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Sample records for hyacinth macaws anodorhynchus

  1. Comparative electrocardiography in four species of macaws (genera Anodorhynchus and Ara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, M; Enders, F; Montoya, J A

    2000-06-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded during isoflurane anaesthesia from 52 macaws of four species of the genera Anodorhynchus and Ara in order to establish electrocardiographic reference values. The birds examined were clinically healthy macaws of the following species: hyacinth macaw (HM; Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, n = 14); green-winged macaw (GWM; Ara chloroptera, n = 11); blue-throated macaw (BTM; Ara glaucogularis, n = 15); and red-fronted macaw (RFM; Ara rubrogenys, n = 12). All ECGs were recorded using a paper speed of 50 mm/s and a calibration of 10 mm = 1 mV. Significant differences were determined between species for the heart rate, duration and amplitude of the P wave, amplitude of the T wave, and amplitude of the QRS complex, specially comparing the RFM to the other macaw species. No significant differences were found between two species of similar body weight: the HM and the GWM.

  2. Karyotype description of two Neotropical Psittacidae species: the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus (Psittaciformes: Aves, and its significance for conservation plans

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    Vitor de Oliveira Lunardi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots are among the most threatened groups of birds in the world, and many species are facing extinction in a near future. At the same time, the taxonomic position of many species remains unclear. Karyotype analysis has been used to elucidate the phylogenetic status of many bird groups, also providing important information for both in situ and ex situ conservation plans. The objective of the present study was to describe for the first time the karyotypes of the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and of the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus. A diploid number of 2n = 70 and a karyotype similar to the main pattern previously found for the genera Ara, Cyanopsitta, Aratinga, Propyrrhura, Pionites, Pionopsitta, Nandayus, and Guaruba were found for both species. These karyotype descriptions can be a starting point for the genetic monitoring of these two declining species.

  3. Non-invasive genetic sampling for molecular sexing and microsatellite genotyping of hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

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    Flavia T. Presti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molted feather sampling is a useful tool for genetic analyses of endangered species, but it is often very laborious due to the low quality and quantity of the DNA obtained. In the present study we show the parts of feathers that resulted in better yield of DNA. In descending order these were: blood clot outside the umbilicus, umbilicus (without blood clot, tip, inner membrane, and small calamus. Compared to DNA extracted from blood samples, DNA extracted from feathers produced microsatellite alleles of poorer quality and had to be processed immediately after extraction. As expected due to the level of DNA degradation, molecular sexing protocols that result in shorter PCR products were more efficient.

  4. Non-invasive genetic sampling for molecular sexing and microsatellite genotyping of hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Flavia T.; Meyer, Janaína; Antas, Paulo T.Z.; Guedes, Neiva M.R.; Miyaki, Cristina Y.

    2013-01-01

    Molted feather sampling is a useful tool for genetic analyses of endangered species, but it is often very laborious due to the low quality and quantity of the DNA obtained. In the present study we show the parts of feathers that resulted in better yield of DNA. In descending order these were: blood clot outside the umbilicus, umbilicus (without blood clot), tip, inner membrane, and small calamus. Compared to DNA extracted from blood samples, DNA extracted from feathers produced microsatellite alleles of poorer quality and had to be processed immediately after extraction. As expected due to the level of DNA degradation, molecular sexing protocols that result in shorter PCR products were more efficient. PMID:23569419

  5. Morfologia e biometria do timo em araras dos gêneros Ara e Anodorhynchus Morphology and biometry of the thymus gland in macaw of Ara and Anodorhynchus genera

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    R.Z. Lima

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 exemplares de Ara ararauna - seis fêmeas e seis machos -, cinco exemplares de Ara chloropterus (uma fêmea e quatro machos e dois exemplares de Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus - uma fêmea e um macho -, todos adultos, doados por criadouro particular, após óbito natural. Os lobos foram dissecados e medidos com paquímetro - comprimento x largura x espessura - e analisados quanto ao peso, à topografia e à morfologia individual. Independentemente do gênero, foram identificados, em 17 casos (89,5%, lobos tímicos nos antímeros cervicais esquerdo e direito, e em oito casos (42,1%, lobos na cavidade celomática. Os lobos apresentaram formatos alongados - 52,6% -, arredondados - 21,1% - ou ovalados - 15,8% -, posicionados preferencialmente ventromedialmente ao longo do plexo vasculoneural do pescoço, com número médio de cinco lobos por antímero, tamanho médio de 0,49cm de comprimento, 0,12cm de largura e 0,05cm de espessura e peso médio de 0,076g.Twelve samples of Ara ararauna - six females and six males -, five samples of Ara chloropterus (one female and four males and two samples of Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (one female and one male, all adults from a Breeding Park, were used after natural death. The lobes were dissected and measured with electronic calliper (length x width x thickness and analyzed taking their weight, topography and individual morphology into account. Regardless of gender, 89.5% of the cases presented timic lobes in the left and right cervical antimere, and 42.1% of the cases presented lobes in the celomatic cavity. The lobes were shown in shapes - long (52.6%, round (21.1% or oval (15.8%, positioned mostly ventromedially, along the neurovascular plexus of the neck, with an average of five lobes per antimere, and an average size of 0.49cm length, 0.12cm width, and 0.05cm thick and average weight of 0.076g.

  6. Ulcerative dermatitis and valvular endocarditis associated with Staphylococcus aureus in a hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh; Carnaccini, Silvia; Driggers, Todd; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-06-01

    An 18-yr-old male hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found dead in his aviary with no preexisting signs. The bird had a chronic history of feather damaging behavior, with severe ulcerative dermatitis. Pathologic findings revealed a vegetative valvular endocarditis, myocarditis, septicemia, chronic severe glomerulonephritis, and thyroid dysplasia. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the valve, the liver, and the skin. Repeated trauma and low-rate bacteriemia may have contributed to the development of endocarditis. Translocation of S. aureus skin infection in the bloodstream may lead to subacute endocarditis in humans and such mechanism is suspected in this case. This case suggests that endocarditis associated with S. aureus septicemia is a potential complication of feather damaging behavior. This case also reports a systemic complication of ulcerative dermatitis secondary to feather damaging behavior. Endocarditis has been poorly reported in psittacine species, and such medical complication of feather damaging behavior has never been reported to our knowledge. Furthermore, S. aureus is a bacteria of public health concern and should be integrated into the differential when pet parrots with dermatitis are in proximity to owners.

  7. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae: application for conservation

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    Flavia T. Presti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable], and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao. Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus to 0.85 (A. macao. As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation.

  8. 77 FR 39965 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Hyacinth Macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... nongovernmental organizations, Rede Cerrado, has been established to promote local sustainable-use practices for natural resources (Klink and Machado 2005, p. 710). Rede Cerrado provided the Brazilian Ministry of the...

  9. Morfologia e biometria do timo em araras dos gêneros Ara e Anodorhynchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Z. Lima

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 exemplares de Ara ararauna - seis fêmeas e seis machos -, cinco exemplares de Ara chloropterus (uma fêmea e quatro machos e dois exemplares de Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus - uma fêmea e um macho -, todos adultos, doados por criadouro particular, após óbito natural. Os lobos foram dissecados e medidos com paquímetro - comprimento x largura x espessura - e analisados quanto ao peso, à topografia e à morfologia individual. Independentemente do gênero, foram identificados, em 17 casos (89,5%, lobos tímicos nos antímeros cervicais esquerdo e direito, e em oito casos (42,1%, lobos na cavidade celomática. Os lobos apresentaram formatos alongados - 52,6% -, arredondados - 21,1% - ou ovalados - 15,8% -, posicionados preferencialmente ventromedialmente ao longo do plexo vasculoneural do pescoço, com número médio de cinco lobos por antímero, tamanho médio de 0,49cm de comprimento, 0,12cm de largura e 0,05cm de espessura e peso médio de 0,076g.

  10. Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhothermel, Jeffry; Jones, W. D.; Dunkin, J. A.; Mccaul, E. W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This effort involves development of a calibrated, pulsed coherent CO2 Doppler lidar, followed by a carefully-planned and -executed program of multi-dimensional wind velocity and aerosol backscatter measurements from the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The lidar, designated as the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS), will be applicable to two research areas. First, MACAWS will enable specialized measurements of atmospheric dynamical processes in the planetary boundary layer and free troposphere in geographic locations and over scales of motion not routinely or easily accessible to conventional sensors. The proposed observations will contribute fundamentally to a greater understanding of the role of the mesoscale, helping to improve predictive capabilities for mesoscale phenomena and to provide insights into improving model parameterizations of sub-grid scale processes within large-scale circulation models. As such, it has the potential to contribute uniquely to major, multi-institutional field programs planned for the mid 1990's. Second, MACAWS measurements can be used to reduce the degree of uncertainty in performance assessments and algorithm development for NASA's prospective Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), which has no space-based instrument heritage. Ground-based lidar measurements alone are insufficient to address all of the key issues. To minimize costs, MACAWS is being developed cooperatively by the lidar remote sensing groups of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, and MSFC using existing lidar hardware and manpower resources. Several lidar components have already been exercised in previous airborne lidar programs (for example, MSFC Airborne Doppler Lidar System (ADLS) used in 1981,4 Severe Storms Wind Measurement Program; JPL Airborne Backscatter Lidar Experiment (ABLE) used in 1989,90 Global Backscatter Experiment Survey Missions). MSFC has been given responsibility for directing the overall

  11. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Menzies, Robert T.; Howell, James; Johnson, Steven C.; Tratt, David M.; Olivier, Lisa D.; Banta, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory began a joint collaboration to develop an airborne high-energy Doppler laser radar (lidar) system for atmospheric research and satellite validation and simulation studies. The result is the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS, which has the capability to remotely sense the distribution of wind and absolute aerosol backscatter in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A factor critical to the programmatic feasibility and technical success of this collaboration has been the utilization of existing components and expertise which were developed for previous atmospheric research by the respective institutions. The motivation for the MACAWS program Is three-fold: to obtain fundamental measurements of sub-synoptic scale processes and features which may be used as a basis to improve sub-grid scale parameterizations in large-scale models; to obtain similar datasets in order to improve the understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to validate (simulate) the performance of existing (planned) satellite-borne sensors. Examples of the latter include participation in the validation of the NASA Scatterometer and the assessment of prospective satellite Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurement. Initial flight tests were made in September 1995; subsequent flights were made in June 1996 following improvements. This paper describes the MACAWS instrument, principles of operation, examples of measurements over the eastern Pacific Ocean and western United States, and future applications.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna): the species morphologically similar to Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Strzała, Tomasz

    2017-05-01

    Six genera of the Arini tribe form morphologically diverse group termed as Macaws. The presence of bare facial area distinguishes them from other members of the tribe. Genera and species of Macaw group differ in pattern of this bare skin as well as in body size. The genus Ara contains eight extant species. Two of them are classified as medium-sized Macaws and other six species are classified as large Macaws. Based on morphological similarities and differences, large Macaw species can be segregated into three pairs according to their plumage coloration. So far, representative mitochondrial genomes were sequenced only for Ara glaucogularis (blue and yellow coloration), Ara macao (predominantly red/scarlet) and Ara militaris (predominantly green) species. Ara ararauna is the second of two Ara species with predominant blue and yellow plumage. Hitherto, close phylogenetic relation of these two species was shown using only ND2 genes or incomplete combined COI/Cytb/ND2 sequences. Therefore, Ara ararauna mitogenome, which was sequenced in this study, will be indispensable to refine the phylogenetic relationships within Macaws group.

  13. Invasion and control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Jian-jun; DING Yi; ZHUANG Qi-jia

    2006-01-01

    By the time of primary 21st century, water hyacinth had become a serious environmental problem in China. Water hyacinth contributes to the major part of ecological hazards from the invasion of foreign plant species, which is estimated about USD 7 billion a year in values.In the past 10 years, herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D and paraquat have been used in controlling water hyacinth in China. Although the herbicides provided effective control on the weed in some areas, they could not provide the sustainable inhibition on the weed population, while would lead to pollution on water at various levels. At present, the herbicide application on water hyacinth is forbidden in many areas of China such as Shanghai. In this situation, the asexual reproduction inhibitor, KWH02, was invented for controlling water hyacinth and it provided about 70% of growth inhibition without any risk of dead plant pollution.It has been about 10 years for bio-control of water hyacinth in China. Works focused on mainly the efficacy and safety of the utilization of foreign insects. Researches on microorganism herbicides to control water hyacinth were started and obtained primary achievements in recent years.Although there are different opinions on how to face the water hyacinth problem in China, it is accepted widely that the control methods should be high efficient and safe with low cost. Some practical measures for integrated management of water hyacinth are suggested.

  14. Invasion and control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jian-jun; Ding, Yi; Zhuang, Qi-jia

    2006-08-01

    By the time of primary 21st century, water hyacinth had become a serious environmental problem in China. Water hyacinth contributes to the major part of ecological hazards from the invasion of foreign plant species, which is estimated about USD 7 billion a year in values. In the past 10 years, herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D and paraquat have been used in controlling water hyacinth in China. Although the herbicides provided effective control on the weed in some areas, they could not provide the sustainable inhibition on the weed population, while would lead to pollution of water at various levels. At present, the herbicide application on water hyacinth is forbidden in many areas of China such as Shanghai. In this situation, the asexual reproduction inhibitor, KWH02, was invented for controlling water hyacinth and it provided about 70% of growth inhibition without any risk of dead plant pollution. It has been about 10 years for bio-control of water hyacinth in China. Works focused on mainly the efficacy and safety of the utilization of foreign insects. Researches on microorganism herbicides to control water hyacinth were started and obtained primary achievements in recent years. Although there are different opinion on how to face the water hyacinth problem in China, it is accepted widely that the control methods should be high efficient and safe with low cost. Some practical measures for integrated management of water hyacinth are suggested.

  15. Presence of avian bornavirus RNA and anti-avian bornavirus antibodies in apparently healthy macaws.

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    De Kloet, Siwo R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-12-01

    Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot, yet are free of outward clinical signs of the disease.

  16. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

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    Christopher Vaughan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 919-926. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Entre 1993-97, observamos el comportamiento de alimentación de la lapa roja (Ara macao en el Pacifico Central de Costa Rica. La lapa roja se alimentó de semillas, frutas, hojas, flores y corteza de 43 especies de plantas. Varias partes de las plantas comidas por las lapas contienen compuestos secundarios tóxicos al ser humano, y especies adicionales incluidas en la dieta son exóticas; introducidas por razones agrícolas, forestales o estéticas. Especies de árboles importantes como alimento de la lapa roja incluyen: Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, y Hura crepitans; también son criticas para la población de la lapa roja debido a proveen cavidades para anidaci

  17. Nitrogen phytoremediation by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.; Struik, P.C.; Appleton, B.L.; Rule, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined in two independent studies under nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 40, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ppm. A modified Hoagland solution was added to ponds containing water hyacinths which were rated and measured we

  18. Nitrogen phytoremediation by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.; Struik, P.C.; Appleton, B.L.; Rule, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined in two independent studies under nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 40, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ppm. A modified Hoagland solution was added to ponds containing water hyacinths which were rated and measured

  19. Forensic species identification of large macaws using DNA barcodes and microsatellite profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideaki; Hayano, Azusa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2012-01-01

    Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers species identification was conducted in the case of seized feathers. Earlier, we had sequenced cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) both from 10 seized specimens and 43 validation specimens from captive macaws belonging to 4 Ara species (A. macao, A. chloropterus, A. ararauna, and A. ambiguus) and identified 19 haplotypes based on COI sequences. Species-level identification using Barcode of Life Data Systems showed that seized feathers shared the highest similarity with scarlet macaws (A. macao), and this result was supported by the tree-base identification with high bootstrap values. Moreover, microsatellite profiles in AgGT17 locus showed that patterns of allelic distribution in the seized feathers were apparently distinct from those of red-and-green macaw (A. chloropterus), but were overlapped with those of A. macao, suggesting that all of seized feathers were derived from several individuals of A. macao. We also determined the parentage of hybrid macaws by the combination of COI barcodes and microsatellite profiles. The technique presented here will contribute to forensic identification and future conservation of large macaws that have been lost due to deforestation.

  20. Early procurement of scarlet macaws and the emergence of social complexity in Chaco Canyon, NM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Adam S; Plog, Stephen; Culleton, Brendan J; Gilman, Patricia A; LeBlanc, Steven A; Whiteley, Peter M; Claramunt, Santiago; Kennett, Douglas J

    2015-07-07

    High-precision accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) (14)C dates of scarlet macaw (Ara macao) skeletal remains provide the first direct evidence from Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico that these Neotropical birds were procured from Mesoamerica by Pueblo people as early as ∼ A.D. 900-975. Chaco was a prominent prehistoric Pueblo center with a dense concentration of multistoried great houses constructed from the 9th through early 12th centuries. At the best known great house of Pueblo Bonito, unusual burial crypts and significant quantities of exotic and symbolically important materials, including scarlet macaws, turquoise, marine shell, and cacao, suggest societal complexity unprecedented elsewhere in the Puebloan world. Scarlet macaws are known markers of social and political status among the Pueblos. New AMS (14)C-dated scarlet macaw remains from Pueblo Bonito demonstrate that these birds were acquired persistently from Mesoamerica between A.D. 900 and 1150. Most of the macaws date before the hypothesized apogeal Chacoan period (A.D. 1040-1110) to which they are commonly attributed. The 10th century acquisition of these birds is consistent with the hypothesis that more formalized status hierarchies developed with significant connections to Mesoamerica before the post-A.D. 1040 architectural florescence in Chaco Canyon.

  1. A New Image for the Water Hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Walt Disney Company activated a sewage treatment plan using NASA technology to create water hyacinths to clean wastewater by absorbing and metabolizing pollutants. Plants have exciting promise as a natural water purification system which can be established at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment facility. Harvested plants can be used as fertilizer. They can also be heat-treated to produce consumer energy in the form of methane gas. If an economical method of drying plants can be developed they may find further utility as high protein animal feed.

  2. Water hyacinth a potential source for value addition: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok; Madhavan, Aravind; Alphonsa, Jose Anju; Vivek, Narisetty; Gnansounou, Edgard; Castro, Eulogio; Faraco, Vincenza

    2017-04-01

    Water hyacinth a fresh water aquatic plant is considered as a noxious weed in many parts of the world since it grows very fast and depletes nutrients and oxygen from water bodies adversely affecting the growth of both plants and animals. Hence conversion of this problematic weed to value added chemicals and fuels helps in the self-sustainability especially for developing countries. The present review discusses the various value added products and fuels which can be produced from water hyacinth, the recent research and developmental activities on the bioconversion of water hyacinth for the production of fuels and value added products as well as its possibilities and challenges in commercialization.

  3. BIOCONVERSION OF WATER HYACINTH HYDROLYSATE INTO ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bandopadhyay Mukhopadhyay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast growing aquatic weed water hyacinth, which is available almost year-round in the tropics and subtropics, was utilized as the chief source of cellulose for production of fuel ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Fungal cellulases produced on-site by utilizing acid-alkali pretreated water hyacinth as the substrate were used as the crude enzyme source for hydrolysis of identically pretreated biomass. Four different modes of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were trialed in the present study for optimization of the yield of ethanol. Two common yeasts viz., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pachysolen tannophilus, were used for fermentation of hexose and pentose sugars in the hydrolysate. Significant enhancement of concentration (8.3 g/L and yield (0.21 g/g of ethanol was obtained through a prefermentation hydrolysis-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PH-SSF process, over the other three processes viz., separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, and single batch bioconversion (SBB by utilizing fungal culture broth with and without filtration as crude enzyme source.

  4. Hematological parameters of blue-headed macaw Primolius couloni L. (Psittacidae) in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Solari, Giovanna; Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas Felipe Benavides Barreda, Lima; Tribeño, David; Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas Felipe Benavides Barreda, Lima; Navarro, Zoila; Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas Felipe Benavides Barreda, Lima; Alvis, Rafael; Laboratorio de Reproducción y Biología del Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Pino, José; Laboratorio de Reproducción y Biología del Desarrollo, Instituto de Investigación de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM). Lima – Perú

    2011-01-01

    The Blue-headed macaw (Primolius couloni) is considered a New World endangered parrot. Blood samples were collected from 13 captive blue-headed macaws (7 male, 6 female) housed in the Las Leyendas Zoological Park in Lima, Peru to establish hematologic reference values. Mean values for erythrocytes and leukocytes were 2608 x 103/ml and 10.11 x 103/ml respectively; hematocrit was 50.15% and mean corpuscular volume was 200 fl. The differential leukocyte count showed 64.7 and 25.3% of heterophils...

  5. Potential Of Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) In Treating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a means for water pollution abatement was investigated. Two types of industrial wastewaters, namely that from the textile/dyeing industry and raw sugar manufacturing were studied in batch systems.

  6. IONS FROM AQUEOUS PHASE BY WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    KEY WORDS: Water hyacinth, Biosorption, Kinetics, Water treatment, Pb(II) removal ... waters. Conventional technologies used to remove heavy metals from ... time as it is inefficient when dealing with large volume of industrial waste water.

  7. Phosphorus release from decomposing water hyacinth and effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Hyacinth plants from the lake were chopped to fine pieces. In replicate ... Soluble phosphorus, pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen were measured daily for one month. In non- ... few investigations have demonstrated the importance of.

  8. Hydrogen production from water hyacinth through dark- and photo- fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-09-15

    This article discusses the method of producing hydrogen from water hyacinth. Water hyacinth was pretreated with microwave heating and alkali to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and hydrogen production in a two-step process of dark- and photo- fermentation. Water hyacinth with various concentrations of 10-40 g/l was pretreated with four methods: (1) steam heating; (2) steam heating and microwave heating/alkali pretreatment; (3) steam heating and enzymatic hydrolysis; (4) steam heating, microwave heating/alkali pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Water hyacinth (20 g/l) pretreated with method 4 gave the maximum reducing sugar yield of 30.57 g/100 g TVS, which was 45.6% of the theoretical reducing sugar yield (67.0 g/100 g TVS). The pretreated water hyacinth was used to produce hydrogen by mixed H{sub 2}-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. The maximum hydrogen yield of 76.7 ml H{sub 2}/g TVS was obtained at 20 g/l of water hyacinth. The residual solutions from dark fermentation (mainly acetate and butyrate) were used to further produce hydrogen by immobilized Rhodopseudomonas palustris in photo fermentation. The maximum hydrogen yield of 522.6 ml H{sub 2}/g TVS was obtained at 10 g/l of water hyacinth. Through a combined process of dark- and photo- fermentation, the maximum hydrogen yield from water hyacinth was dramatically enhanced from 76.7 to 596.1 ml H{sub 2}/g TVS, which was 59.6% of the theoretical hydrogen yield. (author)

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    OROKA FRANK OKE; AKHIHIERO THELMA

    2015-01-01

    Co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung under anaerobic condition was studied. Results indicate a progressive increase in biogas yield with increased cow dung in the co-ferment mixture of water hyacinth: cow dung

  10. Ecological effects of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on Lake Chapala, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Villamagna, Amy Marie

    2009-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a floating non-native plant that has been reoccurring in Lake Chapala, Jalisco, Mexico for more than 100 years. In this research, I explore the effects of water hyacinth on freshwater ecosystems worldwide and specifically on Lake Chapala. In chapter 1, I reviewed studies conducted on water hyacinth worldwide and found that the effects of water hyacinth on water quality are similar but the magnitude of effects is dependent on the percent cover and p...

  11. 78 FR 2239 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Blue-Throated Macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... life history of blue-throated macaws; it also has local, commercial, and ecosystem importance (Kyle... introduced to Bolivia in the 1600s. After the Second World War, cattle ranching and the associated burning of... neglect), exposure to cold temperatures, or flooding (Kyle 2007a, pp. 1-10). If parents do not have access...

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Military Macaw (Ara militaris): its comparison with mitogenomes of two other Ara species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid Urantowka, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The Military Macaw is one of the eight species of the genus Ara. The genus is one of six genera, which form morphologically diverse group termed as Macaws. Parrots of this group differ in body size on demand of the genus and species. Six of Ara species are classified as large Macaws. Based on morphological similarities and differences, these species can be segregated into three pairs according to their plumage coloration. Representative mitochondrial genomes were sequenced only for A. glaucogularis (blue and yellow coloration) and A. macao (predominantly red/scarlet). Ara militaris is one of two predominantly green species and full mitochondrial genome of considered species was sequenced in this study. It's comparison with A. glaucogularis and A. macao mitogenomes revealed higher degree of identity between militaris and macao sequences than between militaris and glaucogularis mtDNAs. Ara militaris mitogenome will be indispensable to refine the phylogenetic relationships within Macaw group.

  13. Proventricular dilatation disease associated with Avian bornavirus in a scarlet macaw (Ara macao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian; Muthuswamy, Anantharaman; Steinberg, Howard; Sladky, Kurt K

    2010-11-01

    A case of proventricular dilatation disease is described in a scarlet macaw (Ara macao) from clinical presentation to diagnosis with molecular methods. The initial clinical signs were depression progressing to head pressing over several days. A leukocytosis with toxic heterophil changes, hypoalbuminemia, and increased serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase were present. Lead and zinc assays were within reference ranges, and results from Chlamydophila and polyomavirus testing were negative. Contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy revealed normal gastrointestinal transit times and motility as well as the presence of 2 small metallic foreign bodies in the ventriculus. The macaw was treated with antimicrobials, analgesics, vitamins E and B complex, force-feeding, and fluid administration with little improvement. Euthanasia was elected, and histologic examination of brain tissue revealed a perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, while the lungs had evidence of a fungal pneumonia. Tissue samples from the brain and proventriculus tested positive for the presence of Avian bornavirus genotype 2, while serology confirmed Avian bornavirus infection.

  14. First record of Paratanaisia bragai (Digenea: Eucotylidae in blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Macedo Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to provide the first report on a new host for the digenean Paratanaisia bragai in the caninde macaw Ara ararauna along with the pathological aspects of the infection in the new host. The microscopic findings revealed the presence of granulomatous interstitial nephritis. This study contributes towards knowledge of parasitism by P. bragai in A. ararauna, and emphasizes the need to use best practices in wildlife conservation parks.

  15. Dormancy breaking in macaw palm [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Loddiges ex Mart.] seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Neto,Aurélio; Silva,Fabiano Guimarães; Sales,Juliana de Fátima; Reis,Edésio Fialho dos; Silva,Lailla Queiroz; Campos,Rafael Cândido

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to improve the speed of and standardize the process for the germination of macaw palm seeds. The effect of mechanical scarification (removal of the tegument in the hilum region), thermal scarification (imbibition of seeds in water at approximately 100ºC for two or four minutes) and chemical scarification (98% sulfuric acid treatment for two or four minutes) were compared to a control (no scarification) in both a germination chamber and a greenhouse, representing trial...

  16. Scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue in the scarlet macaw (Ara macao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of scarlet macaw (Ara macao) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the lingual apex of the scarlet macaw had a lip-like shape. Three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, body, and root of the tongue. The surface of the lingual apex had many grooves toward lingual root. The surface of the lingual apex was relatively smooth. The central surface of the papillary layer in the lingual apex after removal of the epithelium consisted of numerous dermal papillae, but the papillae were not observed in the lateral region. A pair of openings of the lingual glands was observed in the posterolateral region of the lingual body. The opening of the lingual gland after removal of the epithelium showed more clear structure than before removal. Many conical papillae in the posterior region of the lingual body were observed. The structure of the tongue of the scarlet macaw was different from that of the rainbow lorikeet.

  17. Development of agroclimatic zoning model to delimit the potential growing areas for macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Ulberich, Ana; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    The growing biodiesel production requires the use of new technologies and alternative feedstocks to maintain the growing demand of this biofuel. The macaw (Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm native to Argentina whose fruits present high oil content. Due to its tolerance to prolonged drought, it is a promising crop for biodiesel and biokerosene production. The aim of this work was to design an agroclimatic zoning model to define the potential growing areas from macaw in Argentina. To define the agroclimatic suitability to produce oil, it was necessary to identify the requirements, limits, and biometeorological tolerance for this palm. In order to define the agroclimatic fitness of this crop in Argentina, the meteorological data corresponding to the period 1981-2010 were employed. The agroclimatic indices were integrated in a Geographic Information System. The maps were superimposed and the overlapping regions delineated the agroclimatic zoning. The agroclimatic zonation classified zones with homogeneous characteristics responding to bioclimatic requirements of this species, resulting in optimal, very suitable, suitable, and nonsuitable areas for macaw cultivation. The authors designed an agroclimatic zoning model based on bibliography. This model can be used in any part of the world, employing the same agroclimatic indices presented in this work.

  18. Development of agroclimatic zoning model to delimit the potential growing areas for macaw palm ( Acrocomia aculeata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Ulberich, Ana; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    The growing biodiesel production requires the use of new technologies and alternative feedstocks to maintain the growing demand of this biofuel. The macaw ( Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm native to Argentina whose fruits present high oil content. Due to its tolerance to prolonged drought, it is a promising crop for biodiesel and biokerosene production. The aim of this work was to design an agroclimatic zoning model to define the potential growing areas from macaw in Argentina. To define the agroclimatic suitability to produce oil, it was necessary to identify the requirements, limits, and biometeorological tolerance for this palm. In order to define the agroclimatic fitness of this crop in Argentina, the meteorological data corresponding to the period 1981-2010 were employed. The agroclimatic indices were integrated in a Geographic Information System. The maps were superimposed and the overlapping regions delineated the agroclimatic zoning. The agroclimatic zonation classified zones with homogeneous characteristics responding to bioclimatic requirements of this species, resulting in optimal, very suitable, suitable, and nonsuitable areas for macaw cultivation. The authors designed an agroclimatic zoning model based on bibliography. This model can be used in any part of the world, employing the same agroclimatic indices presented in this work.

  19. Competitive sorption of heavy metals by water hyacinth roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Liu, Hou-Qi; Feng, Hui-Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global issue severely constraining aquaculture practices, not only deteriorating the aquatic environment but also threatening the aquaculture production. One promising solution is adopting aquaponics systems where a synergy can be established between aquaculture and aquatic plants for metal sorption, but the interactions of multiple metals in such aquatic plants are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the absorption behaviors of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in water by water hyacinth roots in both single- and binary-metal systems. Cu(II) and Cd(II) were individually removed by water hyacinth roots at high efficiency, accompanied with release of protons and cations such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). However, in a binary-metal arrangement, the Cd(II) sorption was significantly inhibited by Cu(II), and the higher sorption affinity of Cu(II) accounted for its competitive sorption advantage. Ionic exchange was identified as a predominant mechanism of the metal sorption by water hyacinth roots, and the amine and oxygen-containing groups are the main binding sites accounting for metal sorption via chelation or coordination. This study highlights the interactive impacts of different metals during their sorption by water hyacinth roots and elucidates the underlying mechanism of metal competitive sorption, which may provide useful implications for optimization of phytoremediation system and development of more sustainable aquaculture industry.

  20. Bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Qi Feng; Xie Binfei; Cen Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University No.38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, (China)

    2006-07-01

    The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation of digested sludge is studied in this paper. The compositions of bio-gases and volatile fatty acids in fermentation liquids are determined on TRACE 2000 gas chromatography. It is found that the H{sub 2} concentration in the biogas is 10%-20% and no CH{sub 4} is detected. The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth with the initial pH value of 5.5 is higher than that with the initial pH value of 4.5. The fermentation temperature of 55 C is better than that of 35 C, while the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism of 1:1 is better than that of 3:7. The highest hydrogen production of 122.3 mL/g is obtained when the initial pH value of fermentation solution is 5.5, the fermentation temperature is 55 C and the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism is 1:1. (authors)

  1. Water hyacinth system for municipal landfill leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, A.S.; Biswas, N.; Bewtra, J.K. [Univ. of Windsor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    Batch experiments were conducted in a green house environment to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to treat municipal landfill leachate. The experiments were carried out on leachate samples collected from Essex-Windsor Regional Landfill, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Three leachate dilutions were used in the study. In addition to plant growth, leachate constituents such as pH, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate, reactive phosphate, total iron, potassium and chloride were also determined. These parameters were analyzed at different times covering the duration of the experiments. The experimental data showed that water hyacinth system was capable of reducing total nitrogen in the leachate. The pH level remained around 8.0. High consumption of alkalinity during the first three weeks was observed, which could be attributed to nitrification of ammonia. Ammonia nitrogen and total reactive phosphate were removed completely, whereas potassium and chloride remained unchanged. Landfill leachate has a negative impact on plant growth. As the concentration of leachate increases, its toxicity increases resulting in the decrease in the growth of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth system seems to be a promising technology for treating municipal landfill leachate. However, additional studies are required to investigate the system tolerance for some pollutants that might be present in leachate at wide ranges of concentrations such as salinities, hydrogen ion concentration, and heavy metals. (author)

  2. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Emran HOSSAIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition and nutritive value of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes available in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Eichhornia crassipes samples were collected from three different remote places of the study area. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extracts (NFE, ether extracts (EE and total ash (TA in the animal nutrition and poultry research and training centre (PRTC laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME was estimated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, there were no significant variations (P>0.05 in the DM, CP, CF, NFE, EE and TA contents of the samples collected from different places. DM content varied from 8.7 to 9.3 g/100g, CP content varied from 10.1 to 11.2 g/100g, CF content varied from 26.1 to 27.4 g/100g, EE content varied from 1.1 to 1.8 g/100g, NFE content varied from 47.2 to 50.2 g/100g and TA content varied from 12.3 to 12.4 g/100g. Similarly, metabolizable energy (ME content also varied from 1999.7 to 2054.1 Kcal/kg DM. It could therefore be inferred that, the nutrient contents of Eichhornia crassipes does not vary due to variation in geographical location. Nutritionally, Eichhornia crassipes seems sound enough to be utilized as feed for livestock especially during scarcity period.

  3. Review of current interest and research in water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarian, R. K.; Balon, J. E.; Robinson, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The status of activity in the user community for water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment was evaluated. The principal technique used was that of interviewing people who either (1) were known to be engaged in hyacinth research or development or (2) had made inquiry to NASA about hyacinth systems. About 40 non-research organizations and a similar number of research organizations were contacted. As a result of the interviews and a review of the relevant literature, it was concluded that hyacinth systems have the potential for providing a lower cost way for small cities to meet increasingly stringent effluent requirements. A limited amount of full-scale demonstration of hyacinth systems has been carried out during the past two years, but the yield of design data has been small. Several organizations are currently planning construction of experimental full-scale hyacinth-based wastewater treatment systems during 1977-1978.

  4. Municipal landfill leachate treatment for metal removal using water hyacinth in a floating aquatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, A S; Biswas, N; Bewtra, J K

    2006-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to remove five heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead) commonly found in leachate. All experiments were conducted in batch reactors in a greenhouse. It was found that living biomass of water hyacinth was a good accumulator for copper, chromium, and cadmium. The plants accumulated copper, chromium, and cadmium up to 0.96, 0.83, and 0.50%, respectively, of their dry root mass. However, lead and nickel were poorly accumulated in water hyacinth. Also, nonliving biomass of water hyacinth dry roots showed ability to accumulate all metals, except Cr(VI), which was added in anionic form. The highest total metal sorption by nonliving dry water hyacinth roots was found to take place at pH 6.4. The current research demonstrates the potential of using water hyacinth for the treatment of landfill leachate containing heavy metals.

  5. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  6. An analysis of the market potential of water hyacinth-based systems for municipal wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A. C.; Gorman, H. J.; Hillman, M.; Lawhon, W. T.; Maase, D. L.; Mcclure, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    The potential U.S. market for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment facilities which make use of water hyacinths was investigated. A baseline design was developed which approximates the "typical" or "average" situation under which hyacinth-based systems can be used. The total market size for tertiary treatment was then estimated for those geographical regions in which hyacinths appear to be applicable. Market penetration of the baseline hyacinth system when competing with conventional chemical and physical processing systems was approximated, based primarily on cost differences. A limited analysis was made of the sensitivity of market penetration to individual changes in these assumptions.

  7. Synthesis of Furfural from Water Hyacinth (Eichornia croassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismiyarto; Ngadiwiyana; windarti, T.; Purbowatiningrum, RS; Hapsari, M.; Rafi’ah, FH; Suyanti; Haq, MS

    2017-02-01

    Furfural has been prepared from hydrolysis of dried biomass of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) by using diluted hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid as catalysts. This process involved the conversion of the pentosane fraction in water hyacinth into pentose, and then pentose was cyclodehydrated into furfural. The reaction was conducted in a distillation set with receiving the flask that contains chloroform. Furfural was identified by fehling test which was then characterized using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), followed by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The yield of furfural obtained using sulphuric acid catalyst was 0.38% and hydrochloric acid catalyst was 0.01% of dried biomass.

  8. Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis in blue and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Marta Brito; Torres, Luciana Neves; Mesquita, Ramon Gomes; Ampuero, Fernanda; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Ferreira, Antonio José Piantino; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Knöbl, Terezinha

    2014-12-01

    This study describes an outbreak of necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens type A in captive macaws (Ara ararauna). Two psittacine birds presented a history of prostration and died 18 hr after manifestation of clinical signs. The necropsy findings and histopathologic lesions were indicative of necrotic enteritis. Microbiologic assays resulted in the growth of large gram-positive bacilli that were identified as C. perfringens. PCR was used to identify clostridium toxinotypes and confirmed the identification of isolated strains as C pefringens type A, positive to gene codifying beta 2 toxin. The infection source and predisposing factors could not be ascertained.

  9. Studies on biomethanation of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) using biocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Santanu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); Banerjee, Saikat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Salalah College of Technology, Salalah (Oman)

    2013-07-01

    Water hyacinth is a huge source of biomass in tropical countries. That can be used for biogas production. The aim of this conversion process is to improve the quality, specific energy content, transportability, etc. of the raw biomass source or to capture gases which are naturally produced as biomass is micro biologically degraded. An experimental study on catalytic biomethanation of Water Hyacinth has been carried out in a semi batch digester at different substrate concentration using cow urine as an organic catalyst under controlled pH with in the range of 6.9 to 7.2. The rate of bio gas production varies with different conditions and parameters like temperature, stirring speed, feed concentration, catalyst concentration, etc. It has been found that the catalyst mainly increases the production rate of biogas from water hyacinth. Mathematical analysis of the experimental data on catalytic biomethanation has been done in the present study. Mathematical equations relating maximum specific growth rate and kinetic parameter at different substrate and catalyst concentration have been developed.

  10. Optimized drying parameters of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the optimum drying conditions of water hyacinth to contribute in the improvement of present drying processes. The effects of independent parameters (drying temperature, airflow rate, and number of passes on the responses were determined using the Response Surface Methodology. The response parameters were composed of (1 final moisture content, (2 moisture ratio, (3 drying rate,(4 tensile strength, and (5 browning index. Box and Behnken experimental design represented the design of experiments that resulted in 15 drying runs. Statistical analysis evaluated the treatment effects. Drying temperature significantly affected the drying rate, moisture ratio, and browning index. Airflow rate had a significant effect only on the drying rate, while the number of passes significantly affected both the drying rate and browning index. The optimized conditions for drying the water hyacinth were at drying temperature of 90C, airflow rate of 0.044m3/s, and number of passes equivalent to five. The best modelthat characterizes the drying of water hyacinth is a rational function expressed as:

  11. Adsorption of Eu(III) onto roots of water hyacinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, C.; Mielke, R.E.; Dimaquibo, D.; Curtis, A.J. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dewitt, J.G. [San Francisco State Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has drawn attention as a plant capable of removing pollutants, including toxic metals, from water. The authors are interested in the capacity of the water hyacinth to remediate aquatic environments that have been contaminated with the lanthanide metal, europium Eu(III). Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) they have been able to determine that Eu(III) is adsorbed onto the surface of the roots from water and that the highest concentration of Eu(III) is on the root hairs. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques were used to speciate the Eu(III) adsorbed onto the surface of the roots. The XAS data for Eu-contaminated water hyacinth roots provides evidence of a Eu-oxygen environment and establishes that Eu(III) is coordinated to 10--11 oxygen atoms at a distance of 2.44 {angstrom}. This likely involves binding of Eu(III) to the root via carboxylate groups and hydration of Eu(III) at the root surface.

  12. Studies on biomethanation of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes using biocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Sarkar, Saikat Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hyacinth is a huge source of biomass in tropical countries. That can be used for biogas production. The aim of this conversion process is to improve the quality, specific energy content, transportability, etc. of the raw biomass source or to capture gases which are naturally produced as biomass is micro biologically degraded. An experimental study on catalytic biomethanation of Water Hyacinth has been carried out in a semi batch digester at different substrate concentration using cow urine as an organic catalyst under controlled pH with in the range of 6.9 to 7.2. The rate of bio gas production varies with different conditions and parameters like temperature, stirring speed, feed concentration, catalyst concentration, etc. It has been found that the catalyst mainly increases the production rate of biogas from water hyacinth. Mathematical analysis of the experimental data on catalytic biomethanation has been done in the present study. Mathematical equations relating maximum specific growth rate and kinetic parameter at different substrate and catalyst concentration have been developed.

  13. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  14. Water Hyacinth in the Rift Valley Water Bodies of Ethiopia: Its Distribution, Socioeconomic Importance and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the Rift Valley water bodies of Ethiopia from 2009 to 2011 to (i) determine the prevalence, agro-ecological distribution and sources of infestation of water hyacinth, (ii) investigate the socio-economic impact of water hyacinth, and (iii) assess changes in its agro-ecologic

  15. Reproductive Parameters in the Critically Endangered Blue-Throated Macaw: Limits to the Recovery of a Parrot under Intensive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkunsky, Igor; Daniele, Gonzalo; Kacoliris, Federico P.; Díaz-Luque, José A.; Silva Frias, Carmen P.; Aramburu, Rosana M.; Gilardi, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Rediscovered in the wild twenty years ago, the breeding biology of wild Blue-throated Macaws remains largely unexplored, yet is essential to its effective conservation and recovery. Here, we analyse reproductive parameters in an intensively managed wild population of Blue-throated Macaws, providing the first data on the breeding biology of this critically endangered species. During the six-year study period, 2007–2012, the number of active breeding pairs either remained constant or decreased, depending on the site, and no new breeding pairs were discovered despite extensive searching. We documented nesting attempts in natural cavities in dead palms or live hardwoods, and artificial nest boxes. Egg-laying was concentrated during the end of dry season and the beginning of the wet season, August through December. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg losses. Half of the breeding attempts of Blue-throated Macaws produced at least one fledging, on average two, after a 85 days nestling period. An average of 4.3 nestlings per year fledged from all known wild nests combined. Each pair lost roughly 65% of its initial reproductive investment at each nesting attempt. In most successful nesting attempts of individualized pairs, a new nesting attempt was not detected the following year. All monitored breeding pairs showed high nest site fidelity, reusing hardwood-tree cavities and nest boxes. Our findings will aid conservation efforts by refining current actions and prompting new approaches towards the conservation and recovery of the Blue-throated Macaw. PMID:24941317

  16. Reproductive parameters in the critically endangered Blue-throated Macaw: limits to the recovery of a parrot under intensive management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Berkunsky

    Full Text Available Rediscovered in the wild twenty years ago, the breeding biology of wild Blue-throated Macaws remains largely unexplored, yet is essential to its effective conservation and recovery. Here, we analyse reproductive parameters in an intensively managed wild population of Blue-throated Macaws, providing the first data on the breeding biology of this critically endangered species. During the six-year study period, 2007-2012, the number of active breeding pairs either remained constant or decreased, depending on the site, and no new breeding pairs were discovered despite extensive searching. We documented nesting attempts in natural cavities in dead palms or live hardwoods, and artificial nest boxes. Egg-laying was concentrated during the end of dry season and the beginning of the wet season, August through December. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg losses. Half of the breeding attempts of Blue-throated Macaws produced at least one fledging, on average two, after a 85 days nestling period. An average of 4.3 nestlings per year fledged from all known wild nests combined. Each pair lost roughly 65% of its initial reproductive investment at each nesting attempt. In most successful nesting attempts of individualized pairs, a new nesting attempt was not detected the following year. All monitored breeding pairs showed high nest site fidelity, reusing hardwood-tree cavities and nest boxes. Our findings will aid conservation efforts by refining current actions and prompting new approaches towards the conservation and recovery of the Blue-throated Macaw.

  17. Reproductive parameters in the critically endangered Blue-throated Macaw: limits to the recovery of a parrot under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkunsky, Igor; Daniele, Gonzalo; Kacoliris, Federico P; Díaz-Luque, José A; Silva Frias, Carmen P; Aramburu, Rosana M; Gilardi, James D

    2014-01-01

    Rediscovered in the wild twenty years ago, the breeding biology of wild Blue-throated Macaws remains largely unexplored, yet is essential to its effective conservation and recovery. Here, we analyse reproductive parameters in an intensively managed wild population of Blue-throated Macaws, providing the first data on the breeding biology of this critically endangered species. During the six-year study period, 2007-2012, the number of active breeding pairs either remained constant or decreased, depending on the site, and no new breeding pairs were discovered despite extensive searching. We documented nesting attempts in natural cavities in dead palms or live hardwoods, and artificial nest boxes. Egg-laying was concentrated during the end of dry season and the beginning of the wet season, August through December. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg losses. Half of the breeding attempts of Blue-throated Macaws produced at least one fledging, on average two, after a 85 days nestling period. An average of 4.3 nestlings per year fledged from all known wild nests combined. Each pair lost roughly 65% of its initial reproductive investment at each nesting attempt. In most successful nesting attempts of individualized pairs, a new nesting attempt was not detected the following year. All monitored breeding pairs showed high nest site fidelity, reusing hardwood-tree cavities and nest boxes. Our findings will aid conservation efforts by refining current actions and prompting new approaches towards the conservation and recovery of the Blue-throated Macaw.

  18. Bilateral Uveitis and Hyphema in a Catalina Macaw (Ara ararauna x Ara macao) Associated with Multicentric Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 20-year-old, female Catalina macaw (Ara ararauna x Ara macao) presented with bilateral uveitis and hyphema. No other initial clinical signs were present and the results of the complete blood count, biochemical profile, and serum protein electrophoresis were unremarkable. Improvement in the hyphema...

  19. Molecular markers for population genetic analyses in the family Psittacidae (Psittaciformes, Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia J. Faria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of molecular markers for population studies is an important tool for biodiversity conservation. The family Psittacidae contains many endangered and vulnerable species and we tested three kinds of molecular markers for their potential use in population studies of five psitacid species: 43 hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, 42 blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna, 23 red-and-green macaws (Ara chloroptera, 19 red-spectacled amazons (Amazona pretrei; and 18 red-tailed amazons (Amazona brasiliensis. We tested 21 clones from a genomic library of golden conure (Guarouba guarouba minisatellites and 12 pairs of microsatellite primers developed for the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus and A. hyacinthinus. We also tested seven tetranucleotide repeat primers for their ability to amplify regions between microsatellite loci (inter simple sequence repeats, ISSRs. We were able to select seven markers that were variable in different degrees for three species (A. hyacinthinus, A. chloroptera and A. ararauna. The mini and microsatellites produced more polymorphic patterns than the ISSRs. The genetic variability of the species studied seems to be correlated with their endangered status.

  20. Positive reinforcement training facilitates the voluntary participation of laboratory macaws with veterinary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugette, Kelsey F; Hoppes, Sharman; Tizard, Ian; Brightsmith, Donald

    2012-12-01

    Psittacine birds are challenging laboratory subjects, as they are typically long-lived, very social, highly intelligent, and easily stressed. The benefits of positive reinforcement techniques in animal management have been well documented for mammalian species; however, there are few publications on such programs for birds. To demonstrate the practicality of positive reinforcement training of laboratory birds to cooperate with research procedures involving direct manipulation of individuals, 9 adult macaws (Ara species; 5 individuals and 2 pairs) were trained in 10-minute sessions, twice a day for 8 weeks. The trained behaviors were: target, stay, accept liquids from a syringe, step onto a perch, step onto a scale, allow pressing a syringe to the pectoral area (surrogate for an intramuscular injection), and step onto a towel. All individually housed birds reliably targeted, stayed, and accepted a syringe, and 4 of the 5 stepped onto a perch. One bird performed all of the behaviors. Paired birds learned advanced techniques significantly faster when trained by 2 trainers versus 1 trainer. All behaviors that were mastered during the initial phase of training were successfully transferred so that the birds would reliably perform for the husbandry staff. We conclude that positive reinforcement techniques provide an effective, practical way to train laboratory macaws in behaviors useful for veterinary practice and research. Positive reinforcement used to evoke voluntary participation in procedures will help reduce stress associated with capture and restraint and improve welfare for laboratory parrots.

  1. SUBSTRATE, LIME, PHOSPHORUS AND TOPDRESS FERTILIZATION IN MACAW PALM SEEDLING PRODUCTION

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    Leonardo Duarte Pimentel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The macaw palm [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lood. ex Mart] has been domesticated to subsidize biodiesel production programs in Brazil. However, little is known about the seedling production of this species. This study aimed to evaluate substrate mixtures, limestone and phosphorus rates for substrate amendment and topdressing frequency in macaw palm seedlings. Three trials were conducted in a greenhouse up to six months of nursery cultivation. Trial 1: determination of percent mineral and organic fractions of seven substrate mixtures. Trial 2: evaluation of four limerates for soil amendment versus four phosphorus rates. Trial 3: evaluation of N, K and Mg topdressing frequency. Significant differences were found in the three trials for most of the variables (plant height, leaf number, shoot dry mass, root dry mass, vigor and bulb diameter. The main results obtained were as follow: Trial1 - the best seedling growth was observed in substrates with at least 25% organic matter. Trial2 -lime rates ranging from 0.50 to 1.25 kg associated with 3 to 4 kg of single superphosphate per m3 of substrate provided the best seedling growth. Trial 3 - topdressing fertilization provided better development of seedlings regardless of frequency.

  2. Enzyme activity and reserve mobilization during Macaw palm ( Acrocomia aculeata seed germination

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    Elisa Monteze Bicalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Reserve mobilization in seeds occurs after visible germination, which is marked by the protrusion of the radicle or cotyledonary petiole, as in species of Arecaceae. Acrocomia aculeata (macaw palm, usually produces hard seeds whose endosperm has mannan-rich cell walls. We investigated the composition of storage compounds in macaw palm seed and the roles of two enzymes (endo-β-mannanase, α-galactosidase during and after germination. The seeds were firstly submitted to pre-established protocol to overcome dormancy and promote germination. Enzyme activity in both embryo and endosperm were assayed from the initiation of germinative activities until leaf sheath appearance, and the status of seed structures and reserve compounds were evaluated. Protein content of the embryo decreased with the initiation of imbibition while the lipid content began decreasing six days after removal of the operculum. Increases in enzyme activity and starch content were both observed after visible germination. We suggest that endo-β-mannanase and α-galactosidase become active immediately at germination, facilitating haustorium expansion and providing carbohydrates for initial seedling development. Protein is the first storage compound mobilized during early imbibition, and the observed increase in the starch content of the haustorium was related to lipid degradation in that organ and mannan degradation in the adjacent endosperm.

  3. Do the structures of macaw palm fruit protect seeds in a fire-prone environment?

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    Elisa Monteze Bicalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fire is an abiotic disturbance that regulates vegetation structure and biodiversity. Some plant species have adapted to fire prone environments by evolving protective structures. Acrocomia aculeata (macaw palm is widely distributed throughout tropical America, and is found in environments continuously influenced by anthropogenic fire. We aimed to determine whether the fruit characteristics of A. aculeata enable seeds to resist the effects of fire and also the consequent effects of fire on fruit biometric traits and embryo viability. After a fire event in a region of pasture-forest transition, we marked 30 individuals of A. aculeata. The trees were separated by UPGMA analysis into 5 groups according to fire exposure, ranging from trees with no exposure to trees with fruit completely exposed to fire. Fruit exposure to high temperatures led to lower values in fruit fresh weight, length, density, and processable mass.Fire had no significant effect on seed biometric variables, because of the structures of the fruit, including its lignified endocarp and its insulating and mucilaginous mesocarp. These structures helped to maintain the embryos viability by preventing oxidative damage. In conclusion, the fruit structure of the macaw palm may facilitate seed persistence, even when subject to increasingly frequent fire events.

  4. Control of macaw palm seed germination by the gibberellin/abscisic acid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicalho, E M; Pintó-Marijuan, M; Morales, M; Müller, M; Munné-Bosch, S; Garcia, Q S

    2015-09-01

    The hormonal mechanisms involved in palm seed germination are not fully understood. To better understand how germination is regulated in Arecaceae, we used macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart.) seed as a model. Endogenous hormone concentrations, tocopherol and tocotrienol and lipid peroxidation during germination were studied separately in the embryo and endosperm. Evaluations were performed in dry (D), imbibed (I), germinated (G) and non-germinated (NG) seeds treated (+GA3 ) or not treated (control) with gibberellins (GA). With GA3 treatment, seeds germinated faster and to a higher percentage than control seeds. The +GA3 treatment increased total bioactive GA in the embryo during germination relative to the control. Abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations decreased gradually from D to G in both tissues. Embryos of G seeds had a lower ABA content than NG seeds in both treatments. The GA/ABA ratio in the embryo was significantly higher in G than NG seeds. The +GA3 treatment did not significantly affect the GA/ABA ratio in either treatment. Cytokinin content increased from dry to germinated seeds. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboylic acid (ACC) decreased after imbibition. In addition, α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol decreased, while lipid peroxidation increased in the embryo during germination. We conclude that germination in macaw palm seed involves reductions in ABA content and, consequently, increased GA/ABA in the embryo. Furthermore, the imbibition process generates oxidative stress (as observed by changes in vitamin E and MDA).

  5. DNA sequence analysis to guide the release of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna, Psittaciformes, Aves) from the illegal trade back into the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gislaine A; Caparroz, Renato

    2013-03-01

    The illegal wildlife trade is one of the major threats to Brazil's biodiversity. Approximately 80 % of illegally captured animals are birds, and 4 % of those are parrots. Although many seized birds do not survive, those that are recovered may be returned to the wild. The release of seized individuals into the wild should be conducted with caution, as local populations may suffer adverse effects if genetically different individuals are introduced. In this study, we evaluated the genetic relationships between 13 illegally captured blue-and-yellow macaws selected for release in northeastern Goiás, Brazil, and previously studied Brazilian macaw populations. We identified the seized macaws that were genetically similar to those from northwestern Goiás and that were therefore most suitable for release in that area. The genetic relationship was evaluated by sequence analysis of 403 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region. Relationships between mitochondrial haplotypes were computed via a median-joining network. Only six of the seized macaws were closely related to the macaws of northeastern Goiás, indicating that those macaws were potential candidates for release in that area. However, the release of these birds should follow all technical recommendations required by the Brazilian environmental authorities.

  6. Facilitation and competition among invasive plants: a field experiment with alligatorweed and water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundrow, Emily J; Carrillo, Juli; Gabler, Christopher A; Horn, Katherine C; Siemann, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems that are heavily invaded by an exotic species often contain abundant populations of other invasive species. This may reflect shared responses to a common factor, but may also reflect positive interactions among these exotic species. Armand Bayou (Pasadena, TX) is one such ecosystem where multiple species of invasive aquatic plants are common. We used this system to investigate whether presence of one exotic species made subsequent invasions by other exotic species more likely, less likely, or if it had no effect. We performed an experiment in which we selectively removed exotic rooted and/or floating aquatic plant species and tracked subsequent colonization and growth of native and invasive species. This allowed us to quantify how presence or absence of one plant functional group influenced the likelihood of successful invasion by members of the other functional group. We found that presence of alligatorweed (rooted plant) decreased establishment of new water hyacinth (free-floating plant) patches but increased growth of hyacinth in established patches, with an overall net positive effect on success of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth presence had no effect on establishment of alligatorweed but decreased growth of existing alligatorweed patches, with an overall net negative effect on success of alligatorweed. Moreover, observational data showed positive correlations between hyacinth and alligatorweed with hyacinth, on average, more abundant. The negative effect of hyacinth on alligatorweed growth implies competition, not strong mutual facilitation (invasional meltdown), is occurring in this system. Removal of hyacinth may increase alligatorweed invasion through release from competition. However, removal of alligatorweed may have more complex effects on hyacinth patch dynamics because there were strong opposing effects on establishment versus growth. The mix of positive and negative interactions between floating and rooted aquatic plants may influence local

  7. Valorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirbes, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of vermicomposting water hyacinth (WH [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms] mixed with pig manure (PM in different proportions was tested using tropical composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Earthworms grew and reproduced normally until the incorporation of 50% WH in initial substrate. Higher water hyacinth proportions induced earthworms' mortality and significantly affected the numbers of hatchlings and cocoons produced during vermicomposting period. The influence of the application of compost/vermicompost obtained from water hyacinth mixed with pig manure was also studied on seeds germination. Only water hyacinth substrate with 25% WH + 75% PM enhanced seeds germination for Oryza sp. and Nasturtium officinale. At the end of experiments, a significant decrease was observed in organic carbon content for each tested substrates (S1 to S8, in total nitrogen (N for substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 and compost substrates (S1 and S2. An important decrease was also noted in total potassium for all vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8, in total magnesium for composted substrates (S1 and S2, and in C/N ratio for substrates containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6. Whereas total N in vermicompost containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6, total phosphorus, total potassium in composted substrates (S1 and S2, total magnesium in vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8 and C:N ratio in substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 expressed a significant increase after eight weeks. The result suggested that water hyacinth could be potentially useful as raw material in vermicomposting and biofertilizing if mixed with 75% of pig manure.

