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Sample records for hvi fiber quality

  1. HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parameters—Rd (diffuse...

  2. Relationship between three cotton trash measurements: High Volume Instrumentation (HVI), Shirley Analyzer (SA), and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of non-lint materials (trashes) in commercial cotton bales at various amounts degrades the market values and further influences the end-use qualities. In order to ensure a fair trading, the USDA’s AMS has introduced the high volume instrument (HVI) measurement as a universal standard index....

  3. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  4. Harvesting to optimize fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production conditions typical to the Texas High Plains region can produce cotton crops with high short fiber and nep content, both of which have a detrimental impact on ring spinning performance. Since Texas now produces over 50% of the U.S. cotton crop annually, it is critical that production and p...

  5. Enhancing forest value productivity through fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Briggs

    2010-01-01

    Developing markets for carbon storage and bioenergy, shifting of the pulp and paper industry to biorefineries, and the potential of new technologies present the forest sector with exciting transformative opportunities and challenges. One of these challenges will be to understand the implications for fiber (wood) quality. This article provides a definitional context for...

  6. IMPROVED SPECTROPHOTOMETER FIBER SAMPLING SYSTEM FOR COTTON FIBER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), and the parameters Rd and +b are used to designate color grades for cotton fiber. However, Rd and +b are cotton-specific color parameters, and the need existed to demonstrate the relationships of Rd and +b to...

  7. Influence of mode competition on beam quality of fiber amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Qi-Rong; Yan Ping; Sun Jun-Yi; Chen Xiao; Ren Hai-Cui; Gong Ma-Li

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the mode competition on the output beam quality of fiber amplifiers are presented. Rate equations and modal decomposition method are used in the theoretical model. In the experiment, the output beam-quality factor of a fiber amplifier, which is based on a Yb-doped double-clad large mode area fiber as a function of the seed beam quality and the pump power of the amplifier, is measured. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Effect of different fibers on dough properties and biscuit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Canalis, María S; Steffolani, María E; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2017-03-01

    This study forms part of a broader project aimed at understanding the role of fibers from different sources in high-fat, high-sugar biscuits and at selecting the best fibers for biscuit quality. The main purpose of this work was to understand the rheological and structural properties involved in fiber-enriched biscuit dough. High-amylose corn starch (RSII), chemically modified starch (RSIV), oat fiber (OF) and inulin (IN) were used at two different levels of incorporation (6 and 12 g) in dough formulation. The influence of fiber on the properties of biscuit dough was studied via dynamic rheological tests, confocal microscopy and spreading behavior. Biscuit quality was assessed by width/thickness factor, texture and surface characteristics, total dietary fiber and sensory evaluation. Main results indicated that IN incorporation increased the capacity of dough spreading during baking and thus improved biscuit quality. OF reduced dough spreading during baking and strongly increased its resistance to deformation. RSII and RSIV slightly affected the quality of the biscuits. Sensory evaluation revealed that the panel liked IN-incorporated biscuits as much as control biscuits. The increase in total dietary fiber modified dough behavior and biscuit properties, and the extent of these effects depended on the type of fiber incorporated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Association mapping and favorable QTL alleles for fiber quality traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 201 markers were polymorphic and generated 394 ... identified favorable QTL alleles and typical accessions for fiber quality are excellent genetic resources for future cotton .... Field management followed respective local practices.

  10. Lowering virus attack with improved yield and fiber quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... genotypes on seed cotton yield, fiber quality and virus attack was conducted at the Cotton Research ... even more vital than sowing time in any cropping system for cotton ... theless, minimum information is available regarding.

  11. Measuring Beam Quality of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shephard, J.D.; Roberts, John; Jones, J.D.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors measure the quality of the delivered beam from hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs). The$M^2$parameter is determined, and the near- to far-field transition is examined. The influence on these properties due to the presence of a core surround mode is evaluated.......17 for the same output beam. This highlights the need for careful consideration when measuring and describing the beam quality delivered by these novel photonic fibers....

  12. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  13. Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

  14. Lowering virus attack with improved yield and fiber quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three year study with the objective of exploring the possible role of different sowing dates and cotton genotypes on seed cotton yield, fiber quality and virus attack was conducted at the Cotton Research Station (CRS), Multan, Pakistan during three consecutive years (2006, 2007 and 2008). Two cotton genotypes namely: ...

  15. [The Impact of Electronic Monitoring on Healthcare Associated Infections: The Role of the HViTAL Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rita Fontes; Castro, Lídia; Almeida, José Pedro; Alves, Carlos; Ferreira, António

    2016-11-01

    In Portugal, 9.8% of patients admitted were inflicted with healthcare associated infections, corresponding to a prevalence of 11.7%. The Hospital de São João has developed a business intelligence platform able to supervise (the patients), monitor (the clinical condition) and notify (the healthcare personnel): HViTAL. This study aims to assess the impact of electronic monitoring on healthcare associated infections since the year of HViTAL implementation. We evaluated data since January 2008 (moment from which computerized records exist) until December 2011, comparing them with subsequent data, those corresponding to January 2012 (implementation date of HViTAL) until 19 October 2015. There was an upward trend of infection parameters in the 2008 - 2011 period. Since January 2012 and October 2015, all parameters of the infection indicator showed a negative linear trend. The results are very suggestive that the HVITAL may have had an impact on improving parameters associated to healthcare associated infections. Basic measures of infection control were highlighted since 2005, with an increasing number of health professional awareness campaigns, a fact which, although not analyzed in this report, may also have contributed to the observed improvement. Our study did not include other variables such as investment in human capital. There was a clear improvement in all areas characterizing the healthcare associated infections, with obvious positive impact with the introduction of HViTAL.

  16. Characterization and Effects of Fiber Pull-Outs in Hole Quality of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Ashrafi, Sina; Miller, Peter W; Wandro, Kevin M; Kim, Dave

    2016-10-13

    Hole quality plays a crucial role in the production of close-tolerance holes utilized in aircraft assembly. Through drilling experiments of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites (CFRP), this study investigates the impact of varying drilling feed and speed conditions on fiber pull-out geometries and resulting hole quality parameters. For this study, hole quality parameters include hole size variance, hole roundness, and surface roughness. Fiber pull-out geometries are quantified by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the mechanically-sectioned CFRP-machined holes, to measure pull-out length and depth. Fiber pull-out geometries and the hole quality parameter results are dependent on the drilling feed and spindle speed condition, which determines the forces and undeformed chip thickness during the process. Fiber pull-out geometries influence surface roughness parameters from a surface profilometer, while their effect on other hole quality parameters obtained from a coordinate measuring machine is minimal.

  17. [Ecological regionalization of national cotton fiber quality in China using GGE biplot analysis method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nai Yin; Jin, Shi Qiao; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The distinctive regional characteristics of cotton fiber quality in the major cotton-producing areas in China enhance the textile use efficiency of raw cotton yarn by improving fiber quality through ecological regionalization. The "environment vs. trait" GGE biplot analysis method was adopted to explore the interaction between conventional cotton sub-regions and cotton fiber quality traits based on the datasets collected from the national cotton regional trials from 2011 to 2015. The results showed that the major cotton-producing area in China were divided into four fiber quality ecological regions, namely, the "high fiber quality ecological region", the "low micronaire ecological region", the "high fiber strength and micronaire ecological region", and the "moderate fiber quality ecological region". The high fiber quality ecological region was characterized by harmonious development of cotton fiber length, strength, micronaire value and the highest spinning consistency index, and located in the conventional cotton regions in the upper and lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley. The low micronaire value ecological region composed of the northern and south Xinjiang cotton regions was characterized by low micronaire value, relatively lower fiber strength, and relatively high spinning consistency index performance. The high fiber strength and micronaire value ecological region covered the middle reaches of Yangtze River Valley, Nanxiang Basin and Huaibei Plain, and was prominently characterized by high strength and micronaire value, and moderate performance of other traits. The moderate fiber quality ecological region included North China Plain and Loess Plateau cotton growing regions in the Yellow River Valley, and was characterized by moderate or lower performances of all fiber quality traits. This study effectively applied "environment vs. trait" GGE biplot to regionalize cotton fiber quality, which provided a helpful reference for the regiona-lized cotton growing

  18. High-quality fiber fabrication in buffered hydrofluoric acid solution with ultrasonic agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianbing; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Wang, Yongzhong; Chen, Rong

    2013-03-01

    An etching method for preparing high-quality fiber-optic sensors using a buffered etchant with ultrasonic agitation is proposed. The effects of etching conditions on the etch rate and surface morphology of the etched fibers are investigated. The effect of surface roughness is discussed on the fibers' optical properties. Linear etching behavior and a smooth fiber surface can be repeatedly obtained by adjusting the ultrasonic power and etchant pH. The fibers' spectral quality is improved as the ratio of the pit depth to size decreases, and the fibers with smooth surfaces are more sensitive to a bacterial suspension than those with rough surfaces.

  19. Developmental and hormonal regulation of fiber quality in two natural-colored cotton cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang; HU Da-peng; LI Yuan; CHEN Yuan; Eltayib H.M.A.Abidallha; DONG Zhao-di; CHEN De-hua; ZHANG Lei

    2017-01-01

    Cotton cultivars with brown (Xiangcaimian 2),green (Wanmian 39) and white (Sumian 9) fiber were investigated to study fiber developmental characteristics of natural-colored cotton and the effect of hormones on fiber quality at different stages after anthesis.Fiber lengths of both natural-colored cottons were lower than the white-fibered control,with brown-flbered cotton longer than green.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natural-colored cotton were also lower than the control.The shorter fiber of the green cultivar was due to slower growth during 10 to 30 days post-anthesis (DPA).Likewise,the lower fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natured-colored cotton were also due to slower growth during this pivotal stage.Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content at 10 DPA,and abscisic acid (ABA) content at 30 to 40 DPA were lower in the fibers of the natural-colored than that of the white-flbered cotton.After applying 20 mg L-1 gibberellic acid (GA3),the IAA content at 20 DPA in the brown and green-fibered cottons increased by 51.07 and 64.33%,fiber ABA content increased by 38.96 and 24.40%,and fiber length increased by 8.13 and 13.96%,respectively.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation were also enhanced at boll opening stage.Those results suggest that the level of endogenous hormones affect fiber quality.Application of external hormones can increase hormone content in natural-colored cotton fiber,improving its quality.

  20. Effects of addition of different fibers on rheological characteristics of cake batter and quality of cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ayca; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of dietary fibers on rheological properties of batter and cake quality. Wheat flour was replaced by 5 and 10% (wt%) oat, pea, apple and lemon fibers. All cake batters showed shear thinning behavior. Incorporation of fibers increased consistency index (k), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). As quality parameters, specific volume, hardness, weight loss, color and microstructure of cakes were investigated. Cakes containing oat and pea fibers (5%) had similar specific volume and texture with control cakes which contained no fiber. As fiber concentration increased, specific volume decreased but hardness increased. No significant difference was found between weight loss of control cake and cakes with oat, pea and apple fibers. Lemon fiber enriched cakes had the lowest specific volume, weight loss and color difference. When microstructural images were examined, it was seen that control cake had more porous structure than fiber enriched cakes. In addition, lemon and apple fiber containing cakes had less porous crumb structure as compared to oat and pea containing ones. Oat and pea fiber (5%) enriched cakes had similar physical properties (volume, texture and color) with control cakes.

  1. Characterizing Hypervelocity Impact (HVI-Induced Pitting Damage Using Active Guided Ultrasonic Waves: From Linear to Nonlinear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypervelocity impact (HVI, ubiquitous in low Earth orbit with an impacting velocity in excess of 1 km/s, poses an immense threat to the safety of orbiting spacecraft. Upon penetration of the outer shielding layer of a typical two-layer shielding system, the shattered projectile, together with the jetted materials of the outer shielding material, subsequently impinge the inner shielding layer, to which pitting damage is introduced. The pitting damage includes numerous craters and cracks disorderedly scattered over a wide region. Targeting the quantitative evaluation of this sort of damage (multitudinous damage within a singular inspection region, a characterization strategy, associating linear with nonlinear features of guided ultrasonic waves, is developed. Linear-wise, changes in the signal features in the time domain (e.g., time-of-flight and energy dissipation are extracted, for detecting gross damage whose characteristic dimensions are comparable to the wavelength of the probing wave; nonlinear-wise, changes in the signal features in the frequency domain (e.g., second harmonic generation, which are proven to be more sensitive than their linear counterparts to small-scale damage, are explored to characterize HVI-induced pitting damage scattered in the inner layer. A numerical simulation, supplemented with experimental validation, quantitatively reveals the accumulation of nonlinearity of the guided waves when the waves traverse the pitting damage, based on which linear and nonlinear damage indices are proposed. A path-based rapid imaging algorithm, in conjunction with the use of the developed linear and nonlinear indices, is developed, whereby the HVI-induced pitting damage is characterized in images in terms of the probability of occurrence.

  2. Effect of Chicory Fiber and Smoking on Quality Characteristics of Restructured Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Su; Choi, Hyung-Gyu; Choi, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Ju-Ho; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Choi, Yang-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chicory fiber for the replacement of fat and smoking on quality characteristics of restructured sausages. Treatments were as follows; Control: Pork backfat 20%, T1: Pork backfat 10% + Chicory fiber 10%, T2: Control + Smoking, T3: T1 + Smoking. The addition of chicory fiber significantly reduced the moisture, fat, hardness and pH values, whereas the smoking treatment increased the fat, redness and pH values of restructured sausages (psausages. As a result, although the addition of chicory fiber decreased the quality characteristics of sausage, smoking treatment improved the reduced quality. Therefore, the chicory fiber and smoking treatment is helpful to develop restructured sausage products with reduced fat and compensated quality. PMID:27499674

  3. Batako Quality Optimization with Addition of Palm Oil Stem Fiber from Kampar District and Dumai City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri; Yanti, Gusneli; Wahyuni Megasari, Shanti

    2017-12-01

    The waste of dry palm oil produced by 148 trees per hectare is 3,108 ton/month or 37,296 ton/year as calculated. Riau province has oil palm plantations covering an area of 2.399.172 hectares (BPS Riau Province, 2014). It can be estimated the amount of waste generated. Palm stem waste can be utilized, one of which is the utilization of midrib fiber as an added material in the manufacture of batako. Batako- fiber that is made still must be examined feasibility as building materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimization of the quality of batako works by the addition of palm stem fiber originated from the districts of Kampar and Dumai. This research used experimental method with laboratory research. Batako-fiber with the addition of palm fiber stem 1% of the weight of cement can increase the value of compressive strength above the normal batako and a batako with first quality according to SNI 03-0349-1989 standard. The use of palm stem fiber originating from the Kampar district resulted in better batakos with higher average compressive strength values than the dumai-derived fibers, especially in the addition of 1% fiber by weight of cement. The finding of this research is that the batakos originating from Kampar district are better than those from Dumai city. The most optimal addition of palm fiber burrs to batako-fiber products is 1% of the weight of cement.

  4. Development of a biotechnological process for the production of high quality linen fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Juárez, Ana Gabriela; Rost, Gernot; Heitmann, Uwe; Heger, Egon; Müller, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    A novel biotechnological process for the production of high-quality flax fibers was developed. In this process, decorticated fibers from green flax were washed with 0.5% soda solution and treated with the pectinolytic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius PB94A. Before drying the fibers, they were treated with the textile softener Adulcinol BUN. If the fibers contained contaminant shives, a bleaching step with hydrogen peroxide was performed before the softener treatment. In experiments where fibers were treated by the new process, and in which the bacterial solutions were reused seven times, the fiber quality was similar in all batches. The resolution of the treated fibers was 2.7 ± 0.4 and the fineness was 11.1 ± 1.1 dtex, while the starting material had a resolution of 7.3 and a fineness of 37 dtex. The new biotechnological treatment eliminates the weather-associated risks of the traditional fiber retting completely and produces consistently high-quality fibers that can be used to produce fine linen yarns.

  5. Quality and performance of laser cutting with a high power SM fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Selchau, Jacob; Olsen, F. O.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of high power single mode fiber lasers allows for a beam of high power and a good beam quality factor (M2 ” 1.2), compared to the multimode fiber lasers often utilised in macro laser metal cutting. This paper describes fundamental studies of macro laser metal cutting with a singl...

  6. Boll sampling protocols and their impact on measurements of cotton fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within plant fiber variability has long contributed to product inconsistency in the cotton industry. Fiber quality uniformity is a primary plant breeding objective related to cotton commodity economic value. The physiological impact of source and sink relationships renders stress on the upper bran...

  7. Cleaving of TOPAS and PMMA microstructured polymer optical fibers: Core-shift and statistical quality optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2012-01-01

    We fabricated an electronically controlled polymer optical fiber cleaver, which uses a razor-blade guillotine and provides independent control of fiber temperature, blade temperature, and cleaving speed. To determine the optimum cleaving conditions of microstructured polymer optical fibers (m......POFs) with hexagonal hole structures we developed a program for cleaving quality optimization, which reads in a microscope image of the fiber end-facet and determines the core-shift and the statistics of the hole diameter, hole-to-hole pitch, hole ellipticity, and direction of major ellipse axis. For 125μm in diameter...

  8. Effect of potassium fertilizer on the physiological mechanisms of cotton fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Chai, Z.; Sheng, J.; Jiang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous hormones are a key factor in cotton fiber quality. Studying the relationship among endogenous hormone contents and fiber quality can provide a theoretical basis for exploring physiological measurements to improve fiber quality. The relationships among endogenous hormone contents and fiber quality for different boll positions and potassium (K) conditions were investigated for the main cultivar 'Xinluzao' 24. We used eight application rates of K fertilizer (K/sub 2/O 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5, 150, 37.5 and sprayed 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 75 and sprayed 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and 150 and sprayed 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ kg ha/sup -1/ under field conditions). We then measured the contents of indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA3), zeatin (Z), and abscisic acid (ABA) in relation to changes in fiber quality indices. Results showed that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the contents of IAA, GA3, and Z in the upper and middle boll, and decreased the contents of ABA in the upper, middle, and the lower boll. Compared with the control, applying K fertilizer between 37.5 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ and 112.5 kg K2O ha/sup -1/ can significantly increase the length, uniformity, strength, micronaire, and maturity of fiber in three parts of the plant. However, excessive application of K fertilizer can reduce fiber uniformity, strength, and micronaire in these locations. Through comprehensive comparison, we determined that the optimal application of K fertilizer for regulating endogenous hormones and improving fiber quality was a basal application of 75 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ and a spray application of 1% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The endogenous hormones IAA, GA/sub 3/, and Z can improve cotton fiber quality, but ABA can inhibit cotton fiber quality. Results indicate that reasonable applications of potassium fertilizer could regulate endogenous hormones and improve fiber quality.

  9. Response of cotton varieties to different environments: flowering behavior and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawdat, D.; Ayyoub, Z.; Elias, R.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering behavior and fiber quality traits were analyzed of six Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties and one G. barbadense variety that were cultivated in two environmentally different locations. Records of days after planting (DAP) at first floral bud emergence, DAP at first floral opening, plant height at first flower and nodes above white flower (NAWF) were analyzed statistically to study flowering behavior in both locations. Fiber traits were tested and records of micronaire, fiber length, strength, cohesion, elongation, ginning percentage, and weight of seed cotton were statistically analyzed to look for significant differences and correlations. Earliness and a decline in fiber strength, and fiber cohesion were obtained in varieties cultivated in Soujeh accompanied with an increase in ginning percentages. Uniquely, fiber elongation showed no significant differences in varieties between the two environments in both seasons. Our results indicated that stability in some fiber traits such as, micronaire, fiber length, strength and cohesion was a variety specific. Evidently, fiber elongation in our work was not affected by cultivation managements and environmental conditions which suggest the solid genetic bases that control this trait. (author)

  10. Response of cotton varieties to different environments flowering behavior and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawdat, D.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Al-Safadi, B.

    2015-01-01

    The flowering behavior and fiber quality traits were analyzed of six Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties and one G. barbadense variety that were cultivated in two environmentally different locations. Records of days after planting (DAP) at first floral bud emergence, DAP at first floral opening, plant height at first flower and nodes above white flower (NAWF) were analyzed statistically to study flowering behavior in both locations. Fiber traits were tested and records of micronaire, fiber length, strength, cohesion, elongation, ginning percentage, and weight of seed cotton were statistically analyzed to look for significant differences and correlations. Earliness and a decline in fiber strength, and fiber cohesion were obtained in varieties cultivated in Soujeh accompanied with an increase in ginning percentages. Uniquely, fiber elongation showed no significant differences in varieties between the two environments in both seasons. Our results indicated that stability in some fiber traits such as, micronaire, fiber length, strength and cohesion was a variety specific. Evidently, fiber elongation in our work was not affected by cultivation managements and environmental conditions which suggest the solid genetic bases that control this trait.(author)

  11. Surface Quality of Staggered PCD End Mill in Milling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Machined surface quality determines the reliability, wear resistance and service life of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP workpieces. In this work, the formation mechanism of the surface topography and the machining defects of CFRPs are proposed, and the influence of milling parameters and fiber cutting angles on the surface quality of CFRPs is obtained, which can provide a reference for extended tool life and good surface quality. Trimming and slot milling tests of unidirectional CFRP laminates are performed. The surface roughness of the machined surface is measured, and the influence of milling parameters on the surface roughness is analyzed. A regression model for the surface roughness of CFRP milling is established. A significance test of the regression model is conducted. The machined surface topography of milling CFRP unidirectional laminates with different fiber orientations is analyzed, and the effect of fiber cutting angle on the surface topography of the machined surface is presented by using a digital super depth-of-field microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. To study the influence of fiber cutting angle on machining defects, the machined topography under different fiber orientations is analyzed. The slot milling defects and their formation mechanism under different fiber cutting angles are investigated.

  12. Harvest timing and techniques to optimize fiber quality - Initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production conditions typical to the Texas High Plains region can produce cotton crops with high short fiber and nep content, both of which have a detrimental impact on ring spinning performance. Since Texas now produces nearly 50% of the US cotton crop annually, it is critical that research focuses...

  13. Evaluating the beam quality of double-cladding fiber lasers in applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Wang, Xuejiao; Gong, Mali; Xiao, Qirong

    2016-08-10

    We put forward a new βFL factor, which is used exclusively in fiber lasers and is suitable to assess beam quality and choose the LP01 mode as the new suitable ideal beam. We present a new simple measurement method and verify the reasonability of the βFL factor in experiment in a 20/400 μm fiber laser. Furthermore, we use the βFL factor to evaluate the beam quality of a 3-kW-level fiber laser. It can be concluded that βFL is a key factor not only for assessing the performance of the high-power fiber laser that is our main focus, but also for the simple measurement.

  14. The effect of pineapple core fiber on dough rheology and the quality of mantou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy-Yu Shiau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of dietary fiber offers the health benefit of lowering the risk of many chronic diseases. Pineapple core fiber (PCF in this study was extracted and incorporated into dough and mantou (i.e., steamed bread. The effects of PCF substitution and fiber size on textural and rheological properties of dough and mantou were evaluated by a texture analyzer. The substitution of wheat flour by PCF resulted in a stiffer and less extensible dough with or without fermentation. The hardness and gumminess of mantou significantly increased as the PCF substitution increased from 0% to 15%, but the cohesiveness, specific volume, and elasticity significantly decreased with the fiber substitution. Ten percent PCF-enriched dough and mantou with various fiber sizes had similar rheological and textural properties, except for the k1 and k2 values. By sensory evaluation, 5% PCF-enriched mantou and the control bread had better acceptability in texture, color, odor, and overall acceptability, compared to mantous enriched with 10% or 15% PCF. Significant correlations existed between the rheological properties of dough and textural parameters of mantou and between the sensory quality and textural parameters of mantou. Therefore, we suggest that fiber-enriched mantou can be prepared with 5% PCF substitution to increase the intake of dietary fiber and maintain the quality of mantou.

  15. Development and evaluation of optical fiber NH3 sensors for application in air quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wieck, Lucas; Tao, Shiquan

    2013-02-01

    Ammonia is a major air pollutant emitted from agricultural practices. Sources of ammonia include manure from animal feeding operations and fertilizer from cropping systems. Sensor technologies with capability of continuous real time monitoring of ammonia concentration in air are needed to qualify ammonia emissions from agricultural activities and further evaluate human and animal health effects, study ammonia environmental chemistry, and provide baseline data for air quality standard. We have developed fiber optic ammonia sensors using different sensing reagents and different polymers for immobilizing sensing reagents. The reversible fiber optic sensors have detection limits down to low ppbv levels. The response time of these sensors ranges from seconds to tens minutes depending on transducer design. In this paper, we report our results in the development and evaluation of fiber optic sensor technologies for air quality monitoring. The effect of change of temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration on fiber optic ammonia sensors has been investigated. Carbon dioxide in air was found not interfere the fiber optic sensors for monitoring NH3. However, the change of humidity can cause interferences to some fiber optic NH3 sensors depending on the sensor's transducer design. The sensitivity of fiber optic NH3 sensors was found depends on temperature. Methods and techniques for eliminating these interferences have been proposed.

  16. Exp2 polymorphisms associated with variation for fiber quality properties in cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daohua He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins thought to affect the quality of cotton fibers. Previous expression profile analysis revealed that six Expansin A genes are present in cotton, of which two (GhExp1 and GhExp2 produce transcripts that are specific to the developing cotton fiber. To identify the phenotypic function of Exp2, and to determine whether nucleotide variation among alleles of Exp2 affects fiber quality, candidate gene association mapping was conducted. Gene-specific primers were designed to amplify the Exp2 gene. By amplicon sequencing, the nucleotide diversity of Exp2 was investigated across 92 accessions (including 7 Gossypium arboreum, 74 Gossypium hirsutum, and 11 Gossypium barbadense accessions with different fiber qualities. Twenty-six SNPs and seven InDels including 14 from the coding region of Exp2 were detected, forming twelve distinct haplotypes in the cotton collection. Among the 14 SNPs in the coding region, five were missense mutations and nine were synonymous nucleotide changes. The average SNP/InDel per nucleotide ratio was 2.61% (one SNP per 39 bp, with 1.81 and 3.87% occurring in coding and non-coding regions, respectively. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity across the entire Exp2 region was 0.00603 (π and 0.844, respectively, and diversity in non-coding regions was higher than that in coding regions. For linkage disequilibrium (LD, the mean r2 value for all polymorphism loci pairs was 0.48, and LD did not decay over 748 bp. Based on 132 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci evenly covering 26 chromosomes, the population structure was estimated, and the accessions were divided into seven groups that agreed well with their genomic origin and evolutionary history. A general linear model was used to calculate the Exp2-wide diversity–trait associations of 5 fiber quality traits, considering population structure (Q. Four SNPs in Exp2 were associated with at least one of the fiber quality traits, but not with

  17. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F14 recombinant inbred line (RIL population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00–14.17% of phenotype variation (PV and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13–34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits.

  18. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Yumei; Shang, Lianguang; Hua, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F 14 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC) population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00-14.17% of phenotype variation (PV) and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13-34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits.

  19. Architectures for radio over fiber transmission of high-quality video and data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander

    with a constraint on complexity. For wireless personal area networks distribution, we explore the notion of joint optimization of physical layer parameters of a fiber-wireless link (optical power levels, wireless transmission distance) and the codec parameters (quantization, error-resilience tools) based...... on the peak signal-to-noise ratio as an objective video quality metric for compressed video transmission. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate uncompressed 1080i highdefinition video distribution in V-band (50–75 GHz) and W-band (75–110 GHz) fiber-wireless links achieving 3 m of wireless transmission...... efficient wired/wireless backhaul of picocell networks. Gigabit signal transmission is realized in combined fiber-wireless-fiber link enabling simultaneous backhaul of dense metropolitan and suburban areas. In this Thesis, we propose a technique to combat periodic chromatic dispersion-induced radio...

  20. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, cooked artichokes, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...

  1. INT WFC pre-discovery detection of the nova M31N 2017-11a (AT2017hvi, PTSS-17zap, TCP J00425419+4130425)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantero-Castaneda, E. A.; Hernandez-Sanchez, M.; Arce-Tord, C.; Esteban-Gutierrez, A.; Garcia-Broock, E.; Garcia-Rivas, M.; Gonzalez-Cuesta, L.; Hermosa-Munoz, L.; Jimenez-Gallardo, A.; Lopez-Navas, E.; Otero-Santos, J.; Prendin, M. G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.; Perez-Fournon, I.

    2017-12-01

    We report the pre-discovery detection of the nova M31N 2017-11a (AT2017hvi, PTSS-17zap, TCP J00425419+4130425) with the Isaac Newton Telescope* Wide Field Camera on the night of 29 October 2017, 4.845 days before the discovery observations on 2017/11/04.695 by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS).

  2. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The superior fiber properties of L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton ( L., but introgression from has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we constructed a linkage map and conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of 10 agronomic and fiber quality traits in a recombinant inbred mapping population derived from a cross between TM-1, an Upland cotton line, and NM24016, an elite line with stabilized introgression from . The linkage map consisted of 429 simple-sequence repeat (SSR and 412 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker loci that covered half of the tetraploid cotton genome. Notably, the 841 marker loci were unevenly distributed among the 26 chromosomes of tetraploid cotton. The 10 traits evaluated on the TM-1 × NM24016 population in a multienvironment trial were highly heritable, and most of the fiber traits showed considerable transgressive variation. Through the QTL analysis, we identified a total of 28 QTLs associated with the 10 traits. Our study provides a novel resource that can be used by breeders and geneticists for the genetic improvement of agronomic and fiber quality traits in Upland cotton.

  3. Fabrication Quality Analysis of a Fiber Optic Refractive Index Sensor Created by CO2 Laser Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the CO2 laser-stripped partial cladding of silica-based optic fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm, which enables them to sense the refractive index of the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate treatments during the machining process can generate a number of defects in the optic fiber sensors. Therefore, the quality of optic fiber sensors fabricated using CO2 laser machining must be analyzed. The results show that analysis of the fiber core size after machining can provide preliminary defect detection, and qualitative analysis of the optical transmission defects can be used to identify imperfections that are difficult to observe through size analysis. To more precisely and quantitatively detect fabrication defects, we included a tensile test and numerical aperture measurements in this study. After a series of quality inspections, we proposed improvements to the existing CO2 laser machining parameters, namely, a vertical scanning pathway, 4 W of power, and a feed rate of 9.45 cm/s. Using these improved parameters, we created optical fiber sensors with a core diameter of approximately 400 μm, no obvious optical transmission defects, a numerical aperture of 0.52 ± 0.019, a 0.886 Weibull modulus, and a 1.186 Weibull-shaped parameter. Finally, we used the optical fiber sensor fabricated using the improved parameters to measure the refractive indices of various solutions. The results show that a refractive-index resolution of 1.8 × 10−4 RIU (linear fitting R2 = 0.954 was achieved for sucrose solutions with refractive indices ranging between 1.333 and 1.383. We also adopted the particle plasmon resonance sensing scheme using the fabricated optical fibers. The results provided additional information, specifically, a superior sensor resolution of 5.73 × 10−5 RIU, and greater linearity at R2 = 0.999.

  4. Single-crystal SrTiO3 fiber grown by laser heated pedestal growth method: influence of ceramic feed rod preparation in fiber quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reyes Ardila

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly spreading use of optical fiber as a transmission medium has created an interest in fiber-compatible optical devices and methods for growing them, such as the Laser Heated Pedestal Growth (LHPG. This paper reports on the influence of the ceramic feed rod treatment on fiber quality and optimization of ceramic pedestal processing that allows improvements to be made on the final quality in a simple manner. Using the LHPG technique, transparent crack-free colorless single crystal fibers of SrTiO3 (0.50 mm in diameter and 30-40 mm in length were grown directly from green-body feed rods, without using external oxygen atmosphere.

  5. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (pchicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796

  6. Quality characteristics and consumer acceptance of yogurt fortified with date fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Khalil, A H; Afifi, H S

    2009-11-01

    Yogurt is considered a healthy food and incorporating dietary fiber will make it even healthier. Date fiber (DF), a by-product of date syrup production, is a good source of dietary fiber. The effect of fortification with DF on fresh yogurt quality was investigated. Acidity, pH, color [L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values], texture profile, sensory properties, and consumer acceptance were studied. Control yogurt (without fiber), yogurt fortified with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% DF, and yogurt with 1.5% wheat bran (WB) were prepared. Fortification with DF did not cause significant changes in yogurt acidity, although pH was increased. Yogurts fortified with DF had firmer texture (higher hardness values) and darker color (lower L* and higher a*) compared with control or WB yogurts. Consumer test results indicated that the appearance, color, and flavor ratings were significantly affected by fiber fortification. Yogurt fortified with up to 3% DF had similar sourness, sweetness, firmness, smoothness, and overall acceptance ratings as the control yogurt. Sensory ratings and acceptability of yogurt decreased significantly when increasing DF to 4.5% or using 1.5% WB. Flavoring yogurt fortified with 4.5% DF with vanilla did not improve flavor or overall acceptance ratings. Thus, fortifying yogurt with 3% DF produced acceptable yogurt with beneficial health effects.

  7. Genetic diversity in upland cotton for cotton leaf curl virus disease, earliness and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, F.; Farooq, J.; Mahmood, A.; Hussain, T.

    2014-01-01

    In Pakistan during last two decades the major factor limiting cotton production is cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield contributing trait, boll weight and fiber related trait, staple length. Earliness related traits, like days taken to 1 square and days taken to 1 flower had positive correlation with each other and both these traits also showed their positive association with ginning out turn. The negative significant correlation of CLCuD was obtained with monopodial branches, sympodial branches and plant height. Principal component (PC) analysis showed first five PCs having eigen value >1 explaining 67.8% of the total variation with days to st 1 square and flowering along with plant height and sympodia plant which were being the most important characters in PC1. Cluster analysis classified 101 accessions into five divergent groups. The genotypes in st cluster 1 only showed reasonable values for days to 1 square and flower, sympodia per plant, ginning out turn, staple length and fiber fineness and the genotypes in cluster 5 showed promising values for the traits like cotton leaf curl virus, ginning out turn and fiber fineness. The genotypes in cluster 1 and 5 may be combined to obtain desirable traits related to earliness and better disease tolerance. Scatter plot and tree diagrams demonstrated sufficient diversity among the cotton accessions for various traits and some extent of association between various clusters. It is concluded that diversity among the genotypes could be utilized for the development of CLCuD resistant lines with increased seed

  8. Effects of the addition of mechanically deboned poultry meat and collagen fibers on quality characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anirene Galvão Tavares; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Teixeira, Jacyara Thaís; Cardoso, Giselle Pereira; Ramos, Alcinéia de Lemos Souza; Fontes, Paulo Rogério

    2011-12-01

    The effects of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) and levels of collagen fibers on comminuted, cooked sausage quality characteristics were investigated using the central composite rotatable design of response surface methodology (RSM). Use of collagen fiber as an additive affected the sausage characteristics, but the effect depended on the amount of the MDPM used. While MDPM additions resulted in higher cooking loss and darker and redder frankfurters, the addition of collagen fibers improved cooking yields and contributed to the lightness of the final product. Higher collagen fiber content was also accompanied by a significant increase in frankfurter hardness regardless of the MDPM content. Use of collagen fibers countered the negative effects of MDPM on sausage quality attributes, especially on cooking yields and final product color. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of cellulose fiber with different fiber length on rheological properties of wheat dough and quality of baked rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Michaela; Kohajdová, Zlatica; Karovičová, Jolana; Kuchtová, Veronika; Minarovičová, Lucia; Tomášiková, Lenka

    2017-09-01

    Powdered cellulose is often used in cereal processing industry. The effects of partial replacement (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5%) of wheat flour by cellulose fiber with different fiber length (80, 120 and 220 µm) on rheological properties of wheat dough and qualitative parameters of baked rolls were studied. Sensory evaluation of baked products was also performed. Mixing and pasting properties of dough were determined by Mixolab. Generally, cellulose-enriched dough was characterized with higher water absorption, dough stability and parameters C2 and C3. Moreover, it was found that parameters C4 and C5 increased with increasing cellulose fiber length. From the results, it was also concluded that the physical parameters of baked rolls containing cellulose were reduced. It was also observed that the incorporation of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length concluded in lower rolls volume compared to cellulose fiber with long fiber length. Texture analyses showed that the firmness of rolls containing cellulose at the substitution level 5% was significantly higher than those of the control, whereas the springiness of wheat rolls was not significantly affected. It was also recorded that the firmness and cohesiveness of baked rolls were higher after the addition of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length. Sensory evaluation indicated that baked rolls with cellulose addition up to 1% were comparable with control rolls. Results also showed that higher levels of cellulose significantly decreased crust, taste, color and porosity of rolls.

  10. Light-leaking region segmentation of FOG fiber based on quality evaluation of infrared image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoting; Wang, Wei; Gao, Feng; Shan, Lianjie; Ma, Yuzhou; Ge, Wenqian

    2014-07-01

    To improve the assembly reliability of Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG), a light leakage detection system and method is developed. First, an agile movement control platform is designed to implement the pose control of FOG optical path component in 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF). Second, an infrared camera is employed to capture the working state images of corresponding fibers in optical path component after the manual assembly of FOG; therefore the entire light transmission process of key sections in light-path can be recorded. Third, an image quality evaluation based region segmentation method is developed for the light leakage images. In contrast to the traditional methods, the image quality metrics, including the region contrast, the edge blur, and the image noise level, are firstly considered to distinguish the image characters of infrared image; then the robust segmentation algorithms, including graph cut and flood fill, are all developed for region segmentation according to the specific image quality. Finally, after the image segmentation of light leakage region, the typical light-leaking type, such as the point defect, the wedge defect, and the surface defect can be identified. By using the image quality based method, the applicability of our proposed system can be improved dramatically. Many experiment results have proved the validity and effectiveness of this method.

  11. An Assessment of Omani Native Sheep Fiber Production and Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mahgoub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool production and quality measurements were carried out on 100 Omani native female sheep (body weight 38.6 ± 5.5 kg; age 993 ± 488 d. Sheep were kept in partially shaded pens and fed ad libitum Rhodes grass hay (crude protein 8.83% plus a daily amount of 200 g general ruminant concentrate (crude protein 16.5% DM. Animals were shorn once a year and samples were taken from the left mid-side site to determine fleece and fiber characteristics. The scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the fine appearance of the wool fibers. A skin sample was used to study the histological arrangement and number of secondary and primary follicles. The greasy fleece weight (GFW in Omani sheep ranged between 0.50- 2.65 kg (mean 1.12 ± 0.43 kg and the GFW expressed as a percentage of BW ranged between 1.0-7.6 with a mean of 2.9 ± 1.16. Clean wool yield in Omani sheep fleece ranged between 57.1 and 88.4% with a mean of 76.4 ± 7.6. Omani sheep fleece contained various staple shapes and had a mean staple length of 22.9 ± 1.16 cm, 4.3 ± 0.8 crimps per staple; and a mean fiber diameter of 46 ± 12 µm. Electron microscopy revealed three types of fibers; wrap-around, angled type and polygonal and elongated scales. This study indicated a wide variation in the wool characteristics of Omani native sheep fleece, which suggested that selection may be employed to improve wool production and quality in these sheep.

  12. Recycled fiber quality from a laboratory-scale blade separator/blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei-Hong Liang; Stephen M. Shaler; Laurence Mott; Leslie Groom

    1994-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive fiber separator/blender was developed to generate useful secondary fibers from hydropulped waste paper. Processing wet hydropulped fiber resulted in a furnish with no change in average fiber length in three out of four types of recycled fibers tested. In all cases, the canadian standard freeness increased after processing compared to...

