor to MI.

  9. Transit Network Design: a Hybrid Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony Approach and a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A bus network design problem in a suburban area of Hong Kong is studied. The objective is to minimize the weighted sum of the number of transfers and the total travel time of passengers by restructuring bus routes and determining new frequencies. A mixed integer optimization model is developed and was solved by a Hybrid Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (HEABC. A case study was conducted to investigate the effects of different design parameters, including the total number of bus routes available, the maximum route duration within the study area and the maximum allowable number of bus routes that originated from each terminal. The model and results are useful for improving bus service policies.

  10. The Robot Path Planning Based on Improved Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Path planning is critical to the efficiency and fidelity of robot navigation. The solution of robot path planning is to seek a collision-free and the shortest path from the start node to target node. In this paper, we propose a new improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (IAFSA to process the mobile robot path planning problem in a real environment. In IAFSA, an attenuation function is introduced to improve the visual of standard AFSA and get the balance of global search and local search; also, an adaptive operator is introduced to enhance the adaptive ability of step. Besides, a concept of inertia weight factor is proposed in IAFSA inspired by PSO intelligence algorithm to improve the convergence rate and accuracy of IAFSA. Five unconstrained optimization test functions are given to illustrate the strong searching ability and ideal convergence of IAFSA. Finally, the ROS (robot operation system based experiment is carried out on a Pioneer 3-DX mobile robot; the experiment results also show the superiority of IAFSA.

  11. Transplantation of islet allografts and xenografts in totally pancreatectomized diabetic dogs using the hybrid artificial pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A P; Maki, T; Ozato, H; Carretta, M; Sullivan, S J; Borland, K M; Mahoney, M D; Chick, W L; Muller, T E; Wolfrum, J

    1991-01-01

    Previously the authors reported on a Hybrid Artificial Pancreas device that maintained patent vascular anastomoses in normal dogs and, when seeded with allogeneic canine islets, maintained normal fasting blood sugars (FBS) in diabetic pancreatectomized dogs. Eventual failure of these devices was believed to be related to loss of islet viability and/or insufficient islet mass. The current study evaluates the effect of increased islet mass produced by implantation of two islet-seeded devices in pancreatectomized dogs and compares the results with those from dogs that received a single device. Twelve of fifteen dogs receiving single devices showed initial function as determined by elimination or reduction of exogenous insulin requirement; four showed initial function and seven showed extended function (100 to 284 days). Excessive weight loss (more than 20%), despite normal FBS and insulin dependence, required that four animals in this latter group be killed. Devices seeded with xenogeneic islets have met with limited success. One dog that received two bovine islet-seeded devices achieved function for more than 100 days; the remaining bovine-seeded devices (n = 8) functioned for only 3 to 16 days. Porcine islet-seeded devices were assessed by intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT). Recipients of two devices seeded with allogeneic islets demonstrated improved IVGTT results when compared to those from pancreatectomized dogs and recipients of single devices but were abnormal when compared to intact animals. Histologic examination of device and autopsy material from all failed experiments was performed and showed no mononuclear cell infiltration of the islet chamber or vascular graft material, only a few incidence of device thrombosis, and varying degrees of islet viability as judged by morphologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. The authors believe they have demonstrated progress toward the development and clinical applicability of the Hybrid Artificial Pancreas

  12. Multimodal optimization by using hybrid of artificial bee colony algorithm and BFGS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anam, S.

    2017-10-01

    Optimization has become one of the important fields in Mathematics. Many problems in engineering and science can be formulated into optimization problems. They maybe have many local optima. The optimization problem with many local optima, known as multimodal optimization problem, is how to find the global solution. Several metaheuristic methods have been proposed to solve multimodal optimization problems such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetics Algorithm (GA), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, etc. The performance of the ABC algorithm is better than or similar to those of other population-based algorithms with the advantage of employing a fewer control parameters. The ABC algorithm also has the advantages of strong robustness, fast convergence and high flexibility. However, it has the disadvantages premature convergence in the later search period. The accuracy of the optimal value cannot meet the requirements sometimes. Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm is a good iterative method for finding a local optimum. Compared with other local optimization methods, the BFGS algorithm is better. Based on the advantages of the ABC algorithm and the BFGS algorithm, this paper proposes a hybrid of the artificial bee colony algorithm and the BFGS algorithm to solve the multimodal optimization problem. The first step is that the ABC algorithm is run to find a point. In the second step is that the point obtained by the first step is used as an initial point of BFGS algorithm. The results show that the hybrid method can overcome from the basic ABC algorithm problems for almost all test function. However, if the shape of function is flat, the proposed method cannot work well.

  13. Design of Hybrid Solar and Wind Energy Harvester for Fishing Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjarnahor, D. A.; Hanifan, M.; Budi, E. M.

    2017-07-01

    In southern beach of West Java, Indonesia, there are many villagers live as fishermen. They use small boats for fishing, in one to three days. Therefore, they need a fish preservation system. Fortunately, the area has high potential of solar and wind energy. This paper presents the design of a hybrid solar and wind energy harvester to power a refrigerator in the fishing boat. The refrigerator should keep the fish in 2 - 4 °C. The energy needed is 720 Wh daily. In the area, the daily average wind velocity is 4.27 m/s and the sun irradiation is 672 W/m2. The design combined two 100W solar panels and a 300W wind turbine. The testing showed that the solar panels can harvest 815 - 817 Wh of energy, while the wind turbine can harvest 43 - 62 Wh of energy daily. Therefore, the system can fulfil the energy requirement in fishing boat, although the solar panels were more dominant. To install the wind turbine on the fishing-boat, a computational design had been conducted. The boat hydrostatic dimension was measured to determine its stability condition. To reach a stable equilibrium condition, the wind turbine should be installed no more than 1.7 m of height.

  14. Hybrid carbon nanotube yarn artificial muscle inspired by spider dragline silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Hyeong Kim, Shi; Kyoon Shin, Min; Hoon Kwon, Cheong; Park, Jihwang; Tae Kim, Youn; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Lima, Márcio D; Haines, Carter S; Baughman, Ray H; Jeong Kim, Seon

    2014-01-01

    Torsional artificial muscles generating fast, large-angle rotation have been recently demonstrated, which exploit the helical configuration of twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns. These wax-infiltrated, electrothermally powered artificial muscles are torsionally underdamped, thereby experiencing dynamic oscillations that complicate positional control. Here, using the strategy spiders deploy to eliminate uncontrolled spinning at the end of dragline silk, we have developed ultrafast hybrid carbon nanotube yarn muscles that generated a 9,800 r.p.m. rotation without noticeable oscillation. A high-loss viscoelastic material, comprising paraffin wax and polystyrene-poly(ethylene-butylene)-polystyrene copolymer, was used as yarn guest to give an overdamped dynamic response. Using more than 10-fold decrease in mechanical stabilization time, compared with previous nanotube yarn torsional muscles, dynamic mirror positioning that is both fast and accurate is demonstrated. Scalability to provide constant volumetric torsional work capacity is demonstrated over a 10-fold change in yarn cross-sectional area, which is important for upscaled applications.

  15. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Simple Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel, L.; Brown, Clifford, A.; Walker, Bruce, E.

    2012-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the Langley Research Center s 14- by 22-Foot wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full three-dimensional 5.8 percent scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8 percent rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of candidate engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft and to provide a database for shielding code validation. A range of frequencies, and a parametric study of modes were generated from exhaust and inlet nacelle configurations. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 in. Two planes perpendicular to the axis of the nacelle (in its 0 orientation) and three planes parallel were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed five sweeps, for a total span of 160 in. acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Level, and integrated Power Levels are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct modal structure.

  16. Color matching of fabric blends: hybrid Kubelka-Munk + artificial neural network based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furferi, Rocco; Governi, Lapo; Volpe, Yary

    2016-11-01

    Color matching of fabric blends is a key issue for the textile industry, mainly due to the rising need to create high-quality products for the fashion market. The process of mixing together differently colored fibers to match a desired color is usually performed by using some historical recipes, skillfully managed by company colorists. More often than desired, the first attempt in creating a blend is not satisfactory, thus requiring the experts to spend efforts in changing the recipe with a trial-and-error process. To confront this issue, a number of computer-based methods have been proposed in the last decades, roughly classified into theoretical and artificial neural network (ANN)-based approaches. Inspired by the above literature, the present paper provides a method for accurate estimation of spectrophotometric response of a textile blend composed of differently colored fibers made of different materials. In particular, the performance of the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory is enhanced by introducing an artificial intelligence approach to determine a more consistent value of the nonlinear function relationship between the blend and its components. Therefore, a hybrid K-M+ANN-based method capable of modeling the color mixing mechanism is devised to predict the reflectance values of a blend.

  17. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K

    2017-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.

  18. Construction cost estimation of spherical storage tanks: artificial neural networks and hybrid regression—GA algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabzadeh, Vida; Niaki, S. T. A.; Arabzadeh, Vahid

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important processes in the early stages of construction projects is to estimate the cost involved. This process involves a wide range of uncertainties, which make it a challenging task. Because of unknown issues, using the experience of the experts or looking for similar cases are the conventional methods to deal with cost estimation. The current study presents data-driven methods for cost estimation based on the application of artificial neural network (ANN) and regression models. The learning algorithms of the ANN are the Levenberg-Marquardt and the Bayesian regulated. Moreover, regression models are hybridized with a genetic algorithm to obtain better estimates of the coefficients. The methods are applied in a real case, where the input parameters of the models are assigned based on the key issues involved in a spherical tank construction. The results reveal that while a high correlation between the estimated cost and the real cost exists; both ANNs could perform better than the hybridized regression models. In addition, the ANN with the Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm (LMNN) obtains a better estimation than the ANN with the Bayesian-regulated learning algorithm (BRNN). The correlation between real data and estimated values is over 90%, while the mean square error is achieved around 0.4. The proposed LMNN model can be effective to reduce uncertainty and complexity in the early stages of the construction project.

  19. Introducing a Novel Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Algorithm to Optimize Network of Industrial Applications in Modern Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Azizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in modern manufacturing industries have created a great need to track and identify objects and parts by obtaining real-time information. One of the main technologies which has been utilized for this need is the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID system. As a result of adopting this technology to the manufacturing industry environment, RFID Network Planning (RNP has become a challenge. Mainly RNP deals with calculating the number and position of antennas which should be deployed in the RFID network to achieve full coverage of the tags that need to be read. The ultimate goal of this paper is to present and evaluate a way of modelling and optimizing nonlinear RNP problems utilizing artificial intelligence (AI techniques. This effort has led the author to propose a novel AI algorithm, which has been named “hybrid AI optimization technique,” to perform optimization of RNP as a hard learning problem. The proposed algorithm is composed of two different optimization algorithms: Redundant Antenna Elimination (RAE and Ring Probabilistic Logic Neural Networks (RPLNN. The proposed hybrid paradigm has been explored using a flexible manufacturing system (FMS, and results have been compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA that demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed architecture successfully.

  20. Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Hybrid Intelligence for Predicting Thai Stock Price Index Trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjing, Veera; Intakosum, Sarun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for prediction of Thailand's SET50 index trend. ANN is a widely accepted machine learning method that uses past data to predict future trend, while GA is an algorithm that can find better subsets of input variables for importing into ANN, hence enabling more accurate prediction by its efficient feature selection. The imported data were chosen technical indicators highly regarded by stock analysts, each represented by 4 input variables that were based on past time spans of 4 different lengths: 3-, 5-, 10-, and 15-day spans before the day of prediction. This import undertaking generated a big set of diverse input variables with an exponentially higher number of possible subsets that GA culled down to a manageable number of more effective ones. SET50 index data of the past 6 years, from 2009 to 2014, were used to evaluate this hybrid intelligence prediction accuracy, and the hybrid's prediction results were found to be more accurate than those made by a method using only one input variable for one fixed length of past time span. PMID:27974883

  1. Optimization of the core configuration design using a hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayat, Afshin; Davilu, Hadi; Barfrosh, Ahmad Abdollahzadeh; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2009-01-01

    To successfully carry out material irradiation experiments and radioisotope productions, a high thermal neutron flux at irradiation box over a desired life time of a core configuration is needed. On the other hand, reactor safety and operational constraints must be preserved during core configuration selection. Two main objectives and two safety and operational constraints are suggested to optimize reactor core configuration design. Suggested parameters and conditions are considered as two separate fitness functions composed of two main objectives and two penalty functions. This is a constrained and combinatorial type of a multi-objective optimization problem. In this paper, a fast and effective hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm is introduced and developed to reach a Pareto optimal set. The hybrid algorithm is composed of a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a fast fitness function evaluating system based on the cascade feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). A specific GA representation of core configuration and also special GA operators are introduced and used to overcome the combinatorial constraints of this optimization problem. A software package (Core Pattern Calculator 1) is developed to prepare and reform required data for ANNs training and also to revise the optimization results. Some practical test parameters and conditions are suggested to adjust main parameters of the hybrid algorithm. Results show that introduced ANNs can be trained and estimate selected core parameters of a research reactor very quickly. It improves effectively optimization process. Final optimization results show that a uniform and dense diversity of Pareto fronts are gained over a wide range of fitness function values. To take a more careful selection of Pareto optimal solutions, a revision system is introduced and used. The revision of gained Pareto optimal set is performed by using developed software package. Also some secondary operational

  2. Optimization of the core configuration design using a hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Afshin, E-mail: ahedayat@aut.ac.i [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor Research and Development School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), End of North Karegar Street, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davilu, Hadi [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barfrosh, Ahmad Abdollahzadeh [Department of Computer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepanloo, Kamran [Reactor Research and Development School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), End of North Karegar Street, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To successfully carry out material irradiation experiments and radioisotope productions, a high thermal neutron flux at irradiation box over a desired life time of a core configuration is needed. On the other hand, reactor safety and operational constraints must be preserved during core configuration selection. Two main objectives and two safety and operational constraints are suggested to optimize reactor core configuration design. Suggested parameters and conditions are considered as two separate fitness functions composed of two main objectives and two penalty functions. This is a constrained and combinatorial type of a multi-objective optimization problem. In this paper, a fast and effective hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm is introduced and developed to reach a Pareto optimal set. The hybrid algorithm is composed of a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a fast fitness function evaluating system based on the cascade feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). A specific GA representation of core configuration and also special GA operators are introduced and used to overcome the combinatorial constraints of this optimization problem. A software package (Core Pattern Calculator 1) is developed to prepare and reform required data for ANNs training and also to revise the optimization results. Some practical test parameters and conditions are suggested to adjust main parameters of the hybrid algorithm. Results show that introduced ANNs can be trained and estimate selected core parameters of a research reactor very quickly. It improves effectively optimization process. Final optimization results show that a uniform and dense diversity of Pareto fronts are gained over a wide range of fitness function values. To take a more careful selection of Pareto optimal solutions, a revision system is introduced and used. The revision of gained Pareto optimal set is performed by using developed software package. Also some secondary operational

  3. Application of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Technique for the Detection of Genetic Aberration in Medical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Mehta, Varshil; Haidere, Mohammad Faisal; Runa, Nusrat Jahan; Akter, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technique, which is considered as a new advent in the field of cytology.?Initially, it was developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. The accuracy and versatility of FISH were subsequently capitalized upon in biological and medical research. This visually appealing technique provides an intermediate degree of resolution between DNA analysis and chromosomal investigations. FISH consists of...

  4. Combined fluorescence in situ hybridization and microautoradiography (FISH-MAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginige, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    resulting in an inaccurate evaluation of the natural population dynamics; and (3) the influence caused by artificial environments where cultivation studies are performed also influences gene expression of related organisms. Hence, an accurate functional analysis of the active communities in these complex communities is not feasible through pure cultivation studies

  5. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  6. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Majtánová

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  7. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of airborne Legionella while showering using liquid impingement and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Ha, Thi-Lan; Robine, Enric; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Mathieu, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Aerosols of water contaminated with Legionella bacteria constitute the only mode of exposure for humans. However, the prevention strategy against this pathogenic bacteria risk is managed through the survey of water contamination. No relationship linked the Legionella bacteria water concentration and their airborne abundance. Therefore, new approaches in the field of the metrological aspects of Legionella bioaerosols are required. This study was aimed at testing the main principles for bioaerosol collection (solid impaction, liquid impingement and filtration) and the in situ hybridization (FISH) method, both in laboratory and field assays, with the intention of applying such methodologies for airborne Legionella bacteria detection while showering. An aerosolization chamber was developed to generate controlled and reproducible L. pneumophila aerosols. This tool allowed the identification of the liquid impingement method as the most appropriate one for collecting airborne Legionella bacteria. The culturable fraction of airborne L. pneumophila recovered with the liquid impingement principle was 4 and 700 times higher compared to the impaction and filtration techniques, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of airborne L. pneumophila in the impinger fluid were on average 7.0 x 10(5) FISH-cells m(-3) air with the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method versus 9.0 x 10(4) CFU m(-3) air with the culture method. These results, recorded under well-controlled conditions, were confirmed during the field experiments performed on aerosols generated by hot water showers in health institutions. This new approach may provide a more accurate characterization of aerobiocontamination by Legionella bacteria.

  9. Artificial fish skin of self-powered micro-electromechanical systems hair cells for sensing hydrodynamic flow phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2015-10-06

    Using biological sensors, aquatic animals like fishes are capable of performing impressive behaviours such as super-manoeuvrability, hydrodynamic flow 'vision' and object localization with a success unmatched by human-engineered technologies. Inspired by the multiple functionalities of the ubiquitous lateral-line sensors of fishes, we developed flexible and surface-mountable arrays of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) artificial hair cell flow sensors. This paper reports the development of the MEMS artificial versions of superficial and canal neuromasts and experimental characterization of their unique flow-sensing roles. Our MEMS flow sensors feature a stereolithographically fabricated polymer hair cell mounted on Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 micro-diaphragm with floating bottom electrode. Canal-inspired versions are developed by mounting a polymer canal with pores that guide external flows to the hair cells embedded in the canal. Experimental results conducted employing our MEMS artificial superficial neuromasts (SNs) demonstrated a high sensitivity and very low threshold detection limit of 22 mV/(mm s(-1)) and 8.2 µm s(-1), respectively, for an oscillating dipole stimulus vibrating at 35 Hz. Flexible arrays of such superficial sensors were demonstrated to localize an underwater dipole stimulus. Comparative experimental studies revealed a high-pass filtering nature of the canal encapsulated sensors with a cut-off frequency of 10 Hz and a flat frequency response of artificial SNs. Flexible arrays of self-powered, miniaturized, light-weight, low-cost and robust artificial lateral-line systems could enhance the capabilities of underwater vehicles. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) of microorganisms in hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Karolin; Zeder, Michael; Klug, Rebecca; Pernthaler, Jakob; Schattenhofer, Martha; Harms, Hauke; Wendeberg, Annelie

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater ecosystems are the most important sources of drinking water worldwide but they are threatened by contamination and overexploitation. Petroleum spills account for the most common source of contamination and the high carbon load results in anoxia and steep geochemical gradients. Microbes play a major role in the transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons into less toxic substances. To investigate microbial populations at the single cell level, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is now a well-established technique. Recently, however, catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)-FISH has been introduced for the detection of microbes from oligotrophic environments. Nevertheless, petroleum contaminated aquifers present a worst case scenario for FISH techniques due to the combination of high background fluorescence of hydrocarbons and the presence of small microbial cells caused by the low turnover rates characteristic of groundwater ecosystems. It is therefore not surprising that studies of microorganisms from such sites are mostly based on cultivation techniques, fingerprinting, and amplicon sequencing. However, to reveal the population dynamics and interspecies relationships of the key participants of contaminant degradation, FISH is an indispensable tool. In this study, a protocol for FISH was developed in combination with cell quantification using an automated counting microscope. The protocol includes the separation and purification of microbial cells from sediment particles, cell permeabilization and, finally, CARD-FISH in a microwave oven. As a proof of principle, the distribution of Archaea and Bacteria was shown in 60 sediment samples taken across the contaminant plume of an aquifer (Leuna, Germany), which has been heavily contaminated with several ten-thousand tonnes of petroleum hydrocarbons since World War II. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Joergensen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) to human endothelial receptors during malaria infections is mediated by expression of PfEMP1 protein variants encoded by the var genes. The haploid P. falciparum genome harbors approximately 60 different var genes of which only one has...... been believed to be transcribed per cell at a time during the blood stage of the infection. How such mutually exclusive regulation of var gene transcription is achieved is unclear, as is the identification of individual var genes or sub-groups of var genes associated with different receptors...... fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE(1). Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human...

  12. Standardization and optimization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER-2 assessment in breast cancer: A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovska-Todorovska, Magdalena; Petrushevska, Gordana; Janevska, Vesna; Spasevska, Liljana; Kostadinova-Kunovska, Slavica

    2018-05-20

    Accurate assessment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) is crucial in selecting patients for targeted therapy. Commonly used methods for HER-2 testing are immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Here we presented the implementation, optimization and standardization of two FISH protocols using breast cancer samples and assessed the impact of pre-analytical and analytical factors on HER-2 testing. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from 70 breast cancer patients were tested for HER-2 using PathVysion™ HER-2 DNA Probe Kit and two different paraffin pretreatment kits, Vysis/Abbott Paraffin Pretreatment Reagent Kit (40 samples) and DAKO Histology FISH Accessory Kit (30 samples). The concordance between FISH and IHC results was determined. Pre-analytical and analytical factors (i.e., fixation, baking, digestion, and post-hybridization washing) affected the efficiency and quality of hybridization. The overall hybridization success in our study was 98.6% (69/70); the failure rate was 1.4%. The DAKO pretreatment kit was more time-efficient and resulted in more uniform signals that were easier to interpret, compared to the Vysis/Abbott kit. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH was 84.06%, kappa coefficient 0.5976 (p characteristics. Differences in the pre-analytical and analytical steps can affect the hybridization quality and efficiency. The use of DAKO pretreatment kit is time-saving and cost-effective.

  13. Standardization and optimization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for HER-2 assessment in breast cancer: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bogdanovska-Todorovska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2 is crucial in selecting patients for targeted therapy. Commonly used methods for HER-2 testing are immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Here we presented the implementation, optimization and standardization of two FISH protocols using breast cancer samples and assessed the impact of pre-analytical and analytical factors on HER-2 testing. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissue samples from 70 breast cancer patients were tested for HER-2 using PathVysion™ HER-2 DNA Probe Kit and two different paraffin pretreatment kits, Vysis/Abbott Paraffin Pretreatment Reagent Kit (40 samples and DAKO Histology FISH Accessory Kit (30 samples. The concordance between FISH and IHC results was determined. Pre-analytical and analytical factors (i.e., fixation, baking, digestion, and post-hybridization washing affected the efficiency and quality of hybridization. The overall hybridization success in our study was 98.6% (69/70; the failure rate was 1.4%. The DAKO pretreatment kit was more time-efficient and resulted in more uniform signals that were easier to interpret, compared to the Vysis/Abbott kit. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH was 84.06%, kappa coefficient 0.5976 (p < 0.0001. The greatest discordance (82% between IHC and FISH was observed in IHC 2+ group. A standardized FISH protocol for HER-2 assessment, with high hybridization efficiency, is necessary due to variability in tissue processing and individual tissue characteristics. Differences in the pre-analytical and analytical steps can affect the hybridization quality and efficiency. The use of DAKO pretreatment kit is time-saving and cost-effective.

  14. Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Hybrid Intelligence for Predicting Thai Stock Price Index Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montri Inthachot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Genetic Algorithm (GA for prediction of Thailand’s SET50 index trend. ANN is a widely accepted machine learning method that uses past data to predict future trend, while GA is an algorithm that can find better subsets of input variables for importing into ANN, hence enabling more accurate prediction by its efficient feature selection. The imported data were chosen technical indicators highly regarded by stock analysts, each represented by 4 input variables that were based on past time spans of 4 different lengths: 3-, 5-, 10-, and 15-day spans before the day of prediction. This import undertaking generated a big set of diverse input variables with an exponentially higher number of possible subsets that GA culled down to a manageable number of more effective ones. SET50 index data of the past 6 years, from 2009 to 2014, were used to evaluate this hybrid intelligence prediction accuracy, and the hybrid’s prediction results were found to be more accurate than those made by a method using only one input variable for one fixed length of past time span.

  15. Modeling Self-Healing of Concrete Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan Suleiman, Ahmed; Nehdi, Moncef L

    2017-02-07

    This paper presents an approach to predicting the intrinsic self-healing in concrete using a hybrid genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN). A genetic algorithm was implemented in the network as a stochastic optimizing tool for the initial optimal weights and biases. This approach can assist the network in achieving a global optimum and avoid the possibility of the network getting trapped at local optima. The proposed model was trained and validated using an especially built database using various experimental studies retrieved from the open literature. The model inputs include the cement content, water-to-cement ratio (w/c), type and dosage of supplementary cementitious materials, bio-healing materials, and both expansive and crystalline additives. Self-healing indicated by means of crack width is the model output. The results showed that the proposed GA-ANN model is capable of capturing the complex effects of various self-healing agents (e.g., biochemical material, silica-based additive, expansive and crystalline components) on the self-healing performance in cement-based materials.

  16. Power management of a hybrid renewable system for artificial islands: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzolino, R.; Tribioli, L.; Bella, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid wind/solar/fuel cell power plant is designed and a possible power management strategy is proposed. In particular, wind and solar energy sources are used as primary power suppliers, while a pure-hydrogen-fueled fuel cell – with hydrogen produced by means of an electrolyzer recovering excess power – and a battery pack are employed to fulfill the power demand, when the power supplied by the renewable sources is not sufficient. The analysis is applied to a particular case study, i.e. the TUNeIT [TUNisia and ITaly] Project, that involves the realization of four artificial islands to connect Bon (Tunisia) and Pizzolato (Sicily), provided with electrical-power-demanding facilities for tourists. Components sizing has been performed with HOMER, where a load profile has been assumed in order to reproduce the possible power demand of one of these artificial islands, while Matlab/Simulink"® is used for simulations and power management strategy design. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing an almost self-sustaining renewable power plant, able to realize a good integration of different energy sources and power converters, with no negative effects on end-user satisfaction. The system would consist of a wind turbine of 1 MW and a photovoltaic array of 1.1 MW, acting as primary power sources and several backup systems, such as a 72-kWh battery, a 300-kW fuel cell and a 300-kW diesel engine to cope with power demand unmatches and/or failures. In order to verify the system performance under different situations, simulation studies have been carried out using practical load demand profiles and real weather data. Typical winter and summer day loads have been kept for simulations of a four-season scenario and results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed system. The major drawback encountered during the analysis is the low value of the utilization factors of both wind turbine and photovoltaic array, which are 10

  17. Adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae-Madiinae). II. Cytogenetics of artificial and natural hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.D.; Kyhos, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Hawaiian silversword alliance of Argyroxiphium, Dubautia, and Wilkesia, in spite of exhibiting spectacular morphological, ecological, physiological, and chromosomal diversity, is remarkably cohesive, genetically. This is attested to by the ease of production of artificial hybrids and by the high frequency of spontaneous hybridization among such life forms as mat-forming subshrub, monocarpic rosette shrub, polycarpic shrub, cushion plant, tree, and vine. Even the least fertile of these hybrids is capable of producing backcross progeny. Moreover, first generation interspecific and intergeneric hybrids have been successfully used to produce trispecific hybrids in a number of instances. In general, the widest hybrid combinations have been as readily produced as crosses within a species. At present eight genomes or chromosome races distinguished by reciprocal translocations are recognized on the basis of meiotic analysis of artificial and spontaneous hybrids. Seven of these races are found among those species with 14 pairs of chromosomes. The eighth genome very likely characterizes all nine species of this alliance that have 13 pairs of chromosomes. The cytogenetic data indicate that redundancy of translocations involving the same chromosomes has been a recurrent theme in the chromosomal differentiation of these taxa. There appears to be little, if any, correlation between chromosomal evolution and adaptive radiation as assessed by gross habital differentiation in this group. However, within Dubautia, a novel ecophysiological trait associated with colonization of xeric habitats is restricted to species with n = 13. In contrast to the bulk of the Hawaiian flora, which is characterized by self-compatibility and chromosomal stability, it is suggested that the occurrence of self-incompatibility in the Hawaiian Madiinae may have favored selection of supergenes via chromosomal repatterning, and this may account for the diversity of chromosome structure seen in this group

  18. Determination of trace elements in tailpipe fish produced in artificial farms and from white and blue nile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Zeinb Khalil Elsaim

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an analytical protocol of x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of 13 trace elements, potassium (K), antimony (Sb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), bromine (Br), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cu), manjense (Mn), and calcium (Ca), in tilapa fish. A total of 70 samples covering 35 fish samples collected from different states includes Eldamazine for blue nile samples and the Mawrada market for the white nile samples and 5 artificial fish farms samples were collected from Om badda in Omdurman and Bahry state for three farms Alsamraband Aldorshab and from Alshagra state in Khartoum, during may to June 2016. The trace elements detected in all samples, and the concentration in part million (ppm). The concentrations of trace elements followed the sequence of, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sr, Rb, Pb, but Cr, Hg and Ni were observed in one fish fram (farm A). The analysis included two tissues (flesh and gills), because most people in Sudan consume the flesh and gills, specially in the small fishes, consider as good indicators for the trace elements, and toxic compounds in general. The analysis indicated that the white nile fishes have higher l eves of most of the trace elements compared to the blue nile, e.g. Fe (560±186) in the white nile, whereas in the blue nile, (188±63). On the other hand , the artificial tilapia farms showed significant variations in the trace elements concentrations. The analysis revealed that a higher concentrations of most of the trace elements in gill tissues than flesh, e.g. Fe (1673±1453) in the flesh, and (9768±1175) in the gills. These results indicated that the gill accumulated higher levels of heavy metals than other organs, because they acted as a depot tissue. In addition, the post hoc test was performed following (Dunnett tests), using the blue nile group as a control group, since it has the lowest trace elements concentrations, among the river nile fishes in

  19. Engineering Technology Of Fish Farming Floating Nets Cages On Polka Dot Grouper (Cromileptes Altivelis) Used Artificial Feed Enriched Phytase Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidjan, Istiyanto; Rachmawati, Diana

    2018-02-01

    One solution is to utilize engineering technology cultivation floating cage net polka dot grouper (ducker grouper), which is given artificial feed enriched with phytase enzymes. The objectives of this study was to examine the use of technology engineering floating net on ducker grouper on artificial feed that is enriched with different dose phytase enzymes to accelerate growth and survival. The research method used ducker grouper fish size 15,5 ± 0,5 cm in the net cages unit (1 m x 1 m x 1 m), 250 fish per cage, using 12 cages. Each net-cages was made of polyethylens netting, mesh size 12.5 mm. with complete randomized design (CRD) 4 treatment and 3 replication were feed Artificial enriched of phytase enzyme with the doses of A (0 FTU · kg-1 diet), B (200 FTU · kg-1 diet), C (500 FTU · kg-1 diet), and D (800 FTU · kg-1 diet) phytase enzyme. Feed was given 2 times a day in the morning and afternoon with 5% biomass per day. Data includes the growth of absolute weight polka dot grouper, FCR, and survival rate analyzed variety and Test Tukey.The result of the research showed that the difference of artificial feeding enriched phytase enzyme significantly (P <0,05) to growth, food conversion ratio (FCR), survival rete of polka dot grouper. The best treatment at C (500 mg / kg of feed) increase growth of absolute weight of 128.75 g, 1.75 (FCR), and a survival rate of 93.5%.

  20. Filter-Adapted Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FA-FISH) for Filtration-Enriched Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhen, Marianne; Pailler, Emma; Faugeroux, Vincent; Farace, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may represent an easily accessible source of tumor material to assess genetic aberrations such as gene-rearrangements or gene-amplifications and screen cancer patients eligible for targeted therapies. As the number of CTCs is a critical parameter to identify such biomarkers, we developed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for CTCs enriched on filters (filter-adapted-FISH, FA-FISH). Here, we describe the FA-FISH protocol, the combination of immunofluorescent staining (DAPI/CD45) and FA-FISH techniques, as well as the semi-automated microscopy method that we developed to improve the feasibility and reliability of FISH analyses in filtration-enriched CTC.

  1. A simple protocol for attenuating the auto-fluorescence of cyanobacteria for optimized fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Perrine; Ploux, Olivier; Méjean, Annick

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria contain pigments, which generate auto-fluorescence that interferes with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging of cyanobacteria. We describe simple chemical treatments using CuSO4 or H2O2 that significantly reduce the auto-fluorescence of Microcystis strains. These protocols were successfully applied in FISH experiments using 16S rRNA specific probes and filamentous cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Condition monitoring and thermo economic optimization of operation for a hybrid plant using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen; Fast, Magnus (Lund University, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN) and integrating the ANN models, for online condition monitoring and thermo economic optimization, on site. The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The thermo economic optimization takes into account current electricity prices, taxes, fuel prices etc. and calculates the current production cost along with the 'predicted' production cost. The tool also has a built in feature of predicting when a compressor wash is economically beneficial. The user interface is developed together with co-workers at Vaesthamnsverket to ensure its usefulness. The user interface includes functions for warnings and alarms when possible deviations in operation occur and also includes a feature for plotting parameter trends (both measured and predicted values) in selected time intervals. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The power plant owners want to acquire a product for condition monitoring and thermo economic optimization of e.g. maintenance. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANN models, for condition monitoring, along with their new gas turbines. The project has been carried out at Lund University, Department of Energy Sciences, with support from Vaesthamnsverket AB and Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB. Vaesthamnsverket has contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. They have also been involved in the implementation of the ANN models in their computer system and the development of the user interface. Siemens have contributed with expert knowledge about their SGT800 gas turbine. The implementation of the ANN models, and the accompanying user

  3. Produção de híbridos de amendoim forrageiro por meio de hibridação artificial Production of forage peanut hybrids through artificial hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Augusta Peres Oliveira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi a obtenção de híbridos de amendoim forrageiro por meio da hibridação artificial. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, durante a época de florescimento dos acessos de Arachis pintoi Krap. & W. C. Gregory e de A. repens Handro. Cerca de 700 polinizações produziram 27 segmentos de frutos, com taxas de fecundação que variaram entre 1,1 e 12,9%, considerando-se todas as combinações híbridas. Os híbridos intra-específicos de A. pintoi produziram sementes F2, e os interespecíficos não produziram semente. A técnica de hibridação utilizada nas espécies forrageiras necessitou de ajustes, devido a diferenças observadas em relação ao amendoim cultivado, entre elas o hábito de crescimento.The purpose of this work was to obtain forage peanut hybrids through artificial hybridization. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse at Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia during the flowering period of Arachis pintoi Krap. & W. C. Gregory and A. repens Handro accessions. About 700 pollinations produced 27 fruit segments and the fertilization rates ranged from 1.1 to 12.9% for all cross combinations. The intraspecific hybrids produced F2 seeds, which did not occur to the interspecific hybrids. To effect the hybridization technique, adjustments were necessary to forage Arachis species, in relation to cultivated peanut, since differences in the growth habit were verified.