  8. Facilitation and competition among invasive plants: a field experiment with alligatorweed and water hyacinth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Wundrow

    Full Text Available Ecosystems that are heavily invaded by an exotic species often contain abundant populations of other invasive species. This may reflect shared responses to a common factor, but may also reflect positive interactions among these exotic species. Armand Bayou (Pasadena, TX is one such ecosystem where multiple species of invasive aquatic plants are common. We used this system to investigate whether presence of one exotic species made subsequent invasions by other exotic species more likely, less likely, or if it had no effect. We performed an experiment in which we selectively removed exotic rooted and/or floating aquatic plant species and tracked subsequent colonization and growth of native and invasive species. This allowed us to quantify how presence or absence of one plant functional group influenced the likelihood of successful invasion by members of the other functional group. We found that presence of alligatorweed (rooted plant decreased establishment of new water hyacinth (free-floating plant patches but increased growth of hyacinth in established patches, with an overall net positive effect on success of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth presence had no effect on establishment of alligatorweed but decreased growth of existing alligatorweed patches, with an overall net negative effect on success of alligatorweed. Moreover, observational data showed positive correlations between hyacinth and alligatorweed with hyacinth, on average, more abundant. The negative effect of hyacinth on alligatorweed growth implies competition, not strong mutual facilitation (invasional meltdown, is occurring in this system. Removal of hyacinth may increase alligatorweed invasion through release from competition. However, removal of alligatorweed may have more complex effects on hyacinth patch dynamics because there were strong opposing effects on establishment versus growth. The mix of positive and negative interactions between floating and rooted aquatic plants may

  9. Performance of a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)system in the treatment of wastewater from a duck farm and the effects of using water hyacinth as duck feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jianbo; FU Zhihui; YIN Zhaozheng

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, intensive breeding of poultry and livestock of large scale has made the treatment of its waste and wastewater an urgent environmental issue. which motivated this study. A wetland of 688 m2 was constructed on an egg duck farm, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)was chosen as an aquatic plant for the wetland and used as food for duck production. The objectives of this study were to test the role of water hyacinth in purifying nutrient-rich wastewater and its effects on the ducks' feed intake, egg laying performance and egg quality. This paper shows that the constructed wetland removed as much as 64. 44%of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 21. 78%of total nitrogen(TN)and 23. 02%of total phosphorus(TP). Both dissolved oxygen(DO)and the transparency of the wastewater were remarkably improved, with its transparency 2. 5 times higher than that of the untreated wastewater. After the ducks were fed with water hyacinth, the average daily feed intake and the egg-laying ratio in the test group were 5. 86%and 9. 79%higher, respectively, than in the control group; the differences were both significant at the0. 01 probability level. The egg weight in the test group Was 2. 36%higher than in the control group(P<0. 05), but the feed conversion ratios Were almost the same. The eggshell thickness and strength Were among the egg qualities significantly increased in ducks fed with water hyacinth. We concluded that a water hyacinth system was effective for purifying wastewater from an intensive duck farm during the water hyacinth growing season, as harvested water hyacinth had an excellent performance as duck feed. We also discussed the limitations of the experiment.

  10. Comparison between MACAW and T_Lohi protocols for underwater networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ortiz Guerra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of underwater networks presents great challenges, most of which are related to the complexity of the communication channel. The main difficulties to face in the underwater channel are the restricted bandwidth and the low propagation speed. Due to these difficulties, it is necessary the development of new and more competent communication protocols in order to obtain higher performance and minimize the energy consumption. Therefore, this paper presents a comparative evaluation between two medium access controls (MAC: MACAW and T_Lohi. Both protocols are based on random access mechanism, the first uses request to send (RTS; clear to send (CTS and acknowledgement (ACK messages to regulate transmissions while the second uses short duration tones which can be detected instantaneously. Thus, this study focuses on the performance, collisions and efficiency of these protocols in order to reserve the communication channel, whereby it highlights the advantages and deficiencies of each protocol in the underwater communication networks.

  11. Cytogenetic effects of cadmium accumulation on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, I.; Carbajal, M.E.; Gomez-Arroyo, S.; Belmont, R.; Villalobos-Pietrini, R.

    1984-04-01

    Cadmium was bioassayed to observe cytogenetic effects in the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Plants were exposed for 96 hr to freshwater containing 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 1, 5, and 10 mg/liter of cadmium. Metal concentrations in tissues were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The highest level was found in roots, thus root-tip cells were used for cytogenetic studies; after 24 hr of exposure, micronuclei, c-mitotic effects, and pycnosis were detected and after 48 hr polyploidy was observed. A linear relationship between frequencies of micronuclei and cadmium concentrations was found; at 1, 5, and 10 mg/liter micronuclei numbers were always the lowest. The inhibition of cell proliferation, shown by the low mitotic index, was proportional to the concentration and time of exposure. From the results presented in this paper it may be concluded that water hyacinth is a good sensor, due to its fast rate of metal accumulation, which allows an easy way to determine the presence of potential mutagenic compounds in water. 63 references.

  12. Philornis sp. bot fly larvae in free living scarlet macaw nestlings and a new technique for their extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George; Vigo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Lizzie; Rozsa, Lajos; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2013-09-01

    Bot fly larvae (Philornis genus) are obligate subcutaneous blood-feeding parasites of Neotropical birds including psittacines. We analyze twelve years of data on scarlet macaw (Ara macao) nestlings in natural and artificial nests in the lowland forests of southeastern Peru and report prevalence and intensity of Philornis parasitism. Bot fly prevalence was 28.9% while mean intensity was 5.0 larvae per infected chick. Prevalence in natural nests (11%, N=90 nestlings) was lower than in wooden nest-boxes (39%, N=57) and PVC boxes (39%, N=109). We describe a new technique of removing Philornis larvae using a reverse syringe design snake bite extractor. We compare this new technique to two other methods for removing bots from macaw chicks and find the new method the most suitable.

  13. A multi-platform draft de novo genome assembly and comparative analysis for the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabury, Christopher M; Dowd, Scot E; Seabury, Paul M; Raudsepp, Terje; Brightsmith, Donald J; Liboriussen, Poul; Halley, Yvette; Fisher, Colleen A; Owens, Elaine; Viswanathan, Ganesh; Tizard, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Data deposition to NCBI Genomes: This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AMXX00000000 (SMACv1.0, unscaffolded genome assembly). The version described in this paper is the first version (AMXX01000000). The scaffolded assembly (SMACv1.1) has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AOUJ00000000, and is also the first version (AOUJ01000000). Strong biological interest in traits such as the acquisition and utilization of speech, cognitive abilities, and longevity catalyzed the utilization of two next-generation sequencing platforms to provide the first-draft de novo genome assembly for the large, new world parrot Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw). Despite the challenges associated with genome assembly for an outbred avian species, including 951,507 high-quality putative single nucleotide polymorphisms, the final genome assembly (>1.035 Gb) includes more than 997 Mb of unambiguous sequence data (excluding N's). Cytogenetic analyses including ZooFISH revealed complex rearrangements associated with two scarlet macaw macrochromosomes (AMA6, AMA7), which supports the hypothesis that translocations, fusions, and intragenomic rearrangements are key factors associated with karyotype evolution among parrots. In silico annotation of the scarlet macaw genome provided robust evidence for 14,405 nuclear gene annotation models, their predicted transcripts and proteins, and a complete mitochondrial genome. Comparative analyses involving the scarlet macaw, chicken, and zebra finch genomes revealed high levels of nucleotide-based conservation as well as evidence for overall genome stability among the three highly divergent species. Application of a new whole-genome analysis of divergence involving all three species yielded prioritized candidate genes and noncoding regions for parrot traits of interest (i.e., speech, intelligence, longevity) which were independently supported by the results of previous human GWAS studies. We

  14. Uptake of Cadmium and Zinc from Synthetic Effluent by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidzatul Husna Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study was conducted on aquatic plant; water hyacinth (Eichchornia crassipes which has been successfully utilized for the removal of cadmium (Cd and zinc (Zn from aqueous solutions. The overall metal uptake by the plant was dependent upon the concentration of the metal and the duration of exposure. In general, the metal content in plants increased with the increase in metal concentrations in solution and the metal accumulation in roots was always significantly higher than that in shoots for both metals in water hyacinth. Water hyacinth treated with 4 mg/L of cadmium accumulated the highest concentration metal in shoots (148 μg/g and roots (2006 μg/g and water hyacinth treated with solution containing 40 mg/L zinc accumulated the highest zinc concentration in shoots (1899 μg/g and roots (9646 μg/g.

  15. Use of biogas fluid-soaked water hyacinth for cultivating Pleurotus geesteranus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuxia; Jiang, Zhihe; Chen, Xi; Lei, Jingui; Weng, Boqi; Huang, Qin

    2010-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the viability of growing Pleurotus geesteranus on media containing varying amounts of crushed water hyacinth slices, which were soaked in pig farm biogas fluid and dried. The water hyacinth material was utilized to substitute sawdust in the media for mushroom cultivation. Mushroom fruiting bodies harvested were evaluated for yield, amino acid and heavy metal contents. Among the eight treatment groups, the greatest yield and highest amino acid content in the mushrooms were obtained when the proportions of water hyacinth and sawdust in the medium were equal. The concentrations of heavy metals, Hg, Pb and Cd, in most of the present mushroom samples did not exceed the maximum allowed levels according to the limits set forth by the food hygienic and safety regulations for edible mushrooms in China. The proposed waste utilization of water hyacinth could conceivably benefit the environment in various aspects including conservation of forest by reducing the demand on natural woods for mushroom production.

  16. Origin, distribution, and insertion of the brachial plexus nerves in Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Achôa Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has about 80 species of parrots cataloged, and five of them are identified as Macaws. As the vast majority of birds, Macaws use flight as their primary means of locomotion. However, the strength and power generated during the cycle of beating wings require a mechanism of active neuromuscular control and specialized adaptations of muscles responsible for flight, which are innervated by the brachial plexus. This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of peripheral nerves that make up the brachial plexus in Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758, in order to aid the veterinarian to recognize and locate neuromuscular lesions in this species. We used five dead bodies, obtained from the Screening Center for Wild Animals in Paraíba, Brazil, in which the nerves were identified by direct dissection. Four nerve roots were viewed, originating three nerve trunks, which stem from the intervertebral spaces between the tenth cervical vertebra and the second thoracic vertebra. Nerves from the dorsal cord innervated extensor muscles, while ventral cord nerves innervated flexor muscles of the wing, in addition to the pectoral branches, responsible to innervate the superficial thoracic and shoulder muscles.

  17. Advances in management and utilization of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in aquatic ecosystems - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shao-Hua; Song, Wei; Guo, Jun-Yao

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a concise summary of literature in the Chinese language since late 1970s and focuses on recent development in global scenarios. This work will replenish the FAO summary of water hyacinth utilization from 1917 to 1979 and review ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the water hyacinth from 1980 to 2010. This review also discusses the debate on whether the growth of the water hyacinth is a problem, a challenge or an opportunity. Literature suggested that integrated technologies and good management may be an effective solution and the perception of water hyacinth could change from that of a notorious aquatic weed to a valuable resource, including its utilization as a biological agent for the application in bioremediation for removing excess nutrients from eutrophic water bodies at low cost. Key aspects on system integration and innovation may focus on low-cost and efficient equipment and the creation of value-added goods from water hyacinth biomass. In the socioeconomic and ecological domain of global development, all the successful and sustainable management inputs for the water hyacinth must generate some sort of social and economic benefit simultaneously, as well as benefiting the ecosystem. Potential challenges exist in linkages between the management of water hyacinth on the large scale to the sustainable development of agriculture based on recycling nutrients, bio-energy production or silage and feed production. Further research and development may focus on more detailed biology of water hyacinth related with its utilization, cost-benefit analysis of middle to large-scale application of the technologies and innovation of the equipment used for harvesting and dehydrating the plant.

  18. Rice Husk Ash Derived Zeolite Blended with Water Hyacinth Ash for Enhanced Adsorption of Cadmium Ions

    OpenAIRE

    G. W. Mbugua; H. M. Mbuvi; J. W. Muthengia

    2014-01-01

    In order to helpcurtail or imposesustained control to the offensive water hyacinth plant,it is essential to explore ways of generatingwater remediation materials from it. In the current study, the capacity and efficacy of water hyacinth ash (WHA),its insoluble residue (WHAR) and rice husk ash (RHA)to remove cadmium ionsand methylene blue from contaminated water was investigated. Mixtures of the two ashes were used to formulatezeolitic materialsby hydrothermal reactions. Material A, ZMA was pr...

  19. Physical and Combustion Characteristics of Briquettes Made from Water Hyacinth and Phytoplankton Scum as Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the potential of water hyacinths and phytoplankton scum, an aquatic weed, as binder for production of fuel briquettes. It also evaluated some physical and combustion characteristics. The water hyacinths were manually harvested, cleaned, sun-dried, and milled to particle sizes distribution ranging from <0.25 to 4.75 mm using hammer mill. The water hyacinth grinds and binder (phytoplankton scum at 10% (B1, 20% (B2, 30% (B3, 40% (B4, and 50% (B5 by weight of each feedstock were fed into a steel cylindrical die of dimension 14.3 cm height and 4.7 cm diameter and compressed by hydraulic press at pressure 20 MPa with dwell time of 45 seconds. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and descriptive statistics. Initial bulk density of uncompressed mixture of water hyacinth and phytoplankton scum at different binder levels varied between 113.86 ± 3.75 (B1 and 156.93 ± 4.82 kg/m3 (B5. Compressed and relaxed densities of water hyacinth briquettes at different binder proportions showed significant difference . Durability of the briquettes improved with increased binder proportion. Phytoplankton scum improved the mechanical handling characteristics of the briquettes. It could be concluded that production of water hyacinth briquettes is feasible, cheaper, and environmentally friendly and that they compete favourably with other agricultural products.

  20. Field, laboratory, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mercury accumulation by water hyacinths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Sarah G; Tran, Huy H; Dewitt, Jane G; Andrews, Joy C

    2002-05-01

    We have studied water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a non-native nuisance plant found in the in San Francisco Bay Delta region, for its potential to phytoremediate mercury. Mercury is a common contaminant in San Francisco Bay Area waters because of gold mining activities. In this study, speciation of mercury in hyacinth roots and shoots, rates of mercury uptake by hyacinths in the laboratory, and mercury levels near the Big Break Region in the Delta were studied. In the speciation studies, Hg L3 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis of Hg model compounds and water hyacinth roots and shoots revealed that Hg was initially bound ionically to oxygen ligands in roots, most likely to carboxylate groups, and was bound covalently to sulfur groups in shoots. In laboratory uptake studies, we found that water hyacinths grown in 1 ppm Hg and one-quarter strength Hoagland's solution accumulated a maximum of 0.20 ppm in shoots and 16.0 ppm in roots, both reaching maximum concentrations after approximately 16 days. Mercury concentrations were found to be 0.26 +/- 0.20 ppm in the water and 0.86 +/- 1.70 ppm in sediment at Big Break. It was proposed that water hyacinths have the potential to phytoremediate mercury in the water at Big Break if the current herbicide treatments are replaced by physical removal.

  1. Experimental Research on the Application of Water Hyacinths to the Ecological Restoration of Water Bodies with Eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Fa-kuo; SHAO; Xiao-long; SUN; Yi-chao; LIU; Hong-lei; YUAN; Min; XIE; Hua-sheng; LI; Li; YU; Dan; LIU; Xu

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aims to discuss the application of water hyacinths to the ecological restoration of water bodies with eutrophication through simulation experiments. [Method] In this study, water hyacinths were used to restore the simulated eutrophic water with green algae as the dominant algae species, and then the restoration effect of the simulated eutrophic water by water hyacinths was analyzed. [Result] In the simulation test without sediment, the peak chlorophyll concentration was 434.6 mg/m3 in the tank without water hyacinths, which decreased to 285 and 119 mg/m3 respectively in the tanks with 1 and 4 water hyacinths. In the experiment with sediment, compared with the control tank without water hyacinths, a 58% reduction in chlorophyll concentration could be observed in the tank with 4 water hyacinths planted (with a coverage of 51%). The results showed that water hyacinths could inhibit alga growth notably, but there was likely a density threshold (51% coverage), and no significant eco-restoration effect was observed in the simulated eutrophic water with too few water hyacinths planted. [Conclusion] The research could provide scientific references for the ecological restoration of eutrophic water bodies.

  2. Energy flow of tulips and hyacinths; Energiestroom tulp en hyacint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands); Kok, M.; Bisschop, B. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The project objectives are: (1) to update and to create an improved map of energy flows for cultivation (natural gas and electricity) and forcing (electricity) of tulips; (2) To update and improve the map of energy flows (natural gas and electricity) for cultivation and forcing of hyacinths; and (3) Deriving the most optimal drying and storage method from an analysis of the distribution in natural gas use/ha in the cultivation of tulips [Dutch] De projectdoelstellingen zijn (1) Het actualiseren en beter in kaart brengen van de energiestromen voor teelt (aardgas en elektriciteit) en broei (elektriciteit) van tulpen; (2) Het actualiseren en beter in kaart brengen van de energiestromen (aardgas en elektriciteit) voor teelt en broei van hyacint; en (3) Het afleiden van de meest optimale droog- en bewaarmethode uit een analyse van de spreiding in aardgasverbruik/ha bij de teelt van tulpen.

  3. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-02

    The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved.

  4. Assessment of nutritional quality of water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adeyemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was embarked upon to convert water hyacinth, an environmental nuisance, to a natural resource for economic development. Water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate (WHLPC was extracted in edible form and determination of its physicochemical characteristics, total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was done. Analysis of proximate composition and amino acid profile of the WHLPC was also done. The level of heavy metals (mg/kg in WHLPC was found to be Cd (0.02 ± 0.001, Cr (0.13 ± 0.001, Pd (0.003 ± 0.001 and Hg (0.02 ± 0.001 while concentrations of Pb, Pt, Sn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co were found to be 0.001 ± 0.00. Level of all heavy metals was found to be within safe limit. Proximate analysis revealed that protein in WHLPC accounted for 50% of its nutrients, carbohydrate accounted for 33% of its nutrients while fat, ash and fibre made up the remaining nutrients. Amino acid analysis showed that WHLPC contained 17 out of 20 common amino acids, particularly, Phe (3.67%, Leu (5.01%. Level of total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was 16.6 mg/kg and 6.0 mg/kg respectively. Evidence from this study suggests that WHLPC is a good source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC; it is nutritious and acutely non toxic.

  5. The effect of microwave power and heating time pretreatment on biogas production from fresh and dried water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Budiyono, Mardiani, Dini Tri

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of microwave pretreatment of fresh and dried water hyacinth on biogas production. The variations of microwave power levels are 240; 400; 560 and 800 W. The variations of microwave heating time are 5; 7 and 9 min. The unpretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth are used as control. The result of research showed that almost all pretreated water hyacinth produced biogas were higher compare tounpretreated water hyacinth. The maximum of biogas production from fresh and dried water hyacinthwere obtained at 560 W for 7 min and 400 W for 7 min of microwave pretreatment. In this condition, pretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth resulted biogas production of 75,12 and 53,06 mL/g TS, respectively. The unpretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth produced biogas of 37,56 and 33,56 mL/g TS, respectively. The microwave pretreatment of water hyacinth improved biogas production. Microwave pretreatment had a positive impact on anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth.

  6. Environmental and economic analysis of application of water hyacinth for eutrophic water treatment coupled with biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zanxin; Calderon, Margaret M

    2012-11-15

    The proliferation of water hyacinth is currently controlled by removing it from a water body and disposing it by landfill in China. Using water hyacinth to remove nutrients from water bodies and to produce biogas is another technically feasible option for the control of water hyacinth, but its environmental and economic performances are not well understood. This study collected data from an experimental biogas plant to develop a lifecycle analysis and a cost benefit analysis for the control of water hyacinth proliferation in a eutrophic lake in China. Comparison was made between the alternative option of using water hyacinth for biogas production and the current practice of disposing it in landfills. The results reveal that the biogas option is economically feasible with a positive energy balance. The removal of water hyacinth to produce biogas can contribute to water quality improvement and GHG emission reduction whose values, however, depend on the processing scale of the biogas plant. Since both the current approach and the biogas option can remove nutrients from water bodies, the additional value of water quality improvement resulting from the biogas option is only possible when the processing scale of the biogas plant is greater than the amount of water hyacinth disposed by landfill. The emission of methane deserves attention when water hyacinth is disposed by landfill. The biogas option can respond to China's policies on water pollution control, renewable energy development, and energy saving and emission reduction.

  7. Experimental and kinetic modelling studies on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant to levulinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, B.; Danon, B.; Manurung, R.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental and modelling study on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) to optimise the yield of levulinic acid (LA) is reported (T = 150-175 degrees C, C-H2SO4 - 0.1-1 M, water hyacinth intake = 1-5 wt%). At high acid concentrations (> 0.

  8. Using composting for control seed germination of invasive plant (water hyacinth) in Extremadura (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Albano, Eva; Moreno, Marta M.

    2016-04-01

    The biotransformation of the invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by composting has been showed as a viable alternative to offset the economic cost of eliminating an invasive plant giving a value to the by-product; however, as result of the propagative plant capacity, it was necessary to check if the composting process could eliminate the germination seed rate. Despite the high temperatures and the biochemical biotransformation processes of the composting components, in the case of seed water hyacinth, with a recovery rate of 100%, damage was observed in some parts of the seed anatomy such as in the outer teguments; however, other parts of the seed coat and the endosperm maintained their integrity. A microscopic analysis revealed that the embryo was noticeable and this was supported by the rate of seed germination observed (3.5 ± 0.96%). The results indicate that the use of water hyacinth for compost production is not completely safe from an environmental perspective. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, water hyacinth, invasive plant, seed anatomy, seed germination rate, compost. References: Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1:42-53.

  9. Modeling phytoremediation of nitrogen-polluted water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Aloyce W.; Hanai, Emmanuel E.

    2017-08-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has a great potential for purification of wastewater through physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. In an attempt to improve the quality of effluents discharged from waste stabilization ponds at the University of Dar es Salaam, a pilot plant was constructed to experiment the effectiveness of this plants for transformation and removal of nitrogen. Samples of wastewater were collected and examined for water quality parameters, including pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and various forms of nitrogen, which were used as input parameters in a kinetic mathematical model. A conceptual model was then developed to model various processes in the system using STELLA 6.0.1 software. The results show that total nitrogen was removed by 63.9%. Denitrification contributed 73.8% of the removed nitrogen. Other dominant nitrogen removal mechanisms are net sedimentation and uptake by water hyacinth, which contributed 16.7% and 9.5% of the removed nitrogen, respectively. The model indicated that in presence of water hyacinth biofilm about 1.26 g Nm-2day-1 of nitrogen was removed. However, in the absence of biofilm in water hyacinth pond, the permanent nitrogen removal was only 0.89 g Nm-2day-1. This suggests that in absence of water hyacinth, the efficiency of nitrogen removal would decrease by 29.4%.

  10. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in dead captive psittacines in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Gomes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg infection of wild native Brazilian psittacines (Psittaciformes which died of any cause during sorting, rehabilitation, or conservation, was investigated by PCR. Two previously described PCR methodologies using Mg specific primers were employed for the analyses of 140 swab samples (cloaca, trachea, or palatine cleft. Average positive Mg detection in cloacal swabs was 51.9%, with 80.0% (n=5 of Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, 60.0% (n=3 Dusky Parrots (Pionus fuscus, 52.5% (n=59 Amazon Parrots (Amazona aestiva, 50.0% (n=2 Orange-winged Parrots (Amazona amazonica, 50.0% (n=2 Jandaya Parakeetsor Jandaya Conures (Aratinga jandaya, 0% (n=2 Golden Conures or Golden Parakeets (Guarouba guarouba, and 0% (n=2 Hyacinth Macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus. Palatine cleft swab sampling was more sensitive to detect Mg, with 85.4% (n=17 detection rate, as compared to 67.4% (n=46 obtained with tracheal samples, and 53.5% (n=77 with cloacal swabs. The surprisingly high Mg incidence in psittacines kept in conservation or triage environments is possibly due to the proximity or cohabitation with several bird species during confinement and housing psittacines of different origins together. The implementation of biosecurity measures and species-specific facilities is recommended.

  11. A multi-platform draft de novo genome assembly and comparative analysis for the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Seabury

    Full Text Available Data deposition to NCBI Genomes: This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AMXX00000000 (SMACv1.0, unscaffolded genome assembly. The version described in this paper is the first version (AMXX01000000. The scaffolded assembly (SMACv1.1 has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AOUJ00000000, and is also the first version (AOUJ01000000. Strong biological interest in traits such as the acquisition and utilization of speech, cognitive abilities, and longevity catalyzed the utilization of two next-generation sequencing platforms to provide the first-draft de novo genome assembly for the large, new world parrot Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw. Despite the challenges associated with genome assembly for an outbred avian species, including 951,507 high-quality putative single nucleotide polymorphisms, the final genome assembly (>1.035 Gb includes more than 997 Mb of unambiguous sequence data (excluding N's. Cytogenetic analyses including ZooFISH revealed complex rearrangements associated with two scarlet macaw macrochromosomes (AMA6, AMA7, which supports the hypothesis that translocations, fusions, and intragenomic rearrangements are key factors associated with karyotype evolution among parrots. In silico annotation of the scarlet macaw genome provided robust evidence for 14,405 nuclear gene annotation models, their predicted transcripts and proteins, and a complete mitochondrial genome. Comparative analyses involving the scarlet macaw, chicken, and zebra finch genomes revealed high levels of nucleotide-based conservation as well as evidence for overall genome stability among the three highly divergent species. Application of a new whole-genome analysis of divergence involving all three species yielded prioritized candidate genes and noncoding regions for parrot traits of interest (i.e., speech, intelligence, longevity which were independently supported by the results of previous human GWAS

  12. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of lead and mercury from polluted waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1975-04-11

    Removal of lead and mercury by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb. was investigated. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.176 mg of lead and 0.150 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material from distilled water and river water in a 24-hour period. One acre of water hyacinths is potentially capable of removing 105.6 grams of lead and 90.0 grams of mercury per day. Alligator weeds removed 0.101 mg of lead per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. This same plant also demonstrated the ability to remove a minimum of 0.153 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material in a six hour period. (STAR)

  13. APPLICATION OF WATER HYACINTH VERMICOMPOST ON THE GROWTH OF Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.BLESSY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The water hyacinth has been developed into biofertilizer by vermicomposting through two methods. Samples have been collected from Kanakkan Yeri, Pondicherry, India. The earthworm chosen for this study was Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermicompost has been prepared using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the present study, two methods were followed. In one method, water hyacinth waste was collected composted by using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the other method, the cellulose present in water hyacinth was hydrolyzed enzymatically and composted by using Eudrilus eugeniae. The vermicompost was collected from both the methods and used for analyzing enzymes, physicochemical parameters, level of macro and micronutrients. The efficacy of the prepared vermicompost has been studied on the vegetable plant Capsicum annum. Germination time, growth of the plant, number of the leaves has been studied. Finally, it has been compared with the plants which were grown using chemical fertilizers (NPK.

  14. Water hyacinths for removal of cadmium and nickel from polluted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of cadmium and nickel from static water systems utilizing water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was investigated. This aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from aqueous systems by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to absorb and concentrate up to 0.67 mg of cadmium and 0.50 mg of nickel per gram of dry plant material when exposed for a 24-hour period to waters polluted with from 0.578 to 2.00 ppm of these toxic metals. It is found that one hectare of water hyacinths has the potential of removing 300 g of cadmium or nickel from 240,000 liters of water polluted with these metals during a 24-hour period.

  15. Observation of temperature and pH during biogas production from water hyacinth and cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfitri Astuti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is generated from biological process of organic material by bacterial engaged. Biogas can be derived from manure, municipal waste, agricultural waste and other biomass resources. In addition to the use of cow manure as raw material for biogas production, it can also be derived from biomass containing cellulose which one is water hyacinth as an organic material that contains quite large cellulose. The abundance of water hyacinth found in Rawapening causing several negative impacts. The purpose of this study is to observe  temperature and pH on the biogas production generated from water hyacinth of Rawapening and cow manure. Biogas production process begins by chopping the leaves and stems of water hyacinth, and then mixed with cow manure and water. The results of substrate variation of water hyacinth, cow manure and water reaches optimally at 40:80:480 respectively, which produce the highest point of  biogas amounted 176.33 ml on the day 20 in 1L sized digester, the temperature of the biogas production is at 32°C.  At the initial fermentation, digester temperature of 30°C has increased over the course of the fermentation process, a peak at day 20 and then decreased to 27°C at the end of fermentation. There is a decrease in pH starting from initial fermentation at pH 6-7 and then the pH began to decline until the end of fermentation as amount of pH 5.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.22-25Citation:  Nurfitri Astuti, N., Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, T.R., and  Budiyono. 2013. Observation of temperature and pH during biogas production from water hyacinth and cow manure. Waste Technology 1(1:1-5. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.22-25

  16. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of silver, cobalt, and strontium from polluted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths and alligator weeds demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from an aqueous system by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.439 mg of silver, 0.568 mg of cobalt, and 0.544 mg of strontium in an ionized form per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. Alligator weeds removed a maximum of 0.439 mg of silver, 0.130 mg of cobalt, and 0.161 mg of strontium per gram of dry plant material per day.

  17. Anatomical studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) under the influence of textile wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is a prolific free floating aquatic macrohpyte found in tropical and subtropical parts of the earth. The effects of pollutants from textile wastewater on the anatomy of the plant were studied. Water hyacinth exhibits hydrophytic adaptations which include reduced epidermis cells lacking cuticle in most cases, presence of large air spaces (7~50 μm), reduced vascular tissue and absorbing structures. Textile waste significantly affected the size of root cells.The presence of raphide crystals was noted in parenchyma cells of various organs in treated plants.

  18. Remediation of chromium and copper on water hyacinth (E. crassipes shoot powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tannery effluent characterization and removal efficiency of Chromium (Cr and Copper (Cu on water hyacinth has been observed by filtration process. The effluent was contaminated by deep blue color, acidic pH, higher value of total dissolve solid (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and lower value of dissolve oxygen (DO. After filtration, the effluent shows that the permissible limit of investigated metals. Adsorbent capacity of water hyacinth shoot powder for Cr and Cu ion was found to be 99.98% and 99.96% for standard solution (SS and 98.83% and 99.59% for tannery effluent (TE, respectively.

  19. Proposed adsorption-diffusion model for characterizing chromium(VI) removal using dried water hyacinth roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Debasish; Mukherjee, Paramartha; Bandyopadhyay, Amitava [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Calcutta, Kolkata (India); Das, Sudip Kumar [Department of Chemical Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata (India)

    2010-08-15

    Experiments have been carried out to characterize the adsorption of chromium(VI) in the aqueous phase onto dried roots of water hyacinth. Results revealed a very high degree of removal efficiency ({proportional_to}100%). Theoretical analyzes are also made for describing the sorption and diffusion processes. The effective pore diffusivity of chromium(VI) in the water hyacinth roots is determined by a suitable global optimization technique. The depth of penetration, on the other hand, has been estimated for various initial concentrations of chromium(VI). Theoretically predicted concentration profiles are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Study of Biogas Production Rate from Water Hyacinth by Hydrothermal Pretreatment with Buffalo Dung as a Starter

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    Teguh Kurniawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on biogas enhancement production rates from water hyacinth mixed with buffalo dung. The focus of the experiment was on the time of hydrothermal pretreatment and the ratio of water hyacinth with buffalo dung. The hydrothermal pretreated substrates were characterized by TDS, BOD and pH. The hydrothermal pretreatment of 60 minutes with the ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung 1:2 showed the highest biogas production rate at 7889 ml/day. However, the highest methane composition was 52.82% which resulted on the hydrothermal treatment of 30 minutes with equal ratio of water hyacinth and buffalo dung. Thus, the optimum of methane yield obtained at hydrothermal pretreatment for 30 minutes with equal ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung is 2856 ml/day. The hydrothermal pretreatment increases the rate production of biogas 102% and the methane yield 51% relative to untreated water hyacinth. The ratio of water hyacinth and buffalo dung has a great impact on biogas production rate and compositions for hydrothermal pretreated substrates.

  1. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  2. Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

  3. Removal of Crystal Violet dye from aqueous solution using water hyacinth: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswari Kulkarni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Effluent water from dyeing industries has now for long been a taxing issue. Of the various dyes which are extremely toxic, Crystal Violet which is used in the dyeing industry is known for its mutagenic and mitotic poisoning nature. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes is a perennial aquatic plant notorious for its rapid invasive growth on the surface of water bodies causing ill-effects on the biodiversity. The potential of powdered roots of water hyacinth was studied for decolorization of Crystal Violet dye. Influence of parameters such as initial pH (2.0–10.0, initial dye concentration (100–500 ppm, biosorbent dosage (0.5–5 g/l, contact time (10–240 min and temperature (300–323 K were examined. Maximum removal of dye was observed at pH 7.8. The obtained data were fit into different kinetic models and the biosorption was found to follow pseudo second order kinetic model. The Langmuir monolayer biosorption capacity of water hyacinth was estimated as 322.58 mg/g. The study has demonstrated water hyacinth as a potential low cost biosorbent for effective removal of Crystal Violet dye from aqueous solution.

  4. WATER HYACINTH: A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE RATE RETARDING NATURAL POLYMER USED IN SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabera eKhatun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years natural polymers have been widely used, because of their effectiveness and availability over synthetic polymers. In this present investigation matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using Water hyacinth powder and its rate retardant activity was studied. Tablets were prepared using wet granulation method with 8% starch as granulating agent and 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of Water hyacinth powder to the drug. In preformulation study, angle of repose, Carr’s Index and Hausner ratio were calculated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies were performed and no interactions were found between drug and excipients. Weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness, diameter, and in vitro release study were performed with the prepared matrix tablets. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP type II apparatus at a speed of 100 rpm at 37oC ± 0.5 temperature, for 8 hours. All the formulations comply with both BP and USP requirements, but among all the formulations F-1 (5% of Water hyacinth was the best fitted formula. The drug release patterns were explained in different kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. The current investigation implies that Water hyacinth has the potential to be used as a rate-retarding agent in sustained release drug formulations.

  5. Development of toxicity tolerant water hyacinth `(Eichhornea crassipes)` for effective treatment of raw sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayade, B.B. [Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology

    1998-06-01

    Pioneering research efforts in the handling of municipal sewage in developing countries have involved the use of water hyacinth (Eichhornea crassipes) to purify sewage for possible re-use of the effluent water for domestic purposes. The ability of water hyacinth to remove pollution from raw sewage has been found to be impaired by sewage toxicity. Trials were therefore carried out to adapt water hyacinth to toxicity and thereby increase its ability to remove pollutants from raw sewage. The plants were adapted using an active bio-degrader consisting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaenae, Klebsiella edwardsiella and Baccillus subtilis. The adaption progressed through 20, 40, 60 and 80% sewage dilution until plants capable of growth in 100% raw sewage were obtained. Plants were observed for morphological growth and at four weeks, samples wer collected for tissue analysis. The plants progressively absorbed nutrients from sewage up to the fourth week, when signs of toxicity were observed through wilting, loss of turgidity and reduction in leaf number. However, plants that survived through a series of adaptations under various sewage dilutions exhibited luxuriant growth on raw sewage. In synergy with the active bio-degrader, the efficiency of the adapted water hyacinth to remove pollutants (nutrients) from raw sewage was enhanced by 93%. (orig.)

  6. Phytoremediation of nutrient polluted stormwater runoff: water hyacinth as a model plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Het doel van het in dit proefschrift beschreven onderzoek was om te verkennen in hoeverre fytoremediatie met behulp van waterplanten kon beheersen en de waterkwaliteit te verbeterenPhytoremediation of nutriënt polluted stormwater runoff using water hyacinth as a model plant was explored in greenhous

  7. The feeding activity of Colossoma macropomum larvae (tambaqui in fishponds with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LH. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available Analysis of macrophyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes as an organic fertilizer of Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui larvae in ponds is provided. Water hyacinth produce an organic fertilizer at the ratio of 100 g.m-2 in tambaqui ponds. Two groups of 5,000 larvae were transferred to two fishponds with and without water hyacinth fertilizer and reared until day 43. The fertilized pond evidenced more plankton abundance during the entire production period when compared with the control pond (P 0.05 in both ponds (with and without organic fertilizer. Fish larvae failed to show any preference or selectivity in relation to the different algae (P > 0.01 in the pond, but exhibited high ingestion selectivity for zooplankton (P < 0.05. Application of fertilizer increased (P < 0.05 the abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the treatment pond. Since water hyacinth fertilizer is quite cheap and easily available, it may be conveniently used to enhance fish yield in ponds.

  8. Bench-Scale Investigation Of Mercury Phytoremediation By Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) In Heavily Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associat...

  9. Phytoremediation Of Mercury And Methylmercury Contaminated Sediments By Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated f...

  10. Phytoremediation of Mercury- and Methyl Mercury-Contaminated Sediments by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at Hg- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms...

  11. Phytoremediation Of Mercury And Methylmercury Contaminated Sediments By Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated f...

  12. Bench-Scale Investigation Of Mercury Phytoremediation By Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) In Heavily Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associat...

  13. Phytoremediation of Mercury- and Methyl Mercury-Contaminated Sediments by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at Hg- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms...

  14. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa: Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gichuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb. Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

  15. The physiological and biochemical mechanism of nitrate-nitrogen removal by water hyacinth from agriculture eutrophic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wenwei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large amount of agriculturl wastewater containing high level nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 --N is produced from modern intensive agricultural production management due to the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and livestock scale farming. The hydroponic experiment of water hyacinth was conducted for analyzing the content of NO3 --N, soluble sugar content, N-transported the amino acid content and growth change in water hyacinth to explore its purification ability to remove NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater and physiological and biochemical mechanism of this plant to remove NO3 --N. The results showed that the water hyacinth could effectively utilize the NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater. Compared with the control, the contents of NO3 -change to NO3 --N in the root, leaf petiole and leaf blade of water hyacinth after treatment in the wastewater for a week was significantly higher than that in the control plants treated with tap water, and also the biomass of water hyacinth increased significantly, indicating that the accumulation of biomass due to the rapid growth of water hyacinth could transfer some amount of NO3 --N.13C-NMR analysis confirmed that water hyacinth would convert the part nitrogen absorbed from agriculture eutrophic wastewater to ammonia nitrogen, which increased the content of aspartic acid and glutamic acid, decreased the content of soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose and the content of N-storaged asparagine and glutamine, lead to enhance the synthesis of plant amino acids and promote the growth of plants. These results indicate that the nitrate in agriculture eutrophic wastewater can be utilized by water hyacinth as nitrogen nutrition, and can promote plant growth by using soluble sugar and amide to synthesis amino acids and protein.

  16. Effects of food processing and fibre content on the digestibility, energy intake and biochemical parameters of Blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna L. - Aves, Psittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, R R; Sakomura, N K; Kawauchi, I M; Malheiros, E B; Carciofi, A C

    2014-04-01

    Considering the increased incidence of obesity and metabolic diseases in caged psittacines, the effect of fibre and food processing was evaluated in the Blue-and-gold macaw. Four food formulations (0%, 7%, 14% and 21% of sugarcane fibre) processed by pelleting or extrusion were studied, resulting in eight diets. To study digestibility, 48 macaws housed in pairs in cages was used in a block design. Subsequently, diets containing 0% or 21% sugarcane fibre, pelleted or extrude was fed for 4 months to evaluate energy intake and blood metabolites. A 2 × 2 × 2 (two fibre levels, two food processing methods and two genders) factorial arrangement with subplots (beginning and end) was used. When differences were detected in anova's F test, data were submitted to polynomial contrasts in the first experiment and to orthogonal contrasts in the second experiment (p food processing. Pelleted foods presented higher dry matter digestibility and food metabolisable energy (ME) than the extruded ones (p processing did not change ME ingestion (p > 0.05). The macaws gained body weight (p 0.05), but females fed with the high-fibre diets did not gain weight (p > 0.05), suggesting a low food ME (12.5 kJ/g).The substitution of the original diet (sunflower seeds, fruits and cooked maize) by the experimental foods decreased the basal (12-h fast) concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides (p < 0.001). The consumption of pelleted diets reduced serum glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.05). Results suggest that the pelleted diets were more beneficial and can be used to reduce blood metabolites related to metabolic disorders that are commonly observed in macaws.

  17. Identification and comparison of marbofloxacin metabolites from the plasma of ball pythons (Python regius) and blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R P; Koch, D E; Coke, R L; Carpenter, J W; Isaza, R

    2007-06-01

    Marbofloxacin is a veterinary only, synthetic, broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent. In mammals, approximately 40% of the oral dose of marbofloxacin is excreted unchanged in the urine; the remaining is excreted via the bile as unchanged drug in the feces. The Vd ranges from 1.1 (cattle) to 1.3 (dog, goat, swine) L/kg. Because of extra-label use of marbofloxacin in birds and reptiles, this study was designed to determine the profile of metabolites in plasma and compare the circulating metabolite profile between a reptile and an avian species. Six adult ball pythons (Python regius) and 10 blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna) were used in this study. The macaws were dosed both i.v. and p.o. with a single 2.5 mg/kg administration where as the pythons received a single 10 mg/kg dose both i.v. and p.o. The metabolite profiles of marbofloxacin in the plasma of these species were determined using a high performance liquid chromatography system with a mass spectrometer for detection (LC/MS/MS). Mass spectra data generated from the snake and bird plasma samples were compared with previously reported LC/MS/MS mass spectral data. Evidence does not suggest differences due to route of administration (i.v. vs. p.o.) in either species. Four chromatographic peaks with resulting daughter spectrum were identified and represent 12 possible metabolite structures. All of the proposed metabolites, except for the N-oxide, appear to be unique to macaws. The potential metabolites identified in macaws appear to be very different than those reported for chickens.

  18. Free-living amoebae isolated from water-hyacinth root (Eichhornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Elizabeth; Robles, Esperanza; Martinez, Blanca

    2010-09-01

    Free-living amoebae are widely distributed in aquatic environments and their hygienic, medical and ecological relationships to man are increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to isolate free-living amoebae from water-hyacinth root (Eichhornia crassipes) and the water of an urban lake in Mexico City. Five grams of wet root were seeded on non-nutritive agar with Enterobacter aerogenes (NNE). Water samples were concentrated by centrifugation at 1200g for 15min and the pellet was seeded on NNE. Of the 16 isolated genera, 10 were detected in both habitats. The most frequent were Vannella in root and Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in water. The total number of isolates and genera isolated from root was higher than that isolated from water. The differences between root and water are probably due to the morphological characteristics of water-hyacinth root, which provides a large habitat and refuge area for many organisms.

  19. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    OpenAIRE

    E.A Omondi; P.K Ndiba and P.G Njuru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water sam...

  20. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and/or {sup 60}Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH Almost-Equal-To 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of {sup 137}Cs present with {sup 60}Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of {sup 60}Co is affected negatively by the presence of {sup 137}Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides

  1. Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth for production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-10-01

    Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different temperatures in the range of 300-450°C in the presence of nitrogen (inert atmosphere). The objective of this study is to understand the effect of compositional changes of various aquatic biomass samples on product distribution and nature of products during slow pyrolysis. The maximum liquid product yield of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth (38.5, 43.4 and 24.6wt.% respectively) obtained at 400, 450 and 400°C. Detailed analysis of the bio-oil and bio-char was investigated using (1)H NMR, FT-IR, and XRD. The characterization of bio-oil showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups and presence of phenolic, ketones and nitrogen-containing group. The characterization results showed that the bio-oil obtained from azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth can be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING LOCALLY AVAILABLE INEXPENSIVE TARO AND WATER HYACINTH AS BIOSORBENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahjalal Khandaker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, locally available and inexpensive Taro and Water Hyacinth were used as biosorbents to remove chromium from synthetic wastewater. The removal of this metal ion from water in the batch and column method have been studied and discussed. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm studies were also carried out. The material exhibits good adsorption capacity and the data follow both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Scanning Electronic Microscopic image was also used to understand the surface characteristics of biosorbent before and after biosorption studies. Effects of various factors such as pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate initial concentration, particle size etc. were analyzed. The initial concentrations of chromium were considered 5-30mgL-1 in batch method and only 4mgL-1 in column method. The maximum chromium adsorbed was 1.64 mgg-1 and 4.44 mgg-1 in Batch method and 1.15 mgg-1 and 0.75 mgg-1 in Column method. Batch and Column desorption and regeneration studies were conducted. Column desorption studies indicated that both of these biosorbents could be reused for removing heavy metals. Results of the laboratory experiments show that the performance of Taro and Water Hyacinth prove that they can effectively be used as low cost biosorbents for the removal of chromium from wastewater.KEYWORDS:   adsorption; chromium removal; Taro; water hyacinth; batch method; column studies

  3. Lead tolerance of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. - Pontederiaceae as defined by anatomical and physiological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRICIO J. PEREIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the lead tolerance of water hyacinth and at looking at consequent anatomical and physiological modifications. Water hyacinth plants were grown on nutrient solutions with five different lead concentrations: 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 4.00 mg L–1 by 20 days. Photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and the Ci/Ca rate were measured at the end of 15 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment, the anatomical modifications in the roots and leaves, and the activity of antioxidant system enzymes, were evaluated. Photosynthetic and Ci/Ca rates were both increased under all lead treatments. Leaf anatomy did not exhibit any evidence of toxicity effects, but showed modifications of the stomata and in the thickness of the palisade and spongy parenchyma in the presence of lead. Likewise, root anatomy did not exhibit any toxicity effects, but the xylem and phloem exhibited favorable modifications as well as increased apoplastic barriers. All antioxidant system enzymes exhibited increased activity in the leaves, and some modifications in roots, in the presence of lead. It is likely, therefore, that water hyacinth tolerance to lead is related to anatomical and physiological modifications such as increased photosynthesis and enhanced anatomical capacity for CO2 assimilation and water conductance.

  4. [Effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on macro-benthos community structure and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Liu, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yan, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2010-12-01

    The effects on macro-benthos and benthos environment of planting 200 hm2 water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, were studied during 8-10 months consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average densities of mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area were 276.67, 371.11 and 440.00 ind/m2, respectively, and biomass were 373.15, 486.57 and 672.54 g/m2, respectively, showed that average density and biomass of planting area's were higher than those of others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species was Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that of outside planting area. The density and biomass of three dominant species of benthic animal increased quickly during 8-9 months, decreased quickly in October inside and outside water hyacinth planting area. The reason of this phenomenon could be possible that lots of cyanobacteria cells died and consumed dissolve oxygen in proceed decomposing. Algae cells released lots of phosphorus and nitrogen simultaneously, so macro-benthos died in this environment. The indexes of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was in moderate polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high-density planting water hyacinth haven't demonstrated a great impact on macrobenthos and benthos environment in short planting time (about 6 months planting time).

  5. Occurrence and diversity of fungal pathogens associated with water hyacinth and their potential as biocontrol agents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, Firehun; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Tessema, Taye

    2017-01-01

    Water hyacinth poses serious socio-economic and environmental problems in Ethiopia. To integrate fungal pathogens into water hyacinth management, a survey was conducted in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Based on morphological characterization and DNA sequencing, 25 fungal species were identified th

  6. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Omondi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water samples with PCB to obtain concentrations of 5 10 and 15 amp956gL which were in one to two orders of magnitude above the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA limit of 0.5 amp956gL or 0.5 ppb. Water hyacinth plants were grown in 2 L samples of the PCB spiked water for 15 days and evaluated for tolerance and bioaccumulation of PCB. Phytoremediation of PCB spiked water by the plants was evaluated by measuring the change in concentration of PCB. The plants tolerated PCB concentrations in the range of 5 to 15 amp956gL without depicting any serious adverse effect except for change in root color and an initial wilting of peripheral leaves. Water hyacinth reduced the concentration of PCBs in the leachate over 15 days from 15 to 0.42 amp956gL for the 15 amp956gL initial concentration sample and to below the GCMS detection limit of 0.142 amp956gL for the 10 and 5 ugL initial concentration samples. Bioaccumulation of PCB in the plant tissue was evaluated through solid phase extraction and testing of samples for PCB with GCMS. Bioaccumulation of PCBs at a concentration of 0.179 amp956gg was observed in the water hyacinth roots for the 15 amp956gL sample but none was detected for the lower initial PCB concentration and shoots. The study demonstrated potential of water hyacinth plants in phytoremediation of PCBs in e-waste leachate.

  7. Cogeneration of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from water hyacinth by two-step anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xie, Binfei [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Pyneo Company Limited, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel reaction mechanism of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} cogeneration from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was originally proposed to increase the energy conversion efficiency. The glucose and xylose hydrolysates derived from cellulose and hemicellulose are fermented to cogenerate H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by two-step anaerobic fermentation. The total volatile solid of hyacinth leaves can theoretically cogenerate H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} yields of 303 ml-H{sub 2}/g-TVS and 211 ml-CH{sub 4}/g-TVS, which dramatically increases the theoretical energy conversion efficiency from 19.1% in only H{sub 2} production to 63.1%. When hyacinth leaves are pretreated with 3 wt% NaOH and cellulase in experiments, the cogeneration of H{sub 2} (51.7 ml-H{sub 2}/g-TVS) and CH{sub 4} (143.4 ml-CH{sub 4}/g-TVS) markedly increases the energy conversion efficiency from 3.3% in only H{sub 2} production to 33.2%. Hyacinth leaves, which have the most cellulose and hemicellulose and the least lignin and ash, give the highest H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} yields, while hyacinth roots, which have the most ash and the least cellulose and hemicellulose, give the lowest H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} yields. (author)

  8. Pacheco's parrot disease in macaws of the Lisbon's Zoological Garden. Description of an outbreak, diagnosis and management, including vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão Da Cunha, M; Correia, J J; Fagulha, T; Fevereiro, M; Peleteiro, M C; Vollrath, G; Kaleta, E F

    2007-11-01

    The Lisbon's Zoological Garden, Portugal, has maintained for many years a large collection of psittacine birds without any serious health problems. Unexpectedly, in April 1999, a total of nine macaws died after a short period of illness. Clinical signs consisted mainly of anorexia, ruffled feathers and yellowish droppings. A herpesvirus was isolated from brain, trachea, lung, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine of each of the examined dead birds, confirming that all animals succumbed during viraemia. Serotyping of the isolate in cross neutralization tests with reference sera prove that the outbreak was caused by serotype 3 of Pacheco's parrot disease herpesviruses. An autogenous, formalin-inactivated vaccine with adjuvant (aluminium hydroxid gel) was prepared from one of the isolates and injected intramuscularly 14 days and six weeks after the onset of mortality in an attempt to protect the remaining psittacine birds in the zoo from the disease. The autogenous vaccine was well tolerated and was able to rapidly stop virus spread and morbidity and mortality among the psittacine birds. Follow-up studies demonstrate that all nine blood samples from vaccinated birds obtained nine month' after the second vaccination contain neutralizing antibodies. Twenty five month' after vaccination two out of four serum samples were still antibody positive. No herpesvirus was isolated from faecal samples nine and twenty five months after the onset of the outbreak. These data prove that the autogenous vaccine played a major role in containing a severe outbreak of Pacheco's parrot disease in a large collection of psittacine birds.

  9. Computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veladiano, Irene A; Banzato, Tommaso; Bellini, Luca; Montani, Alessandro; Catania, Salvatore; Zotti, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To create an atlas of the normal CT anatomy of the head of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus). ANIMALS 3 blue-and-gold macaws, 5 African grey parrots, and 6 monk parakeets and cadavers of 4 adult blue-and-gold macaws, 4 adult African grey parrots, and 7 monk parakeets. PROCEDURES Contrast-enhanced CT imaging of the head of the live birds was performed with a 4-multidetector-row CT scanner. Cadaveric specimens were stored at -20°C until completely frozen, and each head was then sliced at 5-mm intervals to create reference cross sections. Frozen cross sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. Anatomic structures within each head were identified with the aid of the available literature, labeled first on anatomic photographs, and then matched to and labeled on corresponding CT images. The best CT reconstruction filter, window width, and window level for obtaining diagnostic images of each structure were also identified. RESULTS Most of the clinically relevant structures of the head were identified in both the cross-sectional photographs and corresponding CT images. Optimal visibility of the bony structures was achieved via CT with a standard soft tissue filter and pulmonary window. The use of contrast medium allowed a thorough evaluation of the soft tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled CT images and photographs of anatomic structures of the heads of common pet parrot species created in this study may be useful as an atlas to aid interpretation of images obtained with any imaging modality.

  10. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  11. Effect of nickel ions on anaerobic methane production from water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuan; Hong, Zi-Jian; Dai, Rui-Hua; Liu, Yan; Liu, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of nickel ions (Ni(2+), 0, 10, 40 and 80 mg/L) on the anaerobic methane production of water hyacinth were investigated. Under these four concentrations, the methane production in 40 d was 2,275, 2,703, 3,210 and 2,481 mL, respectively. This situation illustrated that the Ni(2+) promoted the growth of hydrogen-producing acetic acid bacteria and methanogenic bacteria, even at high concentrations (i.e. 40-80 mg/L). The highest methane production per unit weight water hyacinth reached 206 mL/gTS with 40 mg/L Ni(2+). Meanwhile, the modified Gompertz and Logistic equations were applied to describe the effect on anaerobic culture of Ni(2+). According to these models, the values of methane production potential (mL) for four concentrations were in the following order: 40 mg/L (3,123.42 ± 60.08) > 10 mg/L (2,541.16 ± 46.94) > 80 mg/L (2,432.36 ± 40.18) > 0 mg/L (2,238.10 ± 31.90). According to the analysis of the digestate, the residual concentration of Ni(2+) was approximately 1.05-4.9 mg/L, which was relatively low compared with the Ni(2+) concentrations in the raw feedstock. The results would provide academic guidance and technical support for treatment of water hyacinth with an accumulation of heavy metals.

  12. Generating electricity during peak hours in Asuncion, Paraguay, through anaerobic digestion of cultivated water hyacinths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maioli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to present an innovative and sustainable proposal for generating electricity in the metropolitan area of Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay, based on a renewable source of energy. Electricity would mainly be generated during peak hours with the aim of reducing power contracted by the Paraguayan Electricity Administration (ANDE from existing hydroelectric power plants and thus reduce costs and stabilise transmission and distribution grids in the area of Asuncion. Electricity would be generated at a 130 MW combined cycle thermal power plant using biogas as fuel, this being obtained by anaerobic digestion of water hyacinths cultivated in pools, which would be built on the banks of the Paraguay river opposite Asuncion’s botanical garden. The main advantage of using water hyacinths is their high growth rate, this being 100 to 500 g/day/m2 depending on environmental conditions, thereby allowing plant mass to double every 6 to 15 days. Additionally, carbon to nitrogen ratio in water hyacinth vegetal mass is optimum for biogas generation. About 6.4 kWh/m3 biogas calorific value is high enough to be used for producing heat and, therefore, for generating electricity in a thermal power plant. Such power plant could be directly connected to the national grid through the Puerto Botanic transformer station by building a 2 km long 220 kV transmission line crossing the Paraguay River. This project could save ANDE up to 25 million US$ every year due to reduced contracted power at the Itaipu power plant. Although this reduction will decline by 3% each year due to increased electricity demand, the investment of around 98 million US$ could be repaid within 15 years and would have 5% IRR and US$ 40.5 million NPV.

  13. [Impacts of algal blooms accumulation on physiological ecology of water hyacinth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-ting; Liu, Guo-feng; Han, Shi-qun; Zhou, Qing; Tang, Wan-ying

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green algae bloom will consume plenty of dissolved oxygen in water, which affects the growth of aquatic plants. The effects of water hyacinth growth and physiological response changes under 25 degrees C, 5 different concentrations of cyanobacteria gathered were studied and which would provide a theoretical basis to mitigate adverse impacts and improve water purification effect. The results showed that water quality indexes including dissolved oxygen (DO), pH dropped in algae density below 60 g x L(-1), with the increase of algae density. And the level of oxidation-reduction potential dropped to about 100 mV. The removal rates of TN, TP and COD were 58%-78%, 43%-68% and 59%-73%, leaf soluble protein, soluble sugar, MDA contents increased, respectively; and the MDA content became higher with the increase of algae density. It indicated that the water hyacinth could adapt to the adversity condition as algae density less than 60 g x L(-1). While algae density above 60 g x L(-1), water quality indexes significantly decreased, respectively and the water was in hypoxia or anoxia conditions. Plant leaves soluble sugar contents had a change trend of low-high-low. It indicated that the removal rates of TN, TP decreased with the increase of algae density and water hyacinth had irreversible stress. Plant root length, total length, fresh weight in different treatments, increased compared with the beginning of the experiment, the increase of root length, total length and fresh weight were 0.29-2.44 times, 0.41-0.76 times and 0.9-1.43 times. The increase of root length, total length decreased with the increase of algae density. According to the results, the cyanobacteria should avoid of excessive accumulation as using the floating plant to purify the water.

  14. John Hyacinth de Magellan (1722-90): 18th century physicist with views on medical matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Thomaz, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    John Hyacinth de Magellan, whose Portuguese name was João Hyacintho de Magalhaens, though not a doctor nevertheless had many contacts with doctors and showed a genuine interest in disseminating medical news to his many friends and correspondents in Europe. The abundant and less formal correspondence with his friend Ribeiro Sanches forms the greater part of the work but in letters to other correspondents, including Trudaine de Montigny, Condorcet, Volta, J A Euler, Fabroni and Johann III Bernoulli, we find comments on medical subjects. The Sanches letters are particularly interesting because they are private, friend-to-friend letters that convey spontaneous and sincere thoughts and feelings.

  15. Perspectives of phytoremediation using water hyacinth for removal of heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Sabbagh, Farzaneh; Sairan, Fadzlin Md

    2015-11-01

    The development of eco-friendly and efficient technologies for treating wastewater is one of the attractive research area. Phytoremediation is considered to be a possible method for the removal of pollutants present in wastewater and recognized as a better green remediation technology. Nowadays the focus is to look for a sustainable approach in developing wastewater treatment capability. Water hyacinth is one of the ancient technology that has been still used in the modern era. Although, many papers in relation to wastewater treatment using water hyacinth have been published, recently removal of organic, inorganic and heavy metal have not been reviewed extensively. The main objective of this paper is to review the possibility of using water hyacinth for the removal of pollutants present in different types of wastewater. Water hyacinth is although reported to be as one of the most problematic plants worldwide due to its uncontrollable growth in water bodies but its quest for nutrient absorption has provided way for its usage in phytoremediation, along with the combination of herbicidal control, integratated biological control and watershed management controlling nutrient supply to control its growth. Moreover as a part of solving wastewater treatment problems in urban or industrial areas using this plant, a large number of useful byproducts can be developed like animal and fish feed, power plant energy (briquette), ethanol, biogas, composting and fiber board making. In focus to the future aspects of phytoremediation, the utilization of invasive plants in pollution abatement phytotechnologies can certainly assist for their sustainable management in treating waste water.