  13. Recycled fiber quality from a laboratory-scale blade separator/blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei-Hong Liang; Stephen M. Shaler; Laurence Mott; Leslie Groom

    1994-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive fiber separator/blender was developed to generate useful secondary fibers from hydropulped waste paper. Processing wet hydropulped fiber resulted in a furnish with no change in average fiber length in three out of four types of recycled fibers tested. In all cases, the Canadian Standard freeness increased after processing compared to...

  14. Characterization of indigenous gossypium arboreum L. genotypes for various fiber quality traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M. A.; Abbas, A.; Zafar, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) being an Old World cultivated cotton species, evolved in Indo-Pak subcontinent, has been known for conferring resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To the extent of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive report available on the characterization of G. arboreum germplasm. Hence, the present study was conducted to characterize 26 G. arboreum genotypes by deploying univariate and multivariate analysis in 2010 at NIBGE, Faisalabad. All these genotypes were characterized for boll weight, GOT percentage, micronaire value, staple length, fiber bundle strength and uniformity index. Genotypic variation was significant (p<0.01) for all the analyzed traits except boll weight. Maximum boll weight (2.47g) was observed for genotype 23718. GOT ranged from 18.75% (Haroonabad) to 36.94 percentage (DC-116).The finest fiber was obtained from synthetic (4.37 micro g/inch) and this genotype also exhibited the higher values for staple length (23.81 mm) and fiber bundle strength (27.37 g/tex). Range for uniformity index was observed from 76.19 percentage (Garohill) to 77.98 percentage (212). Principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited that first five components accounted for >63 percentage of the total variability. Cluster analysis identified four groups based on their agronomic properties. Significant relationships among different traits can be useful to select best genotypes having good fiber quality traits. These genotypes may prove a valuable resource to fuel the breeding efforts for not only broadening the genetic base of the newly developed material but can also add synergy to various cotton genomic projects. (author)

  15. Transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using step-index fibers having large cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer P; Joshi, Sachin

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus and method for transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using large core step-index silica optical fibers having thick cladding, are described. The thick cladding suppresses diffusion of modal power to higher order modes at the core-cladding interface, thereby enabling higher beam quality, M.sup.2, than are observed for large core, thin cladding optical fibers. For a given NA and core size, the thicker the cladding, the better the output beam quality. Mode coupling coefficients, D, has been found to scale approximately as the inverse square of the cladding dimension and the inverse square root of the wavelength. Output from a 2 m long silica optical fiber having a 100 .mu.m core and a 660 .mu.m cladding was found to be close to single mode, with an M.sup.2=1.6. Another thick cladding fiber (400 .mu.m core and 720 .mu.m clad) was used to transmit 1064 nm pulses of nanosecond duration with high beam quality to form gas sparks at the focused output (focused intensity of >100 GW/cm.sup.2), wherein the energy in the core was laser pulses was about 6 ns. Extending the pulse duration provided the ability to increase the delivered pulse energy (>20 mJ delivered for 50 ns pulses) without damaging the silica fiber.

  16. Variations and Transmission of QTL Alleles for Yield and Fiber Qualities in Upland Cotton Cultivars Developed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

  17. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giband Marc

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb and G. hirsutum (Gh, differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh × Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. Results The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2, 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Conclusions Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and

  18. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacape, Jean-Marc; Llewellyn, Danny; Jacobs, John; Arioli, Tony; Becker, David; Calhoun, Steve; Al-Ghazi, Yves; Liu, Shiming; Palaï, Oumarou; Georges, Sophie; Giband, Marc; de Assunção, Henrique; Barroso, Paulo Augusto Vianna; Claverie, Michel; Gawryziak, Gérard; Jean, Janine; Vialle, Michèle; Viot, Christopher

    2010-06-28

    Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species) are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb) and G. hirsutum (Gh), differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh x Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL) population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2), 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents) and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes) where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity) QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and genetic mapping data across multiple populations and

  19. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae; Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae; Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae; Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae. Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.

  20. Quality of Context Enhancements and Cost Effective Radio over Fiber Network Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed Sherif Mahmoud

    In Communication networks today there is an endless quest for increased capacity and improved quality. With wireless systems being now popular worldwide for allowing users and devices to communicate and share information with each other irrespective of their location, the development of sustainable...... into dynamic context information reliability by developing models and online algorithms that ensure increased reliability for context information exchange. Eventually, the PhD looks into improving network planning by implementing an automated network planning model that takes advantage of both Radio over Fiber...... services. The increased number of mobile users puts a demand on today's networks in terms of application sensitivity, mobility and reliability. Mobile operators are offering various context-aware services and applications to the user. Today, mobile users are demanding access to dynamic context information...

  1. Beer Clarification by Novel Ceramic Hollow-Fiber Membranes: Effect of Pore Size on Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Alessio; Moresi, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the crossflow microfiltration performance of rough beer samples was assessed using ceramic hollow-fiber (HF) membrane modules with a nominal pore size ranging from 0.2 to 1.4 μm. Under constant operating conditions (that is, transmembrane pressure difference, TMP = 2.35 bar; feed superficial velocity, v S = 2.5 m/s; temperature, T = 10 °C), quite small steady-state permeation fluxes (J * ) of 32 or 37 L/m 2 /h were achieved using the 0.2- or 0.5-μm symmetric membrane modules. Both permeates exhibited turbidity beer quality parameters. Moreover, it exhibited J * values of the same order of magnitude of those claimed for the polyethersulfone HF membrane modules currently commercialized. The 1.4-μm asymmetric membrane module yielded quite a high steady-state permeation flux (196 ± 38 L/m 2 /h), and a minimum decline in permeate quality parameters, except for the high levels of turbidity at room temperature and chill haze. In the circumstances, such a membrane module might be regarded as a real valid alternative to conventional powder filters on condition that the resulting permeate were submitted to a final finishing step using 0.45- or 0.65-μm microbially rated membrane cartridges prior to aseptic bottling. A novel combined beer clarification process was thus outlined. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; Baldovino-Pantaleón, Oscar; Domínguez Cruz, Rene F.; Zamarreño, Carlos R.; Matías, Ignacio R.; May-Arrioja, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol) blends using a multimode interference (MMI) fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI) of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends. PMID:25256111

  3. Quality of Recovery Evaluation of the Protection Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Minglei; Chai, Zhicheng; Le, Zichun

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid development of fiber-wireless (FiWi) access network, the protection schemes have got more and more attention due to the risk of huge data loss when failures occur. However, there are few studies on the performance evaluation of the FiWi protection schemes by the unified evaluation criterion. In this paper, quality of recovery (QoR) method was adopted to evaluate the performance of three typical protection schemes (MPMC scheme, OBOF scheme and RPMF scheme) against the segment-level failure in FiWi access network. The QoR models of the three schemes were derived in terms of availability, quality of backup path, recovery time and redundancy. To compare the performance of the three protection schemes comprehensively, five different classes of network services such as emergency service, prioritized elastic service, conversational service, etc. were utilized by means of assigning different QoR weights. Simulation results showed that, for the most service cases, RPMF scheme was proved to be the best solution to enhance the survivability when planning the FiWi access network.

  4. Simplified optical fiber RGB system in evaluating intrinsic quality of Sala mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom Mardziah; Jafri, Mohd. Zubir Mat; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2015-06-01

    This study presents an alternative approach for the nondestructive assessment of fruit quality parameters with the use of a simplified optical fiber red-green-blue system (OF-RGB). The optical sensor system presented in this work is designed to rapidly measure the firmness, acidity, and soluble solid content of an intact Sala mango on the basis of color properties. The system consists of three light-emitting diodes with peak emission at 635 (red), 525 (green), and 470 nm (blue), as well as a single photodetector capable of sensing visible light. The measurements were conducted using the reflectance technique. The analyses were conducted by comparing the results obtained through the proposed system with those measured using two commercial spectrometers, namely, QE65000 and FieldSpec 3. The developed RGB system showed satisfactory accuracy in the measurement of acidity (R2=0.795) and firmness (R2=0.761), but a relatively lower accuracy in the measurement of soluble solid content (R2=0.593) of intact mangoes. The results obtained through OF-RGB are comparable with those measured by QE65000 and FieldSpec 3. This system is a promising new technology with rapid response, easy operation, and low cost with potential applications in the nondestructive assessment of quality attributes.

  5. Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo J. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol blends using a multimode interference (MMI fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends.

  6. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  7. Direct diode lasers with comparable beam quality to fiber, CO2, and solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Kaiman, Michael; Overman, Robert; Glenn, John D.; Tayebati, Parviz

    2012-03-01

    TeraDiode has produced kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 2,040 W from a 50 μm core diameter, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. This was achieved with a novel beam combining and shaping technique using COTS diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.75 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 2-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers.

  8. Qualitative-feed-restricted heavy swine: meat quality and morpho-histochemical characteristics of muscle fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Thomaz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of qualitative feed restriction (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% on pork quality and muscle morpho-histochemical characteristics, 60 castrated male swines were used. Ten animals were slaughtered at 89 kg BW. Other 50 pigs were fed experimental diets and slaughtered at 128 kg BW. Qualitative restriction increased pH45, and water holding capacity, and reduced the redness, yellowness and cholesterol concentrations of Longissimus lumborum. Quadratic tendency for oleic acid contents of loin and fiber cross-section area of Multifidus dorsi (P=0.08 were observed, with maximum point at 11-12% of restriction. No effect (P>0.1 on percentage of M. dorsi fibers SO, FG and FOG was found. The meat from 128-kg-BW pig showed numerically higher values for colorness, water losses, and lipid content and lower shear force than 89-kg-BW pigs. Qualitative feed restriction for finishing swines neither affected negatively pork quality nor modified the muscle fiber profile.Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de restrição alimentar qualitative (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% sobre a qualidade da carne e características morfohistoquímicas musculares, sessenta suínos machos castrados foram utilizados. Dez suínos formaram o grupo abatido inicialmente (89 kg PV e outros 50 suínos foram alimentados com as dietas experimentais e foram abatidos aos 128 kg PV. A restrição qualitativa aumentou o pH45, e a capacidade de retenção de água, bem como reduziu a coloração vermelha e amarela, e o teor de colesterol do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Tendência quadrática para conteúdo de ácido oléico do lombo e da área de seção transversal do músculo Multifidus dorsi (P=0.08 foram observada, com ponto de máxima em11-12% de restrição. Não foi encontrado efeito (P>0.1 na porcentagem de fibras SO, FG e FOG no músculo Multifidus. A carne dos animais abatidos aos 128 kg PV apresentou valores numericamente maiores para coloração, perda de

  9. Effect of laser incidence angle on cut quality of 4 mm thick stainless steel sheet using fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Suvradip; Agrawal, Arpit Kumar; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Fiber laser has potential to outperform the more traditionally used CO2 lasers in sheet metal cutting applications due to its higher efficiency, better beam quality, reliability and ease of beam delivery through optical fiber. It has been however, reported that the higher focusability and shorter wavelength are advantageous for cutting thin metal sheets up to about 2 mm only. Better focasability results in narrower kerf-width, which leads to an earlier flow separation in the flow of assist gas within the kerf, resulting in uncontrolled material removal and poor cut quality. However, the advarse effect of tight focusability can be taken care by shifting the focal point position towards the bottom surface of work-piece, which results in a wider kerf size. This results in a more stable flow within the kerf for a longer depth, which improves the cut quality. It has also been reported that fiber laser has an unfavourable angle of incidence during cutting of thick sections, resulting in poor absorption at the metal surface. Therefore, the effect of laser incidence angle, along with other process parameters, viz. cutting speed and assist gas pressure on the cut quality of 4 mm thick steel sheet has been investigated. The change in laser incidence angle has been incorporated by inclining the beam towards and away from the cut front, and the quality factors are taken as the ratio of kerf width and the striation depth. Besides the absorption of laser radiation, beam inclination is also expected to influence the gas flow characteristics inside the kerf, shear force phenomena on the molten pool, laser beam coupling and laser power distribution at the inclined cut surface. Design of experiment has been used by implementing response surface methodology (RSM) to study the parametric dependence of cut quality, as well as to find out the optimum cut quality. An improvement in quality has been observed for both the inclination due to the combined effect of multiple phenomena.

  10. Comprehensive Analysis of the COBRA-Like (COBL) Gene Family in Gossypium Identifies Two COBLs Potentially Associated with Fiber Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Erli; Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Bao, Jianghao; Zeng, Yanda; Cai, Caiping; Du, Xiongming; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    COBRA-Like (COBL) genes, which encode a plant-specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein, have been proven to be key regulators in the orientation of cell expansion and cellulose crystallinity status. Genome-wide analysis has been performed in A. thaliana, O. sativa, Z. mays and S. lycopersicum, but little in Gossypium. Here we identified 19, 18 and 33 candidate COBL genes from three sequenced cotton species, diploid cotton G. raimondii, G. arboreum and tetraploid cotton G. hirsutum acc. TM-1, respectively. These COBL members were anchored onto 10 chromosomes in G. raimondii and could be divided into two subgroups. Expression patterns of COBL genes showed highly developmental and spatial regulation in G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. Of them, GhCOBL9 and GhCOBL13 were preferentially expressed at the secondary cell wall stage of fiber development and had significantly co-upregulated expression with cellulose synthase genes GhCESA4, GhCESA7 and GhCESA8. Besides, GhCOBL9 Dt and GhCOBL13 Dt were co-localized with previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the favorable allele types of GhCOBL9 Dt had significantly positive correlations with fiber quality traits, indicating that these two genes might play an important role in fiber development. PMID:26710066

  11. Estimation of best parents parents and superior cross combinations for yield and fiber quality related traits in upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Khan, T.M.; Ijaz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Combining ability was studied for identification of potential cultivars and hybrids in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in a 6x6 set of diallel crosses among six genotypes of cotton, i.e., VH-232, CRS-2007, SB-149, GR-156, FH-207, and MARVI carried out on fiber length, fiber fineness, fiber elongation, fiber strength, ginning out tern (GOT) and seed cotton yield. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p < 0.01) differences among the genotypes for all traits. Combining ability studies showed that the mean squares, due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal effects were highly significant in F1 generation. Genetic components, due to GCA and SCA, revealed that traits, such as, fiber length, strength and fineness, showed high proportion of additive type of gene action in F1 generation because of greater GCA variances were greater than SCA variance. GR-156 was the best combiner for lint percentage and fiber length. FH-207 was the best combiner for fiber fineness. FH-207, MARVI and SB-149 were the best general combiners for fiber character and were suggested to be used in future breeding programme to improve fiber quality traits. CRS-2007 x GR-156, CRS-2007 x MARVI, SB-149 x MARVI and VH-232 x SB-149 had higher specific combining ability and reciprocal effects and they can be used for future breeding programme to improve fiber quality. (author)

  12. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  13. The addition effect of Tunisian date seed fibers on the quality of chocolate spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Mohamed Ali; Abbes, Fatma; Mokni, Abir; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail

    2017-04-01

    Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour date seeds, date seed soluble fiber concentrate (DSSFC) and date seed insoluble fiber concentrate (DSIFC) were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers (80-90%). Chocolate spread enriched with 5% of DSSFC presented the highest oil binding capacity (304.62%) compared to the control (102%). Whatever the DSIFC and DSSFC incorporation levels, no significant difference was recorded between the firmness, chewiness, and adhesiveness of prepared chocolate spreads compared to the control (p chocolate spreads enriched by DSIFC and DSSFC were accepted by panelists. These results indicated the value of date seeds as new source of dietary fibers to develop chocolate spread and could also improve health benefits and functional properties. Tunisia is considered to be one of the dates-producing countries. The mean annual yield of date fruits is about 200,000 tons. From this, around 20,000 tons of date seeds could be collected. This by-product of date processing industries could be regarded as an excellent source of dietary fiber with interesting technological functionality and many beneficial effects on human health. Then, date seeds could present a value addition by extraction and use of date seed fiber concentrate in chocolate spread formulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. INFLUENCE OF BLEACHING WITH OZONE AND PEROXIDO OF HYDROGEN IN THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF SECONDARY FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ventorim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Total Chlorine Free (TCF bleaching processes were evaluated for bleaching a secondary fiber of different origens. The samples were bleached to a target brightness of 78 % ISO. The results were interpreted on the basis of chemical cost to reach the target brightness, bleaching yield and bleached pulp quality as measured by viscosity, fluorescence and b* color coordinate. The ozone stage was responsible for improve TCF bleaching performance. The pulp bleached by sequences contained a ozone stage followed by chelation, without interstage washing (ZQ, and a final hydrogen peroxide stage unpressurized (P or pressurized with oxygen (PO, designed as (ZQ(PO showed good results. These sequences decreased pulp b* coordinate significantly and fluorescence slightly. For  all three bleaching processes, it was determined that process yield is negatively affected by hot alkaline stages such as oxygen, O, peroxide, P, and peroxide pressurized with oxygen, (PO and also for the origin of the pulps of secondary fibers.

  15. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Influence of the addition of soy product and wheat fiber on rheological, textural, and other quality characteristics of pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicerina, Virginia; Balestra, Federica; Capozzi, Francesco; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Romani, Santina

    2017-11-17

    The effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with soy paste and wheat fiber on rheological, textural, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of an enriched pizza base (E) was investigated in comparison with those of a control pizza base (C). New ingredients (e.g., enriched cooked ham, whey cheese, and tomato sauce realized using food industry by-products) were also used in E pizza topping to further increase its nutritional properties. Enriched dough was developed first at a laboratory level. Large and small deformation, moisture, leavening activity, and metabolic heat were tested. On the final product, produced at the industrial level, textural, color, sensory, and nutritional analyses were performed. Preliminary rheological analysis was essential to evaluate the suitability of the new pizza to be processed at industrial level. Both pizza dough samples showed a solid elastic-like behavior; however, the addition of soy and fiber increased moisture content of E pizza, due to the water binding ability of soy protein and to the effect of fibers that also decreased E dough elasticity. No differences in extensibility between the two samples were observed, whereas significantly lower values of resistance to extension and dough force were shown in sample E. These differences were likely due to the presence of soy that interfere with gluten formation and to the dietary fibers that interact with water. Ingredients used in E pizza improved its nutritional quality increasing dietary fibers and protein, and decreasing saturated fatty acids and cholesterol content, which contributed to decrease energy value, in terms of kilocalorie reduction. In this work, the effects of using new ingredients (e.g., soy paste, wheat fiber) on the rheological, textural, physicochemical, nutritional, and organoleptic characteristics of an enriched pizza type were investigated both at laboratory and industrial levels. The new pizza provides a product that combines solid

  17. "allometry" Deterministic Approaches in Cell Size, Cell Number and Crude Fiber Content Related to the Physical Quality of Kangkong (Ipomoea reptans) Grown Under Different Plant Density Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, A.; Atiman, S. A.; Puteh, A.; Abdullah, N. A. P.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Zulkeefli, A. A.; Othman, S.

    Kangkong, especially the upland type (Ipomoea reptans) is popularly consumed as a vegetable dish in the South East Asian countries for its quality related to Vitamins (A and C) and crude fiber contents. Higher fiber contents would prevent from the occurrence of colon cancer and diverticular disease. With young stem edible portion, its cell number and size contribute to the stem crude fiber content. The mathematical approach of allometry of cell size, number, and fiber content of stem could be used in determining the 'best' plant density pressure in producing the quality young stem to be consumed. Basically, allometry is the ratio of relative increment (growth or change) rates of two parameters, or the change rate associated to the log of measured variables relationship. Kangkog grown equal or lower than 55 plants m-2 produced bigger individual plant and good quality (physical) kangkong leafy vegetable, but with lower total yield per unit area as compared to those grown at higher densities.

  18. Influence of polysaccharide-based edible coatings as carriers of prebiotic fibers on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María V; Ponce, Alejandra G; Moreira, María R

    2018-05-01

    Little information is available regarding the effect of dietary fibers added into edible coatings on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fruits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium alginate (AL) and chitosan (CH) edible coatings enriched with four different dietary fibers (apple fiber, orange fiber, inulin and oligofructose) on microbiological, nutritional, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries stored for 18 days at 5 °C. The most encouraging results were found for CH coatings (with and without fibers) which significantly inhibited the growth of mesophilic bacteria and yeasts/molds (reductions up to 1.9 log CFU g -1 ), reduced decay rate by more than 50%, enhanced antioxidant properties, retained fruit firmness, delayed off-odor development and improved overall visual quality of blueberries. Oligofructose and orange fiber added to CH coatings enhanced antioxidant properties of fruits and allowed higher reductions in yeast/mold counts compared to the use of CH alone. CH-based coatings enriched with inulin, oligofructose and apple fiber extended sensory shelf life of blueberries by 6 days. AL coatings (with and without fiber) allowed delaying fungal decay and also retaining antioxidant properties but did not improve the microbiological and sensory quality of fruits. The results proved that fiber-enriched CH treatments allowed the maintenance of freshness and the improvement of the quality of ready-to-eat blueberries. It might be an interesting option to offer consumers a healthy product with prebiotic potential and an extended shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effect of Dietary Fiber Enrichment and Different Cooking Methods on Quality of Chicken Nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathera, Ashok K; Riar, C S; Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D P

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly ( p cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly ( p cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content.

  20. Large deflection angle, high-power adaptive fiber optics collimator with preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a monolithic adaptive fiber optics collimator, with a large deflection angle and preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality, that has been tested at a maximal output power at the 300 W level. Additionally, a new measurement method of beam quality (M2 factor) is developed. Experimental results show that the deflection angle of the collimated beam is in the range of 0-0.27 mrad in the X direction and 0-0.19 mrad in the Y direction. The effective working frequency of the device is about 710 Hz. By employing the new measurement method of the M2 factor, we calculate that the beam quality is Mx2=1.35 and My2=1.24, which is in agreement with the result from the beam propagation analyzer and is preserved well with the increasing output power.

  1. Optical spectral signatures of liquids by means of fiber optic technology for product and quality parameter identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Diaz-Herrera, N.; Garcia-Allende, P. B.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.; Francalanci, S.; Paccagnini, A.; Pavone, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    Absorption spectroscopy in the wide 200-1700 nm spectral range is carried out by means of optical fiber instrumentation to achieve a digital mapping of liquids for the prediction of important quality parameters. Extra virgin olive oils from Italy and lubricant oils from turbines with different degrees of degradation were considered as "case studies". The spectral data were processed by means of multivariate analysis so as to obtain a correlation to quality parameters. In practice, the wide range absorption spectra were considered as an optical signature of the liquids from which to extract product quality information. The optical signatures of extra virgin olive oils were used to predict the content of the most important fatty acids. The optical signatures of lubricant oils were used to predict the concentration of the most important parameters for indicating the oil's degree of degradation, such as TAN, JOAP anti-wear index, and water content.

  2. Ultra Stable, Industrial Green Tailored Pulse Fiber Laser with Diffraction-limited Beam Quality for Advanced Micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deladurantaye, P; Roy, V; Desbiens, L; Drolet, M; Taillon, Y; Galarneau, P

    2011-01-01

    We report on a novel pulsed fiber laser platform providing pulse shaping agility at high repetition rates and at a wavelength of 532 nm. The oscillator is based on the direct modulation of a seed laser diode followed by a chain of fiber amplifiers. Advanced Large Mode Area (LMA) fiber designs as well as proprietary techniques to mitigate non-linear effects enable output energy per pulse up to 100 μJ at 1064 nm with diffraction-limited beam quality and narrow line widths suitable for efficient frequency conversion. Ultra stable pulses with tailored pulse shapes were demonstrated in the green region of the spectrum at repetition rates higher than 200 kHz. Pulse durations between 2.5 ns and 640 ns are available, as well as pulse to pulse dynamic shape selection at repetition rates up to 1 MHz. The pulse energy stability at 532 nm is better than ± 1.5%, 3σ, over 10 000 pulses. Excellent beam characteristics were obtained. The M 2 parameter is lower than 1.05, the beam waist astigmatism and beam waist asymmetry are below 10% and below 8% respectively, with high stability over time. We foresee that the small spot size, high repetition rate and pulse tailoring capability of this platform will provide advantages to practitioners who are developing novel, advanced processes in many industrially important applications.

  3. Fabrication of high quality, ultra-long fiber Bragg gratings: up to 2 million periods in phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Mathieu; Loranger, Sébastien; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2014-01-13

    The fabrication and characterization of high quality ultra-long (up to 1m) fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is reported. A moving phase mask and an electro-optic phase-modulation (EOPM) based interferometer are used with a high precision 1-meter long translation stage and compared. A novel interferometer position feedback scheme to simplify the fabrication process is proposed and analyzed. The ultra-long uniform FBGs show near perfect characteristics of a few picometers bandwidth, symmetrical, near theory-matching group-delay and transmission spectra. Grating characterization using optical backscattering reflectometry and chirped FBGs are also demonstrated. Limitations of the schemes are discussed.

  4. Harvest timing and techniques to optimize fiber quality in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production conditions typical to the Texas High Plains region can produce cotton crops with high short fiber and nep content, both of which have a detrimental impact on ring spinning performance. Since Texas now produces nearly 50% of the US cotton crop annually, it is critical that research focuses...

  5. Overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana gibberellic acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene enhance the vegetative growth and fiber quality in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Samanthi Priyanka; Hossain, Md Aktar; Kumar M., Sures; Roslan, Hairul Azman B; Abdullah, Mohammad Puad; Napis, Suhaimi B.; Shukor, Nor Aini Ab.

    2015-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.; Family: Malvaceae), is multipurpose crop, one of the potential alternatives of natural fiber for biocomposite materials. Longer fiber and higher cellulose contents are required for good quality biocomposite materials. However, average length of kenaf fiber (2.6 mm in bast and 1.28 mm in whole plant) is below the critical length (4 mm) for biocomposite production. Present study describes whether fiber length and cellulose content of kenaf plants could be enhanced by increasing GA biosynthesis in plants by overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana Gibberellic Acid 20 oxidase (AtGA20ox) gene. AtGA20ox gene with intron was overexpressed in kenaf plants under the control of double CaMV 35S promoter, followed by in planta transformation into V36 and G4 varieties of kenaf. The lines with higher levels of bioactive GA (0.3–1.52 ng g−1 fresh weight) were further characterized for their morphological and biochemical traits including vegetative and reproductive growth, fiber dimension and chemical composition. Positive impact of increased gibberellins on biochemical composition, fiber dimension and their derivative values were demonstrated in some lines of transgenic kenaf including increased cellulose content (91%), fiber length and quality but it still requires further study to confirm the critical level of this particular bioactive GA in transgenic plants. PMID:26175614

  6. Effect of fiber fractions of prickly pear cactus (nopal) on quality and sensory properties of wheat bread rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Arauza, Juan Carlos; Bárcenas, Diego Guadalupe; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Martínez, Jaime David Pérez; Hernández, Jaime Reyes; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this study the addition of total fiber (TF), insoluble fiber (IF), and soluble fiber (SF) from nopal to wheat flour used to make bread rolls was assessed. The rheological properties of dough as well as quality, texture, sensorial and physical characteristics of the crumb rolls produced were evaluated. The storage (23.50 MPa) and loss modulus (11.95 MPa) for SF-dough were the lowest indicating that a less visco-elastic behavior was obtained. Polarized light microscopy showed that a more homogeneous size and a better distribution of starch granules were developed into SF-dough. Crumb hardness (3.25-4.78 N) and chewiness (0.31-0.81 N) of SF-rolls were lower than the control experiment (3.99-5.81 N and 0.35-1.01 N respectively). Springiness for all treatments was constant (1.0) compared with the control (1.02-0.87) for 2 days of storage. The lowest cohesiveness values (0.24-014) were computed by IF treatment for a similar storage time. The specific crumb volume increased by 12.46, 9.03 and 1.10 % by the addition of SF, TF and IF respectively. The lowest rate of staling was shown by SF-rolls (0.199) and it was followed by TF (0.296), IF (0.381) and control (0.458) treatments. As a result, the highest scores on quality (9.3 out of 10) and sensorial attributes (from 8.9 up to 9.7) were assigned to SF-rolls.

  7. Consumption of whole-grain cereals during weight loss: effects on dietary quality, dietary fiber, magnesium, vitamin B-6, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von T; Martini, Margaret; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Dube, Thomas J; Fiutem, Justin J; Yount, Byron W; Rippe, James M

    2006-09-01

    While various weight-management approaches produce weight loss, they may differ in dietary quality. We monitored changes in nutrient intakes in overweight and obese subjects on three different weight-management programs. Randomized clinical trial (pilot study) with two 12-week phases: phase 1, weekly counseling; phase 2, monitoring only. One hundred eighty nonsmoking, sedentary overweight and obese adults began this outpatient study; 134 (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=30.9+/-2.4; age=42.3+/-1.2 years) were used in analyses. Twenty-four weeks of exercise only (control group), hypocaloric diet plus exercise, or hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise. At weeks 0, 12, and 24, diet quality was assessed by 3-day food records and body weight was measured. Three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise decreased energy intake more than exercise only (P=0.032). By week 12, the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise decreased total fat more than exercise only, which was sustained in the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise at 24 weeks (Pcereals plus exercise reduced saturated fat intake more than exercise only. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise increased total fiber, insoluble fiber (both Pcereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise. Weight-reduction strategies may be associated with reduced intake of micronutrients, such as calcium and vitamin E. However, a hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereal is effective for improving or maintaining other aspects of dietary quality during weight loss.

  8. Optical fiber detectors as in-vivo dosimetry method of quality assurance in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, M.C.; Justus, B.L.; Falkenstein, P.; Huston, A.L.; Ning, H.; Miller, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new in-vivo dosimetry system has been under development for some time using radio luminescent phosphors. These phosphors are activated, metal ion doped glasses (Ex: Cu 1± doped quartz fiber), have excellent optical transparency and offer several potential advantages for radiation dosimetry; including: small size, high sensitivity, linearity of dose response insensitivity to electromagnetic interference. The utility of these phosphors as a detection modality has been limited in real-time dosimetry applications due to the production of Cerenkov radiation in the carrier fiber, which produces a contaminant signal proportional to dose rate as well as the size of the radiation field. One possible method for eliminating this signal is using an electronic gating signal from the accelerator to delay data acquisition during the actual beam pulse, when Cerenkov radiation is produced. Due to the intrinsic properties of our particular scintillator, this method offers the best mechanism for eliminating Cerenkov noise, while retaining the ability to detect individual beam pulses. The dosimeter was tested using an external beam radiotherapy machine that provided pulses of 6 MeV x-rays. Gated detection was used to discriminate the signal collected during the radiation pulses, which included contributions from Cerenkov radiation and native fiber fluorescence, from the signal collected between the radiation pulses, which contained only the long-lived phosphorescence from the Cu 1± doped fused quartz detector. Gated detection of the phosphorescence provided accurate, real-time dose measurements that were linear with absorbed dose, independent of dose rate and that were accurate for all field sizes studied. (author)

  9. Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falate, Rosane; Nike, Karen; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da; Cacao Junior, Eduardo; Muller, Marcia; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose; Fabris, Jose Luis

    2007-01-01

    We report the use of an optical fiber sensor to measure the soybean oil concentration in samples obtained from the mixture of pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil. The operation of the device is based on the long-period grating sensitivity to the surrounding medium refractive index, which leads to measurable modifications in the grating transmission spectrum. The proposed analysis method results in errors in the oil concentration of 0.4% and 2.6% for pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil, respectively. Techniques of total glycerol, dynamic viscosity, density, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were also employed to validate the proposed method. (author)

  10. LHCb Scintillating Fiber detector front end electronics design and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, W. E. W.; Pellegrino, A.; Ietswaard, G. C. M.; Verkooijen, J. C.; Carneiro, U.; Massefferi, A.

    2017-03-01

    The on-detector electronics of the LHCb Scintillating Fiber Detector consists of multiple PCBs assembled in a unit called Read Out Box, capable of reading out 2048 channels with an output rate of 70 Gbps. There are three types of boards: PACIFIC, Clusterization and Master Board. The Pacific Boards host PACIFIC ASICs, with pre-amplifier and comparator stages producing two bits of data per channel. A cluster-finding algorithm is then run in an FPGA on the Clusterization Board. The Master Board distributes fast and slow control, and power. We describe the design, production and test of prototype PCBs.

  11. Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falate, Rosane [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica; Nike, Karen; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Cacao Junior, Eduardo; Muller, Marcia; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose; Fabris, Jose Luis [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: fabris@utfpr.edu.br

    2007-07-01

    We report the use of an optical fiber sensor to measure the soybean oil concentration in samples obtained from the mixture of pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil. The operation of the device is based on the long-period grating sensitivity to the surrounding medium refractive index, which leads to measurable modifications in the grating transmission spectrum. The proposed analysis method results in errors in the oil concentration of 0.4% and 2.6% for pure biodiesel and commercial soybean oil, respectively. Techniques of total glycerol, dynamic viscosity, density, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were also employed to validate the proposed method. (author)

  12. Fiber-Optic Chemiluminescent Biosensors for Monitoring Aqueous Alcohols and Other Water Quality Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); DeHart, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Wheeler, Richard R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A "reagentless" chemiluminescent biosensor and method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide, ethanol and D-glucose in water is disclosed. An aqueous stream is basified by passing it through a solid phase base bed. Luminol is then dissolved in the basified effluent at a controlled rate. Oxidation of the luminol is catalyzed by the target chemical to produce emitted light. The intensity of the emitted light is detected as a measure of the target chemical concentration in the aqueous stream. The emitted light can be transmitted by a fiber optic bundle to a remote location from the aqueous stream for a remote reading of the target chemical concentration.

  13. Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation...

  14. Pulsed 1.55μm all-fiber laser combining high energy, ultranarrow linewidth and optimal spatial beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Flavien; Hernandez, Yves; Kinet, Damien; Giannone, Domenico; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoît

    2008-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the study of a new all-fiber laser source suitable for coherent Doppler LIDAR use in the eyesafe domain. The laser consists on a MOPA configuration where the Master Oscillator is a modulated ultranarrow (< 8 kHz) fiber laser. The optical amplifiers are also all-fibered and make use of a new Large Mode Area (LMA) index pedestal fiber that is very effective in limiting the non-linear effects without quality degradation of the laser beam. The amplified pulses have a maximum energy of 0.15 mJ for a duration of 340 ns at a repetition rate of 15 kHz. The average output power of the laser is 2.5 W, free of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and with a measured M2 = 1.3.

  15. Sensory qualities of pastry products enriched with dietary fiber and polyphenolic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolka, Patrycja; Górecka, Danuta; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour. For decreasing the energy value of the products tested (crispy cookies, muesli cookies, waffles and pancakes) some ingredients were replaced: vegetable butter or oil by inulin and wheat flour by roasted buckwheat flour and thermally processed buckwheat hull. The substances mentioned are rich sources of soluble and insoluble buckwheat fiber, and also polyphenolic substances. Dry chokeberry and mulberry leaf extract were added as a rich source of flavonoids and 1-deoxynorijimycin, respectively. These substances are recommended for people with obesity. The processing was carried out at 175°C for 15 minutes using a convection oven (Rational Combi-Steamer CCC). Pastry products with buckwheat flour, buckwheat hulls, mulberry extract, chokeberry and inulin had a lower food energy, a higher dietary fiber content and scored high on customer desirability. Pastry products which contain ingredients carrying biologically active substances are not only attractive from the sensory point of view, but also low in calories, and are thus recommendable for obesity people.

  16. Eat-by-light fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food quality and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Grimaldi, M. F.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-06-01

    A selection is presented of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices that have been designed and tested for guaranteeing the quality and safety of typical foods, such as extra virgin olive oil, beer, and milk. Scattered colorimetry is used to authenticate various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids, which are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma that is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil is also presented. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk, is experimented.

  17. Eat-by-light: fiber-optic and micro-optic devices for food safety and quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Cucci, C.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cimato, A.; Attilio, C.; Thienpont, H.; Ottevaere, H.; Paolesse, R.; Mastroianni, M.; Monti, D.; Buonocore, G.; Del Nobile, A.; Mentana, A.; Dall'Asta, C.; Faccini, A.; Galaverna, G.; Dossena, A.

    2007-07-01

    A selection of fiber-optic and micro-optic devices is presented designed and tested for monitoring the quality and safety of typical foods, namely the extra virgin olive oil, the beer, and the milk. Scattered colorimetry is used for the authentication of various types of extra virgin olive oil and beer, while a fiber-optic-based device for UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is exploited in order to obtain the hyperspectral optical signature of olive oil. This is done not only for authentication purposes, but also so as to correlate the spectral data with the content of fatty acids that are important nutritional factors. A micro-optic sensor for the detection of olive oil aroma is presented. It is capable of distinguishing different ageing levels of extra virgin olive oil. It shows effective potential for acting as a smart cap of bottled olive oil in order to achieve a non-destructive olfactory perception of oil ageing. Lastly, a compact portable fluorometer is experimented for the rapid monitoring of the carcinogenic M1 aflatoxin in milk.

  18. Assessment of quality parameters in grapes during ripening using a miniature fiber-optic near-infrared spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Novales, Juan; López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa; García-Mesa, José-Antonio; González-Caballero, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the chemical properties of wine grapes during ripening were studied using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A miniature fiber-optic NIR spectrometer system working in transmission mode in the spectral region (700 - 1,060 nm) was evaluated for this purpose. Spectra and analytical data were used to develop partial least square calibration models to quantify changes in the major parameters used to chart ripening in this fruit. NIR spectroscopy provided excellent precision for soluble solid content and for reducing sugars, and good precision for maturity index, while for pH and titratable acidity the miniature NIR spectroscopy instrument proved less accurate. The performance of the instrument in classifying wine grapes by grape type and by irrigation regime was also studied. Percentages of correctly classified samples ranged from 82.7% to 96.2%. The results show that the monitoring of soluble solid content and reducing sugars' changes in wine grape quality parameters during ripening, as well as the classification of grapes, can be performed non-destructively using a miniature fiber-optic NIR spectrometer.

  19. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of variable-row-spacing harvesting picker platform scraping plates on cotton fiber quality and quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Michele de Campos Baraviera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been increasing demands for high-quality cotton fibers that meet the textile industry quality standards. Concurrently, there have been efforts to reduce contaminants during harvesting to reduce harvesting costs. The goal of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of the picker platform with Variable-Row-Spacing (VRS for harvesting cotton in narrow rows, over two harvest seasons in two regions within the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. In this study, how the presence vs. absence of scraping plates and variations in travel speed was related to quantifiable levels of impurities the harvested fibers was examined. The research was divided into three experiments (Exp. I, II, and III, using cotton varieties FM 975 WS, IMA 5672 B2 RF, and IMA 5675 B2 RF, with row spacing of 0.45 m. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 ? 3 factorial design, using the presence/absence of the plate and three speeds (0.61, 1.0, and 1.42 m·s-¹, with seven repetitions, totaling 42 experimental plots. The plot size was 108 m² (3.6 ? 30 m. The data were analyzed using the F test in ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test (p < 0.05. The results showed that scraping plates increased the number of stems and cones, and reduced the harvest efficiency of cotton planted in narrow rows in the region of Sorriso-MT during the 2013/2014 harvest. For the 2014/2015 harvest, the highest speed and the presence of the scraping plates increased the number of cones in the cotton samples. In the experiment conducted in Serra da Petrovina, the removal of the scraping plates decreased the amount of cones in the harvested cotton.

  1. Preslaughter Transport Effect on Broiler Meat Quality and Post-mortem Glycolysis Metabolism of Muscles with Different Fiber Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Chen, Xiangxing; Zhu, Xudong; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-11-29

    Preslaughter transport has been reported to decrease the quality of breast meat but not thigh meat of broilers. However, tissue-specific difference in glycogen metabolism between breast and thigh muscles of transported broilers has not been well studied. We thus investigated the differences in meat quality, adenosine phosphates, glycolysis, and bound key enzymes associated with glycolysis metabolism in skeletal muscles with different fiber types of preslaughter transported broilers during summer. Compared to a 0.5 h transport, a 3 h transport during summer decreased ATP content, increased AMP content and AMP/ATP ratio, and accelerated glycolysis metabolism via the upregulation of glycogen phosphorylase expression accompanied by increased activities of bound glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in pectoralis major muscle, which subsequently increased the likelihood of pale, soft, and exudative-like breast meat. On the other hand, a 3 h transport induced only a moderate glycolysis metabolism in tibialis anterior muscle, which did not cause any noticeable changes in the quality traits of the thigh meat.