  4. Utility of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) for detection of EGFR amplification in glioblastoma: comparison with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ingeborg; de la Cruz, Clarissa; Rivera, Andreana L; Aldape, Kenneth

    2008-12-01

    In this study, we test the reliability of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification in glioblastoma. Earlier reports have described EGFR CISH in glioblastoma multiforme, but a comparison of CISH with a "gold standard" testing method, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), has not been described. Therapies targeting the EGFR-signaling pathway might increase the importance of assessment of EGFR-amplification status. CISH is a potential alternative to FISH as a testing method. To test its reliability, EGFR-amplification status by CISH was assessed in 89 cases of glioblastoma and compared with FISH results, and correlated with the protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) for EGFR. FISH was scored as being EGFR-amplified in 47/89 tumors, CISH as being amplified in 43/89 tumors. The CISH and FISH results were in agreement in 83/89 cases (93%). Four glioblastomas were scored as being amplified by FISH, but not by CISH; whereas amplification was detected in 2 tumors by CISH that were not amplified using FISH. Forty-eight of the 89 cases were positive for EGFR expression by IHC. EGFR amplification was highly correlated with protein expression by IHC, as 40/48 (83%) EGFR IHC-positive cases were found to be EGFR-amplified. The high concordance of CISH and FISH for the assessment of EGFR gene-amplification status indicates that CISH is a viable alternative to FISH for the detection of EGFR gene amplification in glioblastoma. Detectable EGFR expression by IHC can occur in the absence of gene amplification, but is uncommon.

  5. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  6. Mechanical design, fabrication, and test of biomimetic fish robot using LIPCA as artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiguna, T.; Syaifuddin, M.; Park, Hoon C.; Heo, S.

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a mechanical design, fabrication and test of biomimetic fish robot using the Lightweight Piezocomposite Curved Actuator (LIPCA). We have designed a mechanism for converting actuation of the LIPCA into caudal fin movement. This linkage mechanism consists of rack-pinion system and four-bar linkage. We also have tested four types of caudal fin in order to examine effect of different shape of caudal fin on thrust generation by tail beat. Subsequently, based on the caudal fin test, four caudal fins which resemble fish caudal fin shapes of ostraciiform, subcarangiform, carangiform and thunniform, respectively, are attached to the posterior part of the robotic fish. The swimming test using 300 V pp input with 1 Hz to 1.5 Hz frequency was conducted to investigate effect of changing tail beat frequency and shape of caudal fin on the swimming speed of the robotic fish. The maximum swimming speed was reached when the device was operated at its natural swimming frequency. At the natural swimming frequency 1 Hz, maximum swimming speeds of 1.632 cm/s, 1.776 cm/s, 1.612 cm/s and 1.51 cm/s were reached for ostraciiform-, subcarangiform-, carangiform- and thunniform-like caudal fins, respectively. Strouhal numbers, which are a measure of thrust efficiency, were calculated in order to examine thrust performance of the present biomimetic fish robot. We also approximated the net forward force of the robotic fish using momentum conservation principle.

  7. mathFISH, a web tool that uses thermodynamics-based mathematical models for in silico evaluation of oligonucleotide probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, L Safak; Parnerkar, Shreyas; Noguera, Daniel R

    2011-02-01

    Mathematical models of RNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for perfectly matched and mismatched probe/target pairs are organized and automated in web-based mathFISH (http://mathfish.cee.wisc.edu). Offering the users up-to-date knowledge of hybridization thermodynamics within a theoretical framework, mathFISH is expected to maximize the probability of success during oligonucleotide probe design.

  8. Voltage Profile Enhancement and Reduction of Real Power loss by Hybrid Biogeography Based Artificial Bee Colony algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lenin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Hybrid Biogeography algorithm for solving the multi-objective reactive power dispatch problem in a power system. Real Power Loss minimization and maximization of voltage stability margin are taken as the objectives. Artificial bee colony optimization (ABC is quick and forceful algorithm for global optimization. Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO is a new-fangled biogeography inspired algorithm. It mainly utilizes the biogeography-based relocation operator to share the information among solutions. In this work, a hybrid algorithm with BBO and ABC is projected, and named as HBBABC (Hybrid Biogeography based Artificial Bee Colony Optimization, for the universal numerical optimization problem. HBBABC merge the searching behavior of ABC with that of BBO. Both the algorithms have different solution probing tendency like ABC have good exploration probing tendency while BBO have good exploitation probing tendency.  HBBABC used to solve the reactive power dispatch problem and the proposed technique has been tested in standard IEEE30 bus test system.

  9. BIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE ARTIFICIAL HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN Pangasius djambal BLEEKER, 1846 AND Pangasianodon hypophthalmus SAUVAGE, 1878

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudhy Gustiano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is really important, since the possible use of these pangasiid hybrids in aquaculture faces the problem of potential impact on wild population. Therefore, it is urgently needed to provide quick identification tools in the field. This study investigated morphological characters of Pangasius djambal and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus and their hybrids. A detailed morphological analysis using 32 morphometric measurements and five meristic counts was done on the hybridization of P. djambal and P. hypophthalmus. Morphometric analysis and meristic counts showed that the reciprocal hybrids have intermediate characters except for gill raker number in which lower than that of parental species. In general, the hybrids have tendency to be like P. hypophthalmus rather than P. djambal. The only typical character of P. djambal appeared on hybrids is teeth shape, both vomerine and palatine. It is clearly defined that the true hybrids have seven pelvic fin rays.

  10. Determination of the ruminant origin of bone particles using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecrenier, M C; Ledoux, Q; Berben, G; Fumière, O; Saegerman, C; Baeten, V; Veys, P

    2014-07-17

    Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone identification. Despite the vast array of techniques used to decontaminate bone fragments, the isolation and determination of bone DNA content are still problematic. Within the framework of the eradication of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (including BSE, commonly known as "mad cow disease"), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was developed. Results from the described study showed that this method can be applied directly to bones without a demineralisation step and that it allows the identification of bovine and ruminant bones even after severe processing. The results also showed that the method is independent of exogenous contamination and that it is therefore entirely appropriate for this application.

  11. STAR- A SIMPLE TOOL FOR AUTOMATED REASONING SUPPORTING HYBRID APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, G. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning program (STAR) is an interactive, interpreted programming language for the development and operation of artificial intelligence (AI) application systems. STAR provides an environment for integrating traditional AI symbolic processing with functions and data structures defined in compiled languages such as C, FORTRAN and PASCAL. This type of integration occurs in a number of AI applications including interpretation of numerical sensor data, construction of intelligent user interfaces to existing compiled software packages, and coupling AI techniques with numerical simulation techniques and control systems software. The STAR language was created as part of an AI project for the evaluation of imaging spectrometer data at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Programming in STAR is similar to other symbolic processing languages such as LISP and CLIP. STAR includes seven primitive data types and associated operations for the manipulation of these structures. A semantic network is used to organize data in STAR, with capabilities for inheritance of values and generation of side effects. The AI knowledge base of STAR can be a simple repository of records or it can be a highly interdependent association of implicit and explicit components. The symbolic processing environment of STAR may be extended by linking the interpreter with functions defined in conventional compiled languages. These external routines interact with STAR through function calls in either direction, and through the exchange of references to data structures. The hybrid knowledge base may thus be accessed and processed in general by either side of the application. STAR is initially used to link externally compiled routines and data structures. It is then invoked to interpret the STAR rules and symbolic structures. In a typical interactive session, the user enters an expression to be evaluated, STAR parses the input, evaluates the expression, performs any file input

  12. STAR- A SIMPLE TOOL FOR AUTOMATED REASONING SUPPORTING HYBRID APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (DEC VAX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, G. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning program (STAR) is an interactive, interpreted programming language for the development and operation of artificial intelligence (AI) application systems. STAR provides an environment for integrating traditional AI symbolic processing with functions and data structures defined in compiled languages such as C, FORTRAN and PASCAL. This type of integration occurs in a number of AI applications including interpretation of numerical sensor data, construction of intelligent user interfaces to existing compiled software packages, and coupling AI techniques with numerical simulation techniques and control systems software. The STAR language was created as part of an AI project for the evaluation of imaging spectrometer data at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Programming in STAR is similar to other symbolic processing languages such as LISP and CLIP. STAR includes seven primitive data types and associated operations for the manipulation of these structures. A semantic network is used to organize data in STAR, with capabilities for inheritance of values and generation of side effects. The AI knowledge base of STAR can be a simple repository of records or it can be a highly interdependent association of implicit and explicit components. The symbolic processing environment of STAR may be extended by linking the interpreter with functions defined in conventional compiled languages. These external routines interact with STAR through function calls in either direction, and through the exchange of references to data structures. The hybrid knowledge base may thus be accessed and processed in general by either side of the application. STAR is initially used to link externally compiled routines and data structures. It is then invoked to interpret the STAR rules and symbolic structures. In a typical interactive session, the user enters an expression to be evaluated, STAR parses the input, evaluates the expression, performs any file input

  13. Application of a Hybrid Method Combining Grey Model and Back Propagation Artificial Neural Networks to Forecast Hepatitis B in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijing Gan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate incidence forecasting of infectious disease provides potentially valuable insights in its own right. It is critical for early prevention and may contribute to health services management and syndrome surveillance. This study investigates the use of a hybrid algorithm combining grey model (GM and back propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN to forecast hepatitis B in China based on the yearly numbers of hepatitis B and to evaluate the method’s feasibility. The results showed that the proposal method has advantages over GM (1, 1 and GM (2, 1 in all the evaluation indexes.

  14. Application of a hybrid method combining grey model and back propagation artificial neural networks to forecast hepatitis B in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ruijing; Chen, Xiaojun; Yan, Yu; Huang, Daizheng

    2015-01-01

    Accurate incidence forecasting of infectious disease provides potentially valuable insights in its own right. It is critical for early prevention and may contribute to health services management and syndrome surveillance. This study investigates the use of a hybrid algorithm combining grey model (GM) and back propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) to forecast hepatitis B in China based on the yearly numbers of hepatitis B and to evaluate the method's feasibility. The results showed that the proposal method has advantages over GM (1, 1) and GM (2, 1) in all the evaluation indexes.

  15. Analysis of tribological behaviour of zirconia reinforced Al-SiC hybrid composites using statistical and artificial neural network technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sajjad; Tanwir Alam, Md; Ansari, Akhter H.; Bilal Naim Shaikh, Mohd; Arif Siddiqui, M.

    2018-05-01

    The tribological performance of aluminium hybrid composites reinforced with micro SiC (5 wt%) and nano zirconia (0, 3, 6 and 9 wt%) fabricated through powder metallurgy technique were investigated using statistical and artificial neural network (ANN) approach. The influence of zirconia reinforcement, sliding distance and applied load were analyzed with test based on full factorial design of experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the percentage contribution of each process parameters on wear loss. ANOVA approach suggested that wear loss be mainly influenced by sliding distance followed by zirconia reinforcement and applied load. Further, a feed forward back propagation neural network was applied on input/output date for predicting and analyzing the wear behaviour of fabricated composite. A very close correlation between experimental and ANN output were achieved by implementing the model. Finally, ANN model was effectively used to find the influence of various control factors on wear behaviour of hybrid composites.

  16. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH as a diagnostic tool for Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Helena de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with commercial probes covering the elastin gene (ELN was used to determine the frequency of the 7q11.23 deletion in 18 children clinically diagnosed with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS. A de novo deletion was detected in 15 of the children (83%. Diagnostic investigation for WBS started late in childhood (median = 5.8 years. All the children showed facial features typical of the syndrome, mental retardation and developmental delay. Over-friendliness was observed in the majority of cases. Clinodactyly of the 5th finger (n = 13, cardiovascular disease (n = 9, loquacity (n = 9, low birthweight (n = 8, and failure to thrive (n = 9 were observed only in those children with the deletion. Respiratory problems (n = 9, though not previously reported in the literature, was a common finding in the group studied. Our results confirmed that FISH is useful in identifying 7q11.23 deletions in cases of WBS. Clinical manifestations were more evident in the deletion-positive children.

  17. Hybrid Indoor-Based WLAN-WSN Localization Scheme for Improving Accuracy Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Farid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In indoor environments, WiFi (RSS based localization is sensitive to various indoor fading effects and noise during transmission, which are the main causes of localization errors that affect its accuracy. Keeping in view those fading effects, positioning systems based on a single technology are ineffective in performing accurate localization. For this reason, the trend is toward the use of hybrid positioning systems (combination of two or more wireless technologies in indoor/outdoor localization scenarios for getting better position accuracy. This paper presents a hybrid technique to implement indoor localization that adopts fingerprinting approaches in both WiFi and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. This model exploits machine learning, in particular Artificial Natural Network (ANN techniques, for position calculation. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid system improved the accuracy, reducing the average distance error to 1.05 m by using ANN. Applying Genetic Algorithm (GA based optimization technique did not incur any further improvement to the accuracy. Compared to the performance of GA optimization, the nonoptimized ANN performed better in terms of accuracy, precision, stability, and computational time. The above results show that the proposed hybrid technique is promising for achieving better accuracy in real-world positioning applications.

  18. A hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm and pattern search method for inversion of particle size distribution from spectral extinction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Feng; Xing, Jian

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a hybrid artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm and pattern search (PS) method is proposed and applied for recovery of particle size distribution (PSD) from spectral extinction data. To be more useful and practical, size distribution function is modelled as the general Johnson's ? function that can overcome the difficulty of not knowing the exact type beforehand encountered in many real circumstances. The proposed hybrid algorithm is evaluated through simulated examples involving unimodal, bimodal and trimodal PSDs with different widths and mean particle diameters. For comparison, all examples are additionally validated by the single ABC algorithm. In addition, the performance of the proposed algorithm is further tested by actual extinction measurements with real standard polystyrene samples immersed in water. Simulation and experimental results illustrate that the hybrid algorithm can be used as an effective technique to retrieve the PSDs with high reliability and accuracy. Compared with the single ABC algorithm, our proposed algorithm can produce more accurate and robust inversion results while taking almost comparative CPU time over ABC algorithm alone. The superiority of ABC and PS hybridization strategy in terms of reaching a better balance of estimation accuracy and computation effort increases its potentials as an excellent inversion technique for reliable and efficient actual measurement of PSD.

  19. Prediction of Currency Volume Issued in Taiwan Using a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network and Multiple Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the volume of currency issued by a country always affects its interest rate, price index, income levels, and many other important macroeconomic variables, the prediction of currency volume issued has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In contrast to the typical single-stage forecast model, this study proposes a hybrid forecasting approach to predict the volume of currency issued in Taiwan. The proposed hybrid models consist of artificial neural network (ANN and multiple regression (MR components. The MR component of the hybrid models is established for a selection of fewer explanatory variables, wherein the selected variables are of higher importance. The ANN component is then designed to generate forecasts based on those important explanatory variables. Subsequently, the model is used to analyze a real dataset of Taiwan's currency from 1996 to 2011 and twenty associated explanatory variables. The prediction results reveal that the proposed hybrid scheme exhibits superior forecasting performance for predicting the volume of currency issued in Taiwan.

  20. A hybrid artificial neural network as a software sensor for optimal control of a wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D J; Park, H

    2001-11-01

    For control and automation of biological treatment processes, lack of reliable on-line sensors to measure water quality parameters is one of the most important problems to overcome. Many parameters cannot be measured directly with on-line sensors. The accuracy of existing hardware sensors is also not sufficient and maintenance problems such as electrode fouling often cause trouble. This paper deals with the development of software sensor techniques that estimate the target water quality parameter from other parameters using the correlation between water quality parameters. We focus our attention on the preprocessing of noisy data and the selection of the best model feasible to the situation. Problems of existing approaches are also discussed. We propose a hybrid neural network as a software sensor inferring wastewater quality parameter. Multivariate regression, artificial neural networks (ANN), and a hybrid technique that combines principal component analysis as a preprocessing stage are applied to data from industrial wastewater processes. The hybrid ANN technique shows an enhancement of prediction capability and reduces the overfitting problem of neural networks. The result shows that the hybrid ANN technique can be used to extract information from noisy data and to describe the nonlinearity of complex wastewater treatment processes.

  1. Spatial distribution of juvenile fish along an artificialized seascape, insights from common coastal species in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Manon; Rider, Mary; Cheminée, Adrien; Pastor, Jérémy; Zawadzki, Audrey; Mercière, Alexandre; Crec'hriou, Romain; Verdoit-Jarraya, Marion; Lenfant, Philippe

    2018-06-01

    Along the littoral, a growing number of anthropogenic structures have caused substantial habitat destruction. Despite their detrimental impact, these constructions could play a role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems. The objective of this work was to assess the distribution of juvenile coastal fish along a seascape composed of various natural and artificial habitats in order to determine the potential role of coastal infrastructures as juvenile habitat. We surveyed juvenile populations on various infrastructures and natural sites along a 100 km shoreline of the French Mediterranean coast. Juvenile densities varied according to the level of artificialization of the sites. Densities were the highest on coastal defense structures, intermediate in natural sites and lowest in harbors. Focusing inside harbors revealed highly variable densities depending on the type of habitat, with densities on ripraps or jetties that were equivalent to those of natural sites. Our results underline the importance of anthropogenic structures as potential juvenile habitats, which is too often not considered in management plans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A modified parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for evaluating the bioconcentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Escher, Beate I

    2008-03-01

    Low cost in vitro tools are needed at the screening stage of assessment of bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals because the number of chemical substances that needs to be tested highly exceeds the capacity of in vivo bioconcentration tests. Thus, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) system was modified to predict passive uptake/ elimination rate in fish. To overcome the difficulties associated with low aqueous solubility and high membrane affinity of highly hydrophobic chemicals, we measured the rate of permeation from the donor poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) disk to the acceptor PDMS disk through aqueous and PDMS membrane boundary layers and term the modified PAMPA system "PDMS-PAMPA". Twenty chemicals were selected for validation of PDMS-PAMPA. The measured permeability is proportional to the passive elimination rate constant in fish and was used to predict the "minimum" in vivo elimination rate constant. The in vivo data were very close to predicted values except for a few polar chemicals and metabolically active chemicals, such as pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Thus, PDMS-PAMPA can be an appropriate in vitro system for nonmetabolizable chemicals. Combination with metabolic clearance rates using a battery of metabolic degradation assays would enhance the applicability for metabolizable chemicals.

  3. Hybrid and Cooperative Strategies Using Harmony Search and Artificial Immune Systems for Solving the Nurse Rostering Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Ho Jin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The nurse rostering problem is an important search problem that features many constraints. In a nurse rostering problem, these constraints are defined by processes such as maintaining work regulations, assigning nurse shifts, and considering nurse preferences. A number of approaches to address these constraints, such as penalty function methods, have been investigated in the literature. We propose two types of hybrid metaheuristic approaches for solving the nurse rostering problem, which are based on combining harmony search techniques and artificial immune systems to balance local and global searches and prevent slow convergence speeds and prematurity. The proposed algorithms are evaluated against a benchmarking dataset of nurse rostering problems; the results show that they identify better or best known solutions compared to those identified in other studies for most instances. The results also show that the combination of harmony search and artificial immune systems is better suited than using single metaheuristic or other hybridization methods for finding upper-bound solutions for nurse rostering problems and discrete optimization problems.

  4. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) to detect HER2 gene amplification in breast and gastric cancer: comparison with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyose, Shinichiro; Igarashi, Hisaki; Nagura, Kiyoko; Kamo, Takaharu; Kawane, Kazunori; Mori, Hiroki; Ozawa, Takachika; Maeda, Matsuyoshi; Konno, Keisuke; Hoshino, Hideaki; Konno, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Shinmura, Kazuya; Hattori, Naohiko; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2012-11-01

    The chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay, designed to detect the amplification of the HER2 gene in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer (BC) and gastric cancer (GC) tissue specimens, was evaluated in 125 FFPE BC cases and 198 FFPE GC cases for which the HER2 status had been predetermined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the 125 BC cases and the 198 gastric cases, we found a very good concordance (98.4% and 99.0%, respectively) between CISH and FISH. In particular, we evaluated the polysomy cases, as these cases often have ambiguous treatment options in clinical practice. The polysomy of chromosome 17 was defined as the presence of three or more CEP17 signals in at least 10% of the tumor cells. In the 50 BC cases and 54 GC cases displaying chromosome 17 polysomy, the concordance between FISH and CISH was 98.0% and 98.1%, respectively. These results indicate that CISH could provide an accurate and practical alternative to FISH for the clinical diagnosis of HER2 gene amplification in FFPE BC and FFPE GC samples. © 2012 The Authors. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Application of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Technique for the Detection of Genetic Aberration in Medical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Haidere, Mohammad Faisal; Runa, Nusrat Jahan; Akter, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technique, which is considered as a new advent in the field of cytology. Initially, it was developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. The accuracy and versatility of FISH were subsequently capitalized upon in biological and medical research. This visually appealing technique provides an intermediate degree of resolution between DNA analysis and chromosomal investigations. FISH consists of a hybridizing DNA probe, which can be labeled directly or indirectly. In the case of direct labeling, fluorescent nucleotides are used, while indirect labeling is incorporated with reporter molecules that are subsequently detected by fluorescent antibodies or other affinity molecules. FISH is applied to detect genetic abnormalities that include different characteristic gene fusions or the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell or loss of a chromosomal region or a whole chromosome. It is also applied in different research applications, such as gene mapping or the identification of novel oncogenes. This article reviews the concept of FISH, its application, and its advantages in medical science.  PMID:28690958

  6. Evaluation of HER-2/neu status in breast cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) & fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, Kalal Iravathy; Dayakar, Seetha; Vijayalaxmi, Kolanupaka; Babu, Saidam Jangu; Reddy, P Vijay Anand

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is increasingly being recognized as the most accurate and predictive test for HER 2/neu gene amplification and response to therapy in breast cancer. In the present study we investigated HER-2/neu gene amplification by FISH in breast carcinoma tissue specimens and compared the results with that of immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. A total of 90 breast carcinoma tissue samples were used for immunohistochemical (IHC) and FISH analysis. IHC was performed by using mouse monoclonal antibody to the intracellular domain of HER-2/neu protein. Each slide was scored in a blinded fashion by two pathologists according to the manufacturer's recommended criteria. FISH analysis was performed on paraffin embedded breast tumour tissue sections. The polysomy for centromere 17 (Spec green signal) was read as green signals less than 4 as moderate polysomy, and more than 4 as highly polysomy. Thirty of the 90 patients had negative results by IHC and FISH. Of the 28 patients with the score of 2+ by IHC, 20 were FISH positive for HER-2/neu gene amplification, three were FISH negative and five patients showed equivocal (1.8-2.2) results by FISH. These five cases were retested for IHC and FISH on different paraffin embedded tissue blocks, and all five were found positive for HER-2/neu gene amplification. Twenty five patients with the score of 3+ by IHC were FISH positive for HER-2/neu gene amplification (>2.2). Seven cases with the score of 3+ by IHC were FISH negative for HER-2/neu gene amplification (>2.2), and showed polysomy of chromosome number 17 high polysomy > 4. Our results indicated that HER-2/neu status by FISH should be performed in all cases of breast tumour with a 2+ score by IHC. Cases demonstrating a 3+ score by IHC may be subjected to FISH to rule out polysomy of chromosome 17 which could be falsely interpreted as HER-2/neu overexpression by IHC analysis. There is also a need for establishing a clinically validated cut-off value

  7. A New Hybrid Approach for Wind Speed Prediction Using Fast Block Least Mean Square Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummuhan Basaran Filik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid wind speed prediction approach, which uses fast block least mean square (FBLMS algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN method, is proposed. FBLMS is an adaptive algorithm which has reduced complexity with a very fast convergence rate. A hybrid approach is proposed which uses two powerful methods: FBLMS and ANN method. In order to show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach, seven-year real hourly collected wind speed data sets belonging to Turkish State Meteorological Service of Bozcaada and Eskisehir regions are used. Two different ANN structures are used to compare with this approach. The first six-year data is handled as a train set; the remaining one-year hourly data is handled as test data. Mean absolute error (MAE and root mean square error (RMSE are used for performance evaluations. It is shown for various cases that the performance of the new hybrid approach gives better results than the different conventional ANN structure.

  8. Estimation of Entropy Generation for Ag-MgO/Water Hybrid Nanofluid Flow through Rectangular Minichannel by Using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Cuneyt; Korkmaz, Mehmet Erdi

    2018-01-01

    The convective heat transfer andentropy generation characteristics of Ag-MgO/water hybrid nanofluid flowthrough rectangular minichannel were numerically investigated. The Reynoldsnumber was in the range of 200 to 2000 and different nanoparticle volume fractionswere varied between = 0.005 and 0.02. In addition, ArtificialNeural Network was used to create a model for estimating of entropy generationof Ag-MgO/water hybrid nanofluid flow. As a result, it was found th...

  9. Artificial barriers prevent genetic recovery of small isolated populations of a low-mobility freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R A; Gauffre, B; Pavlova, A; Beheregaray, L B; Kearns, J; Lyon, J; Sasaki, M; Leblois, R; Sgro, C; Sunnucks, P

    2018-01-12

    Habitat loss and fragmentation often result in small, isolated populations vulnerable to environmental disturbance and loss of genetic diversity. Low genetic diversity can increase extinction risk of small populations by elevating inbreeding and inbreeding depression, and reducing adaptive potential. Due to their linear nature and extensive use by humans, freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Although the effects of fragmentation on genetic structure have been extensively studied in migratory fishes, they are less understood in low-mobility species. We estimated impacts of instream barriers on genetic structure and diversity of the low-mobility river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) within five streams separated by weirs or dams constructed 45-120 years ago. We found evidence of small-scale (barriers, as expected for a fish with low mobility. Genetic diversity was lower above barriers in small streams only, regardless of barrier age. In particular, one isolated population showed evidence of a recent bottleneck and inbreeding. Differentiation above and below the barrier (F ST  = 0.13) was greatest in this stream, but in other streams did not differ from background levels. Spatially explicit simulations suggest that short-term barrier effects would not be detected with our data set unless effective population sizes were very small (barriers is reduced and requires more genetic markers compared to panmictic populations. We also demonstrate the importance of accounting for natural population genetic structure in fragmentation studies.

  10. Effects of bamboo substrate and supplemental feeding on growth and production of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis mossambicusxOrechromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshavanath, P.; Gangadhar, B.; Ramesh, T.J.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton growing on artificial substrates can increase the production of herbivorous fish in aquaculture ponds. Periphyton may be an alternative or a complement for supplemental feed in fingerling production. Growth and production of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis

  11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques (FISH) to detect changes in CYP19a gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, June-Woo; Tompsett, Amber; Zhang, Xiaowei; Newsted, John L.; Jones, Paul D.; Au, Doris; Kong, Richard; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive in situ hybridization methodology using fluorescence-labeled riboprobes (FISH) that allows for the evaluation of gene expression profiles simultaneously in multiple target tissues of whole fish sections of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To date FISH methods have been limited in their application due to autofluorescence of tissues, fixatives or other components of the hybridization procedure. An optimized FISH method, based on confocal fluorescence microscopy was developed to reduce the autofluorescence signal. Because of its tissue- and gender-specific expression and relevance in studies of endocrine disruption, gonadal aromatase (CYP19a) was used as a model gene. The in situ hybridization (ISH) system was validated in a test exposure with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. The optimized FISH method revealed tissue-specific expression of the CYP19a gene. Furthermore, the assay could differentiate the abundance of CYP19a mRNA among cell types. Expression of CYP19a was primarily associated with early stage oocytes, and expression gradually decreased with increasing maturation. No expression of CYP19a mRNA was observed in other tissues such as brain, liver, or testes. Fadrozole (100 μg/L) caused up-regulation of CYP19a expression, a trend that was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis on excised tissues. In a combination approach with gonad histology, it could be shown that the increase in CYP19a expression as measured by RT-PCR on a whole tissue basis was due to a combination of both increases in numbers of CYP19a-containing cells and an increase in the amount of CYP19a mRNA present in the cells

  12. Tailoring the vortex pinning strength of YBCO thin films by systematic incorporation of hybrid artificial pinning centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Alok K; Matsumoto, Kaname; Horide, Tomoya; Saini, Shrikant; Mele, Paolo; Ichinose, Ataru; Yoshida, Yutaka; Awaji, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hybrid (columnar and spherical together) artificial pinning centers (APCs) on the vortex pinning properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ (YBCO) thin films is investigated in detail on the basis of variation of critical current density (J C ) with applied magnetic field and also with the orientation of the applied magnetic field at 65 K and 77 K. Premixed YBCO + BaSnO 3 composite targets are used for the deposition of the YBCO films which consist of self-assembled BaSnO 3 nanocolumns (1D APCs); on the other hand, for the deposition of the YBCO films with hybrid APCs (BaSnO 3 nanocolumns together with Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles), the surface of the premixed YBCO + BaSnO 3 composite targets are modified by putting a thin Y 2 O 3 sectored piece on the premixed YBCO + BaSnO 3 composite targets by means of silver paste. F pmax value increases systematically with incorporation of 1D and 1D and 3D APCs and it also shifts towards higher applied magnetic fields. Films with 1D APCs exhibit a strong J C peak at Θ = 0° (H//c-axis) whereas films consisting of hybrid APCs exhibit enhanced J C at all the investigated angular regimes. A possible mechanism of vortex pinning in samples with hybrid APCs is also discussed suggesting the role of 1D and 3D APCs. (paper)

  13. [HER-2 oncogene amplification assessment in invasive breast cancer by dual-color in situ hybridization (dc-CISH): a comparative study with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhdar, Abbas; Bronsard, Marc; Lemieux, Renald; Geha, Sameh

    2011-12-01

    The amplification of the gene encoding for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2 oncogene), located on chromosome 17 (17q21-q22), or the overexpression of this receptor have prognostic and therapeutic implications in invasive breast cancer. An evaluation of the HER-2 status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is performed on all invasive breast cancer cases. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered as the gold standard for the detection of HER-2 gene amplification for IHC equivocal cases (score 2+). A more recent in situ hybridization technique, the dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (dc-CISH), has been proposed as an alternative to FISH. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between dc-CISH and FISH for HER-2 oncogene amplification assessment in invasive breast cancer. We built four tissue micro-array (TMA) blocs with 100 breast invasive cancer cases that had been previously tested by IHC for HER-2 detection: 10 score 0 cases, 10 score 3+cases, 39 score 1+and 41 score 2+cases. Both FISH and dc-CISH techniques were applied on all TMA cases as well as on two additional slides serving as controls. Interpretation of dc-CISH was carried out by a pathologist using an optical microscope. For FISH, the interpretation was done by a professional from the medical genetics department using a fluorescent microscope linked to a computer system for image capturing and analysis. The interpretation of the HER-2/CEN-17 ratio for both tests was in accordance with the values of the updated recommendations from the Canadian National Consensus Meeting on HER-2/neu testing in breast cancer and from the ASCO/CAP. Among the 100 cases initially included in the study, eight were excluded from the analysis due to sampling or technical flaws. From the 92 remaining cases, we obtained a concordance of 97.8% (90/92 cases) between the two techniques (Kappa coefficient 0.97, 95% confidence interval). The correlation coefficient (rho) between ratios

  14. Human Health Impact of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity Levels in the Sediments and Fish of Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji B. Babatunde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread contamination of the environment of the Niger Delta, which may include enhanced background levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM due to oil production and rapid urbanization activities. Sediments and seafood from the Bonny estuary, Niger Delta, were collected for the purpose of determining baseline data on artificial and natural radioactivity and estimation of effective doses for the public due to ingestion of seafood from the study area. The highest and lowest activity concentrations were reported for 40K and 137Cs in both sediments and fish samples of the Bonny estuary. There was some evidence of spatial variability in the 40K and 137Cs data, with the latter being the likely result of dredging. Other radionuclides were not significantly different between sites impacted by industrial activities or not. Activity of radionuclides measured in the sediments of the study area were higher than reported elsewhere in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and higher than reported global averages by UNSCEAR. The total highest activity concentration in all fish species of gamma emitting radionuclides was observed for 40K, followed by 238U, 232Th and 226Ra, respectively, while 137Cs had the lowest activity concentration. However, 210Po activities were the most important in terms of dose contribution. Consumption of molluscs at typical rates could result in doses exceeding 1 mSv·y−1. Although this baseline data may not be conclusive on prevailing trends in radioactivity in the study area, higher consumption rates of the species studied may have public health consequences due to effects of low dose ionising radiation.

  15. When biogeographical provinces collide: Hybridization of reef fishes at the crossroads of marine biogeographical provinces in the Arabian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Aim: Suture zones are areas where closely related species from different biogeographical regions come into contact and interbreed. This concept originated from the study of terrestrial ecosystems but it remains unclear whether a similar phenomenon occurs in the marine environment. Here we investigate a potential suture zone from a previously unknown hybrid hotspot at the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen), located in the Arabian Sea, where fauna from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean and greater Indo-Polynesian Province intersect. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. Methods: Putative hybrid reef fish were identified based on intermediate coloration and morphology. Underwater observations and collections were conducted to determine: (1) whether parent species form heterospecific social groups or breeding pairs; (2) the sex and reproductive status of morphologically intermediate individuals; and (3) whether parent species were forming mixed species associations owing to a dearth of conspecific partners. To support hybrid status, morphologically intermediate and parental individuals were genotyped using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), nuclear recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2) and the nuclear TMO-4C4 (TMO) gene. Results: We observed putative hybrids involving 14 species from four reef fish families at Socotra. Most cases involved a parental species with a restricted distribution (e.g. Red Sea or Arabian Sea) and a broadly distributed Indo-Pacific species. In most cases, at least one of the parent species was rare at Socotra. Hybrid gene flow was largely unidirectional, and although introgression was rare, we found evidence that some butterflyfish and surgeonfish hybrids were fertile and formed breeding groups with parental species. Main conclusions: The rate of hybrid discovery at Socotra is much greater than that recorded elsewhere in the marine environment and involved both allopatric and

  16. A hybrid approach to decision making and information fusion: Combining humans and artificial agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Frans C.A.; Pavlin, Gregor; Winterboer, Andi; Evers, Vanessa

    This paper argues that hybrid human–agent systems can support powerful solutions to relevant problems such as Environmental Crisis management. However, it shows that such solutions require comprehensive approaches covering different aspects of data processing, model construction and the usage. In

  17. Molecular Cytogenetics in Artificial Hybrid and Highly Polyploid Sturgeons: An Evolutionary Story Narrated by Repetitive Sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Symonová, Radka; Flajšhans, M.; Sember, Alexandr; Havelka, M.; Gela, D.; Kořínková, Tereza; Rodina, M.; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 141, 2-3 (2013), s. 153-162 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/0824; GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P596 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Acipenser * GISH * Hybridization * Macrochromosomes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2013

  18. Beyond AI: Multi-Intelligence (MI) Combining Natural and Artificial Intelligences in Hybrid Beings and Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Fox

    2017-01-01

    Framing strongly influences actions among technology proponents and end-users. Underlying much debate about artificial intelligence (AI) are several fundamental shortcomings in its framing. First, discussion of AI is atheoretical, and therefore has limited potential for addressing the complexity of causation. Second, intelligence is considered from an anthropocentric perspective that sees human intelligence, and intelligence developed by humans, as superior to all other intelligences. Thus, t...