  16. Re-use of invasive plants (water hyacinth) as organic fertilizer through composting and vermicomposting (Extremadura, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Moreno, Marta M.

    2015-04-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive plant that is native of the Amazon basin and whose capacity for growth and propagation causes major conservation problems with considerable socioeconomic repercussions. The greatest damage due to its fast expansion has been in the middle reaches of the River Guadiana in the SW Iberian Peninsula, where was detected in the Autumn of 2004. Due to its rapid expansion, mechanical extraction was carried out by the Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (CHG) of Spain's Ministry of the Environment since the affected zone is an important area of irrigation farming and hydraulic works and this alien plant weed provoked acute social alarm (Ruiz et al., 2008). In this work we used composting and vermicomposting techniques as an environmental alternative to assess the possibilities of biotransformation of the water hyacinth biomass removed mechanically from the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Four compost piles 1.5 x 10 m size, mechanically tumbled and with no forced ventilation (turning windrows system), were constructed outdoor. Each compost pile was considered as a different treatment: CC1: fresh water hyacinth / wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC2: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC3: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (2:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2) to favor the composting process; CC4: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2). The vermicomposting process was performed on mesh coated wooden boxes (0.34 m3) covered with a shadow mesh with the aim of harmonizing the environmental conditions. The quantities of water hyacinth biomass used were identical in volume (120 l) but with different state or composition: fresh and chopped biomass (VCF); dry and chopped biomass (VCS); fresh and pre-composted biomass with sheep manure rich in wheat straw (VCP). Identical worm density, irrigation

  17. THE STUDY OF CADMIUM UPTAKE BY WATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES USING A NATURAL MODELLING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara E. Romanova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation on the accumulation of cadmium by water hyacinth, depending on the conditions of pollutant exposure and the presence of various additives are discussed. The main specialty of this study is that all the experiments were carried out in natural conditions using the approach based on the application of the capacities called minicosms. It allowed estimating hit consequences of pollutant on ecosystem most really having made experiment in the conditions as much as possible close to the natural. In this article a very important problem of an accuracy and reliability of the results of trace elements determination in plants is also debated. As a result of carried investigations it was shown that the degree of cadmium extraction by hyacinth from contaminated natural water while maintaining the viability of the plants depends on the way of pollutant introducing into the reservoir and the maximum (about 79% value is observed in the case of it’s gradual entry.

  18. Stability of cemented dried water hyacinth used for biosorption of radionuclides under various circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, H. M.

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the influence of frost attack and flooding conditions during disposal on the compressive strength, porosity and durability of cemented waste form contained dried and grinded water hyacinth. This plant was used as a phytoremediating agent to treat liquid waste simulate contaminated with radionuclides. The obtained results showed that an increase in the incorporated dry plants decreases the compressive strength and increases the porosity of the solidified waste form. Raising the number of freeze-thaw cycles was accompanied with noticeable increase in the mass-loss of tested specimens and unsteady trend of compressive strength and consequently the mechanical integrity. The presence and increase of immersion duration per turned positively the mass change and affect in different ways on the solidified waste form. Spectroscopic analyses such as infrared and X-ray as well as microscopic investigation were performed to evaluate the solidified waste form exposed to different undesirable climatic conditions during extending disposal durations. The use of Portland cement as a stabilizer for water hyacinth, following the phytoremediation process, achieves the requirements for durability and strength against the freeze-thaw cycles or flooding in different types of water during prolonged disposal.

  19. The efficient role of aquatic plant (water hyacinth) in treating domestic wastewater in continuous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Songip, Ahmad Rahman; Singh, Lakhweer; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-01-01

    In this study, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was used to treat domestic wastewater. Ten organic and inorganic parameters were monitored in three weeks for water purification. The six chemical, biological and physical parameters included Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and pH were compared with the Interim National Water Quality Standards, Malaysia River classification (INWQS) and Water Quality Index (WQI). Between 38% to 96% of reduction was observed and water quality has been improved from class III and IV to class II. Analyses for Electricity Conductivity (EC), Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Ammonium (NH4) were also investigated. In all parameters, removal efficiency was in range of 13-17th day (optimum 14th day) which was higher than 3 weeks except DO. It reveals the optimum growth rate of water hyacinth has great effect on waste water purification efficiency in continuous system and nutrient removal was successfully achieved.

  20. Protein Rich Flour from Hyacinth Bean as Functional Food Ingredient with Low Glycemic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi’

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich flour (PRF produced from Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet shows good potency as a functional food ingredient. The PRF was extracted from hyacinth bean using water followed by protein precipitation at its isoelectric point. The precipitate was neutralized using 1 N NaOH and the slurry was dried, ground and sieved. The objective of this research was to characterize the nutritive value of PRF i.e., protein content and amino acid profile, trypsin inhibitors activity, content of vitamins B1 and B2, the amylose and amylopectin ratio of starch and its glycemic index. The results showed that the PRF contained high protein (58.4±4.5%. The major amino acid was glutamic acid, while methionine was found as the limited amino acid of the PRF. The activity of trypsin inhibitor was low (20.4±1.6 unit/g. Moreover, PRF contains 0.2 and 3.6 mg/100 g of vitamins B1 and B2 respectively. With a high ratio of amylose (30.0±2.0% and high content of resistance starch (7.97 g/100 g, the PRF showed a low glycemic index (43.50. Based on its characteristics, this PRF can be promoted as a new food ingredient, especially for diabetic diet.

  1. The porous carbon derived from water hyacinth with well-designed hierarchical structure for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xi; Zhang, Mengyan; Shi, Ling; Cheng, Jue

    2017-10-01

    A hierarchical porous water hyacinth-derived carbon (WHC) is fabricated by pre-carbonization and KOH activation for supercapacitors. The physicochemical properties of WHC are researched by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that WHC exhibits hierarchical porous structure and high specific surface area of 2276 m2/g. And the electrochemical properties of WHC are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. In a three-electrode test system, WHC shows considerable specific capacitance of 344.9 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g, good rate performance with 225.8 F/g even at a current density of 30 A/g, and good cycle stability with 95% of the capacitance retention after 10000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 5 A/g. Moreover, WHC cell delivers an energy density of 23.8 Wh/kg at 0.5 A/g and a power density of 15.7 kW/kg at 10 A/g. Thus, using water hyacinth as carbon source to fabricate supercapacitors electrodes is a promising approach for developing inexpensive, sustainable and high-performance carbon materials. Additionally, this study supports the sustainable development and the control of biological invasion.

  2. Phytoextraction of trace elements by water hyacinth in contaminated area of gold mine tailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Tamara E; Shuvaeva, Olga V; Belchenko, Ludmila A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to uptake Ag, Ba, Cd, Mo, and Pb from waters in gold mine tailing area was studied. All experiments were carried out in the field conditions without using of model system. Bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF) as well as elements accumulation by plant in different points of tailings-impacted area were evaluated. It has been shown that water hyacinth demonstrates high ability to accumulate Mo, Pb, and Ba with BCF values 24,360 ± 3600, 18,800 ± 2800 and 10,040 ± 1400, respectively and is efficient in translocation of Mo and Cd. The general trend of the plant accumulation ability in relation to the studied elements corresponds to their concentration in the medium. As the distance from tailings increases, concentration of Ag, Ba and Pb in plant decreases more clearly than that of Cd, while the amount of Mo accumulated by plant doesn't drop significantly in accordance with its concentration in water. Under the conditions of the confluence of river Ur and drainage stream Ba and Ag can be considered as potential candidates for phytomining.

  3. Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, V; Rai, J P N

    2003-02-01

    The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from wastewater for their metabolic use. Slurry of the two plants used for phytoremediation produced significantly more biogas than that produced by the plants grown in deionized water; the effect being more marked with plants used for phytoremediation of 20% pulp and paper mill effluent. Biogas production from channel grass was relatively greater and quicker (maximum in 6-9 days) than that from water hyacinth (in 9-12 days). Such variation in biogas production by the two macrophytes has been correlated with the changes in C, N and C/N ratio of their slurry brought by phytoremediation.

  4. Identifying relevant hyperspectral bands using Boruta: a temporal analysis of water hyacinth biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agjee, Na'eem Hoosen; Ismail, Riyad; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-10-01

    Water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes) are threatening freshwater ecosystems throughout Africa. The Neochetina spp. weevils are seen as an effective solution that can combat the proliferation of the invasive alien plant. We aimed to determine if multitemporal hyperspectral data could be utilized to detect the efficacy of the biocontrol agent. The random forest (RF) algorithm was used to classify variable infestation levels for 6 weeks using: (1) all the hyperspectral bands, (2) bands selected by the recursive feature elimination (RFE) algorithm, and (3) bands selected by the Boruta algorithm. Results showed that the RF model using all the bands successfully produced low-classification errors (12.50% to 32.29%) for all 6 weeks. However, the RF model using Boruta selected bands produced lower classification errors (8.33% to 15.62%) than the RF model using all the bands or bands selected by the RFE algorithm (11.25% to 21.25%) for all 6 weeks, highlighting the utility of Boruta as an all relevant band selection algorithm. All relevant bands selected by Boruta included: 352, 754, 770, 771, 775, 781, 782, 783, 786, and 789 nm. It was concluded that RF coupled with Boruta band-selection algorithm can be utilized to undertake multitemporal monitoring of variable infestation levels on water hyacinth plants.

  5. Present status of the development of mycoherbicides against water hyacinth: successes and challenges. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijakli, MH.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in the implementation of bioherbicide use in the control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Martius] Solms Laubach have depended primarily on several strategies. The use of bioherbicides has been stimulated as part of the search for alternatives to chemical control, as the use of these more environmentally-friendly formulations minimizes hazards resulting from herbicide residue to both human and animal health, and to the ecology. In addition, one of the major strategies in the concept of biological control is the attempt to incorporate biological weed control methods as a component of integrated weed management, in order to achieve satisfactory results while reducing herbicide application to a minimum. Several fungal pathogens with mycoherbicide potential (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Hyakillä and Cercospora rodmanii, named ABG-5003 have been discovered on diseased water hyacinth plants, but none has become commercially available in the market. Biological, technological, and commercial constraints have hindered progress in this area. Many of these constraints are being addressed, but there is a critical need to better understand the biochemical and physiological data regarding the pathogenesis of these new bioherbicides. Oil emulsions are recognized as a way to increase both efficiency of application and efficacy of biocontrol agents.

  6. BIOSORPTION AND RECOVERY OF HEAVY METALS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (WATER HYACINTH ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal’s release without treatment poses a significant threat to the environment. Heavy metals are non-biodegradable and persistent. In the present study the ash of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, was used to remove six metals from aqueous solutions through biosorption. Results of batch and column experiments showed excellent adsorption capacity. Removal of lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel was 29.83, 1.263, 1.575, 3.323, 2.984 and 1.978 µgg-1, respectively. The biosorptive capacity was maximum with pH >8.00. Desorption in µgg-1 of ash for lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel was 18.10, 9.99, 11.99, 27.54, 21.09, and 3.71 respectively. Adsorption/desorption of these metals from ash showed the potential of this technology for recovery of metals for further usages. Hydrogen adsorption was also studied with a Sievert-type apparatus. Hydrogen adsorption experiments showed significant storage capacity of water hyacinth ash.

  7. Phytoremediation of wastewater toxicity using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Kouamé Kouamé; Séka, Yapoga; Norbert, Kouadio Kouakou; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Celestin, Atsé Boua

    2016-10-02

    This paper elucidates the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth and water lettuce on the reduction of wastewater toxicity. Acute toxicity tests were performed in an aquarium with a population of Sarotherodon melanotheron, contaminated by different concentrations of wastewaters before and after phytoremediation with Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes. Lethal concentrations (LC50) of the fish's population obtained during 24 hours of exposures were determined. COD, BOD, ammonium, TKN and PO4(3-) concentrations in wastewaters were of 1850.29, 973.33, 38.34, 61.49 and 39.23 mg L(-1), respectively, for each plant. Phytoremediation reduced 58.87% of ammonium content, 50.04% of PO4(3-), 82.45% of COD and 84.91% of BOD. After 15 days of the experiment, metal contents in treated wastewaters decreased from 6.65 to 97.56% for water hyacinth and 3.51 to 93.51% for water lettuce tanks. Toxicity tests showed that the mortality of fish exposed increased with increase in concentration of pollutants in wastewaters and the time of exposure. Therefore, the highest value of LC50 was recorded for fish subjected to 3 hours of exposure (16.37%). The lowest rate was obtained after an exposure of 20 to 24 hours (5.85%). After phytoremediation, the effluents purified by Eichhornia crassipes can maintain the fish life beyond 24 hours of exposure.

  8. Stability of cemented dried water hyacinth used for biosorption of radionuclides under various circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com

    2014-03-15

    This paper investigates the influence of frost attack and flooding conditions during disposal on the compressive strength, porosity and durability of cemented waste form contained dried and grinded water hyacinth. This plant was used as a phytoremediating agent to treat liquid waste simulate contaminated with radionuclides. The obtained results showed that an increase in the incorporated dry plants decreases the compressive strength and increases the porosity of the solidified waste form. Raising the number of freeze–thaw cycles was accompanied with noticeable increase in the mass-loss of tested specimens and unsteady trend of compressive strength and consequently the mechanical integrity. The presence and increase of immersion duration per turned positively the mass change and affect in different ways on the solidified waste form. Spectroscopic analyses such as infrared and X-ray as well as microscopic investigation were performed to evaluate the solidified waste form exposed to different undesirable climatic conditions during extending disposal durations. The use of Portland cement as a stabilizer for water hyacinth, following the phytoremediation process, achieves the requirements for durability and strength against the freeze–thaw cycles or flooding in different types of water during prolonged disposal.

  9. Production of alkyl esters from macaw palm oil by a sequential hydrolysis/esterification process using heterogeneous biocatalysts: optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, Ana Paula P; Garcia, Karen C A; Hirata, Daniela B; Mendes, Adriano A

    2015-02-01

    The present study deals with the enzymatic synthesis of alkyl esters with emollient properties by a sequential hydrolysis/esterification process (hydroesterification) using unrefined macaw palm oil from pulp seeds (MPPO) as feedstock. Crude enzymatic extract from dormant castor bean seeds was used as biocatalyst in the production of free fatty acids (FFA) by hydrolysis of MPPO. Esterification of purified FFA with several alcohols in heptane medium was catalyzed by immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) on poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) particles. Under optimal experimental conditions (mass ratio oil:buffer of 35% m/m, reaction temperature of 35 °C, biocatalyst concentration of 6% m/m, and stirring speed of 1,000 rpm), complete hydrolysis of MPPO was reached after 110 min of reaction. Maximum ester conversion percentage of 92.4 ± 0.4% was reached using hexanol as acyl acceptor at 750 mM of each reactant after 15 min of reaction. The biocatalyst retained full activity after eight successive cycles of esterification reaction. These results show that the proposed process is a promising strategy for the synthesis of alkyl esters of industrial interest from macaw palm oil, an attractive option for the Brazilian oleochemical industry.

  10. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, S.; Zarazúa, G.; Ávila-Pérez, P.; Carapia-Morales, L.; Martínez, T.

    2010-06-01

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn Kα. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 µg/g) > S (7593.3 µg/g) > Fe (4406.6 µg/g) > Ca (2601.8 µg/g) > Mn (604.2 µg/g) > Ti (230.7 µg/g) > Zn (51.65 µg/g) > Sr (43.55 µg/g) > Rb (18.61 µg/g) > Cu (12.78 µg/g) > Cr (6.45 µg/g) > Ni (4.68 µg/g) > Pb (4.32 µg/g) > Br (4.31 µg/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  11. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Apartado Postal 890, Metepec, C.P. 52149 (Mexico); Zarazua, G., E-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Avila-Perez, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Apartado Postal 890, Metepec, C.P. 52149 (Mexico); Carapia-Morales, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Martinez, T. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn K{alpha}. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 {mu}g/g) > S (7593.3 {mu}g/g) > Fe (4406.6 {mu}g/g) > Ca (2601.8 {mu}g/g) > Mn (604.2 {mu}g/g) > Ti (230.7 {mu}g/g) > Zn (51.65 {mu}g/g) > Sr (43.55 {mu}g/g) > Rb (18.61 {mu}g/g) > Cu (12.78 {mu}g/g) > Cr (6.45 {mu}g/g) > Ni (4.68 {mu}g/g) > Pb (4.32 {mu}g/g) > Br (4.31 {mu}g/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  12. Does fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendment enhance phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted aquatic ecosystem in the presence of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, Prince Emeka; Jenyo-Oni, Adetola; Chukwuka, Kanayo S; Ndimele, Chinatu Charity; Ayodele, Ibukunoluwa Augustine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of inorganic fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendments on crude oil uptake by water hyacinth. Experimental units (water hyacinth grown in fresh water) were spiked with 0, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L crude oil. After 24 h, they were randomly assigned fertilizer (N15P15K15) at three different concentrations; 0, 6 and 10 mg/L. Crude oil degradation and absorption were determined by measuring total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the water column and water hyacinth, respectively. The measurements were taken monthly for six months (February-August 2010). The results showed that TPH concentration in the water column in the treatment amended at 6 mg/L (0.30 ± 0.01 mg/L) was significantly lower (p phytoremediation) absorbed significantly higher (p phytoremediation of crude oil by water hyacinth and biostimulation with fertilizer (N15P15K15) is possible.

  13. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal-Polluted Aquatic Ecosystem (Ologe Lagoon) By Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) and the Socio-Egological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, C. C.; Chukwuka, K. S.; Ndimele, P. E.

    2016-02-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents containing harmful substances such as heavy metals has become a global problem because of the negative effects of these substances on humans. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been considered a menace since it entered Nigerian inland waters through neighbouring Republic of Benin in the 80's. Attempts to eradicate it has not been successful. Thus, the need to explore it useful potentials. It is used in paper production, feed formulation, phytoremediation etc. Phytoremediation is a bioremediation process that uses plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, and/or destroy pollutants in soil and water. The aim of the study was to investigate the phytoremediative potentials of water hyacinth resident in Ologe Lagoon as well as the socio-economic and ecological implications of their invasiveness. The study was conducted over a period of 18 months and 5 sampling stations were selected based on their proximity to the point of discharge of effluent, presence of water hyacinth and human activities. Water, sediment and water hyacinth samples were collected monthly from each sampling station and analysed for heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As). Questionnaire was also administered for socio-economic impact assessment. The results showed that water hyacinth can absorb heavy metals from water even when the concentration of the metal in water is low. It was also discovered that water hyacinth invasion of Ologe Lagoon has adversely affected fishing, navigation, aesthetic and cultural values of the Lagoon.

  14. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake M. Laguador

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respondents who were owners of restaurants that utilized charcoal for grilling. The company adopts partnership form of ownership and based on the result of the survey, the study is feasible in the region and raw materials were abundant in the nearby towns and provinces. It is resolute to establish a business which offers high quality and low priced green charcoal in the market as alternative biofuel with payback period of 4 years and 11 monthsbased on the result of financial analysis.

  15. Effect of illuminating gas on the lily, narcissus, tulip, and hyacinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, A.E.; Crocker, W.; Zimmerman, P.W.

    1932-01-01

    The gas used in these studies was primarily ethylene, as this is the constituent of illuminating gas which has the greatest injury-causing potential. The plants used were lily, narcissus, tulip and hyacinth. The time of exposure varied from one to seven days. All were retarded in growth during treatment by all concentrations of illuminating gas without causing death or abscission of leaves. Pronounced response of leaves to gas depended on the age, rate of growth, and the variety of plant. The effect of the gas on flowering depended upon the age of the bud at the time of exposure, the variety of plant, and the concentration of gas used. 5 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of amaranth dye biosorption from aqueous solution onto water hyacinth leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Coronilla, Imelda; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2015-04-01

    The present study explored the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of amaranth (acid red 27) anionic dye (AD) biosorption to water hyacinth leaves (LEC). The effect of LEC particle size, contact time, solution pH, initial AD concentration and temperature on AD biosorption was studied in batch experiments. AD biosorption increased with rising contact time and initial AD concentration, and with decreasing LEC particle size and solution pH. Pseudo-second-order chemical reaction kinetics provided the best correlation for the experimental data. Isotherm studies showed that the biosorption of AD onto LEC closely follows the Langmuir isotherm, with a maximum biosorption capacity of about 70 mg g(-1). The thermodynamic parameters confirm that AD biosorption by LEC is non-spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Results indicate that LEC is a strong biosorbent capable of effective detoxification of AD-laden wastewaters.

  17. Sustainability assessment of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis in the Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Luz Selene; Ortega, Enrique; Bergier, Ivan; Mesa-Pérez, Juan Miguel; Salis, Suzana Maria; Luengo, Carlos Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis of naturally produced water hyacinth was assessed through Emergy accounting approach. Two analyses were carried out to evaluate the influence of additional services and externalities on Emergy indicators for a pyrolysis plant unit able to process 1000 kg of dry biomass per hour. The initial approach was a traditional Emergy assessment in which financial fluxes and externalities were not considered. The second approach included taxes and fees of the Brazilian government, interests related to financing operations and assumes a reserve financial fund of 5% of the total investment as externalities cost. For the first evaluation, the renewability of 86% indicates that local and renewable resources mainly support the process and the Emergy Yield Ratio of 3.2 shows that the system has a potential contribution to the regional economy due to the local resources use. The inclusion of financial fluxes and externalities in the second evaluation reduces both renewability and Emergy Yield Ratio, whereas it increases the Emergy Investment Ratio which means a higher dependence on external resources. The second analysis allows portraying significant forces of the industrial and financial systems and the evaluation of the externalities' impact on the general system Emergy behavior. A comparison of the renewability of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis with other biofuels like soybean biodiesel and sugarcane ethanol indicates that the former is less dependent on fossil fuel resources, machinery and fertilizers. To complement the sustainability assessment provided by the Emergy method, a regular financial analysis for the second defined system was done. It shows that the system is financially attractive even with the accounting of additional costs. The results obtained in this study could be used as the maximum and minimum thresholds to subsidize regulatory policies for new economic activities in tropical wetlands involving natural resources exploitation and bio

  18. Effectiveness of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Using a Bio-Hedge Water Hyacinth Wetland System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Valipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available onstructed wetland applications have been limited by a large land requirement and capital investment. This study aimed to improve a shallow pond water hyacinth system by incorporating the advantages of engineered attached microbial growth technique (termed Bio-hedge for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. A laboratory scale continuous-flow system consists of the mesh type matrix providing an additional biofilm surface area of 54 m2/m3. Following one year of experimentation, the process showed more stability and enhanced performance in removing organic matter and nutrients, compared to traditional water hyacinth (by lowering 33%–67% HRT and facultative (by lowering 92%–96% HRT ponds. The wastewater exposed plants revealed a relative growth rate of 1.15% per day, and no anatomical deformities were observed. Plant nutrient level averaged 27 ± 1.7 and 44 ± 2.3 mg N/g dry weight, and 5 ± 1.4 & 9±1.2 mg P/g dry weight in roots and shoots, respectively. Microorganisms immobilized on Bio-hedge media (4.06 × 107 cfu/cm2 and plant roots (3.12 × 104 cfu/cm were isolated and identified (a total of 23 strains. The capital cost was pre-estimated for 1 m3/d wastewater at 78 US$/m3inflow and 465 US$/kg BOD5 removed. This process is a suitable ecotechnology due to improved biofilm formation, reduced footprint, energy savings, and increased quality effluent.

  19. Cellulase Production by Native Bacteria Using Water Hyacinth as Substrate under Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chandra Kurup, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the freshwater systems in tropical countries are infested with one kind of aquatic weed or the other causing serious environmental problems. All efforts to control the growth and spread of these weeds have failed miserably and hence the concept of eradication through utilization is being adopted by many researchers. Solid state fermentation, the culturing of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence or near absence of free water, has generatedgreat deal of interest among researchers because of its various advantages over the submerged fermentation technique. Cellulase enzyme is used extensively in various industries, especially in textile, food and in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes to alcohol. The extensive use of cellulase in industries depends on the cost of the enzyme and hence considerable research is being carried out to isolate better microbial strains and also to develop new fermentationprocesses with the aim to reduce the product cost. The objective of the present study is to determine whether water hyacinth, one of the commonly found aquatic weeds, can be used as a substrate for cellulase production, by three native bacterial isolates named WHB 3, WHB 4 and SMB 3, under the process of solid state fermentation. Results indicatethat all the three isolates produced cellulase enzyme by using water hyacinth as the solid support. Under optimized conditions of moisture, pH, temperature, incubation time and inoculum concentration, the enzyme yield increased from 16.8 to 94.8 units for SMB 3, from 25.2 to 110.4 units for WHB 3 and from 18.0 to 127.2 units for WHB 4. The addition of nitrogen and carbon sources resulted in a significant increase in cellulase yield and WHB 3 produced the maximum amount of 216 units followed by SMB 3 and WHB 4.

  20. Identification of key drought stress-related genes in the hyacinth bean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Ming Yao

    Full Text Available Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus [Linn.] Sweet possesses excellent characteristics for field production, but the response of this plant to drought stress has not been described at the molecular level. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH is an effective way to exploit key factors for plant responses to drought stress that are involved in transcriptional and metabolic activities. In this study, forward and reverse SSH libraries were generated from root tissues of the drought-tolerant hyacinth bean genotype MEIDOU 2012 under water-stress conditions. A total of 1,287 unigenes (94 contigs and 1,193 singletons were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 1400 ESTs, and 80.6% of those hit against NCBI non-redundant (nr database with E value <1E-06. BLASTX analysis revealed that the majority top matches were proteins form Glycine max (L. Merrill. (61.5%. According to a gene ontology (GO functional classification, 816 functionally annotated unigenes were assigned to the biological process category (74.1%, and 83.9% of them classified into molecular function and 69.2% involved in cellular component. A total of 168 sequences were further annotated with 207 Enzyme Commission (EC codes and mapped to 83 different KEGG pathways. Seventeen functionally relevant genes were found to be overrepresented under drought stress using enrichment analysis. Differential expression of unigenes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assays, and their transcript profiles generally divided into three patterns, depending on the expression peaked levels after 6, 8 or 10 days dehydration, which indicated that these genes are functionally associated in the drought-stress response.

  1. Effects of lime on bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during agitated pile composting of water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2013-06-01

    In the present study composting of water hyacinth was done with cattle manure and saw dust (6:3:1) ratio and effects of addition of lime (1%, 2% and 3%) on heavy metal bioavailability and leachability was evaluated during 30 days of composting period. The changes in temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and extractable heavy metal contents were measured. Results showed that the total concentration of heavy metals was increased during the composting process. Due to addition of lime initial pH of the compost was raised effectively, caused a decrease in water soluble, diethylene triamine pentracetic acid (DTPA) and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) extractable metal contents in the final compost. Water soluble metals (Ni, Pb and Cd) and DTPA extractable metals (Pb and Cd) were not detected during water soluble fraction. Addition of lime significantly reduced the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting process.

  2. Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution using dried water hyacinth as a biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hanan S; Ammar, Nabila S; Soylak, Mustafa; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-10-01

    Possible usages of dried water hyacinth as biosorbent for metal ions were investigated. A model describing the plant is presented on density functional theory DFT and verified experimentally with FTIR. The model shows that water hyacinth is a mixture of cellulose and lignin. Dried shoot and root were found as good sorbent for Cd(II) and Pb(II) at optimum dosage of 5.0 g/l and pH 5.0; equilibrium time was attained within 30-60 min. The removal using root and shoot were nearly equal and reached more than 75% for Cd and more than 90% for Pb. Finally the second-order kinetics was the applicable model. Hydrogen bonds of reactive functional groups like COOH play the key role in the removal process.

  3. The determination of optimum condition in water hyacinth drying process by mixed adsorption drying method and modified fly ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Putri, Rizky Anggreini

    2017-05-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed that has a very fast growth which makes it becomes a problem to the ecosystem. On the other hand, water hyacinth has a high fiber content (up to 20% by weight) which makes it potential to become raw material for composites and textile industries. As an aquatic plant, water hyacinth has a high initial moisture content that reaches more than 90%. Meanwhile the moisture content of fiber as a raw material for composite and textile industry should not be more than 10% to maintain the good quality of the products. Mixed adsorption drying method is one of the innovative method that can replace conventional drying process. Fluidization method which has been commonly used in agricultural and pharmaceutical products drying, can be enhanced by combining it with the adsorption method as performed in this study. In mixed fluidization-adsorption drying method, fly ash as adsorbent and water hyacinth fiber were put together into the fluidization column where the drying air evaporate the moisture content in water hyacinth fiber. In addition, the adsorbent adsorb the moisture content in the drying air to make the moisture content of the drying air remain low. The drying process is performed in various temperature and composition of water hyacinth and adsorbent in order to obtain the optimum drying condition. In addition, the effect of fly ash pellet and fly ash powder to the drying process was also performed. The result shows that the higher temperature and the more amount of adsorbent results in the faster drying rate. Fly ash pellet shows a better adsorption since it has a smaller pore diameter and wider surface area. The optimum temperature obtained from this study is 60°C and the optimum ratio of water hyacinth and fly ash is 50:50.

  4. Removal of aluminium by constructed wetlands with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2007-02-01

    This article reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions for Al rich wastewaters in batch type constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems). This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1 week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth (average height of 20 +/- 2 cm) in 590 L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 2-fold [56 and 15.4 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 1-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 5.62 Al mg/L. A control set-up of hyacinths comprising only Al with no nutrients was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to identify the different Al removal mechanisms from the wastewaters. Chemical precipitation of Al(OH)3 was a dominant contribution to Al removal at the beginning of the study, whereas adsorption of Al3+ to sediments was observed to be a predominant Al removal mechanism as the study progressed. Phytoremediation mainly due to rhizofiltration was also an important mechanism of Al removal especially during the first 4 weeks of the study in almost all the set-ups. However, chemical precipitation and sediment adsorption of Al3+ was a dominant contribution to Al removal in comparison with phytoremediation. Plants cultured in the control set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 63% during the period of the 4th week. A similar scenario was evident in the 1/8-fold set-up. Hence we conclude that water hyacinth grown under lower nutritional conditions are more ideal to commence a batch type constructed wetland treating Al rich wastewaters with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 4 weeks, after which a complete harvesting is recommended.

  5. Rearing and Release of Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) for Biological Control of Water hyacinth in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Y. Liang. 2012. Comparing SPAD and atLEAF values for chlorophyll assessment in crop species. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 92:645–648...F. A. Dray Jr. 2010. Bottom-up control of water hyacinth weevil populations: Do the plants regulate the insects? Journal of Applied Ecology 47:329...Neochetina eichhorniae on waterhyacinth in Southern Louisiana. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 22:57–61. ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-40 June 2017 11

  6. Selection, efficacy, ecological characterization and formulation of fungal control agents against water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms] in Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Dagno, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Rice and irrigated orchards are considered as the most important food and economical sources in Mali, which watered from Niger River. However, stable productions of rice and orchards products have been limited by many disease, insects, and weeds. Recently, water hyacinth infestation in river of Niger has increased drastically and as affected by the decrease of water flow due to clogging dams and irrigation work. Biological control of weeds is an alternative approach to chemical herbicide use,...

  7. Optimization of bioethanol production using whole plant of Water Hyacinth as substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    Qiuzhuo eZhang; Chen eWeng; Huiqin eHuang; Varenyam eAchal; Duanchao eWang

    2016-01-01

    The whole plant of Water Hyacinth that had potential to remove heavy metals from wastewater was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the current study. It was found that acid pretreatment exhibited the most effective for reducing sugars production. An amount of 402.93 mg reducing sugars was achieved at optimal condition after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to Response Surface Method (RSM) in Sacchar...

  8. Water Hyacinth Identification Using CART Modeling With Hyperspectral Data in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S.; Hestir, E. L.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Ustin, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive aquatic weed that is causing severe economic and ecological impacts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA). Monitoring its distribution using remote sensing is the crucial first step in modeling its predicted spread and implementing control and eradication efforts. However, accurately mapping this species is confounded by its several phenological forms, namely a healthy vegetative canopy, flowering canopy with dense conspicuous terminal flowers above the foliage, and floating dead and senescent forms. The full range of these phenologies may be simultaneously present at any time, given the heterogeneity of environmental and ecological conditions in the Delta. There is greater spectral variation within water hyacinth than between any of the co-occurring species (pennywort and water primrose), so classification approaches must take these different phenological stages into consideration. We present an approach to differentiating water hyacinth from co-occurring species based on knowledge of relevant variation in leaf chlorophyll, floral pigments, foliage water content, and variation in leaf structure using a classification and regression tree (CART) applied to airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

  9. Study on preparation of water hyacinth-based activated carbon for pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpoke, Anusorn

    2015-09-01

    Mulberry pulp and paper mills produce high chemical- and organic matter containing waste water in Thailand. Many of the mills are not equipped with wastewater treatment unit; their untreated effluent is directly discharged into recipient water resources. The effluent constituents are well recognized as acute and chronic pollutants that are hazardous to the environment. The present study aimed to investigate the utilization of an activated carbon from a low-cost material and to examine its adsorption performance using batch and fixed-bed adsorption. Water hyacinth was used as a raw material for activated carbon production via a chemical activation method. The results showed that water hyacinth-based activated carbon (WHAC) provided a high surface area of 912-1,066 m2g(-1) and exhibited micropore structure. Based on the Freundlich fit, the maximum adsorption capacity of COD and color was 4.52 mgg(-1) and 13.57 Pt-Cog(-1), respectively. The fixed bed adsorption provided maximum removal efficiency of 91.70 and 92.62% for COD and color, respectively. A continuous adsorption data agreed well with the Thomas kinetic model. In summary, water hyacinth can be used as a low-cost material for activated carbon production with high removal efficiency of COD and color for pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment.

  10. Removal of Cu(II) in aqueous media by biosorption using water hyacinth roots as a biosorbent material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Jiachuan; Feng Huimin [Advanced Lab for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lam, Michael Hon-Wah, E-mail: bhmhwlam@cityu.edu.hk [Advanced Lab for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing [Advanced Lab for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Ding Yanwei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Yu Hanqing, E-mail: hqyu@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Lab for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Water hyacinth roots were employed as a biosorbent to remove Cu(II) in aqueous media. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis revealed that the biosorbent was mesoporous with a relatively small surface area. Equilibrium biosorption isotherms showed that the water hyacinth roots possessed a high affinity and sorption capacity for Cu(II) with a monolayer sorption capacity of 22.7 mg g{sup -1} at initial pH 5.5. Kinetics study at different temperatures revealed that the sorption was a rapid and endothermic process. The activation energy for Cu(II) sorption was estimated to be 30.8 kJ mol{sup -1}, which is typical of activated chemisorption processes. The sorption mechanism was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, effect of pH and calcium release. These analyses suggested that the biosorption mainly involved the ion exchange of Cu(II) with cations and complex formation with functional groups on the surface of the roots. All the results showed that water hyacinth roots are an alternative low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous media.

  11. A Comparative Study of the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Water Hyacinth, Water Lettuce And Parrot's Feather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot’s feather plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater at two retention times. During the experiment, the aquatic plants grew rapidly and appeared healthy with green color. At hydraulic retention times (HRTs of 6 and 12 days, the average water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot’s feather yields were 83, 51 and 51 g (dm m-2 and 49, 29 and 22 g (dm m-2, respectively. The aquatic plants were able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO43--P reductions ranged from 21.4 to 48.0%, from 71.1 to 89.5%, from 55.9 to 76.0%, from 49.6 to 90.6%, from 34.5 to 54.4% and from 64.5 to 76.8%, respectively. Generally, the reductions increased with longer retention times and were highest in compartments containing water hyacinth followed by compartments containing water lettuce and parrot’s feather. In terms of COD, NO3--N and PO43--P, the effluent leaving the hydroponics system was suitable for reuse in aquaculture. However, the effluent had slightly high levels of TS, NH3-N, NO2--N and pH after treatment.

  12. Classification, mode of action and production strategy of xylanase and its application for biofuel production from water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday, Uma Shankar Prasad; Choudhury, Payel; Bandyopadhyay, Tarun Kanti; Bhunia, Biswanath

    2016-01-01

    Xylanases are classified under glycoside hydrolase families which represent one of the largest groups of commercial enzymes. Depolymerizing xylan molecules into monomeric pentose units involves the synergistic action of mainly two key enzymes which are endo-β-xylanase and β-xylosidase. Xylanases are different with respect to their mode of action, substrate specificities, biochemical properties, 3D structure and are widely produced by a spectrum of bacteria and fungi. Currently, large scale production of xylanase can be produced through the application of genetic engineering tool which allow fast identification of novel xylanase genes and their genetic variations makes it an ideal enzymes. Due to depletion of fossil fuel, there is urgent need to find out environment friendly and sustainable energy sources. Therefore, utilisation of cheap lignocellulosic materials along with proper optimisation of process is most important for cost efficient ethanol production. Among, various types of lignocellulosic substances, water hyacinth, a noxious aquatic weed, has been found in many tropical. Therefore, the technological development for biofuel production from water hyacinth is becoming commercially worthwhile. In this review, the classification and mode of action of xylanase including genetic regulation and strategy for robust xylanase production have been critically discussed from recent reports. In addition various strategies for cost effective biofuel production from water hyacinth including chimeric proteins design has also been critically evaluated.

  13. Effect of the application of water hyacinth compost/vermicompost on the growth and flowering of Crossandra undulaefolia, and on several vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2002-11-01

    The impact of the application of compost/vermicompost obtained from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms) on plants was assessed in terms of growth and flowering of the angiosperm crossandra (Crossandra undulaefolia). Overall nine morphological, size, and yield attributes were studied in crossandra saplings raised on water hyacinth compost or vermicompost as compared to the untreated saplings. Application of vermicompost led to statistically significant improvement in the growth and flowering of crossandra compared to the untreated plants. The impact of compost was also beneficial but a little less distinct than the positive impact of vermicompost. Qualitative studies were simultaneously conducted in five kitchen gardens owned by farmers near Pondicherry. In three of these locations water hyacinth vermicompost was applied-and no other fertilizer-for months to different species of vegetables. Water hyacinth compost was similarly applied in another two locations. In all the locations no adverse effect on any of the plant species was observed. We believe these studies would help in dispelling the apprehension of farmers that compost/vermicompost obtained form a pernicious weed like water hyacinth may have deleterious effect on other plants.

  14. Bioethanol production from sodium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide-pretreated water hyacinth via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with a newly isolated thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianu strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinping; Wei, Zhilei; Wang, Qiaoping; He, Manman; Li, Shumei; Irbis, Chagan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, bioethanol production from NaOH/H2O2-pretreated water hyacinth was investigated. Pretreatment of water hyacinth with 1.5% (v/v) H2O2 and 3% (w/v) NaOH at 25 °C increased the production of reducing sugars (223.53 mg/g dry) and decreased the cellulose crystallinity (12.18%), compared with 48.67 mg/g dry and 22.80% in the untreated sample, respectively. The newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianu K213 showed greater ethanol production from glucose (0.43 g/g glucose) at 45 °C than did the control Saccharomyces cerevisiae angel yeast. The maximum ethanol concentration (7.34 g/L) achieved with K. marxianu K213 by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from pretreated water hyacinth at 42 °C was 1.78-fold greater than that produced by angel yeast S. cerevisiae at 30 °C. The present work demonstrates that bioethanol production achieved via SSF of NaOH/H2O2-pretreated water hyacinth with K. marxianu K213 is a promising strategy to utilize water hyacinth biomass.

  15. NUTRITIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF WATER HYACINTH LEAVES COMBINED WITH WHEAT BRAN AND COTTON SEED CAKE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to evaluate the different levels of water hyacinth plant leaves in the diet of Nile Tilapia and their effect on growth performance so as to eliminate the water hyacinth plant from the Nile and provide a cheap food for fish. In this experiment the dried water hyacinth leaves (Eicchornia crassipse, wheat bran and cotton seed cake were used in different ratio to formulate two experimental diets (A and B. Diet (A contains 70% wheat bran, 20% cotton seed cake and 10% water hyacinth leaves, while diet (B contains 65%, 20% cottons seed cake and 15% water hyacinth leaves. These diets were fed to studied fish with 5% per their body weight for 105 days. The results of this study revealed that the diet (A has higher growth performance on studied fish than those fed on diet (B. The results of food conversion ratio (FCR, 4.04 in diet (A and food conversion ratio (FCR, 5.73 in diet (B, and the increment of growth rate in fish fed with diet (A more efficient on the growth performance of studied fish than diet (B except in the case of protein efficiency rate (PER it's found to be more in diet (A than diet (B. It was concluded that the diet (A had better growth performance than diet (B on the feeding regime of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus.

  16. The valorization of water hyacinth for energy production; La valorisation de la jacinthe d'eau pour la production d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musalu, W.K.S. [Congo Ministry of Energy (Congo)

    2005-06-01

    The hydroelectric potential in the Democratic Republic of Congo is evaluated at 774,000 GWh which represents 35 per cent of all central Africa. Although the country has significant water resources, one of the main problems with its waterways is the invasion of water hyacinth, an aquatic plant that floats at the water surface. This very rapid growing plant which originates from the Amazon region in Latin America is extremely abundant in the Congo because of the important water network. The plant blocks irrigation canals, water pipes and hydroelectric installations. This study examined the feasibility of using this plant to help generate power in a country that has desperate need for electricity, particularly in its rural regions. An experimental study was conducted in which water hyacinth was composted to produce methane for power generation. In addition to producing significant quantities of biogas, composted water hyacinth also produces an organic material that can significantly enrich agricultural soils. The study showed that 10 cubic metres of agricultural wastes comprised of a mixture of swine manure, brewery sludge and water hyacinth can produce enough biogas to generate 2,500 kWh of electricity per day. This study confirmed that an economic value can be given to water hyacinth because it represents a large percentage of the material required to produce biogas. 5 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  17. Dwarfing Effect of Paclobutrazol on Hydroponic Hyacinth%多效唑对水培风信子矮化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The foliage of hydroponic hyacinth was treated with paclobutrazol of different concentrations. Results showed that the treatment of 150~250 mg/L was effective in reducing the height of the hydroponic hyacinth, but the number and ornamental period of blossom were influenced. The combined effect of 200 mg/L paclobutrazol on hydroponic hyacinth was the best.%  试验采用不同浓度多效唑(150 mg/L、200 mg/L、250 mg/L)喷施水培风信子叶面。结果表明,150~250 mg/L多效唑均可使水培风信子矮化,但影响开花的数目和花朵的可供观赏时间。其中200 mg/L多效唑处理对水培风信子的综合效应最佳。

  18. Evaluating the performance of the newly-launched Landsat 8 sensor in detecting and mapping the spatial configuration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in inland lakes, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Bangamwabo, Victor; Shoko, Cletah

    2017-08-01

    The remote sensing of freshwater resources is increasingly becoming important, due to increased patterns of water use and the current or projected impacts of climate change and the rapid invasion by lethal water weeds. This study therefore sought to explore the potential of the recently-launched Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS sensor in mapping invasive species in inland lakes. Specifically, the study compares the performance of the newly-launched Landsat 8 sensor, with more advanced sensor design and image acquisition approach to the traditional Landsat-7 ETM+ in detecting and mapping the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) invasive species across Lake Chivero, in Zimbabwe. The analysis of variance test was used to identify windows of spectral separability between water hyacinth and other land cover types. The results showed that portions of the visible (B3), NIR (B4), as well as the shortwave bands (Band 8, 9 and 10) of both Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM, exhibited windows of separability between water hyacinth and other land cover types. It was also observed that on the use of Landsat 8 OLI produced high overall classification accuracy of 72%, when compared Landsat 7 ETM, which yielded lower accuracy of 57%. Water hyacinth had optimal accuracies (i.e. 92%), when compared to other land cover types, based on Landsat 8 OLI data. However, when using Landsat 7 ETM data, classification accuracies of water hyacinth were relatively lower (i.e. 67%), when compared to other land cover types (i.e. water with accuracy of 100%). Spectral curves of the old, intermediate and the young water hyacinth in Lake Chivero based on: (a) Landsat 8 OLI, and (b) Landsat 7 ETM were derived. Overall, the findings of this study underscores the relevance of the new generation multispectral sensors in providing primary data-source required for mapping the spatial distribution, and even configuration of water weeds at lower or no cost over time and space.

  19. The Purification and Rapid Identification of Heavy Metal-binding Peptides of Water Hyacinth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁翔; 王文清; 姜剑; 茹炳根; 王英彦

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies the rapid identification of heavy metal-binding peptides (phytochelatin) by taking Water Hyacinth as a model plant. Plants were cultured in water containing 2 μg/ml Cd2+ for 13 days. The Sephadex G-50 chromatography of root extract under low salt concentration (0. 01 mol/L PBS) gave a Cd-binding peak with MW of 10 ,000 determined by SEC HPLC. After oxidation with performic acid, its SEC HPLC molecular weight decreased to below 1300 and the reverse phase HPLC showed one peptide peak, whose amino acid composition is the same as that of the sample never undertaking oxidation, and (Glu/Gln):Cys:Gly=2:2:1. According to the general structure of phytochelatin (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, n is 2 in this case. The protocol including the sequential steps of Sephadex G-50 chromatography→performic acid oxidation→reverse phase HPLC→amino acid analysis is a rapid and effective method to identify the existence of phytochelatin and determine its values of n.

  20. Effect of Briquetting Process Variables on Hygroscopic Property of Water Hyacinth Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of water resistance capacity of briquettes is important in order to determine how sensitive the produced briquettes are to moisture change during storage. The relative changes in length and diameter of briquettes during immersion in water for 6 hours were investigated. This was conducted to determine hygroscopic property of produced briquettes under process variables levels of binder (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight of residue, compaction pressure (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0 MPa and particle size (0.5, 1.6, and 4 mm of dried and ground water hyacinth. Data was statistically analysed using Analysis of Variance, the Duncan Multiple Range Test, and descriptive statistics. The relative change in length of briquettes with process variables ranged significantly from % to % (binder, % to % (compaction pressure, and % to % (particle size (. Furthermore, the relative change in diameter of briquettes with binder, compaction pressure, and particle size varied significantly from % to %, % to %, and % to %, respectively (. This study suggests optimum process variables required to produce briquettes of high water resistance capacity for humid environments like the Niger Delta, Nigeria, as 50% (binder proportion, 9 MPa (compaction pressure, and 0.5 mm (particle size.

  1. Dielectric spectroscopic studies on the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, Ragab; Atia, Fatma; Al Neklawy, Mohammed M.; Fahem, Amin

    2016-06-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to changes in concentrations of pollutants (heavy metals and metal oxides) uptake by the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture wastewater drainage. The measurements were carried out on the dried root and shoot plant parts before and after subjecting to different microwave heating powers for different times. Dielectric properties of the untreated root were investigated at temperature range (30-90 °C). X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) results showed that the concentration of metals and metals oxides are higher in plant root than in plant shoot. Accordingly, the obtained dielectric properties were found to depend on the applied electric field frequency, magnitude of heating power as well as concentrations of pollutants. Analysis of experimental data represented by the imaginary part of the dielectric modulus M″ (ω) revealed to the presence of three different relaxation processes. The lower frequency relaxation process was associated to charge carriers conduction whereas those appeared at higher frequencies were associated to different types of interfacial polarization. The plant ability for removing heavy metals and metal oxides from the aquatic environments would be enhanced upon subjecting to microwave heating power with 400 W for 30 min.

  2. Assessing water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassopes) and lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) effectiveness in aquaculture wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbile, C O; Yusoff, Mohd S

    2012-03-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) were analyzed to determine their effectiveness in aquaculture wastewater treatment in Malaysia. Wastewater from fish farm in Semanggol Perak, Malaysia was sampled and the parameters determined included, the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrite phosphate (PO4(3-)), nitrate (NO(3-)), nitrite (NO(-2)), ammonia (NH3), and total kjedahl nitrogen (TKN). Also, hydroponics system was set up and was added with fresh plants weights of 150 +/- 20 grams Eichhornia crassipes and 50 +/- 10 grams Pistia stratiotes during the 30 days experiment. The phytoremediation treatment with Eichhornia crassipes had pH ranging from 5.52 to 5.59 and from 4.45 to 5.5 while Pistia stratiotes had its pH value from 5.76 to 6.49 and from 6.24 to 7.07. Considerable percentage reduction was observed in all the parameters treated with the phytoremediators. Percentage reduction of turbidity for Eichhornia crassipes were 85.26% and 87.05% while Pistia stratiotes were 92.70% and 93.69% respectively. Similar reductions were observed in COD, TKN, NO(3-), NH3, and PO4(3-). The capability of these plants in removing nutrients was established from the study. Removal of aquatic macrophytes from water bodies is recommended for efficient water purification.

  3. Statistical optimization of FPase production from water hyacinth using Rhizopus oryzea PR 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Karmakar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pretreated water hyacinth was used as sole carbon source for the production of cellulase enzyme by Rhizopus oryzae PR 7 MTCC 9642 in both liquid state (LSF and solid state fermentation (SSF that was measured by the FPase activity. To maximize the FPase production, the critical parameters like substrate concentration, cultivation temperature and pH on enzyme production were optimized using response surface methodology using Central Composite Design (CCD. The LSF was found to be better than SSF for the production of FPase. The best preferred combination for highest FPase activity from LSF was with substrate concentration 1.25%,pH 7.32 and temperature 25.25°C. Estimated optimum conditions for FPase production from SSF was a combination of substrate concentration of 0.5%, pH 6, temperature 18°C. Under the optimized cultivation condition, the strain synthesized 123 U/ml and 48U/ml FPase from LSF and SSF respectively and the highest production was achieved within only 48 hours of cultivation.

  4. Metaphase I orientation of Robertsonian trivalents in the water-hyacinth grasshopper, Cornops aquaticum (Acrididae, Orthoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo César Colombo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trivalents resulting from polymorphic Robertsonian rearrangements must have a regular orientation in metaphase I if the polymorphisms are to be maintained. It has been argued that redistribution of proximal and interstitial chiasmata to more distal positions is necessary for a convergent orientation, the only one that produces viable gametes. Cornops aquaticum is a South-American grasshopper that lives and feeds on water-hyacinths, and has three polymorphic Robertsonian rearrangements in its southernmost distribution area in Central Argentina and Uruguay. The orientation of trivalents in metaphase I, the formation of abnormal spermatids and the frequency and position of chiasmata in the trivalents, was analysed in a polymorphic population of C. aquaticus. In this study we observed a correlation between the number of trivalents with the frequency of abnormal spermatids; additionally, the number of chiasmata, especially proximal and interstitial ones, was strongly correlated with the frequency of the linear orientation. Therefore we confirmed our previous assumption, based on other evidence, that the chiasmata redistribution in fusion carriers is essential to the maintenance of the polymorphisms.

  5. Ensilaging Water Hyacinth: Effects of Water Hyacinth Compound Silage on the Performance of Goats%水葫芦青贮条件及水葫芦复合青贮对山羊生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云峰; 周卫星; 严少华; 刘建; 张浩; 蒋磊

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在建立合理的水葫芦青贮方法及调查水葫芦复合青贮对羊生产性能的影响.通过调整干物质含量、底物(稻草、醋糟、麦麸)及添加剂(糖蜜、玉米粉)组合,对水葫芦进行了14种青贮处理,以稻草醋糟复合青贮为对照,青贮后进行感官评定和营养成分分析,从中选取3种水葫芦复合青贮.选用180日龄山羊(波尔山羊×徐淮山羊)20只,随机分为4组,每组5只,试验组分别以选出的3种水葫芦复合青贮为粗饲料,对照组以玉米青贮为粗饲料,饲喂40 d后测定山羊生产性能变化.结果表明:1)通过与底物组合,水葫芦在无外源添加剂的情况下能够自然发酵成功;水葫芦经挤压脱水后,与玉米粉、醋糟复合青贮所得产物的pH最低,需时最短.2)水葫芦经过挤压脱水仍保持较高的营养价值,该处理能够提高其在山羊全混合日粮(TMR)中添加比例,可达到73.16%.3)饲喂水葫芦复合青贮的山羊的采食量为2 152 g/d、平均日增重为122g/d、饲料转化效率为6.6.结果提示,将水葫芦挤压脱水与其他底物、添加剂复合青贮发酵作为粗饲料用于山羊,可达到中等以上生产水平.%The trial was conducted to establish a feasible method for water hyacinth silage and to investigate the effects of water hyacinth compound silage on the performance of goats. Fourteen treatments of water hyacinth compound silage were assorted according to the adjustment of dry matter contents, substrates ( rice straw, vinegar dreg and wheat bran), and additives ( molasses and corn power), and compound silage of rice straw and vinegar dreg was used as the control. Three treatments of water hyacinth compound silage were selected after organoleptic investigation and nutrient components analysis. Twenty goats (Boer goats x Xuhuai goats) of l80 days old were allotted into four groups with five replicates in each. The three selected compound silages were used as the roughages in the

  6. Predicted metabolizable energy density and amino acid profile of the crop contents of free-living scarlet macaw chicks (Ara macao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J; Dierenfeld, E S; Bailey, C A; Brightsmith, D J

    2012-12-01

    Hand rearing of neonates is a common practice for the propagation of psittacines. However, nutritional requirements for their growth and development are not well understood, and malnutrition is common. We analysed the amino acid (AA) profile of the crop contents of 19 free-living scarlet macaw (Ara macao) chicks, 19-59 days old. Predicted metabolizable energy (PME) density was 16.9 MJ/kg DM and true protein (total AA protein) 8.3 g/MJ PME. Crude protein (CP) was 10.0 g/MJ PME, lower than the requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn chicks but not different than the requirements of growing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and lovebirds (Agapornis spp.). The mean concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine (Lys) and methionine on a PME basis were below the minimum requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn-type chicks. The calculated PME density of the samples did not vary with age. However, there was a significant negative correlation between the average age of the chicks and the Lys concentration. We conclude that the lower CP and AA densities compared with poultry could result from a combination of (i) differences in the essential AA composition of the body tissues, (ii) adaptations that allow the birds to grow on low-protein food sources and (iii) suboptimal nutrition of these free-ranging chicks. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 μm and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 μm thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird.

  8. Caso clínico. Aspergiloma traqueal en guacamayo azul y amarillo (Ara ararauna - Tracheal aspergilloma in a Blue and Gold Macaw (Ara ararauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Rossana Raineri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente artículo expone el caso clínico de un Guacamayo azul y amarillo (Ara ararauna atendido como emergencia por un cuadro de disnea intensa estableciéndose una metodología de atención por etapas, logrando la estabilización inicial de los signos vitales del ave en un primer tiempo para luego determinar la causa y extirpar por mínimo acceso, gracias a la endoscopía, un gran fragmento de aspergiloma que obstruía la traquea, lográndose la confirmación del diagnostico por métodos de laboratorio e indicándose un tratamiento especifico para este tipo de patologías.Summaryin this paper we present a clinical case of a Blue and Gold Macaw (Araararauna treated in emergency with symptoms of severe dyspnea. Weapproached the case achieving the stabilization of vital signs of the bird in a first time. Then we determined the cause of dyspnea by minimal access, by endo-tracheal endoscopic examination, and we removed a large aspergilloma that was obstructing the trachea. We obtained the confirmation of the diagnosis by laboratory methods and decided a specific treatment for the disease.

  9. Dormancy breaking in macaw palm [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart.] seeds doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v36i1.13220

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio Rúbio Neto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to improve the speed of and standardize the process for the germination of macaw palm seeds. The effect of mechanical scarification (removal of the tegument in the hilum region, thermal scarification (imbibition of seeds in water at approximately 100°C for two or four minutes and chemical scarification (98% sulfuric acid treatment for two or four minutes were compared to a control (no scarification in both a germination chamber and a greenhouse, representing trials one and two, respectively. The effect of imbibition speed (fast or slow and different concentrations of gibberellic acid (0, 100 or 200 mg L-1 on the germination percentage and index of germination velocity were evaluated during a third trial. Mechanical scarification to remove the seed tegument in the hilum region enhanced the germination of the seeds in the germination chamber and seedling emergence in the greenhouse, and this type of scarification should be recommended for breaking dormancy in this species. Not obtained increase in seed germination with gibberellic acid, regardless of the application form in the seeds.

  10. Adaptability of two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae) with potential to control water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neochetina weevils have potential as biocontrol agents for water hyacinth, an aquatic weed which seriously affects irrigation water supply in sugarcane, vegetables and other horticultural crop production in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. A study was conducted on (i) the adaptability and duration of de

  11. Agrobotanical attributes, nitrogen-fixation, enzyme activities and nutraceuticals and tyrosinase enzyme of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.) - a bio-functional medicinal legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.) accessions of different origins received from USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA, U.S.A. were evaluated for agrobotanical attributes, enzyme activities, nutraceuticals and quality in pot culture at AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. Fresh ...

  12. A Novel Biosorbent, Water-Hyacinth, Uptaking Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasir Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of MB dye from aqueous solution onto HCl acid treated water-hyacinth (H-WH was investigated by carried out batch sorption experiments. The effect of process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, concentrations and contact time, and ionic strength were studied. Adsorption of MB onto H-WH was found highly pH dependent and ionic strength shows negative impact on MB removal. To predict the biosorption isotherms and to determine the characteristic parameters for process design, Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Halsey isotherms models were utilized to equilibrium data. The adsorption kinetics was tested for pseudo-first-order (PFO, pseudo-second-order (PSO, intraparticle diffusion (IPD, and Bangham’s kinetic models. The Langmuir isotherm model showed the goodness-of-fit among the tested models for equilibrium adsorption of MB over H-WH and indicated the maximum adsorption capacity as 63.30 mg/g. Higher coefficient of determination (R2>0.99 and better agreement between the qe (experimental and qe (calculated values predicted that PSO kinetic model showed the goodness-of-fit for kinetic data along with rate constant 1.66×10-3, 4.42×10-3, and 3.57×10-3 mg·g-1min⁡-1/2⁡, respectively, for the studied concentration range. At the initial stage of adsorption, the overall rate of dye uptake was found to be dominated by external mass transfer, and afterwards, it is controlled by IPD mechanism.