  2. CUSTOMER PERCEIVED QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF SYNTHETIC FIBER USING FUZZY QFD: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Kabir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the ready-made garment (RMG industry has been one of the most notable success stories of the Bangladesh economy over two decades. To meet the growing demand of synthetic yarns, Bangladesh has to import it from foreign countries which cost a substantial amount of foreign currency for the country. It is a pressing need for local manufacturers to come forward, produce quality synthetic yarn and fulfill the demand of the local market. The purpose of this paper is to present a Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (FQFD model to indentify customer requirements and also demonstrate how these requirements can be used to prioritize the design requirements for manufacturing of synthetic yarns. In this system, Fuzzy set theory is integrated into house of quality (HOQ to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional QFD and to capture the inherent impreciseness and vagueness of customer requirements and facilitate to prioritize QFD information. Improving high priority design requirements will ultimately increase customer satisfaction and as a result customer perceived quality will soar.

  3. FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control. Fresh and barkless large (betung bamboo chips of 2 year's old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO; P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC; P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV; and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO.After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for

  4. CUSTOMER PERCEIVED QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF SYNTHETIC FIBER USING FUZZY QFD: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Golam Kabir; M. Ahsan Akhtar Hasin

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the ready-made garment (RMG) industry has been one of the most notable success stories of the Bangladesh economy over two decades. To meet the growing demand of synthetic yarns, Bangladesh has to import it from foreign countries which cost a substantial amount of foreign currency for the country. It is a pressing need for local manufacturers to come forward, produce quality synthetic yarn and fulfill the demand of the local market. The purpose of this paper is to present a ...

  5. Analysis on the grinding quality of palm oil fibers by using combined grinding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, H. L.; Gan, L. M.; Law, H. C.

    2015-12-01

    As known, Malaysia is the second largest palm oil producer worldwide after Indonesia, therefore indicating the abundance of its wastes within the country. The plantation would be seen to increase to at least 5.2 million ha by 2020, and the waste generation would be 50-70 times the plantation. However, the efficiency of bulk density is reduced. This is one of the main reasons of the initiation of this size reduction/ grinding research. With appropriate parameters, grinding will be seen to be helping in enhancing the inter-particle bindings, subsequently increasing the quality of final products. This paper focuses on the grinding quality involving palm oil wastes by using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples would first be ground to powder at varying grinding speed and finally got the randomly chosen particles measured to obtain the size range. The grinding speed was manipulated from 15 Hz to 40 Hz. From the data obtained, it was found the particles fineness increased with increasing grinding speed. In general, the size ranged from 45 μm to about 600 μm, where the finest was recorded at the speed of 40 Hz. It was also found that the binding was not so encouraging at very low speeds. Therefore, the optimum grinding speed for oil palm residues lied in the range of 25 Hz to 30 Hz. However, there were still limitations to be overcome if the accuracy of the image clarity is to be enhanced.

  6. Improved image quality of cone beam CT scans for radiotherapy image guidance using fiber-interspaced antiscatter grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Uros; van Herk, Marcel; Ploeger, Lennert S; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-06-01

    Medical linear accelerator mounted cone beam CT (CBCT) scanner provides useful soft tissue contrast for purposes of image guidance in radiotherapy. The presence of extensive scattered radiation has a negative effect on soft tissue visibility and uniformity of CBCT scans. Antiscatter grids (ASG) are used in the field of diagnostic radiography to mitigate the scatter. They usually do increase the contrast of the scan, but simultaneously increase the noise. Therefore, and considering other scatter mitigation mechanisms present in a CBCT scanner, the applicability of ASGs with aluminum interspacing for a wide range of imaging conditions has been inconclusive in previous studies. In recent years, grids using fiber interspacers have appeared, providing grids with higher scatter rejection while maintaining reasonable transmission of primary radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of one such grid on CBCT image quality. The grid used (Philips Medical Systems) had ratio of 21:1, frequency 36 lp/cm, and nominal selectivity of 11.9. It was mounted on the kV flat panel detector of an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and tested in a phantom and a clinical study. Due to the flex of the linac and presence of gridline artifacts an angle dependent gain correction algorithm was devised to mitigate resulting artifacts. Scan reconstruction was performed using XVI4.5 augmented with inhouse developed image lag correction and Hounsfield unit calibration. To determine the necessary parameters for Hounsfield unit calibration and software scatter correction parameters, the Catphan 600 (The Phantom Laboratory) phantom was used. Image quality parameters were evaluated using CIRS CBCT Image Quality and Electron Density Phantom (CIRS) in two different geometries: one modeling head and neck and other pelvic region. Phantoms were acquired with and without the grid and reconstructed with and without software correction which was adapted for the different acquisition

  7. Improved image quality of cone beam CT scans for radiotherapy image guidance using fiber-interspaced antiscatter grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, Uros; Herk, Marcel van; Ploeger, Lennert S.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Medical linear accelerator mounted cone beam CT (CBCT) scanner provides useful soft tissue contrast for purposes of image guidance in radiotherapy. The presence of extensive scattered radiation has a negative effect on soft tissue visibility and uniformity of CBCT scans. Antiscatter grids (ASG) are used in the field of diagnostic radiography to mitigate the scatter. They usually do increase the contrast of the scan, but simultaneously increase the noise. Therefore, and considering other scatter mitigation mechanisms present in a CBCT scanner, the applicability of ASGs with aluminum interspacing for a wide range of imaging conditions has been inconclusive in previous studies. In recent years, grids using fiber interspacers have appeared, providing grids with higher scatter rejection while maintaining reasonable transmission of primary radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of one such grid on CBCT image quality. Methods: The grid used (Philips Medical Systems) had ratio of 21:1, frequency 36 lp/cm, and nominal selectivity of 11.9. It was mounted on the kV flat panel detector of an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and tested in a phantom and a clinical study. Due to the flex of the linac and presence of gridline artifacts an angle dependent gain correction algorithm was devised to mitigate resulting artifacts. Scan reconstruction was performed using XVI4.5 augmented with inhouse developed image lag correction and Hounsfield unit calibration. To determine the necessary parameters for Hounsfield unit calibration and software scatter correction parameters, the Catphan 600 (The Phantom Laboratory) phantom was used. Image quality parameters were evaluated using CIRS CBCT Image Quality and Electron Density Phantom (CIRS) in two different geometries: one modeling head and neck and other pelvic region. Phantoms were acquired with and without the grid and reconstructed with and without software correction which was adapted for the different

  8. Low-Fiber Diet in Limited Bowel Preparation for CT Colonography: Influence on Image Quality and Patient Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedenbaum, Marjolein H.; Denters, Maaike J.; de Vries, Ayso H.; van Ravesteijn, Vincent F.; Bipat, Shandra; Vos, Frans M.; Dekker, Evelien; Stoker, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a low-fiber diet is necessary for optimal tagging-only bowel preparation for CT colonography. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Fifty consecutively enrolled patients received an iodine bowel preparation: 25 patients used a low-fiber diet and 25 used

  9. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems...... require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely...

  10. Fiber webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; James S. Han; Von L. Byrd

    2005-01-01

    Wood fibers can be used to produce a wide variety of low-density three-dimensional webs, mats, and fiber-molded products. Short wood fibers blended with long fibers can be formed into flexible fiber mats, which can be made by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber melt matrix technologies. The most common types of flexible mats are carded, air...

  11. Osmotic distillation and quality evaluation of sucrose, apple and orange juices in hollow fiber membrane contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Waheed Ur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose solution, apple and orange juices were concentrated through osmotic distillation (OD process using a mini-module Liqui-CelTM hollow fibre membrane contactor. Mass transport characteristics of water molecules from feed to stripping solution were studied. Process parameters such as feed temperature, feed flow rate and concentration of stripping solution (CaCl2 were varied. Sucrose solution was concentrated from 135 to 510 g TSS kg-1 in 340 min using feed-in- -lumen flow configuration at a start-up water flux of 0.250 L m-2 h-1 and a temperature of 30°C. Similarly, it was concentrated up to 510 g TSS kg-1 in 200 min using feed-in-shell flow configuration at a start-up water flux of 0.505 L m-2 hr1 and a temperature of 30°C. In a total recycle time of 340 min, clarified apple and orange juices were concentrated up to 500 g TSS kg-1 using feed-in-lumen flow configuration at a start-up water flux of 0.204 and 0.294 L m-2 hr1, respectively. It was found that quality parameters of fruit juices were well improved after the osmotic distillation process. The process therefore has good potential for application in the fruit processing industry for concentration of fruit juices.

  12. Dietary energy source affecting fat deposition mechanism, muscle fiber metabolic and overall meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Hijazeen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD, and sugar based diet (SD. Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability.

  13. Evaluation of quality parameters of sausages made with rabbit meat, lamb and pork, added with wheat fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Cobos-Velazsco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The difference among animal species with which chorizo is made, resulting in changes in the techno-functional properties that affect the process and acceptance of product. Sausages made with meat from rabbit, pork and lamb sources were added with wheat fiber and dried at water activity of 0.94. The moisture content was not affected by the source, but it was reduced when fiber was added. The sausages without fiber showed a lower fat content than those samples with fiber. They can be considered stable at room temperature due to their acidity and drying degree. Regarding to the weight loss and diameter of the sausage parameters, there were no differences between source types, however, a reduction of diameter was observed with the addition of fiber. Sausages with lamb meat and fiber showed an increase in oxidation. Higher values of luminosity were obtained in pork sausages. The most preferred samples were the pork meat sausages with the presence of fiber.

  14. Flax fibers as a raw material: How to bleach efficiently a non-woody plant to obtain high-quality pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillat, Ursula; Pepio, Montserrat; Vidal, Teresa; Roncero, M. Blanca

    2010-01-01

    Fiber crops constitute a good alternative to wood fiber for manufacturing pulp and paper. In fact, fiber plants like flax surpass wood fiber in some technical respects and also in the environmental benignity of their processing. In this work, flax fiber was subjected to environmentally friendly bleaching sequences in order to obtain a high-quality pulp. The totally chlorine-free sequences (TCF) used for this purpose (LE and LRE) included an enzyme treatment with laccase in the presence of HBT as mediator (L stage), an alkaline extraction (E stage) and a reductive treatment with NaBH 4 (R stage). The operating conditions for the L stage (laccase and HBT doses, reaction time and oxygen pressure) were optimised by using a sequential statistical plan to assess their influence on pulp properties after the E stage. Mathematical models accurately predicting brightness and kappa number in terms of the previous four variables were developed based on which the most influential factors were the laccase and HBT rates, and treatment time. By contrast, oxygen pressures of 0.2-0.6 MPa in the reactor had no effect on brightness or kappa number. The flax pulp obtained contained some oxidized cellulose that was partially degraded in the alkaline extraction step and reduced viscosity as a result. The viscosity loss associated with the presence of oxidized cellulose in the control and enzyme-treated pulp samples was efficiently recovered by using a reductive stage with sodium borohydride. Effluent was also analysed in order to assess the environmental impact of the process.

  15. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.

  16. Minimization of operational impacts on spectrophotometer color measurements for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key cotton quality and processing property that is gaining increasing importance is the color of the cotton. Cotton fiber in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd and +b. Rd and +b are specific to cotton fiber and are not typical ...

  17. Photorefractive Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuzyk, Mark G

    2003-01-01

    ... scope of the project. In addition to our work in optical limiting fibers, spillover results included making fiber-based light-sources, writing holograms in fibers, and developing the theory of the limits of the nonlinear...

  18. The meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and fatty acid profile in Jinjiang and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study compared the meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, and fatty acids between Jinjiang yellow cattle (JJ and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle (SJ which were offered the same diet. Methods Six JJ and six SJ individuals were reared and fattened from 10 to 26 months of age. After feeding, the highrib (HR, ribeye (RB, and tenderloin (TL samples were taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Results The results showed that growth performance of SJ was higher than that of JJ (higher live weight and average daily gain, and the hot carcass weight of SJ was higher than that of JJ (p<0.05. pH of JJ was higher than that of SJ in TL (p<0.05; the color of a* of SJ was higher than that of JJ in TL and RB (p<0.05; the cooking loss of SJ was significantly lower than that of JJ in TL and RB (p<0.05; the shear force value was significantly lower in SJ compared to JJ (p<0.05; the muscle fiber diameter was higher and the fiber density was lower in SJ compared to JJ in HR and TL (p<0.05; compared to SJ, the muscles of JJ had higher saturated fatty acid (SFA composition; the sum of monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA were lower in the muscle of JJ; the mRNA expressions of myosin heavy chain-I (MyHC-I and MyHC-IIa were higher in SJ compared to JJ in muscle of HR and RB; the mRNA expressions of MyHC-IIx and MyHC-IIb were lower in SJ compared to JJ in HR and RB (p<0.05. Conclusion Meat quality and fatty acid profile differed between SJ and JJ; the muscle of SJ had higher a* and SFA; SJ had lower cooking loss, shear force and PUFA compared to the muscle of JJ. In addition, the type and development characteristics of the muscle fiber had some difference between SJ and JJ; these might be factors which caused the differences in meat quality and fatty acid profile between SJ and JJ.

  19. High-quality phase-shifted Bragg grating sensor inscribed with only one laser pulse in a polymer optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Pereira, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first phase-shifted polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensor inscribed with only one KrF laser pulse. The phase shift defect was created directly during the grating inscription process by placing a very narrow blocking aperture, in the center of the UV beam. One laser pulse...

  20. Effect of Endodontic Retreatment on Push-out Bond Strength and Quality of Fiber Postbonding Interface of Resin Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrine, Rina Andréa; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Kato, Augusto Shoji; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of endodontic retreatment on push-out bond strength and dentin interface of two resin cements used for fiber postcementation during endodontic retreatment. The root canals of 40 extracted human canines were prepared, obturated and divided into four groups (n = 10). Gutta-percha was partially removed and fiber posts were immediately cemented in groups 1 and 2 using Panavia F with ED Primer and RelyX™ U200, respectively. In groups 3 and 4, the root canal access was sealed with temporary restorative cement, specimens were stored for 30 days, endodontically retreated, and fiber posts were cemented using the resin cements applied to groups 1 and 2, respectively. Push-out tests and scanning electron microscopy analyses of different areas were performed. Data from push-out bond strengths were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests. Higher bond strength values were detected in the apical third for group 1 than group 3 (p 0.05). Comparisons between different thirds in the same group revealed a higher bond strength in the apical third for group 1. Scanning electron microscopy showed formation of hybrid layer and extensive resin tags in group 1. No hybrid layer was observed in groups 2 and 4. Endodontic retreatment had adverse effects on the push-out bond strength and dentinal interface of Panavia F with ED Primer when used for fiber postcementation specifically in the apical third, but not on RelyX™ U200. A significant interaction was detected between endodontic retreatment and resin cement, which indicated that endodontic retreatment might adversely affect the push-out bond strength and dentinal interface of Panavia F with ED Primer when used for fiber postcementation specifically in the apical third.

  1. Fiber dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowicz, P.J.; Yeh, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis is the motion of uncharged particles in nonuniform electric fields. We find that the theoretical dielectrophoretic velocity of a conducting fiber in an insulating medium is proportional to the square of the fiber length, and is virtually independent of fiber diameter. This prediction has been verified experimentally. The results point to the development of a fiber length classifier based on dielectrophoresis. (author)

  2. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....

  3. Enriching an intraspecific genetic map and identifying QTL for fiber quality and yield component traits across multiple environments in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueying; Teng, Zhonghua; Wang, Jinxia; Wu, Tiantian; Zhang, Zhiqin; Deng, Xianping; Fang, Xiaomei; Tan, Zhaoyun; Ali, Iftikhar; Liu, Dexin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Dajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zhengsheng

    2017-12-01

    Cotton is a significant commercial crop that plays an indispensable role in many domains. Constructing high-density genetic maps and identifying stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling agronomic traits are necessary prerequisites for marker-assisted selection (MAS). A total of 14,899 SSR primer pairs designed from the genome sequence of G. raimondii were screened for polymorphic markers between mapping parents CCRI 35 and Yumian 1, and 712 SSR markers showing polymorphism were used to genotype 180 lines from a (CCRI 35 × Yumian 1) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Genetic linkage analysis was conducted on 726 loci obtained from the 712 polymorphic SSR markers, along with 1379 SSR loci obtained in our previous study, and a high-density genetic map with 2051 loci was constructed, which spanned 3508.29 cM with an average distance of 1.71 cM between adjacent markers. Marker orders on the linkage map are highly consistent with the corresponding physical orders on a G. hirsutum genome sequence. Based on fiber quality and yield component trait data collected from six environments, 113 QTLs were identified through two analytical methods. Among these 113 QTLs, 50 were considered stable (detected in multiple environments or for which phenotypic variance explained by additive effect was greater than environment effect), and 18 of these 50 were identified with stability by both methods. These 18 QTLs, including eleven for fiber quality and seven for yield component traits, could be priorities for MAS.

  4. The meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and fatty acid profile in Jinjiang and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Wang, Shizhi; Yan, Peishi

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, and fatty acids between Jinjiang yellow cattle (JJ) and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle (SJ) which were offered the same diet. Six JJ and six SJ individuals were reared and fattened from 10 to 26 months of age. After feeding, the highrib (HR), ribeye (RB), and tenderloin (TL) samples were taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. The results showed that growth performance of SJ was higher than that of JJ (higher live weight and average daily gain), and the hot carcass weight of SJ was higher than that of JJ (pJJ was higher than that of SJ in TL (pJJ in TL and RB (pJJ in TL and RB (pJJ (pJJ in HR and TL (pJJ had higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition; the sum of monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were lower in the muscle of JJ; the mRNA expressions of myosin heavy chain-I (MyHC-I) and MyHC-IIa were higher in SJ compared to JJ in muscle of HR and RB; the mRNA expressions of MyHC-IIx and MyHC-IIb were lower in SJ compared to JJ in HR and RB (pJJ; the muscle of SJ had higher a* and SFA; SJ had lower cooking loss, shear force and PUFA compared to the muscle of JJ. In addition, the type and development characteristics of the muscle fiber had some difference between SJ and JJ; these might be factors which caused the differences in meat quality and fatty acid profile between SJ and JJ.

  5. Historical Datasets Support Genomic Selection Models for the Prediction of Cotton Fiber Quality Phenotypes Across Multiple Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapare, Washington; Liu, Shiming; Conaty, Warren; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Gillespie, Vanessa; Llewellyn, Danny; Stiller, Warwick; Wilson, Iain

    2018-03-20

    Genomic selection (GS) has successfully been used in plant breeding to improve selection efficiency and reduce breeding time and cost. However, there has not been a study to evaluate GS prediction models that may be used for predicting cotton breeding lines across multiple environments. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Bayes Ridge Regression, BayesA, BayesB, BayesC and Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces regression models. We then extended the single-site GS model to accommodate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) in order to assess the merits of multi- over single-environment models in a practical breeding and selection context in cotton, a crop for which this has not previously been evaluated. Our study was based on a population of 215 upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) breeding lines which were evaluated for fiber length and strength at multiple locations in Australia and genotyped with 13,330 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers. BayesB, which assumes unique variance for each marker and a proportion of markers to have large effects, while most other markers have zero effect, was the preferred model. GS accuracy for fiber length based on a single-site model varied across sites, ranging from 0.27 to 0.77 (mean = 0.38), while that of fiber strength ranged from 0.19 to 0.58 (mean = 0.35) using randomly selected sub-populations as the training population. Prediction accuracies from the M×E model were higher than those for single-site and across-site models, with an average accuracy of 0.71 and 0.59 for fiber length and strength, respectively. The use of the M×E model could therefore identify which breeding lines have effects that are stable across environments and which ones are responsible for G×E and so reduce the amount of phenotypic screening required in cotton breeding programs to identify adaptable genotypes. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  6. Arc-welding quality assurance by means of embedded fiber sensor and spectral processing combining feature selection and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirapeix, J.; García-Allende, P. B.; Cobo, A.; Conde, O.; López-Higuera, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    A new spectral processing technique designed for its application in the on-line detection and classification of arc-welding defects is presented in this paper. A non-invasive fiber sensor embedded within a TIG torch collects the plasma radiation originated during the welding process. The spectral information is then processed by means of two consecutive stages. A compression algorithm is first applied to the data allowing real-time analysis. The selected spectral bands are then used to feed a classification algorithm, which will be demonstrated to provide an efficient weld defect detection and classification. The results obtained with the proposed technique are compared to a similar processing scheme presented in a previous paper, giving rise to an improvement in the performance of the monitoring system.

  7. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  8. Development in high speed and high quality laser cutting process in fiber reinforced plastics; FRP no laser ni yoru kosoku, kohinshitsu setsudan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishide, T.; Shirota, H.; Matsumoto, O. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    Trimming was performed and studied by cutting KFRP, an epoxy matrix with Kevlar fiber woven thereinto, using various laser beams. The CO2 laser is capable of high-speed cutting but the product is low in quality. The surface of a cut by the YAG laser is not high in quality even with its peak output elevated. The thermally affected area is smaller under the excimer laser but it is low in cutting speed. The ablation properties of the excimer laser were investigated and the beam was shaped into a linear beam for another experiment, but it failed to attain the target speed of cutting. Next, a combination of excimer laser and CO2 laser was used for cutting. It was so designed that the preceding CO2 laser cuts the KFRP at a high speed to leave behind a carbonized layer, which is followed by a linear beam which vaporizes the carbonized layer for removal. An optical system is adopted for reshaping the excimer oscillated beam into a tube-like beam. Optical conditions were determined for a fluence value required for the removal of the carbonized layer. When the CO2 laser was set at 160W and the excimer laser at 20W, a 1mm-thick sheet was successfully cut at a speed of 16.7mm/sec. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Preslaughter handling effects on pork quality and glycolytic potential in two muscles differing in fiber type composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Newman, D.J.; Smits, C.H.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of transportation, lairage, and preslaughter stressor treatment on glycolytic potential and pork quality of the glycolytic longissimus and the oxidative supraspinatus (SSP) or serratus ventralis (SV) muscles. In a 2 x 2 x 2

  10. Bluebonnet Fiber Collages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses stitching and applique techniques to create a fiber collage in which every child is successful with high-quality work. This lesson was inspired by Tomie dePaola's "The Legend of the Bluebonnet." The back cover had a lovely illustration of the bluebonnet flower the author thought would translate easily to a…

  11. FIBER OPTIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir BATUR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been many important and valuable developments in the communication industry. The huge increase in the sound, data and visual communications has caused a parallel increase in the demand for systems with wider capacity, higher speed and higher quality. Communication systems that use light to transfer data are immensely increased. There have recently many systems in which glass or plastic fiber cables were developed for light wave to be transmitted from a source to a target place. Fiber optic systems, are nowadays widely used in energy transmission control systems, medicine, industry and lighting. The basics of the system is, movement of light from one point to another point in fiber cable with reflections. Fiber optic lighting systems are quite secure than other lighting systems and have flexibility for realizing many different designs. This situation makes fiber optics an alternative for other lighting systems. Fiber optic lighting systems usage is increasing day-by-day in our life. In this article, these systems are discussed in detail.

  12. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  13. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Aligned Discontinuous Carbon Fiber Composites

    OpenAIRE

    DENG Hua; GAO Junpeng; BAO Jianwen

    2018-01-01

    Aligned discontinuous carbon fiber composites were fabricated from aligned discontinuous carbon fiber prepreg, which was prepared from continuous carbon fiber prepreg via mechanical high-frequency cutting. The internal quality and mechanical properties were characterized and compared with continuous carbon fiber composites. The results show that the internal quality of the aligned discontinuous carbon fiber composites is fine and the mechanical properties have high retention rate after the fi...

  14. High-beam quality, high-efficiency laser based on fiber with heavily Yb(3+)-doped phosphate core and silica cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, O N; Semjonov, S L; Medvedkov, O I; Astapovich, M S; Okhrimchuk, A G; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Sverchkov, S E; Dianov, E M

    2015-08-15

    We have fabricated and tested a composite fiber with an Yb(3+)-doped phosphate glass core and silica cladding. Oscillation with a slope efficiency of 74% was achieved using core pumping at 976 nm with fiber lengths of 48-90 mm in a simple laser configuration, where the cavity was formed by a high-reflectivity Bragg grating and the cleaved fiber end. The measured M(2) factors were as low as 1.05-1.22 even though the fiber was multimode at the lasing wavelength.

  15. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  16. High-Protein and High-Dietary Fiber Breakfasts Result in Equal Feelings of Fullness and Better Diet Quality in Low-Income Preschoolers Compared with Their Usual Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Rickard D; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-03-01

    Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2). Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y ( n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences. Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ≥1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts ( P diet quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts ( P diet quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering feelings of satiation or satiety. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02122224. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. All-optical fiber compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Luben M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple all-optical fiber compressor, based on an idea of dispersion management using a fiber of positive dispersion in the first part and of negative dispersion in the second one at the working wavelength, is investigated. The method allows a combination of the advantages of the classic fiber-grating and of the multisoliton compression. It is possible to improve substantially the quality of the compressed pulse compared to the multisoliton compression. The compression factor could be increased up to 2-2.5 times when the fraction of the input pulse energy appearing within the compressed pulse enhances more than 2 times. Thus, the peak power of the compressed pulse is able to increase about 5 times and the quality of the obtained pulses should be comparable with those obtained by the fiber-grating compressor

  18. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  19. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  20. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  1. Benefits of glass fibers in solar fiber optic lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotinen, Tarja T; Lingfors, David H S

    2013-09-20

    The transmission properties and coupling of solar light have been studied for glass core multimode fibers in order to verify their benefits for a solar fiber optic lighting system. The light transportation distance can be extended from 20 m with plastic fibers to over 100 m with the kind of glass fibers studied here. A high luminous flux, full visible spectrum, as well as an outstanding color rendering index (98) and correlated color temperature similar to the direct sun light outside have been obtained. Thus the outstanding quality of solar light transmitted through these fibers would improve the visibility of all kinds of objects compared to fluorescent and other artificial lighting. Annual relative lighting energy savings of 36% in Uppsala, Sweden, and 76% in Dubai were estimated in an office environment. The absolute savings can be doubled by using glass optical fibers, and are estimated to be in the order of 550 kWh/year in Sweden and 1160 kWh/year in Dubai for one system of only 0.159 m(2) total light collecting area. The savings are dependent on the fiber length, the daily usage time of the interior, the type of artificial lighting substituted, the system light output flux, and the available time of sunny weather at the geographic location.

  2. High-power picosecond pulse delivery through hollow core photonic band gap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette Marie; Lyngsø, Jens Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power pulsed laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kind of hollow core photonic band gap fibers......We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power pulsed laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kind of hollow core photonic band gap fibers...

  3. A Fermat's spiral multifilament-core fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, L.; Codemard, C.

    2013-02-01

    A multifilament-core optical fiber where the microstructure is arranged in a Fermat's spiral is presented. The properties of such a fiber to be exploited for laser light amplification are numerically investigated by means of a full-vectorial finite-element method. Thanks to this peculiar microstructure, the fiber is shown to have an increased Brillouin threshold power and very low bending losses, while preserving a very good beam spatial quality.

  4. The Comparative Effect of Carrot and Lemon Fiber as a Fat Replacer on Physico-chemical, Textural, and Organoleptic Quality of Low-fat Beef Hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncu, Eda Demirok; Kolsarıcı, Nuray; Çiçek, Neslihan; Öztürk, Görsen Salman; Akoğlu, Ilker T; Arıcı, Yeliz Kaşko

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the usability of lemon fiber (LF-2%, 4%, 6%) and carrot fiber (CF-2%, 4%, 6%) to produce low-fat beef hamburgers. To that end, a certain amount of fat was replaced with each fiber. The proximate composition, pH value, cholesterol content, cooking characteristics, color, texture profile, and sensory properties of low-fat beef hamburgers were investigated. LF increased moisture content and cooking yield due to its better water binding properties, while CF caused higher fat and cholesterol contents owing to its higher fat absorption capacity (pretention, and fat retention. However it is suggested that CF produces better low-fat hamburgers since up to 2% CF presented sensory and textural properties similar to those of regular hamburgers.

  5. Application Specific Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Bishnu P.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  6. Widely tunable single-/dual-wavelength fiber lasers with ultra-narrow linewidth and high OSNR using high quality passive subring cavity and novel tuning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Ding, Dongliang; Yan, Fengping; Zhao, Ziwei; Su, Hongxin; Yao, X Steve

    2016-08-22

    High stability single- and dual-wavelength compound cavity erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) with ultra-narrow linewidth, high optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and widely tunable range are demonstrated. Different from using traditional cascaded Type-1/Type-2 fiber rings as secondary cavities, we nest a Type-1 ring inside a Type-2 ring to form a passive subring cavity to achieve single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) lasing with ultra-narrow linewidth for the first time. We also show that the SLM lasing stability can be further improved by inserting a length of polarization maintaining fiber in the Type-2 ring. Using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and two superimposed FBGs as mode restricting elements, respectively, we obtain a single-wavelength EDFL with a linewidth as narrow as 715 Hz and an OSNR as high as 73 dB, and a dual-wavelength EDFL with linewidths less than 1 kHz and OSNRs higher than 68 dB for both lasing wavelengths. Finally, by employing a novel self-designed strain adjustment device capable of applying both the compression and tension forces to the FBGs for wavelength tuning, we achieve the tuning range larger than 10 nm for both of the EDFLs.

  7. Improving the quality of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) for dairy cows by selecting for fast clearing and/or degradable neutral detergent fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fractional clearance rate (Kcl) and fractional degradation rate (kd) of six varieties of perennial ryegrass were measured to examine the possibility of selecting for varieties with fast degradable NDF. The experiment was conducted in 2000 and repeated in 2001. In each

  8. Radiation resistivity of quartz core fiber, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozen, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Toshiya; Hayashi, Tokuji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Shinichi.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation resistance characteristics were evaluated for a multi-mode quartz core fiber in low temperature region together with photobleaching effect depending on the incident light power and dependency on the wavelength of measuring rays. This report describes the results of the abovementioned items and the next step study of trial manufacturing of a pure-quartz single-mode fiber for the employment of longer wavelength rays and greater capacity in light transmission communication system. Quartz core fiber specimens were irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray source at -55 deg C to 80 deg C in a constant temperature bath and light transmission loss was determined under irradiation conditions. Low temperature characteristics were superior in an MRT (modified rod-in tube) pure quartz fiber prepared by the plasma method as compared to VAD quartz and Ge-GI fibers. The MRT fiber showed better quality than the Ge-GI fiber also in the photobleaching effect examination. As for the wavelength dependency, light transmission loss of the MRT fiber was less than that of the Ge-GI fiber. The MRT fiber also showed a superior quality in the wide range of irradiation temperatures. Based on the above-mentioned understandings, a pure-quartz single-mode fiber of both BF 3 -doped and F-doped cladding types were developed for longer wavelengths uses. The fibers could attain low light transmission loss of less than 1.0 dB/km at 1.30 μm of wavelength. At the standpoint of radiation resistivity, the BF 3 -doped fiber was found superior. (Takagi, S.)

  9. Multi-kW single fiber laser based on an extra large mode area fiber design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Andreas; Such, Mario; Schötz, Gerhard; Just, Florian; Leich, Martin; Schwuchow, Anka; Grimm, Stephan; Zimer, Hagen; Kozak, Marcin; Wedel, Björn; Rehmann, Georg; Bachert, Charley; Krause, Volker

    2012-02-01

    The quality of Yb-doped fused bulk silica produced by sintering of Yb-doped fused silica granulates has improved greatly in the past five years [1 - 4]. In particular, the refractive index and doping level homogeneity of such materials are excellent and we achieved excellent background fiber attenuation of the active core material down to about 20 dB/km at 1200 nm. The improvement of the Yb-doped fused bulk silica has enabled the development of multi-kW fiber laser systems based on a single extra large multimode laser fiber (XLMA fiber). When a single active fiber is used in combination with the XLMA multimode fiber of 1200 μm diameter simple and robust high power fiber laser setups without complex fiber coupling and fiber combiner systems become possible. In this papper, we will discuss in detail the development of the core material based on Yb-doped bulk silica and the characterization of Yb-doped fibers with different core compositions. We will also report on the excellent performance of a 4 kW fiber laser based on a single XLMA-fiber and show the first experimental welding results of steel sheets achieved with such a laser.

  10. Photonic crystal fiber technology for compact fiber-delivered high-power ultrafast fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triches, Marco; Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette M.; Jakobsen, Christian; Olesen, Anders S.; Papior, Sidsel R.; Kristensen, Torben; Bondue, Magalie; Weirich, Johannes; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.

    2018-02-01

    Photonic crystal fiber (PCF) technology has radically impacted the scientific and industrial ultrafast laser market. Reducing platform dimensions are important to decrease cost and footprint while maintaining high optical efficiency. We present our recent work on short 85 μm core ROD-type fiber amplifiers that maintain single-mode performance and excellent beam quality. Robust long-term performance at 100 W average power and 250 kW peak power in 20 ps pulses at 1030 nm wavelength is presented, exceeding 500 h with stable performance in terms of both polarization and power. In addition, we present our recent results on hollow-core ultrafast fiber delivery maintaining high beam quality and polarization purity.

  11. Qualidade e teores de nutrientes de palmeira-rápis em substrato com fibra de coco Quality and nutrient content of lady palm in coconut fiber substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia dos S Alves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro substratos compostos de mistura de fibra de coco triturada (FC e substrato comercial Plantmax HT® (SC, nas proporções de 0, 25, 50 e 75% de FC, em vasos com capacidade para 35 L, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e três vasos por parcela, com uma planta por vaso. A adubação das plantas foi feita alternando-se, a cada três meses, 25 g de 4-14-8 com 10 g de uréia por vaso, a partir do plantio e durante os 24 meses do período experimental. O crescimento foi avaliado medindo-se a altura da haste inicial (da base do caule à inserção da última folha completamente expandida, número de folhas da haste inicial, número de perfilhos, número de folhas dos perfilhos, altura dos perfilhos e teores de nutrientes da última folha completamente expandida da haste inicial. A qualidade foi avaliada através de análise sensorial visual, baseado nos critérios "gostei"(muito ou pouco e "compraria"(sim ou não. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos sobre as características de crescimento, exceto para o número de folhas da haste inicial. As plantas com melhor aceitação foram aquelas cultivadas na mistura com 50% FC e 50% SC. Nenhuma das plantas apresentou sintoma visual de deficiência de nutrientes, sendo os teores foliares encontrados em plantas sadias com padrão de qualidade para comercialização de: 17,80 - 18,29 g kg-1 de N; 0,66 - 0,81 g kg-1 de NO-3; 2,02 - 2,34 g kg-1 de P; 18,11 - 20,40 g kg-1 de K; 11,63 - 13,84 g kg-1 de Cl; 2,69 - 4,04 g kg-1 de Ca; 1,61 - 2,07 g kg-1 de S; 1,98 - 2,64 g kg-1 de Mg.It was evaluated the quality and nutrient content of lady palm in four substrates made up of a mixture of shredded coconut fiber (FC and commercial substrate Plantmax HT® (SC, in proportions of 0, 25, 50 and 75% of FC, in 35 liters containers, in a randomized block experiment with four replicates and three pots per plot, with one plant per pot. The plants were

  12. Fast processing of foreign fiber images by image blocking

    OpenAIRE

    Yutao Wu; Daoliang Li; Zhenbo Li; Wenzhu Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the textile industry, it is always the case that cotton products are constitutive of many types of foreign fibers which affect the overall quality of cotton products. As the foundation of the foreign fiber automated inspection, image process exerts a critical impact on the process of foreign fiber identification. This paper presents a new approach for the fast processing of foreign fiber images. This approach includes five main steps, image block, image pre-decision, image background extra...

  13. Single-mode annular chirally-coupled core fibers for fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Hao, He; He, Linlu; Gong, Mali

    2018-03-01

    Chirally-coupled core (CCC) fiber can transmit single fundamental mode and effectively suppresses higher-order mode (HOM) propagation, thus improve the beam quality. However, the manufacture of CCC fiber is complicated due to its small side core. To decrease the manufacture difficulty in China, a novel fiber structure is presented, defined as annular chirally-coupled core (ACCC) fiber, replacing the small side core by a larger side annulus. In this paper, we designed the fiber parameters of this new structure, and demonstrated that the new structure has a similar property of single mode with traditional CCC fiber. Helical coordinate system was introduced into the finite element method (FEM) to analyze the mode field in the fiber, and the beam propagation method (BPM) was employed to analyze the influence of the fiber parameters on the mode loss. Based on the result above, the fiber structure was optimized for efficient single-mode transmission, in which the core diameter is 35 μm with beam quality M2 value of 1.04 and an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 84%. In this fiber, fundamental mode propagates in an acceptable loss, while the HOMs decay rapidly.

  14. Influence of cellulose fibers on structure and properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Valeriy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the promising means of foamed concrete quality improvement is micro-reinforcement by adding synthetic and mineral fibers to the base mix. This research is the first to investigate peculiarities of using recycled cellulose fiber extracted from waste paper for obtaining fiber reinforced foam concrete. The paper presents results of experimental research on the influence of cellulose fibers on structure and properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete by using methods of chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The research determines peculiarities of new formations appearance and densification of binder hydration products in the contact zone between fiber and cement matrix, which boost mechanical strength of fiber reinforced foam concrete. Physico-mechanical properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete were defined depending on the amount of recycled cellulose fiber added to the base mix. It was found that the use of recycled cellulose fibers allows obtaining structural thermal insulating fiber reinforced foam concretes of non-autoclaved hardening of brand D600 with regard to mean density with the following improved properties: compressive strength increased by 35% compared to basic samples, higher stability of foamed concrete mix and decreased shrinkage deformation.

  15. THE BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT FIBERS AT BREAD DOUGH FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Filipović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Three different types of commercial fibers (inulin originated from artichoke with long and short molecule chains and Fibrex - originated from sugar beet were incorporated into the dough formula as flour supplements at the level of 5 %. The influence of fiber characteristics on yeast dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality during 60 days freezing is presented. Data show that the addition of fibers in frozen yeast dough is positively contributing to preserving the quality of the final product and their influence depends on the characteristics of fibers.

  16. Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vargas, Jairo H; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cure Cycle Design Methodology for Fabricating Reactive Resin Matrix Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Protocol for Producing Void-free Quality Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    2014-01-01

    For the fabrication of resin matrix fiber reinforced composite laminates, a workable cure cycle (i.e., temperature and pressure profiles as a function of processing time) is needed and is critical for achieving void-free laminate consolidation. Design of such a cure cycle is not trivial, especially when dealing with reactive matrix resins. An empirical "trial and error" approach has been used as common practice in the composite industry. Such an approach is not only costly, but also ineffective at establishing the optimal processing conditions for a specific resin/fiber composite system. In this report, a rational "processing science" based approach is established, and a universal cure cycle design protocol is proposed. Following this protocol, a workable and optimal cure cycle can be readily and rationally designed for most reactive resin systems in a cost effective way. This design protocol has been validated through experimental studies of several reactive polyimide composites for a wide spectrum of usage that has been documented in the previous publications.

  18. Fibered F-Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2007-01-01

    The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.