  19. Impact of adding artificially generated alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on their detectability by pedestrians who are blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study, in which 14 adults with visual impairments attempted to detect three different vehicles: a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with an artificially generated sound (Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians [VSP]), an HEV without the VSP, and a comparable internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The VSP vehicle (mean +/- standard deviation [SD] = 38.3 +/- 14.8 m) was detected at a significantly farther distance than the HEV (mean +/- SD = 27.5 +/- 11.5 m), t = 4.823, p vehicles (mean +/- SD = 34.5 +/- 14.3 m), t = 1.787, p = 0.10. Despite the overall sound level difference between the two test sites (parking lot = 48.7 dBA, roadway = 55.1 dBA), no significant difference in detection distance between the test sites was observed, F(1, 13) = 0.025, p = 0.88. No significant interaction was found between the vehicle type and test site, F(1.31, 16.98) = 0.272, p = 0.67. The findings of the study may help us understand how adding an artificially generated sound to an HEV could affect some of the orientation and mobility tasks performed by blind pedestrians.

  20. On the q-Weibull distribution for reliability applications: An adaptive hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm for parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Meng; Droguett, Enrique López; Lins, Isis Didier; Chagas Moura, Márcio das

    2017-01-01

    The q-Weibull model is based on the Tsallis non-extensive entropy and is able to model various behaviors of the hazard rate function, including bathtub curves, by using a single set of parameters. Despite its flexibility, the q-Weibull has not been widely used in reliability applications partly because of the complicated parameters estimation. In this work, the parameters of the q-Weibull are estimated by the maximum likelihood (ML) method. Due to the intricate system of nonlinear equations, derivative-based optimization methods may fail to converge. Thus, the heuristic optimization method of artificial bee colony (ABC) is used instead. To deal with the slow convergence of ABC, it is proposed an adaptive hybrid ABC (AHABC) algorithm that dynamically combines Nelder-Mead simplex search method with ABC for the ML estimation of the q-Weibull parameters. Interval estimates for the q-Weibull parameters, including confidence intervals based on the ML asymptotic theory and on bootstrap methods, are also developed. The AHABC is validated via numerical experiments involving the q-Weibull ML for reliability applications and results show that it produces faster and more accurate convergence when compared to ABC and similar approaches. The estimation procedure is applied to real reliability failure data characterized by a bathtub-shaped hazard rate. - Highlights: • Development of an Adaptive Hybrid ABC (AHABC) algorithm for q-Weibull distribution. • AHABC combines local Nelder-Mead simplex method with ABC to enhance local search. • AHABC efficiently finds the optimal solution for the q-Weibull ML problem. • AHABC outperforms ABC and self-adaptive hybrid ABC in accuracy and convergence speed. • Useful model for reliability data with non-monotonic hazard rate.

  1. Modeling level change in Lake Urmia using hybrid artificial intelligence approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbati, M.; Ahmadieh Khanesar, M.; Shahzadi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    The investigation of water level fluctuations in lakes for protecting them regarding the importance of these water complexes in national and regional scales has found a special place among countries in recent years. The importance of the prediction of water level balance in Lake Urmia is necessary due to several-meter fluctuations in the last decade which help the prevention from possible future losses. For this purpose, in this paper, the performance of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for predicting the lake water level balance has been studied. In addition, for the training of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and hybrid backpropagation-recursive least square method algorithm have been used. Moreover, a hybrid method based on particle swarm optimization and recursive least square (PSO-RLS) training algorithm for the training of ANFIS structure is introduced. In order to have a more fare comparison, hybrid particle swarm optimization and gradient descent are also applied. The models have been trained, tested, and validated based on lake level data between 1991 and 2014. For performance evaluation, a comparison is made between these methods. Numerical results obtained show that the proposed methods with a reasonable error have a good performance in water level balance prediction. It is also clear that with continuing the current trend, Lake Urmia will experience more drop in the water level balance in the upcoming years.

  2. Efficient, Absorption-Powered Artificial Muscles Based on Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Márcio Dias; Hussain, Mohammad W; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Naficy, Sina; Hagenasr, Daniela; Bykova, Julia S; Tolly, Derrick; Baughman, Ray H

    2015-07-01

    A new type of absorption-powered artificial muscle provides high performance without needing a temperature change. These muscles, comprising coiled carbon nanotube fibers infiltrated with silicone rubber, can contract up to 50% to generate up to 1.2 kJ kg(-1) . The drive mechanism for actuation is the rubber swelling during exposure to a nonpolar solvent. Theoretical energy efficiency conversion can be as high as 16%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Manufacturing Combining Artificial Intelligence and Finite Element Method

    CERN Document Server

    Quiza, Ramón; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and the finite element method (FEM) are both powerful computing tools, which are extensively used for modeling and optimizing manufacturing processes. The combination of these tools has resulted in a new flexible and robust approach as several recent studies have shown. This book aims to review the work already done in this field as well as to expose the new possibilities and foreseen trends. The book is expected to be useful for postgraduate students and researchers, working in the area of modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  4. Widespread hybridization and bidirectional introgression in sympatric species of coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.; Berumen, Michael L.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Salas, Eva; Williamson, David H.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2017-01-01

    interspecific hybrids from a collection of 2,991 coral trout sampled in inshore and mid-shelf reefs of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Hybrids were ubiquitous among reefs, fertile and spanned multiple generations suggesting both ecological and evolutionary

  5. Man-made flows from a fish's perspective: autonomous classification of turbulent fishway flows with field data collected using an artificial lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhtan, Jeffrey A; Fuentes-Perez, Juan Francisco; Toming, Gert; Schneider, Matthias; Schwarzenberger, Richard; Schletterer, Martin; Kruusmaa, Maarja

    2018-05-25

    The lateral line system provides fish with advanced mechanoreception over a wide range of flow conditions. Inspired by the abilities of their biological counterparts, artificial lateral lines have been developed and tested exclusively under laboratory settings. Motivated by the lack of flow measurements taken in the field which consider fluid-body interactions, we built a fish-shaped lateral line probe. The device is outfitted with 11 high-speed (2.5 kHz) time-synchronized pressure transducers, and designed to capture and classify flows in fish passage structures. A total of 252 field measurements, each with a sample size of 132 000 discrete sensor readings were recorded in the slots and across the pools of vertical slot fishways. These data were used to estimate the time-averaged flow velocity (R 2   =  0.952), which represents the most common metric to assess fishway flows. The significant contribution of this work is the creation and application of hydrodynamic signatures generated by the spatial distribution of pressure fluctuations on the fish-shaped body. The signatures are based on the collection of the pressure fluctuations' probability distributions, and it is shown that they can be used to automatically classify distinct flow regions within the pools of three different vertical slot fishways. For the first time, field data from operational fishway measurements are sampled and classified using an artificial lateral line, providing a completely new source of bioinspired flow information.

  6. Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and Particle Swarm Search for Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm is one of the most recent swarm intelligence based algorithms, which has been shown to be competitive to other population-based algorithms. However, there is still an insufficiency in ABC regarding its solution search equation, which is good at exploration but poor at exploitation. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel artificial bee colony algorithm based on particle swarm search mechanism. In this algorithm, for improving the convergence speed, the initial population is generated by using good point set theory rather than random selection firstly. Secondly, in order to enhance the exploitation ability, the employed bee, onlookers, and scouts utilize the mechanism of PSO to search new candidate solutions. Finally, for further improving the searching ability, the chaotic search operator is adopted in the best solution of the current iteration. Our algorithm is tested on some well-known benchmark functions and compared with other algorithms. Results show that our algorithm has good performance.

  7. Prodiag--a hybrid artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system for process faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E.; Applequist, C. A.; Chasensky, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), project to perform feasibility studies on a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (Al) based diagnostics for component faults in nuclear power plants. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a first-principles physics-based plant level process diagnostic expert system (ES) and the identification of component-level fault patterns through operating component characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The purpose of the proof-of-concept project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use thermal hydraulic (T-H) signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance.To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. A full-scope operator training simulator representing the Commonwealth Edison Braidwood nuclear power plant is being used both as the source of development data and as the means to evaluate the advantages of the proposed diagnostic system. This is an ongoing multi-year project and this paper presents the results to date of the CRADA phase

  8. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Dimaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    -FISH, the process continues to be a manual, labour intensive, expensive and time consuming technique, often taking over 3-5 days, even in dedicated labs. We have developed a novel microFISH device to perform metaphase FISH on a chip which overcomes many shortcomings of the current laboratory protocols. This work...... also introduces a novel splashing device for preparing metaphase spreads on a microscope glass slide, followed by a rapid adhesive tape-based bonding protocol leading to rapid fabrication of the microFISH device. The microFISH device allows for an optimized metaphase FISH protocol on a chip with over...... a 20-fold reduction in the reagent volume. This is the first demonstration of metaphase FISH on a microfluidic device and offers a possibility of automation and significant cost reduction of many routine diagnostic tests of genetic anomalies....

  9. Daily Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using Hybridizing Wavelet and Artificial Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on integrating discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (WANN model for daily crude oil price forecasting is proposed. The discrete Mallat wavelet transform is used to decompose the crude price series into one approximation series and some details series (DS. The new series obtained by adding the effective one approximation series and DS component is then used as input into the ANN model to forecast crude oil price. The relative performance of WANN model was compared to regular ANN model for crude oil forecasting at lead times of 1 day for two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI and Brent crude oil spot prices. In both cases, WANN model was found to provide more accurate crude oil prices forecasts than individual ANN model.

  10. A supplier selection using a hybrid grey based hierarchical clustering and artificial bee colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Faezy Razi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection of one or a combination of the most suitable potential providers and outsourcing problem is the most important strategies in logistics and supply chain management. In this paper, selection of an optimal combination of suppliers in inventory and supply chain management are studied and analyzed via multiple attribute decision making approach, data mining and evolutionary optimization algorithms. For supplier selection in supply chain, hierarchical clustering according to the studied indexes first clusters suppliers. Then, according to its cluster, each supplier is evaluated through Grey Relational Analysis. Then the combination of suppliers’ Pareto optimal rank and costs are obtained using Artificial Bee Colony meta-heuristic algorithm. A case study is conducted for a better description of a new algorithm to select a multiple source of suppliers.

  11. Hybrid intelligence systems and artificial neural network (ANN approach for modeling of surface roughness in drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Sanjay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In machining processes, drilling operation is material removal process that has been widely used in manufacturing since industrial revolution. The useful life of cutting tool and its operating conditions largely controls the economics of machining operations. Drilling is most frequently performed material removing process and is used as a preliminary step for many operations, such as reaming, tapping, and boring. Drill wear has a bad effect on the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of the work piece. The surface finish of a machined part is one of the most important quality characteristics in manufacturing industries. The primary objective of this research is the prediction of suitable parameters for surface roughness in drilling. Cutting speed, cutting force, and machining time were given as inputs to the adaptive fuzzy neural network and neuro-fuzzy analysis for estimating the values of surface roughness by using 2, 3, 4, and 5 membership functions. The best structures were selected based on minimum of summation of square with the actual values with the estimated values by artificial neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and neuro-fuzzy systems. For artificial neural network (ANN analysis, the number of neurons was selected from 1, 2, 3, … , 20. The learning rate was selected as .5 and .5 smoothing factor was used. The inputs were selected as cutting speed, feed, machining time, and thrust force. The best structures of neural networks were selected based on the criteria as the minimum of summation of square with the actual value of surface roughness. Drilling experiments with 10 mm size were performed at two cutting speeds and feeds. Comparative analysis has been done between the actual values and the estimated values obtained by ANFIS, neuro-fuzzy, and ANN analysis.

  12. Biocompatibility of a fish scale-derived artificial cornea: Cytotoxicity, cellular adhesion and phenotype, and in vivo immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Essen, T H; van Zijl, L; Possemiers, T; Mulder, A A; Zwart, S J; Chou, C-H; Lin, C C; Lai, H J; Luyten, G P M; Tassignon, M J; Zakaria, N; El Ghalbzouri, A; Jager, M J

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether a fish scale-derived collagen matrix (FSCM) meets the basic criteria to serve as an artificial cornea, as determined with in vitro and in vivo tests. Primary corneal epithelial and stromal cells were obtained from human donor corneas and used to examine the (in)direct cytotoxicity effects of the scaffold. Cytotoxicity was assessed by an MTT assay, while cellular proliferation, corneal cell phenotype and adhesion markers were assessed using an EdU-assay and immunofluorescence. For in vivo-testing, FSCMs were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Ologen(®) Collagen Matrices were used as controls. A second implant was implanted as an immunological challenge. The FSCM was implanted in a corneal pocket of seven New Zealand White rabbits, and compared to sham surgery. The FSCM was used as a scaffold to grow corneal epithelial and stromal cells, and displayed no cytotoxicity to these cells. Corneal epithelial cells displayed their normal phenotypical markers (CK3/12 and E-cadherin), as well as cell-matrix adhesion molecules: integrin-α6 and β4, laminin 332, and hemi-desmosomes. Corneal stromal cells similarly expressed adhesion molecules (integrin-α6 and β1). A subcutaneous implant of the FSCM in rats did not induce inflammation or sensitization; the response was comparable to the response against the Ologen(®) Collagen Matrix. Implantation of the FSCM in a corneal stromal pocket in rabbits led to a transparent cornea, healthy epithelium, and, on histology, hardly any infiltrating immune cells. The FSCM allows excellent cell growth, is not immunogenic and is well-tolerated in the cornea, and thus meets the basic criteria to serve as a scaffold to reconstitute the cornea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial partition of artificial structures by fish at the surroundings of the conservation unit - Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Teresa Monteiro Cunningham

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the spatial partition dynamics of fish at artificial structures. Holed structured concrete blocks were used to construct eight identical artificial structures and disposed between 3m-6m depths. Installation was made in two steps during 1996 (May/June and November/December and daily observations were carried out during 30 consecutive days SCUBA diving. The artificial reef areas were used in discriminated ways by the fish community and was most probably influenced by several factor, mainly biotic. The results of the Krustal-Wallis test led to the refutation of the hypothesis that the artificial structure spaces were shared and randomly used by fish.Este trabalho é parte integrante de um projeto maior realizado pelo Laboratório ECOPEX/IOUSP. Foi desenvolvido nos entornos do Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta, Ubatuba, litoral norte de São Paulo, com o objetivo de estudar a dinâmica de repartição espacial dos peixes em estruturas artificiais e de testar a hipótese "os peixes repartem e utilizam aleatoriamente o espaço das estruturas artificiais". Utilizando-se blocos de concreto vazados, foram construídas e colocadas entre 3m - 6m, oito estruturas artificias idênticas. A instalação foi feita em duas etapas durante o ano de 1996 (Maio/Junho e Novembro/Dezembro e as observações efetuadas diariamente durante 30 dias consecutivos usando equipamento de mergulho autônomo. A ictiofauna utilizou de forma diferenciada as áreas dos recifes artificiais, influenciada provavelmente por vários fatores, principalmente bióticos. Os resultados do teste de Kruskal-Wallis levaram a refutar a hipótese desse estudo.

  14. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Typical Turbofan Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Brown, Cliff; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft using the projected signature of the engine currently proposed for the HWB. The modal structures at the rating points were generated from inlet and exhaust nacelle configurations - a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface and vertical control surfaces with correct plan form shapes were also tested to determine their additional impact on shielding. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 inches. Two planes perpendicular, and two planes parallel, to the axis of the nacelle were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed 4 sweeps, for a total span of 168 inches acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Levels, and integrated Power Levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct mode power levels.

  15. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Typical Turbofan Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel l.; Brown, Clifford A.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14- by 22-ft wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8 percent scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8 percent rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft using the projected signature of the engine currently proposed for the HWB. The modal structures at the rating points were generated from inlet and exhaust nacelle configurations--a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface and vertical control surfaces with correct plan form shapes were also tested to determine their additional impact on shielding. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 in. Two planes perpendicular, and two planes parallel, to the axis of the nacelle were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed four sweeps, for a total span of 168 in. acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Levels, and integrated Power Levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct mode power levels

  16. Artificially synthesized helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptide (H/K-HELP): preparation and immunological analysis of vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuko, Kazutaka; Wakita, Daiko; Togashi, Yuji; Kita, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Hidemitsu; Nishimura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the immunologic mechanisms of artificially synthesized helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptide (H/K-HELP), which indicated a great vaccine efficacy in human cancers, we prepared ovalbumin (OVA)-H/K-HELP by conjugating killer and helper epitopes of OVA-model tumor antigen via a glycine-linker. Vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with OVA-H/K-HELP (30 amino acids) but not with short peptides mixture of class I-binding peptide (8 amino-acids) and class II-binding peptide (17 amino-acids) combined with adjuvant CpG-ODN (cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides), induced higher numbers of OVA-tetramer-positive CTL with concomitant activation of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) Th1 cells. However, replacement of glycine-linker of OVA-H/K-HELP with other peptide-linker caused a significant decrease of vaccine efficacy of OVA-H/K-HELP. In combination with adjuvant CpG-ODN, OVA-H/KHELP exhibited greater vaccine efficacy compared with short peptides vaccine, in both preventive and therapeutic vaccine models against OVA-expressing EG-7 tumor. The elevated vaccine efficacy of OVAH/K-HELP might be derived from the following mechanisms: (i) selective presentation by only professional dendritic cells (DC) in vaccinated draining lymph node (dLN); (ii) a long-term sustained antigen presentation exerted by DC to stimulate both CTL and Th1 cells; (iii) formation of three cells interaction among DC, Th and CTL. In comparative study, H/K-HELP indicated stronger therapeutic vaccine efficacy compared with that of extended class I synthetic long peptide, indicating that both the length of peptide and the presence of Th epitope peptide were crucial aspects for preparing artificially synthesized H/K-HELP vaccine. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Meta-Heuristic Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Modeling of Bonding Strength of Plywood Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Demirkır

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plywood, which is one of the most important wood based panels, has many usage areas changing from traffic signs to building constructions in many countries. It is known that the high quality plywood panel manufacturing has been achieved with a good bonding under the optimum pressure conditions depending on adhesive type. This is a study of determining the using possibilities of modern meta-heuristic hybrid artificial intelligence techniques such as IKE and AANN methods for prediction of bonding strength of plywood panels. This study has composed of two main parts as experimental and analytical. Scots pine, maritime pine and European black pine logs were used as wood species. The pine veneers peeled at 32°C and 50°C were dried at 110°C, 140°C and 160°C temperatures. Phenol formaldehyde and melamine urea formaldehyde resins were used as adhesive types. EN 314-1 standard was used to determine the bonding shear strength values of plywood panels in experimental part of this study. Then the intuitive k-nearest neighbor estimator (IKE and adaptive artificial neural network (AANN were used to estimate bonding strength of plywood panels. The best estimation performance was obtained from MA metric for k-value=10. The most effective factor on bonding strength was determined as adhesive type. Error rates were determined less than 5% for both of the IKE and AANN. It may be recommended that proposed methods could be used in applying to estimation of bonding strength values of plywood panels.

  18. Two Scales, Hybrid Model for Soils, Involving Artificial Neural Network and Finite Element Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasiński Marcin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid ANN-FE solution is presented as a result of two level analysis of soils: a level of a laboratory sample and a level of engineering geotechnical problem. Engineering properties of soils (sands are represented directly in the form of ANN (this is in contrast with our former paper where ANN approximated constitutive relationships. Initially the ANN is trained with Duncan formula (Duncan and Chang [2], then it is re-trained (calibrated with some available experimental data, specific for the soil considered. The obtained approximation of the constitutive parameters is used directly in finite element method at the level of a single element at the scale of the laboratory sample to check the correct representation of the laboratory test. Then, the finite element that was successfully tested at the level of laboratory sample is used at the macro level to solve engineering problems involving the soil for which it was calibrated.

  19. Framework for developing hybrid process-driven, artificial neural network and regression models for salinity prediction in river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jason M.; Maier, Holger R.; Gibbs, Matthew S.; Foale, Eloise R.; Grosvenor, Naomi A.; Harders, Nathan P.; Kikuchi-Miller, Tahali C.

    2018-05-01

    Salinity modelling in river systems is complicated by a number of processes, including in-stream salt transport and various mechanisms of saline accession that vary dynamically as a function of water level and flow, often at different temporal scales. Traditionally, salinity models in rivers have either been process- or data-driven. The primary problem with process-based models is that in many instances, not all of the underlying processes are fully understood or able to be represented mathematically. There are also often insufficient historical data to support model development. The major limitation of data-driven models, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) in comparison, is that they provide limited system understanding and are generally not able to be used to inform management decisions targeting specific processes, as different processes are generally modelled implicitly. In order to overcome these limitations, a generic framework for developing hybrid process and data-driven models of salinity in river systems is introduced and applied in this paper. As part of the approach, the most suitable sub-models are developed for each sub-process affecting salinity at the location of interest based on consideration of model purpose, the degree of process understanding and data availability, which are then combined to form the hybrid model. The approach is applied to a 46 km reach of the Murray River in South Australia, which is affected by high levels of salinity. In this reach, the major processes affecting salinity include in-stream salt transport, accession of saline groundwater along the length of the reach and the flushing of three waterbodies in the floodplain during overbank flows of various magnitudes. Based on trade-offs between the degree of process understanding and data availability, a process-driven model is developed for in-stream salt transport, an ANN model is used to model saline groundwater accession and three linear regression models are used

  20. HYBRID ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK APPLIEDTO MODELING SCFE OF BASIL AND ROSEMARY OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giane STUART

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a Hybrid Neural Network (HNN technique as applied to modeling SCFE curves obtained from two Brazilian vegetable matrices. A series Hybrid Neural Network was employed to estimate the parameters of the phenomenological model. A small set of SCFE data of each vegetable was used to generate an extended data set, sufficient to train the network. Afterwards, other sets of experimental data, not used in the network training, were used to validate the present approach. The series HNN correlates well the experimental data and it is shown that the predictions accomplished with this technique may be promising for SCFE purposes.Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos na modelagem da extração supercrítica de óleo essencial de alfavaca e alecrim usando uma rede híbrida neuronal. Utilizou-se uma rede híbrida na configuração em série para estimar os parâmetros do modelo fenomenológico empregado para descrever o processo de extração, o modelo de Sovová. Um pequeno conjunto de dados experimentais, para cada matriz vegetal, foi usado para gerar um conjunto estendido de dados, suficiente para a etapa de treinamento da rede. A validação da presente proposta foi efetuada através da comparação entre os resultados preditos e aqueles obtidos experimentalmente que não constaram do processo de treinamento da rede. Demonstra-se que a rede híbrida neuronal correlaciona e prediz satisfatoriamente os dados experimentais, mostrando-se portanto promissora no campo da modelagem do processo de extração supercrítica.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of artificial hybrid pufferfish Jiyan-1 and its parental species: implications for pufferfish heterosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    Full Text Available Jiyan-1 puffer, the F1 hybrid of Takifugu rubripes and Takifugu flavidus, displays obvious heterosis in the growth performance, flavor and stress tolerance. In the present study, comparative analysis for the transcriptomes of T. rubripes, T. flavidus and Jiyan-1 was performed aiming to reveal the possible mechanisms of heterosis in pufferfish. Whole transcriptomes were sequenced using the SOLiD4 platform, and a total of 44,305 transcripts corresponding to 18,164 genes were identified collectively. A total of 14,148 transcripts were differentially expressed. By comparing the gene expression patterns of the three samples, the coexistence of overdominance, dominance, underdominance and additivity was observed in the gene action modes of Jiyan-1. There were 2,237 transcripts in the intersection of the differentially expressed transcripts from Jiyan-1 versus T. rubripes and Jiyan-1 versus T. flavidus, among which 213 transcripts were also in the T. rubripes versus T. flavidus. The potential functions of the remaining 2,024 transcripts were mainly associated with metabolic process, nucleotide binding and catalytic activity. The enrichment results indicated metabolism was the most activated biological function in the heterosis. In addition, 35 KEGG pathways were retrieved as affiliated with more than three differentially expressed transcripts and 8,579 potentially novel transcript isoforms were identified for Jiyan-1. The present study revealed the coexistence of multiple gene actions in the hybrid puffer, indicated the importance of metabolism, ion binding function and kinase activity, as well as provided a list of candidate genes and pathways for heterosis. It could be helpful for the better understanding of the determination and regulation mechanisms of heterosis.

  2. Hybrid shell engineering of animal cells for immune protections and regulation of drug delivery: towards the design of "artificial organs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoy, Philippe; Meunier, Christophe F; Michiels, Carine; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-01-01

    With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8) to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes). The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the "de novo" biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin), substituting the declining organ functions of the patient.

  3. Hybrid shell engineering of animal cells for immune protections and regulation of drug delivery: towards the design of "artificial organs".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dandoy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8 to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes. The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the "de novo" biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin, substituting the declining organ functions of the patient.

  4. Comparison of hybrid spectral-decomposition artificial neural network models for understanding climatic forcing of groundwater levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrokwah, K.; O'Reilly, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is an important resource that is extracted every day because of its invaluable use for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. The need for sustaining groundwater resources is clearly indicated by declining water levels and has led to modeling and forecasting accurate groundwater levels. In this study, spectral decomposition of climatic forcing time series was used to develop hybrid wavelet analysis (WA) and moving window average (MWA) artificial neural network (ANN) models. These techniques are explored by modeling historical groundwater levels in order to provide understanding of potential causes of the observed groundwater-level fluctuations. Selection of the appropriate decomposition level for WA and window size for MWA helps in understanding the important time scales of climatic forcing, such as rainfall, that influence water levels. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to decompose the input time-series data into various levels of approximate and details wavelet coefficients, whilst MWA acts as a low-pass signal-filtering technique for removing high-frequency signals from the input data. The variables used to develop and validate the models were daily average rainfall measurements from five National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration (NOAA) weather stations and daily water-level measurements from two wells recorded from 1978 to 2008 in central Florida, USA. Using different decomposition levels and different window sizes, several WA-ANN and MWA-ANN models for simulating the water levels were created and their relative performances compared against each other. The WA-ANN models performed better than the corresponding MWA-ANN models; also higher decomposition levels of the input signal by the DWT gave the best results. The results obtained show the applicability and feasibility of hybrid WA-ANN and MWA-ANN models for simulating daily water levels using only climatic forcing time series as model inputs.

  5. A hybrid framework for reservoir characterization using fuzzy ranking and an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baijie; Wang, Xin; Chen, Zhangxin

    2013-08-01

    Reservoir characterization refers to the process of quantitatively assigning reservoir properties using all available field data. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have recently been introduced to solve reservoir characterization problems dealing with the complex underlying relationships inherent in well log data. Despite the utility of ANNs, the current limitation is that most existing applications simply focus on directly implementing existing ANN models instead of improving/customizing them to fit the specific reservoir characterization tasks at hand. In this paper, we propose a novel intelligent framework that integrates fuzzy ranking (FR) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks for reservoir characterization. FR can automatically identify a minimum subset of well log data as neural inputs, and the MLP is trained to learn the complex correlations from the selected well log data to a target reservoir property. FR guarantees the selection of the optimal subset of representative data from the overall well log data set for the characterization of a specific reservoir property; and, this implicitly improves the modeling and predication accuracy of the MLP. In addition, a growing number of industrial agencies are implementing geographic information systems (GIS) in field data management; and, we have designed the GFAR solution (GIS-based FR ANN Reservoir characterization solution) system, which integrates the proposed framework into a GIS system that provides an efficient characterization solution. Three separate petroleum wells from southwestern Alberta, Canada, were used in the presented case study of reservoir porosity characterization. Our experiments demonstrate that our method can generate reliable results.

  6. HYBRID HUMAN-ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR PAVEMENT DISTRESS ASSESSMENT (PICUCHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reus Salini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The pavement surface condition assessment is a critical component for a proper pavement management system as well as for pavement rehabilitation design. A number of devices were developed to automatically record surface distresses in a continuous survey mode, but the software required for automatic distress identification remains a big challenge. In this study, a new method named PICture Unsupervised Classification with Human Analysis (PICUCHA is proposed to circumvent many of the limitations of existing approaches, based on a combination of human and artificial intelligence. It was designed from scratch to be capable to identify sealed and unsealed cracks, potholes, patches, different types of pavements and others. The self-learning algorithms do not use any distresses predefinition and can process images taken by cameras with different brands, technologies and resolution. This study describes some key aspects of the new method and provides examples in which PICUCHA was tested in real conditions showing accuracy up to 96.9% in image pattern detection and classification.

  7. Evaluation of thermal conductivity of MgO-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluids based on experimental data by selecting optimal artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Masoud; Afrand, Masoud; Sina, Nima; Kalbasi, Rasool; Sourani, Forough; Teimouri, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal conductivity ratio of MgO-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluids has been predicted by an optimal artificial neural network at solid volume fractions of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% in the temperature range of 25-50 °C. In this way, at the first, thirty six experimental data was presented to determine the thermal conductivity ratio of the hybrid nanofluid. Then, four optimal artificial neural networks with 6, 8, 10 and 12 neurons in hidden layer were designed to predict the thermal conductivity ratio of the nanofluid. The comparison between four optimal ANN results and experimental showed that the ANN with 12 neurons in hidden layer was the best model. Moreover, the results obtained from the best ANN indicated the maximum deviation margin of 0.8%.

  8. Forecasting East Asian Indices Futures via a Novel Hybrid of Wavelet-PCA Denoising and Artificial Neural Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The motivation behind this research is to innovatively combine new methods like wavelet, principal component analysis (PCA), and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches to analyze trade in today’s increasingly difficult and volatile financial futures markets. The main focus of this study is to facilitate forecasting by using an enhanced denoising process on market data, taken as a multivariate signal, in order to deduct the same noise from the open-high-low-close signal of a market. This research offers evidence on the predictive ability and the profitability of abnormal returns of a new hybrid forecasting model using Wavelet-PCA denoising and ANN (named WPCA-NN) on futures contracts of Hong Kong’s Hang Seng futures, Japan’s NIKKEI 225 futures, Singapore’s MSCI futures, South Korea’s KOSPI 200 futures, and Taiwan’s TAIEX futures from 2005 to 2014. Using a host of technical analysis indicators consisting of RSI, MACD, MACD Signal, Stochastic Fast %K, Stochastic Slow %K, Stochastic %D, and Ultimate Oscillator, empirical results show that the annual mean returns of WPCA-NN are more than the threshold buy-and-hold for the validation, test, and evaluation periods; this is inconsistent with the traditional random walk hypothesis, which insists that mechanical rules cannot outperform the threshold buy-and-hold. The findings, however, are consistent with literature that advocates technical analysis. PMID:27248692

  9. Validation of the Revised Stressful Life Event Questionnaire Using a Hybrid Model of Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Sali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Stressors have a serious role in precipitating mental and somatic disorders and are an interesting subject for many clinical and community-based studies. Hence, the proper and accurate measurement of them is very important. We revised the stressful life event (SLE questionnaire by adding weights to the events in order to measure and determine a cut point. Methods. A total of 4569 adults aged between 18 and 85 years completed the SLE questionnaire and the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12. A hybrid model of genetic algorithm (GA and artificial neural networks (ANNs was applied to extract the relation between the stressful life events (evaluated by a 6-point Likert scale and the GHQ score as a response variable. In this model, GA is used in order to set some parameter of ANN for achieving more accurate results. Results. For each stressful life event, the number is defined as weight. Among all stressful life events, death of parents, spouse, or siblings is the most important and impactful stressor in the studied population. Sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 81% were obtained for the cut point 100. Conclusion. The SLE-revised (SLE-R questionnaire despite simplicity is a high-performance screening tool for investigating the stress level of life events and its management in both community and primary care settings. The SLE-R questionnaire is user-friendly and easy to be self-administered. This questionnaire allows the individuals to be aware of their own health status.

  10. Tuning back contact property via artificial interface dipoles in Si/organic hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dan [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Department of Physics and Institute of Solid-state electronics physical, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Sheng, Jiang, E-mail: shengjiang@nimte.ac.cn; Wu, Sudong; Zhu, Juye; Chen, Shaojie; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun, E-mail: jichun.ye@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2016-07-25

    Back contact property plays a key role in the charge collection efficiency of c-Si/poly(3,4-ethylthiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) hybrid solar cells (Si-HSCs), as an alternative for the high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic devices. In this letter, we utilize the water soluble poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) to modify the Al/Si interface to be an Ohmic contact via interface dipole tuning, decreasing the work function of the Al film. This Ohmic contact improves the electron collection efficiency of the rear electrode, increasing the short circuit current density (J{sub sc}). Furthermore, the interface dipoles make the band bending downward to increase the total barrier height of built-in electric field of the solar cell, enhancing the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}). The PEO solar cell exhibits an excellent performance, 12.29% power conversion efficiency, a 25.28% increase from the reference solar cell without a PEO interlayer. The simple and water soluble method as a promising alternative is used to develop the interfacial contact quality of the rear electrode for the high photovoltaic performance of Si-HSCs.