  13. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  14. Biogas production using water hyacinths to meet collective energy needs in a sahelian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Almoustapha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot project that investigates the possibility of producing biogas from a mixture of water hyacinth and fresh rumen residue – replacing firewood as a source of fuel – to meet the energy needs of a maternity facility in Niamey (Niger. The discontinuous-type installation (batch reactors is made up of six digesters measuring 5 m3 each. The output during hot and cool seasons, 0.52 m3 and 0.29 m3 respectively of biogas per m3 of digester per day, has met the energy needs of the maternity facility, estimated at 8 m3 of biogas per day. The study revealed strong seasonal variations: output during the hot season is approximatively 1.8 times greater than it is during the cool season. Large quantities of water hyacinth, an invasive plant present in Niger since 1986, are manually harvested in aquatic environments. The project is run by a local NGO, the Groupe d’Initiative pour les Energies Renouvelables (GIER, and supported by UNICEF and the Niger Basin Authority. The duration of the project is 8 months.Ce papier présente un projet pilote vérifiant la possibilité de produire du biogaz à partir d’un mélange de jacinthe d’eau et de résidu frais de rumen, en substitution au bois de chauffe pour satisfaire aux besoins en énergie d’une maternité de Niamey (Niger. L’installation de type discontinu (réacteurs batch est composée de six digesteurs de 5 m3. Les rendements en saison chaude et en saison fraîche, respectivement 0,52 et de 0,29 m3 de biogaz par m3 de digesteur par jour et ont permis de couvrir les besoins de la maternité évalués à 8 m3 de biogaz par jour. L’étude révèle une forte variation saisonnière : le rendement en saison chaude est d’environ 1,8 fois supérieur à celle de la saison fraîche. La jacinthe d’eau est une plante envahissante présente au Niger depuis 1986, dont des quantités importantes sont récoltées en  milieux aquatiques. Le projet est porté par une ONG locale, le

  15. Structural and ecophysiological alterations of the water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms] due to anthropogenic stress in Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pierre Vitória

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structural and ecophysiological alterations (chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments, and quantification of Cr, Pb and Zn in the leaf limb, petiole and younger and older roots of water hyacinth from the lower, medium and upper Paraíba do Sul river (PSR and Imbé river were evaluated. The plants from the medium and upper PSR (more industrialized and populated regions exhibited lower turgid cell in the root cortex, less root hairs and leaf epidermis, chloroplasts with plastoglobules and increased stroma volume. Higher concentrations of metals were observed in the younger and older roots from the medium PSR plants. The results suggested that the plants from more anthropized regions were able to maintain the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm which was a result from the metabolic fitting, increasing the non-photochemical quenching, reducing total chlorophyll/carotenoids and leading to the structural modifications.

  16. Optimization of Bioethanol Production Using Whole Plant of Water Hyacinth as Substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Weng, Chen; Huang, Huiqin; Achal, Varenyam; Wang, Duanchao

    2015-01-01

    Water hyacinth was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the present study. Combination of acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was the most effective process for sugar production that resulted in the production of 402.93 mg reducing sugar at optimal condition. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to response surface method in saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was fermented at 38.87°C in 81.87 h when inoculated with 6.11 ml yeast, where 1.291 g/L bioethanol was produced. Meanwhile, 1.289 g/L ethanol was produced during experimentation, which showed reliability of presented regression model in this research. The optimization method discussed in the present study leading to relatively high bioethanol production could provide a promising way for Alien Invasive Species with high cellulose content.

  17. Aspects of the scientific network and communication of John Hyacinth de Magellan in Britain, Flanders and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, Isabel

    2008-11-01

    The subject of gases was on the agenda of many learned scientific gentlemen in the second half of the eighteenth century. This was not only because of the extraordinary account that had been given as to the physical and chemical composition of the third state of matter, but also, and perhaps mainly, because of the extraordinary properties that at least one of these gases seemed to offer for food preservation, the medicinal properties of natural waters and medical applications. These putative practical applications were highly sought after by society at the time, particularly for long-distance sea journeys. This paper focuses on the Portuguese polymath João Jacinto de Magalhães (1722-1790), also known as John Hyacinth de Magellan. It shows some specific aspects of his activities as a disseminator of Priestley's discoveries on pneumatics, mainly in Flanders, Holland and France, and through his large network of scientific correspondents.

  18. Invasive alien species water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes as abode for macroinvertebrates in hypertrophic Ramsar Site, Lake Xochimilco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Ramirez, A; Robles-Valderrama, E; Ramirez-Flores, E

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents information on the density, diversity and functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate assemblages associated with water hyacinth in Antiguo Canal Cuemanco, part of Lake Xochimilco in Mexico City. Rare (low frequency and density) and dominant (high frequency and density) taxa prevailed in the assemblages, with the most predominant being Hyalella azteca, Chironomus plumosus and Ischnura denticollis. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling confirmed two climatic seasons: warm-rainy and cold-dry; the former with the highest diversity and density of taxa. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that conductivity, nitrates and turbidity explained the density variations of taxa. Antiguo Canal Cuemanco waters are spatially homogeneous with the characteristics of hypertrophic shallow lakes, inhabited by scrapers and gathering-collectors. The species found were tolerant to organic pollution.

  19. Process optimization for densification of water hyacinth pellets fuel%水葫芦颗粒燃料成型工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 蔡宗寿; 张得政; 张哲

    2016-01-01

    Water hyacinth has been identified as one of the top worst water weeds over the world. Due to its characteristics of rapid growth rate and broad environmental tolerance, it has widely spread in most waterways in 17 provinces of south areas of China since 1930’s. However, water hyacinth has a strong ability to absorb nitrogen, phosphorus and other harmful heavy metal elements from water, so it has been widely used in the projects of ecological rehabilitation of water bodies in recent years over the world, which has made the problem of resource utilization of water hyacinth more important and urgent than before. Because water hyacinth is high in cellulose and hemicellulose content, it has the potential to be transformed into biomass fuel. Using mechanical force, water hyacinth can be extruded or compressed into biomass pellets, and could be an important way to utilize water hyacinth as an energy source. In the process of biomass densification, different chemical compositions of biomass can result in different compressing process parameters of biomass pellets. As an aquatic plant, the difference in the chemical composition of water hyacinth from other terrestrial plants can result in different compressing process parameters of water hyacinth pellets from other biomass pellets. Among all the compressing process parameters of biomass pellets, compressing force, temperature, moisture content and particle size of material are the 4 important process parameters that greatly influence the quality of biomass pellet fuel. In order to improve the densification quality of pellet fuel made from water hyacinth, the densification process of water hyacinth pellets was experimentally studied by using a compressing apparatus in the laboratory. Firstly, the single-factor tests were carried out, in which the variables were compressing force (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 kN), temperature (80, 90, 100, 110 and 120℃), moisture content of material (8%, 10%, 12%, 14% and 16%), and

  20. The potential for water hyacinth to improve the quality of Bogota River water in the Muña Reservoir: comparison with the performance of waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, E; Garzón, A

    2002-01-01

    The potential application of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in organic matter degradation, sedimentation, nutrient and heavy metal absorption and sulfur reduction in the Muña Reservoir has been tested in experimental lagoons. The lagoons were operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 6, 9 and 15 days. One lagoon was covered with Water Hyacinth, which is naturally growing in the Muña Reservoir, while another lagoon was operated as a conventional oxidation pond. The Water Hyacinth lagoon had better removal efficiencies for almost all parameters measured: BOD5, total suspended solids, COD, nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. The oxidation lagoon was facultative for HRT of 9 and 15 days, and anoxic when operated at 6 days HRT. At HRT of 15 days the water quality in the effluent of the covered lagoon corresponded to 12 mg/l of BOD, 6 mg/l of suspended solids and 0.8 mg/l of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide levels in the Muña reservoir can be substantially reduced at HRT higher than 15 days in both lagoons. The uncovered lagoon had better hydrogen sulfide removal during the day but presents high levels at night. If the hydraulic retention time in the Muña reservoir is increased, the water quality of the Bogota river can be substantially improved for all the HRTs tested in the pilot units. HRT seems to give a better prediction of overall effluent water quality than surface loading. More research is needed in order to define the optimum water hyacinth density in the Muña reservoir to determine its influence on the water quality of the effluent. The influence is expected to be negative due to an internal increase of BOD, solids, nutrients and metals loads due to plant decay.

  1. Celebrating Two Centuries since the Invention of the Stethoscope. René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomos, Ioannis; Karakatsani, Anna; Manali, Effrosyni D; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-10-01

    René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826), a French physician, is considered one of the pioneers of respiratory medicine. His contribution to the invention of the stethoscope and to the development of clinical auscultation played a key role in the progress of the diagnosis of chest diseases. Almost two centuries after his invention of the stethoscope, his achievements continue to be widely appreciated and used by modern physicians in current pulmonology.

  2. Analysis of Satellite and Airborne Imagery for Detection of Water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Floating Macrophytes and Tracking of Aquatic Weed Control Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Waterways of the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta have recently become infested with invasive aquatic weeds such as floating water hyacinth (Eichhoria crassipes) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides). These invasive plants cause many negative impacts, including, but not limited to: the blocking of waterways for commercial shipping and boating; clogging of irrigation screens, pumps and canals; and degradation of biological habitat through shading. Zhang et al. (1997, Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1039-1053) used NASA Landsat satellite imagery together with field calibration measurements to map physical and biological processes within marshlands of the San Francisco Bay. Live green biomass (LGB) and related variables were correlated with a simple vegetation index ratio of red and near infra-red bands from Landsat images. More recently, the percent (water area) cover of water hyacinth plotted against estimated LGB of emergent aquatic vegetation in the Delta from September 2014 Landsat imagery showed an 80 percent overall accuracy. For the past two years, we have partnered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis to conduct new validation surveys of water hyacinth and water primrose coverage and LGB in Delta waterways. A plan is underway to transfer decision support tools developed at NASA's Ames Research Center based on Landsat satellite images to improve Delta-wide integrated management of floating aquatic weeds, while reducing chemical control costs. The main end-user for this application project will be the Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) of the California Department of Parks and Recreation, who has the responsibility for chemical control of water hyacinth in the Delta.

  3. Effect of UV-C radiation and vapor released from a water hyacinth root absorbent containing bergamot oil to control mold on storage of brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsamoe, Sumethee; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min. The shelf-life of the brown rice with the absorbent after incubation at 25 ° C with 100 % RH for 12 weeks was also investigated. A microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to find out possible mode of action. Results indicated that the absorbent material produced from the water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil at 500 μl ml(-1) in the water solution, dried at 70 ° C and UV for 15 min showed the highest antifungal activity in a vapor phase against A. flavus on the brown rice. A microscopy investigation confirmed that the water hyacinth root could absorb bergamot oil from an outside water solution into root cells. Limonene in vapor phase was shown to be a stronger inhibitor than essential oil after UV-C radiation and should be the key factor in boosting bergamot oil antifungal activity. A vapor phase of bergamot oil could be released and inhibit natural mold on the surface of the brown rice for up to 12 weeks; without the absorbent, mold covered the brown rice in only 4 weeks.

  4. Molecular identification of two strains of Cercospora rodmanii isolated from water hyacinth present in Yuriria lagoon, Guanajuato, Mexico and identification of new hosts for several other strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Calderón, José Guadalupe; Martínez-Álvarez, José Ascención; Vieyra-Hernández, Ma Teresa; Rangel-Macías, Luz Imelda; Razzo-Soria, Tannia; Chávez-Herrera, Roberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Leal-Morales, Carlos Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Water hyacinth is a beautiful monocotyledon plant that has been dispersed all over the world by humans. The plant has been present in Mexico since 1907, and many water bodies have become infested with it since then. In 2001, we initiated a survey in Yuriria lagoon in southern Guanajuato state to isolate fungi able to biocontrol the plant. We isolated 25 morphologically distinct fungal cultures, of which two were identified as members of the genus Cercospora. Cercospora species are among the most prevalent and destructive of plant pathogens and can be found on leaves, pedicels, stems, fruits, and bracts. Only two species of Cercospora, Cercospora piaropi, and Cercospora rodmanii, have been described on water hyacinth; however, the classification of these species has been controversial. Several molecular approaches have been used for Cercospora identification, and some candidate genes have been identified for use in Cercospora species determination. Although the nrRNA genes alone do not show sufficient resolution for species determination, histone H3, translation elongation factor1-α, β-tubulin, actin, and calmodulin have been shown in previous studies to have an adequate number of nucleotide changes to allow species identification. In the present study, we used partial sequences of the histone H3, actin, and calmodulin genes to identify our two isolates as C. rodmanii. Our two strains are not specific to water hyacinth, as they are also pathogenic to beet and sugar beet. Similar host ranges were found for C. rodmanii strains isolated from Tabasco in México, Zambia, and Brazil, however, the specificity for water hyacinth persists in Cercospora piaropi Tharp and C. rodmanii Conway, the latter being the most pathogenic.

  5. Large-scale utilization of water hyacinth for nutrient removal in Lake Dianchi in China: the effects on the water quality, macrozoobenthos and zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Junqian; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Haiqing; Yan, Shaohua

    2012-11-01

    An ecological engineering project using water hyacinth for nutrient removal was performed in Baishan Bay of a large shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Dianchi in China. In the present study, a systematic survey of water quality, macrozoobenthos and zooplankton inside (IWH), around (AWH) and far away (FWH) water hyacinth mats was conducted in Baishan Bay from August to October 2010. The results showed that the water quality significantly improved at AWH area. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were lower and transparency was higher at AWH area than those in IWH and FWH areas. Total densities, dominant species densities, and biodiversity indexes of macrozoobenthos and cladocerans as well as copepods did not differ (P>0.05) among each other in all three areas. It was significantly (P<0.05) different for those of rotifers at IWH area compared to those in AWH and FWH areas. The results might suggest a tremendous potential for the utilization of water hyacinth in the eutrophic lake like Lake Dianchi for nutrients removal.

  6. Application of hyperspectral techniques to multispectral data: spectral mixture analysis (SMA) in mapping of emergent macrophytes in a water-hyacinth-infested area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idawo, Cuthbert; Jajah, Munzer; Laneve, Giovanni

    2004-02-01

    Water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is an invasive aquatic macrophyte that has infested the lake Victoria, East Africa, since the late 1980s. It has been associated with major negative economic and ecological impact of this important water resource in East Africa. Remote sensing technology has significant potential in mapping this fast growing floating weed, in a mostly inaccessible area for field measurements. Our study site is the Winam Gulf, on the Kenyan part of the Lake, which has had the highest reported infestation in recent years. The paper describes a study to evaluate the ability of ETM+ multispectral imagery in mapping water hyacinth and associated macrophytes in the hyacinth infested Winam Gulf. By applying hyperspectral techniques on multispectral data, a spectral mixture analysis was undertaken using image-derived endmembers. The study was also an evaluation of an alternative way of acquiring emergent macrophytic endmembers in cases where limitations like lack of hyperspectral data, spectrometric measurements and spectral libraries exist. The results demonstrate that whereas it is possible to discriminate and map the different spectral constituents, a spectral library of the endmembers under investigation would be required for positive identification, especially for macrophytes that are closely related spectrally, fast growing, have varying concentrations (density) spatially, and are non-static in nature.

  7. Metal binding by humic acids isolated from water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae) in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, Elham A.; Davies, Geoffrey; Lam, Y.-Y.; Vozzella, Marcy E

    2004-10-01

    Humic acids (HAs) are animal and plant decay products that confer water retention, metal and organic solute binding functions and texture/workability in soils. HAs assist plant nutrition with minimal run-off pollution. Recent isolation of HAs from several live plants prompted us to investigate the HA content of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae), a delicately flowered plant from Amazonian South America that has invaded temperate lakes, rivers and waterways with devastating economic effects. Hyacinth thrives in nutrient-rich and polluted waters. It has a high affinity for metals and is used for phytoremediation. In this work, HAs isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of live water hyacinth plants from the Nile Delta, Egypt were identified by chemical and spectral analysis and by comparison with authentic soil and plant derived HAs. Similar carbohydrate and amino acid distributions and tight metal binding capacities of the HAs and their respective plant components suggest that the presence of HAs in plants is related to their metal binding properties.

  8. Extraction of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth using inexpensive contraptions, and the use of the VFAs as feed supplements in conventional biogas digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar Ganesh, P.; Ramasamy, E.V.; Gajalakshmi, S.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Univ., Pondicherry (India). Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed and a readily available organic waste which can be fermented anaerobically. However, it cannot be fed to conventional biogas digesters because the phytomass is lighter than water and therefore floats on top of the digester contents and clogs the digester. This study used a simple and low-cost apparatus to extract volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth. The VFAs were then used as a supplement feed in cow dung-fed floating dome biogas digesters which are widely used in third World countries. The objective was to provide such digesters with feed derived from phytomass, particularly for times when animal dung is in short supply. The extraction of VFA occurs by aerobic degradation of water hyacinth. Methanogenesis takes place when the VFAs are fed into the biogas digesters, resulting in methane rich biogas. This newly developed VFA extraction method enables phytomass to be used as a feed supplement for biogas digesters without the adverse effects of solid accumulation, frothing or clogging that occurs with phytomass feed. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Experiments on Herbivorous Fishes Inhibiting the Growth of Water Hyacinth (Eichharnia crassipes )%草食性鱼种抑制凤眼莲生长的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡廷尖; 李训朗; 王雨辰; 黄社建; 胡旭昶; 刘士力; 李倩; 练青平

    2011-01-01

    Water hyacinth will cause diversity damage and ecological crisis once it is introduced into a new area because of its rapid and fast growth. In China and abroad, chemical technology and manual salvage and mechanical method or introduction into natural enemy of water hyacinth are used to remove or control water hyacinth. Although these methods offer certain effectiveness, it has some disadvantages of high cost, secondary pollution and lacks of not thorough enough. In this paper, we used rigorous design to study the inhibition effect of herbivorous fish such as grass carp, hybrid (F1 from Ctenopharyngodon idellus( ♂ ) and Squaliobarbus curriculus( ♀ ), Magalobrame tarminalis, Squaliobarbus curriculus, Allogyno genticcrucia and Erythroculter ilishaeformis on the removal effect of water hyacinth. All the juveniles were put in the same sixteen cages. The results showed different fingerlings with the same size (2.5-9 cm) had various capabilities to eat water hyacinth and arranged in following order: Ctenopharyngodon idellus 〉 hybrid 〉 Magalobrame tarminalis 〉 Squaliobarbus curriculus 〉 A llogyno genticcrucian 〉 Erythroculter ilishaeformis. The results indicated that herbivorous fish had different removal effects on water hyacinth. The present study innovatively used different kinds of fingerling to control water hyacinth, and provide a new approach to control ecological harmfulness caused by water hyacinth. The test shows that there is a bright application future to control water hyacinth with herbivorous fish.%通过严密的设计,在相同规格的16只网箱中,采用草鱼、杂交鱼[草鱼(6)和赤眼鳟(早)杂交繁育的F1]、三角鲂、赤眼鳟、异育银鲫和翘嘴红鲐等为试验对象,对凤眼莲生长的影响进行研究。结果表明:不同品种的鱼苗具有不同的控制凤眼莲的能力;在2.5~9.0cm范围内各鱼苗食用凤眼莲能力依次为:草鱼〉杂交鱼〉三角鲂〉赤

  10. 凤眼莲净化富营养化水体效果影响因素的综述%Water Hyacinth Eutrophic Water Purification Effect of Influential Factors Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄露露; 马晓建

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive list of some of the factors that influence water hyacinth purify water eutrophication, and described the influence of water on the effect of these factors purify eutrophic water hyacinth, water hyacinth purification in order to promote the industrial application of eutrophic water bodies.%全面列举了一些影响凤眼莲净化富营养化水体的因素,并阐述了这些因素对凤眼莲净化富营养化水体效果的影响,以期推动凤眼莲净化富营养化水体的工业化应用。

  11. Research Review on Application of Microorganism in Resources Utilization of Water Hyacinth%微生物在水葫芦资源化利用中的应用研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁华; 涂卫国; 王琼瑶

    2016-01-01

    对水葫芦资源化利用中微生物的应用研究进行归纳和评述,并对如何进一步提高微生物作用效率进行探讨,以期为进一步开展水葫芦的资源化利用工作提供参考。%Studies on application of microorganism in resources utilization of water hyacinth were reviewed , the way to enhance the efficiency of microorganisms was discussed , so as to provide reference for resources utilization of water hyacinth .

  12. Optimization of bioethanol production using whole plant of Water Hyacinth as substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhuo eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The whole plant of Water Hyacinth that had potential to remove heavy metals from wastewater was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the current study. It was found that acid pretreatment exhibited the most effective for reducing sugars production. An amount of 402.93 mg reducing sugars was achieved at optimal condition after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to Response Surface Method (RSM in Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was fermented at 38.87℃ for 81.87 h when inoculated with 6.11 ml yeast. 1.291 g/L bioethanol could be achieved by our predicted model in optimal condition. Meanwhile, 1.289 g/L ethanol was produced, which showed reliability of presented regression model in this study. The optimization method discussed in the present study leading to relatively high bioethanol production could provide a promising way for Alien Invasive Species with high cellulose content.

  13. Co-fermentation of water hyacinth and beverage wastewater in powder and pellet form for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Sen, Biswarup; Chen, Chin-Chao; Wu, Jou-Hsien; Lee, Shih-Chi; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2013-05-01

    Hydrogen (H2) production potential of water hyacinth (WH) and beverage wastewater (BW) mixture in powder and pellet form at various combination ratios were evaluated. Batch co-fermentation results showed peak biogas production of 105.5 mL and H2 production of 55.6 mL at the combination ratio of 1.6 g WH and 2.4 g BW in pellet form. With the same ratio in pellet form, the maximum H2 production rate 542 mL H2/L-d, maximum specific H2 production rate 869 mL H2/g VSS-d and H2 yield 13.65 mL/g feedstock were obtained, and were 88, 88 and 34% higher than its powder form. The predominant soluble metabolite was acetate in the concentration of 1059-2639 mg COD/L (40-79% of total metabolites) in most runs during co-fermentation of mixed feedstock. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and the physical form of the combined feedstock are essential criteria for optimum H2 production. Co-fermentation also alleviates the waste disposal problem of the industries.

  14. Reducing the bioavailability and leaching potential of lead in contaminated water hyacinth biomass by phosphate-assisted pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingna; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianfa; Huang, Xiaoyi; Cai, Jing; Lü, Jinhong; Wang, Yue

    2017-10-01

    For the purpose of safe disposal of biomass contaminated by biosorption of heavy metals, phosphate-assisted pyrolysis of water hyacinth biomass contaminated by lead (Pb) was tried to reduce the bioavailability and leaching potential of Pb, using direct pyrolysis without additive as a control method. Direct pyrolysis of the contaminated biomass at low temperatures (300 and 400°C) could reduce the bioavailability of Pb, but the leaching potential of Pb was increased with the rising pyrolysis temperature. While phosphate-assisted pyrolysis significantly enhanced the recovery and stability of Pb in the char. Specifically, the percentages of bioavailable Pb and leachable Pb in the chars obtained by phosphate-assisted pyrolysis at low temperatures were reduced to less than 5% and 7%, respectively. The sequential extraction test indicated the transformation of Pb into more stable fractions after phosphate-assisted pyrolysis, which was related to the formation of Pb phosphate minerals including pyromorphite and lead-substituted hydroxyapatite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction and antioxidant activities assay of polysaccharides from white Hyacinth bean and promoting-growth to probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni LEI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction parameters of water-soluble polysaccharides (WPs from white hyacinth bean were optimized using single-factor and orthogonal experiment. The antioxidant activities of WPs were presented by assaying three different radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy radical (DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging ability. In addition, the effects of WPs obtained on the growth of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5, Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were also determined by measuring the OD and pH value of culture medium. According to the results, the optimum extraction parameters were as follows: the ratio of water to material was 50, extraction time was 2h and the extraction temperature was 95°C. The yield of WPs reached 1.15±0.07% under this condition. In addition, the WPs had different scavenging ability on three radicals (hydroxyl > DPPH > superoxide. And the WPs could promote the growth of LA5, BB01 and LB6.

  16. Enhanced adsorption of methylene blue by citric acid modification of biochar derived from water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Yunguo; Liu, Shaobo; Tan, Xiaofei; Zeng, Guangming; Zeng, Wei; Ding, Yang; Cao, Weicheng; Zheng, Bohong

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a novel potential adsorbent, citric acid (CA)-modified biochar, named as CAWB, was obtained from water hyacinth biomass by slow pyrolysis in a N2 environment at 300 °C. The CA modification focused on enhancing the contaminants adsorption capacity of biochar pyrolyzed at relatively low temperature. Over 90 % of the total methylene blue (MB) could be removed at the first 60 min by CAWB, and the maximum MB adsorption capacity could reach to 395 mg g(-1). The physicochemical properties of CAWB was examined by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and BET analysis. The results indicated that the additional carboxyl groups were introduced to the surface of CAWB via the esterification reaction with CA, which played a significant role in the adsorption of MB. Batch adsorption studies showed that the initial MB concentration, solution pH, background ionic strength, and temperature could affect the removal efficiency obviously. The adsorption process could be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the MB adsorption onto CAWB was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The regeneration study revealed that CAWB still exhibited an excellent regeneration and adsorption performance after multiple cycle adsorptions. The adsorption experiments of actual dye wastewater by CAWB suggested that it had a great potential in environmental application.

  17. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) as indicators of heavy metal impact of a large landfill on the Almendares River near Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Rieumont, S; Lima, L; De la Rosa, D; Graham, D W; Columbie, I; Santana, J L; Sánchez, M J

    2007-12-01

    The Almendares River is central to recreational and other activities in Havana, Cuba. However, monitoring indicated significant heavy metal contamination in river sediments, especially below Calle 100, the largest landfill in Havana. This work extended previous sediment studies by determining complementary Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Zn levels in indigenous water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes; EC) above and below the landfill. Pb, Cu, and Zn were significantly elevated in EC roots below the landfill and also correlated with sediment data (p < 0.05), implying elevated levels likely result from landfill activity and might be useful biomonitors as river remediation proceeds.

  18. 不同水培条件对风信子生长的影响%Influence of different hydroponic conditions on the hyacinth's growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娇娇; 王波; 纪羚; 刘颖; 王晶; 马慧; 董必慧

    2012-01-01

      以含有不同KH2PO4浓度控制不同的风信子水培条件,选择卡耐基品系大小均一的风信子鳞茎设置对照组进行试验,观察并记录不同水培条件下风信子叶芽、根系、花的生长等情况.初步总结不同水培条件对风信子生长的影响,结果表明:卡耐基品系的风信子在水培时,其根系在浓度为0.05 mmol/L KH2PO4水培条件下的长度与其他KH2PO4浓度水培条件下的风信子根系长度有显著差异.而在不同的KH2PO4浓度水培条件下,风信子的花期时长、花茎高度和叶片长度并没有显著差异.此外,试验还讨论证实适当的钾和磷可以提前风信子的花期、提高花的品质和观赏价值.%  Taking homogeneous hyacinth bulbs of Carnegie strains as materials, the effect of different KH2PO4 hydroponic concentra-tion on the growth of leaf, root, flower etc. were observed and recorded. The results show the root length of the hyacinth of Carnegie strains in 0.05 m mol/L KH2PO4 hydroponic concentration has significant deference with the other hydroponic treatments. As to the duration of flowering, stem height and length of leaf, there is no significant deference between the different KH2PO4 hydroponic con-centration treatments. In addition, the paper also proved that the appropriate potassium and phosphorus can advance the flowing time of hyacinth and improve the quality and ornamental value of hyacinth flower.

  19. Ultrafast spectroscopy studies on the mechanism of electron transfer and energy conversion in the isolated pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach chloroplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The spectroscopy characteristics and the fluorescence lifetime for the chloroplasts isolated from the pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach plant leaves have been studied by absorption spectra, low temperature steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and single photon counting measurement under the same conditions and by the same methods. The similarity of the absorption spectra for the chloroplasts at room temperature suggests that different plants can efficiently absorb light of the same wavelength. The fluorescence decays in PS II measured at the natural QA state for the chloroplasts have been fitted by a three-exponential kinetic model. The three fluorescence lifetimes are 30, 274 and 805 ps for the pseudo ginseng chloroplast; 138, 521 and 1494 ps for the water hyacinth chloroplast; 197, 465 and 1459 ps for the spinach chloroplast, respectively. The slow lifetime fluorescence component is assigned to a collection of associated light harvesting Chl a/b proteins, the fast lifetime component to the reaction center of PS II and the middle lifetime component to the delay fluorescence of recombination of and Pheo-. The excitation energy conversion efficiency (η) in PS II RC is defined and calculated on the basis of the 20 ps electron transfer time constant model, 60%, 87% and 91% for the pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach chloroplasts, respectively. This interesting result is in unconformity with what is assumed to be 100% efficiency in PS II RC. Our result in this work stands in line with the 20 ps electron transfer time constant in PS II rather sound and the water hyacinth plant grows slower than the spinach plant does as envisaged on the efficiency. But, our results predict that those plants can perform highly efficient transfer of photo-excitation energy from the light-harvesting pigment system to the reaction center (closely to 100%). The conclusion contained in this paper reveals the plant growth characteristics expressed in the primary processes of

  20. Solar dehydration of the water hyacinth and his characterization as fuel; Desidratacao solar do jacinto d'agua e sua caracterizacao como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcio Amaral de [Universidade Salgado de Oliveira, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Pinto, Carmen Lucia R. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Meio Ambiente; Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1998-07-01

    Because of a new technology for waste water treatment utilizing water treatment utilizing water hyacinth as an instrument for water pollution control, studies were developed to profit the resultant biomass from this process proposing its utilization like an energy source after its dehydration. A direct exposition solar dryer with double glazing was utilized in the process. During the process were evaluated the following parameters: time of drying: physicochemistry characteristics of the plant; and inlet air, outlet air and inside air temperatures during the whole process of drying. (author)

  1. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOPALAKRISHNAN Ayyaru; RAJKUMAR Mayalagu; SUN Jun; PARIDA Ajay; VENMATHI MARAN Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (dayto 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  2. Removal of nickel ion from electroplating wastewater using double chamber electrodeposition cell (DCEC) reactor partitioned with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaenudin; Widyarani; Hariyadi, H. R.; Wulan, D. R.; Cahyaningsih, S.

    2017-03-01

    Nickel is a heavy metal present in many types of industrial wastewater, and its contamination to the water bodies should be prevented. The objective of this research was to study the performance of Double Chamber Electrodeposition Cell (DCEC) for nickel ion removal. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) leaves were used to separate the two chambers. The experiment was performed with synthetic electroplating wastewater in a batch system for 72 h. Changes of pH, electric current, and nickel ion concentration in the catholyte were monitored. An experiment with Single Chamber Electrodeposition Cell (SCEC) was also performed as comparison. After 72 h operation of DCEC, nickel ion concentration in the catholyte decreased from 2200 g.m-3 to 0.4 g.m-3, equivalent to 99.98% removal. DCEC reactor performed better than the SCEC reactor that only achieved 59% removal. The results show that an almost-complete removal of nickel ion can be achieved with DCEC. Water hyacinth leaves can be used as low-cost alternatives for industrial membranes.

  3. Novel rhythms of N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and its precursor melatonin in water hyacinth: importance for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Di Mascio, Paolo; Martinez, Glaucia R; Prado, Fernanda M; Reiter, Russel J

    2007-06-01

    N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMFK) is a major metabolite of melatonin in mammals. To investigate whether AFMK exists in plants, an aquatic plant, water hyacinth, was used. To achieve this, LC/MS/MS with a deuterated standard was employed. AFMK was identified in any plant for the first time. Both it and its precursor, melatonin, were rhythmic with peaks during the late light phase. These novel rhythms indicate that these molecules do not serve as the chemical signal of darkness as in animals but may relate to processes of photosynthesis or photoprotection. These possibilities are supported by higher production of melatonin and AFMK in plants grown in sunlight (10,000-15,000 microW/cm2) compared to those grown under artificial light (400-450 microW/cm2). Melatonin and AFMK, as potent free radical scavengers, may assist plants in coping with harsh environmental insults, including soil and water pollutants. High levels of melatonin and AFMK in water hyacinth may explain why this plant more easily tolerates environmental pollutants, including toxic chemicals and heavy metals and is successfully used in phytoremediation. These novel findings could lead to improvements in the phytoremediative capacity of plants by either stimulating endogenous melatonin synthesis or by adding melatonin to water/soil in which they are grown.

  4. Pb(II) Adsorption from Aqueous Solution by Water Hyacinth%水葫芦对水中Pb(Ⅱ)的吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    閤明勇; 杨光

    2012-01-01

    通过静态吸附实验,研究了干体水葫芦对水中的重金属离子Pb(II)的吸附性能,考察了吸附剂投加量、重金属溶液起始浓度、溶液起始pH值及吸附时间对Pb(II)去除效果的影响。研究结果表明,水葫芦对Pb(II)吸附效果明显优于桔子皮、木屑和玉米芯屑,具有吸附时间短、投加量少、适应pH值范围广的特点。%Pb (II) adsorption effects of adsorbent dosage, initial results showed that water hyacinth sawdust and corn cob with respect from aqueous solution by dried water hyacinth was studied asing batch technique. The concentration, initial pH and contact time on Pb (II) adsorption were investigated. The was much more effective in Pb (II) removal from aqueous solution than orange peel, to shorter equilibrium time, less adsorption dosage and broader pH range.

  5. Effects of Additives on Quality of Water Hyacinth and Corn Straw Mixed Silages%添加剂对水葫芦玉米秸秆混合青贮品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄益芬; 陈鑫珠; 廖惠珍; 林志城; 祁瑞雪; 张文昌

    2011-01-01

    For the purpose of producing high quality silage, water hyacinth silage and water hyacinth & corn straw mixed silage were studied. Water hyacinth & corn straw were mixed into 5 silages with their weight ratio of 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 40:60, besides water hyacinth silage. Water hyacinth silage and mixed silage with CON, corn straw fermented green juice (FGJC), water hyacinth fermented green juice (FGJW), and formic acid (FA), foraform (FOR) was ensiled to study the effect of the additives. Each treatment was 2 repeats. Silages were fermented for 60 days under normal temperature. Then the pH value, dry matter rate (DMR), gas loss rate (GLR), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and other items were measured. The result showed that 4 additives significantly affected the fermentation quality of silages. The effect of FGJC and FGJW to the mixed silages with 80:20 mixed ratio was the best. The fermentation quality of mixed silages with additives was better than water hyacinth silages. Preparing of water hyacinth & corn straw mixed silages is a good way to utilize water hyacinth.%为开发利用水葫芦生产优质青贮,研究制作了水葫芦单贮和5种水葫芦玉米秸秆混合青贮(混贮),5种混贮的水葫芦:玉米秸秆(质量比)分别为80∶20、70∶30、60∶40、50∶50和40∶60(简称为80∶20混贮等),并在单贮和各种混贮中设对照(CON)组、添加玉米秸秆绿汁发酵液(FGJC)组、添加水葫芦绿汁发酵液(FGJW)组、添加蚁酸(FA)组和添加四蚁酸铵(FOR)组.每个处理作2次重复,常温下贮存60天,开封后测定青贮的pH、干物质回收率(DMR)、气体损失率(GLR)、氨态氮(NH3-N)等指标.结果表明,4种添加剂在所有青贮中都有一定的添加效果,其中,FGJC组和FGJW组在80:20混贮中的添加效果最佳;混贮的品质均优于单贮.调制水葫芦玉米秸秆混贮是开发利用水葫芦的一条极佳途径.

  6. Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Silage on Intake and Nutrient Digestibility in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Cottonseed Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients. PMID:25049834

  7. Guacamaya: símbolo de temporalidad y fertilidad en dos ejemplos de pintura mural The Macaw: a Symbol of Temporality and Fertility in Two Examples from Mural Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Navarijo Ornelas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el pensamiento prehispánico, la guacamaya (Ara macao y Ara militaris ocupó un lugar preferente, como lo atestigua su imagen plasmada en los murales creados por diferentes pueblos, como el maya, el zapoteca, el teotihuacano, o como se ve en Cacaxtla. Esto no es una coincidencia, por lo que este estudio tiene por objeto analizar y reconocer la identidad taxonómica de los individuos recreados, además de argumentar su presencia en el lenguaje pictórico como un medio de expresión gráfica irrefutable. Para este fin se trabaja con la pintura mural de dos sitios arqueológicos: el mural 1, Los pájaros, de la Estructura 86 en Xelhá, situado en la zona norte de Quintana Roo; y el mural oriente del Templo Rojo en Cacaxtla, Tlaxcala. De acuerdo con las modalidades de representación gráfica y bajo los criterios de integración temática se aborda la lectura de las escenas considerando a los otros elementos iconográficos que las integran. El resultado es una propuesta de participación simbólica de las guacamayas enfocada en la abstracción del tiempo a partir de la conducta diaria y estacional de esta especie de psitácido ruidosa (y de plumaje llamativo y sugerente; también se considera la asociación de estos animales con los conceptos de vida, movimiento y temporalidad, y con el Sol y el agua (este último como el elemento primordial vinculado con la fertilidad.In pre-Hispanic thought, Macaw (Ara macao and Ara militaris occupy a place of honour, as witness its image captured in the murals created by different peoples, such as the Maya, the Zapotec, the ancient inhabitants of Teotihuacan and Cacaxtla. This is not a coincidence, which is why this study aims to analyze and recognize the taxonomic identity of recreated individuals, as well as argue their presence in the pictorial language as a mean of irrefutable graphic expression. To this end works with mural paintings from two archaeological sites are analyzed: the mural 1 "The birds" of

  8. PENGEMBANGAN TEPUNG KAYA PROTEIN (TKP dari KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet DAN KORO KRATOK (Phaseolus lunatus [Development of Protein Rich Flour (PRF from Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With respect to high content of carbohydrate and protein, Protein Rich Flour (PRF were developed from non-oilseed legumes i.e. hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus PRF. PRFs were prepared using water and NaOH solution (0.01N as extraction solvent. After precipitation in isoelectric point (pHs the PRFs produced were characterized to determine the potential applications. The results showed that PRF from hyacinth bean which extracted by water was the best product with yield of 31.19%, protein content 58.41±4.45%, solubility 82-100% and oil holding capacity 93.92±9.19. Moreover pepsin-digestibility of the hyacinth bean PRF was higher (8.29±0.34% than soybean protein isolate (7.10±0.37% or casein (7.04±0.14%. Based on their characteristics, PRFs regarded as potential to be developed as novel food ingredient.

  9. A Statistical Approach for Optimization of Simultaneous Production of β-Glucosidase and Endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae from Solid-State Fermentation of Water Hyacinth Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production cost of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase could be reduced by using water hyacinth, an aquatic weed, as the sole carbon source and using cost-efficient fermentation strategies like solid-state fermentation (SSF. In the present study, the effect of different production conditions on the yield of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 9642 from water hyacinth was investigated systematically using response surface methodology. A Central composite experimental design was applied to optimize the impact of three variables, namely, substrate concentration, pH, and temperature, on enzyme production. The optimal level of each parameter for maximum enzyme production by the fungus was determined. Highest activity of endoglucanase of 495 U/mL was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.23%, pH 7.29, and temperature 29.93°C whereas maximum β-glucosidase activity of 137.32 U/ml was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.25%, pH 6.66, and temperature 32.09°C. There was a direct correlation between the levels of enzymatic activities and the substrate concentration of water hyacinth as carbon source.

  10. Residue Determination of Glyphosate in Water Hyacinth and Aquaculture Water by Ion Chromatography%离子色谱法测试草甘膦在水葫芦及其养殖水中的残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林岸清

    2012-01-01

      Glyphosate, which named N-(Phosphonomethyl)glycine, is a non-selective chronic organophosphorus systemic insecticides. It shows good controlling effect on water hyacinth. In this paper, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of glyphosate in hyacinth leaves and aquaculture water after different spray time were processed by ion chromatography, and the residue and degradation of ghyphosate in water hyacinth and the aquaculture water were investigated.%  草甘膦(glyphosate)学名N-(邻酰基甲基)甘氨酸,是一种灭生性慢性内吸有机磷除草剂,对水葫芦具有较好的防治效果。本文中用离子色谱法对喷药后不同时间水葫芦茎叶中和养殖水中的草甘膦进行定性定量分析,研究喷药后草甘膦在水葫芦中及其养殖水中的残留和降解情况。

  11. Distribución actual y potencial de la guacamaya verde en Michoacán, México Present and potential distribution of the military macaw in Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio C. Monterrubio-Rico

    2011-12-01

    nicho para estimar la distribución real y potencial de la especie.The military macaw (Ara militaris is an endangered species in Mexico, it has disappeared from states on the south Pacific. However, actual studies providing distribution information on the different states are inexistent. The main objective of this study was to provide information concerning its actual distribution on Michoacán. We evaluated 215 localities from 3 physiographic regions that present suitable ecological conditions during the 2002-2008 period. Its actual distribution was analyzed using geographic information systems, and its potential distribution was obtained with the genetic algorithm for rule set prediction (GARP. We evaluated the coincidence between field records and the distribution of suitable ecological conditions (elevation, vegetation for the species, generated by ecological niche modeling. We confirmed its presence on the Municipalities of La Huacana, Churumuco, and Arteaga, confirming its distribution on 2 359 km² from the region known as the lower Balsas basin. In addition, we obtained records on the Sierra Madre del Sur, however there are large areas from this region that require field confirmation, and the distribution for this region can still be considered as potential. The military macaw inhabited the Michoacán coast in 1980, today the species its been extirpated from an estimated area of 1 303 km². Considering the extent of the confirmed distribution, and the extent of the area with suitable ecological conditions that require field confirmation, we assume that the species may have 8 285 km² of distribution on the state. Additionally we localized 7 roosting and nesting areas of the species. The area known as Chorros del Varal, in the municipality of Los Reyes is important because is on the border limits with Jalisco state and could be a contact area between macaw populations of the 2 states. This is the first state level study in the country that combines actual field

  12. Ampliación de la distribución y presencia de una colonia reproductiva de la guacamaya verde (Ara militaris en el alto Balsas de Guerrero, México Range expansion and reproductive colony of the Military Macaw (Ara militaris in the upper Balsas basin, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor H. Jiménez-Arcos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se registra una población y colonia reproductora de guacamaya verde (Ara militaris en el alto Balsas de Guerrero. La colonia se ubica en el bosque tropical seco de la localidad de Papalutla, al margen del río Atoyac, en el extremo noreste del estado. A lo largo de 4 años de conteos (n= 20, se registró una abundancia de 22.7 ± 2.8 individuos. Este registro confirma que la guacamaya verde aún se reproduce en Guerrero y amplía en aproximadamente 100 km hacia el extremo noreste del estado su distribución conocida.We report a new population of green macaw (Ara militaris to the Mexican state of Guerrero. The colony is located besides the Atoyac River, in the dry tropical forest of Papalutla, in the far northeast corner of the state. Along 4 years of counts (n= 20, an abundance of 22.7 ± 2.8 individuals has been registered. This report is relevant because it is the first record of a resident colony of green macaw in the upper Balsas basin, extending its known distribution range to the northwestern limit of Guerrero.

  13. Analysis of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA of Xanthomonas hyacinthi: application in PCR-mediated detection of yellow disease in Hyacinths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, J; Hollinger, T C; Oudega, B

    2001-02-01

    A sensitive and specific detection method was developed for Xanthomonas hyacinthi; this method was based on amplification of a subsequence of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA from strain S148. The fimA gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate DNA primers designed by using the N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of trypsin fragments of FimA. The nucleotide sequence of fimA was determined and compared with the nucleotide sequences coding for the fimbrial subunits in other type IV fimbria-producing bacteria, such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Moraxella bovis. In a PCR internal primers JAAN and JARA, designed by using the nucleotide sequences of the variable central and C-terminal region of fimA, amplified a 226-bp DNA fragment in all X. hyacinthi isolates. This PCR was shown to be pathovar specific, as assessed by testing 71 Xanthomonas pathovars and bacterial isolates belonging to other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas. Southern hybridization experiments performed with the labelled 226-bp DNA amplicon as a probe suggested that there is only one structural type IV fimbrial-gene cluster in X. hyacinthi. Only two Xanthomonas translucens pathovars cross-reacted weakly in PCR. Primers amplifying a subsequence of the fimA gene of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria (T. Ojanen-Reuhs, N. Kalkkinen, B. Westerlund-Wikström, J. van Doorn, K. Haahtela, E.-L. Nurmiaho-Lassila, K. Wengelink, U. Bonas, and T. K. Korhonen, J. Bacteriol. 179: 1280-1290, 1997) were shown to be pathovar specific, indicating that the fimbrial-subunit sequences are more generally applicable in xanthomonads for detection purposes. Under laboratory conditions, approximately 1,000 CFU of X. hyacinthi per ml could be detected. In inoculated leaves of hyacinths the threshold was 5,000 CFU/ml. The results indicated that infected hyacinths with early symptoms could be successfully screened for X. hyacinthi with PCR.

  14. Experimental study on the survival of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms--Pontederiaceae) under different oil doses and times of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Aline; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades, petroleum activities have increased in the Brazilian Amazon where there is oil exploration on the Urucu River, a tributary of the Amazon River, about 600 km from the city of Manaus. Particularly, transportation via the Amazon River to reach the oil refinery in Manaus may compromise the integrity of the large floodplains that flank hundreds of kilometers of this major river. In the Amazon floodplains, plant growth and nutrient cycling are related to the flood pulse. When oil spills occur, floating oil on the water surface is dispersed through wind and wave action in the littoral region, thus affecting the vegetation of terrestrial and aquatic environments. If pollutants enter the system, they are absorbed by plants and distributed in the food chain via plant consumption, mortality, and decomposition. The effect of oil on the growth and survival of vegetation in these environments is virtually unknown. The water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] has a pantropical distribution but is native to the Amazon, often growing in high-density populations in the floodplains where it plays an important role as shelter and food source for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The species is well known for its high capacity to absorb and tolerate high levels of heavy metal ions. To study the survival and response of water hyacinth under six different oil doses, ranging from 0 to 150 ml l(-1), and five exposure times (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days), young individuals distributed in a completely randomized design experiment composed of vessels with a single individual each were followed over a 50-day period (30-day acclimatization, 20 days under oil treatments). Growth parameters, biomass, visual changes in the plants, and pH were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Increasing the time of oil exposure caused a decrease in biomass, ratio of live/dead biomass and length of leaves, and an increase in the number of dead leaves. Dose of oil and time of exposure

  15. Comparison of Genomic DNA Extraction Methods From Hyacinth%风信子DNA不同提取方法的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凤荣; 任翠; 鲍仁蕾; 罗凤霞

    2011-01-01

    采用简易CTAB法、改良CTAB法、SDS-CTAB法、高盐法和CTAB-硅珠法等5种方法对风信子花蕾、叶片和鳞片基因组DNA进行提取.比较DNA纯度、电泳、得率等指标,结果表明:CTAB-硅珠法没有获得DNA,其他方法均可提出DNA;在纯度方面,简易CTAB法>SDS-CTAB法>改良CTAB法>高盐法;在得率方面,简易CTAB法>改良CTAB法>高盐法>SDS-CTAB法.简易CTAB法提取的DNA纯度较高,OD260/OD280为2.01,OD260/OD230为2.33,浓度为406.8ng·μL-1,得率为175.95ng· μL-1.花蕾、叶片适合风信子基因组DNA的提取.%Five methods including simple CTAB, CTAB improved method, SDS-CTAB method, high salt precipitation method and silica-purification method were used to extract genomic DNA from different parts of Hyacinth such as bud, leaves, scale. The results were compared by three parts, purity, the electrophoreses results and yield of the extracted DNA. The results showed that all of these DNA extraction methods except for CTAB-silica-purification method could obtain DNA. The purity of extracted DNA was as following : simple CTAB method >SDS-CTAB method >CTAB improved method>high salt precipitation method, and yield as following : simple CTAB method >CTAB improved method >high salt precipitation method >SDS-CTAB method. Simple CTAB method could obtain more purity DNA than the other methods and OD260/OD280 was 2.01,OD260/OD230 was 2.33. The concentration was 406.8ng-L~1 and the yield was 175.95ng·g-1.The extraction results from different parts showed that flower buds and leaves were both suit for Hyacinth obtain DNA.

  16. Comparison of alcoholic fermentation performance of the free and immobilized yeast on water hyacinth stem pieces in medium with different glucose contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Nguyen; Le, Van Viet Man

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was performed in medium with different glucose concentrations. As the glucose content augmented from 200 to 250 g/L, the growth of the immobilized cells did not change while that of the free cells was reduced. At higher glucose concentration (300, 350, and 400 g/L), the cell proliferation significantly decreased and the residual sugar level sharply augmented for both the immobilized and free yeast. The specific growth rate of the immobilized cells was 27–65 % higher than that of the free cells, and the final ethanol concentration in the immobilized yeast cultures was 9.7–18.5 % higher than that in the free yeast cultures. However, the immobilized yeast demonstrated similar or slightly lower ethanol yield in comparison with the free yeast. High fermentation rate of the immobilized yeast was associated with low unsaturation degree of fatty acids in cellular membrane. Adsorption of S. cerevisiae cells on water hyacinth stem pieces in the nutritional medium decreased the unsaturation degree of membrane lipid and the immobilized yeast always exhibited lower unsaturation degree of membrane lipid than the free yeast in ethanol fermentation.

  17. Determination and Visualization of pH Values in Anaerobic Digestion of Water Hyacinth and Rice Straw Mixtures Using Hyperspectral Imaging with Wavelet Transform Denoising and Variable Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy represents a huge supplement for meeting current energy demands. A hyperspectral imaging system covering the spectral range of 874–1734 nm was used to determine the pH value of anaerobic digestion liquid produced by water hyacinth and rice straw mixtures used for methane production. Wavelet transform (WT was used to reduce noises of the spectral data. Successive projections algorithm (SPA, random frog (RF and variable importance in projection (VIP were used to select 8, 15 and 20 optimal wavelengths for the pH value prediction, respectively. Partial least squares (PLS and a back propagation neural network (BPNN were used to build the calibration models on the full spectra and the optimal wavelengths. As a result, BPNN models performed better than the corresponding PLS models, and SPA-BPNN model gave the best performance with a correlation coefficient of prediction (rp of 0.911 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.0516. The results indicated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to determine pH values during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, a distribution map of the pH values was achieved by applying the SPA-BPNN model. The results in this study would help to develop an on-line monitoring system for biomass energy producing process by hyperspectral imaging.

  18. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using water hyacinth root by fixed-bed column and ANN modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tania; Singha, Biswajit; Bar, Nirjhar; Das, Sudip Kumar

    2014-05-30

    Hyacinth root was used as a biosorbent for generating adsorption data in fixed-bed glass column. The influence of different operating parameters like inlet Pb(II) ion concentration, liquid flow rate and bed height on the breakthrough curves and the performance of the column was studied. The result showed that the adsorption efficiency increased with increase in bed height and decreased with increase in inlet Pb(II) ion concentration and flow rate. Increasing the flow rate resulted in shorter time for bed saturation. The result showed that as the bed height increased the availability of more number of adsorption sites in the bed increased, hence the throughput volume of the aqueous solution also increased. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed using different models. It was observed that maximum adsorption capacity increased with increase in flow rate and initial Pb(II) ion concentration but decreased with increase in bed height. Applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling for the prediction of Pb(II) ion removal was also reported by using multilayer perceptron with backpropagation, Levenberg-Marquardt and scaled conjugate algorithms and four different transfer functions in a hidden layer and a linear output transfer function.

  19. Composition of Periphyton Community on Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes: In Analysis of Environmental Characteristics at Ejirin Part of Epe Lagoon in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Inyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of periphyton community on water hyacinth was investigated at Ejirin, part of Epe Lagoon, in relation to environmental characteristics from December 2012 to May 2013. A total of 14,536 individuals of 104 species belonging to five divisions were identified, with Bacillariophyta (82.69%, Cyanobacteria (10.43%, Chlorophyta (5.63%, and Euglenophyta (1.15%. The total species abundance observed showed a strong correlation with rainfall (r = 0.745 and strongly significant correlation with TDS (r=0.836*; P >0.05. Biochemical oxygen demand value remained (BOD ≤ 4.8 mg/L while Shannon-Wiener index value remained (Hs ≤ 1.47. The presence of the following organisms could be used as an indicator of environmentally stressed aquatic ecosystem: euglenoids, blue green algae, Nitzschia palea, Surirella sp., Pinnularia sp., Gomphonema parvulum, Mougeotia sp., Spirogyra sp., Trachelomonas affinis (Lemm., and T. ensifera Daday; T. gibberosa Playf. and Phormidium articulatum; Lyngbya intermedia; Cymbella ventricosa; Eunotia arcus; Surirella linearis and Closterium parvulum Nag.

  20. 微光波对水葫芦水解糖化的促进机理研究%Promotion mechanisms of microwave and lightwave pretreatments on enzymatic saccharification of water hyacinth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程军; 俞聪; 宋文路; 周俊虎; 岑可法

    2009-01-01

    利用色质联机和扫描电镜等微观分析手段,研究了微波时间、功率和光波组合等对水葫芦理化性质、还原糖产量和水解副产物的影响规律.水葫芦叶子经过蒸汽加热和NaOH预处理后,酶水解的还原糖产量仅为23.9 mg(每100 mg底物);而联合了微光波预处理后,可提高到31.1 mg(每100 mg底物),使还原糖产量提高了30.1%.在微波和光波组合比例为30∶70(总功率700 W)、加热时间1 min时,得到了55.4%的理论最大还原糖产量.当微波功率过高或时间过长时,在预处理阶段由半纤维素水解生成的大量木糖进一步分解,导致乙酸、丁酮和糠醛等有害小分子副产物增加,对后期酶水解糖化和发酵产酒精造成不利影响.%The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to study the effects of microwave time, power and combination with lightwave on the hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) physicochemical properties, reducing sugar yields and hydrolysis byproducts. The reducing sugar yield of only 23.9 mg/100 mg hyacinth leave in the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained when it was pretreated with the steam explosion and NaOH solution. The reducing sugar yield was increased by 30.1% to 31.1 mg/100 mg hyacinth leave when the microwave and lightwave pretreatments were additionally employed. The 55.4% of potential maximum sugars was released when the hyacinth leave was pretreated with the power ratio of microwave to lingtwave at 30∶70 (total power is 700 W) for 1 min. When the microwave power was higher and time was longer, more hydrolysis byproducts such as acetic acid, butanone and furfural were produced due to the further decomposition of the xylose derived from the hemicellulose hydrolysis, which was harmful to the following enzymatic saccharification and fermentative ethanol fuel.

  1. 生活垃圾协同水葫芦干式厌氧发酵制沼气的研究%Dry Anaerobic Co-digestion of Water Hyacinth and Municipal Solid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 陈砺; 严宗诚; 王红林; 黄和茂

    2013-01-01

    Feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and municipal solid waste (MSW) under mesophilic conditions was investigated.Effects of total solid (TS),inoculum ratio (IR) and water hyacinth ratio (WR) on anaerobic digestion process were studied.Results showed that adding 5% water hyacinth to MSW anaerobic digestion system could effectively prevent the impact on the system pH value caused by variations of TS and IR,shorten the lag phase,centralize the biogas yield peak and enhance biogas production.But the biogas production decreased when WR increased to 10%.Volatile solid (VS) degradation rates of all experiments were between 38.18% and 58.10% after 70d anaerobic digestion.Orthogonal experiment results indicated that the optimum process conditions were TS 23%,IR 100% and WR 5% for the anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and MSW.%探讨了水葫芦和生活垃圾在中温条件下联合发酵的可行性,研究了系统总固体含量(TS)、发酵母液添加比例(IR)以及水葫芦添加比例(WR)对厌氧发酵过程的影响.试验结果表明,添加5%的水葫芦能够有效防止因TS和IR的变化对系统pH值所带来的影响,缩短发酵启动时间,使产气高峰集中出现,并提高产气量.但是当水葫芦添加比例增加到10%时,沼气产量反而下降.发酵70d后,挥发性固体(VS)降解率为38.18%~58.10%.通过对正交试验结果进行分析,得到水葫芦与生活垃圾联合发酵制沼气的较优工艺条件为:系统总固体含量23%,发酵母液添加比例100%,水葫芦添加比例5%.