  19. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  20. Photonic crystal fibers -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2002-01-01

    . Such micro-structured fibers are the ones most often trated in literature concerning micro-structured fibers. These micro-structured fibers offer a whole range of novel wave guiding characteristics, including the possibility of fibers that guide only one mode irrespective of the frequency of light...

  1. Fiber optic connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

  2. Fiber optic evanescent wave biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1991-09-01

    The role of modern analytical chemistry is not restricted to quality control and environmental surveillance, but has been extended to process control using on-line analytical techniques. Besides industrial applications, highly specific, ultra-sensitive biochemical analysis becomes increasingly important as a diagnostic tool, both in central clinical laboratories and in the doctor's office. Fiber optic sensor technology can fulfill many of the requirements for both types of applications. As an example, the experimental arrangement of a fiber optic sensor for biochemical affinity assays is presented. The evanescent electromagnetic field, associated with a light ray guided in an optical fiber, is used for the excitation of luminescence labels attached to the biomolecules in solution to be analyzed. Due to the small penetration depth of the evanescent field into the medium, the generation of luminescence is restricted to the close proximity of the fiber, where, e.g., the luminescent analyte molecules combine with their affinity partners, which are immobilized on the fiber. Both cw- and pulsed light excitation can be used in evanescent wave sensor technology, enabling the on-line observation of an affinity assay on a macroscopic time scale (seconds and minutes), as well as on a microscopic, molecular time scale (nanoseconds or microseconds).

  3. High pumping-power fiber combiner for double-cladding fiber lasers and amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinkun; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Baoyin; Li, Zhe; Chang, Chang; Li, Gang; Gao, Qi; Ju, Pei; Gao, Wei; She, Shengfei; Wu, Peng; Hou, Chaoqi; Li, Weinan

    2018-03-01

    A high pumping-power fiber combiner for backward pumping configurations is fabricated and demonstrated by manufacturing process refinement. The pump power handling capability of every pump fiber can extend to 600 W, corresponding to the average pump coupling efficiency of 94.83%. Totally, 2.67-kW output power with the beam quality factor M2 of 1.41 was obtained, using this combiner in the fiber amplifier experimental setup. In addition, the temperature of the splicing region was less than 50.0°C in the designed combiner under the action of circulating cooling water. The experimental results prove that the designed combiner is a promising integrated all-fiber device for multikilowatt continuous-wave fiber laser with excellent beam quality.

  4. Advanced specialty fiber designs for high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guancheng

    The output power of fiber lasers has increased rapidly over the last decade. There are two major limiting factors, namely nonlinear effects and transverse mode instability, prohibiting the power scaling capability of fiber lasers. The nonlinear effects, originating from high optical intensity, primarily limit the peak power scaling. The mode instability, on the other hand, arises from quantum-defect driven heating, causing undesired mode coupling once the power exceeds the threshold and degradation of beam quality. The mode instability has now become the bottleneck for average output power scaling of fiber lasers. Mode area scaling is the most effective way to mitigate nonlinear effects. However, the use of large mode area may increase the tendency to support multiple modes in the core, resulting in lower mode instability threshold. Therefore, it is critical to maintain single mode operation in a large mode area fiber. Sufficient higher order mode suppression can lead to effective single-transverse-mode propagation. In this dissertation, we explore the feasibility of using specialty fiber to construct high power fiber lasers with robust single-mode output. The first type of fiber discussed is the resonantly-enhanced leakage channel fiber. Coherent reflection at the fiber outer boundary can lead to additional confinement especially for highly leaky HOM, leading to lower HOM losses than what are predicted by conventional finite element mothod mode solver considering infinite cladding. In this work, we conducted careful measurements of HOM losses in two leakage channel fibers (LCF) with circular and rounded hexagonal boundary shapes respectively. Impact on HOM losses from coiling, fiber boundary shapes and coating indexes were studied in comparison to simulations. This work demonstrates the limit of the simulation method commonly used in the large-mode-area fiber designs and the need for an improved approach. More importantly, this work also demonstrates that a

  5. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...... in 1996, and are today on their way to become the dominating technology within the specialty fiber field. Whether they will replace the standard fiber in the more traditional areas like telecommunication transmission, is not yet clear, but the nonlinear photonic crystal fibers are here to stay....

  6. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  7. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  8. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  9. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  10. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

  11. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  12. Research status of large mode area single polarization active fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun; Zhang, Ge; Yang, Bin-hua; Cheng, Wei-feng; Gu, Shao-yi

    2018-03-01

    As high power fiber laser used more and more widely, to increase the output power of fiber laser and beam quality improvement have become an important goal for the development of high power fiber lasers. The use of large mode fiber is the most direct and effective way to solve the nonlinear effect and fiber damage in the fiber laser power lifting process. In order to reduce the effect of polarization of the fiber laser system, the study found that when introduces a birefringence in the single-mode fiber, the polarization state changes caused by the birefringence is far greater than the random polarization state changes, then the external disturbance is completely submerged, finally the polarization can be controlled and stabilized. Through the fine design of the fiber structure, if the birefringence is high enough to achieve the separation of the two polarization states, the fiber will have a different cut-off mechanism to eliminate polarization which is not need, which will realize single mode single polarization transmission in a band. In this paper, different types of single polarization fiber design are presented and the application of these fibers are also discussed.

  13. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  14. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  15. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  16. Shaped fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnan, Mark K.; Roach, Dennis P.

    2017-12-05

    A composite article is disclosed that has non-circular fibers embedded in a polymer matrix. The composite article has improved damage tolerance, toughness, bending, and impact resistance compared to composites having traditional round fibers.

  17. Advances in Fiber Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, T

    1999-01-01

    Most of the time of this contract has been devoted toward improvements in optical fiber lasers and toward gathering experience to improve our program in high power, cladding pumped optical fiber lasers...

  18. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 and...domains containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers [115]. A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin

  19. Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-01-01

    A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693

  20. High-fiber foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000193.htm High-fiber foods To use the sharing features on this page, ... Read food labels carefully to see how much fiber they have. Choose foods that have higher amounts of fiber, such as ...

  1. Fiber Singular Optics

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Volyar

    2002-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

  2. Expression analysis of fiber related genes in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) through real time pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, N.; Khatoon, A.; Asif, M.; Bashir, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular seed trichomes and the largest known plant cells. Fiber morphogenesis in cotton is a complex process involving a large number of genes expressed throughout fiber development process. The expression profiling of five gene families in various cotton tissues was carried out through real time PCR. Expression analysis revealed that transcripts of expansin, tubulin and E6 were elevated from 5 to 20 days post anthesis (DPA) fibers. Three Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) including LTP1, LTP3, LTP7 exhibited highest expression in 10 - 20 DPA fibers. Transcripts of LTP3 were detected in fibers and non fiber tissues that of LTP7 were almost negligible in non fiber tissues. Sucrose phosphate synthase gene showed highest expression in 10 DPA fibers while sucrose synthse (susy) expressed at higher rate in 5-20 DPA fibers as well as roots. The results reveal that most of fiber related genes showed high expression in 5-20 DPA fibers. Comprehensive expression study may help to determine tissue and stage specificity of genes under study. The study may also help to explore complex process of fiber development and understand the role of these genes in fiber development process. Highly expressed genes in fibers may be transformed in cotton for improvement of fiber quality traits. Genes that were expressed specifically in fibers or other tissues could be used for isolation of upstream regulatory sequences. (author)

  3. Ultrasonic NDE and mechanical testing of fiber placement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjie; Fei, Dong; Hsu, David K.; Dayal, Vinay; Hale, Richard D.

    2002-05-01

    A fiber placed composite, especially with fiber steering, has considerably more complex internal structure than a laminate laid up from unidirectional prepreg tapes. In this work, we performed ultrasonic imaging of ply interfaces of fiber placed composite laminates, with an eye toward developing a tool for evaluating their quality. Mechanical short-beam shear tests were also conducted on both nonsteered and steered specimens to examine their failure behavior and its relationship to the structural defects indicated by ultrasonic imaging.

  4. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  5. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2008-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser...... systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities - requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...

  6. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  7. Quantification of dislocations in hemp fibers using acid hydrolysis and fiber segment length distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2008-01-01

    Natural fibers such as flax or hemp may be used in composite materials. However, their use for this purpose is hampered by the large natural variation in tensile strength and other quality parameters. The first step in managing these variations is to develop methods for fast and reliable determin......Natural fibers such as flax or hemp may be used in composite materials. However, their use for this purpose is hampered by the large natural variation in tensile strength and other quality parameters. The first step in managing these variations is to develop methods for fast and reliable...... determination of relevant parameters. One quality parameter of the fibers is the amount of structural distortions known as dislocations or kink bands. Here, a method developed for the quantification of dislocations in pulp fibers was adapted and tested successfully for hemp yarn segments. The method is based...... was correct, and furthermore results showed that fibers broke more often in large dislocations than in small ones. However, it was also found that the hemp fiber segments did not break in all dislocations, and strict standardization of the procedure for acid hydrolysis is therefore necessary if results from...

  8. Bi-based superconducting fibers with high critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Yujing; He Yusheng; Liu Menglin; Mao Sining; Cai Liying; Wang Ying; Zhang Jincang; He Aisheng; Wang Jinsong

    1991-01-01

    Superconducting fibers of Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O high Tc superconducting materials have been prepared by means of the laser-heated pedestal growth (LHPG) method. The highest zero resistance temperature T c0 reaches is 114K, and the highest critical current density J c (77K, O T) is greater than 5000 A/cm 2 . As-grown superconducting fibers were successfully fabricated without post growth heat treatment. Amorphous materials were used for the first time to make high quality fibers. The influence of growth conditions, thermal treatment and the composition of the fibers were discussed. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Surface structure and adsorption properties of ultrafine porous carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiaofeng; Wang Ce; Zhang Dejiang

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafine porous carbon fibers (UPCFs) were successfully synthesized by chemical activation of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers. In the current approach, potassium hydroxide was adopted as activation reagent. UPCFs were systematically evaluated by scanning electron microscope and nitrogen adsorption. The mass ratio of potassium hydroxide to preoxidized fibers, activation temperature and activation time are crucial for producing high quality UPCFs. The relationships between porous structure and process parameters are explored. UPCFs were applied as adsorbent for nitrogen monoxide to be compared with commercial porous carbon fibers.

  10. Spectrophotometry with optical fibers applied to nuclear product processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, G.; Perez, J.J.; Velluet, M.T.; Jeunhomme, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    Absorption spectrophotometry is widely used in laboratories for composition analysis and quality control of chemical processes. Using optical fibers for transmitting the light between the instrument and the process line allows to improve the safety and productivity of chemical processes, thanks to real time measurements. Such applications have been developed since 1975 in CEA for the monitoring of nuclear products. This has led to the development of fibers, measurement cells, and optical feedthrough sustaining high radiation doses, of fiber/spectrophotometer couplers, and finally of a photodiode array spectrophotometer optimized for being used together with optical fibers [fr

  11. 国内外玻璃纤维用高岭土的质量差距及提高我国高岭土质量的对策%Differences of Kaolin Quality for Glass Fibers Made in China and Abroad and Improving Measures of Kaolin Quality Made in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩利雄; 姚远; 刘国斌

    2011-01-01

    Kaolins are one of important materials for E-glass fibers, which accounts for about 1/3 of blend mass. But the high-end market of kaolin for glass fibers was dominated by imports in China. Three kinds of kaolin samplespro-duced by ITC.Yichang and Yunnan for glass fibers were studied in this paper. The differences in chemical composition, phase,microstructure and granulometric composition were compared in detail by XRS,XRD,SEM and LPS. The research found that products of ITC had obvious advantages in product purity, particle size control and quality stability. In fact,the quality of domestic Kaolins is not bad,but because it is lack of specific quality standard and limited by the processing level of domestic non-metallic mineral, high-quality products cannot be obtained. In the future, kaolin industry should become bigger and stronger by integration as soon as possible, and try hard to improve the processing level of kaolin such as ore dressing,homogenization,etc,to fill the gap in the high-grade kaolin products for glass fibers.%高岭土是E-玻璃纤维的重要原料之一,其用量可占配合料的三分之一,但国内玻纤用高岭土高端市场一直被进口产品所占据.选取了美国ITC进口高岭土、宜昌硬质高岭土和云南水洗高岭土这三种有代表性的玻纤用高岭土,通过荧光光谱分析、X射线衍射分析、扫描电镜分析和激光粒度分析详细对比了它们在化学成分、物相组成、微观形貌和粒度分布四方面的差异.研究发现,美国玻纤用高岭土在产品纯度、粒度控制和质量稳定性方面有明显优势;国内玻纤用高岭土矿源品质并不差,只是由于缺乏专门的质量标准,同时受限于国内非金属矿产加工水平,而无法生产出高质量的产品.未来我国高岭土行业应尽快通过整合做大做强,努力提高高岭土选矿、均化等加工工艺水平,填补国内高档玻纤用高岭土产品空白.

  12. History of cotton fiber bioscience research at USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving fiber quality has been an important breeding goal for cotton breeders. Better understanding of fiber development helps cotton scientists to devise a strategy for crop improvement either through marker-assisted selection or via manipulation of fiber genes. USDA-ARS Southern Regional Researc...

  13. High-power picosecond pulse delivery through hollow core photonic band gap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Johansen, Mette Marie; Lyngsø, Jens Kristian

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated robust and bend insensitive fiber delivery of high power laser with diffraction limited beam quality for two different kinds of hollow core band gap fibers. The light source for this experiment consists of ytterbium-doped double clad fiber aeroGAIN-ROD-PM85 in a high power amplifier...

  14. Fiber optics in SHIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.; Parker, J.

    1978-01-01

    SHIVA is a twenty arm laser which is controlled with a network of fifty computers, interconnected with digital fiber optic links. Three different fiber optic systems employed on the Shiva laser will be described. Two of the systems are for digital communications, one at 9600 baud and the other at 1 megabaud. The third system uses fiber optics to distribute diagnostic triggers with subnanosecond jitter

  15. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fareed, Ali [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States); Craig, Phillip A. [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  16. Desenvolvimento e qualidade nutricional de mudas de mangabeiras cultivadas em substratos contendo fibra de coco e adubação fosfatada Development and nutritional quality of hancornia speciosa seedlings cultivated in mixture containing coconut fiber and fertilized with phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para a produção de mudas de qualidade, é necessária a utilização de substratos com propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas que condicionem a germinação adequada das sementes e o estabelecimento das mudas. Neste sentido, foi realizado um experimento no Centro de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a composição mineral de mudas de mangabeiras (Hancornia speciosa em substratos compostos por diferentes proporções de fibra de coco (0% a 40%, esterco bovino (0% a 25%, terra vegetal (25% a 70% e 15% de areia, fertilizados com superfosfato triplo (0; 5,5 e 11 g dm-3. A terra vegetal e a fibra de coco exerceram efeitos benéficos às mudas com o aumento de suas proporções no substrato. A adição do esterco e do superfosfato triplo inibiu a produção de matéria seca e a área foliar das mudas. Houve aumento dos teores de nutrientes nas mudas com o aumento da concentração de esterco nos substratos. Pela estimativa dos resultados, o substrato que proporciona maior crescimento e composição mineral mais equilibrada nas mudas de mangabeira deve ser constituído por 14% de esterco, 56% de terra vegetal, 15% de fibra de coco, 15% de areia e 4 g dm-3 de superfosfato triplo.In order to produce good quality seedlings it is necessary to use a mixture that presents appropriate physical, chemical and biological properties, which supplies the necessary conditions for the germination and the seedling's establishment. This experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Sciences Center, Paraíba Federal University (Brazil, whose objective was to evaluate the growth and the mineral composition of Hancornia speciosa seedlings in substrata composed by concentrations of coconut fiber from 0% to 40%, manure bovine from 0% to 25%, soil from 25% to 70%, sand 15% and triple superphosphate between 0 and 11 g dm-3. The soil and coconut fiber had beneficial effects on the H. speciosa

  17. Visualization of Fiber Structure in the Left and Right Ventricle of a Human Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-01-01

    The human heart is composed of a helical network of muscle fibers. Anisotropic least squares filtering followed by fiber tracking techniques were applied to Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) data of the excised human heart. The fiber configuration was visualized by using thin tubes to increase 3-dimensional visual perception of the complex structure. All visualizations were performed using the high-quality ray-tracing software POV-Ray. The fibers are shown within the left and right ventricles. Both ventricles exhibit similar fiber architecture and some bundles of fibers are shown linking right and left ventricles on the posterior region of the heart

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Water Retted and Non-retted Flax Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flax stems of Modran variety were subjected to water retting under laboratory conditions and its physical properties were compared with non-retted fibers. Physical properties including percentage of impurities, weighted average length, linear density, tenacity and elongation were analyzed and the results were compared. The analysis of retted and non-retted flax fibers showed that retting is the most important step in the processing of flax fibers and it directly affects quality attributes like strength, fineness, and homogeneity. Scanning Electron microscope images of fibers were also analyzed and the retted fibers showed much cleaner surface when compared to decorticated non-retted fibers.

  19. Radiographic testing of glass fiber reinforced plastic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babylas, E.

    1976-01-01

    The microradiography of glass fiber reinforced polymers allowed to obtain informations on the growth of defects during molding. A relation was established between microstructure and routine radiography. The conditions needed for obtaining good quality radiograms are analyzed [fr

  20. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  1. Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Jakobsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate hollow-core fibers for fiber delivery of high power ultrashort laser pulses. We use numerical techniques to design an anti-resonant hollow-core fiber having one layer of non-touching tubes to determine which structures offer the best optical properties for the delivery of high power...... picosecond pulses. A novel fiber with 7 tubes and a core of 30 mu m was fabricated and it is here described and characterized, showing remarkable low loss, low bend loss, and good mode quality. Its optical properties are compared to both a 10 mu m and a 18 mu m core diameter photonic band gap hollow......-core fiber. The three fibers are characterized experimentally for the delivery of 22 picosecond pulses at 1032nm. We demonstrate flexible, diffraction limited beam delivery with output average powers in excess of 70W. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3021 - Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiber. 29.3021 Section 29.3021 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... importance, except where a fine distinction must be made between several lots of high quality or between...

  3. Influence of feeding regime and finishing system on lamb muscle fiber and meat quality Influência do regime alimentar e do sistema de terminação sobre as fibras musculares e a qualidade da carne de cordeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bonagurio Gallo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study verified the influence of different nutritional levels of the dams, before parturition, the weaning age of the lambs and the finishing system on lamb muscle fiber morphology and meat quality. Ile-de-France × Bergamacia crossbred dams grazing on natural grassland were divided into two groups: 1 nutritional supplement 30 days before the parturition (SUPL, and 2 no nutritional supplement (NS. These groups were further subdivided by weaning age of the lambs, which corresponded to either 45 or 60 days. The weaned lambs from each of the previous groups were also divided into different finishing systems: confined and fed a complete diet (CD, confined and fed hay (H and kept on grassland (P. The lambs were slaughtered at 30 kg live weight (CD and P, or at 150 days of age (H. The carcasses were cooled at 4ºC/24h. The analyzed variables were: longissimus dorsi muscle fiber morphophysiology, post mortem myofibrillar fragmentation (at 0, 3 and 7 days post mortem, meat pH and temperature. There was no effect of supplementation of dams or weaning age of the lambs for the evaluated variables. The frequency of slow-oxidative (SO, fast-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG and fast-glycolytic (FG muscle fiber types was not altered by the treatments, but the fiber cross-sectional area was smaller for the lambs finished only on hay, and the meat pH values and temperature were lower and the myofibrill fragment dimensions were smaller. As time maturation increased from 0 to 3 and 7 days post mortem, there was a decrease in the length of the myofibrill fragments. The diet of the lambs which were maintained confined and fed only with hay was nutritionally inferior when compared with all the others, and this changed the quality of the meat compared to the finishing systems on grassland or confined and fed complete diet.Avaliou-se a influência dos níveis nutricionais da ovelha antes do parto, da idade à desmama e do sistema de terminação sobre as fibras musculares

  4. USDA Flax fiber utilization research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is pursuing natural fibers as sustainable, environmentally friendly sources for a variety of industrial applications. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber offers many possibilities towards this goal. Research on flax fiber production, processing, and standards development is urgen...

  5. Ultrafine PBI fibers and yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J. R.; Tan, M.

    1979-01-01

    Gentle precisely controlled process is used to draw polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers to denier as low as 0.17 per fiber. Yarns of lightweight fibers could be useful in applications where lightweight textiles must withstand high temperatures, corrosion, or radiation.

  6. HVI Ballistic Limit Charaterization of Fused Silica Thermal Pane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, William E.; Miller, Joshua E.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Deighton, Kevin.; Davis, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft's windows are exposed to the micrometeroid and orbital debris (MMOD) space environments while in space as well as the Earth entry environment at the mission's conclusion. The need for a low-mass spacecraft window design drives the need to reduce conservatism when assessing the design for loss of crew due to MMOD impact and subsequent Earth entry. Therefore, work is underway at NASA and Lockheed Martin to improve characterization of the complete penetration ballistic limit of an outer fused silica thermal pane. Hypervelocity impact tests of the window configuration at up to 10 km/s and hydrocode modeling have been performed with a variety of projectile materials to enable refinement of the fused silica ballistic limit equation.

  7. HVI Ballistic Performance Characterization of Non-Parallel Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Christiansen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The Double-Wall, "Whipple" Shield [1] has been the subject of many hypervelocity impact studies and has proven to be an effective shield system for Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) impacts for spacecraft. The US modules of the International Space Station (ISS), with their "bumper shields" offset from their pressure holding rear walls provide good examples of effective on-orbit use of the double wall shield. The concentric cylinder shield configuration with its large radius of curvature relative to separation distance is easily and effectively represented for testing and analysis as a system of two parallel plates. The parallel plate double wall configuration has been heavily tested and characterized for shield performance for normal and oblique impacts for the ISS and other programs. The double wall shield and principally similar Stuffed Whipple Shield are very common shield types for MMOD protection. However, in some locations with many spacecraft designs, the rear wall cannot be modeled as being parallel or concentric with the outer bumper wall. As represented in Figure 1, there is an included angle between the two walls. And, with a cylindrical outer wall, the effective included angle constantly changes. This complicates assessment of critical spacecraft components located within outer spacecraft walls when using software tools such as NASA's BumperII. In addition, the validity of the risk assessment comes into question when using the standard double wall shield equations, especially since verification testing of every set of double wall included angles is impossible.

  8. HVI Ballistic Limit Characterization of Fused Silica Thermal Panes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fused silica window systems are used heavily on crewed reentry vehicles, and they are currently being used on the next generation of US crewed spacecraft, Orion. These systems improve crew situational awareness and comfort, as well as, insulating the reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on a fused silica window system proposed for the Orion spacecraft. A ballistic limit equation that describes the threshold of perforation of a fuse silica pane over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials is discussed here.

  9. Loď v láhvi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, květen (2015) Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ITER * divertor * DTP2 Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.3pol.cz/cz/rubriky/jaderna-fyzika-a-energetika/1681- lod -v-lahvi

  10. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  11. Multimode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  12. Fiber Lasers V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2008-01-01

    laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...

  13. Fiber Sensor Technology Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotate, Kazuo

    2006-08-01

    Fiber sensor technologies are overviewed. Since the early 1970s, this field has been developed, on the basis of the same devices and photonic principles as fiber communication technologies. Besides simple configurations, in which the fiber acts only as a data transmission line, sophisticated configurations have also been developed, in which the fiber is used as a device to realize unique sensing mechanisms. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is a good example, and has been developed as an absolute rotation sensor used, for example, for navigation and/or attitude control applications. Compared with traditional spinning-mass gyroscopes, the FOG has advantages, such as a short warming-up time, a light weight, and easy handling. A Japanese satellite, which was launched in August 2005 with a mission to observe the aurora, is controlled with a FOG. The FOG has also been used in consumer applications, such as the camera stabilizer, radio-controlled (RC) helicopter navigation, and the control of humanoid robots. Recently, distributed and multiplexed sensing schemes, in particular, have been studied and developed, in which a long fiber acts like a “nerve” for feeling the strain and/or the temperature distribution along the fiber. Performances of artificial nerve systems have markedly improved within the last couple of years, in spatial resolution and measurement speed. By embedding the “fiber-optic nerve system” in aircraft wings, bridges and tall buildings, these materials and structures can sense damage to prevent disasters.

  14. Ways to Boost Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help to lower cholesterol. Third, it helps prevent constipation and diverticulosis. And fourth, adequate fiber from food ... is similar to a new sponge; it needs water to plump up pass smoothly. If you ... or constipation. Before you reach for the fiber supplements, consider ...

  15. Quartz fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Doulas, S.; Ganel, O.; Gershtein, Y.; Gavrilov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Litvinsev, D.; Merlo, J.-P.; Onel, Y.; Osborne, D.; Rosowsky, A.; Stolin, V.; Sulak, L.; Sullivan, J.; Ulyanov, A.; Wigmans, R.; Winn, D.

    1996-01-01

    A calorimeter with optical quartz fibers embedded into an absorber matrix was proposed for the small angle region of the CMS detector at LHC (CERN). This type of calorimeter is expected to be radiation hard and to produce extremely fast signal. Some results from beam tests of the quartz fiber calorimeter prototype are presented. (orig.)

  16. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  17. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  18. Raman fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...

  19. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  20. Fiber optic hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  1. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  2. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  3. Fiber Pulling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Sue; Adcock, Leonard

    1998-01-01

    The fiber optics industry has grown into a multi-billion marketplace that will continue to grow into the 21st century. Optical fiber communications is currently dominated by silica glass technology. Successful efforts to improve upon the low loss transmission characteristics of silica fibers have propelled the technology into the forefront of the communications industry. However, reaching the theoretical transmission capability of silica fiber through improved processing has still left a few application areas in which other fiber systems can provide an influential role due to specific characteristics of high theoretical transmission in the 2 - 3 micron wavelength region. One of the other major materials used for optical fibers is the systems based upon Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass (HMFG). Commercial interest is driven primarily by the potential for low loss repeaterless infrared fibers. An example of the major communications marketplace which would benefit from the long distance repeaterless capability of infrared fibers is the submarine cables which link the continents. When considering commercial interests, optical fiber systems provide a healthy industrial position which continues to expand. Major investments in the systems used for optical fiber communications have continued to increase each year and are predicted to continue well into the next century. Estimates of 8.5% compounded annually are predicted through 1999 for the North American market and 1 1 % worldwide. The growth for the optical fiber cable itself is expected to continue between 44 and 50 per cent of the optical fiber communications budget through 1999. The total budget in 1999 world-wide is expected to be in the neighborhood of $9 billion. Another survey predicts that long haul telecommunications represents 15% of a world-wide fiber optics market in 1998. The actual amount allotted to cable was not specified. However, another market research had predicted that the cable costs alone represents more

  4. Production process of a new cellulosic fiber with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikeli, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The Lyocell process (system: cellulose-water-N-methylmorpholine oxide) of Zimmer AG offers special advantages for the production of cellulose fibers. The process excels by dissolving the most diverse cellulose types as these are optimally adjusted to the process by applying different pretreatment methods. Based on this stable process, Zimmer AG's objective is to impart to the Lyocell fiber additional value to improve quality of life and thus to tap new markets for the product. Thanks to the specific incorporation of seaweed, the process allows to produce cellulose Lyocell fibers with additional and new features. They are activated in a further step - by specific charging with metal ions - in order to obtain antibacterial properties. The favorable textile properties of fibers produced by the Lyocell process are not adversely affected by the incorporation of seaweed material or by activation to obtain an antibacterial fiber so that current textile products can be made from the fibers thus produced. The antibacterial effect is achieved by metal ion activation of the Lyocell fibers with incorporated seaweed, which contrasts with the antibacterial fibers known so far. Antibacterial fibers produced by conventional methods are in part only surface finished with antibacterially active chemicals or else they are produced by incorporating organic substances with antibacterial and fungicidal effects. Being made from cellulose, the antibacterial Lyocell fiber Sea Cell Active as the basis for quality textiles exhibits a special wear comfort compared to synthetic fibers with antibacterial properties and effects. This justifies the conclusion that the Zimmer Lyocell process provides genuine value added and that it is a springboard for further applications.

  5. Fiber Optic Microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

  6. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  7. Optical fiber spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Weixin; Tian Guocheng; Ye Guoan; Zhou Zhihong; Cheng Weiwei; Huang Lifeng; Liu Suying; Tang Yanji; Hu Jingxin; Zhao Yonggang

    1998-12-01

    A method called 'Two Arm's Photo out and Electricity Send-back' is introduced. UV-365 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 5 meters long optical fiber. Another method called 'One Arm's Photo out and Photo Send-back' is also introduced. λ 19 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 10 meters long optical fiber. Optical fiber spectrophotometer can work as its main set. So it is particularly applicable to radio activity work

  8. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  9. Chemistry Research of Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-27

    BROADENING IN OPTICAL FIBERS Herbert B. Rosenstock* Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375 ABSTRACT A light pulse transmitted through a fiber...Marcatili, Marcuse , and Personick, "Dispersion Properties of Fibers" (Ch. 4 in "Optical Fiber Telecommunications," S. E. Miller and A. C. Chynoweth, eds

  10. Robust fiber clustering of cerebral fiber bundles in white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xufeng; Wang, Yongxiong; Zhuang, Songlin

    2014-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI-FT) has been widely accepted in the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. During the rendering pipeline of specific fiber tracts, the image noise and low resolution of DTI would lead to false propagations. In this paper, we propose a robust fiber clustering (FC) approach to diminish false fibers from one fiber tract. Our algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, the optimized fiber assignment continuous tracking (FACT) is implemented to reconstruct one fiber tract; and then each curved fiber in the fiber tract is mapped to a point by kernel principal component analysis (KPCA); finally, the point clouds of fiber tract are clustered by hierarchical clustering which could distinguish false fibers from true fibers in one tract. In our experiment, the corticospinal tract (CST) in one case of human data in vivo was used to validate our method. Our method showed reliable capability in decreasing the false fibers in one tract. In conclusion, our method could effectively optimize the visualization of fiber bundles and would help a lot in the field of fiber evaluation.

  11. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  12. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  13. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  14. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  15. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  16. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  17. Fiber Optic Bragg Gratings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Battiato, James

    1998-01-01

    Coupled mode theory was used to model reflection fiber gratings. The effects of experimental parameters on grating characteristics were modeled for both uniform and non-uniform grating profiles using this approach...

  18. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R.; Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E.

    1994-01-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1 degree--7 degree). The 7 λ deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented

  19. High Power Spark Delivery System Using Hollow Core Kagome Lattice Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dumitrache

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the use of the recently developed hollow core kagome lattice fibers for delivery of high power laser pulses. Compared to other photonic crystal fibers (PCFs, the hollow core kagome fibers have larger core diameter (~50 µm, which allows for higher energy coupling in the fiber while also maintaining high beam quality at the output (M2 = 1.25. We have conducted a study of the maximum deliverable energy versus laser pulse duration using a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. Pulse energies as high as 30 mJ were transmitted for 30 ns pulse durations. This represents, to our knowledge; the highest laser pulse energy delivered using PCFs. Two fiber damage mechanisms were identified as damage at the fiber input and damage within the bulk of the fiber. Finally, we have demonstrated fiber delivered laser ignition on a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine.

  20. Fiber optics welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  1. Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Goldberg, Lew

    2000-01-01

    We report a new approach to obtaining single-transverse-mode operation of a multimode fiber amplifier in which the gain fiber is coiled to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode. We demonstrated this method by constructing a coiled amplifier using Yb-doped, double-clad fiber with a core diameter of 25 μm and a numerical aperture of ∼0.1 (V≅7.4) . When the amplifier was operated as an amplified-spontaneous-emission source, the output beam had an M 2 value of 1.09±0.09 ; when seeded at 1064 nm, the slope efficiency was similar to that of an uncoiled amplifier. This technique will permit scaling of pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers to significantly higher pulse energies and peak powers and cw fiber sources to higher average powers while maintaining excellent beam quality. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  2. Continuous Natural Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by Fiber Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharat Wongsriraksa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials are expected to replace inorganic fiber reinforced thermosetting materials. However, in the process of fabricating the composite, it is difficult to impregnate the thermoplastic resin into reinforcement fiber because of the high melt viscosity. Therefore, intermediate material, which allows high impregnation during molding, has been investigated for fabricating continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite by aligning resin fiber alongside reinforcing fiber with braiding technique. This intermediate material has been called “microbraid yarn (MBY.” Moreover, it is well known that the interfacial properties between natural fiber and resin are low; therefore, surface treatment on continuous natural fiber was performed by using polyurethane (PU and flexible epoxy (FLEX to improve the interfacial properties. The effect of surface treatment on the mechanical properties of continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites was examined. From these results, it was suggested that surface treatment by PU with low content could produce composites with better mechanical properties.

  3. Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using a muzzle brake fiber tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Gonzalez, David A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-02-01

    The Thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored as an alternative to Holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. TFL beam profile allows coupling of higher power into smaller fibers than multimode Holmium laser beam, without proximal fiber tip degradation. A smaller fiber provides more space in ureteroscope working channel for increased saline irrigation and allows maximum ureteroscope flexion. However, distal fiber tip burnback increases as fiber diameter decreases. Previous studies utilizing hollow steel sheaths around recessed distal fiber tips reduced fiber burnback, but increased retropulsion. In this study, a "fiber muzzle brake" was tested for reducing fiber burnback and stone retropulsion. TFL lithotripsy studies were performed at 1908 nm, 35 mJ, 500 μs, and 300 Hz using a 100-μm-core fiber. The optimal stainless steel muzzle brake tip tested consisted of a 1-cm-long, 560-μm-OD, 360-μm-ID tube with 275-μm thru hole located 250-μm from the distal end. The fiber tip was recessed a distance of 500 μm. Stone phantom retropulsion, fiber tip burnback, and calcium oxalate stone ablation studies were performed, ex vivo. Small stones with a mass of 40 +/- 4 mg and 4-mm-diameter were ablated over a 1.5-mm sieve in 25 +/- 4 s (n=10), without distal fiber tip burnback. Reduction in stone phantom retropulsion distance by 50% and 85% was observed when using muzzle brake tips versus 100-μm-core bare fibers and hollow steel tip fibers. The muzzle brake fiber tip provided efficient stone ablation, reduced stone retropulsion, and minimal fiber degradation during TFL lithotripsy.

  4. Fiber to the serving area: telephone-like star architecture for CATV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, David M.

    1992-02-01

    CATV systems traditionally use a tree and branch architecture to bring up to 550 MHz of analog bandwidth to every home in a franchise area. This changed slightly with the advent of AM fiber optic equipment, as fiber optics were used in an overlay fashion to reduce coaxial amplifier cascades and improve subscriber quality and reliability. Within the last year, fiber has economically replaced coaxial trunking. The resulting fiber to the serving area architecture combines fiber and coaxial stars for a network that looks much like the carrier serving area architectures used by telephone companies.

  5. Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...

  6. Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

  7. Carbon Fiber Composite Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Jr., Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mainka, Hendrik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Volkswagen (VW) is internationally recognized for quantity and quality of world-wide vehicle production and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is internationally recognized in materials research and development. With automotive production ramping up in the recently constructed VW Group of America facility in Chattanooga, Tennessee, ORNL and VW initiated discussions in 2012 concerning opportunities for collaboration around ORNL’s carbon fiber and composites programs. ORNL is conducting an internationally recognized program to develop and implement lower cost carbon fibers and composites for automotive and other “energy missions” for the US Department of Energy. Significant effort is ongoing in selecting, developing, and evaluating alternative precursors, developing and demonstrating advanced conversion techniques, and developing and tailoring surface treatment, sizings, and formatting fiber for specific composite matrices and end-use applications. ORNL already had North America’s most comprehensive suite of tools for carbon fiber research and development and established a semiproduction demonstration line referred to as the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF) to facilitate implementation of low cost carbon fiber (LCCF) approaches in early 2013. ORNL and VW agreed to collaborate in a formal Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (NFE-12-03992) specifically focused on evaluating applicability of low cost carbon fiber products for potential vehicle components. The goal of the work outlined in this report was to develop and qualify uses for carbon fiber-reinforced structures in connection with civilian ground transportation. Significant progress was achieved in evaluating and understanding lignin-based precursor materials; however, availability of carbon fiber converted from lignin precursor combined with logistical issues associated with the Visa limitations for the VW participant resulted in significantly shortening of the collaboration

  8. Examination of cotton fibers and common contaminants using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical imaging of cotton fibers and common contaminants in fibers is presented. Chemical imaging was performed with an infrared microscope equipped with a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In a...

  9. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  10. Characteristics of continuous unidirectional kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, Reza; Yatim, Jamaludin Mohamad; Mohd Sam, Abdul Rahman; Raftari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To show the potential of continuous kenaf fiber to use in bio-composite. • To introduce new method of hand lay-up for fabricating bio-fiber composite. • To characterize the properties of kenaf fiber epoxy composite. • Morphology of the fracture area by using of SEM. • To use analytical method to predict the bio-composite properties. - Abstract: Kenaf fibers generally has some advantages such as eco-friendly, biodegradability, renewable nature and lighter than synthetic fibers. The aims of the study are to characterize and evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of continuous unidirectional kenaf fiber epoxy composites with various fiber volume fractions. The composites materials and sampling were prepared in the laboratory by using the hand lay-up method with a proper fabricating procedure and quality control. Samples were prepared based on ASTM: D3039-08 for tensile test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed for microstructure analysis to observe the failure mechanisms in the fracture planes. A total of 40 samples were tested for the study. Results from the study showed that the rule of mixture (ROM) analytical model has a close agreement to predict the physical and tensile properties of unidirectional kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites. It was also observed that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, ultimate strain and Poisson’s ratio of 40% fiber volume content of unidirectional kenaf fiber epoxy composite were 164 MPa, 18150 MPa, 0.9% and 0.32, respectively. Due to the test results, increasing the fiber volume fraction in the composite caused the increment in the tensile modulus and reduction in the ultimate tensile strain of composite

  11. Semiconductor and ceramic microstructure made by single mode fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, R; Tomczyk, M; Walczak, M; Domagalski, P

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the results of micromachining of 3D microstructures of microsystems made from silicon and alumina ceramic using a single mode fiber laser (1064 nm) are presented. The quality of obtained structures and its smallest dimensions with acceptable maintained quality were examined. The influence of variable parameters of laser processing with changing of mapping scale on geometrical features of structures was identified.

  12. Flavonoid biosynthesis controls fiber color in naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The existence of only natural brown and green cotton fibers (BCF and GCF, respectively, as well as poor fiber quality, limits the use of naturally colored cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. A better understanding of fiber pigment regulation is needed to surmount these obstacles. In this work, transcriptome analysis and quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that 13 and 9 phenylpropanoid (metabolic pathway genes were enriched during pigment synthesis, while the differential expression of phenylpropanoid (metabolic and flavonoid metabolic pathway genes occurred among BCF, GCF, and white cotton fibers (WCF. Silencing the chalcone flavanone isomerase gene in a BCF line resulted in three fiber phenotypes among offspring of the RNAi lines: BCF, almost WCF, and GCF. The lines with almost WCF suppressed chalcone flavanone isomerase, while the lines with GCF highly expressed the glucosyl transferase (3GT gene. Overexpression of the Gh3GT or Arabidopsis thaliana 3GT gene in BCF lines resulted in GCF. Additionally, the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid metabolites of BCF and GCF were significantly higher than those of WCF as assessed by a metabolomics analysis. Thus, the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway controls both brown and green pigmentation processes. Like natural colored fibers, the transgenic colored fibers were weaker and shorter than WCF. This study shows the potential of flavonoid pathway modifications to alter cotton fibers’ color and quality.