  11. Automation of ALK gene rearrangement testing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaenepoel, Karen; Merkle, Dennis; Cabillic, Florian; Berg, Erica; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Grazioli, Vittorio; Herelle, Olga; Hummel, Michael; Le Calve, Michele; Lenze, Dido; Mende, Stefanie; Pauwels, Patrick; Quilichini, Benoit; Repetti, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In the past several years we have observed a significant increase in our understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive lung cancer. Specifically in the non-small cell lung cancer sub-types, ALK gene rearrangements represent a sub-group of tumors that are targetable by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Crizotinib, resulting in significant reductions in tumor burden. Phase II and III clinical trials were performed using an ALK break-apart FISH probe kit, making FISH the gold standard for identifying ALK rearrangements in patients. FISH is often considered a labor and cost intensive molecular technique, and in this study we aimed to demonstrate feasibility for automation of ALK FISH testing, to improve laboratory workflow and ease of testing. This involved automation of the pre-treatment steps of the ALK assay using various protocols on the VP 2000 instrument, and facilitating automated scanning of the fluorescent FISH specimens for simplified enumeration on various backend scanning and analysis systems. The results indicated that ALK FISH can be automated. Significantly, both the Ikoniscope and BioView system of automated FISH scanning and analysis systems provided a robust analysis algorithm to define ALK rearrangements. In addition, the BioView system facilitated consultation of difficult cases via the internet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid molecular cytogenetic analysis of X-chromosomal microdeletions: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for complex glycerol kinase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, K.C.; Lindsay, E.A.; McCabe, E.R.B. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-17

    Diagnosis of X-chromosomal microdeletions has relied upon the traditional methods of Southern blotting and DNA amplification, with carrier identification requiring time-consuming and unreliable dosage calculations. In this report, we describe rapid molecular cytogenetic identification of deleted DNA in affected males with the Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome (complex glycerol kinase deficiency, CGKD) and female carriers for this disorder. CGKD deletions involve the genes for glycerol kinase, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and/or adrenal hypoplasia congenita. We report an improved method for diagnosis of deletions in individuals with CGKD and for identification of female carriers within their families using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cosmid marker (cosmid 35) within the glycerol kinase gene. When used in combination with an Xq control probe, affected males demonstrate a single signal from the control probe, while female carriers demonstrate a normal chromosome with two signals, as well as a deleted chromosome with a single signal from the control probe. FISH analysis for CGKD provides the advantages of speed and accuracy for evaluation of submicroscopic X-chromosome deletions, particularly in identification of female carriers. In addition to improving carrier evaluation, FISH will make prenatal diagnosis of CGKD more readily available. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Kloas, Werner; Preuer, Torsten; Hölker, Franz

    2018-01-01

    Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus ). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics.

  14. QUANTITATIVE IMAGING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (FISH) OF AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS. (R823845)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractImage and multifactorial statistical analyses were used to evaluate the intensity of fluorescence signal from cells of three strains of A. pullulans and one strain of Rhodosporidium toruloides, as an outgroup, hybridized with either a universal o...

  15. Evaluation of Artificial Caudal Fin for Fish Robot with Two Joints by Using Three-Dimensional Fluid-Structure Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogo Takada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fish robot with image sensors is useful to research for underwater creatures such as fish. However, the propulsion velocity of a fish robot is very slow compared with live fish. It is necessary to swim at a speed several times faster than the speed of the current robots for various usages. Therefore, we are searching for the method of making the robot swim fast. The simulation before making the robot is important. We have made the computational simulation program of three-dimensional fluid-structure analysis. The flow around the caudal fin can be examined by analyzing the fin as an elastic body. We compared the results of numerical analysis with the results of PIV measurement. Both were agreed well. Because the performance of a fish robot with two joints is better than that of a fish robot with one joint, we searched for an excellent fin for the fish robot with two joints by using CFD. We confirmed that the swimming performance of a fish robot becomes very good when the caudal fin is rigid except for the root of the fin which is comparatively flexible.

  16. Fluctuation localization imaging-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (fliFISH) for accurate detection and counting of RNA copies in single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yi; Hu, Dehong; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Ansong, Charles; Sussel, Lori; Orr, Galya

    2017-10-04

    Quantitative gene expression analysis in intact single cells can be achieved using single molecule- based fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH). This approach relies on fluorescence intensity to distinguish between true signals, emitted from an RNA copy hybridized with multiple FISH sub-probes, and background noise. Thus, the precision in smFISH is often compromised by partial or nonspecific binding of sub-probes and tissue autofluorescence, limiting its accuracy. Here we provide an accurate approach for setting quantitative thresholds between true and false signals, which relies on blinking frequencies of photoswitchable dyes. This fluctuation localization imaging-based FISH (fliFISH) uses blinking frequency patterns, emitted from a transcript bound to multiple sub-probes, which are distinct from blinking patterns emitted from partial or nonspecifically bound sub-probes and autofluorescence. Using multicolor fliFISH, we identified radial gene expression patterns in mouse pancreatic islets for insulin, the transcription factor, NKX2-2, and their ratio (Nkx2-2/Ins2). These radial patterns, showing higher values in β cells at the islet core and lower values in peripheral cells, were lost in diabetic mouse islets. In summary, fliFISH provides an accurate, quantitative approach for detecting and counting true RNA copies and rejecting false signals by their distinct blinking frequency patterns, laying the foundation for reliable single-cell transcriptomics.

  17. 6q deletion detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using bacterial artificial chromosome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsass, Alessia; Mestichelli, Francesca; Ruggieri, Miriana; Gaspari, Paola; Pezzoni, Valerio; Vagnoni, Davide; Angelini, Mario; Angelini, Stefano; Bigazzi, Catia; Falcioni, Sadia; Troiani, Emanuela; Alesiani, Francesco; Catarini, Massimo; Attolico, Immacolata; Scortechini, Ilaria; Discepoli, Giancarlo; Galieni, Piero

    2013-07-01

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are known to occur at relatively low frequency (3-6%) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and they are more frequently observed in 6q21. Few data have been reported regarding other bands on 6q involved by cytogenetic alterations in CLL. The cytogenetic study was performed in nuclei and metaphases obtained after stimulation with a combination of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 and interleukin-2. Four bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones mapping regions in bands 6q16, 6q23, 6q25, 6q27 were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization in 107 CLL cases in order to analyze the occurrence and localization of 6q aberrations. We identified 11 cases (10.2%) with 6q deletion of 107 patients studied with CLL. The trends of survival curves and the treatment-free intervals (TFI) of patients with deletion suggest a better outcome than the other cytogenetic risk groups. We observed two subgroups with 6q deletion as the sole anomaly: two cases with 6q16 deletion, and three cases with 6q25.2-27 deletion. There were differences of age, stage, and TFI between both subgroups. By using BAC probes, we observed that 6q deletion has a higher frequency in CLL and is linked with a good prognosis. In addition, it was observed that the deletion in 6q16 appears to be the most frequent and, if present as the only abnormality, it could be associated with a most widespread disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Optimal design of permanent magnet flux switching generator for wind applications via artificial neural network and multi-objective particle swarm optimization hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, Santolo; Zohoori, Alireza; Vahedi, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new optimal design of flux switching permanent magnet generator is developed. • A prototype is employed to validate numerical data used for optimization. • A novel hybrid multi-objective particle swarm optimization approach is proposed. • Optimization targets are weight, cost, voltage and its total harmonic distortion. • The hybrid approach preference is proved compared with other optimization methods. - Abstract: In this paper a new hybrid approach obtained combining a multi-objective particle swarm optimization and artificial neural network is proposed for the design optimization of a direct-drive permanent magnet flux switching generators for low power wind applications. The targets of the proposed multi-objective optimization are to reduce the costs and weight of the machine while maximizing the amplitude of the induced voltage as well as minimizing its total harmonic distortion. The permanent magnet width, the stator and rotor tooth width, the rotor teeth number and stator pole number of the machine define the search space for the optimization problem. Four supervised artificial neural networks are designed for modeling the complex relationships among the weight, the cost, the amplitude and the total harmonic distortion of the output voltage respect to the quantities of the search space. Finite element analysis is adopted to generate training dataset for the artificial neural networks. Finite element analysis based model is verified by experimental results with a 1.5 kW permanent magnet flux switching generator prototype suitable for renewable energy applications, having 6/19 stator poles/rotor teeth. Finally the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid procedure is compared with the results given by conventional multi-objective optimization algorithms. The obtained results show the soundness of the proposed multi objective optimization technique and its feasibility to be adopted as suitable methodology for optimal design of permanent

  19. Patterns of parasite distribution in the hybrids of non-congeneric cyprinid fish species: is asymmetry in parasite infection the result of limited coadaptation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnovyd, V.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Gettová, L.; Civáňová, K.; Šimková, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 8 (2017), s. 471-483 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Interspecific hybrids * Cyprinid fish * Parasite communities * Host specificity * Maternal ancestry Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2016

  20. Utility and impact of early t(15;17) identification by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) in clinical decision making for patients in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhe, R; Mangaonkar, A; Mansour, J; Clemmons, A; Shaw, J; Dupont, B; Walczak, L; Mondal, A; Rojiani, A; Jillella, A; Kota, V

    2015-08-01

    Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) is a curable malignancy with studies showing above 90% survival. However, population-based studies looking at survival suggest that approximately 30% of patients with APL die during induction. Early demonstration of t(15;17) will lead to accurate decision making regarding treatment. The aim of this project was to validate earlier time frames for the Abbott Molecular Vysis LSI promyelocytic leukemia (PML)/ retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe (ASR 6-16 h). Twenty patients (15 APL cases and five non-APL cases) were selected for validating various hybridization times for the FISH probe. Expected normal signal pattern was two red and two green signals (2R2G), and the most common expected abnormal signal pattern was two fusion (yellow) signals, one red and one green (2F1R1G) and/or one fusion, one red and one green (1F1R1G). The specificity of the probe ranged from 84% at 2 h, 86% at 4 h, 84% at 6 h, and 87% for overnight hybridization. The sensitivity increased from 79% at 2 h, 80% at 4 h, 81% at 6 h to 87% for overnight hybridization. Based on the validation studies, we recommend reading of FISH results at the 4-h incubation mark for a preliminary diagnosis and confirmation with overnight hybridization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH for multiple myeloma using CD138 positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kiyomi Kishimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm with acquired genetic abnormalities of clinical and prognostic importance. Multiple myeloma differs from other hematologic malignancies due to a high fraction of low proliferating malignant plasma cells and the paucity of plasma cells in bone marrow aspiration samples, making cytogenetic analysis a challenge. An abnormal karyotype is found in only one-third of patients with multiple myeloma and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization is the most useful test for studying the chromosomal abnormalities present in almost 90% of cases. However, it is necessary to study the genetic abnormalities in plasma cells after their identification or selection by morphology, immunophenotyping or sorting. Other challenges are the selection of the most informative FISH panel and determining cut-off levels for FISH probes. This study reports the validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization using CD138 positive cells, according to proposed guidelines published by the European Myeloma Network (EMN in 2012. METHOD: Bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma were used to standardize a panel of five probes [1q amplification, 13q14 deletion, 17p deletion, t(4;14, and t(14;16] in CD138+ cells purified by magnetic cell sorting. RESULTS: This test was validated with a low turnaround time and good reproducibility. Five of six samples showed genetic abnormalities. Monosomy/deletion 13 plus t(4;14 were found in two cases. CONCLUSION: This technique together with magnetic cell sorting is effective and can be used in the routine laboratory practice. In addition, magnetic cell sorting provides a pure plasma cell population that allows other molecular and genomic studies.

  2. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  3. Cytogenetic analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate occupational exposure to carcinogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Binková, Blanka; Rössner, P.; Šmerhovský, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 149, - (2004), s. 335-344 ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Chromosomal aberrations * Fluorescence in situ hybridization Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2004

  4. Risk analysis of exotic fish species included in the Dutch Fisheries Act and their hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphouwer, M.E.; Kessel, van N.; Matthews, J.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Koppel, S.; Kranenbarg, J.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Lenders, H.J.R.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Velde, van der G.; Crombaghs, B.; Zollinger, R.

    2014-01-01

    In dit rapport worden de risico’s geanalyseerd van exotische vissoorten die zijn opgenomen in de Visserijwet en hun hybriden. De volgende soorten en één specifieke hybride zijn in de analyse meegenomen: beekridder (Salvelinus alpinus); roofblei (Leuciscus aspius); karper (Cyprinus carpio);

  5. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum.

  6. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum

  7. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on corneal impression cytology specimens (CICS): study of epithelial cell survival after keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Muriel; Popovici, Cornel; Proust, Hélène; Hoffart, Louis; Matonti, Frédéric; Cochereau, Isabelle; Conrath, John; Gabison, Eric E

    2011-02-22

    To assess corneal epithelial cell survival after keratoplasty. Corneal impression cytology (CIC) was performed on sex-mismatched corneal transplants. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with sex chromosome-specific probes was performed to identify epithelial cell mosaicism and therefore allocate the donor or recipient origin of the cells. Twenty-four samples of corneal epithelial cells derived from 21 transplanted patients were analyzed. All patients received post-operative treatment using dexamethasone eye drops, with progressive tapering over 18 months, and nine patients also received 2% cyclosporine eye drops. Out of the 24 samples reaching quality criteria, sex mosaicism was found in 13, demonstrating the presence of donor-derived cells at the center of the graft for at least 211 days post keratoplasty. Kaplan-Meier analysis established a median survival of donor corneal epithelial cells of 385 days. Although not statistically significant, the disappearance of donor cells seemed to be delayed and the average number of persistent cells appeared to be greater when 2% cyclosporine was used topically as an additional immunosuppressive therapy. The combination of corneal impressions and FISH analysis is a valuable tool with negligible side effects to investigate the presence of epithelial cell mosaicism in sex-mismatched donor transplants. Epithelial cells survived at the center of the graft with a median survival of more than one year, suggesting slower epithelial turnover than previously described.

  8. Artificial Feeds Given in Different Dose to the Growth and Feed Consumption of Semah Fish Seed (Tor Douronensis in Order to Domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sunarto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Semah fish (Tor douronensis is a kind of freshwater fish pertained as a wild fish that almost extint and rare, therefore, it is necessary to preserve through the culture activity. Meanwhile, in fish culture effort, feed is considers as an important factor.  Thus, feed must meet a proper quality and quantity due to the fish maintenance, growth, and reproduction requirement. Test feed employed in this research was an artificial feed in form of pellet which was consists of 40% protein by dose tested of 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% of biomass weight. The result indicated that daily growth rate was ranged between 1.44-1.99% by highest growth achieved at feed dose 6% and from the quadratic regression analysis achieved optimal dose by 6.18%.  Daily feed comsumption rate of semah fish seed was ranged between 2.69-10.19% per day.  Feed efficiency was ranged between 13.85-54.09%, and survival rate was 100%. Keywords: dose, growth, feed comsumption, semah fish, Tor douronensis   ABSTRAK Ikan semah (Tor douronensis adalah jenis ikan air tawar yang tergolong jenis ikan liar yang hampir punah dan sudah langka, karena itu perlu upaya pelestariannya dengan usaha pembudidayaan. Dalam usaha budidaya ikan, pakan merupakan salah satu faktor penting. Oleh sebab itu pakan harus berkualitas dengan kuantitas yang tepat sesuai dengan kebutuhan ikan untuk pertumbuhannya, pemeliharaan tubuh dan reproduksi. Pakan uji yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pakan buatan berupa pelet yang mengandung  protein 40% dengan dosis pakan yang diuji 3%, 6%, 9% dan 12% dari bobot biomassa. Hasil menunjukkan laju pertumbuhan harian berkisar antara 1,99-1,44% dengan pertumbuhan tertinggi dicapai pada dosis pakan 6% dan dari analisis regresi kwadratik diperoleh dosis optimum sebesar 6,18%. Laju konsumsi harian benih ikan semah selama penelitian ini berkisar antara 2,69-10,19 %/hari. Efesiensi pakan berkisar antara 54,09-13,85%, dan tingkat kelangsungan hidup 100% Kata kunci: dosis

  9. Evaluation of hybrid neutralization/biosorption process for zinc ions removal from automotive battery effluent by dolomite and fish scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C; Scheufele, F B; Alves, H J; Kroumov, A D; Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Módenes, A N; Borba, C E

    2018-02-26

    This work focused in the evaluation of Oreochromis niloticus fish scales (FS) as biosorbent material in the removal of Zn from a synthetic effluent based on automotive battery industry effluent and, further, a hybrid neutralization/biosorption process, aiming at a high-quality treated effluent, by a cooperative use of dolomite and FS. For this, a physicochemical and morphological characterization (i.e. SEM-EDX, FTIR, XRD, and TXRF) was performed, which helped to clarify a great heterogeneity of active sites (phosphate, carbonate, amide, and hydroxyl) on the biosorbent; also the inorganic constituents (apatites) leaching from the FS was identified. Biosorption results pointed out to a pH-dependent process due to changes in the functional group's anionic character (i.e. electrostatic interactions), where an initial pH = 3 favored the Zn uptake. Kinetic and equilibrium studies confirmed the heterogeneous surface and cooperative sorption, wherein experimental data were described by Generalized Elovich kinetic model and the favorable isotherm profile by Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm ([Formula: see text] = 15.38 mg g -1 and [Formula: see text]). Speciation diagram of Zn species along with the leached species demonstrated that, for the studied pH range, the biosorption was the most likely phenomena rather than precipitation. Finally, the hybrid neutralization/biosorption process showed great potential since both the Zn concentration levels and the pH reached the legislation standards (C Zn  = 4 mg L -1 ; pH = 5). Hence, based on the characterization and biosorption results, a comprehensive evaluation of the involved mechanisms in such complex system helped to verify the prospective of FS biosorbent for the Zn treatment from solution, in both individual and hybrid processes.

  10. Attraction - production effects of an artificial reef on the fish community from the Tabarca Marin Reserve (Alicante)

    OpenAIRE

    Bayle-Sempere, Just T.; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A.; Palazón Ferrando, José Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Para determinar el efecto producción - atracción del arrecife artificial de Tabarca, se analizó la estructura de tallas del poblamiento íctico asociado mediante análisis univariantes y multivariantes. Los resultados indicaron una baja contribución de la clase de talla 1 en el conjunto del poblamiento, considerándose a la mayoría de estos individuos subadultos o juveniles tardíos. El arrecife artificial de Tabarca parece funcionar como una estructura de atracción que favorece la ...

  11. Human chromosome-specific changes in a human-hamster hybrid cell line (AL) assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geard, Charles R.; Jenkins, Gloria

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess all gamma-ray induced chromosomal changes confined to one human chromosome using fluorescence microscopy and in situ hybridization with a fluorescently labeled human chromosome specific nucleic acid probe. Methods and Materials: Synchronized human-hamster hybrid cells containing human chromosome 11 were obtained by a modified mitotic shake-off procedure. G1 phase cells (> 95%) were irradiated with 137 Cs gamma rays (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 Gy) at a dose rate of 1.1 Gy/min and mitotic cells collected 16-20 h later; chromosomal spreads were prepared, denatured, and hybridized with a fluorescein-tagged nucleic acid probe against total human DNA. Chromosomes were examined by fluorescence microscopy and all categories of change involving the human chromosome 11 as target, recorded. Results: Overall, of the 3104 human-hamster hybrid cells examined, 82.1% were euploid, of which 88.6% contained one copy of human chromosome 11, 6.2% contained two copies, and 5.2% contained 0 copies. This is compatible with mitotic nondisjunction in a small fraction of cells. Of the remaining 17.9% of cells, 85.2% were tetraploid cells with two copies of human chromosome 11. For all aberrations involving human chromosome 11 there was a linear relationship between yield and absorbed dose of 0.1 aberrations per chromosome per Gy. The yield of dicentrics, translocations, and terminal deletions that involve one lesion on the human chromosome was linear, while the yield of interstitial deletions that arise from two interacting lesions on the human chromosome was curvilinear. The frequencies of dicentrics and translocations were about equal, while there was a high (40-60%) incidence of incomplete exchanges between human and hamster chromosomes. Conclusions: Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures allow for the efficient detection of a broad range of induced changes in target chromosomes. Symmetrical exchanges induced in G1

  12. Effect of The Phytase Enzyme Addition in The Artificial Feed on Digestibility of Feed, Feed Conversion Ratio and Growth of Gift Tilapia Saline Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) Nursery Stadia I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Diana; Samidjan, Istiyanto; Elfitasari, Tita

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding the phytase enzyme in the artificial feed on digestibility of feed, feed conversion ratio and growth of gift tilapia saline fish (Oreochromis niloticus) nursery stadia I. The fish samples in this study used gift tilapia saline fish (O. niloticus) with an average weight of 0,62 ± 0,008 g/fish and the stocking density of 1 fish1 L. Experimental method used in this study was completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The treatments were by adding phytase enzyme in artificial feed with the different level of doses those were A (0 FTU kg1 feed), B (500 FTU kg1 feed), C (1000 FTU kg1 feed) and D (1500 FTU kg1 feed). The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme was significantly (P0.05) affected on Survival Rate (SR) of gift tilapia saline fish. The optimum doses of phytase enzyme on RGR, FCR, PER, ADCP and ADCF of gift tilapia saline fish ranged from 1060 to 1100 FTU kg-1 feed.

  13. Conservation of Native Fishes of the San Francisco Estuary: Considerations for Artificial Propagation of Chinook Salmon, Delta Smelt, and Green Sturgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Israel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many native fishes in the San Francisco Estuary and its watersheds have reached all-time low abundances. Some of these declining species (e.g., Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha have been under artificial propagation for decades. For others (e.g., delta smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus, and green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, this management option is just beginning to be discussed and implemented. Propagation strategies, in which organisms spend some portion of their lives in captivity, pose well-documented genetic and ecological threats to natural populations. Negative impacts of propagation have been documented for all Central Valley Chinook salmon runs, but limited efforts have been made to adapt hatchery operations to minimize the genetic and ecological threats caused by propagated fishes. A delta smelt propagation program is undergoing intensive design and review for operations and monitoring. However, if limiting factors facing this species in its estuarine habitat are not effectively addressed, captive propagation may not be a useful conservation approach, regardless of how carefully the propagation activity is designed or monitored. Scientifically defensible, ecologically based restoration programs that include monitoring and research aimed at quantifying natural population vital rates should be fully implemented before there is any attempt to supplement natural populations of delta smelt. Green sturgeon are also likely to face risks from artificial propagation if a large–scale program is implemented before this species’ limiting factors are better understood. In each of these cases, restoring habitats, and reducing loss from human actions, are likely to be the best strategy for rebuilding and supporting self–sustaining populations.

  14. Large-scale polymorphism near the ends of several human chromosomes analyzed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Giorgi, D. [CNRS, Montpelier (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We have discovered a large DNA segment that is polymorphically present at the ends of several human chromosomes. The segment, f7501, was originally derived form a human chromosome 19-specific cosmid library. FISH was used to determine the cosmid`s chromosomal distribution on 44 unrelated humans and several closely related primates. The human subjects represent a diversity of reproductively isolated ethnic populations. FISH analysis revealed that sequences highly homologous to the cosmid`s insert are present on both homologs at 3q, 15q,. and 19p in almost all individuals (88, 85, and 87 of 88 homologs, respectively). Other chromosomes sites were labeled much more rarely in the sampled individuals. For example, 56 of the 88 analyzed chromosomes 11 were labeled (18+/+, 6-/-, and 20+/- individuals). In contrast, 2q was labeled on only 1/88 sampled chromosomes. The termini of 2q, 5q, 6p, 6q, 7p, 8p, 9p, 9q, 11p, 12q, 16p, 19q, and 20q and an interstitial site at 2q13-14 were labeled in at least one individual of the set. EcoR1-fragments derived from the cosmid showed the same hybridization pattern as the entire cosmid, indicating that at least 40 kbp is shared by these chromosome ends. Ethnic differences in the allele frequency of these polymorphic variants was observed. For example, signals were observed on 8/10 and 7/10 of the chromosomes 7p and 16q, respectively, derived form Biakan Pygmies, but these sites were infrequently labeled in non-Pygmy human populations (2/68, respectively). This region has undergone significant changes in chromosome location during human evolution. Strong signal was seen on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosome 3, which is homologous to human chromosome 4, a chromosome unlabeled in any of the humans we have analyzed.

  15. Effects of social environment and personality on communication in male Siamese fighting fish in an artificial network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Peake, Tom M.

    2010-01-01

    of the individuals surrounding it within a network. We investigated the effects of a change of local social environment on two behavioural types, ‘persistent' versus ‘sporadic' signaller, in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Males visually interacted for 1 day in a communication network of seven fish in tanks...... the time spent in the inner front part of their tank, from which they could observe but not interact with the neighbours. Social instability (i.e. number of changed neighbours) raised the signalling levels of individuals independently of their behavioural types. We discuss the relationship between...... information gathering in a communication network and network composition in terms of behavioural types of its members....

  16. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, J.; Pekárik, L.; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), e0146872-e0146872 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1155; GA ČR GPP506/12/P857; GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : in-situ hybridization * fresh water fish * unisexual salamanders Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  17. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  18. Analysis of the nitrifying bacterial community in BioCube sponge media using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Rameshwar, T; Jang, Am; Kim, Sung H; Kim, In S

    2008-09-01

    There is growing interest in the development of more cost-effective and retrofit technologies for the upgrade and expansion of existing wastewater treatment plants with extreme space constraints. A free-floating sponge media (BioCube) process, using a 24 L lab scale reactor, was operated to study the nitrification profiles and microbial community. The COD removal efficiencies were maintained, at an average of 95%, with the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) inside the BioCube sponge media maintained at 12,688 mg/L. The nitrification removal efficiencies were between 92% and 100%, with an average value of 99%. From the results of microelectrode measurements, the ammonium ion concentration was found to rapidly decrease from the surface of the BioCube sponge media to a depth of 2mm due to chemical reactions carried out by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) species. Multi-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to investigate the spatial distributions of various microbial activities within reactors. Microbial communities were targeted using different oligonucleotide probes specific to AOB and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). There were a large number of AOB populations, but these were not uniformly distributed in the biofilm compared to the NOB populations.

  19. DNA barcoding and microsatellites help species delimitation and hybrid identification in endangered galaxiid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaecke, Delphine; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Young, Kyle; Sanzana, Jose; Orellana, Gabriel; Fowler, Daniel; Howes, Paul; Monzon-Arguello, Catalina; Consuegra, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of data deficient species is often hampered by inaccurate species delimitation. The galaxiid fishes Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus are endemic to Patagonia (and for A. zebra the Falkland Islands), where they are threatened by invasive salmonids. Conservation of Aplochiton is complicated because species identification is hampered by the presence of resident as well as migratory ecotypes that may confound morphological discrimination. We used DNA barcoding (COI, cytochrome b) and a new developed set of microsatellite markers to investigate the relationships between A. zebra and A. taeniatus and to assess their distributions and relative abundances in Chilean Patagonia and the Falkland Islands. Results from both DNA markers were 100% congruent and revealed that phenotypic misidentification was widespread, size-dependent, and highly asymmetric. While all the genetically classified A. zebra were correctly identified as such, 74% of A. taeniatus were incorrectly identified as A. zebra, the former species being more widespread than previously thought. Our results reveal, for the first time, the presence in sympatry of both species, not only in Chilean Patagonia, but also in the Falkland Islands, where A. taeniatus had not been previously described. We also found evidence of asymmetric hybridisation between female A. taeniatus and male A. zebra in areas where invasive salmonids have become widespread. Given the potential consequences that species misidentification and hybridisation can have for the conservation of these endangered species, we advocate the use of molecular markers in order to reduce epistemic uncertainty.

  20. Visualization of mcr mRNA in a methanogen by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe and two-pass tyramide signal amplification (two-pass TSA-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kengo; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Harada, Hideki

    2006-09-01

    Two-pass tyramide signal amplification-fluorescence in situ hybridization (two-pass TSA-FISH) with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled oligonucleotide probe was applied to detect prokaryotic mRNA. In this study, mRNA of a key enzyme for methanogenesis, methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr), in Methanococcus vannielii was targeted. Applicability of mRNA-targeted probes to in situ hybridization was verified by Clone-FISH. It was observed that sensitivity of two-pass TSA-FISH was significantly higher than that of TSA-FISH, which was further increased by the addition of dextran sulphate in TSA working solution. Signals from two-pass TSA-FISH were more reliable compared to the weak, spotty signals yielded by TSA-FISH.

  1. Diet and dietary habits of the fish Schilbe mystus (Siluriformes: Schilbeidae in two artificial lakes in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedolapo Ayoade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet and dietary habits of African Butter Catfish Schilbe mystus (Linne, 1766, an economically important fish in Oyan and Asejire lakes (Southwest Nigeria were examined between July 2000 and December 2001. Stomach contents were analysed using the numerical, frequency of occurrence and points methods. The fish is predatory but the diet differs among lakes and seasons. Insects were more important in the diet of small (La dieta y los hábitos alimenticios de Schilbe mystus (Linne, 1766, un pez de importancia comercial en los lagos de Oyan y Asejire (Nigeria, fueron examinados desde diciembre del 2000 a diciembre del 2001. Se realizaron análisis de contenido estomacal utilizando métodos numéricos, de frecuencia de presencia y puntuales. Existe variación estacional en los organismos seleccionados para alimento y los insectos son más importantes para peces pequeños (<18 cm. También hay diferencias en la cantidad de alimento encontrado en los estómagos de machos con respecto a las hembras de S. mystus en ambos hábitats. El patrón de selección y consumo de alimento en estas especies es distinto en los dos lagos.

  2. A Hybrid Fuzzy Time Series Approach Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Artificial Neural Network with Single Multiplicative Neuron Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Cagcag Yolcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Particularly in recent years, artificial intelligence optimization techniques have been used to make fuzzy time series approaches more systematic and improve forecasting performance. Besides, some fuzzy clustering methods and artificial neural networks with different structures are used in the fuzzification of observations and determination of fuzzy relationships, respectively. In approaches considering the membership values, the membership values are determined subjectively or fuzzy outputs of the system are obtained by considering that there is a relation between membership values in identification of relation. This necessitates defuzzification step and increases the model error. In this study, membership values were obtained more systematically by using Gustafson-Kessel fuzzy clustering technique. The use of artificial neural network with single multiplicative neuron model in identification of fuzzy relation eliminated the architecture selection problem as well as the necessity for defuzzification step by constituting target values from real observations of time series. The training of artificial neural network with single multiplicative neuron model which is used for identification of fuzzy relation step is carried out with particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is implemented using various time series and the results are compared with those of previous studies to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  3. Optimal design approach for heating irregular-shaped objects in three-dimensional radiant furnaces using a hybrid genetic algorithm-artificial neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishvand, Leila; Kamkari, Babak; Kowsary, Farshad

    2018-03-01

    In this article, a new hybrid method based on the combination of the genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) is developed to optimize the design of three-dimensional (3-D) radiant furnaces. A 3-D irregular shape design body (DB) heated inside a 3-D radiant furnace is considered as a case study. The uniform thermal conditions on the DB surfaces are obtained by minimizing an objective function. An ANN is developed to predict the objective function value which is trained through the data produced by applying the Monte Carlo method. The trained ANN is used in conjunction with the GA to find the optimal design variables. The results show that the computational time using the GA-ANN approach is significantly less than that of the conventional method. It is concluded that the integration of the ANN with GA is an efficient technique for optimization of the radiant furnaces.

  4. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification - fluorescence in situ hybridization (in situ RCA-FISH) to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    target site. Finally, the RCA product inside the cells was detected by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The optimized protocol showed high specificity and signal-to-noise ratio but low detection frequency (up to 15% for single-copy genes and up to 43% for the multi-copy 16S rRNA gene...... as Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis by combining in situ RCA-FISH with 16S rRNA-targeted FISH. While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells.......). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS-defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified...

  5. Evaluation of hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids for resistance to Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) using artificial infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; S.E. Bentz; Richard T. Olsen

    2009-01-01

    Hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The adelgid was accidentally introduced from Asia to the eastern United States, where it is causing widespread mortality of the native hemlocks, Tsuga canadensis (L.)...

  6. An optimal control strategy for hybrid actuator systems: Application to an artificial muscle with electric motor assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Koji; Morimoto, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Humans use multiple muscles to generate such joint movements as an elbow motion. With multiple lightweight and compliant actuators, joint movements can also be efficiently generated. Similarly, robots can use multiple actuators to efficiently generate a one degree of freedom movement. For this movement, the desired joint torque must be properly distributed to each actuator. One approach to cope with this torque distribution problem is an optimal control method. However, solving the optimal control problem at each control time step has not been deemed a practical approach due to its large computational burden. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient method to derive an optimal control strategy for a hybrid actuation system composed of multiple actuators, where each actuator has different dynamical properties. We investigated a singularly perturbed system of the hybrid actuator model that subdivided the original large-scale control problem into smaller subproblems so that the optimal control outputs for each actuator can be derived at each control time step and applied our proposed method to our pneumatic-electric hybrid actuator system. Our method derived a torque distribution strategy for the hybrid actuator by dealing with the difficulty of solving real-time optimal control problems. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Cleavage of influenza RNA by using a human PUF-based artificial RNA-binding protein–staphylococcal nuclease hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Kento; Masaoka, Keisuke; Fujita, Yusuke; Morisada, Ryosuke; Mori, Koichi; Tobimatsu, Takamasa; Sera, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Various viruses infect animals and humans and cause a variety of diseases, including cancer. However, effective methodologies to prevent virus infection have not yet been established. Therefore, development of technologies to inactivate viruses is highly desired. We have already demonstrated that cleavage of a DNA virus genome was effective to prevent its replication. Here, we expanded this methodology to RNA viruses. In the present study, we used staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) instead of the PIN domain (PilT N-terminus) of human SMG6 as an RNA-cleavage domain and fused the SNase to a human Pumilio/fem-3 binding factor (PUF)-based artificial RNA-binding protein to construct an artificial RNA restriction enzyme with enhanced RNA-cleavage rates for influenzavirus. The resulting SNase-fusion nuclease cleaved influenza RNA at rates 120-fold greater than the corresponding PIN-fusion nuclease. The cleaving ability of the PIN-fusion nuclease was not improved even though the linker moiety between the PUF and RNA-cleavage domain was changed. Gel shift assays revealed that the RNA-binding properties of the PUF derivative used was not as good as wild type PUF. Improvement of the binding properties or the design method will allow the SNase-fusion nuclease to cleave an RNA target in mammalian animal cells and/or organisms. - Highlights: • A novel RNA restriction enzyme using SNase was developed tor cleave viral RNA. • Our enzyme cleaved influenza RNA with rates >120-fold higher rates a PIN-fusion one. • Our artificial enzyme with the L5 linker showed the highest RNA cleavage rate. • Our artificial enzyme site-selectively cleaved influenza RNA in vitro.

  8. Biomimetic Polymeric Semiconductor Based Hybrid Nanosystems for Artificial Photosynthesis towards Solar Fuels Generation via CO2 reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, H.; Li, P.; Liu, J.; Chen, Z.; Liu, L.; Dontsova, D.; Yan, R.; Fan, T.; Zhang, D.; Ye, J.

    2016-01-01

    In photosynthesis, an intricate polymeric system is constructed by connecting a light-harvesting antenna network, a molecular water oxidation center, and \\CO2\\} or proton-reduction machinery in a nanolayered architecture as a basic photosynthetic unit for solar-to-fuels conversion. Herein, we present a prototype basic artificial photosynthetic unit by connecting a typical CO2/proton reduction catalyst, a cocatalyst and an electron mediator as well as \\{CO2\\} activator into a polymer based nan...