  2. Comparison of photosynthetic eco-functions of water hyacinth and their environmental factors in different areas%不同地区凤眼莲的光合生态功能型及其生态影响因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 任承钢; 王满; 丛伟; 盛婧; 朱普平; 郑建初; 严少华

    2011-01-01

    以江苏省农业科学院太湖雪堰、南京和滇池白山湾的试验点内种养的凤眼莲为研究材料,在相同种养时间内,统一测定不同地区植株的株高和干重的变化及不同叶位光合参数和光合功能叶片的光合—光响应曲线等,以期阐明不同生态区凤眼莲株型特征形成的生态生理机制,并为不同地区人工放养凤眼莲的高产栽培提供理论参考和技术支持.结果表明:(1)不同地区种养的凤眼莲株型有较大差异,滇池的为短地上部分和长根的株型,其茎叶长/根长为0.4土0.1;南京的为中等长度的地上部分和短根的株型,其茎叶长/根长为7.1±0 3;太湖的为长地上部分和中等根长的株型,其茎叶长/根长为2.0±0.2.(2)形态有差异的不同地区凤眼莲植株的光合表现存在差异,与南京和滇池地区的相比,太湖凤眼莲不同叶位的净光合速率(Pn)最高(25.9~35.3μmol.m-2·s-1);相关性分析表明,南京凤眼莲的Pn与其相对湿度呈极显著负相关(r=-0.831**,n=6),滇池凤眼莲的Pn与气孔导度呈显著正相关(r=0.769*,n=6),太湖凤眼莲的相对湿度与叶片蒸腾速率呈显著负相关(r=-0.818*,n=6).可见影响不同地区Pn的外界因子有差异,但除外界光强外,相对湿度也是影响其Pn高低的重要生态因子.(3)不同生态地区形态有差异的植株己形成了相应的光合潜力,生长能力最强的太湖地区植株,光合能力也最强,Pmax最大(36.29±1.21μmol·m-2·s-1)且光饱和点最高(LSP,2 350.0±69.0 μmol·m-2·s-1);相关性分析进一步表明,株高和光补偿点(LCP)以及茎叶长度与光饱和点均呈显著正相关,相关系数分别为r=0.998*、r=0.997*(n=10).本研究可为不同地区利用凤眼莲净化富营养水域的高产栽培提供参考.%Eichhornia crassipes Solms, commonly known as water hyacinth, is a bundler aquatic plant. It is widely used in sewage purification due to its well developed root system

  3. Recovering biomethane and nutrients from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Shek, M A; Cadavid-Rodríguez, L S; Bolaños, I V; Agudelo-Henao, A C

    2016-01-01

    The potential to recover bioenergy from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (WH) and from its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was investigated. Initially, biogas and methane production were studied using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test at 2 g volatile solids (VS) L(-1) of substrate concentration, both in the digestion of WH alone and in its co-digestion with FVW (WH-FVW ratio of 70:30). Subsequently, the biogas production was optimized in terms of total solids (TS) concentration, testing 4 and 6% of TS. The BMP test showed a biogas yield of 0.114 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded for WH alone. On the other hand, the biogas potential from the WH-FVW co-digestion was 0.141 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded, showing an increase of 23% compared to that of WH alone. Maximum biogas production of 0.230 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded was obtained at 4% of TS in the co-digestion of WH-FVW. Using semi-continuously stirred tank reactors, 1.3 m(3) biogas yield kg(-1) VSadded was produced using an organic loading rate of 2 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. It was also found that a WH-FVW ratio of 80:20 improved the process in terms of pH stability. Additionally, it was found that nitrogen can be recovered in the liquid effluent with a potential for use as a liquid fertilizer.

  4. Parâmetros de bioquímica sérica de machos, fêmeas e filhotes de Araras canindé (Ara ararauna saudáveis mantidas em cativeiro comercial Serum biochemical parameters of healthy male, female and young blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella de Faria Valle

    2008-06-01

    , totaling nearly 80 species. The blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, the most representative species of the Psittaciformes order, lives in the forest areas of different Brazilian regions. IBAMA, Brazilian environmental protection agency, has authorized the trade of wild animals raised in breeding facilities; consequently, their use as household pets has increased ever since. Currently, too little is known about clinical and laboratory parameters of wild species bred in captivity. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum biochemical parameters of healthy blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna of different sexes and ages reared in a commercial breeding facility under controlled and standardized feeding and management practices. Blood samples were collected from 35 blue-and-yellow macaws (11 fledglings and 24 adults and sent to the Laboratory of Veterinary Clinical Pathology of Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF for measurement of the following biochemical parameters: uric acid (UA, albumin (Alb, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, calcium (Ca, cholesterol (Chol, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (AP, inorganic phosphorus (iP, fructosamine (Fru, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein (TP and urea nitrogen (Ur. There were significant differences among adult macaws with regard to CK levels (higher in males and to Ca and UA levels (higher in females. Differences were noted among adults and fledglings with respect to UA, Ca, Alb, Chol, AP, iP and Fru. Most of the findings can be ascribed to the different feeding regimens and ages of the birds analyzed. The data obtained herein can be used as reference parameters for Brazilian blue-and-yellow macaws.

  5. 生物添加剂对水葫芦与甜玉米秸秆混合青贮品质的影响%Effects of biological additives on the quality of water hyacinth and maize straw mixed silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫珠; 庄益芬; 张建国; 廖惠珍; 张文昌; 张兆阳; 陈庆达

    2011-01-01

    本研究设计了4种混合比例的水葫芦玉米秸秆混合青贮,即水葫芦:玉米秸秆按鲜重比为8:2,7:3,6:4和5:5(略为W8M2、W7M3、W6M4和W5 M5),探讨生物添加剂绿汁发酵液(FGJ)、纤维素酶(CEL)和绿汁发酵液+纤维素酶(MIX)的效果.每个处理3次重复,常温下贮存60 d,开封后评定其青贮品质.结果表明,3种添加剂对不同混合比例的材料均能显著(P<0.05)提高其青贮品质,特别是绿汁发酵液和纤维素酶的混合添加,具有相乘作用,效果更好.随着玉米秸秆混合比例的升高,青贮品质提高,W5M5的效果最好.%In order to investigate the effects of biological additives on the quality of mixing water hyacinth and maize stalk, four mixture ratios of water hyacinth and maize stalk at 8:2, 7:3, 6:4 and 5: 5 (W8M2, W7M3, W6M4 and W5M5) were designed. In addition, no-additive, fermented green juice (FGJ), cellulase (CEL) and FGJ + CEL (MIX) were added for all materials. After ensiled for 60 days at ambient temperature, the nutritional composition were measured for each treatment. Three kinds of additives significant improved the fermentation quality of water hyacinth and maize straw mixed silages (P<0.05). FGJ and CEL also had obvious interaction. In addition, with the increase of corn straw mixture ratio, the quality of silage was improved. W5M5 was the best silage.

  6. 水葫芦与甜玉米秸秆混合半干青贮的研究%The mixing silage of water hyacinth and maize straw under the low moisture conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫珠; 庄益芬; 张建国; 廖惠珍

    2011-01-01

    Three mixture ratios of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and maize (Zea mays) stalk at 9 : 1, 8 : 2 and 7 : 3 (W9M1, W8M2 and W7M3) with the addition of no-additive, fermented green juice (FGJ), formic acid and foraform (FOR), were designed to investigate the effects of mixing ensilage of wa- ter hyacinth and maize stalk on the fermentation quality in this study. The nutritional compositions were measured for each treatment after ensiling for 60 days at ambient temperature. This study showed that three kinds of additives significantly improved the fermentation quality of mixing silages of water hyacinth and maize straw (P〈0.01). W9M1 was the best and had higher DM recovery than W8M2 and W7M3 did (P〈0.05). The WSC contents of no-additive and FGJ in WTM3 was significantly higher than those in W9M1 and W8M2 (P〈0.01).%本试验设3种比例的混合青贮,即水葫芦(Eichhorniacrassipes):甜玉米(Zeamays)秸秆按鲜质量比为9:l、8:2和7:3(W9M1、W8M2和w7M3)混合,并在每种混合比例中设无添加(CK)、添加2mL/kg绿汁发酵液(FGD、添加3mL/kg蚁酸(FA)和添加3mL/kg四蚁酸铵(FOR)4个处理,探讨混合比例和添加剂对水葫芦与甜玉米秸秆混合半千青贮发酵品质的影响。每个处理3次重复,常温下贮存60d,开封后评定其青贮品质。结果表明,3种添加剂均能显著(P〈0.05)提高不同混合比

  7. Biomagnification of Heavy Metals during Vemicomposting of Water Hyacinth by Earthworm%蚯蚓堆制技术处理水葫芦过程中的重金属生物放大作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娟娟; 李战军

    2012-01-01

    水葫芦对重金属有较强的生物富集作用.在利用蚯蚓堆制技术处理水葫芦时,蚯蚓可通过生物放大作用进一步累积重金属.为了研究蚯蚓堆制技术处理水葫芦过程中,蚯蚓对重金属的富集规律,测定了模拟废水中生长的水葫芦茎叶部和根部的Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅵ),Pb(Ⅱ),Cu(Ⅱ),Ni(Ⅱ)含量,研究了蚯蚓堆制处理水葫芦茎叶过程中蚯蚓蚓体和蚓粪中的重金属含量.研究结果表明,术葫芦虽然可富集重金属,但主要集中在根部,茎叶部含量较少,以茎叶部饲养蚯蚓是较为安全的.当以茎叶部饲养蚯蚓时,受重金属污染的水葫芦可导致蚯蚓生长速率下降.但蚯蚓对重金属有一定耐受力,蚓粪中重金属含量远大于蚯蚓蚓体中的含量.%Heavy metals could be bio-concentrated by water hyacinth and might be further cumulated by earthworm via the bio-magnification effect during vemicomposting. In order to realize the biomagnification of heavy metals, the concentrations of Cd(II),Cr(VI),Pb(II),Cu(ir),Ni(II) in the leaves and root of water hyacinth cultured in simulated wastewaler, earthworms, and worrodung were tested. Hie results indicated that heavy metals could be bio-concentrated by water hyacinth and the growth rate of earthworms was decreased when the heavy meatals concentrations increased. Nevertheless, most of the heavy metals were distributed in the root. So it was relatively safe to feed earthworms with the leaves. Moreover, earthworms were somewhat patient towards low levels of heavy metals while most of the heavy metals were retained in their dung.

  8. Changes in enzymatic activities and microbial properties in vermicompost of water hyacinth as affected by pre-composting and fungal inoculation: a comparative study of ergosterol and chitin for estimating fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, P

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, three different fungal species, viz. Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were inoculated in 7 day and 15 day partially decomposed water hyacinth to study their effect on enzymatic activities, microbial respiration and fungal biomass of the final stabilized product. The results suggested that increasing the duration of pre-composting from 7 days to 15 days did not show any significant effect on the activities of hydrolytic enzymes. Inoculation of fungi significantly (P vermicomposts. Inoculation of P. chrysosporium in initial organic waste registered the highest chitin content in vermicompost. A comparison of fungal biomass and chitin content revealed a conversion factor of 2.628 with a standard deviation of 0.318. Due to significant correlation (r = 0.864), this conversion factor allows for the calculation of fungal biomass from chitin, which is comparatively more stable than ergosterol.

  9. 水葫芦与玉米秸秆混合青贮向研究%Use of Mixed Silage of Water Hyacinth and Corn Straw as Feed Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄益芬; 陈鑫珠; 廖惠珍; 张文昌

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在利用水葫芦(water hyacinth)调制出优质青贮.试验共分24(2×3×4)个处理,每个处理3个重复,以2种水分(约40%和50%)的原料,按3种混合比例(晾晒后的水葫芦与玉米秸秆质量比分别为9∶1、8∶2和7∶3)制成共6种原料混合物,每种混合物中不添加或分别添加2 mL/kg绿汁发酵液、3 mL/kg蚁酸和3mL/kg四蚁酸铵后进行青贮.常温发酵60 d,测定青贮的pH、氨态氮浓度以及乳酸、乙酸、丙酸和丁酸的含量.结果表明:降低原料水分显著提高了青贮的pH(P<0.05)、显著减少了乳酸生成(P<0.05);随玉米秸秆比例的升高,青贮pH有不同程度的下降;3种添加剂也都不同程度地改善了青贮品质.综合而言,原料水分50%、水葫芦与玉米秸秆混合比例7∶3,并以绿汁发酵液作为添加剂的青贮的品质最优.%The study was conducted to produce high quality silage with water hyacinth. It consisted of 24 (2 × 3×4) treatments with 3 replicates in each, six kinds of mixture were made from ingredients with two moistures (about 40% and 50% ) according to three mixed ratios (mass of water hyacinth and corn straw after dried in the sun were 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3). After supplemented with no additive, 2 mL/kg fermented green juice, 3 mL/kg formic acid and 3 mL/kg foraform, respectively, the mixture were fermented. The fermentation las ted for 60 d in normal temperature. Silages were determined for pH, ammoniacal nitrogen ( NH3-N) concen tration , contents of lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The results showed as follows: the decreasing of moisture of ingredients significantly increased the pH (P <0.05), but significantly decreased the production of lactic acid (P<0.05)in silages; with the increasing of corn straw' s rate, the pH of silage de creased at different levels; supplementation of the three additives also improved the quality of silages in varying degrees. In conclusion, the mixed silage

  10. NiSe@NiOOH Core-Shell Hyacinth-like Nanostructures on Nickel Foam Synthesized by in Situ Electrochemical Oxidation as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Han, Guan-Qun; Liu, Yan-Ru; Dong, Bin; Hu, Wen-Hui; Shang, Xiao; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2016-08-10

    NiSe@NiOOH core-shell hyacinth-like nanostructures supported on nickel foam (NF) have been successfully synthesized by a facile solvothermal selenization and subsequent in situ electrochemical oxidation (ISEO). First, the unique NiSe/NF nanopillar arrays were prepared in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a precursor template that can provide a large surface area, excellent conductivity, and robust support. Next, amorphous NiOOH covering the surface of NiSe nanopillars was fabricated by ISEO, as confirmed by XPS andEDX spectroscopy. SEM images revealed the hyacinth-like morphology of NiSe@NiOOH/NF with NiOOH as the shell and NiSe as the core. The electrochemical performance of NiSe@NiOOH/NF for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was investigated. NiSe@NiOOH/NF demonstrates an obviously enhanced OER activity with much lower overpotential of 332 mV at 50 mA cm(-2) compared to other Ni-based electrocatalysts. The low charge-transfer resistance (Rct), large electrochemical double-layer capacitance (Cdl) of electrochemically active surface areas (ECSAs), and excellent long-term stability of NiSe@NiOOH/NF confirm the enhancement of its electrochemical performance for the OER, which can be ascribed to the large amount of active sites derived from the amorphous NiOOH shell and the good conductivity and stability derived from the NiSe core. In addition, the synergistic effect between the NiSe core and NiOOH shell could serve for a highly efficient OER electrocatalyst.

  11. Digestibilidade aparente da farinha de aguapé em tilápias-do-nilo Apparent digestibility of water hyacinth meal by Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Vicente Biudes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar e comparar as digestibilidades aparentes da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e energia bruta (EB e as disponibilidades aparentes de minerais das farinhas da biomassa emersa (lâmina foliar e pecíolo, submersa (raiz e rizoma e total do aguapé em tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foram elaboradas quatro rações marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio-III (uma ração-referência purificada e três contendo 30,0% de cada ingrediente. As tilápias-do-nilo (125,5 ± 10,5 g foram alimentadas até a saciedade e a coleta de fezes foi realizada pelo sistema Ghelph modificado. As digestibilidades aparentes da farinha da biomassa emersa (MS = 57,8; PB = 72,3; EE = 63,2 e EB = 62,0% foram maiores que as das farinhas da biomassa total (MS = 45,7; PB = 57,3; EE = 50,3 e EB = 42,3% e submersa (MS = 38,3; PB = 50,8; EE = 43,5 e EB = 32,0%. As disponibilidades aparentes de fósforo (P, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, manganês (Mn, cobre (Cu e zinco (Zn da farinha da biomassa emersa também foram maiores. A farinha de biomassa emersa do aguapé apresenta melhor digestibilidade e disponibilidade aparente dos nutrientes em comparação às farinhas da biomassa total e submersa.This study was carried out to determine and compare the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fat (CF, gross energy (GE, and the apparent availability of minerals (P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn of emergent (leaf and petiole, submerged (root and rhizome and total biomass meal of water hyacinth for Nile tilapia. Four diets were prepared, containing 0.10% chromic oxide-III, one being the reference diet (purified and the others containing 30% of each ingredient. The Nile tilapias (125.5 ± 10.5 g were fed until satiation and the feces were collected by the modified Guelph system. The apparent digestibility of emergent biomass meal (DM = 57.8, CP = 72.3, CF = 63.2, and GE = 62.0% was higher than

  12. Effect of the isolation of Sterculia apetala trees on the emergence of seedlings in Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marçal Henrique Amici Jorge

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sterculia apetala trees aren’t removed during the conversion of forests into pastures due to rural landowners’ awareness that these trees are home to 95% of the nests of Hyacinth Macaw in Pantanal. Our aim was to compare the greenhouse emergence rate of seedlings from seeds of trees at conserved forest and those left isolated in a cultivated pastures. The seeds were collected directly from the ground, under 10 S. apetala trees in each area, at the Pantanal Wetland, Corumba, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The emergence of seedlings from isolated trees was 14% lower than that obtained from trees located in the inner part of the forest. There’s a need for further studies on the ecology of this species in Pantanal focused on the mating system, the identification of the pollination agent and the evaluation of the effects of isolation on the viability of species population, which may impact the Hyacinth Macaw reproduction success.

  13. Water hyacinth biomass stabilization by its composting with swine wasterwater and slaugther house wasters / Estabilização da biomassa de aguapé através da compostagem com águas resíduárias de suínos e resíduos de frigorífico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio César Sampaio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to evaluate the composting of water hyacinth (E. crassipes biomass, after its usage for the removal of pollutants from the effluent of a swine slaughter house wastewater treatment system, recycling the waste water used for swine transportation trucks and piggery hygienic cleaning and the cellulosic gut generated in the sausage processing . The composting was evaluated by building eight composting piles measuring approximately 0,60m3 each; the piles consisted of four distinct treatments that were done twice. The treatments were: T1 – Water hyacinth (E. crassipes, T2 – Water hyacinth and swine excrement, T3 – Water hyacinth, swine excrement and earth, T4 – Water hyacinth, swine excrement and cellulosic gut, for a period of 90 days. Considering the C:N ratio as a compost maturity indicator, it was observed that the T4 treatment (water hyacinth, excrement and cellulosic gut had the shorter period of stabilization, 60 days. Regarding the biostabilization rate, the statistic analysis showed that there was no significant difference at 5% level by the F test between the four treatments evaluated during 90 days. The total organic carbon and the nitrogen biostabilization average rates were 1,8x10-2 day-1 and 0,8x10-3 day-1, respectively. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a compostagem da biomassa de aguapé (E. crassipes, após sua utilização na remoção de poluentes em sistema de tratamento de efluente de uma Unidade Frigorífica de suínos, com o aproveitamento de águas residuárias provenientes da higienização de pocilgas e dos caminhões que transportam os suínos, e das tripas celulósicas geradas no processamento de salsichas. Avaliou-se a compostagem, montando-se oito leiras com aproximadamente 0,60m3, com quatro tratamentos distintos e duas repetições, sendo: T1 – Aguapé (E. crassipes, T2 – Aguapé e dejeto suíno, T3 – Aguapé, dejeto suíno e terra, T4 – Aguap

  14. Sensibilidade a herbicidas de acessos de aguapé coletados em reservatórios do Estado de São Paulo Chemical control of different water hyacinth accesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Cardoso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de herbicidas em diferentes acessos de aguapé coletados em reservatórios de hidrelétricas do Estado de São Paulo, foi realizado um estudo no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia da FCA-UNESP, campus de Botucatu. A escolha das plantas geneticamente diferentes foi feita com base em estudos de variabilidade genética, nos quais se utilizou a técnica de RAPD. Avaliou-se o efeito dos herbicidas imazapyr nas doses de 62,5 e 125,0 g e.a. ha-1, glyphosate a 1.680 e 3.360 g e.a. ha-1 + 0,5% V/V de Extravon, diquat a 480 e 960 g i.a. ha-1 e 2,4-D a 670 e 1.340 g e.a. ha-1. Os seis acessos escolhidos foram colocados em caixas plásticas de 28,0 x 14,0 x 12,0 cm, contendo 4 litros de água. A aplicação dos produtos foi realizada com um simulador de pulverização pressurizado com ar comprimido, equipado com barra de aplicação com quatro bicos de jato plano Teejet 110.02 VS. A pressão constante de trabalho foi de 1,6 bar, e o consumo de calda, de 193 L ha-1. A velocidade de aplicação foi de 3,69 km h-1. Durante as aplicações, a temperatura do ar foi de 25 ºC e a umidade relativa de 73%. Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de controle aos 3, 5, 7, 11, 21 e 28 dias, nas quais 0 consistiu em nenhum controle e 100 em morte de plantas. Todos os herbicidas e doses testados proporcionaram controle eficiente das plantas de aguapé, e os seis acessos estudados responderam de forma semelhante.A study was carried out at the Advanced Weed Science Research Nucleus , UNESP/Botucatu, to verify the effect of herbicides on different collected accesses of water hyacinth in hydroelectric reservoirs in São Paulo. The different genetic materials were chosen based on studies of genetic variability, using the RAPD technique. The herbicides and rates evaluated were imazapyr at 62.5 and 125.0g a.e. ha-1, glyphosate at 480 and 960 g a.e. ha-1, diquat at 1.680 and 3.360g a.i. ha + 5% V/V of Extravon and 2.4-D at 670 and 1

  15. Adsorption of Pb(II) on mesoporous activated carbons fabricated from water hyacinth using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} activation: Adsorption capacity, kinetic and isotherm studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yang, E-mail: zzsfxyhy@163.com [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province University Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Li, Shunxing; Chen, Jianhua; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Yiping [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province University Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2014-02-28

    Activated carbons with high mesoporosity and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups were prepared from water hyacinth using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} activation (WHAC) to eliminate Pb(II) in water. Characterizations of the WHAC were performed using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The BET analysis showed that WHAC possesses a high mesoporosity (93.9%) with a BET surface area of 423.6 m{sup 2}/g. The presence of oxygen-containing functional groups including hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and phosphate groups renders the WHAC a favorable adsorbent for Pb(II) with the maximum monolayer capacity (q{sub m}) 118.8 mg/g. The adsorption behavior follows pseudo-first order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm. The desorption study demonstrated that the WHAC could be readily regenerated using 0.1 M HCl (pH = 1.0). The desorbed WHAC could be reused at least six times without significant adsorption capacity reduction. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic with ΔG (−0.27, −1.13, −3.02, −3.62, −5.54, and −9.31 kJ/mol) and ΔH (38.72 kJ/mol). Under the optimized conditions, a small amount of the adsorbent (1.0 g/L) could remove as much as 90.1% of Pb(II) (50 mg/L) in 20 min at pH 6.0 and temperature of 298 K. Therefore, the WHAC has a great potential to be an economical and efficient adsorbent in the treatment of lead-contaminated water.

  16. Generación de electricidad en horas de punta a partir de la digestión anaeróbica de camalote Generating electricity during peak hours in Asuncion, Paraguay, through anaerobic digestion of cultivated water hyacinths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulfer J.

    2011-10-01

    sustainable proposal for generating electricity in the metropolitan area of Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay, based on a renewable source of energy. Electricity would mainly be generated during peak hours with the aim of reducing power contracted by the Paraguayan Electricity Administration (ANDE from existing hydroelectric power plants and thus reduce costs and stabilise transmission and distribution grids in the area of Asuncion. Electricity would be generated at a 130 MW combined cycle thermal power plant using biogas as fuel, this being obtained by anaerobic digestion of water hyacinths cultivated in pools, which would be built on the banks of the Paraguay river opposite Asuncion’s botanical garden. The main advantage of using water hyacinths is their high growth rate, this being 100 to 500 g/day/m2 depending on environmental conditions, thereby allowing plant mass to double every 6 to 15 days. Additionally, carbon to nitrogen ratio in water hyacinth vegetal mass is optimum for biogas generation. About 6.4 kWh/m3 biogas calorific value is high enough to be used for producing heat and, therefore, for generating electricity in a thermal power plant. Such power plant could be directly connected to the national grid through the Puerto Botanic transformer station by building a 2 km long 220 kV transmission line crossing the Paraguay River. This project could save ANDE up to 25 million US$ every year due to reduced contracted power at the Itaipu power plant. Although this reduction will decline by 3% each year due to increased electricity demand, the investment of around 98 million US$ could be repaid within 15 years and would have 5% IRR and US$ 40.5 million NPV.

  17. Biomass production of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth and Egeria densa (egeria in organic fish farm effluent treatment system / Produção de biomassa das macrófitas aquáticas Eichhornia crassipes (aguapé e Egeria densa (egeria em sistema de tratamento de efluente de piscicultura orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Coldebella

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the production of biomass of the aquatic macrophytes water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and egeria (Egeria densa in three hydraulic detention times in a organic pisciculture effluent treatment system. The system was composed for 18 experimental tanks of 2.00 x 1.00 x 0.65m length, width and depth respectively, coated with polypropylene canvas. An entirely randomized 2 macrophytes x 3 hydraulic detention times (HDT and 3 repetitions. The HDT used was 4, 8, and 12 hours. The biomass production was evaluated at the end of the experiment which was extended at 08/07 to 19/08/2006. The water hyacinth showed the best results of biomass production (P0.05. For egeria the treatment that presented the best production of biomass was reached which TDH of 12 hours, being of 0.10 kg.m-2, followed for the HDT of 8 and 4 hours, not differing between the HDT (P>0.05. One concludes that the water hyacinth produced higher biomass than egeria in all of the HDT evaluated.O presente trabalho teve por o objetivo avaliar a produção de biomassa das macrófitas aquáticas aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes e egeria (Egeria densa em um sistema de tratamento de efluente de piscicultura orgânica, sob 3 condições de tempo de detenção hidráulica. O sistema foi composto por 18 tanques experimentais de 2,00 x 1,00 x 0,65 m de comprimento, largura e profundidade, respectivamente, revestidos com lona de polipropileno. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com 2 macrófitas, 3 tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH e 3 repetições. Os TDH utilizados foram de 4, 8 e 12 horas. O sistema foi operado de 08/07 a 19/08/2006. A produção de biomassa foi avaliada ao final do experimento. O aguapé apresentou os melhores resultados de produção de biomassa (P0,05. Para a egeria o tratamento que apresentou a melhor produção de biomassa foi no TDH de 12 horas, sendo de 0,10 kg.m- 2, seguido pelos TDH de 8 e 4 horas, não diferindo

  18. Effect of drying and soaking fruits and seeds on germination of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.=Efeito da secagem e embebição de frutos e sementes na germinação de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Vieira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated mechanisms of the dehydration and rehydration of fruits and seeds on the resulting embryo viability of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. Dehydration was performed in a forced-air oven at 37 ± 2°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 days, and after these periods, the embryo viability was evaluated by the tetrazolium test. The effect of hydration on the germination percentage and velocity index was evaluated by the imbibition of seeds with distilled water in a germinator at 30 ± 2°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 days. The seeds were then treated with fungicide and maintained in a Mangelsdorf germinator at 30 ± 2°C. Drying caused a progressive water loss in the fruits and facilitated the extraction of the seeds. Fruits subjected to drying for up to nine days had no loss of vigor; however, after dehydration for 15 days, a loss in seed viability was observed. Simple linear regression estimated the seed water content based on the fruit water content. Seed imbibition in distilled water favored an increase in dead by fungally contaminated seeds.Objetivou-se com esse estudo elucidar os mecanismos de desidratação e hidratação de frutos e sementes na viabilidade de embriões de macaúba Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. A desidratação foi realizada em estufa de circulação de ar, ajustada a 37 ± 2°C por 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias, após esses períodos, foi avaliada a viabilidade dos embriões pelo teste de tetrazólio. O efeito da hidratação na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação foi avaliado pela embebição das sementes em água destilada em germinador com temperatura a 30 ± 2°C por 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias. As sementes foram tratadas com fungicida e mantidas em germinador do tipo Mangelsdorf. A secagem promoveu perda pregressiva no conteúdo de água dos frutos e facilitou a extração das sementes. Quando os frutos foram secos por nove dias não há perda de vigor, no entanto, depois de 15

  19. Caracterización de Agua Residual de Curtiduría y Estudio del Lirio Acuático en la Recuperación de Cromo Characterization of Tannery Effluents and Study of the Water Hyacinth in Chromium Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 4 tipos de efluentes muestreados en una tenería con planta de tratamiento. Estos efluentes se caracterizaron durante 4 semanas usando varios parámetros físico-químicos. El efluente de curtido fue evaluado en ensayos de fitoremediación con lirio acuático (Eichornea crassipes, determinándose la eficiencia de remoción del cromo bajo dos esquemas de inyección del agua de curtido a 4 L/día y 8 L/día. La composición de los efluentes residuales es variable y depende de las cargas de cuero procesado por semana. Los componentes del efluente de curtido en los ensayos de fitoremediación afectan significativamente la vida del lirio. Se concluye que la alta concentración de estos parámetros hace imposible la utilización de fitorremediación en este tipo de efluente, siendo necesario un tratamiento primario para disminuir la carga de compuestos presentesFour types of effluent were sampled from a tannery having a treatment plant. These effluents were observed for four weeks, measuring different physicochemical parameters. The tannery effluents were evaluated in phytoremediation assays using water hyacinth (Eichomea crassipes, determining the efficiency of chromium removal under tannery water injection conditions of 4 L/day and 8 L/day. The composition of the effluents was variable and depended on the leather processing loads during each week. The tannery effluent compositions in the phytoremediation assays significantly affected the life of the water hyacinth. It is concluded that the high concentrations of the parameters measured made phytoremediation impossible for this type of effluent, making primary treatment necessary in order to decrease the load of compounds present

  20. Allelopathic effects of water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M M Shanab

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms is an invasive weed known to out-compete native plants and negatively affect microbes including phytoplankton. The spread and population density of E. crassipes will be favored by global warming. The aim here was to identify compounds that underlie the effects on microbes. The entire plant of E. crassipes was collected from El Zomor canal, River Nile (Egypt, washed clean, then air dried. Plant tissue was extracted three times with methanol and fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. The crude methanolic extract and five fractions from TLC (A-E were tested for antimicrobial (bacteria and fungal and anti-algal activities (green microalgae and cyanobacteria using paper disc diffusion bioassay. The crude extract as well as all five TLC fractions exhibited antibacterial activities against both the gram positive bacteria; Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus faecalis; and the gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by either E. crassipes crude extract nor its five fractions. In contrast, Candida albicans (yeast was inhibited by all. Some antialgal activity of the crude extract and its fractions was manifest against the green microalgae; Chlorella vulgaris and Dictyochloropsis splendida as well as the cyanobacteria; Spirulina platensis and Nostoc piscinale. High antialgal activity was only recorded against Chlorella vulgaris. Identifications of the active antimicrobial and antialgal compounds of the crude extract as well as the five TLC fractions were carried out using gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy. The analyses showed the presence of an alkaloid (fraction A and four phthalate derivatives (Fractions B-E that exhibited the antimicrobial and antialgal activities.

  1. Excision arthroplasty for management of coxofemoral luxation in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, D M

    1989-01-01

    Coxofemoral luxation, although not a common injury, can cause considerable pelvic limb dysfunction in pet birds. Luxation usually is craniodorsal, as it is in dogs. Previously recommended treatments have not always been effective in managing the injury. Sequelae can include dorsolateral deviation of the pelvic limb, with loss of function and bumblefoot in the nonluxated limb, owing to abnormal weight-bearing. Excision arthroplasty combined with a muscular sling constructed from a segment of the iliofibularis muscle was used to treat coxofemoral luxation in a hyacinth macaw, a moluccan cockatoo, and an African gray parrot. The outcome was excellent in 2 of the 3 birds.

  2. Uso de biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes visando à remoção de metais pesados de soluções contaminadas = Use of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes dry biomass for removing heavy metals from contaminated solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a eficiência da biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes na remoção dos metais pesados cádmio (Cd, chumbo (Pb, cromo (Cr, cobre (Cu, zinco (Zn e níquel (Ni de soluções preparadas com estes metais. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (soluções com diferentes concentrações dos metais pesados e quatro repetições. A biomassa seca permaneceu nas soluções dos tratamentos por um período de 48h, e nos intervalos de 1; 2; 3; 6; 12; 24; 36 e 48h após a instalação do experimento, coletaram-se alíquotas de cada tratamento,determinando-se a maior remoção de cada metal pesado pela biomassa seca do aguapé. Foi realizada digestão nitroperclórica na biomassa seca e determinação dos teores dos metais na biomassa e nas alíquotas por espectrometria de absorção atômica, modalidade chama. Paraos metais Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu e Zn ocorreu remoção significativa pela massa seca do aguapé nos diferentes tratamentos, enquanto para o Ni não foi encontrada diferença significativa. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a biomassa seca produzida, a partir do aguapé Eichornia crassipes, é um excelente material para a remoção, tanto em pequena como em grande escala, de corpos hídricos contaminados com metais pesados.The present work evaluated the efficiency of the dry biomass of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes in the removal of heavy metalscadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, cupper (Cu, zinc (Zn and nickel (Ni from solutions prepared with these metals. The delineation used was entirely randomized, with five treatments (solutions with different concentrations of heavy metals and fourrepetitions. The dry biomass remained in the treatment solutions for a period of 48h. In the intervals of 1; 2; 3; 6; 12; 24; 36 and 48h after experiment installation, samples were collected of each treatment, determining the greater removal for each heavy metal by water hyacinth dry biomass. Nitro

  3. 水葫芦(Eichhornia crassipes)基质中铜残留对蔬菜生长和食用安全的影响%Residue of Cu in Medium of Composted Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) on Growth of Vegetable in Soil-less Culture and Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢信; 罗佳; 严少华; 范如芹; 刘丽珠; 张振华

    2016-01-01

    To harvest and compost water hyacinth and then use it as a component of the medium in soilless culture is a no-vel train of thought to turn waste into resource. However, as the wastewater from aquacultural farms generally contains heavy metal pollutants, like Cu, and so does the plant growing in the wastewater, it is necessity to assess impacts of the culture media contain in composted water hyacinth on growth and food safety of the vegetable in soilless culture. Results show that in media with Cu varying in the range of 0-600 mg·kg-1 growth of radish and water spinach were not signifi-cantly affected, and Cu concentrations in the edible parts of the two vegetables were within the safety limits ( 10. 0 mg· kg-1 ) set in the National Standard for Food Safety of China, but a relatively higher Cu concentration, about 15 mg·kg-1 , in roots of the water spinach was detected. The concentration of Cu was significantly lower in the edible parts of radish ( 0. 2-1. 6 mg·kg-1 ) than in those of water spinach ( 0. 5-4 mg·kg-1 ) . The content of Cu in the plants was found to be significantly related to the content of exchangeable Cu in the growing media. So it is much safer to plant radish than water spinach in soilless culture using composted water hyacinth in the medium. It is, therefore, essential to consider not only content and availability of Cu in the soilless culture medium, but also species of the vegetable to plant and characteristics of their biological Cu absorption in assessing potential risk of heavy metal pollution of the culture medium to food safety.%将修复养殖水体中收获的水葫芦堆置发酵后作为基质材料是资源化利用的新思路,但由于养殖废水中普遍存在重金属如Cu的污染问题,因此资源化利用的关键是重金属对蔬菜生长的影响和食用安全问题.研究结果表明:基质中w(Cu)在0~600 mg·kg-1范围内对萝卜和空心菜的生长没有显著影响,而且其可食部分未超出GB 15199

  4. Seleção do algodoeiro para resistência à fusariose em área onde ocorre doença semelhante em plantas de labelabe (Dolichos lablab L. Selection of cotton plants resistant to fusarium wilt in a plot where similar disease occurs on hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre L. Gridi-Papp

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Em área de Latossolo Roxo, localizada na Estação Experimental "Theodureto de Camargo", em Campinas, verificou-se incidência de doença provocando "murcha", com sintomas internos caracterizados pelo escurecimento dos vasos, sucessivamente em plantas de labelabe e em algodoeiro. Em ambas as espécies vegetais determinou-se a presença de fungos do gênero Fusarium, mediante isolamento feito em plantas doentes. Seleções, feitas na referida área, de plantas pertencentes a linhagem de algodoeiro suscetível à murcha de Fusariumderam origem a linhagens que revelaram apreciável resistência quando testadas em solo infestado por Fusarium oxysporum f.vasinfectum (Atk. Snyder & Hansen. São discutidos aspectos relacionados com a possível descoberta de nova fonte genética de resistência à doença e com a existência desse fungo sob infestação natural na Estação Experimental mencionada. Também é apontada a possibilidade de serem o algodoeiro e a leguminosa em questão hospedeiras do mesmo agente patogênico.The occurrence of wilt disease, successively in plants of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L. and cotton, was observed in a plot of latosolic B (Terra Roxa soil at the "Theodureto de Camargo" Experiment Station at Campinas, where no Fusarium wilt has been recorded before. Both species presented internal symptoms consisting in darkened vessels. Fungi of the genus Fusarium were isolated from these plants. Plant selection for wilt resistance was made in the above mentioned area where a Fusarium - susceptible variety (IAG 51/1104 of cotton had been planted. The progenies when tested in soils infested by Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum Atk. Snyder & Hansen revealed fair resistance to wilt. IAG 51/1104 comes from a cross between the varieties Delfos and Delta Pineland-10, both wilt susceptible under field conditions of the State of São Paulo. It is likely that the wilt resistance of some of its progeny might have originated by recombination

  5. Avaliações fisiológicas e bioquímicas de plantas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes cultivadas com níveis excessivos de nutrientes Physiological and biochemical evaluations of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, cultivated with excessive nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de aguapé foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon n.2, cujo aumento dos níveis de N, P e Cu estabeleceu as diferenças entre os tratamentos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As variáveis fisiológicas avaliadas foram área foliar, peso de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa assimilatória líquida, razão de área foliar, peso específico de folha, área foliar específica. Foram determinados também os teores de açúcares totais e redutores e de aminoácidos totais e a atividade das enzimas glutationa S-transferase e superóxido dismutase. Os extratos enzimáticos foram obtidos da matéria fresca da parte aérea das plantas. Após a coleta, foram determinados os pesos de material seco de raízes, pecíolos e folhas, que foram utilizados para a determinação de açúcares solúveis totais e redutores e de aminoácidos. O excesso de nitrogênio causou aumento de açúcares nas folhas e de aminoácidos nas raízes. Já o tratamento com excesso de fósforo levou ao aumento de açúcares nas raízes. Os resultados apresentados sugerem que, entre os nutrientes em excesso avaliados, o cobre (0,12 mg L-1 foi o maior indutor da atividade da GST e SOD, sugerindo que este elemento induziu estresse nas plantas de aguapé.Water hyacinth plants were cultivated in a Hoagland & Arnon n.2 nutrient solution with increased N, P and Cu levels establishing the differences among the treatments. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. Physiological evaluations included leaf area, dry matter and growth analysis parameters (absolute growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilatory rate, leaf area ratio, specific leaf weight, specific leaf area. Biochemistry evaluations were total and reducing sugars, total amino acids and activity of the antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferase and superoxide

  6. Efeito de pontas de pulverização e de arranjos populacionais de plantas de Eichhornia crassipes e Salvinia auriculata na deposição de calda de pulverização sobre plantas de Pistia stratiotes Effect of spray tips and water hyacinth and water lettuce plant population arrangements of watermoss plant spray mix deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Marchi

    2009-06-01

    de pulverização, independentemente do tipo de ponta de pulverização. A ponta TXVK-8 proporcionou depósitos unitários e totais de calda de pulverização superiores aos da ponta DG 11002VS.This study aimed to evaluate two types of nozzles (ConeJet TXVK-8 and TeeJet DG 11002 VS and the amount of spray mix deposited on water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes plants organized under different population arrangements with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and eared watermoss (Salvinia auriculata plants. In addition to a full-dominance proportion over the area, corresponding to 100% cover of the water tank by eared watermoss plants, arrangements were used with either water hyacinth or water lettuce at 75%:25%, 50%:50%, and 25%:75%. Triple density was also used, with the three species being equally displayed at a 33.33% proportion. Dye solutions of FD&C Yellow no. 5 at 3,500 ppm and FD&C Blue no. 1 at 1,000 ppm were used as spraying tracers for TXVK-8 and DG 11002 VS nozzles, respectively. Both solutions were sprayed at the same plot within 30 minute interval each through a CO2 pressured backpack knapsack calibrated to deliver a spray volume around 200 L ha-1 . Plants at reservoirs were flushed with distilled water until total removal of the dyes deposited on them. The total spray deposits were estimated in μL per plant and the unitary deposits where estimated in μL cm-2 of foliar surface. Increase in water hyacinth plant proportion in the arrangement resulted in lower spray deposition over water lettuce. Increase in water moss plant proportion in the arrangement provided higher spray depositions over water lettuce, independently of the nozzle type used. The TXVK-8 nozzles provided higher unitary and total spray depositions compared to the DG 11002 VS nozzle.

  7. 水葫芦生态净化工程对竺山湖底栖动物群落结构变化的影响%Effects of Ecological Purification Engineering of Planting Water Hyacinth on Macro-Benthos Community Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国锋; 韩士群; 何俊; 严少华; 周庆

    2014-01-01

    , which has the wide adaptability, large biomass, strong purification ability, especially the eutrophication water, after solving the mechanized harvesting, recycling use of terminal processing. The conventional ecological engineering practice is mainly in small water body or inland rivers, which has the obvious purification effects for no wind disturbance. But controlled planting the aquatic plants in large water body to purify the polluted water is still rare now. According to the instruction and requirements of Jiangsu Province, the ecological effects of planting 67 hectares water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, which is one of the polluted lake water purification measures in Jiangsu Province and mainly planted by Jiangsu Academic Agricultural Science, on macro-benthos population and structure and benthos environment, were studied during 4~11 month in 2011 with consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average density mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area was 15.13、15.63、22.63 ind·m-2,respectively, and biomass was 17.00、17.60、25.50 g·m-2,respectively, showed that benthos biomass in planting area was higher than that the others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species were Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that outside of planting area, and it demonstrated that the benthic environment gradually improved after controlled planting the floating plants. It indicated that the ecological engineering management through planting water hyacinth couldn’t show the obvious purification effects of polluted water in a short time, especially in a shallow, wind disturbance of large lake, and it need long-term, lasting approached to reach the purifying goals. The index of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was severe polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high

  8. 几个主要因子对水葫芦链格孢生长和侵染力的影响%Effects of Some Major Factors on Growth and Pathogenicity of Alternaia tenuissima Causing Black Spot of Water Hyacinth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽; 谭万忠; 殷利利; 刘佳; 罗华东

    2011-01-01

    测试引起水葫芦黑斑病的生防真菌水葫芦链格孢(Alternaria tenuissima)的主要生物学特性(培养基、温度、pH值对菌落生长以及光照对产孢量的影响)和影响该菌株侵染力的3个主要因子(接种温度、光照、保湿时间),以期为该菌的大量发酵和真菌除草剂的研制奠定基础.试验结果表明,培养基、温度和酸碱度是影响该菌生长的主要因素,其最佳培养基、温度和酸碱度分别是马铃薯蔗糖培养基、25℃和pH值9.0.最适合该菌产孢的光照条件是近紫外光(12h光/12h暗),培养20d后产孢量达到3.44×105个/皿.在室内控制条件下测定,温度、湿度和光照对菌株的致病力都有很大的影响.30℃处理的原生叶片的病害严重度明显高于20℃和25℃2个处理,21d时达到7.77;保湿处理时间设定为0~48h,保湿12h时,4周后水葫芦叶片平均病害严重度达到5.21,感病率达到95%,且发病速度较快;弱光照处理(1 2001x)的叶片病害严重度较强光照处理(3000 lx)的严重度级数高,因此,在一定程度上强光照对菌丝的侵染有抑制作用.%The effects of several major factors on growth(medium, temperature and pH) ,sporula-tion(illumination)and pathogenicity(inoculation temperature,illumination and moisture time) of Alternaria tenuissima , a biological control agent for water hyacinth, were investigated in the present study. Experimental results indicated that the best medium,temperature and pH were,respectively, PSA,25℃- and pH 9. 0 for the fungus growth. UV light (12h/d) was the most appropriate for its sporulatioh,and the spore production reached 3. 44 X 105 per dish after 20 days. Temperature, light intensity and moisture were shown marked impacts on conidial germination and infection of the fungus. The highest disease intensity on the primary leaves at 21 days after inoculation and incubation at 30℃ reached 7. 77,obviously higher than at 20℃ and 25℃. Moisture duration was

  9. Deposição de calda de pulverização sobre plantas de salvínia em função de pontas de pulverização e arranjos populacionais entre plantas de Aguapé e Alface-D'Água Spray deposition on water fern plants in function of nozzle tips and population arrangements with water Hyacinth and Water Lettuce plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Marchi

    2011-03-01

    salvínia.This study aimed to evaluate two types of spray tips (ConeJet TXVK-8 and TeeJet DG 11002 VS and the amount of spray mix deposited on Salvinia auriculata plants organized under different population arrangements with Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes plants. In addition to a full-dominance proportion over the area, corresponding to 100% cover of the water tank by eared water moss plants, arrangements with either water hyacinth or water lettuce were made at 75%:25%, 50%:50%, and 25%:75%. A triple density, in which the three species were equally disposed at a 33.33% proportion, was also used. Dye solutions of FD&C Yellow no. 5 at 3,500 ppm and FD&C Blue no.1 at 1,000 ppm were used, as spraying tracers for TXVK-8 and DG 11002 VS nozzles, respectively. Both solutions were sprayed at the same plot within a 30-minute interval each, through a CO2 pressured backpack, calibrated to deliver a spray volume of around 200 L ha-1. The total spray deposits were estimated in mL per plant and the unit deposits in mL cm² of foliar surface. No significant differences were observed between the nozzle tips used at different population arrangements, except total spray mix deposited on plants at 100% of eared water moss dominance proportion, with ConeJet TXVK-8, providing superior spray mix deposition, compared with TeeJet DG 11002 VS. The highest spray mix deposition was obtained under 100% of salvínia dominance. However, the spray mix quantity decreased with increase of water hyacinth in the proportion and reached the lowest value when 25% of eared water moss plants were associated with 75% of water hyacinth plants. The presence of water lettuce did not influence spray mix deposition over eared water moss plants.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Avian Bornavirus Genotype 1 from a Macaw with Proventricular Dilatation Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L.; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1).

  11. Complete genome sequence of avian bornavirus genotype 1 from a Macaw with proventricular dilatation disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1).

  12. 78 FR 61208 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Blue-throated Macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... their ecological suitability to the microclimate. Motac is not only vital to the life history of blue... Bolivia in the 1600s. After the Second World War, cattle ranching and the associated burning of pastures... of food or parental neglect, exposure to cold temperatures, or flooding (Kyle 2007a, pp. 1-10). If...

  13. 77 FR 40221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Scarlet Macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Sistema Nacional de Areas de Conservacion 2012, unpaginated), and Panama (Fundaci n de Parques Nacionales... Special Concern in Honduras) (Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente. 2008, p. 62), and Nicaragua's... (Nicaragua Ministerio del Ambiente y Los Recursos Naturales 2010, entire). In South America, the species...

  14. 77 FR 40171 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Two Foreign Macaw Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... development (University of Texas, Brownsville, unpaginated). Activities conducted by the research station have... southward into Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, and the southern tip of Argentina (see Figure 1... Colombia was estimated to be 156 individuals (Fl rez and Sierra 2004, p. 3). This species may have occurred...

  15. Internal seed dispersal by parrots: an overview of a neglected mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Bravo, Carolina; Pacifico, Erica C; Chamorro, Daniel; Speziale, Karina L; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Hiraldo, Fernando; Tella, José L

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that parrots (Psitacifformes) are generalist apex frugivores, they have largely been considered plant antagonists and thus neglected as seed dispersers of their food plants. Internal dispersal was investigated by searching for seeds in faeces opportunistically collected at communal roosts, foraging sites and nests of eleven parrot species in different habitats and biomes in the Neotropics. Multiple intact seeds of seven plant species of five families were found in a variable proportion of faeces from four parrot species. The mean number of seeds of each plant species per dropping ranged between one and about sixty, with a maximum of almost five hundred seeds from the cacti Pilosocereus pachycladus in a single dropping of Lear's Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari). All seeds retrieved were small (seeded fleshy berries and infrutescences from shrubs, trees and columnar cacti, often also dispersed by stomatochory. An overview of the potential constraints driving seed dispersal suggest that, despite the obvious size difference between seeds dispersed by endozoochory and stomatochory, there is no clear difference in fruit size depending on the dispersal mode. Regardless of the enhanced or limited germination capability after gut transit, a relatively large proportion of cacti seeds frequently found in the faeces of two parrot species were viable according to the tetrazolium test and germination experiments. The conservative results of our exploratory sampling and a literature review clearly indicate that the importance of parrots as endozoochorous dispersers has been largely under-appreciated due to the lack of research systematically searching for seeds in their faeces. We encourage the evaluation of seed dispersal and other mutualistic interactions mediated by parrots before their generalized population declines contribute to the collapse of key ecosystem processes.

  16. Internal seed dispersal by parrots: an overview of a neglected mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Blanco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that parrots (Psitacifformes are generalist apex frugivores, they have largely been considered plant antagonists and thus neglected as seed dispersers of their food plants. Internal dispersal was investigated by searching for seeds in faeces opportunistically collected at communal roosts, foraging sites and nests of eleven parrot species in different habitats and biomes in the Neotropics. Multiple intact seeds of seven plant species of five families were found in a variable proportion of faeces from four parrot species. The mean number of seeds of each plant species per dropping ranged between one and about sixty, with a maximum of almost five hundred seeds from the cacti Pilosocereus pachycladus in a single dropping of Lear’s Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari. All seeds retrieved were small (<3 mm and corresponded to herbs and relatively large, multiple-seeded fleshy berries and infrutescences from shrubs, trees and columnar cacti, often also dispersed by stomatochory. An overview of the potential constraints driving seed dispersal suggest that, despite the obvious size difference between seeds dispersed by endozoochory and stomatochory, there is no clear difference in fruit size depending on the dispersal mode. Regardless of the enhanced or limited germination capability after gut transit, a relatively large proportion of cacti seeds frequently found in the faeces of two parrot species were viable according to the tetrazolium test and germination experiments. The conservative results of our exploratory sampling and a literature review clearly indicate that the importance of parrots as endozoochorous dispersers has been largely under-appreciated due to the lack of research systematically searching for seeds in their faeces. We encourage the evaluation of seed dispersal and other mutualistic interactions mediated by parrots before their generalized population declines contribute to the collapse of key ecosystem processes.

  17. Molecular characterization and population structure of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae), ex situ germplasm collection using microsatellites markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanes, Éder C M; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Kuki, Kacilda N; Nick, Carlos; Freitas, Renata D

    2015-01-01

    The Acrocomia aculeata is one of the most promising plants for sustainable production of renewable energy. In order to understand patterns of the distribution of the allelic diversity of A. aculeata ex situ germplasm collection, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the genetic variability of the accessions may match their geographical origin. A genotypic analysis of 77 A. aculeata accessions was conducted with 6 simple sequence repeat markers. A high degree of molecular diversity among the accessions was found, with an average of 9 alleles per locus and a polymorphic information content with a mean of 0.76. A total of 4 clusters was identified by the Bayesian analysis of population structure. The highest subpopulation diversity was identified in Pop1, mainly formed by accessions from State of Mato Grosso do Sul. The populations Pop2A, Pop2B, and Pop2C, all from the State of Minas Gerais, showed high genetic variability as determined by a higher F st, and a wide genetic variance, which were identified within and among the population by analysis of molecular variance. Based on our results and on Vavilov's theory on crop origins, one possible diversity center for A. aculeata is proposed to be in a region in southeast Brazil.

  18. Cross-species amplification and optimization of microsatellite markers for use in six Neotropical parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Kara J; Waits, Lisette P

    2008-07-01

    Short amplicon primers were redesigned for 17 microsatellite loci developed in St. Vincent's Amazon and six loci developed in blue-and-yellow macaw and tested using six species of Neotropical parrot. Polymorphism was observed at 12 loci in blue-and-yellow macaw, 10 in red-and-green macaw, 11 in scarlet macaw, 10 in chestnut-fronted macaw, 11 in red-bellied macaw and 16 in mealy parrot. Number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 23 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.95. The resulting multiplexed loci will be useful in evaluating genetic diversity, genetic structure and mating system in Neotropical parrots.

  19. Stigmasterol from Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) : Isolation, characterization and X-ray structure

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Sawant, S.G.; PrabhaDevi; Kaminsky, W.

    >H48O by combination of NMR and mass spectroscopic data The sterol was fully characterized by FTIR,NMR(1H13C) and mass spectral data Solid state structure of the sterol was determined by single crystal X-Ray diffraction...

  20. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species.

  1. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, A.; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2013-01-01

    scavenging ability, iron chelating activity, reducing power, and prevention of oxidation in a liposome model system); and (c) its effectiveness in retarding lipid peroxidation in fish oil by accelerated stability test. Significant differences were observed in total and individual phenolic contents....... Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained the highest total phenolic content, were found to have high DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. However, ethanolic extracts of leaf exerted a high Fe2+ chelating activity and also inhibited lipid peroxidation process both in liposomes and fish...

  2. Trichoptera (Insecta in water hyacinth roots: evaluation of the influence of exotic mussel and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Francisca Marçal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Information on the influence of mussel macrofouling in invertebrate communities usually have the initial assumption of negative interference. Methods We analyzed this relationship in a community of aquatic invertebrates associated to roots of Eichhornia crassipes in 15 shallow marginal lakes in the Pantanal National Park and surroundings. We sampled quadrants of floating vegetation, identified the aggregate fauna and evaluated the density effect of Limnoperna fortunei, as well as abiotic factors of the Trichoptera community using ordinances and multivariate regressions. Results We found no significant relationship between the abundance of mussels on the macrophytes and the Trichoptera larvae. However, we observed an interference of oxygen on the structure and density of genera. The composition and abundance of the phytophylous caddisfly community is influenced by the depth and the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the marginal regions of the lakes. Conclusions We suggest that the absence of the effects of the assessed L. fortunei in the community is related to the 'biotic resistance', in which the phytophylous caddisfly demonstrated adaptation to an environment characterized by hypoxic conditions in the dry season. L. fortunei was limited by the depth and reduction of oxygen, presenting lower density in lakes with such characteristics.

  3. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaf and flowers of Eichornia crassipes, (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating acti...

  4. Ectopic expression of a hyacinth AGL6 homolog caused earlier flowering and homeotic conversion in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; JinHui; LI; WenQing; DONG; XiuChun; GUO; Wei; SHU; HuaiRui

    2007-01-01

    MADS-box genes are involved in floral organ development. Here we report that an AGL6(Agamous-like 6)-like MADS-box gene, HoAGL6, was isolated from Hyacinthus orientalis L. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that HoAGL6 transcript was detected in inflorescence buds, tepals, carpels and ovules, but not in stamina, leaves or scales. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing HoAGL6 exhibited novel phenotypes of significantly reduced plant size, extremely early flowering, and losing inflorescence indeterminacy. In addition, wide homeotic conversion of sepals, petals, and leaves into carpel-like or ovary structures, and disappearance or number reduction of stamens in 35S::HoAGL6 Arabidopsis plants were also observed. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expressions of flowering time gene SOC1 and flower meristem identity gene LFY were significantly up-regulated in 35S::HoAGL6 transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and the expression levels of floral organ identity genes AG and SEP1 in leaves were also elevated. These results indicated that HoAGL6 was involved in the regulation of flower transition and flower organ formation.

  5. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2011-01-01

    the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analysed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and phydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of varied number of phenolic acids. Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained......The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaf and flowers of Eichornia crassipes, (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating...

  6. Evaluation of Water hyacinth and Paddy Straw Waste for Culture of Oyster Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Nageswaran, M.; Gopalakrishnan, A.; M. Ganesan; Vedhamurthy, A.

    2003-01-01

    Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) was evaluated at ratios of 25, 50 and 75% with paddy straw ( Oryza sativa L.) for oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus sajor-caju) cultivation. There was an increase in yield with decreasing ratio waterhyacinth.

  7. Nanostructured MnO2 catalyst in E. crassipes (water hyacinth for indigo carmine degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cuervo Blanco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of water hyacinth’s dried matter (Eichhornia crasippes as a support matrix for nano-MnO2 and its application for the removal of indigo carmine (IC was studied. Different pretreatment processes were tested and results indicated that an acid-alkali pretreatment is an efficient method to binding nanoparticles (NPs to cellulosic matrix. In adittion, the MnO2 NPs were synthesized by sonochemical reduction of MnO4- using different methods (ultrasonic horn system, ultrasonic bath and reaction with ethanol, where the influence of the precursor concentration was observed. The synthesized material was further characterized by ATR-IR, AAS, XRD, SEM, nitrogen isotherms adsorption, EDS, and pHpzc. The IC removal capacity of the nanostructured material, the chemical nature of the degradation products and the effect of various parameters (temperature, pH, initial IC concentration, among others were explored in water samples. After this process, the material, obtained by the ultrasonic bath method, was able to remove 97.6% of IC color in five min, without losing dye degradability efficiency for several consecutive cycles. Through this approach, environmental dangerous effluents from many commercial activities such as textile industry can be efficiently removed with low cost, using synthesize process biodegradable nanocomposite materials.

  8. Rhizofiltration of Heavy Metals (Cadmium, Lead and Zinc From Fly Ash Leachates Using Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Yadav

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fly ashes are usually contaminated with toxic heavy metals. These metals are leaching out aftercontact with water during wet disposal system, thus polluting the soil, surface and groundwater. In the present study, a hydroponics experiment was conducted to examine the removalof heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn by Eichhornia crassipes grown at various concentration of fly ash ranging from 10, 20 and 40 percent over a period of 30 days.After 30 days, the plants were separately harvested, dried and weighedfor biomass of the roots and shoots. The uptake of each metalwas studied in the root and shoot separately, to determine the bioaccumulation of metals in Eichhornia crasspies.The translocation factor was calculated to study the efficiency of the plants forbioaccumulation of each metal in roots and shoot. The results showed that maximum uptake of metals Cd, Pb and Zn by plantwasfoundat the higher concentration (40% of fly ash.The metals uptake found was 99.16, 166.52 and 741.04 μg g-1 tissues in the roots, respectively and 33.46, 41.33 and 255.90 μgg-1 tissues in the shoots, respectively and successfullyremoved up to 78% of Cd, 82% of Pb and 70% of Zn.The maximum removal efficiency by plant for Cd, Pb and Zn at lower concentration (10% of fly ash was 84%, 86% and 75%, respectively.The heavy metals accumulated more in roots than in the shoots by Eichhornia crassipes. The maximum bioconcentration factor and translocation factor value of Eichhornia crappies for Cd, Pb and Zn were calculated as 705.55, 705.55 and 614.51 and 41.86, 47.18 and 34.53 respectively. The high removal efficiencies of heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn was find without toxic effect by this aquatic macrophyte, thisplant can be recommended for the actual treatment of fly ash leachatesin ash pond to clean up the aquatic environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12187International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page : 179-196   

  9. Hyperspectral reflectance features of water hyacinth growing under feeding stresses of Neochetina spp. and different heavy metal pollutants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Newete, SW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available were correlated with the leaf chlorophyll content from the SPAD readings at the end of the experiment. Correlation results of mNDVI(sub705) was the highest followed by REP_LE. Cu-, Hg-, and Zn-treated plants showed significantly lower chlorophyll...