  13. Compact Design of an Electrically Tunable and Rotatable Polarizer Based on a Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, a compact electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal (LC) photonic bandgap fiber polarizer is designed and fabricated. A good fiber coupling quality between two single-mode fibers and one 10-mm-long LC-filled photonic crystal fiber is obtained and protected by using SU-8 fiber...... fixing structures during the device assembly. The total insertion loss of this all-in-fiber device is 2.7 dB. An electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio of 21.3 dB is achieved with 45$^{circ}$ rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in the wavelength range of 1300–1600 nm....

  14. Introduction to fiber optics: Sensors for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R Y; Agrawal, Y K

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the introduction of fiber optics, a fusion of science and engineering and describes the materials generally used for its construction along with the procedure used to design the fibers. It gives an idea of the materials used for the construction along with the pros and cons associated with them and various factors governing the emission of ultraviolet, infrared or visible radiations. The central core revolves around the applications of optical fibers in the medical and biomedical field and extending the use of the same in pharmaceutical industry as probes in quality control and dosage form analysis.

  15. Using Nonuniform Fiber to Generate Slow Light via SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhai Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The data pulse delay based on slow light induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS in a nonuniform dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF is demonstrated experimentally, and the distortions of data pulses at different beat frequencies are studied. We found that a delay exceeding a pulse width can be achieved at particular beat frequency, and the DDF has larger delay versus gain slope coefficient with much better output pulse quality than single-mode fiber.

  16. Characterization of a Material Based on Short Natural Fique Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Navacerrada Saturio, Maria Angeles; Diaz Sanchidrian, Cesar; Fernández, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Fique is a biodegradable natural fiber derived from the Colombian Agavaceae family, originating in tropical America and traditionally used for the manufacture of packaging and cordages. Today, however, new uses are being developed. To meet the need for new good-quality, sustainable, low-cost construction materials for social housing, construction materials have been produced that combine different kinds of natural fibers, including fique, to improve their strength and physical properties. To ...

  17. Natural Fiber Composites: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Matthew P.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Laddha, Sachin; Kafentzis, Tyler A.

    2010-03-07

    The need for renewable fiber reinforced composites has never been as prevalent as it currently is. Natural fibers offer both cost savings and a reduction in density when compared to glass fibers. Though the strength of natural fibers is not as great as glass, the specific properties are comparable. Currently natural fiber composites have two issues that need to be addressed: resin compatibility and water absorption. The following preliminary research has investigated the use of Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus, as a possible glass replacement in fiber reinforced composites.

  18. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures

  19. Fiber-optic technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A history of fiber technology is presented. The advantages of fiber optics are discussed (bandwidth, cost, weight and size, nonmetallic construction and isolation). Some aspects of the disadvantages of fiber systems briefly discussed are fiber and cable availability, fiber components, radiation effects, receivers and transmitters, and material dispersion. Particular emphasis over the next several years will involve development of fibers and systems optimized for use at wavelengths near 1.3 μm and development of wavelengths multiplexers for simultaneous system operation at several wavelengths

  20. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  1. Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

  2. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-05-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  3. Effects of glass fibers on the properties of micro molded plastic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Glass fibers are used to reinforce plastics and to improve their mechanical properties. But plastic filled with glass fibers is a concern for molding of micro scale plastic parts. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of glass fiber on the replication quality and mechanical properties...... of polymeric thin ribs. It investigates the effect of feature size and gate location on distribution of glass fibers inside the molded parts. The results from this work indicate that glass filled plastic materials have poor replication quality and nonhomogeneous mechanical properties due to the nonuniform...

  4. Fiber Generators in Needleless Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional electrospinning often uses a needle-like nozzle to produce nanofibers with a very low production rate. Despite the enormous application potential, needle electrospun nanofibers meet difficulties in broad applications in practice, due to the lack of an economic and efficient way to scale up the electrospinning process. Recently, needleless electrospinning has emerged as a new electrospinning mode and shown ability to produce nanofibers on large-scales. It has been established that the fiber generator, also referred to as “spinneret” in this paper, in needleless electrospinning plays a key role in scaling up the nanofiber production. This paper summarizes the recent advances in the development of needleless spinnerets and their influences on electrospinning process, nanofiber quality, and productivity.

  5. The phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (GhPIS) contributes to longer, stronger, and finer fibers in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qin; Yue, Fang; Liu, Ruochen; Song, Shuiqing; Li, Xianbi; Ding, Bo; Yan, Xingying; Pei, Yan

    2018-05-11

    Cotton fibers are the most important natural raw material used in textile industries world-wide. Fiber length, strength, and fineness are the three major traits which determine the quality and economic value of cotton. It is known that exogenous application of phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns), important structural phospholipids, can promote cotton fiber elongation. Here, we sought to increase the in planta production of PtdIns to improve fiber traits. Transgenic cotton plants were generated in which the expression of a cotton phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (i.e., GhPIS) was controlled by the fiber-specific SCFP promoter element, resulting in the specific up-regulation of GhPIS during cotton fiber development. We demonstrate that PtdIns content was significantly enhanced in transgenic cotton fibers and the elevated level of PtdIns stimulated the expression of genes involved in PtdIns phosphorylation as well as promoting lignin/lignin-like phenolic biosynthesis. Fiber length, strength and fineness were also improved in the transgenic plants as compared to the wild-type cotton, with no loss in overall fiber yield. Our data indicate that fiber-specific up-regulation of PtdIns synthesis is a promising strategy for cotton fiber quality improvement.

  6. Hybrid Fiber Layup and Fiber-Reinforced Polymeric Composites Produced Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnell, Thomas J. (Inventor); Garrigan, Sean P. (Inventor); Rauscher, Michael D. (Inventor); Dietsch, Benjamin A. (Inventor); Cupp, Gary N. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Embodiments of a hybrid fiber layup used to form a fiber-reinforced polymeric composite, and a fiber-reinforced polymeric composite produced therefrom are disclosed. The hybrid fiber layup comprises one or more dry fiber strips and one or more prepreg fiber strips arranged side by side within each layer, wherein the prepreg fiber strips comprise fiber material impregnated with polymer resin and the dry fiber strips comprise fiber material without impregnated polymer resin.

  7. Graphene fiber: a new trend in carbon fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Xu; Chao Gao

    2015-01-01

    New fibers with increased strength and rich functionalities have been untiringly pursued by materials researchers. In recent years, graphene fiber has arisen as a new carbonaceous fiber with high expectations in terms of mechanical and functional performance. In this review, we elucidated the concept of sprouted graphene fibers, including strategies for their fabrication and their basic structural attributes. We examine the rapid advances in the promotion of mechanical/functional properties o...

  8. Optical fiber switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  9. Fiber Optic Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1997-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processes to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (microrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  10. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Katherine J.

    This thesis focuses on research I have done on ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers. These lasers operate in the near infrared region, lasing at 1030 nm. This wavelength is particularly important in biomedical applications, which includes but is not limited to confocal microscopy and ablation for surgical incisions. Furthermore, fiber lasers are advantageous compared to solid state lasers in terms of their cost, form factor, and ease of use. Solid state lasers still dominate the market due to their comparatively high energy pulses. High energy pulse generation in fiber lasers is hindered by either optical wave breaking or by multipulsing. One of the main challenges for fiber lasers is to overcome these limitations to achieve high energy pulses. The motivation for the work done in this thesis is increasing the output pulse peak power and energy. The main idea of the work is that decreasing the nonlinearity that acts on the pulse inside the cavity will prevent optical wave breaking, and thus will generate higher energy pulses. By increasing the output energy, ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers can be competitive with solid state lasers which are used commonly in research. Although fiber lasers tend to lack the wavelength tuning ability of solid state lasers, many biomedical applications take advantage of the 1030 microm central wavelength of ytterbium-doped fiber lasers, so the major limiting factor of fiber lasers in this field is simply the output power. By increasing the output energy without resorting to external amplification, the cavity is optimized and cost can remain low and economical. During verification of the main idea, the cavity was examined for possible back-reflections and for components with narrow spectral bandwidths which may have contributed to the presence of multipulsing. Distinct cases of multipulsing, bound pulse and harmonic mode-locking, were observed and recorded as they may be of more interest in the future. The third

  11. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  12. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.R.; Bayliss, S.C.; Bracken, D.S.; Bush, I.J.; Davis, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microrad to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 rad of phase shift per mW of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  13. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using fiber for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (μrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  14. Monolithic Yb-fiber femtosecond laser using photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate, both experimentally and theoretically, an environmentally stable monolithic all-PM modelocked femtosecond Yb-fiber laser, with laser output pulse compressed in a spliced-on low-loss hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Our laser provides direct fiber-end delivery of 4 nJ pulses...

  15. K3-fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds II, singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In part I of this paper we constructed certain fibered Calabi-Yaus by a quotient construction in the context of weighted hypersurfaces. In this paper look at the case of K3 fibrations more closely and study the singular fibers which occur. This differs from previous work since the fibrations we discuss have constant modulus, and the singular fibers have torsion monodromy.

  16. Single fiber pullout from hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovich, I.; Van Mier, J.G.M.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid fiber reinforcement can be very efficient for improving the tensile response of the composite. In such materials, fibers of different geometries can act as bridging mechanisms over cracks of different widths. The fiber bridging efficiency depends on the interface properties, which makes

  17. Monolithic all-PM femtosecond Yb-fiber laser stabilized with a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating and pulse-compressed in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    . The laser output is compressed in a spliced-on hollow-core PM photonic crystal fiber, thus providing direct end-of-the-fiber delivery of pulses of around 370 fs duration and 4 nJ energy with high mode quality. Tuning the pump power of the end amplifier of the laser allows for the control of output pulse......We report on an environmentally stable self-starting monolithic (i.e. without any free-space coupling) all-polarization-maintaining (PM) femtosecond Yb-fiber laser, stabilized against Q-switching by a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating and modelocked using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror...

  18. Preliminary Study of Linear Density, Tenacity, and Crystallinity of Cotton Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the relationships among fiber linear density, tenacity, and structure is important to help cotton breeders modify varieties for enhanced fiber end-use qualities. This study employed the Stelometer instrument, which is the traditional fiber tenacity reference method and might still be an option as a rapid screening tool because of its low cost and portable attributes. In addition to flat bundle break force and weight variables from a routine Stelometer test, the number of fibers in the bundle were counted manually and the fiber crystallinity (CIIR was characterized by the previously proposed attenuated total reflection-sampling device based Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR protocol. Based on the plots of either tenacity vs. linear density or fiber count vs. mass, the fibers were subjectively divided into fine or coarse sets, respectively. Relative to the distinctive increase in fiber tenacity with linear density, there was an unclear trend between the linear density and CIIR for these fibers. Samples with similar linear density were found to increase in tenacity with fiber CIIR. In general, Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS fineness increases with fiber linear density.

  19. Advances in high power linearly polarized fiber laser and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pu; Huang, Long; Ma, Pengfei; Xu, Jiangming; Su, Rongtao; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Fiber lasers are now attracting more and more research interest due to their advantages in efficiency, beam quality and flexible operation. Up to now, most of the high power fiber lasers have random distributed polarization state. Linearlypolarized (LP) fiber lasers, which could find wide application potential in coherent detection, coherent/spectral beam combining, nonlinear frequency conversion, have been a research focus in recent years. In this paper, we will present a general review on the achievements of various kinds of high power linear-polarized fiber laser and its application. The recent progress in our group, including power scaling by using power amplifier with different mechanism, high power linearly polarized fiber laser with diversified properties, and various applications of high power linear-polarized fiber laser, are summarized. We have achieved 100 Watt level random distributed feedback fiber laser, kilowatt level continuous-wave (CW) all-fiber polarization-maintained fiber amplifier, 600 watt level average power picosecond polarization-maintained fiber amplifier and 300 watt level average power femtosecond polarization-maintained fiber amplifier. In addition, high power linearly polarized fiber lasers have been successfully applied in 5 kilowatt level coherent beam combining, structured light field and ultrasonic generation.

  20. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  1. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  2. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Fahey, Jr.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential

  3. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-06

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  4. Silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Kamchevska, Valerija; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    We review our recent work on silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication, including multicore fiber fan-in/fan-out, multicore fiber switches towards reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers. We also present multicore fiber based quantum communication using silicon devices.......We review our recent work on silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication, including multicore fiber fan-in/fan-out, multicore fiber switches towards reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers. We also present multicore fiber based quantum communication using silicon devices....

  5. Design and fabrication of advanced fiber alignment structures for field-installable fiber connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Sánchez Martínez, Alberto; Beri, Stefano; Debaes, Christof; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-06-01

    Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) networks have been adopted as a potential replacement of traditional electrical connections for the 'last mile' transmission of information at bandwidths over 1Gb/s. However, the success and adoption of optical access networks critically depend on the quality and reliability of connections between optical fibers. In particular a further reduction of insertion loss of field-installable connectors must be achieved without a significant increase in component cost. This requires precise alignment of fibers that can differ in terms of ellipticity, eccentricity or diameter and seems hardly achievable using today's widespread ferrule-based alignment systems. Novel low-cost structures for bare fiber alignment with outstanding positioning accuracies are strongly desired as they would allow reducing loss beyond the level achievable with ferrule-bore systems. However, the realization of such alignment system is challenging as it should provide sufficient force to position the fiber with sub-micron accuracy required in positioning the fiber. In this contribution we propose, design and prototype a bare-fiber alignment system which makes use of deflectable/compressible micro-cantilevers. Such cantilevers behave as springs and provide self-centering functionality to the structure. Simulations of the mechanical properties of the cantilevers are carried out in order to get an analytical approximation and a mathematical model of the spring constant and stress in the structure. Elastic constants of the order of 104 to 105N/m are found out to be compatible with a proof stress of 70 MPa. Finally a first self-centering structure is prototyped in PMMA using our Deep Proton Writing technology. The spring constants of the fabricated cantilevers are in the range of 4 to 6 × 104N/m and the stress is in the range 10 to 20 MPa. These self-centering structures have the potential to become the basic building blocks for a new generation of field-installable connectors.

  6. Fiber-optic seismic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G. W.; Udd, E.

    1985-01-01

    A vibration sensor is constructed by providing two preferably matched coils of fiber-optic material. When the sensor experiences vibration, a differential pressure is exerted on the two fiber coils. The differential pressure results in a variation in the relative optical path lengths between the two fibers so that light beams transmitted through the two fibers are differently delayed, the phase difference therebetween being a detectable indication of the vibration applied to the sensor

  7. Tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate electrically-tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser output at the visible range. Using an all-fiber, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and nonlinear photonic crystal fiber link as the wave-conversion medium, ultrafast, milliwatt-level, tunable...... and spectral isolated Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths are reported. Such a femtosecond Cherenkov laser source is promising for practical biophotonics applications....

  8. Optic Fibers as a Broadcasting Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf QARKAXHIJA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast brodcasting of an information is always a challange from our daily activities. Through fast broadcasting of the information always created pre-eminence in military activities, business, researching, etc. From ancient times we know that information was orally and hand in hand broadcasted which in most of the times casused in loss of information and due to this also in loss of activities which are mentioned above. Due to information technology notably computer networks and internet overtime information started broadcasting faster. Information started broadcasting through copper wires and through wireless. Big applications started to develop with the increased use of Internet, high quality broadcasting (HD, video on demand broadcasting (VoD, triple pay broadcasting (three services on a medium, etc., then these two mediums couldn’t complete all these requests. Therfore after these problems, optic fiber began to be used as a broadcasting medium which eleminated all the defects of other mediums. Importance of this paper work is telling developing stages of optic fiber, it’s characteristics and it’s losses. Then it is shown that which devises enforce the signal of fibers and in the end all three mediums that we mentioned are compared on the basis of attributes. Findings form the paper will only enforce that knowledge we had before about optic fiber, the best broadcasting medium.

  9. Visible high power fiber coupled diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Bernd; Drovs, Simon; Stoiber, Michael; Dürsch, Sascha; Kissel, Heiko; Könning, Tobias; Biesenbach, Jens; König, Harald; Lell, Alfred; Stojetz, Bernhard; Löffler, Andreas; Strauß, Uwe

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we report on further development of fiber coupled high-power diode lasers in the visible spectral range. New visible laser modules presented in this paper include the use of multi single emitter arrays @ 450 nm leading to a 120 W fiber coupled unit with a beam quality of 44 mm x mrad, as well as very compact modules with multi-W output power from 405 nm to 640 nm. However, as these lasers are based on single emitters, power scaling quickly leads to bulky laser units with a lot of optical components to be aligned. We also report on a new approach based on 450 nm diode laser bars, which dramatically reduces size and alignment effort. These activities were performed within the German government-funded project "BlauLas": a maximum output power of 80 W per bar has been demonstrated @ 450 nm. We show results of a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled 35 W source @ 450 nm, which has been reduced in size by a factor of 25 compared to standard single emitter approach. In addition, we will present a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled laser unit with an output power of 135 W.

  10. Mid-infrared performance of single mode chalcogenide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Justin; Sincore, Alex; Tan, Felix; El Halawany, Ahmed; Riggins, Anthony; Shah, Lawrence; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Richardson, Martin C.; Schepler, Kenneth L.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the intrinsic absorption edge in silica near 2.4 μm, more exotic materials are required to transmit laser power in the IR such as fluoride or chalcogenide glasses (ChGs). In particular, ChG fibers offer broad IR transmission with low losses fibers at four different infrared wavelengths: 2053 nm, 2520 nm and 4550 nm. Polymer clad ChG fibers were drawn with 12.3 μm and 25 μm core diameters. Testing at 2053 nm was accomplished using a > 15 W, CW Tm:fiber laser. Power handling up to 10.2 W with single mode beam quality has been demonstrated, limited only by the available Tm:fiber output power. Anti-reflective coatings were successfully deposited on the ChG fiber facets, allowing up to 90.6% transmission with 12.2 MW/cm2 intensity on the facet. Single mode guidance at 4550 nm was also demonstrated using a quantum cascade laser (QCL). A custom optical system was constructed to efficiently couple the 0.8 NA QCL radiation into the 0.2 NA ChG fiber, allowing for a maximum of 78% overlap between the QCL radiation and fundamental mode of the fiber. With an AR-coated, 25 μm core diameter fiber, >50 mW transmission was demonstrated with > 87% transmission. Finally, we present results on fiber coupling from a free space Cr:ZnSe resonator at 2520 nm.

  11. Growth of rare-earth doped single crystal yttrium aluminum garnet fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Subhabrata; Nie, Craig D.; Harrington, James A.; Cheng, Long; Rand, Stephen C.; Li, Yuan; Johnson, Eric G.

    2018-02-01

    Rare-earth doped single crystal (SC) yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) fibers have great potential as high-power laser gain media. SC fibers combine the superior material properties of crystals with the advantages of a fiber geometry. Improving processing techniques, growth of low-loss YAG SC fibers have been reported. A low-cost technique that allows for the growth of optical quality Ho:YAG single crystal (SC) fibers with different dopant concentrations have been developed and discussed. This technique is a low-cost sol-gel based method which offers greater flexibility in terms of dopant concentration. Self-segregation of Nd ions in YAG SC fibers have been observed. Such a phenomenon can be utilized to fabricate monolithic SC fibers with graded index.

  12. In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Libo; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhihai; Sun, Jiaxing

    2006-09-15

    A novel fiber-optic in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer has been proposed and demonstrated. It consists of a segment of two-core fiber with a mirrored fiber end. The sensing characteristics based on the two-core fiber bending, corresponding to the shift of the phase of the two-core in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer, are investigated.

  13. The Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Supporting Fibers Based on the Photonic Crystal Fiber Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The orbital angular momentum (OAM of light can be another physical dimension that we exploit to make multiplexing in the spatial domain. The design of the OAM mode supporting fiber attracts many attentions in the field of the space division multiplexing (SDM system. This paper reviews the recent progresses in photonic crystal fiber (PCF supporting OAM modes, and summarizes why a PCF structure can be used to support stable OAM transmission modes. The emphasis is on the circular PCFs, which possess many excellent features of transmission performance, such as good-quality OAM modes, enough separation of the effective indices, low confinement loss, flat dispersion, a large effective area, and a low nonlinear coefficient. We also compare the transmission properties between the circular PCF and the ring core fiber, as well as the properties between the OAM EDFA based on circular PCF and the OAM EDFA based on the ring core fiber. At last, the challenges and prospects of OAM fibers based on the PCF structure are also discussed.

  14. Transient attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied

  15. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  16. Water-core Fresnel fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martelli, C.; Canning, J.; Lyytikainen, K.; Groothoff, N.

    2005-01-01

    A water core photonic crystal Fresnel fiber exploiting a hole distribution on zone plates of a cylindrical waveguide was developed and characterized. This fiber has similar guiding properties as the pristine air-hole guiding fiber although a large loss edge ~900nm is observed indicating that the

  17. Optical fibers for FTTH application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Tosik, Grzegorz; Lisik, Zbigniew; Bedyk, Michal; Kubiak, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the specifics of FTTH (Fiber To The Home) networks in terms of requirements for optical fibers has been presented. Optical fiber samples used in FTTH applications acquired from the worldwide leading manufacturers were subjected to small diameter mandrel wraps tests. The detailed procedures of performed tests and the measurement results has been presented.

  18. Photonic-crystal fibers gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muse Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to use of a photonic crystal fiber with an inner hollow defect. The use of such fibers is not affected by a material medium on the propagation of optical radiation. Photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications

  19. Thermal properties of Fiber ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Nielsen, Ole Wennerberg; Oland, Espen

    There is a trend within the oil and gas market to shift from steel wire ropes to fiber ropes for lifting, hoisting and mooring applications. The cost of fiber ropes is about 2-3 times that of steel wire ropes, but the natural buoyancy of fiber ropes reduces the overall weight resulting in smaller...

  20. Shedding Light on Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the principles of fiber optics as a medium for light-wave communication. Current uses of fiber systems on college campuses include voice, video, and local area network applications. A group of seven school districts in Minnesota are linked via fiber-optic cables. Other uses are discussed. (MLF)

  1. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  2. Microstructured Fibers: Design and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes

    2006-01-01

    Holey fibers, in which airholes are introduced in the cladding region and extended in the axial direction of the fiber, have been known since the early days of silica waveguide research. Early work demonstrated the first low-loss fibers, which featured very small silica cores held in air by thin...

  3. Illustrative white matter fiber bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.J.G.; Vilanova, A.; Wetering, van de H.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has made feasible the visualization of the fibrous structure of the brain whitematter. In the last decades, several fiber-tracking methods have been developed to reconstruct the fiber tracts fromDTI data. Usually these fiber tracts are shown individually based on some

  4. The dentate mossy fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Zimmer, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Hippocampal mossy fibers are the axons of the dentate granule cells and project to hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and mossy cells of the dentate hilus (CA4) as well as a number of interneurons in the two areas. Besides their role in hippocampal function, studies of which are still evolving...

  5. Optical Fiber Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  6. Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of work done on NASA Grant NAG-1-443. The work covers the period from July 1, 1992 to December 1, 1998. During this period several distinct but related research studies and work tasks were undertaken. These different subjects are enumerated below with a description of the work done on each of them. The focus of the research was the development of optical fibers for use as distributed temperature and stress sensors. The initial concept was to utilize the utilize the temperature and stress dependence of emission from rare earth and transition metal ions substitutionally doped into crystalline or glass fibers. During the course of investigating this it became clear that fiber Bragg gratings provided a alternative for making the desired measurements and there was a shift of research focus on to include the photo-refractive properties of germano-silicate glasses used for most gratings and to the possibility of developing fiber laser sources for an integrated optical sensor in the research effort. During the course of this work several students from Christopher Newport University and other universities participated in this effort. Their names are listed below. Their participation was an important part of their education.

  7. Fiber and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, artichoke hearts, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...

  8. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

  9. Improved Optical Fiber Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Calculations, based on exact theory of optical fiber, have shown how to increase optical efficiency sensitivity of active-core, step-index-profile optical-fiber fluorosensor. Calculations result of efforts to improve efficiency of optical-fiber chemical sensor of previous concept described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525). Optical fiber chemical detector of enhanced sensitivity made in several configurations. Portion of fluorescence or chemiluminescence generated in core, and launched directly into bound electromagnetic modes that propagate along core to photodetector.

  10. Solid fiber Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computations have been performed to study the behavior of solid deuterium fiber Z-pinch experiments performed at Los Alamos and the Naval Research Laboratory. The computations use a tabulated atomic data base and ''cold-start'' initial conditions. The computations predict that the solid fiber persists longer in existing experiments than previously expected and that the discharge actually consists of a relatively low-density, hot plasma which has been ablated from the fiber. The computations exhibit m = 0 behavior in the hot, exterior plasma prior to complete ablation of the solid fiber. The m = 0 behavior enhances the fiber ablation rate. 10 refs., 5 figs

  11. Introduction to optical fiber sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moukdad, S.

    1991-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors have many advantages over other types of sensors, for example: Low weight, immunity from EMI, electrical isolation, chemical passivity, and high sensitivity. In this seminar, a brief explanation of the optical fiber sensors, their use, and their advantages will be given. After, a description of the main optical fiber sensor components will be presented. Principles of some kinds of optical fiber sensors will be presented, and the principle of the fiber-optic rotation sensor and its realization will be discussed in some details, as well as its main applications. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Mechanical properties of self-compacted fiber concrete mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir M. Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity and improved working environment have had high priority in the development of concrete construction over the last decade. The major impact of the introduction of self-compacting concrete (SCC is connected to the production process. The productivity is drastically improved through the elimination of vibration compaction and process reorganization. The working environment is significantly enhanced through avoidance of vibration induced damages, reduced noise and improved safety. Additionally, SCC technology has improved the performance in terms of hardened concrete properties like surface quality, strength and durability. The main objective of this research was to determine the optimum content of fibers (steel and polypropylene fibers used in SCC. The effect of different fibers on the fresh and hardened properties was studied. An experimental investigation on the mechanical properties, including compressive strength, flexural strength and impact strength of fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete was performed. The results of the investigation showed that: the optimum dosage of steel and polypropylene fiber was 0.75% and 1.0% of the cement content, respectively. The impact performance was also improved due to the use of fibers. The control mix specimen failed suddenly in flexure and impact, the counterpart specimens contain fibers failed in a ductile manner, and failure was accompanied by several cracks.

  13. Carbon nano tubes embedded in polymer nano fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dror, Y.; Kedem, S.; Khalfin, R.L.; Paz, Y.; Cohenl, Y.; Salalha, Y.; Yarin, A.L.; Zussman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: The electro spinning process was used successfully to embed Multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) in a matrix of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) forming composite nano fibers. Initial dispersion of SWCNTs in water was achieved by the use of an amphphilic alternating copolymer of styrene and sodium maleate. MWNT dispersion was achieved by ionic and nonionic surfactants. The distribution and conformation of the nano tubes in the nano fibers were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Oxygen plasma etching was used to expose the nano tubes within the nano fibers to facilitate direct observation. Nano tube alignment within the nano fibers was shown to depend strongly on the quality of the initial dispersions. Well-dispersed and separated nano tubes were embedded in a straight and aligned form while entangled non-separated nano tubes were incorporated as dense aggregates. X-ray diffraction demonstrated a high degree of orientation of the PEO crystals in the electro spun nano fibers with embedded SWCNTs, whereas incorporation of MVCNTs had a detrimental effect on the polymer orientation. Composite polymer nano fibers containing dispersed phases of nanometric TiO 2 particles and MWCNTs were also prepared electro spinning. In this case, the polymer matrix was poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN). The morphology and possible applications of these composite nano fibers will be discussed

  14. Fast processing of foreign fiber images by image blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the textile industry, it is always the case that cotton products are constitutive of many types of foreign fibers which affect the overall quality of cotton products. As the foundation of the foreign fiber automated inspection, image process exerts a critical impact on the process of foreign fiber identification. This paper presents a new approach for the fast processing of foreign fiber images. This approach includes five main steps, image block, image pre-decision, image background extraction, image enhancement and segmentation, and image connection. At first, the captured color images were transformed into gray-scale images; followed by the inversion of gray-scale of the transformed images ; then the whole image was divided into several blocks. Thereafter, the subsequent step is to judge which image block contains the target foreign fiber image through image pre-decision. Then we segment the image block via OSTU which possibly contains target images after background eradication and image strengthening. Finally, we connect those relevant segmented image blocks to get an intact and clear foreign fiber target image. The experimental result shows that this method of segmentation has the advantage of accuracy and speed over the other segmentation methods. On the other hand, this method also connects the target image that produce fractures therefore getting an intact and clear foreign fiber target image.

  15. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jeong-Il; Lee, Bang

    2015-01-01

    The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber?s suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then th...

  16. Fiber optics: A brief introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A basic introduction into the principles of fiber optics is presented. A review of both the underlying physical principles and the individual elements of typical fiber-optic systems are presented. The optical phenomenon of total internal reflection is reviewed. The basic construction of the optical fiber is presented. Both step-index and graded-index fiber designs are reviewed. Multimode and single-mode fiber constructions are considered and typical performance parameters given. Typical optical-fiber bandwidth and loss characteristics are compared to various common coaxial cables, waveguides, and air transmission. The constructions of optical-fiber cables are reviewed. Both loose-tube and tightly-buffered designs are considered. Several optical connection approaches are presented. Photographs of several representative optical connectors are included. Light Emitting Diode and Laser Diode emitters for fiber-optic applications are reviewed, and some advantages and shortcomings of each are considered. The phenomenon of modal noise is briefly explained. Both PIN and Avalanche photodetectors are reviewed and their performance parameters compared. Methods of data transmission over optical fiber are introduced. Principles of Wavelength, Frequency, and Time Division Multiplexing are briefly presented. The technology of fiber-optic sensors is briefly reviewed with basic principles introduced. The performance of a fiber-optic strain sensor is included as a practical example. 7 refs., 10 figs

  17. All-Fiber Raman Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara

    by means of fiber components. Assuming the possibility to use a fiber laser with a fundamental radiation at 1064nm, in-fiber efficient second harmonic generation is achieved by optically poling the core of the waveguide delivering the excitation light to the sample. In this way, Raman spectroscopy...... in the visible range can be performed. The simultaneous delivery of the excitation light and collection of the Raman signal from the sample are achieved by means of a doubleclad fiber, whose core and inner cladding act as \\independent" transmission channels. A double-clad fiber coupler allows for the recovery...... of the collected Raman scattering from the inner-cladding region of the double-clad fiber, thus replacing the bulk dichroic component normally used to demultiplex the pump and Raman signal. A tunable Rayleigh-rejection filter based on a liquid filled-photonic bandgap fiber is also demonstrated in this work...

  18. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  19. Effect of dietary fibers on physico-chemical, sensory and textural properties of Misti Dahi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P Narender; Pal, Dharam

    2014-11-01

    Misti dahi, a popular ethnic delicacy of eastern India analogous to caramel coloured set style sweetened yoghurt, besides several therapeutic virtues, contains high fat and sugar. Alike people elsewhere in the world, people in India too are now becoming health conscious and are aware of the relation between diet and health. Hence, high fat and sugar contents are causes of concern for the successful marketing of misti dahi in India. With a view to enhance the health attributes of misti dahi and improve marketability, three commercial dietary fiber preparations (inulin, soy fiber and oat fiber) were incorporated and their effect on the product's quality in terms of physicochemical, sensory and textural quality was assessed. Standard method was followed for the preparation of fiber fortified misti dahi (FFMD). Among the three dietary fibers, inulin significantly decreased viscosity and instrumental firmness and increased lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), syneresis and work of shear values of FFMD. Oat fiber settled at the bottom and gave a poor appearance. Soy fiber did not affect the flavor of FFMD. Although overall acceptability scores of inulin and soy fiber containing FFMD were significantly lower than control, they were still above the minimum acceptable score. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it was concluded that acceptable quality FFMD could be prepared using inulin and soy fiber at 1.5 % level of fortification.

  20. Two novel plasma diagnostic tools: fiber sensors and phase conjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    A rapidly developing technology (single-mode optical fiber sensors) and recent fundamental research in nonlinear optics (phase conjugation) both offer opportunities for novel plasma diagnostics. Single-mode fiber sensors can replace electrical wire probes for current and magnetic field measurements with advantages in voltage insulation requirements, electromagnetic noise immunity, much greater bandwidth, and some configuration flexibility. Faraday rotation measurements through fibers wound on the ZT-40M RFP have demonstrated quantitative results, but competing linear birefringence effects still hinder independent interpretation. Twisted fiber may solve this problem. Optical phase conjugation (in which a phase reversed copy of a laser beam is generated) allows real time distortion corrections in laser diagnostics. Self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO 3 improves the quality of phase conjugation imagery and greatly simplifies experimentation directed toward plasma diagnostics. Our initial applications are a) time-differential refractometry with high spatial resolution and b) intracavity absorption Zeeman spectroscopy

  1. Chemically modified carbon fibers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolenko, I.N.; Lyubliner, I.P.; Gulko, N.V.

    1990-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive review about chemically modified carbon fibers (e.g. by incorporation of other elements) and is structured as follows: 1. Types of carbon fibers, 2. Structure of carbon fibers, 3. Properties of carbon fibers, 4. The cellulose carbonization process, 5. Formation of element-carbon fiber materials, 6. Surface modification of carbon fibers, and 7. Applications of carbon fibers (e.g. adsorbents, catalysts, constituents of composites). (MM)

  2. Effects of Friction Reduction on Fiber Damage in a Saw-Type Lint Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. cotton is at a competitive disadvantage from a fiber-quality standpoint, because lint cleaning is required for mechanically harvested cotton, and lint cleaning causes fiber damage. Lint-cleaning research has focused mainly on modifying saw-type lint cleaners, but the work reported here focuses...

  3. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  4. Multispot fiber laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutt Hansen, Klaus

    This dissertation presents work and results achieved in the field of multi beam fiber laser welding. The project has had a practical approach, in which simulations and modelling have been kept at a minimum. Different methods to produce spot patterns with high power single mode fiber lasers have...... been examined and evaluated. It is found that both diamond turned DOE’s in zinc sulphide and multilevel etched DOE’s (Diffractive Optical Elements) in fused silica have a good performance. Welding with multiple beams in a butt joint configuration has been tested. Results are presented, showing it has...... been possible to control the welding width in incremental steps by adding more beams in a row. The laser power was used to independently control the keyhole and consequently the depth of fusion. An example of inline repair of a laser weld in butt joint configuration was examined. Zinc powder was placed...

  5. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  6. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  7. Optical fiber communications

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular text and reference book presents the fundamental principles for understanding and applying optical fiber technology to sophisticated modern telecommunication systems. Optical-fiber-based telecommunication networks have become a major information-transmission-system, with high capacity links encircling the globe in both terrestrial and undersea installations. Numerous passive and active optical devices within these links perform complex transmission and networking functions in the optical domain, such as signal amplification, restoration, routing, and switching. Along with the need to understand the functions of these devices comes the necessity to measure both component and network performance, and to model and stimulate the complex behavior of reliable high-capacity networks.

  8. Stable fiber interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmajlov, G.N.; Nikolaev, F.A.; Ozolin, V.V.; Grigor'yants, V.V.; Chamorovskij, Yu.K.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of construction the long-base Michelson interferometer for gravitational wave detection is discussed. Possible sources of noise and instability are considered. It is shown that evacuation of fiber interferometer, the winding of its arms on the glass ceramic bases, stabilization of radiation source frequency and seismic isolation of the base allow one to reduce its instability to the level, typical of mirror interferometer with the comparable optical base. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  9. Deriving muscle fiber diameter from recorded single fiber potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate muscle fiber diameters through analysis of single muscle fiber potentials (SFPs) recorded in the frontalis muscle of a healthy subject. Our previously developed analytical and graphic method to derive fiber diameter from the analysis of the negative peak duration and the amplitude of SFP, was applied to a sample of ten SFPs recorded in vivo. Muscle fiber diameters derived from the simulation method for the sample of frontalis muscle SFPs are consistent with anatomical data for this muscle. The results confirm the utility of proposed simulation method. Outlying data could be considered as the result of a contribution of other fibers to the potential recorded using an SFEMG electrode. Our graphic tool provides a rapid estimation of muscle fiber diameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.

    2008-01-01

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  11. Monolithic femtosecond Yb-fiber laser with photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate a monolithic stable SESAM-modelocked self-starting Yb-fiber laser. A novel PM all-solid photonic bandgap fiber is used for intra-cavity of dispersion management. The ex-cavity final pulse compression is performed in a spliced-on PM hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The laser...... directly delivers 9 nJ pulses of 275 fs duration with pulse repetition of 26.7MHz....

  12. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  13. Neodymium-doped phosphate fiber lasers with an all-solid microstructured inner cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang; Zhou, Qinling; Yu, Chunlei; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping

    2012-06-15

    We report on high-power fiber lasers based on index-guiding, all-solid neodymium-doped (Nd-doped) phosphate photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a hexagonal-shaped inner cladding. The optimum fiber laser with a 36 cm length active fiber, generated up to 7.92 W output power at 1053 nm, which benefited from a high absorption coefficient for pump power due to its noncircular inner cladding. The guiding properties of the all-solid PCF were also investigated. A stable mode with a donut-shaped profile and a power-dependent laser beam quality have been observed experimentally and analyzed.

  14. Guiding and amplification properties of rod-type photonic crystal fibers with sectioned core doping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selleri, Stefano; Poli, Federica; Passaro, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Rod-type photonic crystal fibers are large mode area double-cladding fibers with an outer diameter of few millimeters which can provide important advantages for high-power lasers and amplifiers. Numerical studies have recently demonstrated the guidance of higher-order modes in these fibers, which...... can worsen the output beam quality of lasers and amplifiers. In the present analysis a sectioned core doping has been proposed for Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers, with the aim to improve the higher-order mode suppression. A full-vector modal solver based on the finite element method has...

  15. Raman fiber distributed feedback lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Paul S; Abedin, Kazi S; Nicholson, Jeffrey W; Kremp, Tristan; Porque, Jerome

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate fiber distributed feedback (DFB) lasers using Raman gain in two germanosilicate fibers. Our DFB cavities were 124 mm uniform fiber Bragg gratings with a π phase shift offset from the grating center. Our pump was at 1480 nm and the DFB lasers operated on a single longitudinal mode near 1584 nm. In a commercial Raman gain fiber, the maximum output power, linewidth, and threshold were 150 mW, 7.5 MHz, and 39 W, respectively. In a commercial highly nonlinear fiber, these figures improved to 350 mW, 4 MHz, and 4.3 W, respectively. In both lasers, more than 75% of pump power was transmitted, allowing for the possibility of substantial amplification in subsequent Raman gain fiber. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Flexible optical fiber sensor based on polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaysir, Md Rejvi; Stefani, Alessio; Lwin, Richard

    Polyurethane (PU) based hollow core fibers are investigated as optical sensors. The flexibility of PU fibers makes it suitable for sensing mechanical perturbations. We fabricated a PU fiber using the fiber drawing method, characterized the fiber and experimentally demonstrated a simple way...... to measure deformation, in the form of applied pressure....

  17. A fiber-optic polarimetric demonstration kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftimov, T; Dimitrova, T L; Ivanov, G

    2012-01-01

    A simple and multifunctional fiber-optic polarimetric kit on the basis of highly birefringent single-mode fibers is presented. The fiber-optic polarimetric kit allows us to perform the following laboratory exercises: (i) fiber excitation and the measurement of numerical aperture, (ii) polarization preservation and (iii) obtain polarization-sensitive fiberized interferometers.

  18. Dynamic drainage of froth with wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Freya Tan

    2005-01-01

    Understanding froth drainage with fibers (or simply called fiber drainage in froth) is important for improving fiber yield in the flotation deinking operation. In this study, the data of water and fiber mass in foams collected at different froth heights were used to reconstruct the time dependent and spatially resolved froth density and fiber volumetric concentration...