  9. Tubular and endothelial chimerism in renal allografts using fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH, CISH) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsuzsanna; Gaspert, Ariana; Behnke, Silvia; von Teichman, Adriana; Fritzsche, Florian; Fehr, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The role of endothelial and tubular chimerism in renal allograft adaptation and rejection varies in different studies. We addressed the correlation between different clinico-pathological settings and sex-chromosomal endothelial and/or tubular chimerism in renal allografts. We examined the presence or absence of the X and Y chromosomes by fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH, CISH) methodology on paraffin embedded kidney biopsies in 16 gender mismatched renal transplants (1 to 12 years post-transplantation). Twelve patients were male, four female. Four groups were selected: (i) Vascular calcineurin inhibitor toxicity without rejection; (ii) T-cell mediated vascular rejection; (iii) antibody mediated rejection; and (iv) C4d-positivity in AB0-incompatible transplants with or without rejection. Twelve non-transplant kidney biopsies (8 female, 4 male) were used as controls. Tubular chimerism was detected more frequently (69%) than endothelial chimerism (12%) in renal transplants. One of 12 control patients had tubular and endothelial chimeric cells (8%). The Y chromosome occurred in 8/12 male recipients (67%) in tubular epithelial cells and in 5/12 male recipients (42%) in endothelial cells. Double X chromosomes were detected in 3/4 female recipients in tubular epithelium. Tubular chimerism occurred more often with endothelial chimerism and capillaritis without correlation with other parameters, such as rejection. Combined Y chromosomal tubular and lymphatic endothelial chimerism correlated with T-cell mediated vascular rejection in two out of three patients (66%). Combined Y chromosomal tubular and peritubular capillary chimerism correlated with antibody mediated C4d+ rejection in one out of two patients (50%). Tubular and/or endothelial chimerism occur frequently in gender mismatched renal allografts and, when combined, this is associated with T-cell mediated rejection. © 2012 The Authors. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of

  10. Allele-specific expression at the androgen receptor alpha gene in a hybrid unisexual fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is the result of a hybridization of the Atlantic molly (P. mexicana and the sailfin molly (P. latipinna approximately 120,000 years ago. As a gynogenetic species, P. formosa needs to copulate with heterospecific males including males from one of its bisexual ancestral species. However, the sperm only triggers embryogenesis of the diploid eggs. The genetic information of the sperm donor typically will not contribute to the next generation of P. formosa. Hence, P. formosa possesses generally one allele from each of its ancestral species at any genetic locus. This raises the question whether both ancestral alleles are equally expressed in P. formosa. Allele-specific expression (ASE has been previously assessed in various organisms, e.g., human and fish, and ASE was found to be important in the context of phenotypic variability and disease. In this study, we utilized Real-Time PCR techniques to estimate ASE of the androgen receptor alpha (arα gene in several distinct tissues of Amazon mollies. We found an allelic bias favoring the maternal ancestor (P. mexicana allele in ovarian tissue. This allelic bias was not observed in the gill or the brain tissue. Sequencing of the promoter regions of both alleles revealed an association between an Indel in a known CpG island and differential expression. Future studies may reveal whether our observed cis-regulatory divergence is caused by an ovary-specific trans-regulatory element, preferentially activating the allele of the maternal ancestor.

  11. Predicting fuelwood prices in Greece with the use of ARIMA models, artificial neural networks and a hybrid ARIMA-ANN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroumanidis, Theodoros; Ioannou, Konstantinos; Arabatzis, Garyfallos

    2009-01-01

    Throughout history, energy resources have acquired a strategic significance for the economic growth and social welfare of any country. The large-scale oil crisis of 1973 coupled with various environmental protection issues, have led many countries to look for new, alternative energy sources. Biomass and fuelwood in particular, constitutes a major renewable energy source (RES) that can make a significant contribution, as a substitute for oil. This paper initially provides a description of the contribution of renewable energy sources to the production of electricity, and also examines the role of forests in the production of fuelwood in Greece. Following this, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, artificial neural networks (ANN) and a hybrid model are used to predict the future selling prices of the fuelwood (from broadleaved and coniferous species) produced by Greek state forest farms. The use of the ARIMA-ANN hybrid model provided the optimum prediction results, thus enabling decision-makers to proceed with a more rational planning for the production and fuelwood market. (author)

  12. A comparison of genetic algorithm and artificial bee colony approaches in solving blocking hybrid flowshop scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup/changeover times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongpan Nakkaew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In manufacturing process where efficiency is crucial in order to remain competitive, flowshop is a common configuration in which machines are arranged in series and products are produced through the stages one by one. In certain production processes, the machines are frequently configured in the way that each production stage may contain multiple processing units in parallel or hybrid. Moreover, along with precedent conditions, the sequence dependent setup times may exist. Finally, in case there is no buffer, a machine is said to be blocked if the next stage to handle its output is being occupied. Such NP-Hard problem, referred as Blocking Hybrid Flowshop Scheduling Problem with Sequence Dependent Setup/Changeover Times, is usually not possible to find the best exact solution to satisfy optimization objectives such as minimization of the overall production time. Thus, it is usually solved by approximate algorithms such as metaheuristics. In this paper, we investigate comparatively the effectiveness of the two approaches: a Genetic Algorithm (GA and an Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm. GA is inspired by the process of natural selection. ABC, in the same manner, resembles the way types of bees perform specific functions and work collectively to find their foods by means of division of labor. Additionally, we apply an algorithm to improve the GA and ABC algorithms so that they can take advantage of parallel processing resources of modern multiple core processors while eliminate the need for screening the optimal parameters of both algorithms in advance.

  13. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Sharon H. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States); Hamilton, Christine D. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spencer, Gregory C. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ogston, Heather O. [H. T. Harvey & Associates, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of

  14. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-02-19

    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  15. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL, 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL, and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  16. The blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs for hydroelectricity, irrigation, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeboom, Rick J.; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-03-01

    For centuries, humans have resorted to building dams to gain control over freshwater available for human consumption. Although dams and their reservoirs have made many important contributions to human development, they receive negative attention as well, because of the large amounts of water they can consume through evaporation. We estimate the blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs and attribute it to the purposes hydroelectricity generation, irrigation water supply, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation, based on their economic value. We estimate that economic benefits from 2235 reservoirs included in this study amount to 265 × 109 US a year, with residential and industrial water supply and hydroelectricity generation as major contributors. The water footprint associated with these benefits is the sum of the water footprint of dam construction (<1% contribution) and evaporation from the reservoir's surface area, and globally adds up to 66 × 109 m3 y-1. The largest share of this water footprint (57%) is located in non-water scarce basins and only 1% in year-round scarce basins. The primary purposes of a reservoir change with increasing water scarcity, from mainly hydroelectricity generation in non-scarce basins, to residential and industrial water supply, irrigation water supply and flood control in scarcer areas.

  17. Considerations in the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy to characterize rumen methanogens and define their spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Edith R; Henderson, Gemma; Janssen, Peter H; Cox, Faith; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-06-01

    In this study, methanogen-specific coenzyme F420 autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to identify rumen methanogens and define their spatial distribution in free-living, biofilm-, and protozoa-associated microenvironments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with temperature-controlled hybridization was used in an attempt to describe methanogen diversity. A heat pretreatment (65 °C, 1 h) was found to be a noninvasive method to increase probe access to methanogen RNA targets. Despite efforts to optimize FISH, 16S rRNA methanogen-specific probes, including Arch915, bound to some cells that lacked F420, possibly identifying uncharacterized Methanomassiliicoccales or reflecting nonspecific binding to other members of the rumen bacterial community. A probe targeting RNA from the methanogenesis-specific methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr) gene was shown to detect cultured Methanosarcina cells with signal intensities comparable to those of 16S rRNA probes. However, the probe failed to hybridize with the majority of F420-emitting rumen methanogens, possibly because of differences in cell wall permeability among methanogen species. Methanogens were shown to integrate into microbial biofilms and to exist as ecto- and endosymbionts with rumen protozoa. Characterizing rumen methanogens and defining their spatial distribution may provide insight into mitigation strategies for ruminal methanogenesis.

  18. A hybrid of ant colony optimization and artificial bee colony algorithm for probabilistic optimal placement and sizing of distributed energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefayat, M.; Lashkar Ara, A.; Nabavi Niaki, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A probabilistic optimization framework incorporated with uncertainty is proposed. • A hybrid optimization approach combining ACO and ABC algorithms is proposed. • The problem is to deal with technical, environmental and economical aspects. • A fuzzy interactive approach is incorporated to solve the multi-objective problem. • Several strategies are implemented to compare with literature methods. - Abstract: In this paper, a hybrid configuration of ant colony optimization (ACO) with artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm called hybrid ACO–ABC algorithm is presented for optimal location and sizing of distributed energy resources (DERs) (i.e., gas turbine, fuel cell, and wind energy) on distribution systems. The proposed algorithm is a combined strategy based on the discrete (location optimization) and continuous (size optimization) structures to achieve advantages of the global and local search ability of ABC and ACO algorithms, respectively. Also, in the proposed algorithm, a multi-objective ABC is used to produce a set of non-dominated solutions which store in the external archive. The objectives consist of minimizing power losses, total emissions produced by substation and resources, total electrical energy cost, and improving the voltage stability. In order to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the output of the wind energy and load demands, a probabilistic load flow is necessary. In this study, an efficient point estimate method (PEM) is employed to solve the optimization problem in a stochastic environment. The proposed algorithm is tested on the IEEE 33- and 69-bus distribution systems. The results demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in comparison with those of other evolutionary optimization methods

  19. Biomechanics of Hybrid Anterior Cervical Fusion and Artificial Disc Replacement in 3-Level Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Pu, Ting; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal surgical approach for cervical disk disease remains controversial, especially for multilevel cervical disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the cervical spine after 3-level hybrid surgery compared with 3-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were evaluated under displacement-input protocol. After intact testing, a simulated hybrid construct or fusion construct was created between C3 to C6 and tested in the following 3 conditions: 3-level disc plate disc (3DPD), 3-level plate disc plate (3PDP), and 3-level plate (3P). Results Compared to intact, almost 65~80% of motion was successfully restricted at C3-C6 fusion levels (p0.05). 3PDP construct resulted in significant decrease of ROM at C3-C6 levels less than 3P (pbiomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing motion. PMID:26529430

  20. speciation through asexuality in fish: postzygotic reproductive isolation may be completed in spite of fertility of hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Janko

    2015-12-01

    Altogether, it appears that initiation of hybrid asexuality and the completion of speciation process through formation of postRIMs are interconnected phenomena. Both processes are linked to the genetic divergence of hybridizing taxa: initially, hybridization between little diverged species leads to recombinant and fertile hybrids allowing intensive gene flow. As the hybridizing taxa continue to diverge, clonally reproducing hybrid females and sterile males become dominant and the gene flow ceases. The speciation may therefore be completed through asexuality of hybrids The work was supported by grant no. 13-12580S provided by the Czech Science Foundation (www.gacr.cz. Further support was provided by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (www.cas.cz by the grant no. RVO 67985904

  1. Hybrid response surface methodology-artificial neural network optimization of drying process of banana slices in a forced convective dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri-Garavand, Amin; Karimi, Fatemeh; Karimi, Mahmoud; Lotfi, Valiullah; Khoobbakht, Golmohammad

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the study is to fit models for predicting surfaces using the response surface methodology and the artificial neural network to optimize for obtaining the maximum acceptability using desirability functions methodology in a hot air drying process of banana slices. The drying air temperature, air velocity, and drying time were chosen as independent factors and moisture content, drying rate, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency were dependent variables or responses in the mentioned drying process. A rotatable central composite design as an adequate method was used to develop models for the responses in the response surface methodology. Moreover, isoresponse contour plots were useful to predict the results by performing only a limited set of experiments. The optimum operating conditions obtained from the artificial neural network models were moisture content 0.14 g/g, drying rate 1.03 g water/g h, energy efficiency 0.61, and exergy efficiency 0.91, when the air temperature, air velocity, and drying time values were equal to -0.42 (74.2 ℃), 1.00 (1.50 m/s), and -0.17 (2.50 h) in the coded units, respectively.

  2. Role of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in the evaluation of HER2 status in breast carcinoma: comparison with immunohistochemistry and FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ning-T, Elsa; Ronchetti, Ruben; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Merino, Maria J

    2005-10-01

    We report our experience with Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization (CISH) for the evaluation of HER2 amplification on 55 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded invasive breast carcinomas of different histology. All the results were corrected for chromosome 17 aneusomy and compared with immunohistochemistry (IHC); a subset of cases was compared to FISH. Thirty-one of 32 cases in which FISH and CISH were performed yielded the same results. CISH and IHC showed a good concordance in the 0/1+ and 3+ category, while a poor agreement with weakly protein overexpression was confirmed. Chromosome 17 analysis was necessary in cases with a low number of HER2 gene copies. CISH is a useful tool to evaluate breast cancer HER2 status that can be easily implemented in a laboratory of surgical pathology.

  3. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong FU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA. Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution.

  4. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH screening for the 22q11.2 deletion in patients with clinical features of velocardiofacial syndrome but without cardiac anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sandrin-Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, a condition associated with 22q11.2 deletions, is characterized by a typical facies, palatal anomalies, learning disabilities, behavioral disturbances and cardiac defects. We investigated the frequency of these chromosomal deletions in 16 individuals with VCFS features who presented no cardiac anomalies, one of the main characteristics of VCFS. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with the N25 (D22S75; 22q11.2 probe revealed deletions in ten individuals (62%. Therefore, even in the absence of cardiac anomalies testing for the 22q11.2 microdeletions in individuals showing other clinical features of this syndrome is recommended.

  5. Response to traumatic brain injury neurorehabilitation through an artificial intelligence and statistics hybrid knowledge discovery from databases methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Karina; García-Rudolph, Alejandro; García-Molina, Alberto; Roig-Rovira, Teresa; Bernabeu, Montse; Tormos, José María

    2008-01-01

    Develop a classificatory tool to identify different populations of patients with Traumatic Brain Injury based on the characteristics of deficit and response to treatment. A KDD framework where first, descriptive statistics of every variable was done, data cleaning and selection of relevant variables. Then data was mined using a generalization of Clustering based on rules (CIBR), an hybrid AI and Statistics technique which combines inductive learning (AI) and clustering (Statistics). A prior Knowledge Base (KB) is considered to properly bias the clustering; semantic constraints implied by the KB hold in final clusters, guaranteeing interpretability of the resultis. A generalization (Exogenous Clustering based on rules, ECIBR) is presented, allowing to define the KB in terms of variables which will not be considered in the clustering process itself, to get more flexibility. Several tools as Class panel graph are introduced in the methodology to assist final interpretation. A set of 5 classes was recommended by the system and interpretation permitted profiles labeling. From the medical point of view, composition of classes is well corresponding with different patterns of increasing level of response to rehabilitation treatments. All the patients initially assessable conform a single group. Severe impaired patients are subdivided in four profiles which clearly distinct response patterns. Particularly interesting the partial response profile, where patients could not improve executive functions. Meaningful classes were obtained and, from a semantics point of view, the results were sensibly improved regarding classical clustering, according to our opinion that hybrid AI & Stats techniques are more powerful for KDD than pure ones.

  6. Using insects to drive mobile robots - hybrid robots bridge the gap between biological and artificial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Noriyasu; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2017-09-01

    The use of mobile robots is an effective method of validating sensory-motor models of animals in a real environment. The well-identified insect sensory-motor systems have been the major targets for modeling. Furthermore, mobile robots implemented with such insect models attract engineers who aim to avail advantages from organisms. However, directly comparing the robots with real insects is still difficult, even if we successfully model the biological systems, because of the physical differences between them. We developed a hybrid robot to bridge the gap. This hybrid robot is an insect-controlled robot, in which a tethered male silkmoth (Bombyx mori) drives the robot in order to localize an odor source. This robot has the following three advantages: 1) from a biomimetic perspective, the robot enables us to evaluate the potential performance of future insect-mimetic robots; 2) from a biological perspective, the robot enables us to manipulate the closed-loop of an onboard insect for further understanding of its sensory-motor system; and 3) the robot enables comparison with insect models as a reference biological system. In this paper, we review the recent works regarding insect-controlled robots and discuss the significance for both engineering and biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A hybrid Taguchi-artificial neural network approach to predict surface roughness during electric discharge machining of titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Batish, Ajay [Thapar University, Patiala (India); Singh, Rupinder [GNDEC, Ludhiana (India); Singh, T. P. [Symbiosis Institute of Technology, Pune (India)

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, electric discharge machining process was used for machining of titanium alloys. Eight process parameters were varied during the process. Experimental results showed that current and pulse-on-time significantly affected the performance characteristics. Artificial neural network coupled with Taguchi approach was applied for optimization and prediction of surface roughness. The experimental results and the predicted results showed good agreement. SEM was used to investigate the surface integrity. Analysis for migration of different chemical elements and formation of compounds on the surface was performed using EDS and XRD pattern. The results showed that high discharge energy caused surface defects such as cracks, craters, thick recast layer, micro pores, pin holes, residual stresses and debris. Also, migration of chemical elements both from electrode and dielectric media were observed during EDS analysis. Presence of carbon was seen on the machined surface. XRD results showed formation of titanium carbide compound which precipitated on the machined surface.

  8. Extensive polymorphism and chromosomal characteristics of ribosomal DNA in a loach fish, Cobitis vardarensis (Ostariophysi, Cobitidae) detected by different banding techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Ozouf-Costaz, C.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 111, - (2001), s. 413-422 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IAA6045704; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : chromosome banding * cytotaxonomy * fish Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.916, year: 2001

  9. HER2 Gene Amplification Testing by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH): Comparison of the ASCO-College of American Pathologists Guidelines With FISH Scores Used for Enrollment in Breast Cancer International Research Group Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Michael F; Sauter, Guido; Buyse, Marc; Fourmanoir, Hélène; Quinaux, Emmanuel; Tsao-Wei, Denice D; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Robert, Nicholas; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Crown, John; Martin, Miguel; Valero, Vicente; Mackey, John R; Bee, Valerie; Ma, Yanling; Villalobos, Ivonne; Campeau, Anaamika; Mirlacher, Martina; Lindsay, Mary-Ann; Slamon, Dennis J

    2016-10-10

    Purpose ASCO and the College of American Pathologists (ASCO-CAP) recently recommended further changes to the evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2) amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We retrospectively assessed the impact of these new guidelines by using annotated Breast Cancer International Research Group (BCIRG) -005, BCIRG-006, and BCIRG-007 clinical trials data for which we have detailed outcomes. Patients and Methods The HER2 FISH status of BCIRG-005/006/007 patients with breast cancers was re-evaluated according to current ASCO-CAP guidelines, which designates five different groups according to HER2 FISH ratio and average HER2 gene copy number per tumor cell: group 1 (in situ hybridization [ISH]-positive): HER2-to-chromosome 17 centromere ratio ≥ 2.0, average HER2 copies ≥ 4.0; group 2 (ISH-positive): ratio ≥ 2.0, copies < 4.0; group 3 (ISH-positive): ratio < 2.0, copies ≥ 6.0; group 4 (ISH-equivocal): ratio < 2.0, copies ≥ 4.0 and < 6.0; and group 5 (ISH-negative): ratio < 2.0, copies < 4.0. We assessed correlations with HER2 protein, clinical outcomes by disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and benefit from trastuzumab therapy (hazard ratio [HR]). Results Among 10,468 patients with breast cancers who were successfully screened for trial entry, 40.8% were in ASCO-CAP ISH group 1, 0.7% in group 2; 0.5% in group 3, 4.1% in group 4, and 53.9% in group 5. Distributions were similar in screened compared with accrued subpopulations. Among accrued patients, FISH group 1 breast cancers were strongly correlated with immunohistochemistry 3+ status (P < .0001), whereas groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were not; however, groups 2, 4 and, 5 were strongly correlated with immunohistochemistry 0/1+ status (all P < .0001), whereas group 3 was not. Among patients accrued to BCIRG-005, group 4 was not associated with significantly worse DFS or OS compared with group 5. Among patients accrued to BCIRG-006, only

  10. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.

    2014-04-24

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.; Feldheim, K.A.; Jones, G.P.; Ma, K.; Mansour, H.; Perumal, S.; Williamson, D.H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prediction of pKa Values for Neutral and Basic Drugs based on Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengshan; Zhang, Huaijing; Chen, Bingsheng; Wu, Yan; Guan, Lixin

    2018-03-05

    The pKa value of drugs is an important parameter in drug design and pharmacology. In this paper, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was proposed based on the population entropy diversity. In the improved algorithm, when the population entropy was higher than the set maximum threshold, the convergence strategy was adopted; when the population entropy was lower than the set minimum threshold the divergence strategy was adopted; when the population entropy was between the maximum and minimum threshold, the self-adaptive adjustment strategy was maintained. The improved PSO algorithm was applied in the training of radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF ANN) model and the selection of molecular descriptors. A quantitative structure-activity relationship model based on RBF ANN trained by the improved PSO algorithm was proposed to predict the pKa values of 74 kinds of neutral and basic drugs and then validated by another database containing 20 molecules. The validation results showed that the model had a good prediction performance. The absolute average relative error, root mean square error, and squared correlation coefficient were 0.3105, 0.0411, and 0.9685, respectively. The model can be used as a reference for exploring other quantitative structure-activity relationships.

  13. Hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm for multi-objective single machine group scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times and learning effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lei; Guan, Zailin; Saif, Ullah; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Group scheduling is significant for efficient and cost effective production system. However, there exist setup times between the groups, which require to decrease it by sequencing groups in an efficient way. Current research is focused on a sequence dependent group scheduling problem with an aim to minimize the makespan in addition to minimize the total weighted tardiness simultaneously. In most of the production scheduling problems, the processing time of jobs is assumed as fixed. However, the actual processing time of jobs may be reduced due to "learning effect". The integration of sequence dependent group scheduling problem with learning effects has been rarely considered in literature. Therefore, current research considers a single machine group scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and learning effects simultaneously. A novel hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm (HPABC) with some steps of genetic algorithm is proposed for current problem to get Pareto solutions. Furthermore, five different sizes of test problems (small, small medium, medium, large medium, large) are tested using proposed HPABC. Taguchi method is used to tune the effective parameters of the proposed HPABC for each problem category. The performance of HPABC is compared with three famous multi objective optimization algorithms, improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). Results indicate that HPABC outperforms SPEA2, NSGAII and PSO and gives better Pareto optimal solutions in terms of diversity and quality for almost all the instances of the different sizes of problems.

  14. Classification of focal liver lesions on ultrasound images by extracting hybrid textural features and using an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoo Na; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Ga Young; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Kim, Sung Min

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of focal liver lesions by quantifying the key features of cysts, hemangiomas, and malignant lesions on ultrasound images. The focal liver lesions were divided into 29 cysts, 37 hemangiomas, and 33 malignancies. A total of 42 hybrid textural features that composed of 5 first order statistics, 18 gray level co-occurrence matrices, 18 Law's, and echogenicity were extracted. A total of 29 key features that were selected by principal component analysis were used as a set of inputs for a feed-forward neural network. For each lesion, the performance of the diagnosis was evaluated by using the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The results of the experiment indicate that the proposed method exhibits great performance, a high diagnosis accuracy of over 96% among all focal liver lesion groups (cyst vs. hemangioma, cyst vs. malignant, and hemangioma vs. malignant) on ultrasound images. The accuracy was slightly increased when echogenicity was included in the optimal feature set. These results indicate that it is possible for the proposed method to be applied clinically.

  15. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  16. Modeling and Optimization of NLDH/PVDF Ultrafiltration Nanocomposite Membrane Using Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi-Oskoui, Samira; Khataee, Alireza; Vatanpour, Vahid

    2017-07-10

    In this research, MgAl-CO 3 2- nanolayered double hydroxide (NLDH) was synthesized through a facile coprecipitation method, followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The prepared NLDHs were used as a hydrophilic nanofiller for improving the performance of the PVDF-based ultrafiltration membranes. The main objective of this research was to obtain the optimized formula of NLDH/PVDF nanocomposite membrane presenting the best performance using computational techniques as a cost-effective method. For this aim, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for modeling and expressing the relationship between the performance of the nanocomposite membrane (pure water flux, protein flux and flux recovery ratio) and the affecting parameters including the NLDH, PVP 29000 and polymer concentrations. The effects of the mentioned parameters and the interaction between the parameters were investigated using the contour plot predicted with the developed model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and water contact angle techniques were applied to characterize the nanocomposite membranes and to interpret the predictions of the ANN model. The developed ANN model was introduced to genetic algorithm (GA) as a bioinspired optimizer to determine the optimum values of input parameters leading to high pure water flux, protein flux, and flux recovery ratio. The optimum values for NLDH, PVP 29000 and the PVDF concentration were determined to be 0.54, 1, and 18 wt %, respectively. The performance of the nanocomposite membrane prepared using the optimum values proposed by GA was investigated experimentally, in which the results were in good agreement with the values predicted by ANN model with error lower than 6%. This good agreement confirmed that the nanocomposite membranes prformance could be successfully modeled and optimized by ANN-GA system.

  17. Identification of hemiclonal reproduction in three species of Hexagrammos marine reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura-Kawaguchi, M R; Horita, M; Abe, S; Arai, K; Kawata, M; Munehara, H

    2014-08-01

    Natural hybrids between the boreal species Hexagrammos octogrammus and two temperate species Hexagrammos agrammus and Hexagrammos otakii were observed frequently in southern Hokkaido, Japan. Previous studies revealed that H. octogrammus is a maternal ancestor of both hybrids; the hybrids are all fertile females and they frequently breed with paternal species. Although such rampant hybridization occurs, species boundaries have been maintained in the hybrid zone. Possible explanations for the absence of introgressions, despite the frequent backcrossing, might include clonal reproduction: parthenogenesis, gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. The natural hybrids produced haploid eggs that contained only the H. octogrammus genome (maternal ancestor) with discarded paternal genome and generated F1 -hybrid type offspring by fertilization with the haploid sperm of H. agrammus or H. otakii (paternal ancestor). This reproductive mode was found in an artificial backcross hybrid between the natural hybrid and a male of the paternal ancestor. These findings indicate that the natural hybrids adopt hybridogenesis with high possibility and produce successive generations through hybridogenesis by backcrossing with the paternal ancestor. These hybrids of Hexagrammos represent the first hybridogenetic system found from marine fishes that widely inhabit the North Pacific Ocean. In contrast with other hybridogenetic systems, these Hexagrammos hybrids coexist with all three ancestral species in the hybrid zone. The coexistence mechanism is also discussed. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. The effect of hybridization on fish physiology, immunity and blood biochemistry: A case study in hybridizing Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio (Cyprinidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Vojtek, L.; Halačka, Karel; Hyršl, P.; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 1 (2015), s. 381-389 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hybridization * Cyprinids * Blood biochemistry * Hematology * Immunity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.893, year: 2015

  19. Mangrove oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding, 1928 farming areas as artificial reefs for fish: A case study in the State of Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Lima de Freitas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A type of platform, known as a table, is now being used for mangrove oyster farming. In Fortim, Ceará, Brazil, this activity was begun in June 2000 and covers an area of 50 m² overlying a sand-clay substrate. The present study has the following main objectives: to identify and catalogue the ichthyofauna colonizing the Crassostrea rhizophorae farming platforms; to evaluate ecological aspects, such as the possible correlation between the physical and chemical variables for water quality and the occurrence of the ichthyofauna; and to observe the differences in the fish species found during tidal variations. Specimens were identified and quantified using the linear-transect, visual census methodology. The ichthyofauna observed comprised 3,030 individuals belonging to 28 species and 20 families. Of the 28 species found in the area studied, 14 were marine transients, 12 marine dependent, and only 2 permanent residents. A significant association was observed between the abundance of 11 species and the physical and chemical variables studied. Based on these results, it may be concluded that the platforms act as artificial reefs for the ichthyofauna, being colonized by at least 28 species, and providing protection from predators as well as a source of food and a reproductive substrate.Um tipo de plataforma, conhecido como mesas, estão sendo utilizadas para o cultivo de ostras. Em Fortim, Ceará, este cultivo teve início em junho de 2000 e abrange uma área total de 50m² sobre um substrato argilo-arenoso. A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo identificar e catalogar a ictiofauna colonizadora das mesas de cultivo de ostras do mangue (Crassostrea rhizophorae, avaliar aspectos ecológicos tais como as possíveis correlações de parâmetros físico-químicos da água com a ocorrência da ictiofauna, além de observar as diferenças na composição da mesma durante as variações de marés. Os exemplares foram identificados visualmente e quantificados

  20. Condition monitoring and thermoeconomic optimization of operation for a hybrid plant using artificial neural networks; Tillstaandsoevervakning och termoekonomisk driftoptimering av en hybridanlaeggning med artificiella neurala naetverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Magnus; Assadi, Mohsen

    2007-12-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN) and integrating the ANN models, for online condition monitoring and thermoeconomic optimization, at Vaesthamnsverket. The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The project is a continuation of previous projects where ANN training was done with operational data from the plant. The ANN models have, if required, been updated to better suit the purpose of this project. The thermoeconomic optimization takes into account current electricity prices, taxes, fuel prices etc. and calculates the current production cost along with the 'predicted' production cost. The tool also has a built in feature of predicting when a compressor wash is economically beneficial. The user interface is developed together with co-workers at Vaesthamnsverket to ensure its usefulness. The user interface includes functions for warnings and alarms when possible deviations in operation occur and also includes a feature for plotting parameter trends in optional time intervals, both measured values and predicted. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The power plant owners want to acquire a product for condition monitoring and thermoeconomic optimization of e.g. maintenance. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANN models along with their new gas turbines. The project has been carried out at Lund University, Department of Energy Sciences, with support from Vaesthamnsverket and Siemens. Vaesthamnsverket have contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. They have also been involved in the implementation of the ANN models in their computer system and the development of the

  1. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  2. Ethanol mediated As(III) adsorption onto Zn-loaded pinecone biochar: Experimental investigation, modeling, and optimization using hybrid artificial neural network-genetic algorithm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Mohd; Van Vinh, N; Behera, Shishir Kumar; Park, Hung-Suck

    2017-04-01

    Organic matters (OMs) and their oxidization products often influence the fate and transport of heavy metals in the subsurface aqueous systems through interaction with the mineral surfaces. This study investigates the ethanol (EtOH)-mediated As(III) adsorption onto Zn-loaded pinecone (PC) biochar through batch experiments conducted under Box-Behnken design. The effect of EtOH on As(III) adsorption mechanism was quantitatively elucidated by fitting the experimental data using artificial neural network and quadratic modeling approaches. The quadratic model could describe the limiting nature of EtOH and pH on As(III) adsorption, whereas neural network revealed the stronger influence of EtOH (64.5%) followed by pH (20.75%) and As(III) concentration (14.75%) on the adsorption phenomena. Besides, the interaction among process variables indicated that EtOH enhances As(III) adsorption over a pH range of 2 to 7, possibly due to facilitation of ligand-metal(Zn) binding complexation mechanism. Eventually, hybrid response surface model-genetic algorithm (RSM-GA) approach predicted a better optimal solution than RSM, i.e., the adsorptive removal of As(III) (10.47μg/g) is facilitated at 30.22mg C/L of EtOH with initial As(III) concentration of 196.77μg/L at pH5.8. The implication of this investigation might help in understanding the application of biochar for removal of various As(III) species in the presence of OM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Evaluation of gene amplification and protein expression of HER-2/neu in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato-Kuwabara, Yukie; Neves, José I; Fregnani, José HTG; Sallum, Rubens A; Soares, Fernando A

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the sixth most frequent neoplasia in Brazil. It is usually associated with a poor prognosis because it is often at an advanced stage when diagnosed and there is a high frequency of lymph node metastases. It is important to know what prognostic factors can facilitate diagnosis, optimize therapeutic decisions, and improve the survival of these patients. A member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, c-erbB-2, has received much attention because of its therapeutic implications; however, few studies involving fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of HER-2/neu gene amplification and protein expression in ESCC have been conducted. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of HER-2/neu gene amplification using FISH, and to correlate the results with immunohistochemical expression and clinical-pathological findings. One hundred and ninety-nine ESCC cases were evaluated using the Tissue Microarray (TMA) technique. A polyclonal antibody against c-erbB-2 was used for immunohistochemistry. Analyses were based on the membrane staining pattern. The results were classified according to the Herceptest criteria (DAKO): negative (0/1+), potential positive (2+) and positive (3+). The FISH reactions were performed according to the FISH HER2 PharmDx (DAKO) protocol. In each case, 100 tumor nuclei were evaluated. Cases showing a gene/CEN17 fluorescence ratio ≥ 2 were considered positive for gene amplification. The c-erbB-2 expression was negative in 117/185 cases (63.2%) and positive in 68 (36.8%), of which 56 (30.3%) were 2+ and 12 (6.5%) were 3+. No significant associations were found among protein expression, clinicopathological data and overall survival. Among the 47 cases analyzed, 38 (80.9%) showed no gene amplification while 9 (19.1%) showed amplification, as demonstrated by FISH. Cases that were negative (0/1+) and potential positive (2+) for c-erbB-2 expression by immunohistochemistry showed no

  4. Chromosomes of Iberian Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae) Revisited: Evidence of Genome Restructuring in Homoploid Hybrids Using Dual-Color FISH and CGH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pereira, C. S.; Ráb, Petr; Collares-Pereira, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 141, 2/3 (2013), s. 143-152 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : CGH/GISH * Chondrostoma s.I. * genome reshuffling hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2013

  5. Specific Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) Test to Highlight Colonization of Xylem Vessels by Xylella fastidiosa in Naturally Infected Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Luvisi, Andrea; Meyer, Joana B.; Sabella, Erika; De Bellis, Luigi; Cruz, Albert C.; Ampatzidis, Yiannis; Cherubini, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The colonization behavior of the Xylella fastidiosa strain CoDiRO, the causal agent of olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS), within the xylem of Olea europaea L. is still quite controversial. As previous literature suggests, even if xylem vessel occlusions in naturally infected olive plants were observed, cell aggregation in the formation of occlusions had a minimal role. This observation left some open questions about the whole behavior of the CoDiRO strain and its actual role in OQDS pathogenesis. In order to evaluate the extent of bacterial infection in olive trees and the role of bacterial aggregates in vessel occlusions, we tested a specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe (KO 210) for X. fastidiosa and quantified the level of infection and vessel occlusion in both petioles and branches of naturally infected and non-infected olive trees. All symptomatic petioles showed colonization by X. fastidiosa, especially in the larger innermost vessels. In several cases, the vessels appeared completely occluded by a biofilm containing bacterial cells and extracellular matrix and the frequent colonization of adjacent vessels suggested a horizontal movement of the bacteria. Infected symptomatic trees had 21.6 ± 10.7% of petiole vessels colonized by the pathogen, indicating an irregular distribution in olive tree xylem. Thus, our observations point out the primary role of the pathogen in olive vessel occlusions. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the KO 210 FISH probe is suitable for the specific detection of X. fastidiosa. PMID:29681910

  6. A hybrid genetic linkage map of two ecologically and morphologically divergent Midas cichlid fishes (Amphilophus spp.) obtained by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ddRADSeq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Hans; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Cichlid fishes are an excellent model system for studying speciation and the formation of adaptive radiations because of their tremendous species richness and astonishing phenotypic diversity. Most research has focused on African rift lake fishes, although Neotropical cichlid species display much variability as well. Almost one dozen species of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) have been described so far and have formed repeated adaptive radiations in several Nicaraguan crater lakes. Here we apply double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing to obtain a high-density linkage map of an interspecific cross between the benthic Amphilophus astorquii and the limnetic Amphilophus zaliosus, which are sympatric species endemic to Crater Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. A total of 755 RAD markers were genotyped in 343 F(2) hybrids. The map resolved 25 linkage groups and spans a total distance of 1427 cM with an average marker spacing distance of 1.95 cM, almost matching the total number of chromosomes (n = 24) in these species. Regions of segregation distortion were identified in five linkage groups. Based on the pedigree of parents to F(2) offspring, we calculated a genome-wide mutation rate of 6.6 × 10(-8) mutations per nucleotide per generation. This genetic map will facilitate the mapping of ecomorphologically relevant adaptive traits in the repeated phenotypes that evolved within the Midas cichlid lineage and, as the first linkage map of a Neotropical cichlid, facilitate comparative genomic analyses between African cichlids, Neotropical cichlids and other teleost fishes.

  7. Phenotypic consequences of a mosaic marker chromosome identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as being derived from chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.H.; Zhou, X.; Pletcher, B.A. [Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    De novo marker chromosomes are detected in 1 in 2500 amniotic fluid samples and are associated with a 10-15% risk for phenotypic abnormality. FISH can be utilized as a research tool to identify the origins of marker chromosomes. The phenotypic consequences of a marker chromosome derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 are described. A 26-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 28 weeks gestation because of a prenatally diagnosed tetralogy of Fallot. Follow-up ultrasounds also showed ventriculomegaly and cleft lip and palate. 32 of 45 cells had the karyotype 47,XY,+mar; the remaining cells were 46,XY. The de novo marker chromosome was C-band positive and non-satellited and failed to stain with distamycin A/DAPI. At birth the ultrasound findings were confirmed and dysmorphic features and cryptorchidism were noted. Although a newborn blood sample contained only normal cells, mosaicism was confirmed in 2 skin biopsies. FISH using whole-chromosome painting and alpha-satellite DNA probes showed that the marker chromosome had originated from chromosome 16. As proximal 16q is distamycin A/DAPI positive, the marker is apparently derived from proximal 16p. At 15 months of age, this child is hypotonic, globally delayed and is gavage-fed. His physical examination is significant for microbrachycephaly, a round face, sparse scalp hair, ocular hypertelorism, exotropia, a flat, wide nasal bridge and tip, mild micrognathia, and tapered fingers with lymphedema of hands and feet. Inguinal hernias have been repaired. His features are consistent with those described for patients trisomic for most or all of the short arm of chromosome 16. Marker chromosomes derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 appear to have phenotypic consequences. As the origin of more marker chromosomes are identified using FISH, their karyotype/phenotype correlations will become more apparent, which will permit more accurate genetic counseling.

  8. Human exposure to metals due to consumption of fish from an artificial lake basin close to an active mining area in Katanga (D.R. Congo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadrone, S.; Burioli, E.; Monaco, G.; Koya, M.K.; Prearo, M.; Gennero, S.; Dominici, A.; Abete, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of 14 essential and nonessential trace elements were determined in fish from Lake Tshangalele, Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo. This province has been a place of intensive mining activities for centuries, which have increased in recent years, due to the use of metals such as copper and cobalt for the industries of fast-growing countries. Lake Tshangalele, which receives effluents from metallurgical and mining plants in Likasi, is home to several fish species that are an important part of the diet of the local population, and, therefore, it constitutes a relevant site for documenting the human exposure to metals as a result of a fish diet. The highest concentrations (median levels, dry weight) of cobalt (7.25 mg kg"− "1), copper (88.1 mg kg"− "1), iron (197.5 mg kg"− "1), manganese (65.35 mg kg"− "1), zinc (122.9 mg kg"− "1) and aluminum (135.4 mg kg"− "1) were found in fish collected closest to the copper mining plant, with decreasing concentrations along the lake, up to the dam. In the most contaminated fish samples, values of up to 270.1 mg kg"− "1 for Al, 173.1 mg kg"− "1 for Cu, 220.9 mg kg"− "1 for Zn, 211.0 mg kg"− "1 for Mn, 324.2 mg kg"− "1 for Fe, 15.1 mg kg"− "1 for Co, 4.2 mg kg"− "1 for Cr, 1.6 mg kg"− "1 for Cd, 1.9 mg kg"− "1 for Pb, and 1.8 mg kg"− "1 for Ni were found. Metal contamination from mining activity resulted in being of great concern because of potential health risks to the local inhabitants due to the consumption of heavily contaminated fish. Capsule: High levels of metals, especially cobalt, aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc and cadmium were found in fish from Tshangalele water system. - Highlights: • Metal contamination from mining activity is of great concern for human exposure. • We analyzed metal content in fish from Lake Tshangalele (Katanga Copperbelt). • Fish consumption largely contributes to intake of Co and other metals. • In some samples, Co, Cu, Mn, Al

  9. Human exposure to metals due to consumption of fish from an artificial lake basin close to an active mining area in Katanga (D.R. Congo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squadrone, S., E-mail: stefania.squadrone@izsto.it [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy); Burioli, E.; Monaco, G. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy); Koya, M.K. [Institut Supérieur d' Etudes Agronomiques (ISEA) de Kaseya/Kongolo (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Prearo, M.; Gennero, S. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy); Dominici, A. [Independent Veterinarian Researcher, Turin (Italy); Abete, M.C. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The concentrations of 14 essential and nonessential trace elements were determined in fish from Lake Tshangalele, Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo. This province has been a place of intensive mining activities for centuries, which have increased in recent years, due to the use of metals such as copper and cobalt for the industries of fast-growing countries. Lake Tshangalele, which receives effluents from metallurgical and mining plants in Likasi, is home to several fish species that are an important part of the diet of the local population, and, therefore, it constitutes a relevant site for documenting the human exposure to metals as a result of a fish diet. The highest concentrations (median levels, dry weight) of cobalt (7.25 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), copper (88.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), iron (197.5 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), manganese (65.35 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), zinc (122.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}) and aluminum (135.4 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}) were found in fish collected closest to the copper mining plant, with decreasing concentrations along the lake, up to the dam. In the most contaminated fish samples, values of up to 270.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Al, 173.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Cu, 220.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Zn, 211.0 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Mn, 324.2 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Fe, 15.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Co, 4.2 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Cr, 1.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Cd, 1.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Pb, and 1.8 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Ni were found. Metal contamination from mining activity resulted in being of great concern because of potential health risks to the local inhabitants due to the consumption of heavily contaminated fish. Capsule: High levels of metals, especially cobalt, aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc and cadmium were found in fish from Tshangalele water system. - Highlights: • Metal contamination from mining activity is of great concern for human exposure. • We analyzed metal content in

  10. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  11. Detection of {open_quotes}cryptic{close_quotes}karyotypic rearrangements in closely related primate species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using human subtelomeric DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblom, J.J. [California State University-Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeled only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.

  12. An intergeneric hybrid of a native minnow, the golden shiner, and an exotic minnow, the rudd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhead, N.M.; Williams, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The hybrid golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas × rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus is the first known nonsalmonid, intergeneric hybrid of an exotic species and a North American native species. The cross is also the first valid record of a viable hybrid involving the native golden shiner. Meristic and mensural characters of 30 artificially produced hybrids of male golden shiners and female rudds were analyzed. Forty-seven percent of the meristic traits exhibited character states intermediate between those of parents. Twenty-seven percent of the meristic characters were supernumerary, suggesting developmental instability of the hybrid genome. Mensural hybrid characters were significantly skewed to the golden shiner phenotype. The skewed mensural inheritance and other skewed patterns of morphological inheritance also suggest problems in canalization of the hybrid phenome or atypical patterns of dominance. All hybrids were identifiable by intermediate squamation of the cultrate abdomen: the keel was mostly scaled but exhibited a small fleshy ridge posteriorly. This minnow hybrid allows general inferences to be made about the phylogenetic affinity of the golden shiner to other cultrate cyprinids of Eurasia. The hybrid cross has important management and conservation implications for fishes in North America. The hybrid is an example of how an exotic species may negatively affect a native species.

  13. Genetic population structure of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) supports the presence of multiple hybrid zones for marine fishes in the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Nielsen, P.H.; Meldrup, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    Sea, suggesting high gene flow among populations in these areas. In contrast, there was a sharp cline in genetic differentiation going from the low saline Baltic Sea to the high saline North Sea. The data were explained best by two divergent populations connected by a hybrid zone; however......, a mechanical mixing model could not be ruled out. A significant part of the genetic variance could be ascribed to variation among years within locality. Nevertheless, the population structure was relatively stable over time, suggesting that the observed pattern of genetic differentiation is biologically...... significant. This study suggests that hybrid zones are a common phenomenon for marine fishes in the transition area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea and highlights the importance of using interspecific comparisons for inferring population structure in high gene flow species such as most marine fishes....

  14. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Analysis and Modeling for Short- to Medium-Term Load Forecasting Using a Hybrid Manifold Learning Principal Component Model and Comparison with Classical Statistical Models (SARIMAX, Exponential Smoothing and Artificial Intelligence Models (ANN, SVM: The Case of Greek Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Papaioannou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we propose a new hybrid model, a combination of the manifold learning Principal Components (PC technique and the traditional multiple regression (PC-regression, for short and medium-term forecasting of daily, aggregated, day-ahead, electricity system-wide load in the Greek Electricity Market for the period 2004–2014. PC-regression is shown to effectively capture the intraday, intraweek and annual patterns of load. We compare our model with a number of classical statistical approaches (Holt-Winters exponential smoothing of its generalizations Error-Trend-Seasonal, ETS models, the Seasonal Autoregressive Moving Average with exogenous variables, Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with eXogenous (SARIMAX model as well as with the more sophisticated artificial intelligence models, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and Support Vector Machines (SVM. Using a number of criteria for measuring the quality of the generated in-and out-of-sample forecasts, we have concluded that the forecasts of our hybrid model outperforms the ones generated by the other model, with the SARMAX model being the next best performing approach, giving comparable results. Our approach contributes to studies aimed at providing more accurate and reliable load forecasting, prerequisites for an efficient management of modern power systems.

  16. The blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs for hydroelectricity, irrigation, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation

    OpenAIRE

    Hogeboom, Hendrik Jan; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-01-01

    For centuries, humans have resorted to building dams to gain control over freshwater available for human consumption. Although dams and their reservoirs have made many important contributions to human development, they receive negative attention as well, because of the large amounts of water they can consume through evaporation. We estimate the blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs and attribute it to the purposes hydroelectricity generation, irrigation water supply, resid...

  17. Artificial reefs and reef restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Matthew W.; Roseman, Edward; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the published literature to provide an inventory of Laurentian Great Lakes artificial reef projects and their purposes. We also sought to characterize physical and biological monitoring for artificial reef projects in the Great Lakes and determine the success of artificial reefs in meeting project objectives. We found records of 6 artificial reefs in Lake Erie, 8 in Lake Michigan, 3 in Lakes Huron and Ontario, and 2 in Lake Superior. We found 9 reefs in Great Lakes connecting channels and 6 reefs in Great Lakes tributaries. Objectives of artificial reef creation have included reducing impacts of currents and waves, providing safe harbors, improving sport-fishing opportunities, and enhancing/restoring fish spawning habitats. Most reefs in the lakes themselves were incidental (not created purposely for fish habitat) or built to improve local sport fishing, whereas reefs in tributaries and connecting channels were more frequently built to benefit fish spawning. Levels of assessment of reef performance varied; but long-term monitoring was uncommon as was assessment of physical attributes. Artificial reefs were often successful at attracting recreational species and spawning fish; however, population-level benefits of artificial reefs are unclear. Stressors such as sedimentation and bio-fouling can limit the effectiveness of artificial reefs as spawning enhancement tools. Our investigation underscores the need to develop standard protocols for monitoring the biological and physical attributes of artificial structures. Further, long-term monitoring is needed to assess the benefits of artificial reefs to fish populations and inform future artificial reef projects.

  18. Artificial reefs: “Attraction versus Production”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barros Fagundes Netto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of fish is the most common reason for the construction and installation of an artificial reef. More recently, environmental concerns and conservation of biological resources have been instrumental to the formulation of new goals of the research. One of the issues to be resolved is the biological function of “attraction vs. production” as a result of the use of artificial reefs. The uncertainty as to the answer to the question whether the artificial reefs will or not benefit the development of fish stocks could be solved if the artificial reefs would be managed as marine protected areas.

  19. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  20. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  1. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  2. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  3. Artificial wetlands - yes or no?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Václav; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 119-127 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : floodplain * artificial wetlands * fish communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  5. THE RESEARCH IN FISH GENETICS IN CROATIA AND FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Treer

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a review on fish genetics research in Croatia and former Yugoslavia, based on the analyses of all the articles published in four main journals (Ribarstvo Jugoslavije, Morsko ribarstvo, Ichthyologia and Acta Adriatica since 1945 till disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1991. Most of the papers cover the fields on cytogenetics and hybridization (24 and 13 respectively. Eight papers were on fish selection and five on population genetics. Apart from those, five papers were written by foreign authors. Two groups of researchers from the University of Sarajevo were specially active. One of them lead by B e r b e r o v i ć and S o f r a d ž i j a did extensive work in cytogenetics, analyzing the karyotypes of many fish species, some of them endemic. Another one lead by V u k o v i ć , investigated some natural hybrids and created many of them artificially, particulary among cyprinids. These results are presented in a special table. Contrary to the mountainous Bosnia where this type of research was of systematic and ecologic importance, in Croatia whwrw aquaculture was highly developed, the approach was quite different. The scientists from the University of Zagreb, H a b e k o v i ć and T u r k , studied the hybridization and selection of important cultured cyprinids. Apart from these scientific groups, many papers were published by A l - S a b t i , who later became world famous in fish cytogenetics. The works of many other authors who contributed with papers in different fields of fish genetics are also described.

  6. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  7. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Jr. José Carlos Vieira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Africanized honey bees are more tolerant of infestations with the mite Varroa jacobsoni than are honey bees of European origin. The capacity of these bees to detect and react to brood infested with this mite could be one of the factors determining this tolerance. We tested colonies of Africanized bees headed by queens from swarms collected in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State. The Italian colonies had queens imported directly from the USA, or from the Brazilian Island of Fernando de Noronha, where varroa-infested Italian colonies have been maintained, untreated, since 1984. Recently sealed worker brood cells were artificially infested by opening the cell capping, inserting live adult female mites and resealing the cells. Control cells were treated in the same way, but without introducing mites. The ability of the Africanized honey bees to recognize and remove this artificially infested brood was compared with that of first generation Italian/Africanized hybrid bees, and with the two groups of "pure" Italian bees, in three separate experiments. Africanized colonies removed a mean of 51% of the infested brood, while Italian/Africanized hybrid colonies removed 25%. Africanized colonies also removed a significantly greater proportion of infested brood than did Italian colonies, headed by queens from the USA (59 vs. 31%, respectively. Similarly, when Africanized colonies were compared with colonies of Italian bees from Fernando de Noronha, the former were found to be significantly more efficient at removing infested brood (61 vs. 35%, respectively, even though the population of Italian bees on this island has been exposed to and survived varroa infestations (without treatment for more than 12 years. Only the Africanized honey bees removed a significant proportion of varroa-infested brood, when the data was corrected for brood removal from control cells.

  8. Total β-activity and the content of most important artificial radionuclides in tissues of fishes from the Jihlava river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, E.; Penaz, M.

    1987-01-01

    The radioactivity of body tissues of fishes that inhabit some typical waterbodies situated in the vicinity of the Dukovany nuclear power plant, namely the Jihlava river, Dalesice water reservoir and Olesna creek, was investigated during 1982-1983. The total β-activity and the content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs isotopes were studied. The values found were very low and comparable to those existing in most non-contaminated waters. The results obtained characterize the period prior to the start of operation of the first reactor of the Dukovany nuclear power plant and thus concern the initial state of the radioactive background of those aquatic ecosystems that may be influenced by the nuclear power plant operation and liquid wastes in the near future. (author). 2 tabs., 45 refs

  9. Distinguishing between incomplete lineage sorting and genomic introgressions: complete fixation of allospecific mitochondrial DNA in a sexually reproducing fish (Cobitis; Teleostei, despite clonal reproduction of hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Choleva

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers--hybrids with Mendelian heredity--are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species.

  10. Development of a partial least squares-artificial neural network (PLS-ANN) hybrid model for the prediction of consumer liking scores of ready-to-drink green tea beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peigen; Low, Mei Yin; Zhou, Weibiao

    2018-01-01

    In order to develop products that would be preferred by consumers, the effects of the chemical compositions of ready-to-drink green tea beverages on consumer liking were studied through regression analyses. Green tea model systems were prepared by dosing solutions of 0.1% green tea extract with differing concentrations of eight flavour keys deemed to be important for green tea aroma and taste, based on a D-optimal experimental design, before undergoing commercial sterilisation. Sensory evaluation of the green tea model system was carried out using an untrained consumer panel to obtain hedonic liking scores of the samples. Regression models were subsequently trained to objectively predict the consumer liking scores of the green tea model systems. A linear partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed to describe the effects of the eight flavour keys on consumer liking, with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.733, and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 3.53%. The PLS model was further augmented with an artificial neural network (ANN) to establish a PLS-ANN hybrid model. The established hybrid model was found to give a better prediction of consumer liking scores, based on its R 2 (0.875) and RMSE (2.41%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wear rate optimization of Al/SiCnp/e-glass fibre hybrid metal matrix composites using Taguchi method and genetic algorithm and development of wear model using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongale, Arunkumar M.; Kumar, Satish; Sachit, T. S.; Jadhav, Priya

    2018-03-01

    Studies on wear properties of Aluminium based hybrid nano composite materials, processed through powder metallurgy technique, are reported in the present study. Silicon Carbide nano particles and E-glass fibre are reinforced in pure aluminium matrix to fabricate hybrid nano composite material samples. Pin-on-Disc wear testing equipment is used to evaluate dry sliding wear properties of the composite samples. The tests were conducted following the Taguchi’s Design of Experiments method. Signal-to-Noise ratio analysis and Analysis of Variance are carried out on the test data to find out the influence of test parameters on the wear rate. Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis and Energy Dispersive x-ray analysis are conducted on the worn surfaces to find out the wear mechanisms responsible for wear of the composites. Multiple linear regression analysis and Genetic Algorithm techniques are employed for optimization of wear test parameters to yield minimum wear of the composite samples. Finally, a wear model is built by the application of Artificial Neural Networks to predict the wear rate of the composite material, under different testing conditions. The predicted values of wear rate are found to be very close to the experimental values with a deviation in the range of 0.15% to 8.09%.

  12. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Spanache Florin

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus a...

  13. Implementation and importance of fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) in paraffin tissues for categorization of B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable, with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal Cuenca, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria have been defined based on the tools that the country has acquired and international guidelines for pure entities: the LB, LDCGB, and the new entity of B lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate LDCGB and LB. The fluorescence in situ hybridization for the translocation (8;14) has been implemented in paraffin tissues for proper categorization. A total of 21 cases have been studied: the characteristics of patients, morphology, immunohistochemistry and the presence or absence of the translocation (8;14). Twelve of the cases have been classified as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between LDCGB and LB. Furthermore, nine of the cases were classified in LB. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been negative in 5 of the 21 cases. The diagnosis of lymphoma with features bordering between the LB and the LDCGB has been imperative for the survival of the patient and the corresponding treatment [es

  14. Transfer of primer binding site-mutated simian immunodeficiency virus vectors by genetically engineered artificial and hybrid tRNA-like primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A C; Grunwald, T; Lund, Anders Henrik

    2001-01-01

    could be obtained by cotransfection of a gene for an engineered tRNA(Pro)-tRNA hybrid with a match to PBS-Pro. The importance of tRNA backbone identity was further analyzed by complementing the PBS-X2 vector with a gene for a matching x2 primer with a tRNA backbone, which led to three- to fourfold...

  15. Determination of 24 personal care products in fish bile using hybrid solvent precipitation and dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Lv, Yin-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2018-05-25

    Personal care products (PCPs) are ubiquitous in aquatic environments owing to the continuous discharge of domestic wastewater from highly urbanized regions. These PCPs can be adsorbed by fish and thereafter usually enter the bile of the fish through biliary excretion. In this study, a sensitive method based on a combination of hybrid solvent precipitation and dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) purification was developed to simultaneously extract and detect 24 PCPs, namely, 16 biocides, 4 synthetic musks, and 4 benzotriazoles, from fish bile. Hybrid precipitation on solid phase extraction (SPE) tubes was applied to remove phospholipids and proteins, and a d-SPE procedure was used for further purification. The extraction solvents for the hybrid precipitation/SPE tubes and d-SPE materials were optimized. The method performance for bile samples both with and without enzyme hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase/aryl-sulfatase were validated. The 24 PCPs in fish bile were spiked with standard concentrations of 10 ng/mL, 20 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, and 200 ng/mL to evaluate recoveries, which ranged from 70 to 120% for 16, 16, 22, and 21 analytes with hydrolysis, respectively, and 70-120% for 14, 15, 23, and 23 analytes without hydrolysis, respectively. The quantification limits for target PCPs were in the range 0.26-7.38 ng/mL [excluding musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK)] and 0.20-9.48 ng/mL (excluding MX and MK) for bile samples with and without enzyme hydrolysis, respectively. After enzyme hydrolysis, 12 PCPs were detected in bile from fish collected from the Yangtze River, with a maximum detected concentration of 460 ng/mL, for triclosan (TCS). The hydrolysis reaction indicated that high percentages of glucuronide and sulfate metabolites for some PCPs, i.e. four parabens and TCS, existed in the bile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A hybrid ARIMA and neural network model applied to forecast catch volumes of Selar crumenophthalmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Ronald L.; Alcantara, Nialle Loui Mar T.; Addawe, Rizavel C.

    2017-11-01

    The Selar crumenophthalmus with the English name big-eyed scad fish, locally known as matang-baka, is one of the fishes commonly caught along the waters of La Union, Philippines. The study deals with the forecasting of catch volumes of big-eyed scad fish for commercial consumption. The data used are quarterly caught volumes of big-eyed scad fish from 2002 to first quarter of 2017. This actual data is available from the open stat database published by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA)whose task is to collect, compiles, analyzes and publish information concerning different aspects of the Philippine setting. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model and the Hybrid model consisting of ARIMA and ANN were developed to forecast catch volumes of big-eyed scad fish. Statistical errors such as Mean Absolute Errors (MAE) and Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) were computed and compared to choose the most suitable model for forecasting the catch volume for the next few quarters. A comparison of the results of each model and corresponding statistical errors reveals that the hybrid model, ARIMA-ANN (2,1,2)(6:3:1), is the most suitable model to forecast the catch volumes of the big-eyed scad fish for the next few quarters.

  17. Leptin stimulates hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor gene expression in a teleost fish, the hybrid striped bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eugene T; Douros, Jonathan D; Hurt, David A; Borski, Russell J

    2016-04-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that circulates as an indicator of adiposity in mammals, and functions to maintain energy homeostasis by balancing feeding and energy expenditure. In fish, leptin tends to be predominantly expressed in the liver, another important energy storing tissue, rather than in fat depots as it is in mammals. The liver also produces the majority of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which comprise the mitogenic component of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF endocrine growth axis. Based on similar regulatory patterns of leptin and IGFs that we have documented in previous studies on hybrid striped bass (HSB: Morone saxatilis×Morone chrysops), and considering the co-localization of these peptides in the liver, we hypothesized that leptin might regulate the endocrine growth axis in a manner that helps coordinate somatic growth with energy availability. Using a HSB hepatocyte culture system to simulate autocrine or paracrine exposure that might occur within the liver, this study examines the potential for leptin to modulate metabolism and growth through regulation of IGF gene expression directly, or indirectly through the regulation of GH receptors (GHR), which mediate GH-induced IGF expression. First, we verified that GH (50nM) has a classical stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and additionally show it stimulates IGF-2 transcription in hepatocytes. Leptin (5 and/or 50nM) directly stimulated in vitro GHR2 gene expression within 8h of exposure, and both GHR1 and GHR2 as well as IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression after 24h. Cells were then co-incubated with submaximal concentrations of leptin and GH (25nM each) to test if they had a synergistic effect on IGF gene expression, possibly through increased GH sensitivity following GHR upregulation by leptin. In combination, however, the treatments only had an additive effect on stimulating IGF-1 mRNA despite their capacity to increase GHR mRNA abundance. This suggests that leptin's stimulatory

  18. Prediction of oxidation parameters of purified Kilka fish oil including gallic acid and methyl gallate by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Farhoosh, Reza; Farahmandfar, Reza

    2016-10-01

    As a result of concerns regarding possible health hazards of synthetic antioxidants, gallic acid and methyl gallate may be introduced as natural antioxidants to improve oxidative stability of marine oil. Since conventional modelling could not predict the oxidative parameters precisely, artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modelling with three inputs, including type of antioxidant (gallic acid and methyl gallate), temperature (35, 45 and 55 °C) and concentration (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg L(-1) ) and four outputs containing induction period (IP), slope of initial stage of oxidation curve (k1 ) and slope of propagation stage of oxidation curve (k2 ) and peroxide value at the IP (PVIP ) were performed to predict the oxidation parameters of Kilka oil triacylglycerols and were compared to multiple linear regression (MLR). The results showed ANFIS was the best model with high coefficient of determination (R(2)  = 0.99, 0.99, 0.92 and 0.77 for IP, k1 , k2 and PVIP , respectively). So, the RMSE and MAE values for IP were 7.49 and 4.92 in ANFIS model. However, they were to be 15.95 and 10.88 and 34.14 and 3.60 for the best MLP structure and MLR, respectively. So, MLR showed the minimum accuracy among the constructed models. Sensitivity analysis based on the ANFIS model suggested a high sensitivity of oxidation parameters, particularly the induction period on concentrations of gallic acid and methyl gallate due to their high antioxidant activity to retard oil oxidation and enhanced Kilka oil shelf life. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. [Artificial organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  20. Changes in the fish fauna of the Kissimmee River basin, peninsular Florida: Nonnative additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial changes in fish assemblages in rivers of peninsular Florida. The most striking change has involved the addition of nonnative fishes, including taxa from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. I review recent and historical records of fishes occurring in the Kissimmee River basin (7,800 km2), a low-gradient drainage with 47 extant native fishes (one possibly the result of an early transplant), at least 7 foreign fishes (most of which are widely established), and a stocked hybrid. Kissimmee assemblages include fewer marine fishes than the nearby Peace and Caloosahatchee rivers, and fewer introduced foreign fishes than south Florida canals. Fish assemblages of the Kissimmee and other subtropical Florida rivers are dynamic, due to new introductions, range expansions of nonnative fishes already present, and periodic declines in nonnative fish populations during occasional harsh winters. The addition, dispersal, and abundance of nonnative fishes in the basin is linked to many factors, including habitat disturbance, a subtropical climate, and the fact that the basin is centrally located in a region where drainage boundaries are blurred and introductions of foreign fishes commonplace. The first appearance of foreign fishes in the basin coincided with the complete channelization of the Kissimmee River in the 1970s. Although not a causal factor, artificial waterways connecting the upper lakes and channelization of the Kissimmee River have facilitated dispersal. With one possible exception, there have been no basin-wide losses of native fishes. When assessing change in peninsular Florida waters, extinction or extirpation of fishes appears to be a poor measure of impact. No endemic species are known from peninsular Florida (although some endemic subspecies have been noted). Most native freshwater fishes are themselves descended from recent invaders that reached the peninsula from the main continent. These invasions likely were

  1. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  2. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  3. Studies of the Ecophysiology of Single Cells in Microbial Communities by (Quantitative) Microautoradiography and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MAR-FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    image analysis (MARQuant). Quantification of MAR signals can answer more specific questions regarding metabolic activity and function of the microbes. Here, we give an overview of how to use MAR-FISH in various ecosystems and provide a detailed protocol for MAR-FISH, including sampling, incubation...

  4. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z; Nguyen, Petr; Síchová, Jindra; Marec, František

    2014-01-01

    We work on the development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), which would enable to produce male-only progeny for the population control of this pest using sterile insect technique (SIT). To facilitate this research, we have developed a number of cytogenetic and molecular tools, including a physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome using BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes). However, chromosomal localization of unique, single-copy sequences such as a transgene cassette by conventional FISH remains challenging. In this study, we adapted a FISH protocol with tyramide signal amplification (TSA-FISH) for detection of single-copy genes in Lepidoptera. We tested the protocol with probes prepared from partial sequences of Z-linked genes in the codling moth. Using a modified TSA-FISH protocol we successfully mapped a partial sequence of the Acetylcholinesterase 1 (Ace-1) gene to the Z chromosome and confirmed thus its Z-linkage. A subsequent combination of BAC-FISH with BAC probes containing anticipated neighbouring Z-linked genes and TSA-FISH with the Ace-1 probe allowed the integration of Ace-1 in the physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome. We also developed a two-colour TSA-FISH protocol which enabled us simultaneous localization of two Z-linked genes, Ace-1 and Notch, to the expected regions of the Z chromosome. We showed that TSA-FISH represents a reliable technique for physical mapping of genes on chromosomes of moths and butterflies. Our results suggest that this technique can be combined with BAC-FISH and in the future used for physical localization of transgene cassettes on chromosomes of transgenic lines in the codling moth or other lepidopteran species. Furthermore, the developed protocol for two-colour TSA-FISH might become a powerful tool for synteny mapping in non-model organisms.

  5. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  6. A Hybrid Artificial Reputation Model Involving Interaction Trust, Witness Information and the Trust Model to Calculate the Trust Value of Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh Ransi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Agent interaction in a community, such as the online buyer-seller scenario, is often uncertain, as when an agent comes in contact with other agents they initially know nothing about each other. Currently, many reputation models are developed that help service consumers select better service providers. Reputation models also help agents to make a decision on who they should trust and transact with in the future. These reputation models are either built on interaction trust that involves direct experience as a source of information or they are built upon witness information also known as word-of-mouth that involves the reports provided by others. Neither the interaction trust nor the witness information models alone succeed in such uncertain interactions. In this paper we propose a hybrid reputation model involving both interaction trust and witness information to address the shortcomings of existing reputation models when taken separately. A sample simulation is built to setup buyer-seller services and uncertain interactions. Experiments reveal that the hybrid approach leads to better selection of trustworthy agents where consumers select more reputable service providers, eventually helping consumers obtain more gains. Furthermore, the trust model developed is used in calculating trust values of service providers.

  7. Research and Application of a Novel Hybrid Model Based on Data Selection and Artificial Intelligence Algorithm for Short Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning plays a vital role in several modern economic and industrial fields, and selecting an optimized machine learning method to improve time series’ forecasting accuracy is challenging. Advanced machine learning methods, e.g., the support vector regression (SVR model, are widely employed in forecasting fields, but the individual SVR pays no attention to the significance of data selection, signal processing and optimization, which cannot always satisfy the requirements of time series forecasting. By preprocessing and analyzing the original time series, in this paper, a hybrid SVR model is developed, considering periodicity, trend and randomness, and combined with data selection, signal processing and an optimization algorithm for short-term load forecasting. Case studies of electricity power data from New South Wales and Singapore are regarded as exemplifications to estimate the performance of the developed novel model. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid method is not only robust but also capable of achieving significant improvement compared with the traditional single models and can be an effective and efficient tool for power load forecasting.

  8. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  9. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  10. Efficiency of fluorescence in situ hybridization for bacterial cell identification in temporary river sediments with contrasting water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Stefano; Amalfitano, Stefano; Pizzetti, Ilaria; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2007-09-01

    We studied the efficiency of two hybridization techniques for the analysis of benthic bacterial community composition under varying sediment water content. Microcosms were set up with sediments from four European temporary rivers. Wet sediments were dried, and dry sediments were artificially rewetted. The percentage of bacterial cells detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization with fluorescently monolabeled probes (FISH) significantly increased from dry to wet sediments, showing a positive correlation with the community activity measured via incorporation of (3)H leucine. FISH and signal amplification by catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH) could significantly better detect cells with low activity in dried sediments. Through the application of an optimized cell permeabilization protocol, the percentage of hybridized cells by CARD-FISH showed comparable values in dry and wet conditions. This approach was unrelated to (3)H leucine incorporation rates. Moreover, the optimized protocol allowed a significantly better visualization of Gram-positive Actinobacteria in the studied samples. CARD-FISH is, therefore, proposed as an effective technique to compare bacterial communities residing in sediments with contrasting water content, irrespective of differences in the activity state of target cells. Considering the increasing frequencies of flood and drought cycles in European temporary rivers, our approach may help to better understand the dynamics of microbial communities in such systems.

  11. Design of a new hybrid artificial neural network method based on decision trees for calculating the Froude number in rigid rectangular channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtehaj Isa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A vital topic regarding the optimum and economical design of rigid boundary open channels such as sewers and drainage systems is determining the movement of sediment particles. In this study, the incipient motion of sediment is estimated using three datasets from literature, including a wide range of hydraulic parameters. Because existing equations do not consider the effect of sediment bed thickness on incipient motion estimation, this parameter is applied in this study along with the multilayer perceptron (MLP, a hybrid method based on decision trees (DT (MLP-DT, to estimate incipient motion. According to a comparison with the observed experimental outcome, the proposed method performs well (MARE = 0.048, RMSE = 0.134, SI = 0.06, BIAS = -0.036. The performance of MLP and MLP-DT is compared with that of existing regression-based equations, and significantly higher performance over existing models is observed. Finally, an explicit expression for practical engineering is also provided.

  12. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria Luísa; Sousa, Maria C; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 were studied by FISH and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated MAbs. Eighteen percent of the fecal samples parasitologically positive for G. lamblia presented viable and nonviable cysts, and 5% of those positive for Cryptosporidium spp. presented viable and nonviable oocysts. Of the 18 water supply samples analyzed, 6 (33%) presented Giardia spp. viable and nonviable cysts and 2 (11%) presented viable and nonviable Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. G. lamblia identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene in the fecal and water samples found positive by FISH and FITC-conjugated MAbs. C. parvum and Cryptosporidium muris were identified, by PCR and sequencing of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene, in seven and one water samples, respectively. Our results confirm that this technique enables simultaneous visualization, species-specific identification, and viability determination of the organisms present in human fecal and water supply samples.

  13. Genetic Relationships among Hylocereus and Selenicereus Vine Cacti (Cactaceae): Evidence from Hybridization and Cytological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEL-ZUR, NOEMI; ABBO, SHAHAL; BAR-ZVI, DUDY; MIZRAHI, YOSEF

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Hylocereus and Selenicereus are native to tropical and sub-tropical America. Based on its taxonomic status and crossability relations it was postulated that H. megalanthus (syn. S. megalanthus) is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) derived from natural hybridization between two closely related diploid taxa. The present work aimed at elucidating the genetic relationships between species of the two genera. • Methods Crosses were performed and the putative hybrids were analysed by chromosome counts and morphological traits. The ploidy level of hybrids was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of rDNA sites. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used in an attempt to identify the putative diploid genome donors of H. megalanthus and an artificial interploid hybrid. • Key Results Reciprocal crosses among four diploid Hylocereus species (H. costaricensis, H. monacanthus (syn. H. polyrhizus), H. undatus and Hylocereus sp.) yielded viable diploid hybrids, with regular chromosome pairing. Reciprocal crosses between these Hylocereus spp. and H. megalanthus yielded viable triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid and aneuploid hybrids. Morphological and phenological traits confirm the hybrid origin. In situ detection of rDNA sites was in accord with the ploidy status of the species and hybrid studied. GISH results indicated that overall sequence composition of H. megalanthus is similar to that of H. ocamponis and S. grandiflorus. High sequence similarity was also found between the parental genomes of H. monacanthus and H. megalanthus in one triploid hybrid. • Conclusions The ease of obtaining partially fertile F1 hybrids and the relative sequence similarity (in GISH study) suggest close genetic relationships among the taxa analysed. PMID:15329334

  14. A Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Bivariate Division and a Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network Optimized by Chaos Particle Swarm Optimization for Day-Ahead Electricity Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the electricity market, the electricity price plays an inevitable role. Nevertheless, accurate price forecasting, a vital factor affecting both government regulatory agencies and public power companies, remains a huge challenge and a critical problem. Determining how to address the accurate forecasting problem becomes an even more significant task in an era in which electricity is increasingly important. Based on the chaos particle swarm optimization (CPSO, the backpropagation artificial neural network (BPANN, and the idea of bivariate division, this paper proposes a bivariate division BPANN (BD-BPANN method and the CPSO-BD-BPANN method for forecasting electricity price. The former method creatively transforms the electricity demand and price to be a new variable, named DV, which is calculated using the division principle, to forecast the day-ahead electricity by multiplying the forecasted values of the DVs and forecasted values of the demand. Next, to improve the accuracy of BD-BPANN, chaos particle swarm optimization and BD-BPANN are synthesized to form a novel model, CPSO-BD-BPANN. In this study, CPSO is utilized to optimize the initial parameters of BD-BPANN to make its output more stable than the original model. Finally, two forecasting strategies are proposed regarding different situations.

  15. Hybrid artificial intelligence approach based on neural fuzzy inference model and metaheuristic optimization for flood susceptibilitgy modeling in a high-frequency tropical cyclone area using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien Bui, Dieu; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Nampak, Haleh; Bui, Quang-Thanh; Tran, Quynh-An; Nguyen, Quoc-Phi

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new artificial intelligence approach based on neural fuzzy inference system and metaheuristic optimization for flood susceptibility modeling, namely MONF. In the new approach, the neural fuzzy inference system was used to create an initial flood susceptibility model and then the model was optimized using two metaheuristic algorithms, Evolutionary Genetic and Particle Swarm Optimization. A high-frequency tropical cyclone area of the Tuong Duong district in Central Vietnam was used as a case study. First, a GIS database for the study area was constructed. The database that includes 76 historical flood inundated areas and ten flood influencing factors was used to develop and validate the proposed model. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to assess the model performance and its prediction capability. Experimental results showed that the proposed model has high performance on both the training (RMSE = 0.306, MAE = 0.094, AUC = 0.962) and validation dataset (RMSE = 0.362, MAE = 0.130, AUC = 0.911). The usability of the proposed model was evaluated by comparing with those obtained from state-of-the art benchmark soft computing techniques such as J48 Decision Tree, Random Forest, Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. The results show that the proposed MONF model outperforms the above benchmark models; we conclude that the MONF model is a new alternative tool that should be used in flood susceptibility mapping. The result in this study is useful for planners and decision makers for sustainable management of flood-prone areas.

  16. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie......-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans....

  17. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  18. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret-Galix, D.

    1992-01-01

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  19. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  20. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  1. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  2. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper

  3. Role of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH in the diagnosis of spindle and round cell tumors of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: In summary we advise an immunohistochemical panel for round/spindle cell tumors of the kidney and for unclear cases we advise to add (FISH to get the correct diagnosis, as they are completely different regarding surgical approach and post-operative adjuvant therapy.

  4. Detection of MDM2/CDK4 amplification in lipomatous soft tissue tumors from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue: comparison of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creytens, David; van Gorp, Joost; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Libbrecht, Louis

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the detection of MDM2 and CDK4 amplification was evaluated in lipomatous soft tissue tumors using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a PCR-based technique, in comparison with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These 2 techniques were evaluated in a series of 77 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lipomatous tumors (27 benign adipose tumors, 28 atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas, 18 dedifferentiated liposarcomas, and 4 pleomorphic liposarcomas). Using MLPA, with a cut-off ratio of >2, 36/71 samples (22 atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas, and 14 dedifferentiated liposarcomas) showed MDM2 and CDK4 amplification. Using FISH as gold standard, MLPA showed a sensitivity of 90% (36/40) and a specificity of 100% (31/31) in detecting amplification of MDM2 and CDK4 in lipomatous soft tissue tumors. In case of high-level amplification (MDM2-CDK4/CEP12 ratio >5), concordance was 100%. Four cases of atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (4/26, 15%) with a low MDM2 and CDK4 amplification level (MDM2-CDK4/CEP12 ratio ranging between 2 and 2.5) detected by FISH showed no amplification by MLPA, although gain of MDM2 and CDK4 (ratios ranging between 1.6 and 1.9) was seen with MLPA. No amplification was detected in benign lipomatous tumors and pleomorphic liposarcomas. Furthermore, there was a very high concordance between the ratios obtained by FISH and MLPA. In conclusion, MLPA proves to be an appropriate and straightforward technique for screening MDM2/CDK4 amplification in lipomatous tumors, especially when a correct cut-off value and reference samples are chosen, and could be considered a good alternative to FISH to determine MDM2 and CDK4 amplification in liposarcomas. Moreover, because MLPA, as a multiplex technique, allows simultaneous detection of multiple chromosomal changes of interest, it could be in the future a very reliable and fast molecular analysis on

  5. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  6. Modelling of a hybrid plant and development of a control system for the Vaesthamn plant based on artificial neural networks; Modellering av hybridanlaeggning samt utveckling av oevervakningssystem foer Vaesthamnsverket baserat paa Artificiella Neurala Naetverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen; Fast, Magnus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

    2006-12-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN). The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The models in the present project are based on operational data from the plant in contrary to previous projects where synthetic (simulated) data has been used in a large extent. The gas turbine represents the subsystem that has received most attention in previous projects, which will also be the case for the present project although models of the HRSG, steam boiler and steam turbine are created since the whole plant is of interest. The completed ANN sub modules are connected in a network, which can be used for e.g. offline simulation and real-time condition monitoring of the plant. A product, including all sub modules, is created in shape of a user-friendly interface in an MS Excel environment. This user interface can be used for continuous monitoring, training personnel and in planning of the operation. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The plant owners interest lies in receiving a product that can assist them when operating the plant, for instance supply them with information about the grade of degradation. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANNs, based on synthetic data, along with their new gas turbines. Vaesthamnsverket have contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. Siemens have contributed with expert knowledge about their gas turbine, the SGT800. The received data has been examined and filtered before used for training ANN models. The models have been evaluated with independent data. The results are very promising with ANN models showing high prediction accuracy. All subsystems can be

  7. Assessment of DNA damage and Chromosome aberration in human lymphocyte exposed to low dose radiation detected by FISH(Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) and SCGE(Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hai Won; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Byung Mo; Kim, Sun Jin; Ha, Sung Whan; Kim, Tae Hwan; Cho, Chul Koo

    2000-01-01

    Comparative study was performed for the assessment of DNA damage and Chromosomal aberration in human lymphocyte exposed to low dose radiation using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization(FISH) and Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis(SCGE). Chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocyte exposed to radiation at doses of 5, 10, 30 and 50cGy were analysed with whole chromosome-specific probes by human chromosome 1, 2 and 4 according to PAINT system. FISH with chromosome-specific probe has been used to be a valid and rapid method for detection of chromosome rearrangements induced by low dose radiation. The frequencies of stable translocation per cell equivalents were 0.0116, 0.0375, 0.0407, 0.0727 and 0.0814 for 0, 5, 10, 30 and 50cGy, respectively, and those of dicentric were 0.00, 0.0125, 0.174, 0.0291 and 0.0407 respectively. Radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocyte in a dose-dependent manner at low doses from 5cGy to 50cGy, which were analysed by single Cell Gel Electrophoresis(SCGE). From above results, FISH seemed to be useful for radiation biodosimetry by which the frequencies of stable aberrations in human lymphocyte can be observed more easily than by conventional method and SCGE also seemed to be sensitive method for detecting DNA damage by low dose radiation exposure, so that those methods will improve our technique to perform meaningful biodosimetry for radiation at low doses

  8. Resolving colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on plant root surfaces by combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (ME μXRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeker, Linnea K; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2016-12-01

    Metal(loid)-contamination of the environment due to anthropogenic activities is a global problem. Understanding the fate of contaminants requires elucidation of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metal(loid) speciation from molecular to field scales. Improved methods are needed to assess micro-scale processes, such as those occurring at biogeochemical interfaces between plant tissues, microbial cells, and metal(loid)s. Here we present an advanced method that combines fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with synchrotron-based multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging (ME μXRF) to examine colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on root surfaces of plants used to phytostabilize metalliferous mine tailings. Bacteria were visualized on a small root section using SytoBC nucleic acid stain and FISH probes targeting the domain Bacteria and a specific group (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, or Actinobacteria). The same root region was then analyzed for elemental distribution and metal(loid) speciation of As and Fe using ME μXRF. The FISH and ME μXRF images were aligned using ImageJ software to correlate microbiological and geochemical results. Results from quantitative analysis of colocalization show a significantly higher fraction of As colocalized with Fe-oxide plaques on the root surfaces (fraction of overlap 0.49±0.19) than to bacteria (0.072±0.052) (proots, metal(loid)s and microbes, information that should lead to improved mechanistic models of metal(loid) speciation and fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  10. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  11. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  12. Application of artificial intelligence (AI) methods for designing and analysis of reconfigurable cellular manufacturing system (RCMS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the design and control of a novel hybrid manufacturing system: Reconfigurable Cellular Manufacturing System (RCMS) by using Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach. It is hybrid as it combines the advantages of Cellular...

  13. Elastic MCF Rubber with Photovoltaics and Sensing on Hybrid Skin (H-Skin) for Artificial Skin by Utilizing Natural Rubber: 2nd Report on the Effect of Tension and Compression on the Hybrid Photo- and Piezo-Electricity Properties in Wet-Type Solar Cell Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kunio

    2018-06-06

    In contrast to ordinary solid-state solar cells, a flexible, elastic, extensible and light-weight solar cell has the potential to be extremely useful in many new engineering applications, such as in the field of robotics. Therefore, we propose a new type of artificial skin for humanoid robots with hybrid functions, which we have termed hybrid skin (H-Skin). To realize the fabrication of such a solar cell, we have continued to utilize the principles of ordinary solid-state wet-type or dye-sensitized solar rubber as a follow-up study to the first report. In the first report, we dealt with both photovoltaic- and piezo-effects for dry-type magnetic compound fluid (MCF) rubber solar cells, which were generated because the polyisoprene, oleic acid of the magnetic fluid (MF), and water served as p- and n- semiconductors. In the present report, we deal with wet-type MCF rubber solar cells by using sensitized dyes and electrolytes. Photoreactions generated through the synthesis of these components were investigated by an experiment using irradiation with visible and ultraviolet light. In addition, magnetic clusters were formed by the aggregation of Fe₃O₄ in the MF and the metal particles created the hetero-junction structure of the semiconductors. In the MCF rubber solar cell, both photo- and piezo-electricity were generated using a physical model. The effects of tension and compression on their electrical properties were evaluated. Finally, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of the distance between the electrodes of the solar cell on photoelectricity and built-in electricity.

  14. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  15. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  16. Artificial graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial graphites are obtained by agglomeration of carbon powders with an organic binder, then by carbonisation at 1000 0 C and graphitization at 2800 0 C. After description of the processes and products, we show how the properties of the various materials lead to the various uses. Using graphite enables us to solve some problems, but it is not sufficient to satisfy all the need of the application. New carbonaceous material open application range. Finally, if some products are becoming obsolete, other ones are being developed in new applications [fr

  17. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  18. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  19. Natural and artificial atoms for quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buluta, Iulia; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco, E-mail: fnori@riken.jp [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Remarkable progress towards realizing quantum computation has been achieved using natural and artificial atoms as qubits. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of different types of qubits. On the one hand, natural atoms (such as neutral atoms and ions) have long coherence times, and could be stored in large arrays, providing ideal 'quantum memories'. On the other hand, artificial atoms (such as superconducting circuits or semiconductor quantum dots) have the advantage of custom-designed features and could be used as 'quantum processing units'. Natural and artificial atoms can be coupled with each other and can also be interfaced with photons for long-distance communications. Hybrid devices made of natural/artificial atoms and photons may provide the next-generation design for quantum computers.

  20. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  1. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  2. Hybridization, transgressive segregation and evolution of new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This paper is dedicated to the memory of our teacher, Prof. N. B. ... of genetic variations wherein favourably interacting gene complexes are determined ... speciation. Hybrid-zone studies can yield information ... tic systems and in speciation, using an artificial hybrid ...... process of the development of reproductive isolation in.

  3. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for fish to survive to spawning maturity, to spawn

  4. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  5. BioArtificial polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  6. The campaign to DNA barcode all fishes, FISH-BOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R D; Hanner, R; Hebert, P D N

    2009-02-01

    FISH-BOL, the Fish Barcode of Life campaign, is an international research collaboration that is assembling a standardized reference DNA sequence library for all fishes. Analysis is targeting a 648 base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. More than 5000 species have already been DNA barcoded, with an average of five specimens per species, typically vouchers with authoritative identifications. The barcode sequence from any fish, fillet, fin, egg or larva can be matched against these reference sequences using BOLD; the Barcode of Life Data System (http://www.barcodinglife.org). The benefits of barcoding fishes include facilitating species identification, highlighting cases of range expansion for known species, flagging previously overlooked species and enabling identifications where traditional methods cannot be applied. Results thus far indicate that barcodes separate c. 98 and 93% of already described marine and freshwater fish species, respectively. Several specimens with divergent barcode sequences have been confirmed by integrative taxonomic analysis as new species. Past concerns in relation to the use of fish barcoding for species discrimination are discussed. These include hybridization, recent radiations, regional differentiation in barcode sequences and nuclear copies of the barcode region. However, current results indicate these issues are of little concern for the great majority of specimens.

  7. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  8. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  9. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  10. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  11. Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Two strategies have been proposed to avoid negative genetic effects of artificially propagated individuals on wild populations: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 10–20% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations. PMID:23144657

  12. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  13. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  14. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  15. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  16. Morphological recognition of artificial F1 hybrids between three common European cyprinid species:Rutilus rutilus,Blicca bjoerkna and Abramis brama%三种普通欧洲鲤科鱼类(拟鲤、粗鳞鳊和欧鳊)人工杂交F1代形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. NZAU MATONDO; M. OVIDIO; P. PONCIN; P. VANDEWALLE; J.C. PHILIPPART

    2008-01-01

    black line. In all interspecific crosses of these three cyprinid species fish, the reciprocal hybrids were generally indistinguishable.

  17. Biodiversity in floodplains with special reference to artificial stocking

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M.S.; Ehshan, M.A.; Mazid, M.A.; Rahman, S.; Razzaque, A.

    2000-01-01

    A five years investigation on fish biodiversity in connection with artificial stocking was conducted in three south-western floodplains of Bangladesh from 1992 to 1996. The ten top most available and ten rarest fish species were identified. Puntius sp., Channa punctatus, Mystus sp., Anabus testudinius, Ambasis sp., Colisha sp. and Macrobrachium sp. etc. were the most common available species. On the other hand, Mystus aor, Notopterus chitala, Clupisoma garua, Aplocheilus panchax, Ctenophmyngo...

  18. Effects of deuterium depleted water on reproduction of Rainbow fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Caraus, Ion; Pricop, Ferdinand

    2001-01-01

    The paper refers to an isotopic composition used to prepare fecundating solutions for artificial reproduction of fish. The solution is constituted as a mixture of deuterium depleted water and natural water (whose isotopic concentration is of 85-90 ppm D/(D+H)) in which we can add activating and energizing substances. This fecundating solution ensures an improved fecundating level of fish roe, increase life index in the next growth up stages and increase fish resistance at special medium conditions. (authors)

  19. [Fishery resource protection by artificial propagation in hydroelectric development: Lixianjiang River drainage in Yunnan as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Hong; Yang, Jun-Xing; Pan, Xiao-Fu; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Mei-Lin

    2011-04-01

    Hydroelectric developments can result in a number of negative environmental consequences. Conservation aquaculture is a branch of science derived from conservation and population recovery studies on endangered fishes. Here we discuss the impacts on fishes caused by hydropower projects in Lixianjiang, and evaluate effects and problems on the propagation of Parazacco spilurus, Hemibagrus pluriradiatus, Neolissochilus benasi and Semilabeo obscurus. A successful propagation project includes foraging ecology in fields, pond cultivation, juvenile fish raising, prevention and curing on fish disease, genetic management, artificial releasing and population monitoring. Artificial propagation is the practicable act on genetic intercommunication, preventing population deterioration for fishes in upper and lower reaches of the dam. For long-term planning, fish stocks are not suitable for many kind of fishes, but can prevent fishes from going extinct in the wild. Basic data collection on fish ecology, parent fish hunting, prevention on fish disease are the most important factors on artificial propagation. Strengthening the genetic management of stock population for keeping a higher genetic diversity can increase the success of stock enhancement. The works on Lixianjiang provide a new model for river fish protection. To make sure the complicated project works well, project plans, commission contracts, base line monitoring and techniques on artificial reproduction must be considered early. Last, fishery conservation should be considered alongside location development.

  20. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  1. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  2. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  3. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  4. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  5. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  6. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  7. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  8. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  9. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...ftf1 829 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (RIS)(U) MAY CONCEPTS 1/3 A~NLYSIS AGENCY BETHESA RD R B NOJESKI FED 6? CM-RP-97-1 NCASIFIED /01/6 M |K 1.0...p/ - - ., e -- CAA- RP- 87-1 SAOFŔ)11 I ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (AIS) tNo DTICFEBRUARY 1987 LECT 00 I PREPARED BY RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

  10. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  11. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Berrar, Daniel; Sato, Naoyuki; Schuster, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  12. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  13. Fish Vaccine Development and Use to Prevent Streptococcal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important pathogen of tilapia, hybrid striped bass and trout raised in intensive aquaculture is Streptococcus sp., a cause of severe economic losses in the fish farming industry. Infected fish experience severe to moderate mortality due to Streptococcus iniae and/or S. agalactiae. The diseased ...

  14. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  15. Efficiency of three reproductive hormones in artificial propagation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of three reproductive hormones: ovaprim, ovulin and carp pituitary extract (C.P.E) in artificial propagation of Heterobranchus longifilis was investigated. Total of twelve broodstock fish, comprising nine females and three males at eighteen months of age were used. Females were divided into three groups.

  16. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  17. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  18. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  19. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  20. Performance of artificial neural networks and genetical evolved artificial neural networks unfolding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz R, J. M.; Martinez B, M. R.; Vega C, H. R.; Gallego D, E.; Lorente F, A.; Mendez V, R.; Los Arcos M, J. M.; Guerrero A, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    With the Bonner spheres spectrometer neutron spectrum is obtained through an unfolding procedure. Monte Carlo methods, Regularization, Parametrization, Least-squares, and Maximum Entropy are some of the techniques utilized for unfolding. In the last decade methods based on Artificial Intelligence Technology have been used. Approaches based on Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks (Ann) have been developed in order to overcome the drawbacks of previous techniques. Nevertheless the advantages of Ann still it has some drawbacks mainly in the design process of the network, vg the optimum selection of the architectural and learning Ann parameters. In recent years the use of hybrid technologies, combining Ann and genetic algorithms, has been utilized to. In this work, several Ann topologies were trained and tested using Ann and Genetically Evolved Artificial Neural Networks in the aim to unfold neutron spectra using the count rates of a Bonner sphere spectrometer. Here, a comparative study of both procedures has been carried out. (Author)

  1. Reproduction of Persian Gulf anemone fish (Amphiprion clarkii) in captive system

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Sahandi

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the reproduction of Persian Gulf anemone fish,Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830), in captive conditions with artificial features. Persian Gulf, havinggood relation with Indian Ocean, is one of the important niches of fishes and the specific position ofthis Gulf makes its fishes popular. The yellow tail clown fish which originates to this gulf has the bestsurvival rate and health than the other areas. Live food is the most important factor in product...

  2. Summer yield of fish in polyculture in Transkei, South Africa, using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords Aquaculture, fish prOduction, polyculture, integrated farming ... *To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Introduction. The use of animal wastes in fish production systems, has been widely practised for centuries in the Far Eastern countries ..... water without problems in fish-pond management. Hybrids.

  3. Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Computer Simulation: Future Applications in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gwendolyn B.; And Others

    The report describes three advanced technologies--robotics, artificial intelligence, and computer simulation--and identifies the ways in which they might contribute to special education. A hybrid methodology was employed to identify existing technology and forecast future needs. Following this framework, each of the technologies is defined,…

  4. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) correlates with clinical activity of irinotecan-cetuximab in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer: a fluorescence in situ (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scartozzi, Mario; Galizia, Eva; Berardi, Rossana; Biscotti, Tommasina; Labianca, Roberto; Masi, Gianluca; Falcone, Alfredo; Cascinu, Stefano; Bearzi, Italo; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Pierantoni, Chiara; Loupakis, Fotios; Zaniboni, Alberto; Negri, Francesca; Quadri, Antonello; Zorzi, Fausto

    2009-01-01

    K-RAS wild type colorectal tumors show an improved response rate to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless 70% to 40% of these patients still does not seem to benefit from this therapeutic approach. FISH EGFR GCN has been previously demonstrated to correlate with clinical outcome of colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. CISH also seemed able to provide accurate EGFR GCN information with the advantage of a simpler and reproducible technique involving immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Based on these findings we investigated the correlation between both FISH and CISH EGFR GCN and clinical outcome in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-cetuximab. Patients with advanced K-RAS wild-type, colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan-cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-based chemotherapy were eligible. A cut-off value for EGFR GCN of 2.6 and 2.12 for FISH and CISH respectively was derived from ROC curve analysis. Forty-four patients were available for analysis. We observed a partial remission in 9 (60%) and 2 (9%) cases with a FISH EGFR GCN ≥ 2.6 and < 2.6 respectively (p = 0.002) and in 10 (36%) and 1 (6%) cases with a CISH EGFR GCN ≥ 2.12 and < 2.12 respectively (p = 0.03). Median TTP was 7.7 and 6.4 months in patients showing increased FISH and CISH EGFR GCN whereas it was 2.9 and 3.1 months in those with low FISH and CISH EGFR GCN (p = 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). FISH and CISH EGFR GCN may both represent effective tools for a further patients selection in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab

  5. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fish Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  7. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  8. Fish hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  9. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  10. Multiple cues produced by a robotic fish modulate aggressive behaviour in Siamese fighting fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Donato; Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Remorini, Damiano; Canale, Angelo; Stefanini, Cesare

    2017-07-05

    The use of robotics to establish social interactions between animals and robots, represents an elegant and innovative method to investigate animal behaviour. However, robots are still underused to investigate high complex and flexible behaviours, such as aggression. Here, Betta splendens was tested as model system to shed light on the effect of a robotic fish eliciting aggression. We evaluated how multiple signal systems, including a light stimulus, affect aggressive responses in B. splendens. Furthermore, we conducted experiments to estimate if aggressive responses were triggered by the biomimetic shape of fish replica, or whether any intruder object was effective as well. Male fishes showed longer and higher aggressive displays as puzzled stimuli from the fish replica increased. When the fish replica emitted its full sequence of cues, the intensity of aggression exceeded even that produced by real fish opponents. Fish replica shape was necessary for conspecific opponent perception, evoking significant aggressive responses. Overall, this study highlights that the efficacy of an artificial opponent eliciting aggressive behaviour in fish can be boosted by exposure to multiple signals. Optimizing the cue combination delivered by the robotic fish replica may be helpful to predict escalating levels of aggression.

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR gene copy number (GCN correlates with clinical activity of irinotecan-cetuximab in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer: a fluorescence in situ (FISH and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scartozzi Mario

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background K-RAS wild type colorectal tumors show an improved response rate to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless 70% to 40% of these patients still does not seem to benefit from this therapeutic approach. FISH EGFR GCN has been previously demonstrated to correlate with clinical outcome of colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. CISH also seemed able to provide accurate EGFR GCN information with the advantage of a simpler and reproducible technique involving immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Based on these findings we investigated the correlation between both FISH and CISH EGFR GCN and clinical outcome in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-cetuximab. Methods Patients with advanced K-RAS wild-type, colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan-cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-based chemotherapy were eligible. A cut-off value for EGFR GCN of 2.6 and 2.12 for FISH and CISH respectively was derived from ROC curve analysis. Results Forty-four patients were available for analysis. We observed a partial remission in 9 (60% and 2 (9% cases with a FISH EGFR GCN ≥ 2.6 and Conclusion FISH and CISH EGFR GCN may both represent effective tools for a further patients selection in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab.

  12. Synthetic and Bio-Artificial Tactile Sensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Carrozza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art of artificial tactile sensing, with a particular focus on bio-hybrid and fully-biological approaches. To this aim, the study of physiology of the human sense of touch and of the coding mechanisms of tactile information is a significant starting point, which is briefly explored in this review. Then, the progress towards the development of an artificial sense of touch are investigated. Artificial tactile sensing is analysed with respect to the possible approaches to fabricate the outer interface layer: synthetic skin versus bio-artificial skin. With particular respect to the synthetic skin approach, a brief overview is provided on various technologies and transduction principles that can be integrated beneath the skin layer. Then, the main focus moves to approaches characterized by the use of bio-artificial skin as an outer layer of the artificial sensory system. Within this design solution for the skin, bio-hybrid and fully-biological tactile sensing systems are thoroughly presented: while significant results have been reported for the development of tissue engineered skins, the development of mechanotransduction units and their integration is a recent trend that is still lagging behind, therefore requiring research efforts and investments. In the last part of the paper, application domains and perspectives of the reviewed tactile sensing technologies are discussed.

  13. In Situ Hybridization Pada Kanker Payudara

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Witari, Ni Putu

    2014-01-01

    Kesulitan yang dijumpai pada penanganan kanker payudara adalah terjadinya kekambuhan atau relaps. Deteksi status HER2 pada pasien merupakan salah satu upaya untuk mendeteksi terjadinya relaps dan juga untuk menentukan jenis terapi yang ada diberikan. Ekspresi protein HER2 dapat dideteksi dengan immunohistochemistry (IHC), sedangkan mutasi gen HER2 dapat dideteksi dengan teknik in situ hybridization baik berupa fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ataupun chromogenic in situ hy...

  14. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  15. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus) uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Hyoun; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-29

    Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword - hence their common name "swordtails". Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and - surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish) species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus). We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually selected sword trait is shown to be the most likely

  16. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ji Hyoun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword – hence their common name “swordtails”. Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and – surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus. We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. Results We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually

  17. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) correlates with clinical activity of irinotecan-cetuximab in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer: a fluorescence in situ (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartozzi, Mario; Bearzi, Italo; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Pierantoni, Chiara; Loupakis, Fotios; Zaniboni, Alberto; Negri, Francesca; Quadri, Antonello; Zorzi, Fausto; Galizia, Eva; Berardi, Rossana; Biscotti, Tommasina; Labianca, Roberto; Masi, Gianluca; Falcone, Alfredo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2009-08-27

    K-RAS wild type colorectal tumors show an improved response rate to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless 70% to 40% of these patients still does not seem to benefit from this therapeutic approach. FISH EGFR GCN has been previously demonstrated to correlate with clinical outcome of colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. CISH also seemed able to provide accurate EGFR GCN information with the advantage of a simpler and reproducible technique involving immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Based on these findings we investigated the correlation between both FISH and CISH EGFR GCN and clinical outcome in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-cetuximab. Patients with advanced K-RAS wild-type, colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan-cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-based chemotherapy were eligible. A cut-off value for EGFR GCN of 2.6 and 2.12 for FISH and CISH respectively was derived from ROC curve analysis. Forty-four patients were available for analysis. We observed a partial remission in 9 (60%) and 2 (9%) cases with a FISH EGFR GCN >or= 2.6 and CISH EGFR GCN >or= 2.12 and CISH EGFR GCN whereas it was 2.9 and 3.1 months in those with low FISH and CISH EGFR GCN (p = 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). FISH and CISH EGFR GCN may both represent effective tools for a further patients selection in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab.

  18. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub Petersen, Bodil; Zeuthen, Mette Christa; Pedersen, Sanni

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely used to study numerical and structural genetic abnormalities in both metaphase and interphase cells. The technique is based on the hybridization of labeled probes to complementary sequences in the DNA or RNA of the cells. Interphase FISH is most...... in time lapse between removal of tissue and fixation, duration of fixation, enzymatic pretreatment, hybridization conditions, and posthybridization washing conditions are important factors in the hybridization. In this study, we have listed the results of a systematic approach to improve FISH on isolated...

  19. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  20. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for

  1. A photoactivated artificial muscle model unit: reversible, photoinduced sliding of nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabetani, Yu; Takamura, Hazuki; Hayasaka, Yuika; Shimada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Masui, Dai; Tong, Zhiwei; Inoue, Haruo

    2011-11-02

    A novel photoactivated artificial muscle model unit is reported. Here we show that organic/inorganic hybrid nanosheets reversibly slide horizontally on a giant scale and the interlayer spaces in the layered hybrid structure shrink and expand vertically by photoirradiation. The sliding movement of the system on a giant scale is the first example of an artificial muscle model unit having much similarity with that in natural muscle fibrils. In particular, our layered hybrid molecular system exhibits a macroscopic morphological change on a giant scale (~1500 nm) relative to the molecular size of ~1 nm by means of a reversible sliding mechanism.

  2. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  3. Spatial extent and dynamics of dam impacts on tropical island freshwater fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Patrick B.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat connectivity is vital to the persistence of migratory fishes. Native tropical island stream fish assemblages composed of diadromous species require intact corridors between ocean and riverine habitats. High dams block fish migration, but low-head artificial barriers are more widespread and are rarely assessed for impacts. Among all 46 drainages in Puerto Rico, we identified and surveyed 335 artificial barriers that hinder fish migration to 74.5% of the upstream habitat. We also surveyed occupancy of native diadromous fishes (Anguillidae, Eleotridae, Gobiidae, and Mugilidae) in 118 river reaches. Occupancy models demonstrated that barriers 2 meters (m) high restricted nongoby fish migration and extirpated those fish upstream of 4-m barriers. Gobies are adapted to climbing and are restricted by 12-m barriers and extirpated upstream of 32-m barriers. Our findings quantitatively illustrate the extensive impact of low-head structures on island stream fauna and provide guidance for natural resource management, habitat restoration, and water development strategies.

  4. Comparative analysis of the aquaculture potential of hybrid Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , on the growth rate, feeding efficiency and mortality rates of hybrid tilapia — Tilapia zillii (male) x T. guineensis (female) — was evaluated for 233 days. Fish of average weight 12.59g were stocked at a density of 20 fish m–³ and were fed a 30% ...

  5. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  6. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  7. Clinical Utility of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization for Detection of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Karen R.; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Yu, Alexander; Folsom, Matthew R.; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Rao, Pulivarthi H.; Plon, Sharon E.; Naeem, Rizwan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate detection of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities is critical to assign patients to risk-based therapeutic regimens for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Procedure We investigated the utility of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) for detection of chromosomal abnormalities compared to standard clinical evaluation with karyotype and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Fifty pediatric ALL diagnostic bone marrows were analyzed by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array, and findings compared to standard clinical evaluation. Results Sensitivity of aCGH was 79% to detect karyotypic findings other than balanced translocations, which cannot be detected by aCGH because they involve no copy number change. aCGH also missed abnormalities occurring in subclones constituting less than 25% of cells. aCGH detected 44 additional abnormalities undetected or misidentified by karyotype, 21 subsequently validated by FISH, including abnormalities in 4 of 10 cases with uninformative cytogenetics. aCGH detected concurrent terminal deletions of both 9p and 20q in three cases, in two of which the 20q deletion was undetected by karyotype. A narrow region of loss at 7p21 was detected in two cases. Conclusions An array with increased BAC density over regions important in ALL, combined with PCR for fusion products of balanced translocations, could minimize labor- and time-intensive cytogenetic assays and provide key prognostic information in the approximately 35% of cases with uninformative cytogenetics. PMID:18253961

  8. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of ...

  9. Minimally Naturalistic Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Steven Stenberg

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advancement of machine learning techniques has re-energized research into general artificial intelligence. While the idea of domain-agnostic meta-learning is appealing, this emerging field must come to terms with its relationship to human cognition and the statistics and structure of the tasks humans perform. The position of this article is that only by aligning our agents' abilities and environments with those of humans do we stand a chance at developing general artificial intellig...

  10. Artificial Intelligence Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence and Software Engineering Working Notes, March 1989. Blumenthal, Brad, "An Architecture for Automating...Artificial Intelligence Project Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-OGO Artificial Intelligence LaboratO"ry The University of Texas at...Austin N>.. ~ ~ JA 1/I 1991 n~~~ Austin, Texas 78712 ________k A,.tificial Intelligence Project i Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-0060

  11. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Summary Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiol...

  12. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  13. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  14. Effect of Stocking Density on Growth Performance of Hybrids of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus♀ and Oreochromis urolepis urolepis♂ hybrids were reared at stocking densities of control, 5, 10, 15 and 20 fish/m3 at 15 Practical Salinity Units (PSU) in 1m3 plastic tanks for 63 days. They were kept at low, intermediate and high densities respectively. All hybrids were fed on a ...

  15. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  16. RESULTS CONCERNING THE USE OF THE‚NERISTIN’ SYNTHETIC HORMONE IN THE ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTION OF THE HYPOPHTHALMYCHTYS MOLITRIX (VAL) SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    ADINA SIRBU; S. STANCIOIU; V. CRISTEA; A. DOCAN

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents data about the artificial reproduction of the H. molitrix species. The artificial reproduction took place in the station destined to the reproduction of the phytoplanktonophag fish of the Carja 1 fish farm – Vaslui. The annual batch of breeders came from the personal stock of the Carja 1 farm.The experimental work took place between 2005-2007, following the work methodology and the phases of the technological process. The stimulation of the maturation was done with neristin...

  17. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  18. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Kofoed, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region...

  19. FISH and PNA FISH for the diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis and vascular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Elsa; Lepidi, Hubert; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Raoult, Didier

    2018-06-13

    Purpose. Endocarditis and vascular infections are common manifestations of persistent localized infection due to Coxiella burnetii and recently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was proposed as an alternative tool for their diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of FISH in a series of valve and vascular samples infected by C. burnetii. Methods. We tested 23 C. burnetii -positive valves and thrombus samples obtained from patients with Q fever endocarditis. Seven aneurysms and thrombus specimens were retrieved from patients with Q fever vascular infection. Samples were analyzed by culture, immunochemistry and FISH with oligonucleotide and PNA probes targeting C. burnetii -specific 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. Results. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for five (17%) samples with significantly more copies of C. burnetii DNA than the negative ones ( p= 0.02). FISH was positive for 13 (43%) samples and presented 43% and 40% sensitivity compared to qPCR and culture, respectively. PNA FISH detected C. burnetii in 18 (60%) samples and presented 60% and 55% sensitivity compared to qPCR and culture, respectively. Immunohistochemistry had 38% and 28% sensitivity compared to FISH and PNA FISH, respectively. Samples found positive by both immunohistochemistry and PNA FISH contained significantly more copies of C. burnetii DNA than the negative ones ( p= 0.03). Finally, PNA FISH was more sensitive than FISH (60% versus 43%) for the detection of C. burnetii Conclusion. We provide evidence that PNA FISH and FISH are important assays for the diagnosis of C. burnetii endocarditis and vascular infections. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  1. Tissue engineering of fish skin: behavior of fish cells on poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) copolymers in relation to the composition of the polymer substrate as an initial step in constructing a robotic/living tissue hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Roxane; Azhari, Rosa; Qanadilo, Hala F; Mahmood, Tahir A; Triantafyllou, Michael S; Langer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the development of a biosynthetic fish skin to be used on aquatic robots that can emulate fish. Smoothness of the external surface is desired in improving high propulsive efficiency and maneuvering agility of autonomous underwater vehicles such as the RoboTuna (Triantafyllou, M., and Triantafyllou, G. Sci. Am. 272, 64, 1995). An initial step was to determine the seeding density and select a polymer for the scaffolds. The attachment and proliferation of chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) and brown bullhead (BB) cells were studied on different compositions of a poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate) (PEGT) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) copolymer (Polyactive). Polymer films were used, cast of three different compositions of PEGT/PBT (weight ratios of 55/45, 60/40, and 70/30) and two different molecular masses of PEGT (300 and 1000 Da). When a 55 wt% and a 300-Da molecular mass form of PEGT was used, maximum attachment and proliferation of CHSE-214 and BB cells were achieved. Histological studies and immunostaining indicate the presence of collagen and cytokeratins in the extracellular matrix formed after 14 days of culture. Porous scaffolds of PEGT/PBT copolymers were also used for three-dimensional tissue engineering of fish skin, using BB cells. Overall, our results indicate that fish cells can attach, proliferate, and express fish skin components on dense and porous Polyactive scaffolds.

  2. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  3. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  4. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  5. Cytogenetics of Festulolium (Festuca x Lolium hybrids)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 120, 3-4 (2008), s. 370-383 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/07/P479; GA MZe QH71267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Grasses * hybrids * FISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.965, year: 2008

  6. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  7. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  8. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  9. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  10. Artificial organs and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Vega, A; Casciani, C U

    2003-05-01

    Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases. Since general population aging process is leading to an increase of organ demand, the gap between performed and requested transplantation is hard to fill. Xenotransplantation is nowadays only an experimental alternative solution and we have to do our best using available artificial organs to increase and improve the survival of patients waiting for transplantation. In this meeting we particularly dealt about organ function replacing therapy, especially regarding the kidney, heart, liver, pancreas and ear.

  11. Charlas sobre inteligencia artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Sánchez, José Ramón; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel; Paz López, Félix de la

    2014-01-01

    Serie: Informática en Radio 3 La Inteligencia Artificial es una de las ciencias que causa mayor impacto en la sociedad, mucho más si tenemos en cuenta que cambiará el futuro de la humanidad. En España existen actualmente un nutrido grupo de equipos de investigación relacionados con las tecnologías de computación natural-artificial que aúnan sus esfuerzos a través de la RTNAC la Red Temática en Tecnologías de Computación Natural-Artificial . La UNED participa en todas sus actividades desde ...

  12. Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kipp W; Torres Soto, Jessica; Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Shameer, Khader; Miotto, Riccardo; Ali, Mohsin; Ashley, Euan; Dudley, Joel T

    2018-06-12

    Artificial intelligence and machine learning are poised to influence nearly every aspect of the human condition, and cardiology is not an exception to this trend. This paper provides a guide for clinicians on relevant aspects of artificial intelligence and machine learning, reviews selected applications of these methods in cardiology to date, and identifies how cardiovascular medicine could incorporate artificial intelligence in the future. In particular, the paper first reviews predictive modeling concepts relevant to cardiology such as feature selection and frequent pitfalls such as improper dichotomization. Second, it discusses common algorithms used in supervised learning and reviews selected applications in cardiology and related disciplines. Third, it describes the advent of deep learning and related methods collectively called unsupervised learning, provides contextual examples both in general medicine and in cardiovascular medicine, and then explains how these methods could be applied to enable precision cardiology and improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the chromosome maps around a resistance hot spot on chromosome 5 of potato and tomato using BAC-FISH painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Ute C; Tang, Xiaomin; Ballvora, Agim; de Jong, Hans; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2010-02-01

    Potato chromosome 5 harbours numerous genes for important qualitative and quantitative traits, such as resistance to the root cyst nematode Globodera pallida and the late blight fungus, Phytophthora infestans. The genes make up part of a "hot spot" for resistances to various pathogens covering a genetic map length of 3 cM between markers GP21 and GP179. We established the physical size and position of this region on chromosome 5 in potato and tomato using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on pachytene chromosomes. Five potato bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones with the genetically anchored markers GP21, R1-contig (proximal end), CosA, GP179, and StPto were selected, labeled with different fluorophores, and hybridized in a five-colour FISH experiment. Our results showed the location of the BAC clones in the middle of the long arm of chromosome 5 in both potato and tomato. Based on chromosome measurements, we estimate the physical size of the GP21-GP179 interval at 0.85 Mb and 1.2 Mb in potato and tomato, respectively. The GP21-GP179 interval is part of a genome segment known to have inverted map positions between potato and tomato.

  14. Effectiveness of oxytetracycline in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) under laboratory culture condition

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ariful Haque; Md. Shaheed Reza; Md. Rajib Sharker; Md. Mokhlasur Rahman; Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effectiveness of most widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish under artificial culture condition in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in 8 aquaria where fish in 5 aquaria were used for replication of the treatment (experimental group) and fish in remaining 3 aquaria were considered...

  15. Artificial intelligence executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamsley, S.J.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a high technology field that can be used to provide problem solving diagnosis, guidance and for support resolution of problems. It is not a stand alone discipline, but can also be applied to develop data bases for retention of the expertise that is required for its own knowledge base. This provides a way to retain knowledge that otherwise may be lost. Artificial Intelligence Methodology can provide an automated construction management decision support system, thereby restoring the manager's emphasis to project management

  16. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  17. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  18. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  19. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction......Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...

  20. Obtaining interspecific hybrids, and molecular analysis by microsatellite markers in grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Ruzza Schuck; Luiz Antonio Biasi; Ada Michele Mariano; Bernardo Lipski; Summaira Riaz; Michael Andrew Walker

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the potential of interspecific hybridization of Vitis labruscana and Muscadinia rotundifolia by using artificial cross-pollinations. Microsatellite markers were used to confirm interspecific hybridizations and the identity of the parental genotypes. In crosses in which M. rotundifolia was used as the female parent, no true hybrids were obtained. In the reciprocal crosses, 114 seedlings were identified as true V. labruscana x M. rotundifolia hybrids. Se...

  1. Imaging dipole flow sources using an artificial lateral-line system made of biomimetic hair flow sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In Nature, fish have the ability to localize prey, school, navigate, etc., using the lateral-line organ. Artificial hair flow sensors arranged in a linear array shape (inspired by the lateral-line system (LSS) in fish) have been applied to measure airflow patterns at the sensor positions. Here, we

  2. Dietary fatty acids and the stress response of fish. Arachidonic acid in seabream and tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, R.D. van

    2004-01-01

    A key factor in the production of fish in commercial aquaculture is the optimization of the artificial diets, not only to achieve optimal growth, but also to maximize fish health. Evidence is accumulating that dietary lipids, particularly the fatty acid composition, can have a direct effect on the

  3. Arsenic bioaccumulation in a marine juvenile fish Terapon jarbua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Huang Liangmin; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Radiotracer technique was used to quantify the biokinetics of As(V) in a marine fish. As(V) had a low bioavailability to Terapon jarbua. Dietary assimilation of As was only 3.1–7.4% for fish fed with different preys. Dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish. - Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid that is causing widespread public concern. Recent measurements have indicated that some marine fish in China might be seriously contaminated with As. Yet the biokinetics and bioaccumulation pathway of As in fish remain little understood. In this study, we employed a radiotracer technique to quantify the dissolved uptake, dietary assimilation and subsequent efflux of As(V) in a marine predatory fish, Terapon jarbua. The dissolved uptake of As showed a linear pattern over a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μg L −1 , with a corresponding uptake rate constant of 0.0015 L g −1 d −1 . The assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dietary As were only 3.1–7.4% for fish fed with copepods, clams, prey fish, or artificial diets, and were much lower than the As that entered the trophically available metal fraction in the prey. The dietary AEs were independent of the As(V) concentrations in the artificial diets. The efflux rate constant of As in fish following the dietary exposure was 0.03 d −1 . Modeling calculations showed that dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish, and the corresponding contributions of waterborne and dietary uptakes were related to the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and the ingestion rate of fish. This study demonstrates that As(V) has a low bioavailability to T. jarbua.

  4. Fish under exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  5. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  6. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  7. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  8. Generality in Artificial Intelligence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Generality in Artificial Intelligence. John McCarthy. Classics Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 283-296. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/03/0283-0296. Author Affiliations.

  9. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  10. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  11. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  12. RESULTS CONCERNING THE USE OF THE‚NERISTIN’ SYNTHETIC HORMONE IN THE ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTION OF THE HYPOPHTHALMYCHTYS MOLITRIX (VAL SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SIRBU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data about the artificial reproduction of the H. molitrix species. The artificial reproduction took place in the station destined to the reproduction of the phytoplanktonophag fish of the Carja 1 fish farm – Vaslui. The annual batch of breeders came from the personal stock of the Carja 1 farm.The experimental work took place between 2005-2007, following the work methodology and the phases of the technological process. The stimulation of the maturation was done with neristin and carp hypophysis, watching through comparison the technological indicators specific to the artificial reproduction.The results of the experiments are presented in tables and in graphs.

  13. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  14. Genetic identification of F1 and post-F1 serrasalmid juvenile hybrids in Brazilian aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Teruo Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming.

  15. Evaluation of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Gene Status in Human Breast Cancer Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Tissue Specimens by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Harry C; Gown, Allen M

    2016-01-01

    Current standard of care requires that HER2 gene testing be performed on all newly diagnosed invasive breast cancers in order to determine eligibility for anti-HER2 antibody therapy and should be performed in accordance with current ASCO-CAP guidelines (Hammond et al., J Clin Oncol 29(15):e458, 2011; Wolff et al., J Clin Oncol 31(31):3997-4013, 2013). Here we describe a HER2 FISH methodology to evaluate HER2 gene status in FFPE breast tumor specimens.

  16. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  17. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  18. Fish abundance in the Wilderness and Swartvlei lake systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longer duration tidal phase in the Swartvlei system during 1992 and 1993, compared to the Wilderness lake system, did not result in greater abundance of fish sampled. There appears to be no justification for the artificial maintenance of permanently tidal conditions in the Swartvlei and Touw River estuaries on the ...

  19. [Species composition and distribution patterns of ichthyoplankton within and outside artificial reefs in Qingshan Bay, Qingdao, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu Xin; Gao, Dong Kui; Zhang, Xiu Mei; Li, Wen Tao; Zhang, Pei Dong

    2017-06-18

    To assess the fish attraction and shelter effects of the artificial reefs in Qingshan Bay of Qingdao, the species composition and distribution patterns of ichthyoplankton in artificial reefs were investigated using vertical and horizontal tows in 2014 and 2015. In total, 7306 fish eggs and 52 fish larvae, belonging to 4 orders, 9 families, 11 genera and 12 species, were collected during 7 cruises in spring, summer and autumn of 2014. In 2015, 10373 eggs and 159 fish larvae, belonging to 6 orders, 11 families, 14 genera and 15 species, were collected in the same period as in 2014. Perciformes were the majority for both fish eggs and larvae collected during the two surveys, followed by Pleuronectiformes. Among fish eggs, Sillago japonica and Cynoglossus joyneri were the most dominant species. Among fish larvae, S. japonica exhibited the highest dominance but was not the dominant species. The high dominant species in both fish eggs and larvae appeared alternately in diffe-rent seasons. The Margalef richness index (R), Shannon diversity index (H) and Pielou evenness index (J) of ichthyoplankton community were low during the spring, summer, and autumn, showing an instable community structure of ichthyoplankton. The average trophic level of adult fish corresponding to the ichthyoplankton collected in the two years were 3.71 and 3.78, respectively, and both belonged to low carnivorous fish of third trophic level. All the species were either warm-tempe-rate species or warm-water species, which was coincident with the warm-temperate zone characteristic. Comprehensive analysis showed that the biodiversity of the ichthyoplankton community within the artificial reef areas was higher than that outside the artificial reef areas, which might be linked to flow velocity, flow field characteristics, or spatial heterogeneity of artificial reef areas.

  20. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  1. Artificial enzyme-powered microfish for water-quality testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Jahir; García-Gradilla, Victor; D'Agostino, Mattia; Gao, Wei; Cortés, Allan; Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-22

    We present a novel micromotor-based strategy for water-quality testing based on changes in the propulsion behavior of artificial biocatalytic microswimmers in the presence of aquatic pollutants. The new micromotor toxicity testing concept mimics live-fish water testing and relies on the toxin-induced inhibition of the enzyme catalase, responsible for the biocatalytic bubble propulsion of tubular microengines. The locomotion and survival of the artificial microfish are thus impaired by exposure to a broad range of contaminants, that lead to distinct time-dependent irreversible losses in the catalase activity, and hence of the propulsion behavior. Such use of enzyme-powered biocompatible polymeric (PEDOT)/Au-catalase tubular microengine offers highly sensitive direct optical visualization of changes in the swimming behavior in the presence of common contaminants and hence to a direct real-time assessment of the water quality. Quantitative data on the adverse effects of the various toxins upon the swimming behavior of the enzyme-powered artificial swimmer are obtained by estimating common ecotoxicological parameters, including the EC(50) (exposure concentration causing 50% attenuation of the microfish locomotion) and the swimmer survival time (lifetime expectancy). Such novel use of artificial microfish addresses major standardization and reproducibility problems as well as ethical concerns associated with live-fish toxicity assays and hence offers an attractive alternative to the common use of aquatic organisms for water-quality testing.

  2. Possible applications of modern fish larviculture technology to ornamental fish production

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, P.; Lim, L.C.; Candreva, P.; Van Duffel, H.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1997-01-01

    There has been rapid development in the marine foodfish larviculture technology in Europe since the early eighties, especially in the flat fish, turbot and halibut, and the bass and bream species. The most significant improvements in the eighties were the introduction of light control, artificial reproduction techniques, appropriate water treatment and the use of rotifers and Artemia nauplii of specific sizes and in the late eighties and early nineties the quality enhancement of live food org...

  3. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  4. Optimal fuel loading pattern design using artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byung Ho

    1993-01-01

    The Optimal Fuel Shuffling System (OFSS) is developed for optimal design of PWR fuel loading pattern. OFSS is a hybrid system that a rule based system, a fuzzy logic, and an artificial neural network are connected each other. The rule based system classifies loading patterns into two classes using several heuristic rules and a fuzzy rule. A fuzzy rule is introduced to achieve more effective and fast searching. Its membership function is automatically updated in accordance with the prediction results. The artificial neural network predicts core parameters for the patterns generated from the rule based system. The back-propagation network is used for fast prediction of core parameters. The artificial neural network and the fuzzy logic can be used as the tool for improvement of existing algorithm's capabilities. OFSS was demonstrated and validated for cycle 1 of Kori unit 1 PWR. (Author)

  5. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport: A Paradigm for Molecular Logistics in Artificial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujica, Suncica; Zelmer, Christina; Panatala, Radhakrishnan; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2016-01-01

    Artificial organelles, molecular factories and nanoreactors are membrane-bound systems envisaged to exhibit cell-like functionality. These constitute liposomes, polymersomes or hybrid lipo-polymersomes that display different membrane-spanning channels and/or enclose molecular modules. To achieve more complex functionality, an artificial organelle should ideally sustain a continuous influx of essential macromolecular modules (i.e. cargoes) and metabolites against an outflow of reaction products. This would benefit from the incorporation of selective nanopores as well as specific trafficking factors that facilitate cargo selectivity, translocation efficiency, and directionality. Towards this goal, we describe how proteinaceous cargoes are transported between the nucleus and cytoplasm by nuclear pore complexes and the biological trafficking machinery in living cells (i.e. nucleocytoplasmic transport). On this basis, we discuss how biomimetic control may be implemented to selectively import, compartmentalize and accumulate diverse macromolecular modules against concentration gradients in artificial organelles.

  6. Effects of trawl selectivity and genetic parameters on fish body length under long-term trawling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Peng; Cui, He; Sheng, Huaxiang; Zhao, Fenfang; Tang, Yanli; Chen, Zelin

    2015-10-01

    Long-term fishing pressure affects the biological characteristics of exploited fish stocks. The biological characteristics of hairtail ( Trichiurus lepturus) in the East China Sea are unable to recover because of long-term trawling. Fishing induces evolutionary effects on the fish's biological characteristics. Evidence of these changes includes small size at age, a shift to earlier age structure, and early maturation. Natural and artificial selection usually affect the fish's life history. Selection can induce different chances of reproduction, and individual fish can give a different genetic contribution to the next generation. In this study, analysis of time-dependent probability of significance and test of sensitivity were used to explore the effects of fish exploitation rate, mesh size, and heritability with long-term trawling. Results showed that fishing parameters were important drivers to exploited fish population. However, genetic traits altered by fishing were slow, and the changes in biological characteristics were weaker than those caused by fishing selection. Exploitation rate and mesh size exhibited similar evolutionary trend tendency under long-term fishing. The time-dependent probability of significance trend showed a gradual growth and tended to be stable. Therefore, the direction of fishing-induced evolution and successful management of fish species require considerable attention to contribute to sustainable fisheries in China.

  7. Biomaterials for artificial organs

    CERN Document Server

    Lysaght, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for organ transplants far exceeds available donor organs. Consequently some patients die whilst waiting for a transplant. Synthetic alternatives are therefore imperative to improve the quality of, and in some cases, save people's lives. Advances in biomaterials have generated a range of materials and devices for use either outside the body or through implantation to replace or assist functions which may have been lost through disease or injury. Biomaterials for artificial organs reviews the latest developments in biomaterials and investigates how they can be used to improve the quality and efficiency of artificial organs. Part one discusses commodity biomaterials including membranes for oxygenators and plasmafilters, titanium and cobalt chromium alloys for hips and knees, polymeric joint-bearing surfaces for total joint replacements, biomaterials for pacemakers, defibrillators and neurostimulators and mechanical and bioprosthetic heart valves. Part two goes on to investigate advanced and ...

  8. Artificial structures on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Flandern, T.

    2002-05-01

    Approximately 70,000 images of the surface of Mars at a resolution of up to 1.4 meters per pixel, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, are now in public archives. Approximately 1% of those images show features that can be broadly described as `special shapes', `tracks, trails, and possible vegetation', `spots, stripes, and tubes', `artistic imagery', and `patterns and symbols'. Rather than optical illusions and tricks of light and shadow, most of these have the character that, if photographed on Earth, no one would doubt that they were the products of large biology and intelligence. In a few cases, relationships, context, and fulfillment of a priori predictions provide objective evidence of artificiality that is exempt from the influence of experimenter biases. Only controlled test results can be trusted because biases are strong and operate both for and against artificiality.

  9. Pasteurization of fish meal by irradiation. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusse, U.; Bischoff, J.; Fleischhauer, G.; Geister, R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were made on a number of samples of fish meal heavily contaminated (several foci of infection per sample, corresponding 'more than 100% contamination') with salmonella. A dose of 0.7 Mrad proved to be sufficient to inactivate all salmonellaes in all samples. The apparently reduced effect of radiation after artificial contamination of the meal was due to the extreme super-infection. Inactivation curves showed that the salmonella strains used for artificial contamination were more susceptible than those in naturally infected fish meal. Calculation of the slope parameter for a single salmonella type enables the dose of radiation needed to ensure freedom of the meal from salmonella to be determined for each level of infection. With two naturally infected fish meals which contained a total of 18 different serotypes a mean slope parameter of b = -1.99 was calculated which met the requirements posed by the problem of freeing meal from salmonella. (orig.) [de

  10. Artificial intelligence in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Scerri, Mariella; Grech, Victor E.

    2016-01-01

    Various types of artificial intelligence programs are already available as consultants to physicians, and these help in medical diagnostics and treatment. At the time of writing, extant programs constitute “weak” AI—lacking in consciousness and intentionality. With AI currently making rapid progress in all domains, including those of healthcare, physicians face possible competitors—or worse, claims that doctors may become obsolete. We will explore the development of AI and robotics in medicin...

  11. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  12. Intelligible Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Weld, Daniel S.; Bansal, Gagan

    2018-01-01

    Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) software uses techniques like deep lookahead search and stochastic optimization of huge neural networks to fit mammoth datasets, it often results in complex behavior that is difficult for people to understand. Yet organizations are deploying AI algorithms in many mission-critical settings. In order to trust their behavior, we must make it intelligible --- either by using inherently interpretable models or by developing methods for explaining otherwise overwh...

  13. Intelligence in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Shoumen Palit Austin

    2016-01-01

    The elusive quest for intelligence in artificial intelligence prompts us to consider that instituting human-level intelligence in systems may be (still) in the realm of utopia. In about a quarter century, we have witnessed the winter of AI (1990) being transformed and transported to the zenith of tabloid fodder about AI (2015). The discussion at hand is about the elements that constitute the canonical idea of intelligence. The delivery of intelligence as a pay-per-use-service, popping out of ...

  14. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  15. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  16. Antithrombotic artificial organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, T; Fukada, E; Saegusa, M; Hasegawa, T

    1971-07-12

    A new antithrombotic material useful for making artificial organs (artificial blood vessel, artificial heart, etc.) can be prepared by graft-polymerizing an acrylic ester (methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, etc.) with a synthetic fiber (teflon, etc.). The graft-polymerization can be carried out by means of gamma radiation with cobalt 60 (dose rate 2.6x10/sup 3/ r/min., total dose 8x10/sup 4/ to 3.5x10/sup 5/ r). A graft ratio of 5 to 80% is attainable. In one example, a tubular sample made of teflon fiber having an inner diameter of 5 to 10 mm was immersed into methyl methacrylate in an ampoule in the absence of air and exposed to cobalt 60 gamma ray at the dose rate of 3.18x10/sup 3/ rad/min. After extraction with acetone, the sample was dried. The total dose was 3.5x10/sup 5/ rad and the graft ratio was ca. 25%. The sample was transplanted to vena cava of dog. No formation of thrombus was observed by autopsy (4 months after the transplantation). In control (teflon tube not graft-polymerized) thrombus was observed by autopsy 7 days after the transplantation.

  17. Proxy measures of fitness suggest coastal fish farms can act as population sources and not ecological traps for wild gadoid fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Dempster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological traps form when artificial structures are added to natural habitats and induce mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences. Their existence in terrestrial systems has been documented, yet little evidence suggests they occur in marine environments. Coastal fish farms are widespread artificial structures in coastal ecosystems and are highly attractive to wild fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate if coastal salmon farms act as ecological traps for wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and saithe (Pollachius virens, we compared proxy measures of fitness between farm-associated fish and control fish caught distant from farms in nine locations throughout coastal Norway, the largest coastal fish farming industry in the world. Farms modified wild fish diets in both quality and quantity, thereby providing farm-associated wild fish with a strong trophic subsidy. This translated to greater somatic (saithe: 1.06-1.12 times; cod: 1.06-1.11 times and liver condition indices (saithe: 1.4-1.8 times; cod: 2.0-2.8 times than control fish caught distant from farms. Parasite loads of farm-associated wild fish were modified from control fish, with increased external and decreased internal parasites, however the strong effect of the trophic subsidy overrode any effects of altered loads upon condition. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Proxy measures of fitness provided no evidence that salmon farms function as ecological traps for wild fish. We suggest fish farms may act as population sources for wild fish, provided they are protected from fishing while resident at farms to allow their increased condition to manifest as greater reproductive output.

  18. Marker chromosome 21 identified by microdissection and FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.; Palmer, C.G. [Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Rubinstein, J. [Univ. Affiliated Cincinnati Center for Developmental Disorders, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-27

    A child without Down`s syndrome but with developmental delay, short stature, and autistic behavior was found to be mosaic 46,XX/47,XX,+mar(21) de novo. The marker was a small ring or dot-like chromosome. Microdissection of the marker was performed. The dissected fragments were biotinylated with sequence-independent PCR as a probe pool for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH results suggested an acrocentric origin of the marker. Subsequent FISH with {alpha}-satellite DNA probes for acrocentric chromosomes and chromosome-specific 21 and 22 painting probes confirmed its origin from chromosome 21. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties. The parental strain S. eubayanus has only been discovered recently and newly created lager yeast strains have not yet been applied industrially. A number of reports attest to the feasibility of this approach and artificially created hybrids are likely to have a significant impact on the future of lager brewing. De novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids outperform their parent strains in a number of respects, including, but not restricted to, fermentation rate, sugar utilization, stress tolerance, and aroma formation. Hybrid genome function and stability, as well as different techniques for generating hybrids and their relative merits are discussed. Hybridization not only offers the possibility of generating novel non-GM brewing yeast strains with unique properties, but is expected to aid in unraveling the complex evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  20. Artificial Reefs as Surrogate Habitats for Red Snapper in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico: A Fishery-Independent Comparison of Artificial and Natural Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streich, M.; Wetz, J. J.; Ajemian, M. J.; Stunz, G. W.

    2016-02-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate the relative abundance, size and age structure of Red Snapper among three different habitat types (standing oil and gas platforms, artificial reefs [rigs-to-reefs], and natural banks) in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. From May 2013 - January 2015, we conducted 140 vertical line sets and captured 1538 Red Snapper ranging in size from 251 to 855 mm TL. Ages determined for 801 of these fish ranged from 2-30 years. No differences were detected in Red Snapper CPUE among the three habitats. However, a comparison of TL and TW distributions suggested that natural banks supported a greater proportion of larger fish than artificial reefs or standing platforms (K-S test, pdata will help elucidate the role artificial structures play in maintaining the Red Snapper population.

  1. Hawaiian Fish Distributors Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is proprietary sales data from one Kona-based fish dealer for August 1986 to Decemeber 1988. Fishing was generally around Kona. This is Dealer Data and is...

  2. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  3. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  4. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  5. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  6. Fish population dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulland, J. A

    1977-01-01

    This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...

  7. Developing energy forecasting model using hybrid artificial intelligence method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahram Mollaiy-Berneti

    2015-01-01

    An important problem in demand planning for energy consumption is developing an accurate energy forecasting model. In fact, it is not possible to allocate the energy resources in an optimal manner without having accurate demand value. A new energy forecasting model was proposed based on the back-propagation (BP) type neural network and imperialist competitive algorithm. The proposed method offers the advantage of local search ability of BP technique and global search ability of imperialist competitive algorithm. Two types of empirical data regarding the energy demand (gross domestic product (GDP), population, import, export and energy demand) in Turkey from 1979 to 2005 and electricity demand (population, GDP, total revenue from exporting industrial products and electricity consumption) in Thailand from 1986 to 2010 were investigated to demonstrate the applicability and merits of the present method. The performance of the proposed model is found to be better than that of conventional back-propagation neural network with low mean absolute error.

  8. Anisakid nematodes as possible markers to trace fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a total of 949 fish samples were analysed for the identification of nematode larvae belonging to the Anisakidae family. Biomolecular application for the identification of Anisakidae larvae can be an optimal instrument for the traceability of fish products, described on the Reg. EC 178/2002. Results confirm a correlation between geographical distribution of fishes and presence of specific Anisakid larvae. FAO 37 zone (Mediterranean sea showed a prevailing distribution of Anisakis pegreffii and a minimal presence of A. simplex s.s. in hybrid form with Anisakis pegreffii. FAO 27 zone showed a prevailing distribution of A. simplex s.s. in fish like Brosme (Brosme brosme and infestation prevalence of Pseudoterranova krabbei and P. decipiens s.s. in Gadus morhua. Obtained results validate the hypothesis that molecular biology methods for identifying Anisakidae larvae are effective traceability markers of fish products.

  9. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabd...

  10. Mitochondrial Recombination and Introgression during Speciation by Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Henault, Mathieu; Charron, Guillaume; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Terrat, Yves; Fiumera, Heather L; Shapiro, B Jesse; Landry, Christian R

    2017-08-01

    Genome recombination is a major source of genotypic diversity and contributes to adaptation and speciation following interspecies hybridization. The contribution of recombination in these processes has been thought to be largely limited to the nuclear genome because organelles are mostly uniparentally inherited in animals and plants, which prevents recombination. Unicellular eukaryotes such as budding yeasts do, however, transmit mitochondria biparentally, suggesting that during hybridization, both parents could provide alleles that contribute to mitochondrial functions such as respiration and metabolism in hybrid populations or hybrid species. We examined the dynamics of mitochondrial genome transmission and evolution during speciation by hybridization in the natural budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. Using population-scale mitochondrial genome sequencing in two endemic North American incipient species SpB and SpC and their hybrid species SpC*, we found that both parental species contributed to the hybrid mitochondrial genome through recombination. We support our findings by showing that mitochondrial recombination between parental types is frequent in experimental crosses that recreate the early step of this speciation event. In these artificial hybrids, we observed that mitochondrial genome recombination enhances phenotypic variation among diploid hybrids, suggesting that it could play a role in the phenotypic differentiation of hybrid species. Like the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial genome can, therefore, also play a role in hybrid speciation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  12. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  13. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srishti Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI provides machines with the ability to learn and respond the way humans do and is also referred to as machine learning. The step to building an AI system is to provide the data to learn from so that it can map relations between inputs and outputs and set up parameters such as “weights”/decision boundaries to predict responses for inputs in the future. Then, the model is tested on a second data set. This article outlines the promise this analytic approach has in medicine and cardiology.

  14. Is Intelligence Artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of intelligence is directed primarily at the level of human beings. This paper attempts to give a more unifying definition that can be applied to the natural world in general. The definition would be used more to verify a degree of intelligence, not to quantify it and might help when making judgements on the matter. A version of an accepted test for AI is then put forward as the 'acid test' for Artificial Intelligence itself. It might be what a free-thinking program or robot...

  15. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  16. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  17. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  18. Artificial immune system algorithm in VLSI circuit configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In artificial intelligence, the artificial immune system is a robust bio-inspired heuristic method, extensively used in solving many constraint optimization problems, anomaly detection, and pattern recognition. This paper discusses the implementation and performance of artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm integrated with Hopfield neural networks for VLSI circuit configuration based on 3-Satisfiability problems. Specifically, we emphasized on the clonal selection technique in our binary artificial immune system algorithm. We restrict our logic construction to 3-Satisfiability (3-SAT) clauses in order to outfit with the transistor configuration in VLSI circuit. The core impetus of this research is to find an ideal hybrid model to assist in the VLSI circuit configuration. In this paper, we compared the artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm (HNN-3SATAIS) with the brute force algorithm incorporated with Hopfield neural network (HNN-3SATBF). Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 was used as a platform for training, simulating and validating the performances of the proposed network. The results depict that the HNN-3SATAIS outperformed HNN-3SATBF in terms of circuit accuracy and CPU time. Thus, HNN-3SATAIS can be used to detect an early error in the VLSI circuit design.

  19. Whispering galleries and the control of artificial atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Derek Michael; Kusmartsev, Feodor V

    2016-04-28

    Quantum computation using artificial-atoms, such as novel superconducting circuits, can be sensitively controlled by external electromagnetic fields. These fields and the self-fields attributable to the coupled artificial-atoms influence the amount of quantum correlation in the system. However, control elements that can operate without complete destruction of the entanglement of the quantum-bits are difficult to engineer. Here we investigate the possibility of using closely-spaced-linear arrays of metallic-elliptical discs as whispering gallery waveguides to control artificial-atoms. The discs confine and guide radiation through the array with small notches etched into their sides that act as scatterers. We focus on π-ring artificial-atoms, which can generate their own spontaneous fluxes. We find that the micro-discs of the waveguides can be excited by terahertz frequency fields to exhibit whispering-modes and that a quantum-phase-gate composed of π-rings can be operated under their influence. Furthermore, we gauge the level of entanglement through the concurrence measure and show that under certain magnetic conditions a series of entanglement sudden-deaths and revivals occur between the two qubits. This is important for understanding the stability and life-time of qubit operations using, for example, a phase gate in a hybrid of quantum technologies composed of control elements and artificial-atoms.

  20. Marketing places: multipurpose artificial reefs as tourist attraction proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moraes Ocke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Marketing places focuses on the use of marketing activities as a way to leverage the socioeconomic development of cities, states and countries and in this context, the attractions of a given locality are essential to the growth of tourism in the region. From the literature review of concepts and types of attractions, this paper aims to suggest the convergence of the concepts of natural attraction and artificial attraction applied to artificial multipurpose artificial reefs and describe its hybrid nature to recover degraded areas by coastal erosion, increased marine biodiversity and the ability to improve the quality of waves for surfing, resulting in an increase of tourist flow of the region. Through the observation of cases in countries that have invested in the implementation of multipurpose artificial reefs it has been found positive results regarding tourism development and socioeconomic in these regions and thus, this paper considers the possibility of deployment of multipurpose artificial reefs along the Brazilian coast as a proposal to attract visitors and promote benefits to the receiving place.