  10. The Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) as Aquatic Macrophage Treatment System (AMATS) in Phytoremediation for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Chukwunonso Ossai; Fauziah S. H.; Ghufran Redzwan

    2014-01-01

    The need for edible oil has increased resulting with a consequent boost in palm oil production. As a result, production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is one of the by-products of the milling process has also increased. In Malaysia, palm oil industry is identified as one of the agricultural industries that generate the highest pollution load into the rivers throughout the country. Some palm oil mills store POME in ponds or lagoons in the hope of treating and detoxifying it. Often ti...

  11. Use of an inexpensive chlorophyll meter to predict Nitrogen levels in leaf tissues of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue nitrogen is also an important indicator of plant health and can be a useful predictor of plant vigor and susceptibility to disease and pests. Hence, knowing nitrogen content may aid in determining establishment success of plants used in restoration programs, including those destined for aqua...

  12. 76 FR 62016 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Red-Crowned Parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... (Prosopeia splendens), great green macaw (Ara ambiguus), grey-cheeked parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera... haematuropygia), red-crowned parrot (Amazona viridigenalis), scarlet macaw (Ara macao), white cockatoo (Cacatua... distinguished by bright yellow-green cheek areas, bright red on the crown (top of head) and lores (area...

  13. Guacamaya: símbolo de temporalidad y fertilidad en dos ejemplos de pintura mural The Macaw: a Symbol of Temporality and Fertility in Two Examples from Mural Painting

    OpenAIRE

    María de Lourdes Navarijo Ornelas

    2012-01-01

    En el pensamiento prehispánico, la guacamaya (Ara macao y Ara militaris) ocupó un lugar preferente, como lo atestigua su imagen plasmada en los murales creados por diferentes pueblos, como el maya, el zapoteca, el teotihuacano, o como se ve en Cacaxtla. Esto no es una coincidencia, por lo que este estudio tiene por objeto analizar y reconocer la identidad taxonómica de los individuos recreados, además de argumentar su presencia en el lenguaje pictórico como un medio de expresión gráfica irref...

  14. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  15. Ultrafast spectroscopy studies on the mechanism of electron transfer and energy conversion in the isolated pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach chloroplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Sichuan

    2001-01-01

    Chitosans with various degrees of deacetylation (D.D.), which were used as standard sample for FTIR determination, were prepared from completely deacetylated chitosan by homogeneous N-acetylation reaction. By combining four probable probe bands, i.e. 1655, 1560, 1380 and 1320 cm-1, eight probable reference bands, i.e. 3430, 2920, 2880, 1425, 1155, 1070, 1030 and 895 cm-1 and two baseline methods, the most suitable ratios Aprobe band/Areference band from IR spectra to determine the degree of acetylation of chitosan were evaluated from 48 combinations to be A1560/A2880, A1560/A2920 and A1655/A3430(A1560/A2880 is mostly recommended). The second baseline method, i.e. linking between adjacent two valleys, was better for measuring the absorbances of 1560 and 1655 cm-1 bands. The determination range of the D.D. (1%-100%) covered almost the whole range. The standard curves with A1560/A2880 and A1655/A3430 were also suitable for the determination of degree of substitution of other N-acylated chitosan, such as N-propionyl chitosan, N-butyryl chitosan and N-hexanoyl chitosan.

  16. 水葫芦叶绿素面膜膏的研制%The Preparation of Water Hyacinth Chlorophyll Facial Mask Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符斌燕; 阮燕萍

    2010-01-01

    文章利用水葫芦叶固有鲜亮绿色富含叶绿素这一特性,在最佳工艺条件下提取叶绿素来制备营养保湿面膜膏.以较简单的配方为原则,选择在面膜膏中应用较为广泛的原料进行叶绿素面膜膏的试制.通过正交实验,找出一个具有最佳面膜膏的基础配方来调配面膜膏,并对该产品的理化指标进行检测和产品使用效果进行评价.

  17. System modeling of water hyacinth life cycle in Pantanal and analysis of the use of this biomass for bio-oil and bio-fertilizer production

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Selene Buller

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: O Pantanal ocupa uma área extensa do Brasil em torno de 140.000 km²; seus ecossistemas são caracterizados por áreas com alagamento periódico, campos inundados constantemente e ambientes aquáticos naturais com lagoas (baías), rios e canais (vazantes e corixos); não existem quedas d¿ água para a geração de energia elétrica dentro da bacia. Em virtude das áreas alagadas existem poucas vias para o abastecimento de combustíveis para as fazendas produtoras que, assim, dependem fortemente de...

  18. Determination of Elemental Composition of Malabar spinach, Lettuce, Spinach, Hyacinth Bean, and Cauliflower Vegetables Using Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Technique at Savar Subdistrict in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of 18 different elements (K, Ca, Fe, Cl, P, Zn, S, Mn, Ti, Cr, Rb, Co, Br, Sr, Ru, Si, Ni, and Cu were analyzed in five selected vegetables through Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE technique. The objective of this study was to provide updated information on concentrations of elements in vegetables available in the local markets at Savar subdistrict in Bangladesh. These elements were found in varying concentrations in the studied vegetables. The results also indicated that P, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn were found in all vegetables. Overall, K and Ca exhibited the highest concentrations. Cu and Ni exhibited the lowest concentrations in vegetables. The necessity of these elements was also evaluated, based on the established limits of regulatory standards. The findings of this study suggest that the consumption of these vegetables is not completely free of health risks.

  19. Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

    2013-07-01

    The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae.

  20. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management. PMID:27513336

  1. Uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms from pulverised fuel ash (PFA) leachates and slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, K.B.; Mehra, A.; Farago, M.E.; Banerjee, D.K. [University of Derby, Derby (United Kingdom). School of Environmental and Applied Science

    2000-12-01

    The main solid waste product from coal-fired power stations is pulverised fuel ash (PFA). This study investigates the uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the aquatic plant E-crassipes grown in leachates and slurries prepared from two different PFA samples. PFA samples were obtained from Indraprastha Power Station (IPP stn.) in New Delhi, India and the Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station in the UK. Results show that E. crassipes has a high accumulation capacity for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn from leachates and slurries generated from two different PFAs and uptake of these metals is stronger in the roots than in the tops of the plant. As the metal concentrations in the growth medium increase in the 1:5 PFA:DIW ratio as compared to the 1:50 ratio, metal accumulation (as indicated by accumulation factor (AF) values) from both leachates and slurries is higher for plants grown in the 1:50 (PFA:DIW) ratios than in the 1:5 ratios. Lower metal accumulation in the plants grown in slurries than in leachates is related to the high turbidity of growth medium in slurries resulting in ash particles adhering to the root surfaces thus reducing the surface area of metal absorption. In terms of neutralisation capacity of the pH of the growth medium, Eichhornia is seen to be able to reduce the pH of all leachates. Accumulation of Cd and Zn by the plant is higher from the lower pH IPP leachates than the Ratcliffe leachates, indicating that these metals are more soluble and bioavailable in the acidic medium. Accumulation of Cu and Ni is independent of the pH of the leachates; indicating that there may be other contributory factors. 78 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. Fatal proventricular dilatation disease in captive native psittacines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Resende, Maurício; Ferreira, Francisco Carlos Júnior; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Shivaprasad, H L; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal inflammatory disease of psittacines (Aves: Psittaciformes), is described in native Brazilian psittacines. Twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected PDD were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for avian bornavirus (ABV). Examined species were one pileated parrot (Pionopsitta pileata), three vinaceous-breasted parrots (Amazona vinacea), two blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana), one scarlet macaw (Ara macao), one chestnut-fronted macaw (Ara severa), one scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), and one red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha). Gross examination and histopathology revealed typical PDD lesions in all birds. The presence of ABV was confirmed in four psittacines including one red-browed Amazon parrot, one blue-winged macaw, one scarlet macaw, and one chestnut-fronted macaw. In the red-browed Amazon parrot and in one blue-winged macaw, IHC demonstrated ABV antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in various organs. This is the first description of PDD by ABV in Brazilian psittacines and indicates the necessity for adopting a strategic control plan for reducing its impact in native birds.

  3. The School of Veterinary Medicine in St-Hyacinthe : energy efficiency and air quality, an inherent part of the new facility; Le CHUV de St-Hyacinthe : l'efficacite energetique et qualite de l'air, partie inherente des nouvelles installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havard, R. [SNC Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    This article described the expansion and modernization of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Veterinaire (CHUV) at the University of Montreal. The $74 million retrofit project at the School of Veterinary Medicine began in 2001 and was completed in 2008. The facility is considered to be a forerunner in the agribusiness. The facility can accommodate over 400 students at 3 different types of hospitals for pets, birds of prey, exotic animals, farm animals and equidae. Many challenges were addressed, including indoor air quality which requires specialized control for air temperature, humidity, and rigorous control of the dispersion of contaminants to ensure safety in each space. In addition to reliability, the infrastructure plan had to ensure exemplary energy performance and a reduction in costs. The energy system relies on a combination of electricity, natural gas and heat pumps for heating and cooling the premises. A novel ventilation system was designed to keep the operating rooms free of contaminants and to block contaminants from adjoining rooms. Contagious rooms requiring isolation are kept in slightly negative pressure, and air from these rooms is vented to the outside. It was concluded that the newly modernized facility meets the stringent conditions for thermal comfort in an energy efficiency manner. 3 figs.

  4. Psittacine proventricular dilatation syndrome in an umbrella cockatoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, M E; Wilson, R B

    1991-06-01

    Psittacine proventricular dilatation syndrome (macaw wasting disease) is a fatal disease of the gastrointestinal tract and, sometimes, the CNS. The disease most often affects macaws and is thought to be of viral origin. An Umbrella cockatoo was referred with signs of neurologic dysfunction. Other unusual findings included flaccid crop, distended duodenum, and acute weight loss. Because treatment has not been reported to be effective, the affected cockatoo was euthanatized to limit spread of the disease.

  5. Veterinární problematika v chovu Ara chloroptera a Ara macao. (rešeršní práce)

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Red and green Macaw (Ara chloroptera) and Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) belong to the most bred big parrots in our country. They are resistant species, however, in breeding they can suffer from different illnesses. The aim of this work was to deal with the existing knowledge of their veterinary problems. The work is divided into several main parts according to the qualities of illnesses. There are infectious and invasive diseases, genetic disorders, tumoral diseases or veterinary problems caused ...

  6. The Use of Aquatic Plants in Wastewater Treatment: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    1 W ater Hyacinth ........................................................................... 11 2-2 W ater Lettuce ...new stolons being extended from the parent plant may remain at the surface and grow hydroponically . Continued growth of the first free-floating...Water Lettuce Water lettuce , Pistia stratiotes L. is a plant similar in size to the water hyacinth and requires many of the same conditions for

  7. Levulinic acid from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, Buana

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to define optimum catalysts, reaction conditions and reactor configurations for the conversion of water hyacinth plant to LA. The conversion of the C6-sugars present in the water hyacinth plant to LA involves several reactions that together form a complex reac

  8. 75 FR 23221 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Water Hyacinth AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. Based on... the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of...

  9. Rescue of photoperiod/freeze-sensitive and low seed producing accessions of Lablab purpureus using hydroponic cloning and aeroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus is a legume used as a vegetable and the USDA, ARS, PGRCU conserves 137 hyacinth bean accessions from countries worldwide. Many accessions in this collection are photoperiod and freeze-sensitive due to their flower and seed production during November through March in t...

  10. PENGARUH FRAKSI NONPROTEIN KACANG KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH DAN MALONALDEHIDA TIKUS DIABETES [Effect of Nonprotein Fraction of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet Diet on Glucose and Malonaldehyde Serum of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Rohmawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic response to Lablab nonprotein fraction (NPK was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of Lablab nonprotein fraction diet on the blood glucose concentration and the lipid peroxide level of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Two months old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups, each group contained of 5 rats. Three groups were diabetic rats induced by alloxan injection (110 mg/kg of body weight by intra-pheritonial injection while one group was a control,normal rat. The experiment groups were (1 normal (group I, (2 diabetic (group II, (3 diabetic+cholesteol 0.5% (control group, group III, and (4 diabetic+cholesterol 0.5% + lablab NPK (group IV. The concentration of rat’s blood glucose were periodically measured during diet intervenion (day 0,14,27, and 42. The Lipid peroxide was evaluated as the concentration of malonaldehyde (MDA both in serum and liver of the rats by Thiobarbituric Acid Reactivity Test methode. The result demonstrated that after 42 days of intervention, the Lablab nonprotein diet decreased the blood glucose concentrations from 444.00 + 143.00 mg/dl to 310.50 +111.40 mg/dl (30%, while control group has decreased the blood glucose concentration from 458.00 +164.99 mg/dl to 455.33 + 81.95 mg/dl (0.6%. Lablab nonprotein diet significantly (P<0.05 reduced the concentration of blood glucose as compared to the control group. However, Lablab nonprotein fraction diet did not give a significant diferrence on the level of serum MDA and liver MDA as compared to the control group.

  11. Mini-cogeneration in the flower bulb industry. Use of cogeneration in the cultivation and hot bed of tulip and hyacinth; Mini-wkk in de bloembollensector. Toepassing van wkk bij teelt en broei van tulp en hyacint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Visser, I.; Koolwijk, E. [Cogen Projects, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    This study shows that by deploying cogeneration, energy savings can be realized in the flower bulb industry. Use of cogeneration at medium-sized to large flower bulb companies is interesting from the viewpoint of finance. [Dutch] Uit de studie blijkt dat met de toepassing van WKK energiebesparing gerealiseerd kan worden in de bollensector. Op de middelgrote tot grote bollenbedrijven is de toepassing van WKK uit financieel oogpunt interessant.

  12. Investigation into the Use of Dried Water Hyacinth as a Seed Germination Medium%水葫芦制作温室栽培苗钵的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈明卫; 郝飞麟

    2006-01-01

    水葫芦的低成本、资源化、生态合理利用是水葫芦防治的发展趋势,可降解温室栽培苗钵的制作使用可简化移苗过程.基于以上考虑,对水葫芦制作温室栽培专用有机苗钵的可行性、对水葫芦制作育苗钵的方法,所需有机生态胶粘剂的制作和性能特点,苗钵对樱桃番茄的栽培效果影响进行了研究.结果发现,对水葫芦进行干燥切割后,辅以胶粘剂能制作所要求的育苗钵;采用以淀粉为基体制作的有机胶粘剂粘结并压制成形的苗钵在耐湿性方面有待于进一步提高;在栽培过程中以水葫芦为原材料制作的育苗钵对樱桃番茄苗生长的影响作用并不明显.

  13. Effect of Temperature,Inoculums and Trace Metals on Methane Production from Water Hyacinth%温度、接种量及微量元素对水葫芦产甲烷的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小梅; 周立祥; 常志州; 杜静; 徐跃定; 张建英

    2010-01-01

    在实验室进行了不同接种量(接种物VS与水葫芦VS比例分别为0, 0.5, 1, 2)、不同发酵温度(35℃,55℃)以及微量元素Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+对水葫芦厌氧发酵的影响,结果表明,加大接种量有利于提高水葫芦厌氧发酵的启动与产气率,综合产气量、原料降解率,以接种比例1较适宜.55℃高温厌氧发酵有利于加快厌氧发酵进程,缩短发酵周期,但总产气量及原料降解率与35℃无区别.添加适量的微量元素可以提高前7天总产气量,三种微量元素对水葫芦厌氧发酵的影响力为Fe2+>Co2+>Ni2+.

  14. 介入性白及凝胶经气道治疗支气管结核的实验研究%The Experimental Study on Treating Bronchial Tuberculoses by Transluminal Hyacinth Bletilla Gel through Air Passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昕; 范勇; 刘钢; 梁春宝; 韩炳森; 尹保全

    2002-01-01

    目的:探讨建立介入性白及凝胶经气道治疗支气管结核的方法.方法:进行耐药结核菌株体外抑菌实验;介入性白及凝胶配制实验;应用实验犬对该凝胶进行靶支气管灌注、皮下埋藏及口服与支气管灌注药代动力学实验.结果:提高药物浓度可抑制耐药结核菌株生长;得到白及为载体的凝胶剂的配方,建立支气管灌注方法学;药代显示:作用时间达60小时以上,优于口服给药.结论:将纤支镜与介入技术、中药白及与抗痨药物相结合,在病变的气管、支气管内缓慢释放高浓度抗痨药物,以达到治疗目的.

  15. Effect of purple root water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on purification of water containing heavy metals%紫根水葫芦对重金属水体的净化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文萍; 徐舒阳; 那中元; 杨红军; 黄柏炎; 王莹

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨紫根水葫芦对污水中重金属(镉、锌、铅)的净化效果,比较了普通水葫芦和紫根水葫芦的生物过滤能力和积累情况.实验结果显示,2种水葫芦均能显著降低3种重金属的含量,被吸收的重金属会在植物体内得到积累,且主要富集于根部,而不是茎叶部.此外,被吸收的重金属绝大多数不会重新释放到水体中.紫根水葫芦对重金属的净化效果优于普通水葫芦.因此,紫根水葫芦具有良好的水体修复和去除重金属的潜力.

  16. La vagina dentada: una interpretación de la Estela 25 de Izapa y las guacamayas del juego de pelota de Copán The dented vagina: an interpretation for Stela 25 of Izapa and ballcourt macaws of Copan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Chinchilla Mazariegos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las aves representadas en la Estela 25 de Izapa y el juego de pelota de Copán forman el punto de partida para un examen del tema mitológico de la vagina dentada en Mesoamérica, y sus expresiones en el arte y la narrativa. Un amplio conjunto de narraciones mitológicas recopiladas en México y Guatemala sirve como base para un examen de la historia de Siete Guacamayo en el Popol Vuh, la cual se interpreta como una variante de un mito ampliamente difundido, relacionado con el origen del Sol y la Luna. La identificación de asuntos comunes, entre ellos el de la vagina dentada, refuerza la relación entre el mito del Popol Vuh y las representaciones de Izapa y Copán. A la vez, revela detalles poco conocidos sobre el simbolismo sexual presente en los mitos cosmogónicos mesoamericanos.The birds represented at Stela 25 of Izapa and Copan ball court are the starting point for the analysis of the mythological topic focused on the vagina dentata in Ancient Mesoamerica, as well as their expressions on art and narrative. A large body of mythological narratives is used as a basis for the examination of the "Siete Guacamayo" story included in the Popol Vuh, which is interpreted as part of a widely extended myth related with the creation of the Sun and the Moon. The identification of common issues, as the vagina dentata topic, strengthens the links between the Popol Vuh myth and the Izapa and Copan representations. It also reveals less known details on the sexual symbolism included in the Mesoamerican cosmogonic myths.

  17. Testing for salmonella spp. In released parrots, wild parrots, and domestic fowl in lowland peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butron, Oscar; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2010-07-01

    Wild animal populations face threats from pathogens from both intentionally released captive animals and domestic animals that accompany human settlements. From December 2004 through August 2005, we studied free living macaws and parrots in the Tambopata National Reserve in the Peruvian Amazon and semicaptive domestic fowl in human settlements adjacent to the reserve. In 1992-1993, large macaws (Aras spp.) that were serologically positive for Salmonella Pullorum were released into this reserve, which hosts dense populations of free-living parrots and macaws. We collected cloacal swabs from 64 birds and cultured for Salmonella spp. via standard laboratory methods. All 35 psittacines tested were culture negative for Salmonella spp., while 31% of 29 domestic fowl were culture positive. Our findings suggest that the domestic fowl that accompany human settlement in this region carry and shed Salmonella spp. that could threaten wild bird populations in and around the reserve.

  18. Towards Deriving Renewable Energy from Aquatic Macrophytes Polluting Water Bodies in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badmus Abdurrahman Adeleye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to derive methane rich biogas from biomass of harvested water hyacinth polluting water bodies in selected rivers of the Niger delta region of Nigeria. Field visits were undertaken on selected rivers in the Niger Delta region in which aquatic macrophytes were collected and inventorized. Also different types of aquatic macrophytes were surveyed. Control by harvesting macrophytes and deriving energy (methane-rich biogas from biomass of one (water hyacinth was successfully carried out in this study. An initial test was conducted to evaluate methane rich biogas production from water hyacinth collected from the wild. After a successful production of combustible biogas, laboratory experiments aimed at generating biogas from harvested biomass of aquatic mycrophyte (water hyacinth cultivated under eutrophic and oligotrophic conditions were undertaken in the laboratory. The result of the study showed highest biogas yield of 22 L over a 40 day retention time for water hyacinth raised under eutrophic conditions. Biogas yield for water hyacinth raised under oligotrophic conditions recorded the highest yield of 53L over an 11 day retention time. The conversion of the biomass of harvested aquatic macrophyte (water hyacinth from the Niger Delta into renewable energy, that is combustible biogas, demonstrated an inevitable option for the control and management of environmental pollution associated with aquatic macrophytes and their usability for poverty alleviation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  19. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Biological Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual summary of wildlife population assessments (inlcuding wading birds, waterfowl, big game mammals, and alligators), weed control (water hyacinth and water...

  20. 419-IJBCS-Article-Okunowo wahad

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Phytoremediation potential of some heavy metals by water hyacinth ..... from untreated waste water to the ecosystem. Future study will examine the ... phytoremediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon which is a major toxicant resulting from oil ...

  1. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Long-Term Monitoring of Eleven Corps of Engineers Habitat Development Field Sites Built of Dredged Material, 1974-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Phraginites australis Common spikerush Eleocharis palus tris Common velvetgrass Holcus lanatus Coontail Ceratophyliwn sp. Cowpea Vigna sp. Crabgrass Diqitaria...monnieri Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes Watermelon Citrullus vulgaris Water parsnip Sium sauve Water pennywort Hydrocoty is bonariensis Water plantain

  2. Impact of invasive aquatic macrophytes on the population and behavioral ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field survey, three outdoor cage enclosure experiments, and laboratory studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of the invasive aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipes (floating water hyacinth), Ludwigia hexapetala (emergent water yellow-primrose), and Egeria densa (submersed Brazilian waterweed)...

  3. SIZE AND INCUBATION PERIOD '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering,. University of Dar es Salaam, ... incubation time on biogas production from water hyacinth. Substrate ..... This was attributed to high lignin content in the ..... and steam explosion. Biotechnol ...

  4. Associated Fauna to Eichhornia crassipes in a Constructed Wetland for Aquaculture Effluent Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares; Bruno Scardoelli Truzzi; Ana Milstein; Aline Marcari Marques

    2017-01-01

    Water, sediment and associated fauna were studied in a water hyacinth ( ) stand of a constructed wetland, used for aquaculture effluent treatment in SE Brazil, in February-April (summer/rainy season...

  5. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  6. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  7. Page 1 Tropical Freshwater Biology, 8 (1999) 31- 40 31 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samples was collected for analysis. The range of water ... multiple factor dependent. ... Estuarine communities of coastal rivers and lagoons have lately been attracting ..... hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on the physico-chemical environment of.

  8. 378-IJBCS-Article-Kouamé Kouamé Victor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Physico-chemical factors involved in rivers and lagoons invasion by water hyacinth ... The invasion of freshwaters and coastal ecosystems by Eichhornia crassipes in tropical and subtropical .... samples for nutrient analyses were collected.

  9. Notas acerca de las guacamayas (Psittacidae : Ara) introducidas en el municipio de Medellín, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara-Vásquez, C.E.; Castaño-Rivas, A.M.; Jonker, R.M.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the 90s, organizations in charge of wildlife management in Medellín, released macaws (Psittacidae: Ara) in the city. We report Ara severa, A. chloroptera and A. macao in the city. A group of eight individuals, belonging to the latter two species was observed flocking together in the urban area of

  10. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Darby, Lisa S.; Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric dynamical and physical properties. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. Recent experience suggests airborne coherent Doppler lidar can yield unique wind measurements of--and during operation within--extreme weather phenomena. This paper presents the first airborne coherent Doppler lidar measurements of hurricane wind fields. The lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly developed an airborne lidar system, the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS). The centerpiece of MACAWS is the lidar transmitter from the highly successful NOAA Windvan. Other field-tested lidar components have also been used, when feasible, to reduce costs and development time. The methodology for remotely sensing atmospheric wind fields with scanning coherent Doppler lidar was demonstrated in 1981; enhancements were made and the system was reflown in 1984. MACAWS has potentially greater scientific utility, compared to the original airborne scanning lidar system, owing to a factor of approx. 60 greater energy-per-pulse from the NOAA transmitter. MACAWS development was completed and the system was first flown in 1995. Following enhancements to improve performance, the system was re-flown in 1996 and 1998. The scientific motivation for MACAWS is three-fold: obtain fundamental measurements of subgrid scale (i.e., approx. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in hydrological, climate, and general

  11. Pengurangan Kadar N dan P pada Limbah Cair Laboratorium secara Fitoremediasi Menggunakan Enceng Gondok (Eichornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmaya Arofah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory liquid waste contains both metal, nonmetal, organic and anorganic content. If it is discharged directly to environment, it will cause pollution that is harmful for living thing. Data of waste survey result in 2009-2010 indicated that liquid waste of Laboratory in Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (JTK UGM consist of various complex compound such as NH4+, PO43-. JTK UGM has wastewater treatment plant (WWTP to deal with environmental pollution coming from waste of each laboratory and have three process, anaerobe activated sludge, aerobe and phytoremediation. Because the laboratory’s waste was very complex, the WWTP have not operated maximally yet. So, it is necessary research on wwtp processing step, particularly for phytoremediation process using water hyacinth. Objective of this research was to study effect of concentrations N and P on adaptability and capability of water hyacinth to grow. In addition it developed a mathematical model to estimate of N and P concentration decrease rate in liquid. The research was done in batch by planting water hyacinth that has been acclimated in wastewater containing N-NH4OH and P-H3PO4. Parameter observed is N and P concentration in liquid. The result indicated that water hyacinth can absorb N and P. Water hyacinth grow well in N-NH4OH concentration of 9.651 ppm and 15.573 ppm and P-H3PO4 concentration of 2.013 ppm and 2.7373 ppm. It was marked with additional weight and colour of water hyacinth leaves of fresh green. Mathematical model presented to estimate N concentration decrease rate indicated good result in experiment. However, P concentration decrease in liquid phase, the presented model is still not good, because P nutrient decomposition process has not been accommodated during absorption by water hyacinth.

  12. Analysis of different management systems for water and soil conservation in experimental plots of "macauba" (Acrocomia aculeata) in Araponga (MG, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Lúcio-Correa, João; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil, the conservation of water resources and agricultural soil are key environmental and economic aspects to mantain land services and the quality of life people in rural and urban communities. The macaw - Acrocomia aculeata) (Jacq.) Lodd. (Ex Martius) - is a Brazilian native oleaginous palm, whose potential has been highlighted in the scientific community due to its high economic potential and its recent advances in crop farming. This study aims to quantify the runoff in macaw plantation, comparing different techniques of crop management for a period of one year (from September 2012 to August 2013). The data from this study were collected in the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV) located in the municipality of Araponga, MG, Brazil. The seedlings took place in February 2009, in holes, spaced 5X5 in an area of 1.7 ha (680 plants) with a slope of 25%. Rainfall was monitored through three pluviometers with expose area of 162.86 cm² whereas the impact of different management systems on runoff was measured by using 10 plots of 63 m² each: 3 treatments with three repetitions plus the control plot. Each plot presented four macaw plants. The treatment one (T1), was formed by macaw plants without using any soil conservation technique; the treatment two (T2) consisted of macaws with a contour cord with 40 cm wide by 30 cm deep, located between the plantation lines; for the treatment three (T3) beans were planted forming vegetation strips; the control (T0) was represented by a portion without macaws plants, with spontaneous vegetation growing throughout the plot, which was not used any soil conservation technique. T2 presented the lowest values of runoff during the twelve months and at the same time, the greatest requirements of initial rainfall for runoff generation. In contrast, T3 showed the highest volumes of runoff for the study period, with a small reduction with the exception of January and February 2013, when the bean plants were well

  13. Effect of Fermented Green Juice,Cellulase and Mixture on Quality of Water Hyacinth Silage%绿汁发酵液、纤维素酶及其混合物对水葫芦青贮品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄益芬; 张文昌; 陈鑫珠; 许丽惠

    2008-01-01

    为探明添加绿汁发酵液(FGJ)、纤维素酶(CEL)、绿汁发酵液+纤维素酶(MIX)以及原料含水率对水葫芦青贮发酵品质的影响,用2种不同含水率(高:70.58%,低:39.62%)的水葫芦进行青贮,常温下贮存40d,开封后测定青贮的发酵品质和化学成分.结果表明:FGJ和MIX能显著改善2种含水率水葫芦青贮的发酵品质,CEL能有效提高2种含水率水葫芦青贮的WSC存留量;降低原料的含水率能提高青贮的WSC含量和减少气体的损失.

  14. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CINÉTICA DE LA ACUMULACIÓN DE CROMO EN EL BUCHÓN DE AGUA (Eichhornia crassipes AVALIAÇÃO DA CINÉTICA DE ACUMULAÇÃO DE CROMO EM JACINTO DE AGUA (Eichhornia crassipes EVALUATION OF THE KINETICS OF ACCUMULATION OF CHROMIUM IN WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO BENÍTEZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes es una planta de rápido crecimiento distribuida en casi todos los países tropicales, que puede tolerar condiciones de contaminación por metales o por eutrificación de cuerpos de aguas lénticos y lóticos. Esta planta se ha convertido en un problema ambiental; no obstante, ha despertado interés en el tratamiento de la contaminación por metales en suelos agrarios y cuerpos de agua. La toxicidad de los metales es un serio inconveniente en esta motivación, ya que influye en la capacidad de acumulación y la transmisión en la cadena trófica. En esta investigación se evaluó el comportamiento de las tasas de acumulación de cromo en la macrófita acuática Eichhornia crassipes, a concentraciones de 30, 60 y 90 mg/L, utilizando un diseño experimental aleatorio, con control y tres repeticiones por nivel. Los estudios llevados a cabo en acuarios de vidrio, evidenciaron sitios de acumulación de cromo en la planta, estableciéndose la cinética de acumulación.Eichhornia crassipes é uma planta de rápido crescimento distribuídas em quase todos os países tropicais, que podem tolerar condições de contaminação por metáis ou de eutrofização das massas de águas lênticos e lóticos. Essa planta tornou-se um problema ambiental, no entanto, despertou o interesse no tratamento da poluição por metais em solos agrícolas e corpos d'água. A toxicidade dos metais é um problema serio com esse raciocínio, uma vez que afeta a capacidade de armazenamento e transmissão na cadeia alimentar. Neste estudo avaliou o comportamento das taxas de acúmulo de cromo em macrófitas aquáticas Eichhornia crassipes, em concentrações de 30, 60 e 90 mg/L, utilizando um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com controle e três repetições por nível. Estudos realizados em aquários de vidro, apresentaram sítios de acumulação de crómio na planta, que institui a cinética de acumulação.Eichhornia crassipes is a fast growing plant distributed in almost all tropical countries, which can tolerate conditions of metal contamination or eutrophication of bodies of lentic and lotic waters. This plant has become an environmental problem, however, has sparked interest in the treatment of metal pollution in agricultural soils and water bodies. The toxicity of metals is a serious problem with this reasoning, since it affects the storage capacity and transmission into the food chain. In this study we evaluated the behavior of the rates of accumulation of chromium in aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes, at concentrations of 30, 60 and 90 mg/L, using a randomized experimental design with control and three replicates per level. Studies carried out in glass aquaria, showed sites of accumulation of chromium in the plant, establishing the kinetics of accumulation.

  15. 水葫芦-水草人工湿地系统在再生浆造纸废水处理中的应用研究%APPLICATION STUDY OF ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS SYSTEM OF COMMON WATER HYACINTHES-WATERGRASS IN WASTE WATER TREATMENT OF PAPER MAKING WITH RECYCLING PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚治

    2000-01-01

    通过对水葫芦-水草人工湿地处理再生浆造纸废水的试验研究表明,在进水pH7.12~7.49,BOD5、CODcr、SS浓、度分别为440.5mg/L、354.2mg/L、290.7mg/L,水力负荷0.05m/d的条件下,BOD5、CODcr、SS的去除率分别为98%、93%、和89%.系统性能稳定,出水水质达到排放标准且可用于农灌.

  16. Ação de adjuvantes na absorção e translocação de glyphosate em plantas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes The effect of adjuvants on glyphosate absorption and translocation in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a ação de adjuvantes na absorção e translocação de glyphosate em plantas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 5 x 8, sendo: cinco tratamentos com glyphosate (sem adjuvante e com os adjuvantes Aterbane a 0,5 e 0,25% v/v e Silwet L77 a 0,1 e 0,05% v/v, aplicados somente em uma folha de cada planta; e oito intervalos para lavagem ou corte das folhas (2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 e 48 horas, além de um intervalo contínuo sem lavagem ou corte. Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de controle aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Os adjuvantes Aterbane a 0,5% e Silwet a 0,1% promoveram maior controle em períodos mais curtos sem a lavagem das folhas (duas e quatro horas, embora no final do estudo todos os adjuvantes tenham resultado em controle eficiente a partir de duas horas, assim como o glyphosate sem adjuvante. No estudo de translocação, independentemente do adjuvante testado, observou-se excelente controle após o período de seis horas sem o corte das folhas. Nos períodos de duas e quatro horas, observou-se controle insatisfatório independentemente do adjuvante testado: esse fato demonstra que o corte das folhas em períodos inferiores a seis horas após a aplicação não é suficiente para uma translocação eficiente e garantir o controle de plantas de aguapé.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of adjuvants on glyphosate absorption and translocation in Eichhornia crassipes. The treatments were arranged in a 5 x 8 factorial scheme, being five with glyphosate (with no adjuvant and with the adjuvants Aterbane at 0.5 and 0.25% v/v and Silwet L 77 at 0.1 and 0.05% v/v applied on a single leaf of each plant at 8 intervals to wash or cut the leaves (2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours, plus a continuous interval without washing or cutting. Visual control evaluations were carried out at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment application. The absorption of 0.5% Aterbane and 0.1% Silwet promoted a higher control after shorter periods without leaf washing (2 and 4 hours.However, by the end of the study, all the adjuvants showed an excellent control after the period of 6 hours, as well as glyphosate without adjuvant. For the translocation study, no leaf cutting after six hours promoted an excellent control, regardless of the adjuvant tested. For the 2 and 4 hour periods, an unsatisfactory control was observed, regardless of the adjuvant tested, showing that leaf cutting during periods below 6 hours after application is not sufficient for an efficient translocation and to guarantee control of the aquatic plants.

  17. Mecanismos anatômicos e fisiológicos de plantas de aguapé para a tolerância à contaminação por Arsênio Anatomical and physiological mechanisms of water hyacinth plants to Arsenic contamination tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Pereira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação das características anatômicas e fisiológicas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes em resposta ao estresse por arsênio. As plantas de aguapé foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva hidropônica de Hoagland em casa de vegetação sob cinco concentrações de arsênio: 0,0; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0; e 2,0 mg L-1 por período de 20 dias. As plantas demonstraram aumento na taxa fotossintética, na condutância estomática, na transpiração e na relação Ci/Ca, bem como na atividade de todas as enzimas do sistema antioxidante, com maior atividade nas folhas em relação às raízes nos tratamentos contendo arsênio. As características anatômicas das folhas das plantas sob as maiores concentrações de arsênio mostraram aumento na densidade estomática, no índice estomático e na espessura do parênquima esponjoso. A anatomia radicular não evidenciou alterações decorrentes da intoxicação por arsênio e modificações nas características do xilema e floema, porém não houve prejuízos à sua estrutura e função. Dessa forma, o estresse por intoxicação pelo arsênio, nas concentrações testadas, não é evidente nas plantas de E. crassipes, e os mecanismos de tolerância são relacionados com modificações na anatomia e fisiologia das plantas.This work aimed to evaluate the anatomical and physiological characteristics of Eichhornia crassipes in response to arsenic stress. Plants of E. crassipes were grown in Hoagland hydroponic nutritive solution under greenhouse conditions at five arsenic levels: 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 during 20 days. The plants showed an increase in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration and Ci/Ca rate, as well as in the activity of all the enzymes in the antioxidant system, with higher activity in the leaves than in the roots, in all the treatments with arsenic. The anatomical characteristics observed on the leaves of the plants under higher arsenic levels showed an increase in stomatal density, stomatal index and spongy parenchyma thickness. Root anatomy showed no toxic evidences at any arsenic level; changes in the xylem and phloem characteristics were exhibited by the roots in the arsenic treatments, but no damage was caused to its structure and function. Thus, stress caused by arsenic intoxication at the levels tested, is not evident on E. crassipes plants, and the mechanisms of tolerance of E. crassipes are associated to anatomical and physiological changes.

  18. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  19. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and fresh water aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    The ORCA clone of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae has been in culture continuously for over two years. Yield for the past year has averaged 12 g ash-free dry wt/m/sup 2/ .day (17.5 t/a.y) in suspended 2600-1 aluminum tank cultures with four exchanges of enriched seawater per day and continuous aeration. Yields from nonintensive pond-bottom culture, similar to commercial Gracilaria culture methods in Taiwan, averaged 3 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day in preliminary experiments. Rope and spray cultures were not successful. Yields of water hyacinths from March 1978 to March 1979 averaged 25 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day (37 t/a.y). Season, nutrient availability (form and quantity) and stand density were found to affect the relative proportions of structural and nonstructural tissue in water hyacinths and thereby significantly affect digestibility of and methane production by the plants. Pennywort (Hydrocotyle) grew poorly in winter and its annual yield averaged only one-third that of water hyacinth. Water lettuce (Pistia) appears more comparable to hyacinths in preliminary studies and its yields will be monitored throughout a complete year. Stable, continuous anaerobic digestion of both water hyacinths and Gracilaria has been maintained with an average gas production from both species of 0.4 1/g volatile solids at 60% methane.

  20. Coding-complete sequencing classifies parrot bornavirus 5 into a novel virus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Bányai, Krisztián; Gál, János; Ihász, Katalin; Kugler, Renáta; Lengyel, György; Jakab, Ferenc; Bakonyi, Tamás; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we determined the sequence of the coding region of an avian bornavirus detected in a blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) with pathological/histopathological changes characteristic of proventricular dilatation disease. The genomic organization of the macaw bornavirus is similar to that of other bornaviruses, and its nucleotide sequence is nearly identical to the available partial parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains formed a monophyletic group distinct from other mammalian and avian bornaviruses and in calculations performed with matrix protein coding sequences, the PaBV-5 and PaBV-6 genotypes formed a common cluster, suggesting that according to the recently accepted classification system for bornaviruses, these two genotypes may belong to a new species, provisionally named Psittaciform 2 bornavirus.

  1. Avian bornavirus genotype 4 recovered from naturally infected psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Last; Herbert Weissenböck; Nora Nedorost; H.L. Shivaprasad

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of proventricular dilatation disease caused by avian bornavirus (ABV) in captive psittacine birds has long been suspected in South Africa. This report documents the first detection by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequence analyses of ABV from three clinical cases of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in captive bred blue and gold macaws (Araara rauna) resident in this country. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, gastrointestinal myenteric gangioneuritis and leiomyos...

  2. Parrots eat nutritious foods despite toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Gilardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Generalist herbivores are challenged not only by the low nitrogen and high indigestibility of their plant foods, but also by physical and chemical defenses of plants. This study investigated the foods of wild parrots in the Peruvian Amazon and asked whether these foods contain dietary components that are limiting for generalist herbivores (protein, lipids, minerals and in what quantity; whether parrots chose foods based on nutrient content; and whether parrots avoid plants that are chemically defended. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We made 224 field observations of free-ranging parrots of 17 species in 8 genera foraging on 102 species of trees in an undisturbed tropical rainforest, in two dry seasons (July-August 1992-1993 and one wet season (January-February1994. We performed laboratory analyses of parts of plants eaten and not eaten by parrots and brine shrimp assays of toxicity as a proxy for vertebrates. Parrots ate seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and insect larvae, but up to 70% of their diet comprised seeds of many species of tropical trees, in various stages of ripeness. Plant parts eaten by parrots were rich in protein, lipid, and essential minerals, as well as potentially toxic chemicals. Seeds were higher than other plant materials in protein and lipid and lower in fiber. Large macaws of three species ate foods higher in protein and lipids and lower in fiber compared to plant parts available but not eaten. Macaws ate foods that were lower in phenolic compounds than foods they avoided. Nevertheless, foods eaten by macaws contained measurable levels of toxicity. Macaws did not appear to make dietary selections based on mineral content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses. With the ability to eat toxic foods, rainforest-dwelling parrots exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry

  3. Produksi biogas dari pencerna anaerob serasah dan eceng gondok (Eichhornia crassipes dengan sumber inokulum kotoran sapi dan kotoran ayam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REVOLUSI PRAJANINGRAT SAKTIYUDHA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Saktiyudha RP. 2014. Biogas production from anaerobic digesters of leaf litter and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes with a source of inoculum cattle and chicken manures. Bioteknologi 11: 23-27. Biogas is a renewable alternative energy source also has the added value, which is in the processing of waste biomass is environmentally friendly. This study aims to examine the production of biogas in anaerobic reform process based on a mixture of biomass litter substrate and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms using inoculum source of cattle manure and chicken manure. Litter biomass and water hyacinth biomass were as a substrate (80% in the anaerobic digester with inoculum source of cattle manure or chicken manure (20% through the fermentation process. Factorial experiment with four replications performed using a completely randomized design (CRD with two factors. The first factor in the form of variations in the substrate, the substrate control with 100 % litter, litter substrate variation and water hyacinth (75%:25%, and a mixture of litter and water hyacinth (50%:50% . The second factor were a variation of the source of inoculum, ie cattle manure and chicken manure. Parameter measurements performed at weeks 0th, 2nd, 4th, 6th. Parameters observed were volume of biogas, CH4 concentration, temperature, pH, COD, BOD, TS and VS. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by DMRT at 5 % level test. Highest production of biogas in the sixth week (862.5 ml was showed by the treatment of 75 % litter and 25 % water hyacinth with inoculum source of cattle manure. Removal efficiency of COD; BOD; TS and VS on that treatment were amounted to 76.12 %, 32.88 %, 66.53 % and 63.74 %.

  4. A draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the Late Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao. More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within 14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.

  5. A draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the Late Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Yvette A; Dowd, Scot E; Decker, Jared E; Seabury, Paul M; Bhattarai, Eric; Johnson, Charles D; Rollins, Dale; Tizard, Ian R; Brightsmith, Donald J; Peterson, Markus J; Taylor, Jeremy F; Seabury, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite) have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao). More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within 14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum) would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.

  6. Rentabilité d'un biogaz de type chinois au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorsters, A.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability of a Chinese-Model Biogas in Benin. A 20 m3 digestor of Chinese type is fed by water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes and pig droppings. Enough gas is produced to cook three meals a day for 50 students, which means that wood is no more used. The efficient is used for vegetable cultivation.

  7. How We Keep Mother’s Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1997-01-01

    Spring is here at last! The sun is shining. The magnolia trees in thechurchyard are in full bloom and the daffodil and hyacinth beds in RittenhouseSquare are colorful and fragrant. The buds have appeared on the rhododendronbushes; soon they will surround the square with their glorious colors. The sky

  8. Hydrologic modeling of aquatic plant treatment systems polishing dairy lagoon effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothren, G M; Chen, S; Rahman, M; Malone, R

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a mathematical model of the hydrologic balance of an aquatic plant treatment system (APTS) has been developed. The mass balance approach has been adopted and the major components of the water balance, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET) and percolation have been incorporated into the model. For estimation of ET for duckweed and water hyacinth plants, mathematical relationships were established between ET and pan evaporation using data collected at the site. The observed ET rates of water hyacinths were up to 66% higher than the pan evaporation rates. But for duckweed, the observed ET rates were 10 to 20% lower than the pan evaporation rates. Using the available historic precipitation and pan evaporation data, several computer simulations of the model were run to estimate the HLR and HRT of the ponds under different design requirements. The results indicate that aquatic ponds with water hyacinths can operate at greater HLR's than ponds supporting duckweed. For a zero discharge system, the allowable HLR for a water hyacinth pond was found to be 5 times that of a pond containing duckweed.

  9. 'Met genetische variatie kun je heel veel doen'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarswaard, A.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Na ruim 42 jaar zet onderzoeker Jaap van Tuyl van PRI in Wageningen een punt achter zijn loopbaan. Menig bolgewas kreeg zijn aandacht en altijd ging het om de genetische kant ervan. Van hyacinth tot lelie, van Zantedeschia tot tulp, telkens waren het de genen die inzicht gaven. Een portret van een m

  10. Nutrient flows in small-scale bio-energy use in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Wösten, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the opportunities for the retention and return of nutrients in local bio-energy production using energy crops (oil palm, jatropha and cassava), fuel wood, manure, rice husks and a common pest plant (water hyacinth). For all bio-energy systems some return of nutrients is possible,

  11. New nanomaterial and process for the production of biofuel from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... Key words: Water hyacinth, bioethanol, metal, cobalt nano particles, nickel nano particles, photocatalyst, biofuel ... injection device; IR, infrared; SEM, scanning electron microscope; TEM ... (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectro- ... occur between carbon-containing com-pounds, water and.

  12. China Report: Science and Technology, No. 209. China Addresses Environmental Issues -- 1/83

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-12

    acacia decurrens. In the north, we can plant poplar, ailanthus altissima, and scholartree. Water hyacinth can be massively planted in the water areas...being provided them by the collec- tive or by the state. They may exchange labor with other peas- ants and have ownership of any trees or fruit

  13. PENGUASAAN KETERAMPILAN DAN MOTIVASI KERJA TERHADAP TINGKAT PENDAPATAN IBU RUMAH TANGGA DI DESA MURTIGADING BANTUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaresti Sudaresti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine: (1 contribution mastery of skills, (2 the contribution of motivation, and (3 the contribution of the mastery of the skills and motivation to work on the level of income trainee housewife hyacinth small and medium enterprises in the village Lutfi Craft Murtigading Plate II , Sanden, Bantul. This study uses a quantitative approach is correlational. The study population was a housewife trainee hyacinth UKM Lutfi Craft Village Murtigading Plate II, Sanden, Bantul. Collecting data using closed-form questionnaire scale. Data were analyzed using simple linear regression and multiple linear regression. The results showed that there is a positive and significant contribution to the mastery of the skills and motivation to work on the level of income trainee housewife hyacinth small and medium enterprises in the village Lutfi Craft Murtigading Plate II, Sanden, Bantul. The amount of the contribution of the mastery of skills and motivation of 30,4% and 22,6%, and both variables together to contribute to the household income levels mother trainee hyacinth UKM Lutfi Craft Village Murtigading Plate II Sanden, Bantul by 48,3%.

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology, 8 (1999) 31- 40 31 ... Much attention has been paid lately to the control and elimination of the weed, but ... This study of the invertebrate faunal community in the roots of water hyacinth in .... PHYLUM Arthropoda ... was not particularly suited for catching fish, fish were often encountered most of.

  15. Polluting macrophytes Colombian lake Fúquene used as substrate by edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Nieto, Patricia; García-Gómez, Gustavo; Mora-Ortiz, Laura; Robles-Camargo, George

    2014-01-01

    Invasive aquatic plants from Lake Fúquene (Cundinamarca, Colombia), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes C. Mart.) and Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa Planch.) have been removed mechanically from the lake and can be used for edible mushrooms production. The growth of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on these aquatic macrophytes was investigated in order to evaluate the possible use of fruiting bodies and spent biomass in food production for human and animal nutrition, respectively. Treatments included: water hyacinth, Brazilian elodea, sawdust, rice hulls and their combinations, inoculated with P. ostreatus at 3%. Water hyacinth mixed with sawdust stimulated significantly fruiting bodies production (P = 3.3 × 10(-7)) with 71% biological efficacy, followed by water hyacinth with rice husk (55%) and elodea with rice husk (48%), all of these have protein contents between 26 and 47%. Loss of lignin (0.9-21.6%), cellulose (3.7-58.3%) and hemicellulose (1.9-53.8%) and increment in vitro digestibility (16.7-139.3%) and reducing sugars (73.4-838.4%) were observed in most treatments. Treatments spent biomass presented Relative Forage Values (RFV) from 46.1 to 232.4%. The results demonstrated the fungus degrading ability and its potential use in aquatic macrophytes conversion biomass into digestible ruminant feed as added value to the fruiting bodies production for human nutrition.

  16. Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (17th) Held at Sacramento, California on 16-18 November 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    as the major cause of the waterhyacinth reduction in Louisiana. c. Sameodes albiguttalis. Although S. albiguttalis ( Argentine waterhyacinth moth) is a...fungus endemic to the United States. b. Sameodes albiguttali-the Argentine waterhyacinth moth imported from South America. c. Neochetina bruchi-The...including S. albiguttalis larvae, weevil adults and larvae, pickerelweed borer larvae, water- hyacinth mites, spider mites, various pathogens, frosts

  17. Biogas for Javanese villages: the products of digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, J.; Richmond, B.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and experiences with various biogas-generation and utilization devices in a Javanese village are given. Information on generation includes mostly data on mixing, temperature and time factors. Various simple and inexpensive cooking burners and lamps are also discussed. The article concludes with suggestions for the use of the biogas digester effluent as fertilizer, soil conditioner, and water hyacinth and algae substrates.

  18. Aplicación de la técnica fotoacústica resuelta en tiempo al monitoreo de la fotosíntesis en plantas de lirio acuático (Eichhornia Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Leticia Cardona-Gomez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported about the use of the time resolved photoacoustic technique for the analysis of the photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the energy storage in green plants. We present an application of this technique to the study of the photosynthesis in the aquatic vegetation, usually called aquatic lirium or water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes.

  19. Synthèse bibliographique : problématique de la jacinthe d'eau, Eichhornia crassipes, dans les régions tropicales et subtropicales du monde, notamment son éradication par la lutte biologique au moyen des phytopathogènes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijakli MH.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available eview: problems of the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, in particular its eradication using biological control method by means of plant pathogens. Water hyacinth, probably originating from South America, grows between 35th North and South parallels of the planet. It was introduced into several regions of the world as ornamental plant, where it became later one of the most dangerous world water weed. Its infestation can be controlled by physical and chemical treatments. However, these methods are expensive and dangerous for human health and environment. Moreover, following Western legislations example, those of developing countries are highly restrictive against authorised chemical molecules. Consequently, a growing interest was given to alternative solutions, such as biological control. That control using insects, fishes and mammiferes against water hyacinth could be strengthened with the application of mycoherbicides. These mycoherbicides are more respectful for environment and public health and seem to constitute an additional realistic alternative for water hyacinth durable management.

  20. Pre-release evaluation of Neochetina weevils potential for the management of Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm. In the Rift valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, F.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the host-specificity, potential efficacy and optimum densities of the two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and N. eichhorniae) as water hyacinth control agents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Density-plant damage relationship was monitored for two years (2012 to 2014)

  1. Non conventional fuel resources in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, G.; Dixit, S.; Tiwari, S.

    2006-03-15

    In India there is a shortage of energy resources. The conventional sources are incapable to mitigate this problem by providing sufficient amount of energy. The crisis is gradually becoming more acute particularly in the countryside thus hampering the economic growth. To deal with this problem some new strategies have been envisaged. Generation of energy to meet daily requirement from non-conventional sources is one of the steps in this regard. With the increasing popularity of biogas plants in rural as well as in urban areas of India, it has become essential to find various location specific organic substances that can be used as feed material in biogas plant. In this study we have concentrated on use of cow dung and water hyacinth as feed material in biogas plants. The objective of the study is to assess the suitability of using mixture of cow dung and water hyacinth as feed material in biogas plants. Attempt has been made to find out the optimum proportion of cow dung and water hyacinth. The 1:1 mixture of cow dung and water hyacinth is the optimum proportion as per the study conducted. (author)

  2. Lead remotion of automotive batteries recycling industry wastewater by the aquatic macrofit eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Aní Caovilla Follador

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the lead absorption by the aquatic macrofit Eichhornia crassipes in the wastewater treatment of an automotive batteries recycling industry located at county of Paula de Freitas, state of Paraná, Brazil. For that, the relation of humid green mass of water hyacinth by solution volume was optimized and, in follow the method was employed in the industrial wastewater treatment. The results permitted to conclude that the lead and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn e Cr absorption efficiency depends straightly of the water hyacinth mass (g by solution volume (L, being 40 and 50 g L-1 the more efficient relations showing equivalents results in wastewaters containing until 30 mg L-1 of contaminant. Factors as pH and temperature in the analyzed values no had an expressive influence. For the treatment of wastewater contaminated by lead of the small and mean industries which recycle automotive batteries, the utilization of water hyacinth is practicable in the optimized conditions. It´s necessary a refined study for the definition of the best alternative of treatment/final disposal of the water hyacinth biomass after the wastewater treatment.Key-words: green house, composting, stabilization lagoon, heavy metal.

  3. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus Linné

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of Lalhyacinth. Hydrology, vegetation and distance towards open water explained the variation in abiotic and biotic factors. Over 30 fish species were ide

  4. Biochemical and genetical analysis reveal a new clade of biovar 3 Dickeya spp. strains isolated from potato in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slawiak, M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Czajkowski, R.L.; Grabe, G.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-five potato strains of the soft rot-causing plant pathogenic bacterium Dickeya spp., and two strains from hyacinth, were characterised using biochemical assays, REP-PCR genomic finger printing, 16S rDNA and dnaX sequence analysis. These methods were compared with nineteen strains representing

  5. Evaluation of portable water in five provinces of Zambia using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kabunga

    Lusaka Province is significantly high in nitrate and sodium concentration compared to other provinces considered in this ... inorganic ions and organic compounds such as oils, into rivers .... of water hyacinth and the bioaccumulation of heavy me- tals within ...... part of the ministry in charge of environmental issues. (Ministry ...

  6. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological control of water hyacinth at New ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The benefit/cost ratio at the low evapotranspiration rate was less than one, implying that ...

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Range Safety Lighting System at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Sterna antillarum N T Mammals Florida panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians ...Casuarina glauca Australian pine Dioscorea bulbifera Air potato Eichhornia crassipes Water hyacinth Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry Hydrilla...Cuban treefrog (Osteophilus septentrionalis), Cuban brown anole (Anole sagrei) and the Indo-Pacific gecko (Hemidactylus garnoti) are some amphibian and

  8. THE EFFECT OF NATURAL WATER WITH COW DUNG AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE RATIO ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaponKeanoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming caused by energy generation from fossil fuel has accelerated the deployment of renewable fuels such as biogas. In this study, batch fermentation (5L was studied to observe the effect of natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth ratio on the biogas and methane production at ambient temperature (31°C, 7.1-7.4 of pH for 52 days. The five types of co-digestion were 2:1:1:1 (digester A, 1:1:1:1 (digester B, 0.5:1:1:1 (digester C, 1:1:1:0 (digester D and 1:1:0:1 (digester E, respectively. The result showed that the biogas production increased progressively with amount of natural water to raw material. The maximum biogas production and methane concentration was 1650 mL/days and 61.47% was obtained at substrate mixture 2:1:1:1 (digester A, which there are suitable of C:N ratio at 31.1:1. Natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth was mixed for biogas production, have been found to improve highest biogas production compared to those of without rice straw and water hyacinth. Therefore, the mixing natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth can improve both biogas production and content of methane in biogas.

  9. Lake Alaotra wetlands: how long can Madagascar's most important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) which shows a mean ..... are data measured within the open water in the dry season (surface water) and ...... Texas. Journal of Science 20, 4: 305–313. Hill, R., Webb, G. J. and Smith, A. M. 1987.

  10. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN TUMBUHAN AIR PADA AIR LIMBAH RUMAH TANGGA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN IKAN GURAMI (Osphronemus gouramy SEBAGAI INFORMASI BAGI MASYARAKAT TENTANG PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DAN DAUR ULANG LIMBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafzon Exaputra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilization fern (Azolla pinnata and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes in addition to preserving the environment also produces elements that are needed for the growth of living things. Household wastewater by plants Azolla pinnata and hyacinth will return sustainability, and can be used as a maintenance gourami (Osphronemus gouramy.        The purpose of this research are: (1 to determine the effect of aquatic plants in domestic wastewater to the quality of the water quality standard household waste and growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy. (2 to find out which one is better growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy in household waste water between the new and old by fern (Azolla pinnata and by plants hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes. (3 as a source of information for the public about environmental pollution and recycling of waste water by using plants in domestic wastewater.        This type of research experiments. Samples of each treatment 20 fish carp with 4 treatments. Treatment I (wastewater new households by ferns, treatment of II (wastewater new households by plants hyacinth, Treatment III (domestic wastewater long by ferns, treatment IV (household wastewater long by water hyacinth plants. The measured parameters ie width, length and weight of carp within a certain period. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA two lanes and qualitative analysis.        The results obtained by analysis of existing water plants on the effect of domestic wastewater on growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy, as well as the provision of fern (Azolla pinnata provides the most good influence on the growth of carp. Kata Kunci: Tumbuhan air, air limbah rumah tangga, pertumbuhan ikan gurami.