  19. Fiber optic sensor and method for making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartuli, James Scott; Bousman, Kenneth Sherwood; Deng, Kung-Li; McEvoy, Kevin Paul; Xia, Hua

    2010-05-18

    A fiber optic sensor including a fiber having a modified surface integral with the fiber wherein the modified surface includes an open pore network with optical agents dispersed within the open pores of the open pore network. Methods for preparing the fiber optic sensor are also provided. The fiber optic sensors can withstand high temperatures and harsh environments.

  20. Electrochromic fiber-shaped supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Deng, Jue; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Guan, Guozhen; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-23

    An electrochromic fiber-shaped super-capacitor is developed by winding aligned carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite sheets on an elastic fiber. The fiber-shaped supercapacitors demonstrate rapid and reversible chromatic transitions under different working states, which can be directly observed by the naked eye. They are also stretchable and flexible, and are woven into textiles to display designed signals in addition to storing energy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. System for testing optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  2. Fiber-Optic Sensor Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Constructs and evaluates fiber-optic sensors for a variety of measurands. These measurands include acoustic, pressure, magnetic, and electric field as well...

  3. Development of scintillating fiber tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Shuzo; Kawai, Toshihide; Kozaki, Tetsuo

    1995-01-01

    In order to use thin scintillating fiber (diameter 500 micron) as a particle tracking detector, we have developed a method to construct precise multi-layer scintillating fiber sheets. We have also developed dedicated machines for this purpose. This paper presents the details of the method and the machines. Using these machines, we have produced fiber sheets for CERN WA95/CHORUS, which intend to detect a neutrino oscillation in the νμ-ντ channel using Hybrid Emulsion Set-up. Fiber Trackers are used as a vertex detector which support the neutrino event location in the nuclear emulsion target. (author)

  4. Production of Low Cost Carbon-Fiber through Energy Optimization of Stabilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelayol Golkarnarenji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To produce high quality and low cost carbon fiber-based composites, the optimization of the production process of carbon fiber and its properties is one of the main keys. The stabilization process is the most important step in carbon fiber production that consumes a large amount of energy and its optimization can reduce the cost to a large extent. In this study, two intelligent optimization techniques, namely Support Vector Regression (SVR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN, were studied and compared, with a limited dataset obtained to predict physical property (density of oxidative stabilized PAN fiber (OPF in the second zone of a stabilization oven within a carbon fiber production line. The results were then used to optimize the energy consumption in the process. The case study can be beneficial to chemical industries involving carbon fiber manufacturing, for assessing and optimizing different stabilization process conditions at large.

  5. The influence of gamma radiation on polarization mode dispersion of fibers applied in communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Rade S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fiber optics technology is constantly being developed, and is becoming an essential component of contemporary communications, medicine and industry. Fibers, their connections and system components play a major role in optical signal transmission, telecommunications, power transmission, and sensing processes using fiber technology. The two main light propagation characteristics of an optical fiber are attenuation and dispersion. The possibility of controling these parameters is of utmost importance for obtaining the requested transmission quality. This paper reports on an investigation to determine the influence of gamma radiation of 60Co on the variation of optical fiber propagation parameters, such as polarization mode dispersion. In addition, it also considers chosen topics in the field of fiber optics technology.

  6. Small fiber neuropathy: a disabling and underrecognized syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, Mareye; Fritz, Daan; Vogels, Oscar J. M.; Eftimov, Filip; van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Drent, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss cause, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, and treatment of small fiber neuropathy (SFN). The diagnosis is difficult and can be easily missed. Recent findings SFN causes high morbidity with disabling symptoms and impact on quality of life. Patients may benefit from

  7. Small fiber neuropathy : a disabling and underrecognized syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, Mareye; Fritz, Daan; Vogels, Oscar J M; Eftimov, Filip; van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Drent, Marjolein

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss cause, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, and treatment of small fiber neuropathy (SFN). The diagnosis is difficult and can be easily missed. RECENT FINDINGS: SFN causes high morbidity with disabling symptoms and impact on quality of life. Patients may benefit from

  8. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

  9. And They're Off! The Race to Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joan E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes fiber optic technology and discusses its use in distance learning and educational reform. Highlights include the quality of communications transmission systems; costs; Federal Communications Commission rules and regulations; cable television; networks, including the National Research and Education Network (NREN); government versus…

  10. Research and applications of advanced fibers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yunshu

    2007-01-01

    From simple matter to alloy, composite materials have been the frontier of contemporary material science. Its properties and application status designate the level of a country's material science. Polymer matrix, metal matrix and ceramics matrix advanced fibers reinforced composites are the important area of contemporary material science and the powerful supporting materials for the reformation of national defense industry and general industry. In the improvement and coordination of industrial production and the upgrade of human life's qualities, these materials are playing more and more important roles. There are great gaps between international level and China's level of both the research and development or the industrial status. The carbon fibers, which was started early in China, has not been put into large scale production yet. The properties of precursor fibers were the primary cause to prohibit the development of carbon fibers. About the SiC fibers, major progress was immerged in the CVI techniques to fabricate SiC f /SiC CMC; the current priority task is to research and develop high strength fibers with low oxygen content and excellent high temperature resistance. (authors)

  11. Application technology for optical fiber in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Hwang, Suk Yeong; Kim, Byung Soo; Sohn, Surg Won

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study the radiation effects on optical fiber, to develop remote inspection and image processing system, and to apply image processing technique to X-ray radiography analysis and to laser beam diagnostic system. Thermal neutrons cause nuclear radiation with fiber compositions, so secondary ionizing radiations of high energy are generated. These ionizing radiations from color centers, which increase transmission loss of optical fiber by absorbing propagating light in fiber core. As a result of experiment, owing to Ge, P, and B doping effects the induced loss in multimode fibers has been 5 times larger than that in single mode fibers, the loss at 0.85 μm wavelength region more susceptible for radiations has been twice higher than that at 1.3 μm. Remote inspection mechanism captures images remotely, and the images are inhanced by image processing surfaces of bent or long-straight pipe in hostile environment. Laser beam diagnostic system using image processing techniques can be used to observe and analyze laser beam quality. This system will be effectively applied for laser development and application field. X-ray radiographic image analysis by image processing technique make it easier to inspect and measure irradiated fuel rod, and the accuracy of the obtained data is also improved. (author)

  12. A Pathway to Reduce Energy Consumption in the Thermal Stabilization Process of Carbon Fiber Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Nunna

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Process parameters, especially in the thermal stabilization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN fibers, play a critical role in controlling the cost and properties of the resultant carbon fibers. This study aimed to efficiently handle the energy expense areas during carbon fiber manufacturing without reducing the quality of carbon fibers. We introduced a new parameter (recirculation fan frequency in the stabilization stage and studied its influence on the evolution of the structure and properties of fibers. Initially, the progress of the cyclization reaction in the fiber cross-sections with respect to fan frequencies (35, 45, and 60 Hz during stabilization was analyzed using the Australian Synchrotron-high resolution infrared imaging technique. A parabolic trend in the evolution of cyclic structures was observed in the fiber cross-sections during the initial stages of stabilization; however, it was transformed to a uniform trend at the end of stabilization for all fan frequencies. Simultaneously, the microstructure and property variations at each stage of manufacturing were assessed. We identified nominal structural variations with respect to fan frequencies in the intermediate stages of thermal stabilization, which were reduced during the carbonization process. No statistically significant variations were observed between the tensile properties of fibers. These observations suggested that, when using a lower fan frequency (35 Hz, it was possible to manufacture carbon fibers with a similar performance to those produced using a higher fan frequency (60 Hz. As a result, this study provided an opportunity to reduce the energy consumption during carbon fiber manufacturing.

  13. Fiber Tracking Cylinder Nesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stredde, H.

    1999-01-01

    The fiber tracker consists of 8 concentric carbon fiber cylinders of varying diameters, from 399mm to 1032.2mm and two different lengths. 1.66 and 2.52 meters. Each completed cylinder is covered over the entire o.d. with scintillating fiber ribbons with a connector on each ribbon. These ribbons are axial (parallel to the beam line) at one end and stereo (at 3 deg. to the beam line) at the other. The ribbon connectors have dowel pins which are used to match with the connectors on the wave guide ribbons. These dowel pins are also used during the nesting operation, locating and positioning measurements. The nesting operation is the insertion of one cylinder into another, aligning them with one another and fastening them together into a homogeneous assembly. For ease of assembly. the nesting operation is accomplished working from largest diameter to smallest. Although the completed assembly of all 8 cylinders glued and bolted together is very stiff. individual cylinders are relatively flexible. Therefore. during this operation, No.8 must be supported in a manner which maintains its integrity and yet allows the insertion of No.7. This is accomplished by essentially building a set of dummy end plates which replicate a No.9 cylinder. These end plates are mounted on a wheeled cart that becomes the nesting cart. Provisions for a protective cover fastened to these rings has been made and will be incorporated in finished product. These covers can be easily removed for access to No.8 and/or the connection of No.8 to No.9. Another wheeled cart, transfer cart, is used to push a completed cylinder into the cylinder(s) already mounted in the nesting cart.

  14. Monolithic stabilized Yb-fiber All-PM laser directly delivering nJ-level femtosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    We present a monolithic, self-starting, all-PM, stabilized Yb-fiber laser, pulse-compressed in a hollow-core PM photonic crystal fiber, providing the 370 fs pulses of 4 nJ energy with high mode quality.......We present a monolithic, self-starting, all-PM, stabilized Yb-fiber laser, pulse-compressed in a hollow-core PM photonic crystal fiber, providing the 370 fs pulses of 4 nJ energy with high mode quality....

  15. Random fiber laser based on artificially controlled backscattering fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Chen, Daru; Li, Haitao; She, Lijuan; Wu, Qiong

    2018-01-10

    The random fiber laser (RFL), which is a milestone in laser physics and nonlinear optics, has attracted considerable attention recently. Most previously reported RFLs are based on distributed feedback of Rayleigh scattering amplified through the stimulated Raman-Brillouin scattering effect in single-mode fibers, which require long-distance (tens of kilometers) single-mode fibers and high threshold, up to watt level, due to the extremely small Rayleigh scattering coefficient of the fiber. We proposed and demonstrated a half-open-cavity RFL based on a segment of an artificially controlled backscattering single-mode fiber with a length of 210 m, 310 m, or 390 m. A fiber Bragg grating with a central wavelength of 1530 nm and a segment of artificially controlled backscattering single-mode fiber fabricated by using a femtosecond laser form the half-open cavity. The proposed RFL achieves thresholds of 25 mW, 30 mW, and 30 mW, respectively. Random lasing at a wavelength of 1530 nm and extinction ratio of 50 dB is achieved when a segment of 5 m erbium-doped fiber is pumped by a 980 nm laser diode in the RFL. A novel RFL with many short cavities has been achieved with low threshold.

  16. The LED and fiber based calibration system for the photomultiplier array of SNO+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, L.; Alves, R.; Andringa, S.; Bradbury, S.; Carvalho, J.; Clark, K.; Coulter, I.; Descamps, F.; Falk, L.; Gurriana, L.; Kraus, C.; Lefeuvre, G.; Maio, A.; Maneira, J.; Mottram, M.; Peeters, S.; Rose, J.; Sinclair, J.; Skensved, P.; Waterfield, J.; White, R.; Wilson, J.; SNO+ Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    A new external LED/fiber light injection calibration system was designed for the calibration and monitoring of the photomultiplier array of the SNO+ experiment at SNOLAB. The goal of the calibration system is to allow an accurate and regular measurement of the photomultiplier array's performance, while minimizing the risk of radioactivity ingress. The choice in SNO+ was to use a set of optical fiber cables to convey into the detector the light pulses produced by external LEDs. The quality control was carried out using a modified test bench that was used in QC of optical fibers for TileCal/ATLAS. The optical fibers were characterized for transmission, timing and angular dispersions. This article describes the setups used for the characterization and quality control of the system based on LEDs and optical fibers and their results.

  17. Basic effects of pulp refining on fiber properties--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehkhani, Samira; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman; Badarudin, Ahmad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd

    2015-01-22

    The requirement for high quality pulps which are widely used in paper industries has increased the demand for pulp refining (beating) process. Pulp refining is a promising approach to improve the pulp quality by changing the fiber characteristics. The diversity of research on the effect of refining on fiber properties which is due to the different pulp sources, pulp consistency and refining equipment has interested us to provide a review on the studies over the last decade. In this article, the influence of pulp refining on structural properties i.e., fibrillations, fine formation, fiber length, fiber curl, crystallinity and distribution of surface chemical compositions is reviewed. The effect of pulp refining on electrokinetic properties of fiber e.g., surface and total charges of pulps is discussed. In addition, an overview of different refining theories, refiners as well as some tests for assessing the pulp refining is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using variable homography to measure emergent fibers on textile fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Cudel, Christophe; Kohler, Sophie; Fontaine, Stéphane; Haeberlé, Olivier; Klotz, Marie-Louise

    2011-07-01

    A fabric's smoothness is a key factor to determine the quality of textile finished products and has great influence on the functionality of industrial textiles and high-end textile products. With popularization of the 'zero defect' industrial concept, identifying and measuring defective material in the early stage of production is of great interest for the industry. In the current market, many systems are able to achieve automatic monitoring and control of fabric, paper, and nonwoven material during the entire production process, however online measurement of hairiness is still an open topic and highly desirable for industrial applications. In this paper we propose a computer vision approach, based on variable homography, which can be used to measure the emergent fiber's length on textile fabrics. The main challenges addressed in this paper are the application of variable homography to textile monitoring and measurement, as well as the accuracy of the estimated calculation. We propose that a fibrous structure can be considered as a two-layer structure and then show how variable homography can estimate the length of the fiber defects. Simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of this method to measure the emergent fiber's length. The true lengths of selected fibers are measured precisely using a digital optical microscope, and then the same fibers are tested by our method. Our experimental results suggest that smoothness monitored by variable homography is an accurate and robust method for quality control of important industrially fabrics.

  19. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10−8 and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10−4, respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration.

  20. Polymer optical fiber bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Yuan, Scott Wu; Andresen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings are reported. We have written fiber Bragg gratings for 1550 nm and 850 nm operations, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer....

  1. Extraction and characterization of Retama monosperma fibers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    XPERT

    monosperma leaves and their mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The fibers .... The hook was removed gently, and the behavior of the fiber was observed ..... fibers reinforced cement mortar slabs: a comparative study. Cement.

  2. Actively doped solid core Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Solid photonic bandgap fibers offer distributed spectral filtering with extraordinary high suppression. This opens new possibilities of artificially tailoring the gain spectrum of fibers. We present record-performance of such fibers and outline their future applications....

  3. Fiber breakage phenomena in long fiber reinforced plastic preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chao-Tsai; Tseng, Huan-Chang; Chang, Rong-Yeu; Vlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high demand of smart green, the lightweight technologies have become the driving force for the development of automotives and other industries in recent years. Among those technologies, using short and long fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) to replace some metal components can reduce the weight of an automotive significantly. However, the microstructures of fibers inside plastic matrix are too complicated to manage and control during the injection molding through the screw, the runner, the gate, and then into the cavity. This study focuses on the fiber breakage phenomena during the screw plastification. Results show that fiber breakage is strongly dependent on screw design and operation. When the screw geometry changes, the fiber breakage could be larger even with lower compression ratio. (paper)

  4. Fiber-optic dosimeters for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enbang; Archer, James

    2017-10-01

    According to the figures provided by the World Health Organization, cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 8.8 million deaths in 2015. Radiation therapy, which uses x-rays to destroy or injure cancer cells, has become one of the most important modalities to treat the primary cancer or advanced cancer. The newly developed microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), which uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of x-ray microbeams (typically 50 μm wide and separated by 400 μm) produced by synchrotron sources, represents a new paradigm in radiotherapy and has shown great promise in pre-clinical studies on different animal models. Measurements of the absorbed dose distribution of microbeams are vitally important for clinical acceptance of MRT and for developing quality assurance systems for MRT, hence are a challenging and important task for radiation dosimetry. On the other hand, during the traditional LINAC based radiotherapy and breast cancer brachytherapy, skin dose measurements and treatment planning also require a high spatial resolution, tissue equivalent, on-line dosimeter that is both economical and highly reliable. Such a dosimeter currently does not exist and remains a challenge in the development of radiation dosimetry. High resolution, water equivalent, optical and passive x-ray dosimeters have been developed and constructed by using plastic scintillators and optical fibers. The dosimeters have peak edge-on spatial resolutions ranging from 50 to 500 microns in one dimension, with a 10 micron resolution dosimeter under development. The developed fiber-optic dosimeters have been test with both LINAC and synchrotron x-ray beams. This work demonstrates that water-equivalent and high spatial resolution radiation detection can be achieved with scintillators and optical fiber systems. Among other advantages, the developed fiber-optic probes are also passive, energy independent, and radiation hard.

  5. High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Broeng, Jes; Knudsen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber.......A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber....

  6. Design of a test station for the CMS HCAL waveshifter/waveguide fiber system

    CERN Document Server

    Baumbaugh, B; Kozminski, J; Lu, Q; Ruchti, R C; Wayne, M; Budd, H S; De Barbaro, P; Skup, E

    1998-01-01

    A test station has been designed and is under construction to test the quality of assembled waveguide to waveshifter fiber to be used in the scintillating tile calorimeter for the Compact Moun Solenoid (CMS) Hadron Calorimeter $9 (HCAL). The test station consists of a light tight enclosure 6.8 meters long with the ability to move a light source over almost 6 meters of fiber. Data acquisition hardware and software are under development to analyze the quality $9 of the fiber as well as motor control hardware and software to operate the moveable light source. The design and performance expectations of the test station will be presented. (6 refs).

  7. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2008-01-28

    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  8. Development of a new bioethanol feedstock - Anaerobically digested fiber from confined dairy operations using different digestion configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Zhengbo; Teater, Charles; MacLellan, James; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Two types of digesters, continuous stirring-tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow reactor (PFR), were integrated into a biorefining concept to generate a new cellulosic ethanol feedstock -anaerobically digested fiber (AD fiber) from dairy cow feces. Cellulose content in AD fibers was significantly increased during the anaerobic digestion. CSTR and PFR AD fibers had cellulose contents of 357 and 322 g kg -1 dried AD fiber. The AD fibers were enzymatically hydrolyzed after being pretreated by dilute sulfuric acid or dilute sodium hydroxide, and the hydrolysates were used to produce ethanol. Alkali pretreatment was concluded as a suitable pretreatment method for AD fibers. Under the optimal conditions the AD fibers processed by CSTR and PFR produced ethanol of 26 g kg -1 and 23 g kg -1 dry feces, respectively. Energy balance analysis further indicated that CSTR was a preferred digestion method to prepare AD fiber for ethanol production. -- Highlights: → Anaerobic digestion process has been discovered as a process that is not only a downstream process, but also a pretreatment method to prepare cellulosic feedstock for biorefining. → In this study the effects of two different AD reactor configurations (CSTR and PFR) on AD fiber quality and bioethanol conversion of the AD fiber have been explored. → Mass and energy balance analysis elucidated that compared to PFR, CSTR is better AD treatment to prepare AD fiber for bioethanol production.

  9. Optical fiber powered pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, P.; Neveux, L.; Ostrowsky, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the system described, a pressure sensor and its associated electronics are optically powered by a 20 mw laser and a photovoltaic cell via an optical fiber. The sensor is periodically interrogated and sends the measures obtained back to the central unit using an LED and a second fiber. The results obtained as well as the expected evolution will be described

  10. Microstructured hollow fibers for ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culfaz, Pmar Zeynep; Culfaz, P.Z.; Rolevink, Hendrikus H.M.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a corrugated outer microstructure were prepared from a PES/PVP blend. The effect of spinning parameters such as air gap, take-up speed, polymer dope viscosity and coagulation value on the microstructure and membrane characteristics was investigated. Fibers

  11. Fiber optic-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1991-01-01

    The NRL fiber optic biosensor is a device which measures the formation of a fluorescent complex at the surface of an optical fiber. Antibodies and DNA binding proteins provide the mechanism for recognizing an analyze and immobilizing a fluorescent complex on the fiber surface. The fiber optic biosensor is fast, sensitive, and permits analysis of hazardous materials remote from the instrumentation. The fiber optic biosensor is described in terms of the device configuration, chemistry for protein immobilization, and assay development. A lab version is being used for assay development and performance characterization while a portable device is under development. Antibodies coated on the fiber are stable for up to two years of storage prior to use. The fiber optic biosensor was used to measure concentration of toxins in the parts per billion (ng/ml) range in under a minute. Immunoassays for small molecules and whole bacteria are under development. Assays using DNA probes as the detection element can also be used with the fiber optic sensor, which is currently being developed to detect biological warfare agents, explosives, pathogens, and toxic materials which pollute the environment.

  12. A compressed sensing approach for resolution improvement in fiber-bundle based endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, John P.; Lodhi, Muhammad A.; Bajwa, Waheed U.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2018-02-01

    Endomicroscopy techniques such as confocal, multi-photon, and wide-field imaging have all been demonstrated using coherent fiber-optic imaging bundles. While the narrow diameter and flexibility of fiber bundles is clinically advantageous, the number of resolvable points in an image is conventionally limited to the number of individual fibers within the bundle. We are introducing concepts from the compressed sensing (CS) field to fiber bundle based endomicroscopy, to allow images to be recovered with more resolvable points than fibers in the bundle. The distal face of the fiber bundle is treated as a low-resolution sensor with circular pixels (fibers) arranged in a hexagonal lattice. A spatial light modulator is located conjugate to the object and distal face, applying multiple high resolution masks to the intermediate image prior to propagation through the bundle. We acquire images of the proximal end of the bundle for each (known) mask pattern and then apply CS inversion algorithms to recover a single high-resolution image. We first developed a theoretical forward model describing image formation through the mask and fiber bundle. We then imaged objects through a rigid fiber bundle and demonstrate that our CS endomicroscopy architecture can recover intra-fiber details while filling inter-fiber regions with interpolation. Finally, we examine the relationship between reconstruction quality and the ratio of the number of mask elements to the number of fiber cores, finding that images could be generated with approximately 28,900 resolvable points for a 1,000 fiber region in our platform.

  13. Mechanical and physical properties of carbon-graphite fiber-reinforced polymers intended for implant suprastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerström, Susanna; Ruyter, I Eystein

    2007-09-01

    Mechanical properties and quality of fiber/matrix adhesion of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based materials, reinforced with carbon-graphite (CG) fibers that are able to remain in a plastic state until polymerization, were examined. Tubes of cleaned braided CG fibers were treated with a sizing resin. Two resin mixtures, resin A and resin B, stable in the fluid state and containing different cross-linking agents, were reinforced with CG fiber loadings of 24, 36, and 47 wt% (20, 29, and 38 vol.%). In addition, resin B was reinforced with 58 wt% (47 vol.%). After heat-polymerization, flexural strength and modulus were evaluated, both dry and after water storage. Coefficient of thermal expansion, longitudinally and in the transverse direction of the specimens, was determined. Adhesion between fibers and matrix was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties and linear coefficient of thermal expansion were similar for both fiber composites. With increased fiber loading, flexural properties increased. For 47 wt% fibers in polymer A the flexural strength was 547.7 (28.12) MPa and for polymer B 563.3 (89.24) MPa when water saturated. Linear coefficient of thermal expansion was for 47 wt% CG fiber-reinforced polymers; -2.5 x 10(-6) degrees C-1 longitudinally and 62.4 x 10(-6) degrees C-1 in the transverse direction of the specimens. SEM revealed good adhesion between fibers and matrix. More porosity was observed with fiber loading of 58 wt%. The fiber treatment and the developed resin matrices resulted in good adhesion between CG fibers and matrix. The properties observed indicate a potential for implant-retained prostheses.

  14. Handbook of fiber optics theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Chai

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Yeh supplies a firm theoretical foundation in such topics as propagation of light through fibers, fiber fabrication, loss mechanisms, and dispersion properties. He then expands from this into such practical areas as fiber splicing, measuring loss in fibers, fiber-based communications networks, remote fiber sensors, and integrated optics. Whether involved in fiber optics research, design, or practical implementation of systems, this handbook will be extremely useful.Key Features* Here is a comprehensive, ""one-stop"" reference with state-of-the-art information on fiber optics Included is da

  15. IMPACT STUDY OF ANISOTROPIC OPTICAL FIBERS WINDING WITH DIFFERENT TENSION VALUE ON THE H-PARAMETER INVARIANCE DEGREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Mukhtubayev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We have investigated the effect of anisotropic optical fibers winding with an elliptical sheath subjecting to stress on the H-parameter invariance degree. This type of optical fiber is used in the manufacture of fiber loop in fiber-optic gyroscopes. Method of Research. The method of research is based on the application of Michelson polarization scanning interferometer as a measuring device. Superluminescent diode with a central wavelength of 1575 nm and a half-width of the spectrum equal to 45 nm is used as a radiation source. The studies were carried out with anisotropic optical fiber with 50 m long elliptical sheath subjecting to stress. The fiber was wound with one layer turn to turn on the coil with a diameter of 18 cm, which is used in the design of fiber-optic gyroscope. The tension force of the optical fiber was controlled during winding on a special machine. Main Results. It was found that at the increase of tension force from 0.05 N to 0.8 H the value of H-parameter increases from 7×10-6 1/m up to 178×10-6 1/m, respectively; i.e. the coupling coefficient of orthogonal modes in the test fiber is being increased. Thus, it is necessary to consider the longitudinal tension force of fiber in the design and manufacture of the fiber-optic sensors of high accuracy class: the less the fiber winding power, the higher invariance degree of distributed H-parameter. The longitudinal tension force of anisotropic optical fiber with elliptical sheath subjecting to stress equal to 0.2 N is recommended in the process of designing fiber-optic gyroscopes. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of Michelson scanning interferometer is usable in the production process for quality determination of the optical fiber winding: no local defects, value controlling of fiber H-parameter.

  16. Radiation damage in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.; Ogle, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Optical fibers provide important advantages over coaxial cables for many data transmission applications. Some of these applications require that the fibers transmit data during a radiation pulse. Other applications utilize the fiber as a radiation-to-light transducer. In either case, radiation-induced luminescence and absorption must be understood. Most studies of radiation effects in fibers have emphasized time scales of interest in telecommunication systems, from the msec to hour range. Few studies have concentrated on response at times below 1 + s. At Los Alamos, both laboratory electron accelerators and nuclear tests have been used as radiation sources to probe this early time region. The use of a fiber (or any optical medium) as a Cerenkov radiation-to-light transducer is discussed. Since the radiation induces attenuation in the medium, the light output is not proportional to the radiation input. The nonlinearity introduced by this attenuation is calculated

  17. Photometric device using optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, Gilbert; Perez, J.-J.

    1981-02-01

    Remote measurements in radioactive environment are now possible with optical fibers. Measurement instruments developed by CEA are constitued of: - an optical probe (5 mm to 1 meter optical path length), - a photometric measurement device, - optical fiber links. 'TELEPHOT' is a photometric device for industrial installations. It is uses interferentiel filters for 2 to 5 simultaneous wave lengths. 'CRUDMETER' measures the muddiness of water. It can be equipped with a high sensitivity cell of 50 cm optical path length tested up to 250 bars. Coupling a double beam spectrophotometer to a remote optical probe, up to 1 meter optical path length, is carried out by means of an optical device using optical fibers links, eventually several hundred meter long. For these equipments special step index large core fibers, 1 to 1.5 mm in diameter, have been developed as well connectors. For industrial control and research these instruments offer new prospect thanks to optical fibers use [fr

  18. Recycling and characterization of carbon fibers from carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites by a novel super-heated-steam method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwan-Woo; Lee, Hye-Min; An, Jeong-Hun; Chung, Dong-Chul; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2017-12-01

    In order to manufacture high quality recycled carbon fibers (R-CFs), carbon fiber-reinforced composite wastes were pyrolysed with super-heated steam at 550 °C in a fixed bed reactor for varying reaction times. The mechanical and surface properties of the R-CFs were characterized with a single fiber tensile test, interface shear strength (IFSS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface analysis showed that there was no matrix char residue on the fiber surfaces. The tensile strength and IFSS values of the R-CFs were 90% and 115% compared to those of virgin carbon fibers (V-CFs), respectively. The recycling efficiency of the R-CFs from the composites were strongly dependent on the pyrolysis temperature, reaction time, and super-heated steam feeding rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fiber-optic based instrumentation for water and air monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCraith, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper real-time in-situ water and air monitoring capabilities based on fiber-optic sensing technology are described. This relatively new technology combines advances in fiber optic and optoelectronics with chemical spectorscopic techniques to enable field environmental monitoring of sub ppm quantities of specific pollutants. The advantages of this technology over conventional sampling methods are outlined. As it is the more developed area the emphasis is on water quality monitoring rather than air. Examples of commercially available, soon-to be available and laboratory systems are presented. One such example is a system used to detect hydrocarbon spills and leaking of underground hydrocarbon storage tanks

  20. Fiber optic sensors for environmental applications: A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.

    1992-04-01

    Understanding the flow a groundwater quality. This understanding is achieved by measurement of the appropriate chemical and physical subsurface parameters. The ideal measurement would accurately assess a parameter without affecting the parameter or its environment. Fiber optic spectroscopy offers some of the most promising techniques for accurate, non-invasive measurements of environmental parameters. Fiber optic sensors for subsurface applications are currently being developed by several Department of Energy laboratories. Some of these sensors have been successfully deployed in the field and are attaining the goals of accurate, noninvasive, real time measurements in the subsurface

  1. High quality-factor optical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriet, Rémi; Salzenstein, Patrice; Coillet, Aurélien; Saleh, Khaldoun; Chembo, Yanne K; Ristic, Davor; Ferrari, Maurizio; Mortier, Michel; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Dumeige, Yannick; Féron, Patrice; Cibiel, Gilles; Llopis, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Various resonators are investigated for microwave photonic applications. Micro-sphere, disk and fiber ring resonators were designed, realized and characterized. Obtained quality factors are as high as Q = 10 10 . (paper)

  2. 2nd International Conference on Natural Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Rana, Sohel

    2016-01-01

    This book collects selected high quality articles submitted to the 2nd International Conference on Natural Fibers (ICNF2015). A wide range of topics is covered related to various aspects of natural fibres such as agriculture, extraction and processing, surface modification and functionalization, advanced structures, nano fibres, composites and nanocomposites, design and product development, applications, market potential, and environmental impact. Divided into separate sections on these various topics, the book presents the latest high quality research work addressing different approaches and techniques to improve processing, performance, functionalities and cost-effectiveness of natural fibre and natural based products, in order to promote their applications in various advanced technical sectors. This book is a useful source of information for materials scientists, teachers and students from various disciplines as well as for R& D staff in industries using natural fibre based materials. .

  3. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    has to have an inner coating barrier. The most reliable solution proposed is to coat the inner walls with silicon dioxide, which is not biodegradable but rather environmentally inert. To enhance the environmental footprint and sustainability of the bottle, and to be competitive with the existing...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  4. Carbon Fiber from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fiber (CF), known also as graphite fiber, is a lightweight, strong, and flexible material used in both structural (load-bearing) and non-structural applications (e.g., thermal insulation). The high cost of precursors (the starting material used to make CF, which comes predominately from fossil sources) and manufacturing have kept CF a niche market with applications limited mostly to high-performance structural materials (e.g., aerospace). Alternative precursors to reduce CF cost and dependence on fossil sources have been investigated over the years, including biomass-derived precursors such as rayon, lignin, glycerol, and lignocellulosic sugars. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of CF precursors from biomass and their market potential. We examine the potential CF production from these precursors, the state of technology and applications, and the production cost (when data are available). We discuss their advantages and limitations. We also discuss the physical properties of biomass-based CF, and we compare them to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF. We also discuss manufacturing and end-product considerations for bio-based CF, as well as considerations for plant siting and biomass feedstock logistics, feedstock competition, and risk mitigation strategies. The main contribution of this study is that it provides detailed technical and market information about each bio-based CF precursor in one document while other studies focus on one precursor at a time or a particular topic (e.g., processing). Thus, this publication allows for a comprehensive view of the CF potential from all biomass sources and serves as a reference for both novice and experienced professionals interested in CF production from alternative sources.

  5. Fabrication of elastomeric silk fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Sarah A; Partlow, Benjamin P; Cebe, Peggy; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2017-09-01

    Methods to generate fibers from hydrogels, with control over mechanical properties, fiber diameter, and crystallinity, while retaining cytocompatibility and degradability, would expand options for biomaterials. Here, we exploited features of silk fibroin protein for the formation of tunable silk hydrogel fibers. The biological, chemical, and morphological features inherent to silk were combined with elastomeric properties gained through enzymatic crosslinking of the protein. Postprocessing via methanol and autoclaving provided tunable control of fiber features. Mechanical, optical, and chemical analyses demonstrated control of fiber properties by exploiting the physical cross-links, and generating double network hydrogels consisting of chemical and physical cross-links. Structure and chemical analyses revealed crystallinity from 30 to 50%, modulus from 0.5 to 4 MPa, and ultimate strength 1-5 MPa depending on the processing method. Fabrication and postprocessing combined provided fibers with extensibility from 100 to 400% ultimate strain. Fibers strained to 100% exhibited fourth order birefringence, revealing macroscopic orientation driven by chain mobility. The physical cross-links were influenced in part by the drying rate of fabricated materials, where bound water, packing density, and microstructural homogeneity influenced cross-linking efficiency. The ability to generate robust and versatile hydrogel microfibers is desirable for bottom-up assembly of biological tissues and for broader biomaterial applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. New all-fiber velocimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Jidong; Tan Hua; Hu Shaolou; Ma Yun; Wan Xiang

    2005-01-01

    A new all-fiber velocity interferometer system for any reflector (AFVISAR) was developed. It was conceived and realized with the purpose of using it as the basic measuring element of a complete system for multiple point velocity measurements. Its main features are that it works at 532 nm and partly adopts the multimode optical fiber. The velocimeter consists of only fibers or fiber coupled components and has no optic elements such as optic lenses or reflectors. It is therefore very compact and easy to operate. Unlike the conventional AFVISAR, which uses single-mode optic fiber components, the laser beam in this new interferometer system arrives at and reflects from the target surface through a multimode optical fiber component, and then enters and interferes in a [3x3] single-mode fiber coupler. Its working principle is elaborated on in this article. Preliminary experiments using a split Hopkins pressure bar (SHPB) device show that the new interferometer can successfully measure the velocity profiles of the metal specimen along the axial or radial direction. Further experiments on a one-stage gas gun are under consideration

  7. Dimensional stability of natural fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Mark S. [Ultraviolet Light/Electron Beam (UV/EB) Technology Center, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Smith, Jennifer L.; Woods, Sean; Tiss, Kenneth J. [Ultraviolet Light/Electron Beam (UV/EB) Technology Center, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 and Sustainable Construction Management and Engineering, SUNY-ESF (United States); Larsen, L. Scott [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), 17 Columbia Circle, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    One of the main problems associated with the use of natural fibers as reinforcing agents in composites is their uptake of moisture. Many natural fibers are lignocellulosic, which causes them to swell and shrink as the amount of available moisture changes. Swelling and shrinking can cause composites to prematurely fail. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study that considers the use of two different low molecular weight monomers, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), polymerized by electron beam ionizing radiation, to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers. Eight different treatments consisting of varying amounts of monomer, encapsulating agent, and cross-linkers, were evaluated for their ability to dimensionally stabilize sisal fiber. Results indicate that both polymerized HEA and HEMA can reduce the swelling of sisal fiber. The effectiveness of HEA and HEMA can be further enhanced with the use of a cross-linker (SR 454). The use of hydroxylated monomers to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers may play an important role in reducing delamination and improving fiber-resin adhesion in composites.

  8. Dimensional stability of natural fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Mark S.; Smith, Jennifer L.; Woods, Sean; Tiss, Kenneth J.; Larsen, L. Scott

    2013-01-01

    One of the main problems associated with the use of natural fibers as reinforcing agents in composites is their uptake of moisture. Many natural fibers are lignocellulosic, which causes them to swell and shrink as the amount of available moisture changes. Swelling and shrinking can cause composites to prematurely fail. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study that considers the use of two different low molecular weight monomers, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), polymerized by electron beam ionizing radiation, to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers. Eight different treatments consisting of varying amounts of monomer, encapsulating agent, and cross-linkers, were evaluated for their ability to dimensionally stabilize sisal fiber. Results indicate that both polymerized HEA and HEMA can reduce the swelling of sisal fiber. The effectiveness of HEA and HEMA can be further enhanced with the use of a cross-linker (SR 454). The use of hydroxylated monomers to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers may play an important role in reducing delamination and improving fiber-resin adhesion in composites.

  9. Toward power scaling in an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser: effects of pressure, fiber length, and pump power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, H. W. Kushan; Dadashzadeh, Neda; Thirugnanasambandam, Manasadevi P.; Debord, Benoît.; Chafer, Matthieu; Gérôme, Frédéric; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L.; Washburn, Brian R.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of gas pressure, fiber length, and optical pump power on an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser (HOFGLAS) is experimentally determined in order to scale the laser to higher powers. The absorbed optical power and threshold power are measured for different pressures providing an optimum pressure for a given fiber length. We observe a linear dependence of both absorbed pump energy and lasing threshold for the acetylene HOFGLAS, while maintaining a good mode quality with an M-squared of 1.15. The threshold and mode behavior are encouraging for scaling to higher pressures and pump powers.

  10. Automatic Determination of Fiber-Length Distribution in Composite Material Using 3D CT Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Greiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymer components is a crucial step in quality assurance, since fiber length has a strong influence on overall strength, stiffness, and stability of the material. The approximate fiber length distribution is usually determined early in the development process, as conventional methods require a destruction of the sample component. In this paper, a novel, automatic, and nondestructive approach for the determination of fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymers is presented. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography is used as imaging method together with subsequent image analysis for evaluation. The image analysis consists of an iterative process where single fibers are detected automatically in each iteration step after having applied image enhancement algorithms. Subsequently, a model-based approach is used together with a priori information in order to guide a fiber tracing and segmentation process. Thereby, the length of the segmented fibers can be calculated and a length distribution can be deduced. The performance and the robustness of the segmentation method is demonstrated by applying it to artificially generated test data and selected real components.

  11. Measurement of spatial refractive index distributions of fusion spliced optical fibers by digital holographic microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Deng, Yating; Ma, Xichao; Xiao, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Digital holographic microtomography is improved and applied to the measurements of three-dimensional refractive index distributions of fusion spliced optical fibers. Tomographic images are reconstructed from full-angle phase projection images obtained with a setup-rotation approach, in which the laser source, the optical system and the image sensor are arranged on an optical breadboard and synchronously rotated around the fixed object. For retrieving high-quality tomographic images, a numerical method is proposed to compensate the unwanted movements of the object in the lateral, axial and vertical directions during rotation. The compensation is implemented on the two-dimensional phase images instead of the sinogram. The experimental results exhibit distinctly the internal structures of fusion splices between a single-mode fiber and other fibers, including a multi-mode fiber, a panda polarization maintaining fiber, a bow-tie polarization maintaining fiber and a photonic crystal fiber. In particular, the internal structure distortion in the fusion areas can be intuitively observed, such as the expansion of the stress zones of polarization maintaining fibers, the collapse of the air holes of photonic crystal fibers, etc.

  12. Automatic Determination of Fiber-Length Distribution in Composite Material Using 3D CT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teßmann, Matthias; Mohr, Stephan; Gayetskyy, Svitlana; Haßler, Ulf; Hanke, Randolf; Greiner, Günther

    2010-12-01

    Determining fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymer components is a crucial step in quality assurance, since fiber length has a strong influence on overall strength, stiffness, and stability of the material. The approximate fiber length distribution is usually determined early in the development process, as conventional methods require a destruction of the sample component. In this paper, a novel, automatic, and nondestructive approach for the determination of fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymers is presented. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography is used as imaging method together with subsequent image analysis for evaluation. The image analysis consists of an iterative process where single fibers are detected automatically in each iteration step after having applied image enhancement algorithms. Subsequently, a model-based approach is used together with a priori information in order to guide a fiber tracing and segmentation process. Thereby, the length of the segmented fibers can be calculated and a length distribution can be deduced. The performance and the robustness of the segmentation method is demonstrated by applying it to artificially generated test data and selected real components.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Mechanical Characteristics of Carbon Fiber Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Bashmal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-based materials possess excellent mechanical properties and show linear piezoresistive behavior, which make them good candidate materials for strain measurements. They have the potential to be used as sensors for various applications such as damage detection, stress analysis and monitoring of manufacturing processes and quality. In this paper, carbon fiber sensors are prepared to perform reliable strain measurements. Both experimental and computational studies were carried out on commercially available carbon fibers in order to understand the response of the carbon fiber sensors due to changes in the axial strain. Effects of parameters such as diameter, length, and epoxy-hardener ratio are discussed. The developed numerical model was calibrated using laboratory-based experimental data. The results of the current study show that sensors with shorter lengths have relatively better sensitivity. This is due to the fact short fibers have low initial resistance, which will increase the change of resistance over initial resistance. Carbon fibers with low number of filaments exhibit linear behavior while nonlinear behavior due to transverse resistance is significant in fibers with large number of filaments. This study will allow researchers to predict the behavior of the carbon fiber sensor in real life and it will serve as a basis for designing carbon fiber sensors to be used in different applications.

  14. Adhesion of pineapple-leaf fiber to epoxy matrix: The role of surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusran Payae

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are considered to have potential use as reinforcing agents in polymer composite materials because of their principle benefits: moderate strength and stiffness, low cost, and be an environmental friendly, degradable, and renewablematerial. Due to their inherently hydrophilic nature, they are prone to absorb moisture, which can plasticise or weaken theadhesion of fibers to the surrounding matrix and by this affect the performance of composites used in atmospheric humidity,particularly at elevated temperatures. The surface treatments are often applied to the fiber to improve the bond strengthbetween the fibers and matrix. This work discussed the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH treatment and epoxy resin as acompatibilizing agent on interface properties of pineapple leaf fiber (PALF-epoxy composites. A single-fiber fragmentationtest coupled with data reduction technique was employed to assess interface quality in terms of apparent interfacial shearstrength (IFSS or a of untreated, NaOH, and epoxy resin treated PALFs-epoxy composites. Tensile properties of untreatedand treated PALFs were also examined. It was found that both treatments substantially increase a, corresponding to animproved level of adhesion. The improvement in the level of adhesion for the alkali and epoxy treated fiber composites wasdue to an increase in the physical bonding between the alkali treated fibers and the matrix, and due to a promoted compatibilitybetween the epoxy treated fibers and matrix, respectively.

  15. Review on developments in fiber optical sensors and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamdas, Kiran Kishore Kumar; Annamdas, Venu Gopal Madhav

    2010-04-01

    The last couple of decades had witnessed a rise in the research of optoelectronic and fiber optical communication fields, which resulted in applications focused initially in military and aerospace equipments, and later in health monitoring for medicine, heritage culture and various engineering fields. The monitoring of existing or /and new engineering, biomedical structures has become a regular feature throughout the world. Monitoring is fast emerging as a pioneering field with high precision and quality equipments. This field is very vast, consisting of both traditional as well as smart materials based methods. The fiber optics belong to the finest class of smart materials, there are many types and classifications based on the necessity, manufacturer and the end user. In this paper, a complete over view of fiber sensing systems and their usefulness is briefly presented.

  16. Triaxial fiber optic magnetic field sensor for MRI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filograno, Massimo L.; Pisco, Marco; Catalano, Angelo; Forte, Ernesto; Aiello, Marco; Soricelli, Andrea; Davino, Daniele; Visone, Ciro; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report a fiber-optic triaxial magnetic field sensor, based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) integrated with giant magnetostrictive material, the Terfenol-D. The realized sensor has been designed and engineered for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications. A full magneto-optical characterization of the triaxial sensing probe has been carried out, providing the complex relationship among the FBGs wavelength shift and the applied magnetostatic field vector. Finally, the developed fiber optic sensors have been arranged in a sensor network composed of 20 triaxial sensors for mapping the magnetic field distribution in a MRI-room at a diagnostic center in Naples (SDN), equipped with Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) instrumentation. Experimental results reveal that the proposed sensor network can be efficiently used in MRI centers for performing quality assurance tests, paving the way for novel integrated tools to measure the magnetic dose accumulated day by day by MRI operators.

  17. Glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes for evoked potential recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for recording field potentials with tungsten electrodes make it virtually impossible to use the same recording electrode also as a lesioning electrode, for example for histological confirmation of the recorded site, because the lesioning procedure usually wears off the tungsten tip. Therefore, the electrode would have to be replaced after each lesioning procedure, which is a very high cost solution to the problem. We present here a low cost, easy to make, high quality glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrode that shows resistive, signal/noise and electrochemical coupling advantages over tungsten electrodes. Also, currently used carbon fiber microelectrodes often show problems with electrical continuity, especially regarding electrochemical applications using a carbon-powder/resin mixture, with consequent low performance, besides the inconvenience of handling such a mixture. We propose here a new method for manufacturing glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes with several advantages when recording intracerebral field potentials

  18. Collider Physics: SDC/SSC liquified fiber calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.T.; Huson, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    Most effort was directed toward the D-Zero experiment at Fermilab. Over 3 pb -1 of high-quality physics data have been obtained. Analysis of the results (wino-zino physics, squark physics), D-zero data acquisition systems efforts, and level-1 and level-2 trigger work are described. Other work concerned detector development for use at the SSC. This technology consists of using liquid scintillator-filled tubes as scintillating fibers for a ''calorimeter.'' The key issues were to demonstrate that the liquid fibers were sufficiently rad-hard and to demonstrate that fibers with sufficiently long attenuation length could be found to satisfy the resolution requirements; both constraints could be satisfied

  19. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Fiber Ring Laser Demodulation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Peng-Zhao; Wang, Jian-Zhang

    2018-02-08

    A review for optical fiber sensors based on fiber ring laser (FRL) demodulation technology is presented. The review focuses on the principles, main structures, and the sensing performances of different kinds of optical fiber sensors based on FRLs. First of all, the theory background of the sensors has been discussed. Secondly, four different types of sensors are described and compared, which includes Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) typed sensors, Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) typed sensors, Sagnac typed sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) typed sensors. Typical studies and main properties of each type of sensors are presented. Thirdly, a comparison of different types of sensors are made. Finally, the existing problems and future research directions are pointed out and analyzed.

  20. Multiplexed displacement fiber sensor using thin core fiber exciter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Hefferman, Gerald; Wei, Tao

    2015-06-01

    This letter reports a multiplexed optical displacement sensor using a thin core fiber (TCF) exciter. The TCF exciter is followed by a stripped single mode optical fiber. A small section of buffer is used as the movable component along the single mode fiber. Ultra-weak cladding mode reflection (< - 75 dB) was employed to probe the refractive index discontinuity between the air and buffer coating boundary. The position change of the movable buffer segment results in a delay change of the cladding mode reflection. Thus, it is a measure of the displacement of the buffer segment with respect to the glass fiber. The insertion loss of one sensor was measured to be less than 3 dB. A linear relationship was evaluated between the measurement position and absolute position of the moving actuator. Multiplexed capability was demonstrated and no cross talk was found between the sensors.

  1. SBIR-Long fluoride fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Raymond E.; Vacha, Lubos J.

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes results obtained under a program aimed at developing new techniques for fabricating long lengths of heavy metal fluoride glass (HMFG) optical fiber. A new method for overcladding conventional HMFG preforms with a low melting oxide glass was developed, and improvements in the rotational casting method were made to increase preform length. The resulting composite glass canes consist of a fluoride glass overcoat layer to enhance strength and chemical durability. To show feasibility, prototype optical fiber preforms up to 1.6 cm in diameter with lengths of 22 cm were fabricated. These were drawn into optical fibers with lengths up to 900 meters.

  2. All-fiber polarization switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Harald; Margulis, Walter

    2007-03-01

    We report an all-fiber polarization switch made out of silica-based microstructured fiber suitable for Q-switching all-fiber lasers. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses are used to heat and expand an internal electrode to cause λ/2-polarization rotation in less than 10 ns for 1.5 μm light. The 10 cm long component has an experimentally measured optical insertion loss of 0.2 dB and a 0-10 kHz repetition frequency capacity and has been durability tested for more than 109 pulses.

  3. Are Isolated and Complex Fiber Supplements Good Choices for Weight Management? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Nazli; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-11-01

    Previous trials have reported beneficial effects of isolated and complex fiber supplements in obesity treatment. However, recommending fiber supplements in obese subjects remains controversial. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review has updated the data on the effects of fiber supplements on obesity since 2010 and the need exists for a systematic review on this topic. Accordingly, a systematic review was undertaken to summarize the efficacy of different types of fiber supplements as a complementary treatment for weight management. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar between January 2010 to August 2016 with no language restriction. Considering the inclusion/exclusion criteria and quality assessment score, finally 17 clinical trials met the eligibility criteria and were included. The present study indicated that the efficacy of various fiber supplements on losing weight is variable. Several mechanisms related to physicochemical properties of fibers such as solubility, fermentability and viscosity rates can be involved in their anti-obesity effects. Dextrin, Mannan (gum Arabic) and pectin-rich fiber (lupin kernel) with no dietary interventions indicated a reduction in body weight and energy intake, while from clinical point of view, their effects were not considerable. Overall, findings indicated that the efficacy of fiber supplements on obesity management is dependent on their contents and physicochemical properties. It seems that fiber supplements with no weight-loss interventions did not have considerable antiobesity effects. However, due to limited studies on each type of fiber, findings should be declared by caution. Additional research is needed on comparison of different fiber supplements in similar conditions to clarify the best type and dosage of fiber supplement as a complementary therapy in obesity management.

  4. Use of optical fibers in spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of single or small numbers of fiber optic fibers in astronomical spectroscopy with the goal of greater spectrophotometric and radial velocity accuracy is discussed. The properties of multimode step index fibers which are most important for this application are outlined, as are laboratory tests of currently available fibers.

  5. Optical fiber communication — An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabrication of single mode fibers is very difficult and so the fiber is .... of waveguide dispersion depends on the fiber design like core radius, since the .... production reducing the water content in the fiber to below 10 parts per billion. 5. ..... Connectors of the same type must be compatible from one manufacturer to another. 3.

  6. Optical Fiber Thermometer Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Ekbal Bin; Mohd. Noor, Uzer

    2018-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating has generated much interest in use as sensors to measure strain, temperature, and other physical parameters. It also the most common component used to develop this sensor with the advantages of simple, intrinsic sensing elements, electrically passive operation, EMI immunity, high sensitivity, compact size and potentially low cost [6]. This paper reports the design of an optical fiber thermometer based on fiber Bragg gratings. The system was developed for detecting temperature and strain by monitoring the shift of Bragg wavelength. The shifting of Bragg wavelength is used to indicate the temperature and strain due to the change in the surrounding temperature and strain. When the temperature and strain reach the exact wavelength level of the system, the temperature and strain value will display on the Arduino liquid crystal display (LCD). The optical fiber will provide the broadband light source and after passing the FBG the Bragg wavelength into the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). The system is based on FBG as a physical quantity sensor. The temperatures measured is taken from the water bath and that of the strain is provided by amount of slotted mass used. The outcome of this project is to characterize the Bragg wavelength shifting from the fiber Bragg grating output. As the conclusion, this project provides an efficient optical fiber thermometer in measuring temperature and strain in order to replace the use of conventional electrical instruments.

  7. Laser Processing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Release of Carbon Fiber Segments During Short-pulsed Laser Processing of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Juergen; Brodesser, Alexander; Hustedt, Michael; Bluemel, Sven; Jaeschke, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan

    Cutting and ablation using short-pulsed laser radiation are promising technologies to produce or repair CFRP components with outstanding mechanical properties e.g. for automotive and aircraft industry. Using sophisticated laser processing strategies and avoiding excessive heating of the workpiece, a high processing quality can be achieved. However, the interaction of laser radiation and composite material causes a notable release of hazardous substances from the process zone, amongst others carbon fiber segments or fibrous particles. In this work, amounts and geometries of the released fiber segments are analyzed and discussed in terms of their hazardous potential. Moreover, it is investigated to what extent gaseous organic process emissions are adsorbed at the fiber segments, similar to an adsorption of volatile organic compounds at activated carbon, which is typically used as filter material.

  8. Enhancing Optical Communications with Brand New Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morioka, Toshio; Awaji, Yoshinari; Ryf, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have often been considered to offer effectively infinite capacity to support the rapid traffic growth essential to our information society. However, as demand has grown and technology has developed, we have begun to realize that there is a fundamental limit to fiber capacity of ~ 100...... Tb/s per fiber for systems based on conventional single-core single-mode optical fiber as the transmission medium. This limit arises from the interplay of a number of factors including the Shannon limit, optical fiber nonlinearities, the fiber fuse effect, as well as optical amplifier bandwidth...... new fibers for space-division multiplexing and mode-division multiplexing....

  9. Granulated Silica Method for the Fiber Preform Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Pilz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, we have studied the granulated silica method as a versatile and cost effective way of fiber preform production and the sol-gel method. Until now, we have used the sol-gel technology together with an iterative re-melting and milling step in order to produce rare earth or transition metal doped granular material for the granulated silica method. Here, we present that the iterative re-melting (laser-assisted and milling step is no longer needed to reach a high homogeneity. The sol-gel method also offers a high degree of compositional flexibility with respect to dopants; it further facilitates achieving high concentrations, even in cases when several dopants are used. We employed optical active doped sol-gel derived granulate for the fiber core, whereas pure or index-raised granulated silica has been employed for the cladding. Based on the powder-in-tube technique, where silica glass tubes are appropriately filled with these granular materials, fibers has been directly drawn (“fiber rapid prototyping”, or eventually after an additional optional quality enhancing vitrification step. The powder-in-tube technique is also ideally suited for the preparation of microstructured optical fibers.

  10. Ionic Liquids as a New Platform for Fiber Brittleness Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, three ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium ([AMIM]Cl, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride dimethyphosphate ([EMIM]DMP, were used to eliminate the brittleness of recycled fibers. The results showed that the pretreatments with ionic liquids were able to modify and improve the properties of recycled fibers even at high moisture contents. [EMIM]DMP gave better performance compared to [BMIM]Cl and [AMIM]Cl, which can tolerate higher moisture contents. The optimal conditions of EMIM]DMP pretreatment were moisture content of 65%, [EMIM]DMP dosage of 20 wt-%, 80 °C, and 60 min, for which a higher brittleness removal was obtained. The tensile index, bursting index, and tearing index of handsheets were increased by 32.4%, 57.0%, and 46.5%, respectively. Fiber quality was improved as demonstrated by fiber length, lowered fines content, and increased swellability. Such results imply that ionic liquids pretreatment can promote the swelling of recycled fibers and remove their brittleness.

  11. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  12. Direct writing of fiber optic components in photonic crystal fibers and other specialty fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis Andre; Sezerman, Omur; Best, Garland; Ng, Mi Li; Kane, Saidou

    2016-04-01

    Femtosecond direct laser writing has recently shown great potential for the fabrication of complex integrated devices in the cladding of optical fibers. Such devices have the advantage of requiring no bulk optical components and no breaks in the fiber path, thus reducing the need for complicated alignment, eliminating contamination, and increasing stability. This technology has already found applications using combinations of Bragg gratings, interferometers, and couplers for the fabrication of optical filters, sensors, and power monitors. The femtosecond laser writing method produces a local modification of refractive index through non-linear absorption of the ultrafast laser pulses inside the dielectric material of both the core and cladding of the fiber. However, fiber geometries that incorporate air or hollow structures, such as photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), still present a challenge since the index modification regions created by the writing process cannot be generated in the hollow regions of the fiber. In this work, the femtosecond laser method is used together with a pre-modification method that consists of partially collapsing the hollow holes using an electrical arc discharge. The partial collapse of the photonic band gap structure provides a path for femtosecond laser written waveguides to couple light from the core to the edge of the fiber for in-line power monitoring. This novel approach is expected to have applications in other specialty fibers such as suspended core fibers and can open the way for the integration of complex devices and facilitate miniaturization of optical circuits to take advantage of the particular characteristics of the PCFs.

  13. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Functionally within the MDF, ORNL operates DOE’s unique Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF)—a 42,000 ft2 innovative technology facility and works with leading...

  14. Nanomechanics of electrospun phospholipid fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Ana C., E-mail: anac@food.dtu.dk, E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk; Chronakis, Ioannis S., E-mail: anac@food.dtu.dk, E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, DTU-Food, Søltofts Plads B227, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Lee, Seunghwan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-06-01

    Electrospun asolectin phospholipid fibers were prepared using isooctane as a solvent and had an average diameter of 6.1 ± 2.7 μm. Their mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentation using Atomic Force Microscopy, and their elastic modulus was found to be approximately 17.2 ± 1 MPa. At a cycle of piezo expansion-retraction (loading-unloading) of a silicon tip on a fiber, relatively high adhesion was observed during unloading. It is proposed that this was primarily due to molecular rearrangements at the utmost layers of the fiber caused by the indentation of the hydrophilic tip. The phospholipid fibers were shown to be stable in ambient conditions, preserving the modulus of elasticity up to 24 h.

  15. Nanomechanics of electrospun phospholipid fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Lee, Seunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun asolectin phospholipid fibers were prepared using isooctane as a solvent and had an average diameter of 6.1 +/- 2.7 mu m. Their mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentation using Atomic Force Microscopy, and their elastic modulus was found to be approximately 17.2 +/- 1MPa....... At a cycle of piezo expansion-retraction (loading-unloading) of a silicon tip on a fiber, relatively high adhesion was observed during unloading. It is proposed that this was primarily due to molecular rearrangements at the utmost layers of the fiber caused by the indentation of the hydrophilic tip....... The phospholipid fibers were shown to be stable in ambient conditions, preserving the modulus of elasticity up to 24 h. (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC....

  16. Fiber Optics: A Bright Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of the impact of fiber optics on telecommunications and its application to information processing and library services, including information retrieval, news services, remote transmission of library services, and library networking. (RAA)

  17. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

  18. High performance polyethylene nanocomposite fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A high density polyethylene (HDPE matrix was melt compounded with 2 vol% of dimethyldichlorosilane treated fumed silica nanoparticles. Nanocomposite fibers were prepared by melt spinning through a co-rotating twin screw extruder and drawing at 125°C in air. Thermo-mechanical and morphological properties of the resulting fibers were then investigated. The introduction of nanosilica improved the drawability of the fibers, allowing the achievement of higher draw ratios with respect to the neat matrix. The elastic modulus and creep stability of the fibers were remarkably improved upon nanofiller addition, with a retention of the pristine tensile properties at break. Transmission electronic microscope (TEM images evidenced that the original morphology of the silica aggregates was disrupted by the applied drawing.

  19. Recent progress in Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study of compositional, structural, and physical attributes of developmental cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are natural plant products and their end-use qualities depend on their stages of development. In general, the quantity of natural fiber cellulose I (ß 1'4 linked glucose residues) increases rapidly, thus it leads to compositional, structural, and physical attribute variations among the...

  20. Bragg grating photo-inscription in doped microstructured polymer optical fiber by 400 nm femtosecond laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, X.; Woyessa, Getinet; Kinet, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the manufacturing of high-quality endlessly single-mode doped microstructured poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) optical fibers. Bragg gratings are photo-inscribed in such fibers by means of 400 nm femtosecond laser pulses through a 1060-nm-period uniform phase mask...

  1. Distribution of collateral fibers in the monkey cervical spinal cord detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Ptito, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    techniques. We calculate the diffusion tensor and the persistent angular structure (PAS), a multi-fiber reconstruction technique, from high quality post mortem data of a perfusion-fixed vervet monkey cervical spinal cord sample and simulated crossing fiber data. Our results show that (i) cylindrical geometry...

  2. Comparison and validation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methods for monitoring secondary cell wall cellulose from cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of secondary cell wall (SCW) cellulose in the fiber affects the quality and commercial value of cotton. Accurate assessments of SCW cellulose are essential for improving cotton fibers. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy enables distinguishing SCW from other cell wall componen...

  3. Influence of forming conditions on fiber tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Vahey; John M. Considine; Michael A. and MacGregor

    2013-01-01

    Fiber tilt describes the projection of fiber length in the thickness direction of paper. The projection is described by the tilt angle of fibers with respect to the plane of the sheet. A simple model for fiber tilt is based on jet-to-wire velocity differential in combination with cross-flows on the wire. The tilt angle of a fiber is found to vary as the sine of its in-...

  4. Engineering modes in optical fibers with metamaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Min; Mortensen, Asger; Qiu, Min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a preliminary theoretical study on optical fibers with fine material inclusions whose geometrical inhomogeneity is almost indistinguishable by the operating wavelength.We refer to such fibers as metamaterial optical fibers, which can conceptually be considered...... as an extension from the previously much publicized microstructured optical fibers. Metamaterials can have optical properties not obtainable in naturally existing materials, including artificial anisotropy as well as graded material properties. Therefore, incorporation of metamaterial in optical fiber designs can...

  5. Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,

  6. Fiber Arts and Generative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kuhn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fiber arts, because they are practiced in different forms around the globe, have the potential to teach us much about generative justice that unites labor, ecological, and expressive values. The ecological mutualism documented in Navajo corrals supports traditional weaving, dyeing, food, and medicinal practices in a sustainable and generative cycle that survives despite disruption and exploitation. The network of fiber craftspeople, retailers, ranchers, teachers, spinners, and dyers and their organizations supports the social mutualism of fiber communities. Fiber arts practices can benefit individuals, communities, the environment, and public health, among other things. Conscious fiber activism and critical making can also be used to explicitly draw attention to problems such as overconsumption, waste, industrial “fast fashion,” labor exploitation, environmental degradation, toxic risks, intolerance, and the devaluing of women and their work. Fiber arts have the potential to support environmental and social mutualism and catalyze a new aesthetic of long-term attachment to meaningful objects and communities, reinforcing the creation and conservation of expressive, ecological, and labor value. 

  7. 1-kilowatt CW all-fiber laser oscillator pumped with wavelength-beam-combined diode stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Brunet, F; Kanskar, M; Faucher, M; Wetter, A; Holehouse, N

    2012-01-30

    We have demonstrated a monolithic cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped single all-fiber laser oscillator generating 1 kW of CW signal power at 1080 nm with 71% slope efficiency and near diffraction-limited beam quality. Fiber components were highly integrated on "spliceless" passive fibers to promote laser efficiency and alleviate non-linear effects. The laser was pumped through a 7:1 pump combiner with seven 200-W 91x nm fiber-pigtailed wavelength-beam-combined diode-stack modules. The signal power of such a single all-fiber laser oscillator showed no evidence of roll-over, and the highest output was limited only by available pump power.

  8. Automated determination of fibrillar structures by simultaneous model building and fiber diffraction refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrzebowski, Wojciech; André, Ingemar

    2015-07-01

    For highly oriented fibrillar molecules, three-dimensional structures can often be determined from X-ray fiber diffraction data. However, because of limited information content, structure determination and validation can be challenging. We demonstrate that automated structure determination of protein fibers can be achieved by guiding the building of macromolecular models with fiber diffraction data. We illustrate the power of our approach by determining the structures of six bacteriophage viruses de novo using fiber diffraction data alone and together with solid-state NMR data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of molecular replacement from monomeric and fibrillar templates by solving the structure of a plant virus using homology modeling and protein-protein docking. The generated models explain the experimental data to the same degree as deposited reference structures but with improved structural quality. We also developed a cross-validation method for model selection. The results highlight the power of fiber diffraction data as structural constraints.

  9. Photonic crystal rod fibers: Understanding a new class of active optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko

    core modes and the cladding band as the underlying mechanics to ensure SM operation of the new rod fiber design (85 μm core diameter), which was developed during this thesis work. The second focus of this work is the study of the new ytterbiumdoped rod fiber design under active operation. Performance...... of the rod fiber is evaluated in high power laser and laser amplifier configurations. The high power rod amplifier setup including the seed source is developed and characterized. Results obtained from the rod fiber showed simultaneously SM, near diffraction limited output beam quality with high average power...... and pulse energy generation using both laser and laser amplifier configurations. Modal instabilities (MIs) in high power fiber amplifiers are discussed, and a memory effect of the MI threshold level together with a recovery method and evidence of improved performance while suppressing MIs are reported...

  10. Ytterbium‐doped distributed spectral filtering photonic crystal fibers for use at wavelengths above 1100 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    to avoid parasitic lasing due to Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) build‐up. Nonlinear effects, such as stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering and four‐wave mixing, set the upper limit for achievable powers in fiber amplifiers. To increase the nonlinear threshold, Large......Rare‐earth doped high‐power fiber lasers and amplifiers have attracted a lot of attention, due to the advantages of the fiber amplification scheme. Compared to conventional optically pumped bulk lasers, heat is dissipated much more effectively in fiber lasers, having a large surface......‐to‐active volume ratio. Thereby, a stable beam with nearly diffraction‐limited quality can be achieved. The fibers are often cladding‐pumped with a number of low‐brightness semiconductor laser diodes, in which way a low‐cost pump of several kilowatts can be achieved [1]. However, the frequencies, which can...

  11. Dual frequency comb metrology with one fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Takeshi, Yasui; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Optical metrology techniques based on dual optical frequency combs have emerged as a hotly studied area targeting a wide range of applications from optical spectroscopy to microwave and terahertz frequency measurement. Generating two sets of high-quality comb lines with slightly different comb-tooth spacings with high mutual coherence and stability is the key to most of the dual-comb schemes. The complexity and costs of such laser sources and the associated control systems to lock the two frequency combs hinder the wider adoption of such techniques. Here we demonstrate a very simple and rather different approach to tackle such a challenge. By employing novel laser cavity designs in a mode-locked fiber laser, a simple fiber laser setup could emit dual-comb pulse output with high stability and good coherence between the pulse trains. Based on such lasers, comb-tooth-resolved dual-comb optical spectroscopy is demonstrated. Picometer spectral resolving capability could be realized with a fiber-optic setup and a low-cost data acquisition system and standard algorithms. Besides, the frequency of microwave signals over a large range can be determined based on a simple setup. Our results show the capability of such single-fiber-laser-based dual-comb scheme to reduce the complexity and cost of dual-comb systems with excellent quality for different dual-comb applications.

  12. Optical fiber inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  13. Photonic bandgap fiber lasers and multicore fiber lasers for next generation high power lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirakawa, A.; Chen, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fiber lasers are realizing new laser spectra and nonlinearity mitigation that a conventional fiber laser cannot. Multicore fiber lasers are a promising tool for power scaling by coherent beam combination. © 2014 OSA....

  14. Comparison of mounting methods for the evaluation of fibers by phase contrast microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Pang, Thomas W S; Nelson, John; Andrew, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2011-07-01

    fiber movement started, fibers moved over distances measured from 4 μm and up to >1000 μm within 22 weeks. However, since then, no further fiber movements have been observed in any field sample slides. Additional sample slides, two Amosite and two chrysotile, were prepared from Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) samples using the AT method with 5 μl triacetin mounting medium. Fiber movements were also observed in these samples; chrysotile fibers began to migrate in 3 weeks, while Amosite fiber movement started after 3 months. Although fiber movement was observed for the AT-10, AE, and mDT-10 sample slides, fiber counts were not significantly different from AT-3.5 and mDE samples that exhibited no fiber movement. Although fiber counts would not be significantly changed by fiber movement, the type and amount of mounting medium for sample slide preparation remains critical for issues such as quality assurance and training of analysts by revisiting the same fibers.

  15. Hybrid Effect Evaluation of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber on the Performance of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weimin; Yin, Jian

    2016-08-18

    Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and carbon fiber 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%. Results showed that the addition of steel fiber and carbon fiber can increase the compressive strength. SF, CF and the hybridization between them could increase the compressive toughness significantly. The impact test results showed that as the volume of fiber increased, the impact number of the first visible crack and the ultimate failure also increased. The improvement of toughness mainly lay in improving the crack resistance after the first crack. Based on the test results, the positive hybrid effect of steel fiber and carbon fiber existed in hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. The relationship between the compressive toughness and impact toughness was also explored.

  16. Analysis of Plasmonics Based Fiber Optic Sensing Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyed, Hamed

    etching. In this case, an excimer laser was used. Extremely thin fiber tips were obtained, with an ultra-high sensitivity to strain. The other technique employed to fabricate the fiber Bragg gratings was the point-by-point femtosecond laser inscription. In this case, the sensing elements are very stable at high temperatures and can be used to measure strain in harsh conditions. The employment of optical fiber lasers as sensing elements was also considered in this Thesis. Two laser cavities were studied, one based on the ring configuration and the other based on a figure-of-eight configuration. From these works, the quality of the laser emission, namely the signal-to-noise ratio, the reduced full-width at half maximum and the stability should be highlighted. These characteristics allowed the measurement of different physical parameters, such as strain, temperature and torsion. Lastly, the possibility to use microspheres as sensing elements was considered. Using the electric arc of a fusion splicer, it is possible to create microspheres at the tip of an optical fiber. Furthermore, with this technique it is chains of microspheres can be obtained, constituting Mach-Zehnder-type interferometers which are sensitive to physical parameters like strain and temperature. The preliminary results obtained by introducing silica microspheres in a support structure are also presented. In this case, the sensors were subjected to temperature variations. All the experimental work was combined with the respective theoretical considerations. Many questions have been raised with the course of this PhD, and there are still some without a definite answer. Thus, new research paths can be followed, having their basis grounded in the configurations here presented.

  17. Transcriptome profiling using pyrosequencing shows genes associated with bast fiber development in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Pei, Zhihua; Dai, Lunjin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Lijun; An, Xia; Peng, Dingxiang

    2014-10-22

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.), popularly known as "China grass", is one of the oldest crops in China and the second most important fiber crop in terms of area sown. Ramie fiber, extracted from the plant bast, is important in the textile industry. However, the molecular mechanism of ramie fiber development remains unknown. A whole sequencing run was performed on the 454 GS FLX + platform using four separately pooled parts of ramie bast. This generated 1,030,057 reads with an average length of 457 bp. Among the 58,369 unigenes (13,386 contigs and 44,983 isotigs) that were generated through de novo assembly, 780 were differentially expressed. As a result, 13 genes that belong to the cellulose synthase gene family (four), the expansin gene family (three) and the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family (six) were up-regulated in the top part of the bast, which was in contrast to the other three parts. The identification of these 13 concurrently up-regulated unigenes indicated that the early stage (represented by the top part of the bast) might be important for the molecular regulation of ramie fiber development. Further analysis indicated that four of the 13 unigenes from the expansin (two) and XTH (two) families shared a coincident expression pattern during the whole growth season, which implied they were more relevant to ramie fiber development (fiber quality, etc.) during the different seasons than the other genes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize ramie fiber development at different developmental stages. The identified transcripts will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in ramie fiber development. Moreover, the identified differentially expressed genes will accelerate molecular research on ramie fiber growth and the breeding of ramie with better fiber yields and quality.

  18. Fiber optic muzzle brake tip for reducing fiber burnback and stone retropulsion during thulium fiber laser lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Gonzalez, David A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-01-01

    The experimental thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored as an alternative to the current clinical gold standard Holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. The near single-mode TFL beam allows coupling of higher power into smaller optical fibers than the multimode Holmium laser beam profile, without proximal fiber tip degradation. A smaller fiber is desirable because it provides more space in the ureteroscope working channel for increased saline irrigation rates and allows maximum ureteroscope deflection. However, distal fiber tip burnback increases as fiber diameter decreases. Previous studies utilizing hollow steel sheaths around recessed distal fiber tips reduced fiber burnback but increased stone retropulsion. A "fiber muzzle brake" was tested for reducing both fiber burnback and stone retropulsion by manipulating vapor bubble expansion. TFL lithotripsy studies were performed at 1908 nm, 35 mJ, 500 μs, and 300 Hz using a 100-μm-core fiber. The optimal stainless steel muzzle brake tip tested consisted of a 1-cm-long, 560-μm-outer-diameter, 360-μm-inner-diameter tube with a 275-μm-diameter through hole located 250 μm from the distal end. The fiber tip was recessed a distance of 500 μm. Stone phantom retropulsion, fiber tip burnback, and calcium oxalate stone ablation studies were performed ex vivo. Small stones with a mass of 40±4 mg and 4-mm-diameter were ablated over a 1.5-mm sieve in 25±4 s (n=10) without visible distal fiber tip burnback. Reduction in stone phantom retropulsion distance by 50% and 85% was observed when using muzzle brake tips versus 100-μm-core bare fibers and hollow steel tip fibers, respectively. The muzzle brake fiber tip simultaneously provided efficient stone ablation, reduced stone retropulsion, and minimal fiber degradation during TFL lithotripsy.

  19. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2017-11-28

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  20. Advanced ultrafast fiber laser sources enabled by fiber nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei

    2017-05-15

    Development of high power/energy ultrafast fiber lasers for scientific research and industrial applications is one of the most exciting fields in ultrafast optics. This thesis demonstrated new means to improve two essential properties - which are indispensable for novel applications such as high-harmonic generation (HHG) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) - of an ultrafast fiber laser system: energy scaling capability and wavelength tunability. High photon-flux extreme ultraviolet sources enabled by HHG desire high power (>100 W), high repetition-rate (>1 MHz) ultrafast driving laser sources. We have constructed from scratch a high-power Yb-fiber laser system using the well-known chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique. Such a CPA system capable of producing ∝200-W average power consists of a monolithic Yb-fiber oscillator, an all-fiber stretcher, a pre-amplifier chain, a main amplifier constructed from rode-type large pitch fiber, and a diffraction-grating based compressor. To increase the HHG efficiency, ultrafast pulses with duration <60 fs are highly desired. We proposed and demonstrated a novel amplification technique, named as pre-chirp managed amplification (PCMA). We successfully constructed an Yb-fiber based PCMA system that outputs 75-MHz spectrally broadened pulses with >130-W average power. The amplified pulses are compressed to 60-fs pulses with 100-W average power, constituting a suitable HHG driving source. MPM is a powerful biomedical imaging tool, featuring larger penetration depth while providing the capability of optical sectioning. Although femtosecond solid-state lasers have been widely accepted as the standard option as MPM driving sources, fiber-based sources have received growing research efforts due to their superior performance. In the second part of this thesis, we both theoretically and experimentally demonstrated a new method of producing wavelength widely tunable femtosecond pulses for driving MPM. We employed self-phase modulation

  1. Control de la tenacidad de los hormigones reforzados con fibras usando el ensayo de doble punzonamiento (ensayo barcelona Quality control of fiber reinforced concretes by mean of double punshing test (barcelona test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carmona Malatesta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, se utiliza el ensayo de vigas prismáticas sometidas a flexión para caracterizar la resistencia y el comportamiento en el régimen post fisuración del hormigón reforzado con fibras (HRF. Sin embargo, estos ensayos presentan una alta dispersión en sus resultados cuestionando su empleo para el control sistemático del HRF en obras; tienen, además el inconveniente de tratarse de ensayos complejos que requieren de probetas pesadas y de personal de laboratorio altamente calificado. Alternativamente, se ha propuesto el uso de otros ensayos normalizados de tracción directa e indirecta para realizar la caracterización de propiedades de los HRF, pero éstos han resultado ser muy complejos de ejecutar, sin obtener grandes mejoras en relación a la alta dispersión de los resultados. Con la finalidad de solucionar esta serie de inconvenientes, se ha propuesto el uso de un ensayo de tracción indirecta basado en una configuración del ensayo de doble punzonamiento, al que se ha denominado "Ensayo Barcelona". Este ensayo requiere de probetas de pequeñas dimensiones, con una alta superficie específica de fractura, permitiendo obtener valores representativos de la resistencia y de la tenacidad del material, con un coeficiente de variación de los resultados inferior al 13%, valor que es considerablemente menor a los alcanzados con otras metodologías experimentales. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de diferentes campañas experimentales, que permiten validar el uso del ensayo Barcelona como una metodología experimental adecuada para la sistemática caracterización del HRF en obras.Traditionally, flexural testing of prismatic beams is used to characterize the strength and behavior in post - cracking regime of fiber - reinforced concretes (FRC. These tests exhibit a high dispersion in their results, and therefore invalidate the use of such tests for the systematic control of FRCs works. Also, they have the disadvantage

  2. Brillouin lasing in single-mode tapered optical fiber with inscribed fiber Bragg grating array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A tapered optical fiber has been manufactured with an array of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG inscribed during the drawing process. The total fiber peak reflectivity is 5% and the reflection bandwidth is ∼3.5 nm. A coherent frequency domain reflectometry has been applied for precise profiling of the fiber core diameter and grating reflectivity both distributed along the whole fiber length. These measurements are in a good agreement with the specific features of Brillouin lasing achieved in the semi-open fiber cavity configuration. Keywords: Tapered optical fibers, Fiber Bragg gratings, Random lasers

  3. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Il; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2015-09-30

    The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber's suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then the tensile strength of fiber was measured according to fiber orientation. The test results showed that basalt fiber has a strong chemical bond with the cementitious matrix, 1.88 times higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol fibers with it. However, other properties of basalt fiber such as slip-hardening coefficient and strength reduction coefficient were worse than PVA and polyethylene fibers in terms of fiber bridging capacity. Theoretical fiber-bridging curves showed that the basalt fiber reinforcing system has a higher cracking strength than the PVA fiber reinforcing system, but the reinforcing system showed softening behavior after cracking.

  4. Toward a compact fibered squeezing parametric source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieussel, Alexandre; Ott, Konstantin; Joos, Maxime; Treps, Nicolas; Fabre, Claude

    2018-03-15

    In this work, we investigate three different compact fibered systems generating vacuum squeezing that involve optical cavities limited by the end surface of a fiber and by a curved mirror and containing a thin parametric crystal. These systems have the advantage to couple squeezed states directly to a fiber, allowing the user to benefit from the flexibility of fibers in the use of squeezing. Three types of fibers are investigated: standard single-mode fibers, photonic-crystal large-mode-area single-mode fibers, and short multimode fibers taped to a single-mode fiber. The observed squeezing is modest (-0.56  dB, -0.9  dB, -1  dB), but these experiments open the way for miniaturized squeezing devices that could be a very interesting advantage in scaling up quantum systems for quantum processing, opening new perspectives in the domain of integrated quantum optics.

  5. Fiber optic fire detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic application of paint was, and still is, the most technically feasible method of reducing VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions, while reducing the cost to apply the coatings. Prior to the use of electrostatics, only two sides of the traditional fire triangle were normally present in the booth, fuel (solvent), and oxygen (air). Now the third leg (the ignition source) was present at virtually all times during the production operation in the form of the electrostatic charge and the resulting energy in the system. The introduction of fiber optics into the field of fire detection was for specific application to the electrostatic painting industry, but specifically, robots used in the application of electrostatic painting in the automotive industry. The use of fiber optics in this hazard provided detection for locations that have been previously prohibited or inaccessible with the traditional fire detection systems. The fiber optic technology that has been adapted to the field of fire detection operates on the principle of transmission of photons through a light guide (optic fiber). When the light guide is subjected to heat, the cladding on the light guide melts away from the core and allows the light (photons) to escape. The controller, which contains the emitter and receiver is set-up to distinguish between partial loss of light and a total loss of light. Glass optical fibers carrying light offer distinct advantages over wires or coaxial cables carrying electricity as a transmission media. The uses of fiber optic detection will be expanded in the near future into such areas as aircraft, cable trays and long conveyor runs because fiber optics can carry more information and deliver it with greater clarity over longer distances with total immunity to all kinds of electrical interference

  6. Liquid crystal polyester-carbon fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid crystal polymers (LCP) have been developed as a thermoplastic matrix for high performance composites. A successful melt impregnation method has been developed which results in the production of continuous carbon fiber (CF) reinforced LCP prepreg tape. Subsequent layup and molding of prepreg into laminates has yielded composites of good quality. Tensile and flexural properties of LCP/CF composites are comparable to those of epoxy/CF composites. The LCP/CF composites have better impact resistance than the latter, although epoxy/CF composites possess superior compression and shear strength. The LCP/CF composites have good property retention until 200 F (67 % of room temperature value). Above 200 F, mechanical properties decrease significantly. Experimental results indicate that the poor compression and shear strength may be due to the poor interfacial adhesion between the matrix and carbon fiber as adequate toughness of the LCP matrix. Low mechanical property retention at high temperatures may be attributable to the low beta-transition temperature (around 80 C) of the LCP matrix material.

  7. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on the near infrared spectroscopy measurements of cotton fiber micronaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key cotton fiber property is micronaire, the indirect indicator of the fiber’s maturity (cell wall development or thickening) and fineness (linear density or size). Micronaire can impact the fiber’s quality, textile processing efficiency, and fabric dye consistency. As a key quality property, fi...

  8. UV irradiation assisted growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Bo; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Li, Xiaoping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Temgyuan; Tang, Zirong, E-mail: zirong@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new fabrication process combined a hydrothermal process with UV irradiation from optical fiber is developed. • The growth of ZnO nanowires is efficient in the utilization of UV light. • A novel hybrid structure which integrates ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface is synthesized. • The UV assisted growth of ZnO nanowires shows preferred orientation and better quality. • A mechanism of growing ZnO nanowires under UV irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel approach was developed for the enhanced growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface. The method combined a hydrothermal process with the efficient UV irradiation from the fiber core, and the effects of UV irradiation on the growth behavior of ZnO nanowires were investigated. The results show that UV irradiation had great effects on the preferred growth orientation and the quality of the ZnO nanowires. The crystallization velocity along the c-axis would increase rapidly with the increase of the irradiation power, while the growth process in the lateral direction was marginally affected by the irradiation. The structure of ZnO nanowires also shows less oxygen vacancy with UV irradiation of higher power. The developed approach is applicable for the efficient growth of nanowires on the fiber surface, and the ZnO nanowires/optical fiber hybrid structures have great potentials for a wide variety of applications such as optical fiber sensors and probes.

  9. Fabrication of an Optical Fiber Micro-Sphere with a Diameter of Several Tens of Micrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huijuan; Huang, Qiangxian; Zhao, Jian

    2014-06-25

    A new method to fabricate an integrated optical fiber micro-sphere with a diameter within 100 µm, based on the optical fiber tapering technique and the Taguchi method is proposed. Using a 125 µm diameter single-mode (SM) optical fiber, an optical fiber taper with a cone angle is formed with the tapering technique, and the fabrication optimization of a micro-sphere with a diameter of less than 100 µm is achieved using the Taguchi method. The optimum combination of process factors levels is obtained, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of three quality evaluation parameters and the significance of each process factors influencing them are selected as the two standards. Using the minimum zone method (MZM) to evaluate the quality of the fabricated optical fiber micro-sphere, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical fitting image of its surface profile and the true sphericity are subsequently realized. From the results, an optical fiber micro-sphere with a two-dimensional (2D) diameter less than 80 µm, 2D roundness error less than 0.70 µm, 2D offset distance between the micro-sphere center and the fiber stylus central line less than 0.65 µm, and true sphericity of about 0.5 µm, is fabricated.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF RIPPLE OF POLYACRYLONITRILIC FIBERS COTTON TYPE ON YARN PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTIAN Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed the influence of the number of undulations of polyacrylonitrile fibers, cotton type, on the properties of yarns with Nm50/1 fineness, made on BD 200 the rotor spinning machine. Rotor spinning of the synthetic fibers is largely influenced by some characteristics of the fibers as being: the quality and quantity of the avivage, frequency of undulations and the number of defects fiber. Tensile properties and structural characteristics aspect of the yarns carried on BD 200 rotor spinning machine are determined, at the fiber content, the structural model and the technological parameters of processing, by the result of the transfer of fibers proprieties, into the meaning fiber-yarn. The yarns structural compactness, determined by the degree of twisting and tensional properties are defining for the quality of yarns and warrants the corresponding to their destination. Structural characteristics of the yarns which are characterized by complexity and diversity of their actions were studied by determining the linear irregularity (U% , standard deviation (CV% and the imperfections in the form of thinning (S, thickening (G, neppines (N, relative to 1000 m yarn.

  11. Final Scientific and Technical Report - Practical Fiber Delivered Laser Ignition Systems for Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalin, Azer [Seaforth, LLC

    2014-03-30

    Research has characterized advanced kagome fiber optics for their use in laser ignition systems. In comparison to past fibers used in laser ignition, these fibers have the important advantage of being relatively bend-insensitivity, so that they can be bent and coiled without degradation of output energy or beam quality. The results are very promising for practical systems. For pulse durations of ~12 ns, the fibers could deliver >~10 mJ pulses before damage onset. A study of pulse duration showed that by using longer pulse duration (~20 – 30 ns), it is possible to carry even higher pulse energy (by factor of ~2-3) which also provides future opportunities to implement longer duration sources. Beam quality measurements showed nearly single-mode output from the kagome fibers (i.e. M2 close to 1) which is the optimum possible value and, combined with their high pulse energy, shows the suitability of the fibers for laser ignition. Research has also demonstrated laser ignition of an engine including reliable (100%) ignition of a single-cylinder gasoline engine using the laser ignition system with bent and coiled kagome fiber. The COV of IMEP was <2% which is favorable for stable engine operation. These research results, along with the continued reduction in cost of laser sources, support our commercial development of practical laser ignition systems.

  12. Fabrication of an Optical Fiber Micro-Sphere with a Diameter of Several Tens of Micrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method to fabricate an integrated optical fiber micro-sphere with a diameter within 100 µm, based on the optical fiber tapering technique and the Taguchi method is proposed. Using a 125 µm diameter single-mode (SM optical fiber, an optical fiber taper with a cone angle is formed with the tapering technique, and the fabrication optimization of a micro-sphere with a diameter of less than 100 µm is achieved using the Taguchi method. The optimum combination of process factors levels is obtained, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of three quality evaluation parameters and the significance of each process factors influencing them are selected as the two standards. Using the minimum zone method (MZM to evaluate the quality of the fabricated optical fiber micro-sphere, a three-dimensional (3D numerical fitting image of its surface profile and the true sphericity are subsequently realized. From the results, an optical fiber micro-sphere with a two-dimensional (2D diameter less than 80 µm, 2D roundness error less than 0.70 µm, 2D offset distance between the micro-sphere center and the fiber stylus central line less than 0.65 µm, and true sphericity of about 0.5 µm, is fabricated.

  13. Investigation into the Fiber Orientation Effect on the Formability of GLARE Materials in the Stamp Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichen; Lang, Lihui; Sherkatghanad, Ehsan; Wang, Yao; Xu, Wencai

    2018-04-01

    Glass-reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) is a new class of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which has the advantages such as high tensile strength, outstanding fatigue, impact resistance, and excellent corrosion properties. GLARE has been extensively applied in advanced aerospace and automobile industries. However, the deformation behavior of the glass fiber during forming must be studied to the benefits of the good-quality part we form. In this research, we focus on the effect of fiber layer orientation on the GLARE laminate formability in stamp forming process. Experimental and numerical analysis of stamping a hemisphere part in different fiber orientation is investigated. The results indicate that unidirectional and multi-directional fiber in the middle layer make a significant effect on the thinning and also surface forming quality of the three layer sheet. Furthermore, the stress-strain distribution of the aluminum alloy and the unique anisotropic property of the fiber layer exhibit that fiber layer orientation can also affect the forming depths as well as the fracture modes of the laminate. According to the obtained results, it is revealed that multi-directional fiber layers are a good alternative compared to the unidirectional fibers especially when a better formability is the purpose.

  14. Estimation of the Maximum Output Power of Double-Clad Photonic Crystal Fiber Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yue-E; Wang Yong; Qu Xi-Long

    2012-01-01

    Compared with traditional optical fiber lasers, double-clad photonic crystal fiber (PCF) lasers have larger surface-area-to-volume ratios. With an increase of output power, thermal effects may severely restrict output power and deteriorate beam quality of fiber lasers. We utilize the heat-conduction equations to estimate the maximum output power of a double-clad PCF laser under natural-convection, air-cooling, and water-cooling conditions in terms of a certain surface-volume heat ratio of the PCF. The thermal effects hence define an upper power limit of double-clad PCF lasers when scaling output power. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  15. Fiber-Optic Vibration Sensor Based on Multimode Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lujo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a fiberoptic vibration sensor based on the monitoring of the mode distribution in a multimode optical fiber. Detection of vibrations and their parameters is possible through observation of the output speckle pattern from the multimode optical fiber. A working experimental model has been built in which all used components are widely available and cheap: a CCD camera (a simple web-cam, a multimode laser in visible range as a light source, a length of multimode optical fiber, and a computer for signal processing. Measurements have shown good agreement with the actual frequency of vibrations, and promising results were achieved with the amplitude measurements although they require some adaptation of the experimental model. Proposed sensor is cheap and lightweight and therefore presents an interesting alternative for monitoring large smart structures.

  16. Analysis of seawater flow through optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández López, Sheila; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Rodriguez Sinobar, Leonor; Benitez, Javier; Rossi, Riccardo; Laresse de Tetto, Antonia

    2015-04-01

    The relation between sea and coastal aquifer is very important to the human populations living in coastal areas. The interrelation involves the submarine ground water discharge of relatively fresh water to the sea and the intrusion of sea water into the aquifer, which impairs the quality of ground water. The main process in seawater intrusion is managed by fluid-density effects which control the displacement of saline water. The underlain salinity acts as the restoring force, while hydrodynamic dispersion and convection lead to a mixing and vertical displacement of the brine. Because of this, a good definition of this saltwater-freshwater interface is needed what is intimately joined to the study of the movements (velocity fields) of fresh and salt water. As it is well known, the flow of salt water studied in seawater intrusion in stationary state, is nearly null or very low. However, in the rest of cases, this flux can be very important, so it is necessary its study to a better comprehension of this process. One possible manner of carry out this analysis is through the data from optical fiber. So, to research the distribution and velocity of the fresh and saltwater in the aquifer, a fiber optic system (OF) has been installed in Argentona (Baix Maresme, Catalonia). The main objective is to obtain the distributed temperature measurements (OF-DTS) and made progress in the interpretation of the dynamic processes of water. For some applications, the optical fiber acts as a passive temperature sensor but in our case, the technique Heated Active Fiber Optic will be used. This is based on the thermal response of the ground as a heat emission source is introduced. The thermal properties of the soil, dependent variables of soil water content, will make a specific temperature distribution around the cable. From the analyzed data we will deduce the velocity field, the real objective of our problem. To simulate this phenomenon and the coupled transport and flow problem

  17. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus...... the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had...

  18. Generation of non-overlapping fiber architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie; Lévesque, M.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    and polymer networks. The model takes into account the complex geometry of the fiber arrangement in which a fiber can be modeled with a certain degree of bending while keeping a main fiber orientation. The model is built in two steps. First, fibers are generated as a chain of overlapping spheres or as a chain......: a repulsion force to suppress the overlap between two fibers and a bending and stretching force to ensure that the fiber structure is kept unchanged. The model can be used as the geometrical basis for further finite-element modelling....

  19. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  20. Simulation of Compressive Failure in Fiber Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    Kinkband formation is a non-linear phenomenon involving interacting effects of non-linear material behavior of the matrix materials and fiber buckling including fiber misalignment in fiber composites under compressive loading. Taking into account the non-linearties of the constituents a constitut......Kinkband formation is a non-linear phenomenon involving interacting effects of non-linear material behavior of the matrix materials and fiber buckling including fiber misalignment in fiber composites under compressive loading. Taking into account the non-linearties of the constituents...

  1. Photonic Crystal Fibers for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. R. Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystal fibers are a kind of fiber optics that present a diversity of new and improved features beyond what conventional optical fibers can offer. Due to their unique geometric structure, photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications. A review of photonic crystal fiber sensors is presented. Two different groups of sensors are detailed separately: physical and biochemical sensors, based on the sensor measured parameter. Several sensors have been reported until the date, and more are expected to be developed due to the remarkable characteristics such fibers can offer.

  2. Low-loss, robust fusion splicing of silica to chalcogenide fiber for integrated mid-infrared laser technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Rajesh; Gattass, Rafael R; Nguyen, Vinh; Chin, Geoff; Gibson, Dan; Kim, Woohong; Shaw, L Brandon; Sanghera, Jasbinder S

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a low-loss, repeatable, and robust splice between single-mode silica fiber and single-mode chalcogenide (CHG) fiber. These splices are particularly difficult to create because of the significant difference in the two fibers' glass transition temperatures (∼1000°C) as well as the large difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the fibers (∼20×10(-6)/°C). With 90% light coupled through the silica-CHG fiber splice, predominantly in the fundamental circular-symmetric mode, into the core of the CHG fiber and with 0.5 dB of splice loss measured around the wavelength of 2.5 μm, after correcting only for the Fresnel loss, the silica-CHG splice offers excellent beam quality and coupling efficiency. The tensile strength of the splice is greater than 12 kpsi, and the laser damage threshold is greater than 2 W (CW) and was limited by the available laser pump power. We also utilized this splicing technique to demonstrate 2 to 4.5 μm ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a monolithic all-fiber system comprising a CHG fiber and a high peak power 2 μm pulsed Raman-shifted thulium fiber laser. This is a major development toward compact form factor commercial applications of soft-glass mid-IR fibers.

  3. Advanced ultrafast fiber laser sources enabled by fiber nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Development of high power/energy ultrafast fiber lasers for scientific research and industrial applications is one of the most exciting fields in ultrafast optics. This thesis demonstrated new means to improve two essential properties - which are indispensable for novel applications such as high-harmonic generation (HHG) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) - of an ultrafast fiber laser system: energy scaling capability and wavelength tunability. High photon-flux extreme ultraviolet sources enabled by HHG desire high power (>100 W), high repetition-rate (>1 MHz) ultrafast driving laser sources. We have constructed from scratch a high-power Yb-fiber laser system using the well-known chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique. Such a CPA system capable of producing ∝200-W average power consists of a monolithic Yb-fiber oscillator, an all-fiber stretcher, a pre-amplifier chain, a main amplifier constructed from rode-type large pitch fiber, and a diffraction-grating based compressor. To increase the HHG efficiency, ultrafast pulses with duration 130-W average power. The amplified pulses are compressed to 60-fs pulses with 100-W average power, constituting a suitable HHG driving source. MPM is a powerful biomedical imaging tool, featuring larger penetration depth while providing the capability of optical sectioning. Although femtosecond solid-state lasers have been widely accepted as the standard option as MPM driving sources, fiber-based sources have received growing research efforts due to their superior performance. In the second part of this thesis, we both theoretically and experimentally demonstrated a new method of producing wavelength widely tunable femtosecond pulses for driving MPM. We employed self-phase modulation to broaden a narrowband spectrum followed by bandpass filters to select the rightmost/leftmost spectral lobes. Widely tunable in 820-1225 nm, the resulting sources generated nearly transform-limited, ∝100 fs pulses. Using short fibers with large

  4. Modal noise impact in radio over fiber multimode fiber links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasulla, I; Capmany, J

    2008-01-07

    A novel analysis is given on the statistics of modal noise for a graded-index multimode fiber (MMF) link excited by an analog intensity modulated laser diode. We present the speckle contrast as a function of the power spectrum of the modulated source and the transfer function of the MMF which behaves as an imperfect transversal microwave photonic filter. The theoretical results confirm that the modal noise is directly connected with the coherence properties of the optical source and show that the performance of high-frequency Radio Over Fiber (ROF) transmission through MMF links for short and middle reach distances is not substantially degraded by modal noise.

  5. Self-centering fiber alignment structures for high-precision field installable single-mode fiber connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Ebraert, Evert; Gao, Fei; Vervaeke, Michael; Berghmans, Francis; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    There is a steady increase in the demand for internet bandwidth, primarily driven by cloud services and high-definition video streaming. Europe's Digital Agenda states the ambitious objective that by 2020 all Europeans should have access to internet at speeds of 30Mb/s or above, with 50% or more of households subscribing to connections of 100Mb/s. Today however, internet access in Europe is mainly based on the first generation of broadband, meaning internet accessed over legacy telephone copper and TV cable networks. In recent years, Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) networks have been adopted as a replacement of traditional electrical connections for the `last mile' transmission of information at bandwidths over 1Gb/s. However, FTTH penetration is still very low (economies. The main reason for this is the high deployment cost of FTTH networks. Indeed, the success and adoption of optical access networks critically depend on the quality and reliability of connections between optical fibers. In particular a further reduction of insertion loss of field- installable connectors must be achieved without a significant increase in component cost. This requires precise alignment of fibers that can differ in terms of ellipticity, eccentricity or diameter and seems hardly achievable using today's widespread ferrule-based alignment systems. In this paper, we present a field-installable connector based on deflectable/compressible spring structures, providing a self-centering functionality for the fiber. This way, it can accommodate for possible fiber cladding diameter variations (the tolerance on the cladding diameter of G.652 fiber is typically +/-0.7μm). The mechanical properties of the cantilever are derived through an analytical approximation and a mathematical model of the spring constant, and finite element-based simulations are carried out to find the maximum first principal stress as well as the stress distribution distribution in the fiber alignment structure. Elastic

  6. Ce-doped LuAG single-crystal fibers grown from the melt for high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X; Moretti, F; Pauwels, K; Lecoq, P; Auffray, E; Dujardin, C

    2014-01-01

    Under a stationary stable regime undoped and Ce-doped LuAG (Lu3Al5O12) single-crystal fibers were grown by a micro-pulling-down technique. The meniscus length corresponding to the equilibrium state was <200 mu m. Fluctuations in the fiber composition and pulling rate were found to have a significant effect on the properties of the fibers grown. A great improvement in the performance was found in samples containing low Ce concentrations (<= 0.1 at.\\%) and produced using pulling rates <0.5 mm min(-1). Under such conditions a good lateral surface fiber quality was obtained and light propagation was significantly improved. Conversely, a high Ce concentration and a high pulling rate resulted in a strong degradation of the fiber surface quality causing defects to appear and a decrease in light output. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Il Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber’s suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then the tensile strength of fiber was measured according to fiber orientation. The test results showed that basalt fiber has a strong chemical bond with the cementitious matrix, 1.88 times higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol fibers with it. However, other properties of basalt fiber such as slip-hardening coefficient and strength reduction coefficient were worse than PVA and polyethylene fibers in terms of fiber bridging capacity. Theoretical fiber-bridging curves showed that the basalt fiber reinforcing system has a higher cracking strength than the PVA fiber reinforcing system, but the reinforcing system showed softening behavior after cracking.

  8. Transfer of an exfoliated monolayer graphene flake onto an optical fiber end face for erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Henrique Guimaraes; De Souza, Eunézio A Thoroh; Gomes, José Carlos Viana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, the successful transfer of exfoliated monolayer graphene flake to the optical fiber end face and alignment to its core. By fabricating and optimizing a polymeric poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) substrate, it is possible to obtain a contrast of up to 11% for green light illumination, allowing the identification of monolayer graphene flakes that were transferred to optical fiber samples and aligned to its core. With Raman spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that graphene flake completely covers the optical fiber core, and its quality remains unaltered after the transfer. The generation of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser pulses, with a duration of 672 fs, with a single-monolayer graphene flake as a saturable absorber, is demonstrated for the first time. This transfer technique is of general applicability and can be used for other two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated materials. (letter)

  9. Incoherent beam combining of fiber lasers by an all-fiber 7 × 1 signal combiner at a power level of 14 kW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chengmin; Gu, Yanran; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Zengfeng; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Yanxing; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Wang, Xiaolin; Hou, Jing; Xu, Xiaojun; Chen, Jinbao; Liu, Zejin

    2018-04-16

    We demonstrate an all-fiber 7 × 1 signal combiner with an output core diameter of 50 μm for high power incoherent beam combining of seven self-made Yb-doped single-mode fiber lasers around a wavelength of 1080 nm and output power of 2 kW. 14.1 kW combined output power is achieved with a total transmission efficiency of higher than 98.5% and a beam quality of M 2 = 5.37, which is close to the theoretical results based on finite-difference beam propagation technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power ever reported for all-fiber structure beam combining generation, which indicates the feasibility and potential of >10 kW high brightness incoherent beam combining based on an all-fiber signal combiner.

  10. Low frequency electrical and magnetic methods for non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in fiber reinforced cementitious composites: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faifer, Marco; Ferrara, Liberato; Ottoboni, Roberto; Toscani, Sergio

    2013-01-21

    Non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in structural elements made of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) and Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (FRCCs) plays a significant role in the framework of quality control and performance prediction. In this paper, the research activity of the authors in the aforementioned field all over the last lustrum will be reviewed. A method based on the measurement of the inductance of a probe to be placed on the specimen will be presented and its progressive development will be described. Obtained correlation with actual fiber dispersion, as checked by means of destructive methods, as well as with the mechanical performance of the composite will also be presented, in an attempt to address the significance of the method from an engineering application perspective.

  11. Structural analysis of Gossypium hirsutum fibers grown under greenhouse and hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Friedrich, Norman; Köck, Margret; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Paris, Oskar; Paschke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    Cotton is the one of the world's most important crops. Like any other crop, cotton growth/development and fiber quality is highly dependent on environmental factors. Increasing global weather instability has been negatively impacting its economy. Cotton is a crop that exerts an intensive pressure over natural resources (land and water) and demands an overuse of pesticides. Thus, the search for alternative cotton culture methods that are pesticide-free (biocotton) and enable customized standard fiber quality should be encouraged. Here we describe a culture of Gossypium hirsutum ("Upland" Cotton) utilizing a greenhouse and hydroponics in which the fibers are morphological similar to conventional cultures and structurally fit into the classical two-phase cellulose I model with 4.19nm crystalline domains surrounded by amorphous regions. These fibers exhibit a single crystalline form of cellulose I-Iß, monoclinic unit cell. Fiber quality bulk analysis shows an improved length, strength, whiteness when compared with soil-based cultures. Finally, we show that our fibers can be spun, used for production of non-woven fabrics and indigo-vat stained demonstrating its potential in industrial and commercial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-latency fiber-millimeter-wave system for future mobile fronthauling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien Dat, Pham; Kanno, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    A seamless combination of fiber and millimeter-wave (MMW) systems can be very attractive for future heterogeneous mobile networks such as 5G because of its flexibility and high bandwidth. Analog mobile signal transmission over seamless fiber-MMW systems is very promising to reduce the latency and the required band-width, and to simplify the systems. However, stable and high-performance seamless systems are indispensable to conserve the quality of the analog signal transmission. In this paper, we present several technologies to develop such seamless fiber-MMW systems. In the downlink direction, a high-performance system can be realized using a high-quality optical MMW signal generator and a self-homodyne MMW signal detector. In the uplink direction, a cascade of radio-on-radio and radio-over-fiber systems using a burst-mode optical amplifier can support bursty radio signal transmission. A full-duplex transmission with negligible interference effects can be realized using frequency multiplexing in the radio link and wavelength-division multiplexing in the optical link. A high-spectral efficiency MMW-over-fiber system using an intermediate frequency-over-fiber system and a high-quality remote delivery of a local oscillator signal is highly desirable to reduce the costs.

  13. Healthy Eating Index-2010 and food groups consumed by US adults who meet or exceed fiber intake recommendations NHANES 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proportion of the US adult population who meet fiber intake recommendations is very low. Information about food groups consumed and diet quality for the adults who consume recommended amounts of fiber are scarce. Objective: To examine food groups consumed and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores for US adults meeting the fiber adequate intake (AI based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data 2001–2010. Design: A secondary analysis of NHANES data from 2001 to 2010. Participants included adults aged 19 and older (n=24,807 with complete day 1 dietary records. Variables measured were food group sources of fiber and HEI-2010 scores. Sample-weighted data were used to calculate least square means (LSM±standard error of the mean (SEM by fiber intake quartile along with HEI-2010 scores. Significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Major fiber food sources for US adults meeting the AI were grain products, vegetables, legumes, and fruits. The top grain products consumed were grain mixtures, ready-to-eat (RTE cereals, and breads/rolls. The mean HEI-2010 score for adults meeting the AI for fiber was significantly (P<0.001 higher compared with all adult participants. The mean HEI-2010 score increased with increasing fiber intake in both groups. Conclusions: Adults who meet the AI for fiber have a higher quality diet. Fiber may be an important dietary component that predicts diet quality.

  14. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Travers, John C.; Abdolvand, Amir

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an extensive survey of results obtained using hybrid photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) which constitute one of the most active research fields in contemporary fiber optics. The ability to integrate novel and functional materials in solid- and hollow-core PCFs through various...... is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated...... with various liquids, glasses, semiconductors, and metals. The second part concentrates on recent and state-of-the-art advances in the field of gas-filled hollow-core PCFs. Extreme ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics toward light generation in the extreme wavelength regions of vacuum ultraviolet, pulse...

  15. A helical scintillating fiber hodoscope

    CERN Document Server

    Altmeier, M; Bisplinghoff, J; Bissel, T; Bollmann, R; Busch, M; Büsser, K; Colberg, T; Demiroers, L; Diehl, O; Dohrmann, F; Engelhardt, H P; Eversheim, P D; Felden, O; Gebel, R; Glende, M; Greiff, J; Gross, A; Gross-Hardt, R; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Jeske, M; Jonas, E; Krause, H; Lahr, U; Langkau, R; Lindemann, T; Lindlein, J; Maier, R; Maschuw, R; Mayer-Kuckuck, T; Meinerzhagen, A; Naehle, O; Pfuff, M; Prasuhn, D; Rohdjess, H; Rosendaal, D; Von Rossen, P; Sanz, B; Schirm, N; Schulz-Rojahn, M; Schwarz, V; Scobel, W; Thomas, S; Trelle, H J; Weise, E; Wellinghausen, A; Wiedmann, W; Woller, K; Ziegler, R

    1999-01-01

    A novel scintillating fiber hodoscope in helically cylindric geometry has been developed for detection of low multiplicity events of fast protons and other light charged particles in the internal target experiment EDDA at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. The hodoscope consists of 640 scintillating fibers (2.5 mm diameter), arranged in four layers surrounding the COSY beam pipe. The fibers are helically wound in opposing directions and read out individually using 16-channel photomultipliers connected to a modified commercial encoding system. The detector covers an angular range of 9 deg. <= THETA<=72 deg. and 0 deg. <=phi (cursive,open) Greek<=360 deg. in the lab frame. The detector length is 590 mm, the inner diameter 161 mm. Geometry and granularity of the hodoscope afford a position resolution of about 1.3 mm. The detector design took into consideration a maximum of reliability and a minimum of maintenance. An LED array may be used for monitoring purposes. (author)

  16. Diffraction by disordered polycrystalline fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, W.J.; Millane, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from some polycrystalline fibers show that the constituent microcrystallites are disordered. The relationship between the crystal structure and the diffracted intensities is then quite complicated and depends on the precise kind and degree of disorder present. The effects of disorder on diffracted intensities must be included in structure determinations using diffraction data from such specimens. Theory and algorithms are developed here that allow the full diffraction pattern to be calculated for a disordered polycrystalline fiber made up of helical molecules. The model accommodates various kinds of disorder and includes the effects of finite crystallite size and cylindrical averaging of the diffracted intensities from a fiber. Simulations using these methods show how different kinds, or components, of disorder produce particular diffraction effects. General properties of disordered arrays of helical molecules and their effects on diffraction patterns are described. Implications for structure determination are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Optical Fiber Grating based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis differenct optical fiber gratings are used for sensor purposes. If a fiber with a core concentricity error (CCE) is used, a directional dependent bend sensor can be produced. The CCE direction can be determined by means of diffraction. This makes it possible to produce long......-period gratings in a fiber with a CCE direction parallel or perpendicular to the writing direction. The maximal bending sensitivity is independent on the writing direction, but the detailed bending response is different in the two cases. A temperature and strain sensor, based on a long-period grating and two...... sampled gratings, was produced and investigated. It is based on the different temperature and strain response of these gratings. Both a transfer matrix method and an overlap calculation is performed to explain the sensor response. Another type of sensor is based on tuning and modulation of a laser...

  18. Fiber tests on a radiotelescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connes, P.; Reynaud, F.

    In order to demonstrate use of fibers in a future radio-dish-mounted interferometric array or optical telescopes, two 100-m SM fibers were installed on the Nançay radiotelescope, used in a serendipitous mode. They formed the two arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, illuminated by a 6328 Å laser. Thermal and interferometric servo-control were simultaneously applied. Even under severe conditions, path difference was maintained stable to within a few Å.This is considerably better than needed for any ground-based application, and still more than adequate for a roughly-similar proposed space-borne device. Some more fiber problems remain to be solved.

  19. Optical fiber meta-tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Maria; Micco, Alberto; Crescitelli, Alessio; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Consales, Marco; Esposito, Emanuela; La Ferrara, Vera; Galdi, Vincenzo; Cusano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    We report on the first example of a "meta-tip" configuration that integrates a metasurface on the tip of an optical fiber. Our proposed design is based on an inverted-Babinet plasmonic metasurface obtained by patterning (via focused ion beam) a thin gold film deposited on the tip of an optical fiber, so as to realize an array of rectangular aperture nanoantennas with spatially modulated sizes. By properly tuning the resonances of the aperture nanoantennas, abrupt variations can be impressed in the field wavefront and polarization. We fabricated and characterized several proof-of-principle prototypes operating an near-infrared wavelengths, and implementing the beam-steering (with various angles) of the cross-polarized component, as well as the excitation of surface waves. Our results pave the way to the integration of the exceptional field-manipulation capabilities enabled by metasurfaces with the versatility and ubiquity of fiber-optics technological platforms.

  20. Comparison of fiber lasers based on distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped fibers and double-cladding fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhihe; Cao, Jianqiu; Guo, Shaofeng; Chen, Jinbao; Xu, Xiaojun

    2014-04-01

    We compare both analytically and numerically the distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped (DSCCP) fiber lasers and double cladding fiber (DCF) lasers. We show that, through optimization of the coupling and absorbing coefficients, the optical-to-optical efficiency of DSCCP fiber lasers can be made as high as that of DCF lasers. At the same time, DSCCP fiber lasers are better than the DCF lasers in terms of thermal management.

  1. Study on Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongqing; Wu, Min; Jie, Pengyu

    2017-12-01

    Several common high elastic modulus fibers (steel fibers, basalt fibers, polyvinyl alcohol fibers) and low elastic modulus fibers (polypropylene fiber) are incorporated into the concrete, and its cube compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength are studied. The test result and analysis demonstrate that single fiber and hybrid fiber will improve the integrity of the concrete at failure. The mechanical properties of hybrid steel fiber-polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete are excellent, and the cube compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength respectively increase than plain concrete by 6.4%, 3.7%, 11.4%. Doped single basalt fiber or polypropylene fiber and basalt fibers hybrid has little effect on the mechanical properties of concrete. Polyvinyl alcohol fiber and polypropylene fiber hybrid exhibit ‘negative confounding effect’ on concrete, its splitting tensile and flexural strength respectively are reduced by 17.8% and 12.9% than the single-doped polyvinyl alcohol fiber concrete.

  2. Fiber optics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser, our fascination with the photon has led to one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of technology. New advances in fiber optic devices, components, and materials make it more important than ever to stay current. Comprising chapters drawn from the author's highly anticipated book Photonics: Principles and Practices, Fiber Optics: Principles and Practices offers a detailed and focused treatment for anyone in need of authoritative information on this critical area underlying photonics.Using a consistent approach, the author leads you step-by-step throug

  3. Hollow fiber liquid supported membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, V.

    1987-01-01

    The hollow fiber system are well known and developed in the scientific literature because of their applicability in the process separation units. The authors approach to a mathematical model for a particular hollow fiber system, usin liquid membranes. The model has been developed in order to obtain a suitable tool for a sensitivy analysis and for a scaling-up. This kind of investigation is very usefull from an engineering point of view, to get a spread range of information to build up a pilot plant from the laboratory scale

  4. Ring mirror fiber laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mohamed Y.; Khalil, Kamal; Afifi, Abdelrahman E.; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-02-01

    In this work we present a new architecture for a laser gyroscope based on the use of a Sagnac fiber loop mirror. The proposed system has the unique property that its scale factor can be increased by increasing the gain of the optical amplifier used in the system as demonstrated experimentally using standard single mode fiber and explained physically by the system operation. The proposed gyroscope system is also capable of identifying the direction of rotation. This new structure opens the door for a new category of low cost optical gyroscopes.

  5. Electrically controlled liquid crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella-Madueño, A.; Reyes, J. Adrián

    2006-08-01

    We consider a cylindrical fiber whose core is a liquid crystal (LC) subject to the action of a low frequency field applied parallel to the axis of the cylinder and having initially the escaped configuration. We find the distorted textures of the nematic inside the cylinder by assuming arbitrary anchoring boundary conditions. In the optical limit we calculate the ray trajectories followed by a low intensity beam along the fiber parametrized by a low frequency electric field. Finally, we calculate exactly the spatial dependence of the transverse magnetic modes distribution in the guide, on the electric field, by using a numerical scheme. We summarize our paper and discuss our results.

  6. Coupling to photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Knudsen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    In this work we have analyzed the correspondence between the fundamental mode of PCFs and Gaussian modes as a function of frequency, pitch, and air hole size. Such analysis provides insight into design space regions of PCFs, where low-loss coupling to standard fibers may be obtained.......In this work we have analyzed the correspondence between the fundamental mode of PCFs and Gaussian modes as a function of frequency, pitch, and air hole size. Such analysis provides insight into design space regions of PCFs, where low-loss coupling to standard fibers may be obtained....

  7. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  8. Mechanochromic Fibers with Structural Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Houpu; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-21

    Responsive photonic crystals have been widely developed to realize tunable structural colors by manipulating the flow of light. Among them, mechanochromic photonic crystals attract increasing attention due to the easy operation, high safety and broad applications. Recently, mechanochromic photonic crystal fibers were proposed to satisfy the booming wearable smart textile market. In this Concept, the fundamental mechanism, fabrication, and recent progress on mechanochromic photonic crystals, especially in fiber shape, are summarized to represent a new direction in sensing and displaying. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Lab-on-fiber technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cusano, Andrea; Crescitelli, Alessio; Ricciardi, Armando

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on a research field that is rapidly emerging as one of the most promising ones for the global optics and photonics community: the "lab-on-fiber" technology. Inspired by the well-established 'lab on-a-chip' concept, this new technology essentially envisages novel and highly functionalized devices completely integrated into a single optical fiber for both communication and sensing applications.Based on the R&D experience of some of the world's leading authorities in the fields of optics, photonics, nanotechnology, and material science, this book provides a broad and accurate de

  10. Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab develops, tests and evaluates high speed fiber optic network components as well as network protocols. In addition, this...

  11. Compression Behavior of High Performance Polymeric Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding has proven to be effective in improving the compressive strength of rigid-rod polymeric fibers without resulting in a decrease in tensile strength while covalent crosslinking results in brittle fibers...

  12. Fiber MOPA for Ascends, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CO2 sensing using absorption bands near 1570nm is very attractive by taking advantage of the mature fiber-amplifier technology derived from fiber-optic telecom...

  13. TENSILE RESPONSES OF TREATED CISSUS POPULNEA FIBERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    2 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, NNAMDI AZIKIWE ... (RSM) with central composite design. ... synthetic fibers for industrial applications partly ..... Cellulosic Fibers Using Eco-Friendly Compounds .... 1078 – 1097, 2017.

  14. Oriented collagen fibers direct tumor cell intravasation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Weijing; Chen, Shaohua; Yuan, Wei; Fan, Qihui; Tian, Jianxiang; Wang, Xiaochen; Chen, Longqing; Zhang, Xixiang; Wei, Weili; Liu, Ruchuan; Qu, Junle; Jiao, Yang; Austin, Robert H.; Liu, Liyu

    2016-01-01

    that the local fiber alignment enhanced cell-ECM interactions. Specifically, metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells followed the local fiber alignment direction during the intravasation into rigid Matrigel (∼10 mg/mL protein concentration).

  15. Dynamics of long ring Raman fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergey V.; Melnikov, Leonid A.; Mazhirina, Yulia A.

    2016-04-01

    The numerical model for dynamics of long fiber ring Raman laser is proposed. The model is based on the transport equations and Courant-Isaacson-Rees numerical method. Different regimes of a long ring fiber Raman laser are investigated.

  16. Fiber Optic Augmented Reality System (FOARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovation: Fiber Optics Augmented Reality System. This system in form of a mobile app interacts real time with the actual FOSS(Fiber Optics Sensing System) data and...

  17. Fiber MOPA for Ascends, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CO2 sensing using absorption bands near 1570nm is very attractive by taking advantage of the mature fiber-amplifier technology derived from fiber-optic telecom...

  18. Fiber facet gratings for high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Martin; Vanis, Jan; Baravets, Yauhen; Todorov, Filip; Ctyroky, Jiri; Honzatko, Pavel

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigated the properties of diffraction gratings designated for fabrication on the facet of an optical fiber. The gratings are intended to be used in high-power fiber lasers as mirrors either with a low or high reflectivity. The modal reflectance of low reflectivity polarizing grating has a value close to 3% for TE mode while it is significantly suppressed for TM mode. Such a grating can be fabricated on laser output fiber facet. The polarizing grating with high modal reflectance is designed as a leaky-mode resonant diffraction grating. The grating can be etched in a thin layer of high index dielectric which is sputtered on fiber facet. We used refractive index of Ta2O5 for such a layer. We found that modal reflectance can be close to 0.95 for TE polarization and polarization extinction ratio achieves 18 dB. Rigorous coupled wave analysis was used for fast optimization of grating parameters while aperiodic rigorous coupled wave analysis, Fourier modal method and finite difference time domain method were compared and used to compute modal reflectance of designed gratings.

  19. The Immobilisation of Krom and Stronsium Waste Using Natural Fiber Reinforced Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susetyo Haria Putero; Nunung Prabaningrum; Widya Rosita

    2007-01-01

    Cementation of hazardous liquid waste is one of the methods to minimize its detrimental effect on the environmental quality and human health. This research purpose was to study the effect of natural fiber composition and temperature on quality of the cement block reinforced by coconut (Cocos nucifera) fiber and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) fiber. This research was pursued by adsorbing stronsium waste and krom using zeolite. Thirteen percent volume of zeolite was mixed with 0.3 of water/cement ratio. Composition of natural fiber was varied by 0.00v/o, 0.05v/o, 0.10v/o, 0.25v/o, 0.50v/o, 0.75v/o and 1.00v/o. The cement blocks produced were heated at 0℃, 50℃, 100℃, 150℃, 200℃ and 250℃ for 10 minutes and then determined their compressive strength and leaching rate. The optimum composition of natural fiber causing increasing of mechanical strength has been founded at 0.50% v/o of fiber. On that composition the axial force resistance of fiber is higher than the radial one. The hydration reaction completely works when cement block is heated until certain temperature that results in the increasing of its compressive strength. However, the compressive strength of cement block heated up to 250℃ is still beyond the standard. Based on its compressive strength, the bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) fiber is more feasible than coconut (Cocos nucifera) fiber for reinforcing cement block. Heating just influences on the physics properties of cement block. But, the ability of block cement to immobilize a matter is affected by properties of matters. (author)

  20. Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Mobley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.