  11. STUDY ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION AND THE EFFECT OF HEATING ON THE MALATHION RESIDUE ANALYZED USING THE RADIOTRACER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine, the comparison of absorption by aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Waterhyacinth (Eichhomia crassipes of malathion insecticide residues in water and comparison of malathion concentrationin tissues of fish fed with of contaminated water plants (Water hyacinth with tissues of fish, which was not fedcontaminated water plant. The effect of heating the contaminated fish tissue, on its level in tissues of rats that consumeit. For the first experiment (aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + H. verticillata 100 gr + Water hyacinth 100 gr + 20uci 14C-labeled malathion; for the second experiment (the first aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + 30 tails ofgoldfish + 20 uci 14C-labeled malathion; second aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + Water hyacinth 100 gr + 30 tailof goldfist + 20 uci 14C –labeled malathion. For the third experiment (most of contaminated fish tissue in the secondexperiment was dried at room temperature and then given to 30 mice and partly heated and then given to another 30mice. Malathion levels were then analyzed by using a liquid scintillation counter LSC-753 (Aloka. The results of alltreatments were compared using the Student t-test. It can be concluded, H. verticillata was more efficient compared tothe enceng gondok in absorbing the insecticide malathion residues in water; malathion concentration in the tissues offish fed Water hyacinth was higher than those of fish not fed Water hyacinth; contaminated fish tissue residues ofmalathion, although be heated, can not be lowered significantly, levels in the tissue.

  12. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    Studies were continued during 1977-1978 on the growth and yields in culture of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae. Partial control of epiphytes was achieved by nutrient removal, shading, and/or biological agents. For the first time, a single clone of the alga was grown continuously throughout the year without replacement. Yields in large (2600 1) aluminum tanks averaged 21.4 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day, equivalent to 31 tons/acre.year (15.5 ash-free dry wt tons/acre.year). Growth of gracilaria and other seaweeds in Vexar-mesh baskets in natural habitats and in the oceanic waters of a power plant cooling water intake canal were unsuccessful. Productivity of the freshwater macrophytes Lemna minor (common duckweed), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Hydrilla verticillata have now been measured throughout the year with mean yields of 3.7, 24.2 and 4.2 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day (5.4, 35.3, and 6.1 dry tons/acre.year) respectively. Yields of duckweed and water hyacinths in the Harbor Branch Foundation culture units have averaged roughly three times those of the same species growing in highly-eutrophic natural environments. Chopped water hyacinths and unprocessed Gracilaria have both been successfully fermented to methane in anaerobic digesters and the liquid digester residues recycled to produce more of the same plants. A preliminary budget for recycled nitrogen has been determined for water hyacinths. Productivity of both water hyacinths and Gracilaria has been calculated from nitrate-nitrogen assimilation and good agreement with measured yields was obtained.

  13. Assessing the use of forest islands by parrot species in a neotropical savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Berkunsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effect of habitat fragmentation is a fundamental yet complicated aim of many ecological studies. Beni savanna is a naturally fragmented forest habitat, where forest islands exhibit variation in resources and threats. To understand how the availability of resources and threats affect the use of forest islands by parrots, we applied occupancy modeling to quantify use and detection probabilities for 12 parrot species on 60 forest islands. The presence of urucuri (Attalea phalerata and macaw (Acrocomia aculeata palms, the number of tree cavities on the islands, and the presence of selective logging,and fire were included as covariates associated with availability of resources and threats. The model-selection analysis indicated that both resources and threats variables explained the use of forest islands by parrots. For most species, the best models confirmed predictions. The number of cavities was positively associated with use of forest islands by 11 species. The area of the island and the presence of macaw palm showed a positive association with the probability of use by seven and five species, respectively, while selective logging and fire showed a negative association with five and six species, respectively. The Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis, the critically endangered parrot species endemic to our study area, was the only species that showed a negative association with both threats. Monitoring continues to be essential to evaluate conservation and management actions of parrot populations. Understanding of how species are using this natural fragmented habitat will help determine which fragments should be preserved and which conservation actions are needed.

  14. Proventricular dilatation disease: an emerging exotic disease of parrots in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doneley, R J T; Miller, R I; Fanning, T E

    2007-03-01

    Proventricular dilatation disease is a viral disease seen as a segmental neuropathy in parrots. It has always been believed to be a disease exotic to Australia, with the only reported case being a legally imported Green Wing Macaw (Ara chloroptera) in 1993. This paper reports a cluster of cases seen in south-east Queensland in 2005 to 2006. Clinical signs, autopsy findings and histopathological findings are described. No pattern or common source for these cases could be identified. The implications for Australian aviculture and avifauna are discussed.

  15. HEMOGRAMA E BIOQUÍMICA CLÍNICA SANGUÍNEA DE ARARAS (Ara sp. MANTIDAS EM SÍTIOS ECOLÓGICOS NO ESTADO DA BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Malta Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish reference values for hemogram and clinical biochemistry, aiming at to evaluating the liver function of healthy macaws (Ara sp., with the influence of species on the blood constituents, in order to contribute to the health monitoring of this species kept in ecological farms in the state of Bahia (Brazil. We used forty-five blood samples from three distinct species: green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna and scarlet macaws (Ara macao. A total of 3.5 mL of blood was collected from the ulnar vein of each bird: 1.5 mL was placed in tubes containing EDTA, to carry out the hemogram, and 2.0 mL of blood without anticoagulant was used to obtain serum, for the biochemical analysis. The averages obtained for the blood of the genus Ara were PCV: 2.74 ± 0.48 x106/μL; VG: 36.8 ± 5.56%; Hb: 15.4 ± 2.42 g/dL; thrombocytes:9,580 ± 2,850 x103/μL; leukocyte count: 5,340 ± 3,580/μL; lymphocytes: 1,408.8 ± 1,020.7/μL; heterophils: 3,252.0 ± 2,026.3/μL; monocytes: 169.1 ± 227.5/μL; basophils: 34.2 ± 72.3/μL; eosinophils: 186.9 ± 183.9/μL. The results of the serum biochemical parameters were activity of the enzymes AST 67.6 ± 12.8 IU/L; CK 77.9 ± 44.6 IU/L; LDH 240.1 ± 85.6 IU/L; cholesterol 160.3 ± 34.8 mg/dL; triglycerides 111.8 ± 58.6 mg/dL; glucose 228.5 ± 38.1 mg/dL and total proteins: 3.37 ± 0.8 g/dL. Significant differences (p <0.05 influenced by species were detected for the values of number of PCV, GV, number of leukocytes and the concentration of cholesterol and glucose.

  16. The Latin American Drug Trade: Scope, Dimensions, Impact, and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    August 2007), Carlos José Robayo Escobar (a.k.a. Macaw, caught in 2005), and Wilber Alirio Fajardo Varela (shot dead in Venezuela in 2008). 22 The...March 24, 2009c. 39 Richard Marosi and Ken Ellingwood, “Mexican Drug Lord Teodoro Garcia Simental, Known for His Savagery, Is Captured,” Los Angeles...Mexico Town’s Entire Police Force Quits in Fear of Assassination,” Associated Press, May 23, 2008. 13 See, for instance, Lacey, 2010a; Ken Ellingwood

  17. Organic fertilizer and its effects on the growth and development of tomato crop (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Luna Murillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizers are one of the alternatives in the group of products used in sustainable agri-culture, mainly what is obtained from organic sources of recyclable nature as compost and vermicompost. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of organic fertilizers on the growth and development of tomato plants. The treatments were vermicompost, water hyacinth, and the combination 50 % vermicompost and 50 % water hyacinth control, using a completely randomized design with five replicates. The work was conducted at the Experimental Center La Playita, belonging to the Technical University of Cotopaxi La Maná extension and plant height, number of fruits, fruit diameter, fruit weight was measured. The results showed that the use of organic fertilizers in tomato plant height stimulated with 114.64 cm, number of fruits with 4.08 fruits, fruit diameter with 7.96 mm and weight of 226.50 g fruits, tomato plants

  18. Preliminary information on the production of Eichhornia Crassipes in residual water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany de Casabianca, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Biomass production systems, in particular using water hyacinth, are used for the purification of water in an experimental station. The systems was first tested in raw water on a primary decanter and then, in discharged water (semi-continuous supply of five eight square meter tanks) The basic idea was to play on the conditions of growth and the export of protein. This experiment showed that water hyacinths grew remarkably well in the discharged water, but not in the raw water. Production varies substantially with climatic conditions and farming methods. The percentage of dry substance is also very variable; the C/N ratio remains close to 8.5. The variability of production has an effect on purification. Further study would be needed to validate the system.

  19. Industrial water treatment with heavy metals through zeolites and bioremediation systems with aquatic plants especially Eichhornia crassipes. State of art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Fernando Carreño-Sayago

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review we explore different opportunities to use a cheap natural material for removing and retention of heavy metals from polluted waters by waste of different processes. Two research systems will be addressed: the first through a material known as zeolite or more generally porous  luminosilicates, which may be synthesized or extracted from the mines of clays and minerals, being used in its natural state or after modification processes and doping. The other mechanism is bioremediation through algae, some bacteria and especially aquatic plants such as Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth. We will evaluate the viability of joining these two types complementing each other. Investigations into the feasibility of Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth as feedstock for biofuels are also reviewed.

  20. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  1. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  2. Parametric Analysis of a Heavy Metal Sorption Isotherm Based on Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico M. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are widely recognized as being hazardous to human health and environmentally aggressive. The literature reports different approaches for lead removal, for example, water hyacinths. Heavy metal sorption isotherm modeling represents an important tool towards the study of equilibrium conditions. Fractional calculus represents a novel approach and a growing research field for process modeling, based on derivatives of arbitrary order. Recently, a novel isotherm based on fractional calculus was proposed for lead sorption using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes. This paper reports a general procedure on error analysis and its influence on parameter estimation. It was applied to mathematical models based on fractional differential equations, focusing on a heavy metal novel isotherm sorption model. Parameter variance was calculated by using two different approaches (with the complete Hessian matrix and with a simplified Hessian matrix, and joint parameter confidence regions were generated, being successfully able to show that the fractional nature of the model is statistically valid.

  3. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  4. Water Operations Technical Support Program. Water Quality Management for Reservoirs and Tailwaters. Report 1. In-Reservoir Water Quality Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Durden 1984). The impact of the two weevils on waterhyacinth in Louisiana serves as an example of insect effectiveness ( Perfetti 1983, Goyer and...commercial formulation has been developed by Abbott Laboratories (Freeman et al. 1981; Perfetti 1983). The effectiveness of the fungus in Louisiana... Perfetti , P. B. 1983. "Use of Insects and Pathogens for Management of Water- hyacinth in Louisiana," Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Information

  5. Physical and chemical properties of substrates produced using macrophytes aquatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walda Monteiro Farias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes are widely used as bioindicators of water quality because their proliferation usually occurs in eutrophic water sources and has hit several parts of Brazil and the world, restricted the multiple uses of aquatic ecosystems. However, this group of plants is able to retain considerable amounts of nutrients, presenting high productivity and high growth rate, thus, a good source of biomass for use in the production of substrates. In order to evaluate the potential of aquatic macrophytes water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Solms., water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L. and cattail (Typha domingensis Pers. in the production of substrates was performed in this work, the physical and chemical characterization and evaluation of the degree of humification. The treatments were arranged in a 3 × 4 factorial, completely randomized design with three replications. All substrates produced with 100% macrophyte density present within the limits of 400 kg m-3, considered ideal. The composite substrates with water hyacinth and water lettuce are with the electrical conductivity of 0,79 a 2,49 dS m-1 within recommended. organic compounds produced are considered mature and have high levels of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium; The substrate produced with 70% water lettuce +30 % dung and 70% composed of cattail manure +20% +10% topsoil and 70 +30% cattail manure have C/N ratio within the considered ideal; the humification ratio and humification index, except for the four treatments (70 % water lettuce manure +30%, 5 (100% water hyacinth and 8 (70% water hyacinth manure +30% are within the considered ideal, the percentage of humic acids and polymerization rate, except for treatments 1 (100% water lettuce and 12 (100% cattail, are shown below the ideal.

  6. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

  7. Contingency Pest Management Guide. 2010 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    to 22 days. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bactimos Briquets ] 10% 6840-01-377-7049 BX Box/100 briquets Apply per label directions (10...mosquito season (or 150 days). For Aedes and Psorophora, use 1 briquet /200 sq ft for shallow depressions. For Culex, Culiseta and Anopheles, place...1 briquet /100 sq ft. For Coquillettidia and Mansonia in cattail marshes and water hyacinth beds, place 1 briquet /100 sq ft. Briquettes control

  8. Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Map Changes in Aquatic Invasive Plant Cover in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Waterways of the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta have recently become infested with invasive aquatic weeds such as floating water hyacinth (Eichhoria crassipes) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides). These invasive plants cause many negative impacts, including, but not limited to: the blocking of waterways for commercial shipping and boating; clogging of irrigation screens, pumps and canals; and degradation of biological habitat through shading. Zhang et al. (1997, Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1039-1053) used NASA Landsat satellite imagery together with field calibration measurements to map physical and biological processes within marshlands of the San Francisco Bay. Live green biomass (LGB) and related variables were correlated with a simple vegetation index ratio of red and near infra-red bands from Landsat images. More recently, the percent (water area) cover of water hyacinth plotted against estimated LGB of emergent aquatic vegetation in the Delta from September 2014 Landsat imagery showed a 80% overall accuracy. For the past two years, we have partnered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis to conduct new validation surveys of water hyacinth and water primrose coverage and LGB in Delta waterways. A plan is underway to transfer decision support tools developed at NASA's Ames Research Center based on Landsat satellite images to improve Delta-wide integrated management of floating aquatic weeds, while reducing chemical control costs. The main end-user for this application project will be the Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) of the California Department of Parks and Recreation, who has the responsibility for chemical control of water hyacinth in the Delta.

  9. ESTABLISHMENT OF NEOCHETINA SPP.: THEIR PATTERN OF LOCAL DISPERSAL AND AGE STRUCTURE AT THE RELEASE SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASNO,

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on the distribution pattern and age structure ofNeochetina spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae at the release site was conducted to know a the distributi on pattern of the weevil, b its establishment status, c its survival rate in the field, and d relationship between the attack of the weevil and the fungus, Altemaria eichhorniae Nag Rag & Ponappa (Hyphomycetes, in causing damage to water hyacinth. This study was conducted at Situ Bagendit lake, Garut, West Java. A release and recapture method was employed to study the mode and rate of dispersal of the weevils under field conditions. Regular sample collecti on at two-month interval was done to evaluate the pattern of distribution and to assess the age structure under field condition. Another two months regular observation was done to assess damage severity due to adult weevils and the fungus, A. eichhorniae, on water hyacinth. Results showed, that the weevils seem to disperse actively to all directions following the presence of water hyacinth. The data also showed that the dispersal rate of the weevils was about a few meters a week. Under field conditions at Situ Bagendit lake, the weev ils were about evenly distributed throughout water hyacinth mass. The density of the weevils fluctuated from time to time, but the trend slightly increased. The survival rate of the weevils at Situ Bagendit lake was estimated not more than 5%. It was suspected that various limiting factors such as various predators have caused the low population increase under field conditions. The population increase through time confirmed that the weevils have established at Situ Bagendit lake. Field data showed that there were no interaction between the damage severity of the weed caused by both weevils and the fungus.

  10. Experiences of violence across life course and its effects on mobility among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Dimitri Taurino; Vafaei, Afshin; Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, María Victoria; Guerra,Ricardo Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Background Life course exposure to violence may lead to disability in old age. We examine associations and pathways between life course violence and mobility disability in older participants of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Methods A cross-sectional study using IMIAS 2012 baseline. Men and women aged 65–74 years were recruited at 5 cities (n=1995): Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia) and Natal (Brazil). Mobility was assessed by th...

  11. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were continued during 1977 to 1978 on the growth and yields in culture of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae. Partial control of epiphytes was achieved by nutrient removal, shading, and/or biological agents. For the first time, a single clone of the alga was grown continuously throughout the year without replacement. Yields in large (2600 1) aluminum tanks averaged 21.4 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day, equivalent to 31 tons/acre.year (15.5 ash-free dry wt tons/acre.year). Growth of Gracilaria and other seaweeds in Vexar-mesh baskets in natural habitats and in the oceanic waters of a power plant cooling water intake canal were unsuccessful. Productivity of the freshwater macrophytes Lemna minor (common duckweed), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Hydrilla verticillata have now been measured throughout the year with mean yields of 3.7, 24.2 and 4.2 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day (5.4, 35.3, and 6.1 dry tons/acre.year) respectively. Yields of duckweed and water hyacinths in the Harbor Branch Foundation culture units have averaged roughly three times those of the same species growing in highly-eutrophic natural environments. The yields of several other species of freshwater plants were investigated. Only the pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) appears to approach the productivity of water hyacinth on the basis of preliminary measurements. Chopped water hyacinths and unprocessed Gracilaria have both been successfully fermented to methane in anaerobic digesters and the liquid digester residues recycled to produce more of the same plants.

  12. Incidence and Management Costs of Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species at Projects Operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    the occurrence of ANS impacts (Yes or No) from freshwater algae, large aquatic plants, fish , zebra mussels, Asiatic clams, water fleas, crayfish...investment in research and development, especially for nuisance aquatic plants, fresh- water clams, and certain invasive fish species. Even so, aggregate...water hyacinths, hydrilla, common reed, sea lamprey, and the zebra mussel are especially notorious for their costly impacts on freshwater services

  13. Compact multipurpose sub-sampling and processing of in-situ cores with press (pressurized core sub-sampling and extrusion system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E.; Muller, W.H. [Technical Univ. of Berlin, Berlin (Germany). Chair of Continuum Mechanics and Material Theory

    2008-07-01

    Climate change, declining resources and over-consumption result in a need for sustainable resource allocation, habitat conservation and claim for new technologies and prospects for damage-containment. In order to increase knowledge of the environment and to define potential hazards, it is necessary to get an understanding of the deep biosphere. In addition, the benthic conditions of sediment structure and gas hydrates, temperature, pressure and bio-geochemistry must be maintained during the sequences of sampling, retrieval, transfer, storage and downstream analysis. In order to investigate highly instable gas hydrates, which decomposes under pressure and temperature change, a suite of research technologies have been developed by the Technische Universitat Berlin (TUB), Germany. This includes the pressurized core sub-sampling and extrusion system (PRESS) that was developed in the European Union project called HYACE/HYACINTH. The project enabled well-defined sectioning and transfer of drilled pressure-cores obtained by a rotary corer and fugro pressure corer into transportation and investigation chambers. This paper described HYACINTH pressure coring and the HYACINTH core transfer. Autoclave coring tools and HYACINTH core logging, coring tools, and sub-sampling were also discussed. It was concluded that possible future applications include, but were not limited to, research in shales and other tight formations, carbon dioxide sequestration, oil and gas exploration, coalbed methane, and microbiology of the deep biosphere. To meet the corresponding requirements and to incorporate the experiences from previous expeditions, the pressure coring system would need to be redesigned to adapt it to the new applications. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  15. The growth and flowering of Hyacinthus orientalis L. Forced in pots under fluorescent light of different colours

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Śmigielska; Agnieszka Krzymińska; Marek Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Three hyacinth cultivars were forced under fluorescent lamps which emitted white, blue, green, yellow and red light. The plants started flowering in the first decade of February. The forcing period for two cultivars, ‘Anna Marie’ and ‘Blue Star’, was shortest under lamps emitting red light. The cultivar ‘White Pearl’ flowered equally early under lamps emitting red, white and blue light. The impact of light colour (wavelength) on the leaf greenness index (SPAD) was demonstrated. The photosynth...

  16. A novel structure for removal of pollutants from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Nabila S.; Elhaes, Hanan; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; El hotaby, Walid; Ibrahim, Medhat A.

    2014-03-01

    Dried water hyacinth was subjected to molecular modifications using quantum mechanical calculations. The model simulates the modified plant as 3 cellulose units, one lignin and some metal oxides namely CaO; FeO and Al(OH)3 are attached through O-Linkage. The model suggests the ability to remove inorganic pollutants from wastewater according to unique hydrogen bonding and high total dipole moment. Based on this model microspheres are synthesized in the laboratory from dried water hyacinth and chitosan following self-assembly method. FTIR spectrum of microspheres exhibits only the characteristic bands for raw materials which give strong evidence that the formed material is a composite. The analysis of SEM micrographes of microspheres showed that the fibers of water hyacinth are imbedded in the crosslinked chitosan matrix. Batch adsorption kinetic models revealed that the sorption of lead ions on microsphere was very fast and the equilibrium was rapidly attained within 30 min. and properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model. Different models of isotherm sorption were used to describe the Pb (II) adsorption onto microspheres. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for Pb(II) was 312.5 mg/g, which is about 3 times higher than that of the crude hyacinth. The free energy (E) was 15.798 kJ/mol which shows that the sorption process is endothermic and the mechanism of reaction is an ion-exchange. Even after four cycles of adsorption-desorption, the adsorption capacity was maintained and the decline in efficiency was less than 10%.

  17. Efisiensi dan Kecernaan Ransum Domba yang Diberi Silase Ransum Komplit Eceng Gondok Ditambahkan Starter Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Ekawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available (Efficiency and digestibility feed of sheep given silage complete feed water hyacinth added starter lactobacillus plantarum ABSTRACT. This study aims to determine the effect of a complete ration of silage made from water hyacinth on feed efficiency and digestibility. This study uses fifteen rams (12 months old with an average body weight of 19 ± 3.98 kg. The experimental was designed completely random. The sheeps were randomly divided into 3 treatments, and 4 replications. The sheeps wereted concentrate and fresh elephant grass (T0, silage-based rations complete without the addition of starter hyacinth L. plantarum (T1, and a complete ration silage made from water hyacinth by the addition of L. plantarum starter (T2. Feed structured treatment isoenergi and isoprotein (PK 13% and 65% TDN. Feed treatment was given for 12 weeks with a 2-week adaptation period. The results showed that feed intake, ADG, feed conversion, and feed efficiency were not significantly different (P> 0.05, but it can improve feed digestibility (P <0.05 between treatments. Feed intake data, digestibility, ADG, feed conversion and feed efficiency at T0, T1 and T2 as follows: 678.27, 811.43, 701.21 g / day; 70.51, 71.74, 69.82%; 94.09, 106.34, 97.28 g / day; 7.22, 7.66, and 7.18; 14.09, 13.23 and 14.02% use a complete ration silage with L. plantarum starter better than the control treatment in the form of concentrates with elephant grass but not better than silage without a starter.

  18. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Flats Wetlands in the Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    temporal scale (Loftus and Eklund 1994). A wide range of macroinvertebrates, amphibians , and reptiles, as well as birds, occurs in the Everglades marshes...Eichhornla crassiges Water hyacinth Elaeaunus vun pens Thorny elaeagnus Evivremnum ninnatum Pothos Euaenia uniflora Surinam cherr Ficus aitissimna...cycle. Many animals such as birds can travel several kilometers to feed or nest, but others, such as amphibians , travel only a few meters to other

  19. Final Environmental Assessment: For the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Expanded Training Use Areas at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-10

    panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians Eastern indigo snake Drymarchon corais...hyacinth Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Hymenachne amplexicaulis West Indian marsh grass Imperata cylindrica Cogon grass...garnoti) are some amphibian and reptile species that occur within the built up areas of APAFR (U.S. Navy, 2004). Sub-tropical bird species noted to

  20. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both poor and good correlation of total protein concentrations in various avian species using refractometry and biuret methodologies. The purpose of the current study was to compare these 2 techniques of total protein determination using plasma samples from several psittacine species and to determine the effect of cholesterol and other solutes on refractometry results. Total protein concentration in heparinized plasma samples without visible lipemia was analyzed by refractometry and an automated biuret method on a dry reagent analyzer (Ortho 250). Cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid concentrations were measured using the same analyzer. Results were compared using Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman bias plots, and Spearman's rank correlation. Correlation coefficients (r) for total protein results by refractometry and biuret methods were 0.49 in African grey parrots (n=28), 0.77 in Amazon parrots (20), 0.57 in cockatiels (20), 0.73 in cockatoos (36), 0.86 in conures (20), and 0.93 in macaws (38) (Prefractometry in Amazon parrots, conures, and macaws (n=25 each, PRefractometry can be used to accurately measure total protein concentration in nonlipemic plasma samples from some psittacine species. Method and species-specific reference intervals should be used in the interpretation of total protein values.

  1. Desarrollo y aplicación de un lenguaje basado en el minspeak = Development and application of a languaje on minspeak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Domínguez-Guillarte, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEn este trabajo se presenta el proceso seguido para desarrollar un lenguaje basado en el Minspeak para un alumno que cuenta con un comunicador Macaw; veremos a continuación la didáctica y evaluación de la puesta en práctica con D.M., para quién se realizó dicho lenguaje. Se muestra cómo se han alcanzado unos mil cuatrocientos mensajes (palabras y frases, mediante la vinculación de pictogramas, con un solo tablero de treinta y dos casillas. Concluimos con la consideración de una posible utilización de dicho lenguaje para otros usuarios de comunicadores de características semejantes, mediante pequeñas adaptaciones personales. ABSTRACTThe aim of this work is showing the procedure followed to develop a language based on Minspeak for a pupil with a macaw communicator. Next we will see the didactics and evaluation of the putting into practice with D.M., for whom that language was designed. It is proved how about one thousand and four hundred messages (words and phrases have been made out, through the pictographs linking, with only one board with thirty two squares. We can end up by the consideration that the possible use of that language by other users of communication systems of similar characteristics by means of minimal personal adaptations.

  2. Analysis and simulation of energy efficiency of MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks *%水声传感器网络MAC协议的能效分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娜; 陈名松; 王方; 薛鑫

    2011-01-01

    To study the energy loss of the MAC protocol for underwater sensor networks, the energy efficiency of the ALOHA and MACAW are analyzed and simulated based on Matlab in centralized topology. The results show that the improved MACAW protocol has much higher energy efficiency than ALOHA protocol in network which has more nodes, data arrival rate and larger packet size.%为了研究水下传感器网络多址接入(MAC)协议的能量损耗,在集中式拓扑结构下,对ALOHA和MACAW两种协议的能量效率进行了理论分析,并通过Matlab进行了仿真.结果表明:通过改进的MA.CAW协议在网络节点数较多,数据到达率较高,数据包较大的网络中比ALOHA协议具有更高的能量效率.

  3. Seed dispersal and predation of Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler (Combretaceae in a Cerrado sensu stricto, midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Farias

    Full Text Available Abstract The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA. We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha–1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species. The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris was considered the main seed disperser. Leafcutter ants (Atta laevigata and Atta sexdens participated in the seed cleaning and occasionally dispersed seeds. The beetle Amblycerus insuturatus, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna and red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus were considered pre-dispersal seed predators. The seeds manually cleaned presented higher germination rate (100% and speed index (4.2 seeds.d–1 than that of seeds with pulp. Germination of seeds found in tapirs’feces was 40%, while for the seeds without pulp it was 25%. The high abundance of B. tomentosa in the cerrado of PESA may be due to massive fruit production, low rates of seed predation, and efficient seed dispersal by tapirs, occurring before the rains which promote germination and recruitment of this species.

  4. Seed dispersal and predation of Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler (Combretaceae) in a Cerrado sensu stricto, midwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, J; Sanchez, M; Abreu, M F; Pedroni, F

    2015-11-01

    The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA). We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha-1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species. The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) was considered the main seed disperser. Leafcutter ants (Atta laevigata and Atta sexdens) participated in the seed cleaning and occasionally dispersed seeds. The beetle Amblycerus insuturatus, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) and red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus) were considered pre-dispersal seed predators. The seeds manually cleaned presented higher germination rate (100%) and speed index (4.2 seeds.d-1) than that of seeds with pulp. Germination of seeds found in tapirs'feces was 40%, while for the seeds without pulp it was 25%. The high abundance of B. tomentosa in the cerrado of PESA may be due to massive fruit production, low rates of seed predation, and efficient seed dispersal by tapirs, occurring before the rains which promote germination and recruitment of this species.

  5. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-05-25

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade.

  6. Recycling of Different Available Organic Wastes through Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karmakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of organic wastes has been increased in an unprecedented rate in India with rapid population expansion, leading to disposal problems. These organic wastes can be converted into valuable wealth by applying vermicomposting technology. Vermicompost which provides macro and micro nutrients to the plants, also reduces pollution by providing a valuable substitute for chemical fertilizers. Present paper deals with vermicomposting of organic wastes from seven different sources and evaluation of nutrient in those vermicomposts following chemical analyses. These seven sources include coconut coir, water hyacinth, mixed materials, cabbage, banana pseudostem, cow dung, and rice husk. Three composting species of earthworms e.g. Eisenia. fetida, Eudrilus. eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus were chosen for the experiment. Chemical analysis of vermicomposts under study clearly showed that the vermicompost from water hyacinth contained maximum amount of organic C, total N, and total K though the phosphorous content was maximum in vermicompost from mixed materials. Lowest nutrient content was observed in vermicompost of coconut coir. Vermicomposts from mixed materials, cabbage, banana pseudostem were at per in their chemical properties. It can be concluded that among the seven sources, vermicompost from water hyacinth is best for its nutrient value.

  7. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo–Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to “hitchhikers” associated with the ornamental trade.

  8. The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saurabh; Maiti, Abhijit

    2017-01-16

    Water is a basic necessity of life, but due to overextraction and heavy input of nutrients from domestic and industrial sources, the contamination level of water bodies increase. In the last few decades, a potential interest has been aroused to treat wastewater by biological methodologies before discharge into the natural water bodies. Phytoremediation using water hyacinth is found to be an effective biological wastewater treatment method. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a notorious weed, being the most promising plant for removal of contaminants from wastewater is studied extensively in this regard. It has been successfully used to accumulate heavy metals, dyes, radionuclides, and other organic and inorganic contaminants from water at laboratory, pilot, and large scale. The plant materials are also being used as sorbent to separate the contaminant from water. Other than phytoremediation, the plant has been explored for various other purposes like ethanol production and generation of biogases and green manures. Such applications of this have been good support for the technocrats in controlling the growth of the plant. The present paper reviews the phytoremedial application of water hyacinth and its capability to remove contaminants in produced water and wastewater from domestic and isndustrial sources either used as a whole live plant grown in water or use of plant body parts as sorbent has been discussed.

  9. EFEKTIVITAS ECENG GONDOK (Echhornia crassipes DALAM PENYERAPAN KADMIUM (Cd PADA LEACHATE TPA GUNUNG TUGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lestari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is liquid of result organic garbage that contain substance is dissolved and suspension as decomposition by microorganism. Leachate contain material organic with high level and many formed at landfill with open dumping system. Material organic in leachate can be reduced by phytoremediation with water hyacinth (Echhornia crassipes. The aim of research are know large closure of water hyacinth, long residence time and the best interaction to reduce the levels of material organic in leachate. Method of research was designed experimental based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD with Factorial Design. The first factor are closing large percentage of water hyacinth (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% and the second factor are long residence time (4 days, 5 days and 6 days. Result of research showed that is closing large of 75% is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 29,279%. and long residence time of 6 days is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 27,211%. Interaction closing large of 75% and long residence time of 6 days is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 39,770%

  10. Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasrotia, Shivakshi; Kansal, Arun; Mehra, Aradhana

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte and microphyte for phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with high arsenic concentration. Water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) and two algae ( Chlorodesmis sp. and Cladophora sp.) found near arsenic-enriched water bodies were used to determine their tolerance toward arsenic and their effectiveness to uptake arsenic thereby reducing organic pollution in arsenic-enriched wastewater of different concentrations. Parameters like pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and arsenic concentration were monitored. The pH of wastewater during the course of phytoremediation remained constant in the range of 7.3-8.4, whereas COD reduced by 50-65 % in a period of 15 days. Cladophora sp. was found to survive up to an arsenic concentration of 6 mg/L, whereas water hyacinth and Chlorodesmis sp. could survive up to arsenic concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L, respectively. It was also found that during a retention period of 10 days under ambient temperature conditions, Cladophora sp. could bring down arsenic concentration from 6 to arsenic by 40-50 %; whereas, water hyacinth could reduce arsenic by only 20 %. Cladophora sp. is thus suitable for co-treatment of sewage and arsenic-enriched brine in an algal pond having a retention time of 10 days. The identified plant species provides a simple and cost-effective method for application in rural areas affected with arsenic problem. The treated water can be used for irrigation.

  11. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  12. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds.

  13. Polymorphic DNA microsatellite markers for forensic individual identification and parentage analyses of seven threatened species of parrots (family Psittacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The parrot family represents one of the bird group with the largest number of endangered species, as a result of habitat destruction and illegal trade. This illicit traffic involves the smuggling of eggs and animals, and the laundering through captive breeding facilities of wild-caught animals. Despite the huge potential of wildlife DNA forensics to determine with conclusive evidence illegal trade, current usage of DNA profiling approaches in parrots has been limited by the lack of suitable molecular markers specifically developed for the focal species and by low cross-species polymorphism. In this study, we isolated DNA microsatellite markers in seven parrot species threatened with extinction (Amazona brasiliensis, A. oratrix, A. pretrei, A. rhodocorytha, Anodorhynchus leari, Ara rubrogenys and Primolius couloni). From an enriched genomic library followed by 454 pyrosequencing, we characterized a total of 106 polymorphic microsatellite markers (mostly tetranucleotides) in the seven species and tested them across an average number of 19 individuals per species. The mean number of alleles per species and across loci varied from 6.4 to 8.3, with the mean observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.65 to 0.84. Identity and parentage exclusion probabilities were highly discriminatory. The high variability displayed by these microsatellite loci demonstrates their potential utility to perform individual genotyping and parentage analyses, in order to develop a DNA testing framework to determine illegal traffic in these threatened species. PMID:27688959

  14. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  15. HgL(3) XANES Study of Mercury Methylation in Shredded Eichhornia Crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, M.; Darrow, J.; Hua, M.; Barnett, B.; Mendoza, M.; Greenfield, B.K.; Andrews, J.C.

    2009-05-21

    Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) is a non-native plant found in abundance in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereafter called Delta). This species has become a problem, clogging waterways and wetlands. Water hyacinth are also known to accumulate mercury. Recent attempts to curb its proliferation have included shredding with specialized boats. The purpose of this research is to better understand the ability of water hyacinth to phytoremediate mercury and to determine the effect of shredding and anoxic conditions on mercury speciation in plant tissue. In the field assessment, total mercury levels in sediment from the Dow Wetlands in the Delta were found to be 0.273 {+-} 0.070 ppm Hg, and levels in hyacinth roots and shoots from this site were 1.17 {+-} 0.08 ppm and 1.03 {+-} 0.52 ppm, respectively, indicating bioaccumulation of mercury. Plant samples collected at this site were also grown in nutrient solution with 1 ppm HgCl{sub 2} under (1) aerobic conditions, (2) anaerobic conditions, and (3) with shredded plant material only. The greatest accumulation was found in the roots of whole plants. Plants grown in these conditions were also analyzed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory using Hg L{sub 3} X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), a method to examine speciation that is element-specific and noninvasive. Least-squares fitting of the XANES data to methylated and inorganic mercury(II) model compounds revealed that in plants grown live and aerobically, 5 {+-} 3% of the mercury was in the form of methylmercury, in a form similar to methylmercury cysteine. This percentage increased to 16 {+-} 4% in live plants grown anaerobically and to 22 {+-} 6% in shredded anaerobic plants. We conclude that shredding of the hyacinth plants and, in fact, subjection of plants to anaerobic conditions (e.g., as in normal decay, or in crowded growth conditions) increases mercury methylation. Mechanical removal of the entire plant is significantly more

  16. Genetic Diversity of 29 H yac inth Germplasm Resources Revealed by Using ISSR Markers%利用ISSR分子标记分析29个风信子品种的遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凤荣; 胡月苗; 王斐; 任翠

    2015-01-01

    现代栽培的所有园艺风信子都是由原种风信子(Hyacinth orientalis)培育驯化而来,其遗传基础相对较窄,但经过几个世纪栽培选育,已经发生很大变化。为研究风信子品种之间的遗传关系,本研究利用12条引物对29个风信子品种进行ISSR分子标记研究,扩增获得109条谱带,多态性条带有103条,占条带总数的94.5%,表明风信子具有较高的遗传多样性。29个风信子品种的遗传距离范围为0.0185~0.8201,平均遗传距离为0.4498。其中‘Atlantic’与‘Gipsy Queen’遗传距离最大为0.8201,亲缘关系最远‘;Blue star’与‘Delf Blue’遗传距离最小,两品种之间相似度较大,亲缘关系最近。使用软件NTSYS-pc (2.10e版)获得UPGMA聚类树形图,以相似系数0.635为阈值,29个风信子品种可聚为两大类。聚类分析发现相同色系的品种几乎聚为一类,说明同色系风信子品种亲缘关系较近。因此,在杂交育种时可选择不同花色的品种作亲本,进行新品种的选育。%All modern horticultural hyacinths are domesticated by the protospecies-Hyacinth orientalis. Though the protospecies have relatively narrow genetic basis, they have had great changes due to cultivation and breeding for centuries. In order to study the genetic relationship between varieties of hyacinth, 12 primers of ISSR molecular markers were used to analyze 29 species of H yac inth which generated 109 bands, including 103 polymorphism bands account for 94.5% of the total. Each pair of primers can amplify nine bands in average. The genetic distances among 29 Hyacinths orientalis were from 0.018 5 to 0.820 1 with the average of 0.449 8. There is the longest genetic distance of 0.820 1 between‘Atlantic’and‘Gipsy Queen’. Whereas between‘Blue star’and‘Delf Blue’being the shortest genetic distance. NTSYS-PC (Version 2.10e) was applied to UPGMA clustering analysis to construct the phylogenetic

  17. Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of neotropical parrots (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Arini) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Erika Sendra; Baker, Allan J; Pereira, Sérgio Luiz; Miyaki, Cristina Yumi

    2006-06-01

    Previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among Neotropical parrots were based on limited taxon sampling and lacked support for most internal nodes. In this study we increased the number of taxa (29 species belonging to 25 of the 30 genera) and gene sequences (6388 base pairs of RAG-1, cyt b, NADH2, ATPase 6, ATPase 8, COIII, 12S rDNA, and 16S rDNA) to obtain a stronger molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for this group of birds. Analyses of the combined gene sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a well-supported phylogeny and indicated that amazons and allies are a sister clade to macaws, conures, and relatives, and these two clades are in turn a sister group to parrotlets. Key morphological and behavioral characters used in previous classifications were mapped on the molecular tree and were phylogenetically uninformative. We estimated divergence times of taxa using the molecular tree and Bayesian and penalized likelihood methods that allow for rate variation in DNA substitutions among sites and taxa. Our estimates suggest that the Neotropical parrots shared a common ancestor with Australian parrots 59 Mya (million of years ago; 95% credibility interval (CrI) 66, 51 Mya), well before Australia separated from Antarctica and South America, implying that ancestral parrots were widespread in Gondwanaland. Thus, the divergence of Australian and Neotropical parrots could be attributed to vicariance. The three major clades of Neotropical parrots originated about 50 Mya (95% CrI 57, 41 Mya), coinciding with periods of higher sea level when both Antarctica and South America were fragmented with transcontinental seaways, and likely isolated the ancestors of modern Neotropical parrots in different regions in these continents. The correspondence between major paleoenvironmental changes in South America and the diversification of genera in the clade of amazons and allies between 46 and 16 Mya suggests they diversified exclusively in South

  18. The isolation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, transmission, and control of avian bornavirus and proventricular dilatation disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppes, Sharman; Gray, Patricia L; Payne, Susan; Shivaprasad, H L; Tizard, Ian

    2010-09-01

    Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a common infectious neurologic disease of birds comprising a dilatation of the proventriculus by ingested food as a result of defects in intestinal motility, which affects more than 50 species of psittacines, and is also known as Macaw wasting disease, neuropathic ganglioneuritis, or lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis. Definitive diagnosis of PDD has been problematic due to the inconsistent distribution of lesions. Since its discovery, avian bornavirus (ABV) has been successfully cultured from the brains of psittacines diagnosed with PDD, providing a source of antigen for serologic assays and nucleic acid for molecular assays. This article provides evidence that ABV is the etiologic agent of PDD. Recent findings on the transmission, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control of ABV infection and PDD are also reviewed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species.

  20. Diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds: a review II. Indications of radiological examination and radiographs of pathological lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregi, A; Molnár, V; Felkai, F; Bíró, F; Szentgáli, Z

    1999-01-01

    The second part of the review dealing with the diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds discusses the indications of radiological examination, the interpretation of radiographs taken of pathological lesions, and the differential diagnosis of such lesions. Radiology has paramount importance in the diagnosis of diseases affecting the skeletal, digestive, respiratory, urogenital and cardiovascular systems. Certain diseases (shortage of grits, ovarian cysts) cannot be recognized without radiography. Other conditions (e.g. Macaw Wasting Disease, renal tumours, egg retention) require this complementary diagnostic method for confirmation of a suspicion based upon the clinical signs. Radiographic examination is also indicated for follow-up of the surgical management of bone fractures and for facilitating the implantation of transponders aimed at individual identification of the birds.

  1. Genomic DNA isolation of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) from leaf and stipe tissue samples for PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanes, E C M; Nick, C; Kuki, K N; Freitas, R D; Motoike, S Y

    2013-09-23

    Macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata is an oleaginous species of the Arecaceae family; it has been identified as one of the most promising plants for sustainable production of renewable energy, especially biodiesel. We developed an efficient protocol of genomic DNA extraction for A. aculeata using leaf and stipe tissues, based on the cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide method, and we evaluated the quantity, purity, and integrity of the resultant DNA. We also determined whether these procedures interfere with PCR amplification using SSR molecular markers. The lowest concentration of DNA was obtained from stipe tissues (135 ng/μL), while fresh leaf tissues provided the highest concentration of DNA (650 ng/μL). Good quality DNA was obtained from fresh leaf, lyophilized leaf, and stipe tissues (relative purity, 1.79-1.89 nm). Differences in quantity and quality of DNA extracted from different tissues did not interfere with general patterns of PCR amplification based on SSR markers.

  2. Nuevos registros de aves para el Estado de México New records of birds for the State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Urbina-Torres

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se informa por primera vez sobre la presencia en el Estado de México del halcón guaco (Herpetotheres cachinnans, el halcón enano (Falco rufigularis, la guacamaya verde (Ara militaris, el cuclillo manglero (Coccyzus minor, la titira enmascarada (Tityra semifasciata y la golondrina sinaloense (Progne sinaloae. Estos registros fueron realizados en el Parque Natural Sierra Nanchititla. Ara militaris y P. sinaloae se encuentran clasificadas como especies en riesgo, de acuerdo con criterios nacionales e internacionales.We report for the first time the presence of Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans, Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis, Military Macaw (Ara militaris, Mangrove Cuckoo (Coccyzus minor, Masked Tityra (Tityra semifasciata, and Sinaloa Martin (Progne sinaloae in the State of México. These records were made in the Parque Natural Sierra Nanchititla. A. militaris and P. sinaloae are considered at risk in accordance with national and international criteria.

  3. Chlamydophila psittaci genotype E/B transmission from African grey parrots to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkinezhad, Taher; Verminnen, Kristel; Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2007-08-01

    Thirty-six birds from a parrot relief and breeding centre, as well as the manager, were examined for the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci. In the relief unit, 5 of 20 African grey parrots showed depression, ruffled feathers, loss of weight and mild dyspnoea. The birds received no antibiotic treatment. Birds of the breeding unit, 14 blue and gold macaws and 2 green-winged macaws, were healthy. They received doxycycline at the start of each breeding season. The manager complained of shortness of breath but took no medication. Using a nested PCR enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Cp. psittaci was detected in the faeces of all five sick birds, as well as in a nasal and pharyngeal swab from the manager. The veterinarian and her assistant became infected while sampling the parrots, as pharyngeal and nasal swabs from both were positive by nested PCR/EIA after visiting the parrot relief and breeding centre, but they showed no clinical signs of infection. Bacteria could be isolated from three of five nested PCR/EIA-positive birds, the manager and the veterinarian, but not from the veterinary assistant. Using an ompA genotype-specific real-time PCR, Cp. psittaci genotype E/B was identified as the transmitted strain. All breeding birds tested negative for Cp. psittaci. This is believed to be the first report on Cp. psittaci genotype E/B transmission from parrots to humans. In contradiction to genotype A strains, which are thought to be highly virulent to both birds and men, the currently described genotype E/B strain apparently caused no severe clinical symptoms in either parrots or humans.

  4. Nutritional and physical characteristics of commercial hand-feeding formulas for parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J; Dierenfeld, E S; Bailey, C A; Brightsmith, D J

    2013-01-01

    Hand-rearing is a common practice for the propagation of captive psittacines, however, research on their nutrition is limited and the requirements of growing chicks are not well understood. The nutrition of 15 commercially available parrot hand-feeding formulas was compared with the average content of the crops of free living Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) chicks, as well as with the requirements of 6- to 12-week-old leghorn chickens. When the formulas were prepared for a 1-week-old chick, all except three maintained >90% of solids in suspension after 15 min and >60 after 30 min. On average the formulas had a similar metabolizable energy density as wild macaw crop samples. The concentration of crude protein in the formulas was higher than that of the crop sample average, while the crude fat was lower than the average crop samples. More than 50% of the formulas had concentrations of K, Mg, and Mn less than the crop sample average, and Ca and Na concentrations below the requirements established for 6- to 12-week-old leghorn chickens. For >45% of the formulas the concentrations of arginine, leucine, and methionine + cystine were below the requirements of 6- to 12-week leghorns. When commercial formulas were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions, the different dilutions greatly magnified the nutritional differences among them. Overall, the inconsistency in the nutrient concentrations among the formulas suggests that there is no consensus among manufacturers of the correct nutrition for growing psittacines and the industry could benefit from continued research in this area.

  5. Study of Bokashi’s Type and Dosages to Growth and Harvest Yield Honey Dews (Cucumis Melo L. In Low Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amiroh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, most cultivation and planting of Melon (Cucumis melo L. by farmers using inorganic fertilizers with an excessive dosage, and this causes the lowland productivity decrease with consequent. The soil organic matter decreased as low as time increasing. Application and using of mature organic matter are an alternative to solve these problems in order the lowland become more conducive and productive for growth of melon. But increasing pests and diseases attaching to the plants may caused by adding immature organic matters into soil. Sources to make bokashi like as paddy straw and water hyacinth is immense but it’s not yet used. This research was aimed to study, know and usage of paddy straw and water hyacinth bokashi’s on melon growing at lowland. Experiment was conducted at Lowland Experiment Station of Agricultural Faculty, Brawijaya, in Jatikerto Village, Kromengan Distric, Malang, from April-June 2015. Experiment was applied in a Randomized Block Design (RBD with double factors Types and Dosages of Bokashis. There is seven combinations of treatment with three replications, each treatment consisted four individual plants. Result showed there is significant difference between types and dosages of bokashi on plant length at 28, 35, 42 dan 49 days after planting (d,a,p respectively. The significant difference between treatment also shown by leaf area at 28 - 49 (d.a.p.. Application of paddy straw bokashi was better than hyacinth bokashi on melon growth. The best yield shows that by using paddy straw bokashi with 5 ton/ha of dosage gives melon with 2,56 kg /plant fresh weight.

  6. PEMANFAATAN ECENG GONDOK (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (MART. SOLMS. DALAM PENYISIHAN LOGAM BERAT CHROM (CR PADA LIMBAH ELEKTROPLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumiyati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Effluent that is produce by the electroplating industry, especially nickel chrome plating, contains chromemetal that is carcinogenic. The toxicities from chrome are caused by its ability to dissolve and it’s mobilityin the environment. An alternative treatment to reduce chrome is called fitoremediasi which uses plants asits indicator; in this case we use water hyacinth.At the preface experiment, we tried to plant mature water hyacinth in electroplating waste. First we tried toplant in 100% waste water in witch we repeated it 3 times. At the 3rd week; day 18; the plants becameyellowish and became wilted. Knowing this fact, we applied the time for our experiment the we were goingto executed, with assuming at the 18th day the plants will become wilted as an indicator that the waterhyacinth are saturated in adsorbing chrome as the heavy metal pollutant. This became the parameter indesigning the time treatment for the plant zone, 4 until 15 days.The treatment was done by making variation in the amount of plants that are planted, which was 0 plants(as the control, 1 plant, 2 plants, 3 plants, and 4 plants; with 3 times repeating at each stage. The result ofthis experiment after 18 days shows the chrome concentration and the efficiently in decreasing theconcentration on each stage. The highest efficiently for each plant was the treatment by 1 plant only. Thehighest efficiently in decreasing the concentration was 78,95% ad it was done by the treatment with 4plants. To get chrom concentration which is fill with the standard, we can add more water hyacinth into thewaste with the balance equivalent or we need the lower beginning concentration.

  7. Rhizobia Indigenous to the Okavango Region in Sub-Saharan Africa: Diversity, Adaptations, and Host Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönemeyer, Jann L; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Berkelmann, Dirk; Hurek, Thomas; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    The rhizobial community indigenous to the Okavango region has not yet been characterized. The isolation of indigenous rhizobia can provide a basis for the formulation of a rhizobial inoculant. Moreover, their identification and characterization contribute to the general understanding of species distribution and ecology. Isolates were obtained from nodules of local varieties of the pulses cowpea, Bambara groundnut, peanut, hyacinth bean, and common bean. Ninety-one of them were identified by BOX repetitive element PCR (BOX-PCR) and sequence analyses of the 16S-23S rRNA internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and the recA, glnII, rpoB, and nifH genes. A striking geographical distribution was observed. Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi dominated at sampling sites in Angola which were characterized by acid soils and a semihumid climate. Isolates from the semiarid sampling sites in Namibia were more diverse, with most of them being related to Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and Bradyrhizobium daqingense. Host plant specificity was observed only for hyacinth bean, which was nodulated by rhizobia presumably representing yet-undescribed species. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized with respect to their adaptation to high temperatures, drought, and local host plants. The adaptation experiments revealed that the Namibian isolates shared an exceptionally high temperature tolerance, but none of the isolates showed considerable adaptation to drought. Moreover, the isolates' performance on different local hosts showed variable results, with most Namibian isolates inducing better nodulation on peanut and hyacinth bean than the Angolan strains. The local predominance of distinct genotypes implies that indigenous strains may exhibit a better performance in inoculant formulations.

  8. Assessment of Hydroponically Grown Macrophytes for Their Suitability as Fish Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot's feather plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater at two retention times. During the experiment, the aquatic plants grew rapidly in the hydroponics system and appeared healthy with green color. At hydraulic retention times (HRTs of 6 and 12 days, the average water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot's feather yields were 83, 51 and 51 g (dm m-2 and 49, 29 and 22 g (dm m-2, respectively. The aquatic plants were able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO43--P reductions ranged from 21.4 to 48.0%, from 71.1 to 89.5%, from 55.9 to 76.0%, from 49.6 to 90.6%, from 34.5 to 54.4% and from 64.5 to 76.8%, respectively. Generally, the reductions increased with longer retention times and were highest in compartments containing water hyacinth followed by compartments containing water lettuce and parrot's feather. The nutritive value of the three wastewater grown plants was assessed to determine the suitability of using the plants as a component in fish feed. The three wastewater grown plants did not contain sufficient amounts of protein and fat to meet the dietary requirements of fish and shellfish. They also contained high concentrations of K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn, which can lead to reduced feed intake, weight gain and growth rates in fish and shellfish.

  9. 芥川龍之介の植物世界 : 感応する植物・植物への変容

    OpenAIRE

    西川, 正二

    2012-01-01

    Ryunosuke Akutagwa loved plants. He loved to have flowers in his room, such as carnations or hyacinths in a vase or Christmas roses in a pot. He not only made haiku and waka about various flowers but also referred to a variety of plants in his letters, travel writings, and other works. His unrequited love was always expressed by flowers in waka. In the Kuzumaki Archive there are numerous fragments of writings classified as "Plants notes" or "Plant myths notes" which show his interest in plant...

  10. 微笑的海伦

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米娅塔

    2007-01-01

    @@ 美国诗人E·爱伦·坡在诗作"To Helen"(1831)中曾写下这样的诗句:"Thy hyacinth hair thy classic face/Thy Naiad airs have brought me home/To the glory that was Greece/And the grandeur that was Rome(你风信子般的发丝.典雅的面庞.水中女神般的风姿.将我带回荣耀的古希腊和恢宏的古罗马)".

  11. A preliminary study of the feasibility of detecting the floating macrophytes by means of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping the floating macrophytes (mostly water hyacinth: (Eichornia crassipes) in the Salto Grande reservoir in Americana, SP, by means of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data is described. The area occupied by the macrophytes was extracted by exclusion after the merging of two thematic masks representing the area of vegetation free water surface. One of the masks was obtained from a date when the vegetal cover is insignificant, while the other represents a large infestation episode. The utilization of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data techniques for the documentation of macrophytes infestation is feasible only when the phenomenon occurs in large areas.

  12. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  13. Historical Standing Structure Investigation of the Souris River Basin Project Rural Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-17

    to Hugh and Hyacinth Patterson, April 20, 1957, DB 73, p. 21; H.J. and JoAnn Patterson to Burton and Marilyn A. Hulton, July 19, 1977, DB 208, p. 372...Patterson, April 20, 1957, DB 73, p. 21; H.J. and JoAnn Patterson to Burton and Marilyn A. Hulton, July 19, 1977, DB 208, p. 372, McHenry County Clerk...Lee, DB 97, p. 640, McHenry County Clerk and Recorder’s Office. 3 4Albert T. Lee to Dalton Monroe Ashley, DB 140, p. 287, McHenry County Clerk anC

  14. Modeling and analysis of biomass production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishoe, J.W.; Lorber, M.N.; Peart, R.M.; Fluck, R.C.; Jones, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    BIOMET is an interactive simulation model that is used to analyze specific biomass and methane production systems. The system model is composed of crop growth models, harvesting, transportation, conversion and economic submodels. By use of menus the users can configure the structure and set selected parameters of the system to analyze the effects of variables within the component models. For example, simulations of a water hyacinth system resulted in yields of 63, 48 and 37 mg/ha/year for different harvest schedules. For napier grass, unit methane costs were $3.04, $2.86 and $2.98 for various yields of biomass. 10 references.

  15. Replacement of cowdung by fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use as fuel, fertilizer and biogas plant feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R.; Ghatnekar, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    With 85% of the entire Indian population living in villages and 98% of the household energy requirement of the rural population demanded for cooking, research was undertaken on the supply of biomass for those Indians who do not have cattle. This research was carried out on the fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use in biogas generation. The plants utilized for biogas generation are: water hyacinth, water lettuce, African payal, duck weed, water spinach, cattail ramban, ipil-ipil, morning glory, paragrass, purple nutsedge, and durva grass.

  16. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  17. Energy from aquatic plant wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemma sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 days to an average of 23 days and produced 0.14-0.28 cu m CH4/kg (dry weight) (2.3-4.5 cu ft/lb) from mature filters. The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimum balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  18. Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass through pretreatment with plasma electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Chen, Li; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Zongcheng

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive research on plasma electrolysis as pretreatment method for water hyacinth (WH) was performed based on lignin content, crystalline structure, surface property, and enzymatic hydrolysis. A large number of active particles, such as HO and H2O2, generated by plasma electrolysis could decompose the lignin of the biomass samples and reduce the crystalline index. An efficient pretreatment process made use of WH pretreated at a load of 48 wt% (0.15-0.18 mm) in FeCl3 solution for 30 min at 450 V. After the pretreatment, the sugar yield of WH was increased by 126.5% as compared with unpretreated samples.

  19. Phytodepuration plant for the treatment of domestic waste water - realized in a hotel. La fitodepurazione degli effluenti domestici - il caso di una struttura alberghiera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, M.

    1982-12-01

    The processes and the parameters which cause eutrophization of a water system are reported. In addition, the advantage of a phytodepuration plant with respect to conventional plants for the treatment of waste waters are listed. In this paper the phytodepuration plant for the treatment of domestic waste water is described which was by ENEA during 1980 and 1981 in collaboration with the Grand Hotel S. Michele in Cetraro (Italy). The plant utilizes the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a biological filter. The results so far obtained suggest the convenience of the phytodepuration system for touristic village, camping or industries which are operating during the summer time.

  20. Wastewater treatment of chemical laboratory using electro assisted-phytoremediation (EAPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Rudy Syah; Trahadinata, Gilang Ahmad; Latif, Arif; Solehudin, Mochamad

    2017-03-01

    The EAPR process using water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) on the wastewater treatment of chemical laboratory had been evaluated. The purpose of the EAPR process was to decrease the BOD, COD and heavy metal concentration in the wastewater. The effectiveness of the process on the wastewater treatment was evaluated using COD, BOD, and heavy metal (Pb, Cu) concentration, respectively. The result showed that the EAPR process decrease the COD, BOD, Pb and Cu in the 4 h of EAPR process. Those concentrations were met the water quality standard of class IV according to government regulation No. 82/2001 regarding the water quality management and water pollution control of the Republic of Indonesia.

  1. The Comparative Evaluation of the Performance of Two Phytoremediation Systems for Domestic Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipour, A; Azizi, Sh; Raman, V K; Jamshidi, S; Hamnabard, N

    2014-07-01

    The constructed wetlands as well engineered techniques have been used effectively for phytoremediation of wastewater and pollution control during the last decades. In these technologies, the naturally occurring processes of plants alongside micro-organisms present in the bio-film attached to the roots, soil substrate and water column degrade the organic pollutants. The study seeks to compare the potential use of Phragmites sp. reed bed and floating macrophyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) system for domestic wastewater treatment. The sewage treatment performance is evaluated as 80% & 76% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 90% & 87% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 24% & 18% total dissolved solids (TDS), 69% & 67% total suspended solids (TSS), 12% & 5% Chlorides, 73% & 69% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 42% & 31% phosphate (PO4-P), 93% & 91% most probable number (MPN) and 95% & 92% total viable count (TVC) reduction at optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 & 43 h in Phragmites sp. and water hyacinth systems, respectively. Likewise, the floating macrophyte pond contrary to reed bed process shows insignificant pollutant diminution at 24 h HRT. This paper also highlights the microbial population present through the wetland systems by estimation of total viable count (TVC). The botanical aspect with reference to the plant growth is shown a significant increase in vegetation yield. The overall studies indicate the better treatment efficiency by preferred Phragmites sp. root zone system at low foot print area for domestic wastewater.

  2. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  3. Modeling Heavy Metal Sorption Kinetics Using Fractional Calculus

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    V. C. Friesen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are commonly regarded as environmentally aggressive and hazardous to human health. Among the different metals, lead plays an important economic role due to its large use in the automotive industry, being an essential component of batteries. Different approaches have been reported in the literature aimed at lead removal, and among them a very successful one considers the use of water hyacinths for sorption-based operation. The modeling of the metal sorption kinetics is a fundamental step towards in-depth studies and proper separation equipment design and optimization. Fractional calculus represents a novel approach and a growing research field for process modeling, which is based on the successful use of derivatives of arbitrary order. This paper reports the modeling of the kinetics of lead sorption by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes using a fractional calculus. A general procedure on error analysis is also employed to prove the actual fractional nature of the proposed model by the use of parametric variance analysis, which was carried out using two different approaches (with the complete Hessian matrix and with a simplified Hessian matrix. The joint parameter confidence regions were generated, allowing to successfully show the fractional nature of the model and the sorption process.

  4. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with macrophyte habitats in a tropical man-made lake (Lake Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

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    Kouamé M. K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study was done on Lake Taabo with the main objective of characterising macroinvertebrate communities associated with the microhabitats created mainly by Eichhornia crassipes and other littoral native macrophytes. We sampled organisms in patches of those aquatic macrophytes. Also, some abiotic variables (temperature, transparency, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NH$_{4}^{+}$+4, NO$_{3}^{-}$−3, NO$_{2}^{-}$−2, PO$_{4}^{3-}$3−4 and SiO$_{2}^{-}$−2 were measured. Overall, forty-three taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Ten of them were exclusively associated with water hyacinth while five were only associated with littoral macrophytes. Macroinvertebrate taxa with some of the highest family richness were Gastropoda, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Odonata and Diptera. The taxon with highest density in both microhabitats was Chironomidae. Although higher values of taxonomic richness (Rs, the Shannon index (H′ and evenness (J were obtained with the water hyacinth habitat, significant differences between the two microhabitats were not observed. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that samples of E. crassipes collected in the dry season were characterised by Gastropoda and Odonata, as well as higher values of transparency and ammonia-nitrogen. Baetidae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Coenagrionidae, Naucoridae and Ostracoda were most abundant in both E. crassipes and littoral macrophyte habitats during the rainy season. This season was characterised by higher levels of nitrates and conductivity.

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of aquatic plants to bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S.; Fu, H.; Chen, J. [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of producing bio-oils from aquatic plants by hydrothermal liquefaction using 2 typical aquatic plants as feedstocks, notably Enteromorpha prolifera and water hyacinth which are typical aquatic plants found in seawater and freshwater. Bio-oil production from these 2 feedstocks was studied in a batch reactor at controlled temperatures under an initial partial pressure of 2.0 MPa N2. The effects of temperature and reaction time on the liquefaction products yields were also studied. GC-MS and elemental analysis were carried out to analyze the composition of bio-oils. The bio-oil produced from Enteromorpha prolifera contained mainly fatty acids, esters and quite a few heterocyclic compounds. Phenols and their derivatives were found to be the main compounds in bio-oils produced from water hyacinth. An elemental analysis revealed that bio-oils produced from the 2 aquatic plants have higher energy density. It was concluded that the use of aquatic plants as feedstock for liquid fuel can contribute to environmental protection and sustainable energy development by reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Remoção do Corante Têxtil Turquesa de Remazol Empregando Aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes como Adsorvente

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    Carlos Alexandre Holanda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the efficient removal of Remazol Turquoise textile dye onto water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes from aqueous solutions was investigated by batch method. The water hyacinth was collected, washed, dried, crushed and treated with a 0,25 mol L-1 HNO3, at 50 °C and by 24 h. Parameters such as pHpzc, pH effect, contact time and temperature were considered. The kinetic and adsorption data were analyzed by using the Lagergren, Ho, Zeldowitsch (Elovich, and Weber-Morris models, and Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and multilayers isotherm models, respectively. The best fitting modeling were Ho (50 mg L-1, Elovich (1000 mg L-1 and Sips. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔHads, ΔSads and ΔGads and desorption tests showed that adsorption mechanism is dependent on several adsorbate/surface interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i2.622

  7. [Detection of psittacid herpesvirus 1 in Amazon parrots with cloacal papilloma (internal papillomatosis of parrots, IPP) in an aviary of different psittacine species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Marko; Kothe, Ruth; Rautenschlein, Silke; Kummerfeld, Norbert

    2008-12-01

    Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva;Amazona ochrocephala, n=6) from an aviary with different psittacine species (n=100) were submitted to the Clinic for Pet Animals, Reptiles, Pet- and Wild birds with the clinical picture ofa cloacal prolaps. The cloacal mucosa showed papillomas, and internal papillomatosis of parrots (IPP) was suspected. Hepatomegaly was detected in the radiographs of the clinically diseased amazon parrots, indicating the involvement of the liver in the disease process. The cloacal area was enlarged and showed higher densities in the radiographic picture. One of the amazons had an increased level of bile acids in the plasma supporting the suspicion of the involvement of the liver. Macroscopical and histological investigation of amazons with cloacal prolaps revealed a papillomic adenoma of the cloacal mucosa accompanied by varying degrees of bile duct carcinomas in the liver and adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. Herpesvirus genome was detected by nested PCR in cloacal swabs, liver, and cloacal tissue samples. Sequencing of part of the herpesvirus DNA-polymerase gene indicated 95% homology of the detected herpesviruses with the Psittacid Herpesvirus (PsHV) 1. No cytopathic herpesvirus was recovered from cloacal swabs and liver samples after up to four passages in chicken embryofibroblast cultures. Cloacal and choanal swabs, which were taken from the remaining 47 healthy amazon parrots and 5 Green-winged Macaws (Ara chloroptera) of the aviary, were negative for herpesvirus in the nested PCR. Only birds with cloacal papillomas and the Green-winged Macaws were tested positive for herpesvirus DNA in the nested PCR. We may speculate that there is correlation between the infection with PsHV-1 and the development of cloacal adenomas, adenocarcinomas in the pancreas and carcinomas of the bile ducts. Our results indicate that there may be a higher susceptibility in certain amazon species, while other species may not get infected even if housed in close

  8. Germinação de embriões e crescimento inicial in vitro de macaúba Germination and early growth of embryos of macaúba seedlings

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    Joyce Dória Rodrigues Soares

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A macaúba é uma palmeira oleaginosa altamente produtiva e seu óleo pode ser usado na produção de biocombustíveis. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a influência de concentrações dos sais do meio de cultura MS e de água de coco na germinação in vitro de embriões zigóticos de macaúba e no crescimento inicial de plântulas. Os embriões foram excisados e em seguida inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo 15mL de meio de cultura MS nas concentrações de 50 e 100% de sais minerais, acrescidos de água de coco (0, 50, 100 e 150mL L-1. As culturas foram mantidas em sala de crescimento com irradiância em torno de 42W m-2, temperatura de 25±2°C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Maior porcentagem de germinação de embriões de macaúba foi obtida aos 60 dias, em meio MS, na concentração original dos sais. O crescimento e a conversão de plântulas viáveis ou normais, passíveis de serem aclimatizadas, requerem metade da concentração de sais do meio MS suplementado com 50mL L-1 de água de coco.The macaw is a palm oleaginous that it is highly productive and in which their oil can be used to produce biofuels.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of minerals of the culture medium MS and coconut water germination in vitro of zygotic embryos of macaw and initial growth of seedlings. The embryos were inoculated in test tubes containing 15mL of culture medium MS in concentrations of 50 and 100% of minerals, plus coconut water (0, 50, 100 and 150mL L-1. The cultures were kept in room for growth with irradiance around 42W m-2, at 25±2°C and photoperiod of 16 hours. Higher percentage of germination of embryos of 'macaúba' was obtained at 60 days in MS medium in the original concentration of salts. The growth and conversion to viable seedlings or normal, which can be acclimatized, require half the concentration of salts of MS medium supplemented with 50mL L-1 coconut water.

  9. Utilization of Waste Materials for the Treatment of Waste Water Contaminated with Sulphamethoxazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Lisha

    2014-01-01

    The activities were carried out to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of hazardous antibacterial, Sulphamethoxazole from the wastewater by adsorption technique. The selection of this method was done because of its economic viability. The method has the potency of eradicating the perilous chemicals which make their appearance in water and directly or indirectly into the whole biological system, through the ejection of effluents by the industries in flowing water. The adsorption technique was used to impound the precarious antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya an agricultural waste and Water Hyacinth a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10% to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents i.e. Deoiled Soya, Alkali treated Deoiled Soya, Water Hyacinth and Alkali treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Deoiled Soya (DOS) showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali treated Deoiled Soya (ADOS) exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 to 12 kJ/mol which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Various kinetic studies like order of reaction, mass transfer studies, mechanism of diffusion were also performed for the ongoing processes. The mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90% to 98%. Moreover the

  10. Molecular Diagnosis of Beak and Feather Disease in Native Brazilian Psittacines

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    AV Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The incidence of the psittacine beak and feather disease virus (BFDV was investigated in Brazilian native parrots with normal feathering arriving at rescue and triage centers for wild animals (CETAS, IBAMA in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. BFDV DNA was investigated by previously described PCR technique for the partial amplification of BFDV ORF-1 in DNA extracts from blood, cloacal swab or liver of psittacines. Some birds provided more than one sample. Nine species of psittacines were sampled between January 2009 and October 2010. Blood (n=46 or cloacal swab (n=128 samples were obtained from psittacines immediately upon arrival at the triage centers. Liver samples were collected from necropsied birds dead on arrival (n=167. All swab samples were negative, except for one Ara ararauna individual (n=3 which blood presented the BFDV DNA. On the other hand, 11 liver samples were positive for BFDV DNA, with a prevalence of 7.8% in Amazona aestiva (n=140. No BFDV DNA was detected in the liver of Amazona amazonica (n=11, A. vinacea (n=5, A. rhodochorytha (n=4, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (n=3, Ara ararauna, (n=3, Aratinga leucophtalma (n=2, Guarouba guarouba (n=1 and Pionus maximiliani (n=1. In most cases, alopecia was not associated with BFDV detection in liver, and liver histopathology was inconclusive. Although all cloacal swab samples were negative, a few psittacines (n=19 that died at CETAS-Belo Horizonte were retested, and 21% were detected as positive in liver. A group of psittacines (n=16 was clinically evaluated, and despite showing feather dystrophy, all birds were negative in the cloacal swabs, except for one, which blood sample was positive (A. ararauna. The obtained sequences of the BFDV strains BH 215 and BH 732 were deposited in the GenBank (JQ649409 and JQ649410. A 98% similarity with strain sequences described in Australia, Japan, and New Zealand was observed. It is possible that these strains arrived in Brazil through the

  11. The North Atlantic Oscillation system and plant phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Zdenek

    2016-05-01

    The onset of flowering in 78 wild and domesticated terrestrial plant species recorded in South Moravia (Czech Republic) from 1965 to 2014 was correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the preceding winter. Flowering occurred significantly earlier following positive winter NAO phases (causing spring to be warmer than normal in Central Europe) in nearly all early-flowering (March, April) species; high Pearson correlation values were recorded in, e.g., goat willow, spring snowflake, golden bell, cornelian cherry, sweet violet, cherry plum, grape hyacinth, apricot, blackthorn, common dandelion, cherry, southern magnolia, common apple, cuckoo flower, European bird cherry, and cherry laurel. In contrast, the timing of later-flowering plant species (May to July) did not correlate significantly with the winter NAO index. It was found that local temperature is obviously a proximate factor of plant phenology, while the winter NAO is the ultimate factor, affecting temperature and other meteorological phenomena in Central Europe during spring season.

  12. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic needs. Progress report, May 1, 1979-December 15, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J H

    1980-01-01

    Progress for the period May 1979 to December 1979 is reported in the following subject areas: (1) the ORCA clone of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvakiae has now been grown continuously in tank culture for two years; (2) studies were continued on the culture of freshwater plants such as water hyacinth, pennywort, water lettuce, and duckweed; (3) the loss of water from evapotranspiration of freshwater plants was measured and compared with water loss from evaporation from open water; and (4) experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of recycling the chemicals left in the solid and liquid residues following anaerobic digestion and methane production as a source of nutrients for new plant production. (ACR)

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CINÉTICA DE ADSORCIÓN DE Zn2+ Y Cd2+ A PARTIR DE SOLUCIONES UNITARIAS Y BINARIAS POR RAÍCES DE Eichhornia crassipes Y Typha latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the kinetic modeling of adsorption of Zn 2+ and Cd2+ in roots of Typha latifolia (cattail and Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth were evaluated. The study was done using solutions containing one or both ions. The experiments were performed using carbon paste electrodes modified with the roots. The model that best describes the kinetics of both ions in the two roots is the pseudo second order’s one. We also determined that both ions accumulate faster and in greater amounts on Eichhornia crassipes. Indeed, according to potentiometric titration and infrared spectra Fourier transformation, the number of adsorption sites is higher in this root. In the same manner, it was shown that both roots accumulate more Cd 2+ than Zn2+, and when the adsorption is made from a mixture, cadmium inhibits the accumulation of zinc.

  14. Antagonism of local isolates of Trichoderna spp.on citrus root rot disease by Fusarium solani in the mekong delta of vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duong Minh; Jozef Coosemans; Le Lam Cuong; Ester Vandersmissen; Pham Van Kim

    2004-01-01

    @@ The local isolates of Trichoderrma spp. and Fusariun solani were colected from citrus orchards in the Mekong delta of Vietnam and isolated on PDA, PDB and TSM medium for antagonism and Koch's postulate testing. The results showed that the high chitinolytic enzymes content of Trichoderma isolates can antagonise with Fusarium solani isolates by preventing the germination of Fusarium macroconidia in in-vitro condition. There are five promising isolates of Trichoderna spp. having high antagonism with Fusarium solani. These Trichoderma isolates also grew well in rice straws, maize stems, weeds and water hyacinth biowaste materials. These results supply the promising trend for biological control of root rot disease on citrus orchards of the Mekong delta.

  15. Energy conservation in forcing bulb flowers by means of temperature integration; Energiebesparing bij de broeierij van bolbloemen door temperatuurintegratie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.

    2006-03-15

    The options of Temperature Integration (TI) have been described for application in heating tulips, hyacinths and daffodils. The tolerance levels of the crops for increasing the day temperature and lowering the night temperature has been examined. In the first year, tests were conducted under fully conditioned circumstances in climate cabinets; in the second year tests were done in cabinets and greenhouses; in the third year only in the greenhouse. The tests are described in chronological order per crop [Dutch] De mogelijkheden van Temperatuur Integratie (TI) zijn beschreven voor toepassing in de broeierij van tulp, hyacint en narcis. De tolerantie van de gewassen voor verhogingen van de dagtemperatuur en verlagingen van de nachttemperatuur is vastgesteld. In het eerste jaar zijn de proeven onder volledig geconditioneerde omstandigheden in klimaatkasten uitgevoerd, in het tweede jaar in klimaatkasten en kas en in het derde jaar alleen in de kas. De proeven worden chronologisch per gewas beschreven.

  16. Remoção de compostos fenólicos de soluções aquosas utilizando carvão ativado preparado a partir do aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes: estudo cinético e de equilíbrio termodinâmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was produced from the water hyacinth (CAA by impregnation with ZnCl2 (1:2, followed by pyrolysis at 700 ºC, under N2. CAA was used for the adsorption of phenol, m-cresol and o-cresol from aqueous solutions, using batch adsorption. The effects of contact time, pH, temperature and concentration on sorption were investigated. Adsorption capacity, calculated using the Langmuir model proved to be dependent on temperature, reaching values of 163.7, 130.2 and 142.3 mg g-1 for phenol, m-cresol and o-cresol, respectively, at 45 ºC. Thermodynamic data at the solid-liquid interface suggests an endothermic, spontaneous and environmentally-friendly process.

  17. CONTEMPORARY USAGE OF TRADITIONAL TURKISH MOTIFS IN PRODUCT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Gumuser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the traditional Turkish motifs and its relations among present industrial designs. Traditional Turkish motifs played a very important role in 16th century onwards. The arts of the Ottoman Empire were used because of their symbolic meanings and unique styles. When we examine these motifs we encounter; Tiger Stripe, Three Spot (Çintemani, Rumi, Hatayi, Penç, Cloud, Crescent, Star, Crown, Hyacinth, Tulip and Carnation motifs. Nowadays, Turkish designers have begun to use these traditional Turkish motifs in their designs so as to create differences and awareness in the world design. The examples of these industrial designs, using the Turkish motifs, have survived and have Ottoman heritage and historical value. In this study, the Turkish motifs will be examined along with their focus on contemporary Turkish industrial designs used today.

  18. Associated Fauna to Eichhornia crassipes in a Constructed Wetland for Aquaculture Effluent Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipaúba-Tavares Lúcia Helena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water, sediment and associated fauna were studied in a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes stand of a constructed wetland, used for aquaculture effluent treatment in SE Brazil, in February-April (summer/rainy season and July-September (winter/dry season. The hydrological regime and decomposition processes had strong impact on the wetland water quality and on the associated fauna composition. Protozoa and Rotifera were at high densities, mainly in the dry season. Vorticella sp. was the dominant species in both seasons. Zooplankton richness, evenness and diversity were high during both seasons, with higher levels during the rainy season. Protozoa diversity and evenness were higher in the dry season when the water volume was lower. Maximum plant residence time in this wetland should be about 60 days.

  19. Mycoherbicidal Potential of Phaeoacremonium italicum, A New Pathogen of Eichhornia crassipes Infesting Harike Wetland, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Birinderjit; Saxena, Sanjai; Meshram, Vineet; Kumar, Maneek

    2016-06-01

    Mycoherbicides are exclusive biotechnology products which offer a non-chemical solution to control noxious weeds on the land as well as aquatic in systems, viz a viz saving environment from hazardous impact of synthetic chemicals. The present paper highlights the mycobiota associated with Eichhornia crassipes infesting Harike wetland area of Punjab and evaluation of their pathogenic potential for futuristic application as a mycoherbicide. Of the 20 isolates tested by leaf detached assay and whole plant bioassays, only one isolate (#8 BJSSL) caused 100% damage to E. crassipes. Further, the culture filtrate of this isolate also exhibited a similar damage to the leaves in an in vitro detached leaf assay. The potential isolate was identified as Phaeoacremonium italicum using classical and modern molecular methods. This is the first report of P. italicum as a pathogen of E. crassipes and of its potential use as a biological control agent for the management of water hyacinth.

  20. Analysis of utilization technologies for Eichhornia crassipes biomass harvested after restoration of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Xiao, Kai; Zhou, Wenbing; Zhu, Duanwei; Zhou, Yiyong; Yuan, Yu; Xiao, Naidong; Wan, Xiaoqiong; Hua, Yumei; Zhao, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes (EC, water hyacinth) has gained attention due to its alarming reproductive capacity, which subsequently leads to serious ecological damage of water in many eutrophic lakes in the world. The traditional mechanical removal methods have disadvantages. They squander this valuable lignocellulosic resource. Meanwhile, there is a bottleneck for the subsequently reasonable and efficient utilization of EC biomass on a large scale after phytoremediation of polluted water using EC. As a result, the exploration of effective EC utilization technologies has become a popular research field. After years of exploration and amelioration, there have been significant breakthroughs in this research area, including the synthesis of excellent EC cellulose-derived materials, innovative bioenergy production, etc. This review organizes the research of the utilization of the EC biomass among several important fields and then analyses the advantages and disadvantages for each pathway. Finally, comprehensive EC utilization technologies are proposed as a reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methane from biomass and waste. Annual report for 1984. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The report summarizes the research conducted in several projects by a wide array of faculty at the University of Florida, researching the production of methane from biomass and waste. Growth and yield data on a wide variety of plant species and varieties in eight plant resource groups are reported on promising species selected from extensive screening trials of over 150 species. Focused intensive research results are summarized for water hyacinth and Napier grass--model species showing yields in excess of 20 dry tons/acre/year. Over 1000 samples were bioassayed for methane yields and the variables affecting conversion to methane were defined. Methanogenesis results covering the spectrum from factors of cellular biology to operating parameters for large digesters. Results emphasize the multiphase Anaerobic Digestion System (MADS) an innovative design that employs leached/packed beds. A comprehensive information management system and an integrated methane form biomass system model (BIOMET) used for research evaluation and program management are described.

  2. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis.

  3. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  4. The biological control of aquatic weeds in South Africa: Current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Hill

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems in South Africa are prone to invasion by several invasive alien aquatic weeds, most notably, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laub. (Pontederiaceae (water hyacinth; Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae (water lettuce; Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitch. (Salviniaceae (salvinia; Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell. Conc. Verd. (parrot’s feather; and Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae (red water fern. Objective: We review the biological control programme on waterweeds in South Africa. Results: Our review shows significant reductions in the extent of invasions, and a return on biodiversity and socio-economic benefits through the use of this method. These studies provide justification for the control of widespread and emerging freshwater invasive alien aquatic weeds in South Africa. Conclusions: The long-term management of alien aquatic vegetation relies on the correct implementation of biological control for those species already in the country and the prevention of other species entering South Africa.

  5. Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

  6. Remote sensing analysis of Lake Livingston aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, A. R., Jr.; Newman, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results obtained during 1975 to monitor the growth of aquatic plants in the Lake Livingston area, using remote sensing photographic imagery, were described. Sequential total coverage was provided of the Jungle and White Rock Creek, plus coverage of smaller areas of localized infestation downlake, including Brushy Creek, KOA Kampground Marina, Penwaugh Slough, Memorial Point Marina, the Beacon Bay marinas and Pine Island. The imagery was generally good, photographic exposure being increased as the season progressed in order to obtain better pictures of the submerged vegetation. Some very significant differences in growth patterns, species interaction, and species dominance were observed when compared to 1974. Observation of the following plants was discussed: water hyacinth, hydrilla, coontail, potamageton. In general, the level of infestation was lower in 1975 than in 1974, due to the combined effect of more systematic application of herbicides and harsher intervening winter weather conditions.

  7. Onsite Greywater Treatment using Pilot Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor-ul-Haq Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed, Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solids, pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen. Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8

  8. The growth and flowering of Hyacinthus orientalis L. Forced in pots under fluorescent light of different colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmigielska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three hyacinth cultivars were forced under fluorescent lamps which emitted white, blue, green, yellow and red light. The plants started flowering in the first decade of February. The forcing period for two cultivars, ‘Anna Marie’ and ‘Blue Star’, was shortest under lamps emitting red light. The cultivar ‘White Pearl’ flowered equally early under lamps emitting red, white and blue light. The impact of light colour (wavelength on the leaf greenness index (SPAD was demonstrated. The photosynthetic activity of leaves was dependent on the cultivar. It was related both to the net rate of photosynthesis and the photosynthetic efficiency. Specific leaf area (SLA also depended on the cultivar. The level of SLA was related to the rate of photosynthesis and its efficiency. SLA was highest in all cultivars under green and yellow colour light. The chlorophyll content in the fresh and dry weight of leaves was highest under yellow light lamps.

  9. Evaluation of supercritical water gasification and biomethanation for wet biomass utilization in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Two wet biomass gasification processes, supercritical water gasification and biomethanation, were evaluated from energy, environmental, and economic aspects. Gasification of 1 dry-t/d of water hyacinth was taken as a model case. Assumptions were made that system should be energetically independent, that no environmentally harmful material should be released, and that carbon dioxide should be removed from the product gas. Energy efficiency, carbon dioxide payback time, and price of the product gas were chosen as indices for energy, environmental, and economic evaluations, respectively. Under the conditions assumed here, supercritical water gasifications is evaluated to be more advantageous over biomethanation, but the cost of the product gas is still 1.86 times more expensive than city gas in Tokyo. To improve efficiency of supercritical water gasification, improvement of heat exchanger efficiency is effective. Utilization of fermentation sludge will make biomethanation much more advantageous. (Author)

  10. Enhancement of Phosphate Absorption by Garden Plants by Genetic Engineering: A New Tool for Phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Matsui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although phosphorus is an essential factor for proper plant growth in natural environments, an excess of phosphate in water sources causes serious pollution. In this paper we describe transgenic plants which hyperaccumulate inorganic phosphate (Pi and which may be used to reduce environmental water pollution by phytoremediation. AtPHR1, a transcription factor for a key regulator of the Pi starvation response in Arabidopsis thaliana, was overexpressed in the ornamental garden plants Torenia, Petunia, and Verbena. The transgenic plants showed hyperaccumulation of Pi in leaves and accelerated Pi absorption rates from hydroponic solutions. Large-scale hydroponic experiments indicated that the enhanced ability to absorb Pi in transgenic torenia (AtPHR1 was comparable to water hyacinth a plant that though is used for phytoremediation causes overgrowth problems.

  11. Use of dried aquatic plant roots to adsorb heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, K.D.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of heavy metal ions by dried aquatic macrophytes was investigated. The ability of the biomass, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Typha latifolia (cattail), Sparganium minimum (burr reed) and Menyanthes trifoliata to abstract lead and mercury ions is presented here, along with a conceptual filter design. This paper examines an alternative to both the traditional and recent systems designed for metal removal. It involves the use of dried aquatic macrophytes. There are numerous advantages for the use of dried macrophytes in the treatment of industrial wastewater. First, it is cost-effective. There are also funding opportunities through a variety of Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) programs. It is more environmentally conscious because a wetland, the harvesting pond, has been created. And, it creates public goodwill by providing a more appealing, less hardware-intensive, natural system.

  12. Biotemplated Mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 Composite Derived from Aquatic Plant Leaves for Efficient Dye Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biotemplating technique is an environmental-protective high-efficiency new technology by which the resulting TiO2 may simultaneously attain the duplication of structure and self-doping elements from biotemplate materials, which is highly desirable for photocatalytic applications. In this paper, aquatic plant leaves—including reed, water hyacinth, and duckweed—were used as both templates and silicon precursors to successfully synthesize biomorphic TiO2/SiO2 composite with mesoporous structures. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption, and UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to characterize the microstructures of the samples. The results show that all TiO2/SiO2 composites are mainly composed of an anatase phase with mesoporous structure and possess high specific surface area. Compared with commercial Degussa P25 TiO2, all TiO2/SiO2 samples display intensive light-harvesting efficiency, particularly in the visible light range. The activities were evaluated by using gentian violet as a target for photocatalytic degradation experiments under simulated solar irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 samples templated by reed and water hyacinth leaves exhibit high activity, while the TiO2/SiO2 samples obtained from duckweed are inferior to P25 in the degradation of gentian violet. A synergistic effect of SiO2 incorporation and structural construction through biotemplating is proposed to be beneficial to photocatalytic activity.

  13. Development and application of pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize the lipopolysaccharide O antigen and the type IV fimbriae of Xanthomonas hyacinthi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, J. van; Ojanen-Reuhs, T.; Hollinger, T.C.; Reuhs, B.L.; Schots, A.; Boonekamp, P.M.; Oudega, B.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths.

  14. Hydrogen production from high-moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Y.; Onuma, M.T. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Wet biomass (water hyacinth, banana trees, cattails, green algae, kelp, etc.) grows rapidly and abundantly around the world. However, wet biomass is not regarded as a promising feedstock for conventional thermochemical conversion processes because the cost of drying the material is too high. Prior work has shown that low concentrations of glucose (a model compound for whole biomass) and various wet biomass species (water hyacinth, algae) can be completely gasified in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C and 34.5 MPa after a 30 s residence time. But higher concentrations of glucose evidenced incomplete conversion. For this reason, flow reactors were fabricated which could accommodate packed beds of catalyst, and studies were initiated of the steam reforming (gasification) reactions in the presence of various candidate heterogeneous catalysts. The goal is to identify active catalysts for steam reforming biomass slurries in supercritical water. Soon after tests began, a suitable class of carbon-based catalysts was discovered. These catalysts effect complete (>99%) conversion of high-concentration glucose (up to 22% by weight) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. High space velocities are realized [>20 (g/hr)/g], and the catalyst is stable over a period of several hours. The carbon catalyst is not expensive, and exists in a wide variety of forms and compositions. After this discovery, work has focused on four interrelated tasks: (1) tests to identify the most active form and composition of the catalyst; (2) tests employing the preferred catalyst to study the effect of feedstock composition on carbon conversion and gas composition; (3) studies of catalyst deactivation and subsequent reactivation, including the in-house synthesis of bifunctional catalysts which incorporate promoters and stabilizers; and (4) the design and fabrication of a larger, new reactor with a slurry feeder intended to handle high-concentration, wet biomass feeds.

  15. Energy from fresh and brackish water aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Aquatic plants can achieve relatively high biomass productivities when compared to terrestrial plants because they need not be water-stressed and can be optimally supplied with nutrients. Based on literature reports, productivities in southern US regions of about 40 to 60 t/ha-yr (dry weight basis) can be predicted for green algae or marsh plants and about 80 t/ha-yr for water hyacinth. Higher productivities may be possible in exceptionally favorable locations by assuming development of advanced cultivation technologies and genetic selection of improved strains. The lack of established cultivation systems and low-cost harvesting processes imposes great uncertainties on the cost of biomass production by aquatic plants. Three potentially practical aquatic biomass energy systems are chemicals production from microalgae, alcohol production from marsh plants, and methane production from water hyacinths. At present, aquatic plants are not being used commercially as a fuel source any place in the world. Nevertheless, it is clear that aquatic plants have potentially high biomass productivities and, specifically for the case of microalgae, could produce a high-quality, high-value biomass suitable for conversion to fuels and extraction of other products. A list of the relative advantages and disadvantages of aquatic plant energy systems in comparison with the concepts of terrestrial tree or herbaceous plant energy farming is given. Three favorable aspects of aquatic plant biomass systems should be stressed - the relative short-term research and development effort that will be required to determine the practical feasibility of such systems, the continuous production nature of such systems, and the relative independence of aquatic biomass systems from soil characteristics and weather fluctuations. The fast generation times of most aquatic plants allow rapid data acquisition, as compared to even short-rotation trees.

  16. The mobility gap between older men and women: the embodiment of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, M V; Alvarado, B E; Guerra, R; Gómez, J F; Ylli, A; Guralnik, J M

    2015-01-01

    To present the study design and baseline results of the longitudinal International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) on gender differences in physical performance and mobility disability prevalence in five diverse societies. Data are from surveys on random samples of people aged 65-74 years at Canadian (Kingston, Ontario; Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec), Mediterranean (Tirana, Albania) and Latin American sites (Natal, Brazil; Manizales, Colombia) (N=1995). Mobility disability was defined as reporting difficulty in walking 400m or climbing stairs. Activities of daily living (ADL) disability was based on any self-reported difficulty in five mobility-related ADLs. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) was used to assess physical performance. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate prevalence ratios. Age-adjusted prevalence of low SPPB, mobility disability and ADL disability were higher in women than in men in all sites except for Kingston. After adjustment for education and income, gender differences in SPPB and ADL disability attenuated or disappeared in Saint-Hyacinthe and Manizales but remained large in Tirana and Natal and mobility disability remained more frequent in women than in men at all sites except Kingston. After further adjustment by chronic conditions and depressive symptoms, gender differences in mobility remained large at all sites except Kingston but only in Tirana did women have significantly poorer physical performance than men. Results provide evidence for gender as a risk factor to explain poorer physical function in women and suggest that moving toward gender equality could attenuate the gender gap in physical function in old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Essais d'adaptation de production massive de juvéniles de Clarias gariepinus en conditions rurales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha, JC.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Trials for Intensive Clarias gariepinus fingerling to Rural Conditions. Artificial reproduction and fingerling production of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822 have been tested under less controlled conditions to adapt the intensive technology used by Aquafarm (Tihange, Belgium to rural conditions present in developing countries. The main aim was to compare the efficiency of ovaprim a synthesised hormone with catfish pituitary extracts. Fecundity and quality of eggs (egg weight were not significantly different. Incubation results on water hyacinth and on mosquito mesh frames were compared to those obtained in Zoug jars; the latter showed a higher hatching rate (67% than water hyacinth (39% and mosquito mesh frames (44%. Larvae were stocked at different stocking rates in ponds (T1: 800 larvae.m-3 and T2: 1600 larvae. m-3 and in tanks (T3: 3200 larvae.m-3 et T4: 6400 larvae.m-3. After a 50-day nursing period, no significant difference (P> 0.05 was observed for specific growth rate (SGR and survival rate, but better SGR were observed in ponds (18.34%.d-1 than in tanks (16.81%.d-1. In general, production was slightly higher in tanks than in ponds being related to a higher stocking density. Significantly higher harvests were obtained from tanks with higher stocking densities but the sizes of the larvae were very heterogeneous. In such case, it is recommended to grade the larvae at 6 or 7 days intervals using different mesh sizes (from 3 to 5 mm. These less intensive rearing conditions gave nevertheless good fingerling productions.

  18. Comparison of simultaneous and separate processes: saccharification and thermophilic L-lactate fermentation of catch crop and aquatic plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Satoshi; Maeda, Koutaro; Nakatani, Shingo; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Nagare, Hideaki; Maeda, Morihiro; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Catch crop candidates (corn, guinea grass) for recovering nutrients from farm soil and aquatic plants (water caltrop, water hyacinth) were utilized to produce L-lactic acid. The efficiencies ofpre-treatment methods for enzymatic saccharification and L-lactate production of two fermentation processes, thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), as well as separate saccharification and fermentation, were compared. Conditions were set at 55 degrees C and pH 5.5 for non-sterile fermentation. Alkaline/peroxide pre-treatment proved the most effective for saccharification in pre-treated corn, guinea grass, water caltrop and water hyacinth with glucose yields of 0.23, 0.20, 0.11 and 0.14 g/g-dry native biomass (24-hour incubation period), respectively. Examination of the two types of thermophilic L-lactate fermentation employed following alkaline/peroxide pre-treatment and saccharification demonstrated that the L-lactate yield obtained using SSF (0.15 g/g in the case of corn) was lower than that obtained using separate saccharification and fermentation (0.28 g/g in the case of corn). The lower yield obtained from SSF is likely to have resulted from the saccharification conditions used in the present study, as the possibility of cellulase deactivation during SSF by thermophilic L-lactate producing bacteria existed. A cellulase that retains high activity levels under non-sterile conditions and a L-lactate producer without cellulose hydrolysis activity would be required in order for SSF to serve as an effective method of L-lactate production.

  19. The tourism potential for birdwatching in three green areas in the city of Campo Grande, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Alibio Oppliger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the tourism potential of birds found in three public green areas (a park, a square and a pond, in the city of Campo Grande. The qualitative survey of avifauna totaled 55 observation hours, by the method of direct observation by points. The species were recorded and the frequency of occurrence (FO of each species by analyzed area was calculated. We recorded 107 species, totaling 12% of the Cerrado biome and blue-and-gold macaws were the species with absolute frequency of occurrence in the three areas. Each of the areas presented exclusive species and the park, the largest number of recorded species, standing out as an appropriate place to hold the birdwatch. However, the tourism potential for observing these birds should be strengthened by other actions such as check for complementarity between supply and demand, planning and building elements themselves to the observation activities, organize and present the practical arrangements for the birds observation in accordance with the supply constraints and the level of involvement and expertise of birdwatchers. Local people should be mobilized and motivated to know about the birds that are part of the landscape; the private sector can use a formatted tourism product and create new products or needs, such as crafts or printed guides; and the participation of the government is essential in promoting the 'birdwatching urban script ' product, as in the maintenance of urban nature reserves.

  20. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf C Buckley

    Full Text Available Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  1. Avian bornavirus genotype 4 recovered from naturally infected psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Last

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of proventricular dilatation disease caused by avian bornavirus (ABV in captive psittacine birds has long been suspected in South Africa. This report documents the first detection by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequence analyses of ABV from three clinical cases of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD in captive bred blue and gold macaws (Araara rauna resident in this country. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, gastrointestinal myenteric gangioneuritis and leiomyositis were the most prominent histopathological changes and ABV genotype 4 was detected in tissues from all three birds. Immunohistochemical stains for ABV antigen revealed positive labelling of neurons and glial cells of the brain, myenteric ganglia and nerve fibres as well as smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract of all three birds. In one bird, positive labelling of the peripheral nerves was observed. The identical sequence of the analaysed genome fragment of all three samples, history that all of these birds had originated from the same breeding facility, and young age at presentation raise the question of possible vertical transmission.

  2. Avian bornavirus genotype 4 recovered from naturally infected psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Robert D; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nedorost, Nora; Shivaprasad, H L

    2012-12-13

    The occurrence of proventricular dilatation disease caused by avian bornavirus (ABV) in captive psittacine birds has long been suspected in South Africa. This report documents the first detection by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequence analyses of ABV from three clinical cases of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in captive bred blue and gold macaws (Araara rauna) resident in this country. Lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, gastrointestinal myenteric gangioneuritis and leiomyositis were the most prominent histopathological changes and ABV genotype 4 was detected in tissues from all three birds. Immunohistochemical stains for ABV antigen revealed positive labelling of neurons and glial cells of the brain, myenteric ganglia and nerve fibres as well as smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract of all three birds. In one bird, positive labelling of the peripheral nerves was observed. The identical sequence of the analaysed genome fragment of all three samples, history that all of these birds had originated from the same breeding facility, and young age at presentation raise the question of possible vertical transmission.

  3. The diagnosis of proventricular dilatation disease: use of a Western blot assay to detect antibodies against avian Borna virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Itamar; Gray, Patricia; Mirhosseini, Negin; Payne, Susan; Hoppes, Sharman; Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Briese, Thomas; Turner, Debra; Tizard, Ian

    2010-07-14

    Avian Borna virus (ABV) has recently been shown to be the causal agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) a lethal neurologic disease of captive psittacines and other birds. An immunoblot assay was used to detect the presence of antibodies against avian Borna virus in the serum of affected birds. A lysate from ABV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts served as a source of antigen. The assay was used to test for the presence of antibodies to ABV in 117 birds. Thirty of these birds had biopsy or necropsy-confirmed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), while the remaining 87 birds were apparently healthy or were suffering from diseases other than PDD. Sera from 27 of the 30 PDD cases (90%) contained antibodies to ABV. Seventy-three (84%) of the apparently "healthy" birds were seronegative. Additionally, sera from seven macaws and one parrot trapped in the Peruvian Amazon were seronegative. Positive sera recognized the bornaviral nucleoprotein (N-protein). While the presence of antibodies to ABV largely corresponded with the development of clinical PDD, 14 apparently healthy normal birds possessed detectable antibodies to ABV. The existence of a carrier state was confirmed when 13 of 15 apparently healthy cockatiels were shown by PCR to have detectable ABV RNA in their feces. Western blot assays may be of significant assistance in diagnosing proventricular dilatation disease. Many apparently healthy birds may however be seronegative while, at the same time, shedding ABV in their feces. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Polymerase chain reaction assay for avian polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, D N; Wilson, V G; Graham, D L

    1991-05-01

    A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for detection of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (BFDV). The assay used a single set of primers complementary to sequences located in the putative coding region for the BFDV VP1 gene. The observed amplification product had the expected size of 550 bp and was confirmed to derive from BFDV DNA by its restriction digestion pattern. This assay was specific for BFDV and highly sensitive, being able to detect as few as 20 copies of the virus. By using the polymerase chain reaction, BFDV was detected in adult, nestling, and embryo budgerigar (Melopsitticus undulatus) tissue DNAs and in sera from adult and nestling budgerigars. These results suggest the possibility of persistent infections in adult birds and lend further support to previously described evidence of possible in ovo transmission. BFDV was also detected in chicken embryo fibroblast cell cultures and chicken eggs inoculated with the virus. A 550-bp product with identical restriction enzyme sites was amplified from a suspected polyomavirus isolated from a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis pesonata) and from tissue DNA from a Hahn's macaw (Ara nobilis) and a sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis) with histological lesions suggestive of polyomavirus infection. These fragments also hybridized with a BFDV-derived probe, proving that they were derived from a polyomavirus very similar, if not identical, to BFDV.

  5. Being attractive brings advantages: the case of parrot species in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frynta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parrots are one of the most frequently kept and bred bird orders in captivity. This increases poaching and thus the potential importance of captive populations for rescue programmes managed by zoos and related institutions. Both captive breeding and poaching are selective and may be influenced by the attractiveness of particular species to humans. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the size of zoo populations is not only determined by conservation needs, but also by the perceived beauty of individual parrot species assessed by human observers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For the purpose of data collection, we defined four sets of species (40 parrots, 367 parrots, 34 amazons, 17 macaws. Then, we asked 776 human respondents to evaluate parrot pictures of the selected species according to perceived beauty and we analyzed its association with color and morphological characters. Irrespective of the species set, we found a good agreement among the respondents. The preferred species tended to be large, colorful, and long-tailed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We repeatedly confirmed significant, positive association between the perceived beauty and the size of worldwide zoo population. Moreover, the range size and body size appeared to be significant predictors of zoo population size. In contrast, the effects of other explanatory variables, including the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature listing, appeared insignificant. Our results may suggest that zoos preferentially keep beautiful parrots and pay less attention to conservation needs.

  6. Feather-picking psittacines: histopathology and species trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M M; Clubb, S L; Mitchell, M A; Brown, L

    2008-05-01

    Histologic findings are described for 408 feather-picking or self-mutilating psittacines with the use of biopsies from clinically affected and unaffected skin. Inflammatory skin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Criteria used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disease included the presence of perivascular inflammation in the superficial or deep dermis of clinically affected and unaffected sites. The primary histologic criteria for the diagnosis of traumatic skin disease were superficial dermal scarring with or without inflammation in the affected sites and an absence of inflammation in the unaffected sites. The inflammatory cells associated with the lesions were typically lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells, histiocytes, and granulocytes. A preponderance of inflammatory skin disease was seen in macaws (Ara spp.) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.). A preponderance of traumatic skin disease was seen in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.) and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The prevalence of each was approximately equal in several other species, including conures (Aratinga and Pyrrhura spp.), eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), parakeets (Cyanorhamphus and Psittacula spp.), and caiques (Pionites spp.). No geographic or gender-based trends were identified. These findings could be helpful for identifying and treating birds with feather-picking disorders.

  7. Big brains are not enough: performance of three parrot species in the trap-tube paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Jannis; Werdenich, Dagmar; Gajdon, Gyula K; Huber, Ludwig; Wanker, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The trap-tube task has become a benchmark test for investigating physical causality in vertebrates. In this task, subjects have to retrieve food out of a horizontal tube using a tool and avoiding a trap hole in the tube. Great apes and corvids succeeded in this task. Parrots with relative brain volumes comparable to those of corvids and primates also demonstrate high cognitive abilities. We therefore tested macaws, a cockatoo, and keas on the trap-tube paradigm. All nine parrots failed to solve the task. In a simplified task, trap tubes with a slot inserted along the top were offered. The slot allowed the birds to move the reward directly with their bills. All but one individual solved this task by lifting the food over the trap. However, the parrots failed again when they were prevented from lifting the reward, although they anticipated that food will be lost when moved into the trap. We do not think that the demanding use of an external object is the main reason for the parrots' failure. Moreover, we suppose these parrots fail to consider the trap's position in the beginning of a trial and were not able to stop their behaviour and move the reward in the trap's opposite direction.

  8. Osteossíntese de tibiotarso com miniplaca de titânio em Arara Canindé (Ara ararauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Dal-Bó

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the surgical problems of birds, fractures are the most prevalent, and the long bones of the wings and pelvic limbs are the most frequently affected. The success of orthopedic surgery in birds is directly related to the techniques used to undo the mechanical forces of a fracture. At the veterinary teaching hospital a psitacid from the Ara ararauna (blue-and-yellow-macaw species with a clinical history of trauma in the cage was treated. Craniocaudal and lateral radiographs of the left limb demonstrated a mid-diaphyseal fracture of the tibiotarsus. The bird was sent to surgery. The patient was anesthetized with isufluorane and for the pre-anesthesic medicacion methadone was administrated. A medial surgical approach to the tibiotarsus was made and fracture reduction was performed. The fracture was stabilized through a titanium miniplate (system 2mm fixed medially on the tibiotarsus with 6 cortical miniscrews, being 3 proximal and 3 distal to the fracture site. In this case, there was no complication in placing the miniplate and miniscrews, resulting in a satisfactory alignment of the fragments and causing an efficient reduction of the diaphyseal fracture of tibiotarsus with functional return of the limb and bone consolidation.

  9. 转基因玉米EPSPS蛋白适体的筛选与结构分析%Screening and Structure Analysis of the Aptamers against the EPSPS Protein from Genetically Modified Maize(Zea mays)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江树勋; 黄新; 邵碧英; 陈敏; 陈洪俊; Jun Sheng Lin; 陈文炳; 吴亚君; 潘大仁

    2010-01-01

    通过体外合成长度为70个碱基的随机ssDNA文库,采用指数富集配基的系统进化(SELEX)技术,以转基因玉米EPSPS蛋白为靶目标进行16轮筛选,将筛选到的适体群进行克隆、测序,初步获得与转基因玉米EPSPS蛋白特异性结合的适体.并用Macaw 2.05和DNAMAN软件对每个适体的保守序列和二级结构进行分析.结果表明:一级结构分析序列同源性可分为四大群,其中A群有11条序列含有67个保守碱基;二级结构分析结果表明,茎环状和口袋状等结构可能是适体与转基因玉米EPSPS蛋白结合的结构基础.利用SELEX技术获得与转基因玉米EPSPS蛋白特异结合的适体群,其一级和二级结构与亲和力密切相关.

  10. Compatibilidad y estabilidad organoléptica de bases semisólidas que contienen quitina y extracto fluido de Guacamaya francesa para elaborar una crema con ambos principios activos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinet Barrese Pérez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio de las posibles interacciones (compatibilidad que pudieran existir entre los principios activos quitina y Guacamaya francesa (extracto fluido, mediante pruebas de contacto con una serie de sustancias auxiliares que constituían candidatos potenciales a ser utilizados en la formulación semisólida. Una vez realizadas dichas pruebas se escogieron las materias primas para elaborar bases que fueron puestas en contacto con los principios activos, seleccionándose la base de laurilsulfato de sodio-alcohol estearílico-petrolato blanco como la idónea para desarrollar una crema.The study of the possible interactions (compatibility that may exist between the active principles quitine and French Macaw (fluid extract was conducted by contact tests with a series of auxiliary substances which are potential candidates to be used in the semisolid formulation. Once these tests were made, the raw materials were selected to prepare bases that would be in contact with the active principles. The basis of sodium-laurylsulfate-stearyl alochol-white petrolatum was selected as the idoneous to develop an ointment.

  11. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C; Morrison, Clare; Castley, J Guy

    2016-01-01

    Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  12. Resíduos orgânicos como recondicionante de subsolo degradado e efeitos na atividade microbiana e fertilidade em cultivo de barbatimão Organic residues used as degraded subsoil reconditioner nd their effect on soil microbial activity and soil fertility in barbatimão cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerson Fernandes Calgaro

    2008-12-01

    as a reconditioner of degraded subsoil and quantify its effects on soil microbial activity and fertility in 'barbatimão' (Stryphnodendron polyphyllum Mart. cultivation. The area is located at the UNESP/ Ilha Solteira Campus farm, in Selvíria - MS. Four sections (repetitions of 250 m² (10 x 25 m were allocated, with 10 treatments for each, as follows: control; liming; fertilizing+N+P; liming+N+P; N+P+water hyacinth; N+P+sugar cane bagasse; N+P+water hyacinth+sugar cane bagasse; liming+N+P+water hyacinth; liming+N+P+sugar cane bagasse and liming+N+P+water hyacinth+sugar cane bagasse. The chemical characteristics of the subsoil were evaluated as well as plant growth, carbon microbial biomass (CMB and released c-CO2 , metabolic quotient (qCO2 and microbial quotient (qMIC, in 5 subsoil sample collecting times (June, August, November and December, 2005 and March, 2006. The subsoil displayed the same acid and poor nutrient level characteristics after a year. During the experiment, the CMB presented stabilization tendencies and the qCO2 and qMIC decreased in the same period. In all, even below the ideal level, the organic residues showed better results, with small positive differences for water hyacinth. CMB exhibited seasonal variations.

  13. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, Frank; Schultheiss, Peter

    2005-12-31

    to provide continuous core temperature data. The HYACINTH pressure coring tools, subsystems, and core logging systems were mobilized to Astoria, Oregon. Both HYACINTH pressure coring tools, the HRC (HYACE Rotary Corer) and the FPC (Fugro Pressure Corer) were mobilized and used during the expedition. Two HYACINTH engineers supervised the use of the tools and five good pressure cores were obtained. Velocity, density and X-ray linear scanning data were collected from these cores at near in situ pressure using the MSCL-P system. Dr. Barry Freifeld from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory provided an X-ray source and detector for X-ray imaging of pressure cores and helped Geotek with the design and mobilization of the MSCL-P system. Pressure core handling, transfer, and logging was performed in a refrigerated 20-foot container supplied by Geotek, Ltd. After scanning, the pressure cores were stored for on-shore analysis in aluminum barrels. Additional studies were conducted at the Pacific Geoscience Center (PGC), where a shore based laboratory was established after Expedition 311.

  14. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN EM4 (Effective Microorganism-4 PADA PEMBUATAN BIOGAS DARI ECENG GONDOK DAN RUMEN SAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Megawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes merupakan tanaman yang menjadi limbah perairan dan keberadaannya belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Kandungan selulosa, hemiselulosa, dan lignin di dalamnya dapat dimanfaatkan menjadi biogas melalui proses fermentasi. Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh EM4 (Effective Microorganism- 4 terhadap massa, nilai kalor, dan kecepatan pembentukan biogas dari eceng gondok. Percobaan dilakukan dalam anaerobic digester berukuran 4 liter, bahan baku yang digunakan adalah eceng gondok, rumen sapi, dan air dengan variabel penambahan EM4 sebesar 1% dan 0%. Fermentasi dilakukan secara batch dengan pengukuran gas (temperatur, tekanan, dan massa setiap 7 hari sekali sampai hari ke-35. Sebelum proses fermentasi, dilakukan pengujian terhadap rasio C/N campuran bahan baku. Pembakaran gas dilakukan untuk membuktikan gas yang didapat mengandung metana. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio C/N untuk variabel dengan penambahan EM4 1% sebesar 5,33 dan rasio C/N untuk variabel dengan penambahan EM4 0% sebesar 7. Jadi, penambahan EM4 dapat menurunkan rasio C/N. Sementara itu, hasil fermentasinya memperlihatkan bahwa EM4 memperkecil produksi biogas meskipun proses pembentukannya cepat. Massa total biogas yang didapat pada variabel EM4 1% sebesar 1,1 g dan variabel EM4 0% sebesar 1,55 g. Tekananbiogas mengalami fluktuasi (pada variabel EM4 1% sebesar 35,6 cmH2O, sedangkan pada variabel EM4 0% sebesar 40,6 cmH2O. Berdasarkan simulasi menggunakan chemical process simulator software, diketahui heating value biogas sebesar 39.180 kJ/kg. Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes is a plant that becomes waste and its existence has not been widely used. Content of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in it can be converted into biogas through a process of fermentation. Study examines the effect of EM4 (Effective Microorganism-4 on the mass, heating value, and the rate of formation of biogas from water hyacinth. An experiments were performed in anaerobic

  15. Removal of high organic loads from winery wastewater by aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmels, Y; Kirzhner, F; Schreiber, J

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory- and field-scale purification tests of raw and diluted winery wastewater (WWW) were carried out using aquatic plants at high organic loads. The laboratory tests were performed using artificial light at 1800 to 1900 lux. The objective of the current study was to define the potential of floating and emergent aquatic macrophytes and the microorganisms attached to their roots, to reduce high organic loads that characterize WWW, thereby providing, for these effluents, an effective treatment and management system. These microorganisms are believed to have a major role in the treatment process. In this context, the potential of floating and emergent macrophytes to improve the water quality of raw compared with diluted WWW was evaluated. In raw WWW (chemical oxygen demand [COD] 5.6 g/L),growth inhibition of both water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) was observed. A 1:1 dilution of WWW with fresh (tap) water facilitated growth of these plants. At this dilution level, growth of pennywort was limited, while that of water hyacinth was robust. In terms of reductions in biochemical oxygen demand, COD, and total suspended solids, both water hyacinth and pennywort performed better in diluted compared with raw WWW. At 1:1 and 1:3 dilution, 95.9 to 97% of the COD was removed after 23 days, in the presence of Hydrocotyle and Eichhornia plants and aeration. The capacity of new emergent plants to remove high organic loads from WWW, at enhanced kinetics, was demonstrated. This unique property was tested and compared with the role of the gravel media that support growth of the high-capacity emergent plants. In the presence of reed and salt marsh plants, 83 to 99% of the COD was removed within a period of 24 to 29 days, at 1.5:1 dilution. The new emergent plants proved to be effective, even at record high levels of COD. At an initial level of 16,460 mg/L, the COD was brought down to 2870 mg/L after 24 days (82.6% removal), while 12

  16. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for

  17. In-Situ Sampling and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Marine Methane Hydrate Using the D/V JOIDES Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, Frank; Schroeder, Derryl; Storms, Michael

    2001-03-31

    The primary accomplishments of the JOI Cooperative Agreement with DOE/NETL in this quarter were the deployment of tools and measurement systems for testing on ODP Leg 201, which is intended to study hydrate deposits on the Peru margin as part of other scientific investigations. Additional accomplishments were related to the continuing evolution of tools and measurements systems in preparation for deployment on ODP Leg 204, Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon in July 2002. The design for PCS Gas Manifold was finalized and parts were procured to assemble the gas manifold and deploy this system with the Pressure Core Sampler (PCS) tool on ODP Leg 201. The PCS was deployed 17 times during ODP Leg 201 and successfully retrieved cores from a broad range of lithologies and sediment depths along the Peru margin. Eleven deployments were entirely successful, collecting between 0.5 and 1.0 meters of sediment at greater than 75% of hydrostatic pressure. The PCS gas manifold was used in conjunction with the Pressure Core Sampler (PCS) throughout ODP Leg 201 to measure the total volume and composition of gases recovered in sediment cores associated with methane hydrates. The results of these deployments will be the subject of a future progress report. The FUGRO Pressure Corer (FPC), one of the HYACE/HYACINTH pressure coring tools, and two FUGRO engineers were deployed on the D/V JOIDES Resolution during ODP Legs 201 to field-test this coring system at sites located offshore Peru. The HYACINTH project is a European Union (EU) funded effort to develop tools to characterize methane hydrate and measure physical properties under in-situ conditions. The field-testing of these tools provides a corollary benefit to DOE/NETL at no cost to this project. The opportunity to test these tools on the D/V JOIDES Resolution was negotiated as part of a cooperative agreement between JOI/ODP and the HYACINTH partners. The DVTP, DVTP-P, APC-methane, and APC-Temperature tools (ODP memory tools) were

  18. Genetic diversity in twenty variants of the avian polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, D N; Wilson, V G; Gaskin, J M; Derr, J N; Graham, D L

    1999-01-01

    To determine if different pathotypes of the avian polyomavirus (APV) exist and to compare the genomes of APVs originating from different geographic areas, dates, and species of birds, the partial sequences of 18 APVs were determined. New viral sequences were compared with three published APV sequences. Two of the new viruses had identical sequences. Forty point mutations were found at 31 loci. A 27-bp deletion was found in the VP2 and VP3 open reading frames of one virus. A duplication of the putative origin of replication and adjacent enhancer region was previously reported in one APV. Smaller duplications involving the origin in one APV and a second enhancer region in another were discovered. All duplications were in tissue culture-adapted viruses, suggesting they occurred during the isolation process. Excluding duplications and the deletion, maximum variation between viruses was small (11 bp). A maximum parsimony tree was constructed that contained three major branches. The three earliest isolates were on separate branches. The European viruses were confined to branch I, but APVs from the United States were on all three branches. Lovebird, budgerigar, and macaw APVs were also on each of the three branches, suggesting that species-specific pathotypes have not developed. Most nonsynonymous mutations occurred in a small portion of the VP2 and VP3 open reading frames, demonstrating a selection for these mutations. That a glycine at VP2 221 will inhibit virus replication in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) has been previously reported. In contrast, six of seven of the new APVs isolated in CEFs had a glycine at VP2 221.

  19. Tissue distribution of psittacid herpesviruses in latently infected parrots, repeated sampling of latently infected parrots and prevalence of latency in parrots submitted for necropsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K; Wigle, William; Phalen, David N

    2006-11-01

    Psittacid herpesvirus-1 (PsHV-1) is the cause of an acute fatal disease in parrots and is implicated as the cause of papillomatous lesions of the digestive tract. Not all infections cause disease and some parrots are infected asymptomatically. Latently infected parrots are potential sources for virus dissemination. Tissues from parrots that died spontaneously with a history of coming from flocks where a PsHV-1 outbreak had occurred were examined for PsHV-1 DNA. Fourteen of 16 parrots examined were infected with at least 1 variant of PsHV-1; of these 13 (93%) had viral DNA in either or both the oral and cloacal mucosa, suggesting that most latently infected parrots could be detected by sampling these sites. Nine of 9 parrots shown to be infected 5 years prior to this study were positive again on repeat sampling and were infected with the same virus genotype. Opportunistic sampling of parrots submitted for diagnostic necropsy indicated that the prevalence of PsHV-1 in parrots in the sampled population was approximately 9.3%. PsHV-1 genotypes 1, 2, and 3 were found in these birds, but genotype 4 was not. Six necropsy specimens were found to be infected with two PsHV-1 genotypes and it was concluded that infection with one serotype did not protect against infection with another. Psittacid herpesvirus 2 (PsHV-2) was identified in 4 African grey parrots and a blue and gold macaw. Prior to this study PsHV-2 had only been found in African grey parrots.

  20. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers.