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Sample records for hut finland author

  1. Organisational culture at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's department of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Norros, L.

    2001-03-01

    A case study to investigate the organisational culture of the regulatory authority was conducted at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's (STUK) Nuclear Reactor Regulation (YTO) - department. Organisational culture is defined as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, which are basically unconscious. Objectives of the study were to conceptualise and describe the main characteristics of YTO's organisational culture and to carry out a tentative core task analysis of the inspectors' work. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used in the research. YTO's culture was identified as a hierarchy-focused culture with less emphasis on innovation or social support. However, the ideal values of the personnel emphasised also social support and goal setting. Ambiguous goals were felt by some personnel as increased uncertainty about the meaningfulness of one's job. Also a lack of feedback was mentioned. The core task analysis identified the critical functions of the regulatory practice. These functions specify the three roles of the regulatory authority, the expert role, the public role and the authority role. The culture must support the fulfilment of the requirements of all the three roles. Development needs in YTO's culture were identified and recommendations were made. (au)

  2. Organisational culture at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's Nuclear Reactor Regulation department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.

    2001-01-01

    A case study to investigate the organisational culture of the regulatory authority was conducted at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's (STUK) Nuclear Reactor Regulation (YTO) department. Organisational culture is defined as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, which are basically unconscious. Objectives of the study were to conceptualise and describe the main characteristics of YTO's organisational culture and to carry out a tentative core task analysis of the inspectors' work. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used in the research. In the first phase of the research, an organisational culture survey (FOCUS) was administered. It is base on a theory according to which organisations can be categorised into four main culture types, support-, innovation, goal- and rule-culture. It was tailored to better fit this kind of organisation on the basis of document analysis and preliminary interviews. Data was factor analysed and summated scales were formed. YTO's culture was identified as a hierarchy-focused (rule) culture with less emphasis on innovation, support or goals. However, the ideal values of the personnel emphasised also social support and goal setting. Ambiguous goals were felt by some personnel as increased uncertainty about the meaningfulness of one's job. Also a lack of feedback was mentioned as a weakness in YTO's culture. In the second phase of the research, a development workshop was carried out. The themes of the workshop were identified on the basis of the results of the first phase. Main targets for development that were identified in the workshop were human resources, goal setting and knowledge management. The ideal values of the personnel emphasised support and goal cultures. (orig.)

  3. Sustainable Mobile Tourist Hut for Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Jing; Villumsen, O.; Villumsen, Arne

    Greenland is experiencing growing tourism in recent years, which increases demand for tourists’ accommodation. Small huts are a traditional way for overnight stays in Greenland due to scattered population and lack of infrastructure. However, the existing huts in Greenland cannot provide satisfact...

  4. Public sector's research programme on spent fuel management in Finland supporting the authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.; Rasilainen, K.

    2000-01-01

    A multiphase research program launched in 1989 to support Finnish authorities in their activities concerning spent fuel management is reviewed. The Finnish program for spent fuel management has so far managed to keep its original time schedule at least partly due to clearly defined responsibilities between the nuclear energy producing industry and the authorities. It appears that the public sector's research programme has been successful in its supporting role, because authorities have had good possibilities to adjust the emphasis and volume of the research programme from the very beginning. (author)

  5. UKRAINIAN HUT IN PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAHDAN S. P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In modern Ukrainian society, which is undergoing a national renaissance, greatly deepened interest in the symbols of material and spiritual culture as a form of identification and identity. Inseparable from life as language, song, were and are proverbs and sayings. As an expression of acute intelligence people, aesthetic preferences, high morality, humor, accuracy, wit and strength, wisdom and beauty of poetic language, they accompany mankind from antiquity and enrich the new generation. Valuable signs of Ukrainian culture proverbs are also the fact that generally have exemplary character, as giving advice, caution, warn, approve, condemn. Based on rich experience, proverbs reflect all sectors of the Ukrainian people, especially bright life, habits, lifestyle and mentality. The most important element of life without which you cannot imagine life before and today is the house - the personification of his native home, family, independence, well-being and hospitality. In the beginning attached great importance to the house, she was treated with great respect, ordered decorated holiday and protected. It found expression in many proverbs and sayings. These samples of folk wisdom affecting the eternal themes so do not lose their relevance today. Their research makes it possible to understand the deeper spirituality, especially the outlook of the Ukrainian people. Purpose. To find out the semantics of the component "khata" in the proverbs and sayings identify productivity in shaping Ukrainian folklore. Conclusion. Proverbs and sayings of the component "hut" reflect various spheres of life Ukrainian: the organization of life, family relationships, moral and ethical code, mentality, especially social relations. Home is inseparable from its inhabitants, becoming masters of character, its appearance characterizes the attitude of the hosts it, the house represents those relationships that have developed between family members

  6. Relative performance of indoor vector control interventions in the Ifakara and the West African experimental huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbouke, Welbeck A; Fongnikin, Augustin; Soukou, Koffi B; Moore, Sarah J; N'Guessan, Raphael

    2017-09-19

    West African and Ifakara experimental huts are used to evaluate indoor mosquito control interventions, including spatial repellents and insecticides. The two hut types differ in size and design, so a side-by-side comparison was performed to investigate the performance of indoor interventions in the two hut designs using standard entomological outcomes: relative indoor mosquito density (deterrence), exophily (induced exit), blood-feeding and mortality of mosquitoes. Metofluthrin mosquito coils (0.00625% and 0.0097%) and Olyset® Net vs control nets (untreated, deliberately holed net) were evaluated against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus in Benin. Four experimental huts were used: two West African hut designs and two Ifakara hut designs. Treatments were rotated among the huts every four nights until each treatment was tested in each hut 52 times. Volunteers rotated between huts nightly. The Ifakara huts caught a median of 37 Culex quinquefasciatus/ night, while the West African huts captured a median of 8/ night (rate ratio 3.37, 95% CI: 2.30-4.94, P  4-fold higher mosquito exit relative to the West African huts (odds ratio 4.18, 95% CI: 3.18-5.51, P < 0.0001), regardless of treatment. While blood-feeding rates were significantly higher in the West African huts, mortality appeared significantly lower for all treatments. The Ifakara hut captured more Cx. quinquefasciatus that could more easily exit into windows and eave traps after failing to blood-feed, compared to the West African hut. The higher mortality rates recorded in the Ifakara huts could be attributable to the greater proportions of Culex mosquitoes exiting and probably dying from starvation, relative to the situation in the West African huts.

  7. Comparative performance of three experimental hut designs for measuring malaria vector responses to insecticides in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massue, Dennis J; Kisinza, William N; Malongo, Bernard B; Mgaya, Charles S; Bradley, John; Moore, Jason D; Tenu, Filemoni F; Moore, Sarah J

    2016-03-15

    Experimental huts are simplified, standardized representations of human habitations that provide model systems to evaluate insecticides used in indoor residual spray (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to kill disease vectors. Hut volume, construction materials and size of entry points impact mosquito entry and exposure to insecticides. The performance of three standard experimental hut designs was compared to evaluate insecticide used in LLINs. Field studies were conducted at the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) testing site in Muheza, Tanzania. Three East African huts, three West African huts, and three Ifakara huts were compared using Olyset(®) and Permanet 2.0(®) versus untreated nets as a control. Outcomes measured were mortality, induced exophily (exit rate), blood feeding inhibition and deterrence (entry rate). Data were analysed using linear mixed effect regression and Bland-Altman comparison of paired differences. A total of 613 mosquitoes were collected in 36 nights, of which 13.5% were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, 21% Anopheles funestus sensu stricto, 38% Mansonia species and 28% Culex species. Ifakara huts caught three times more mosquitoes than the East African and West African huts, while the West African huts caught significantly fewer mosquitoes than the other hut types. Mosquito densities were low, very little mosquito exit was measured in any of the huts with no measurable exophily caused by the use of either Olyset or Permanet. When the huts were directly compared, the West African huts measured greater exophily than other huts. As unholed nets were used in the experiments and few mosquitoes were captured, it was not possible to measure difference in feeding success either between treatments or hut types. In each of the hut types there was increased mortality when Permanet or Olyset were present inside the huts compared to the control, however this did not vary between the hut types. Both East African

  8. Radiation Authority and Nuclear Safety in Finland (STUK); La autoridad de Radiacion y Seguridad Nuclear de Finlandia (STUK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Created in 1958 as an institute in charge of inspecting radioactive equipment used in hospitals, STUK is nowadays a specialised organisation whose functions cover all fields for applying radiation and nuclear safety. (Author)

  9. Membership Finland

    CERN Multimedia

    Rubbia,C

    1991-01-01

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  10. Recent regulatory issues in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.; Tiipana, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents general regulatory issues from Finland since the last WWER Regulators Forum meeting in Odessa 11-13 October 2000. More specific issues concerning Loviisa NPP are described in the Annex of this paper. (author)

  11. Relative Performance of Indoor Vector Control Interventions in the Ifakara and the West African Experimental Huts.

    OpenAIRE

    Oumbouke, Welbeck A; Fongnikin, Augustin; Soukou, Koffi B; Moore, Sarah J; N'Guessan, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Background West African and Ifakara experimental huts are used to evaluate indoor mosquito control interventions, including spatial repellents and insecticides. The two hut types differ in size and design, so a side-by-side comparison was performed to investigate the performance of indoor interventions in the two hut designs using standard entomological outcomes: relative indoor mosquito density (deterrence), exophily (induced exit), blood-feeding and mortality of mosquitoes. Methods Metoflut...

  12. UKRAINIAN HUT - RETURN TO THE HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABENKO V. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Today's generation of young people is at the crossroads of different ages, outlooks, in transition between past and future. It is very difficult to find their identity in the modern world, find themselves in time and history ... The transfer of national experience of each state, attracting traditions, norms and values of each people to cultural and historical treasure of the world has always been, is and will be the most important functions of education in the historical development mankind. Collective monograph "History and tradition hatobuduvannya Ukrainian Dnipro region" is a significant step in achieving this primary function of education. This work, with which you can solve important tasks now facing the humanitarian academic disciplines such as help the young person understand the most important humanistic values and traditions of our society; promote understanding of the nature of social and interpersonal relations, their sociocultural and other aspects; orient students to study subjects that form in their understanding of the identity of the individual, helping to master a certain amount of knowledge that underlie the formation of personal citizenship. Analysis of previous publications. Detection of the social nature and essence of tradition and history ukrayinskohonarodnohozhytla, its role and place in society, correlation and mechanism of succession as a prerequisite for social progress, dedicated work Voropay A., G. Chubinskogo Bulasheva A., H. Wolf, V.Voytovych [ 3; 6; 1; 2; 4] and other scientists. The authors gathered economically Ukrainian traditions prevailing among the people for many centuries the lives of our ancestors. Modern scholars A. Danyluk, V. Samoilovych, Mr. Yurchenko [5; 7] and highlighted the continued use of Ukrainian traditions in hatno-commercial construction. Nevertheless there are very few developments relating to such influential in economic and industrial terms, the region as the

  13. Keeping Finland warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Close to 80% of the district heat produced in Finland is generated in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. This is a very high figure, and compares favourably with the situation else here, even in neighbouring Sweden, where local CHP facilities only account for 20% of district heat generation, because of the major role played by hydropower and nuclear. District heat is well-established, and has a 48% market share in Finland. Sales are growing by between 1% and 1,5% a year in terms of temperature-corrected offtake volume. This compares to a 50% market share in Sweden. District heat contracts generally follow recommendations drawn up by Finnish Energy Industries in cooperation with the country's competition and consumer protection authorities. This has promoted a consistent level of best practice and prevented unnecessary disputes between suppliers and customers

  14. Multiangular L-band Datasets for Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity Retrieval Measured by Airborne HUT-2D Synthetic Aperture Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Seppänen, J.; Hallikainen, M.

    2009-04-01

    in to the first scientific measurement campaign. This campaign consisted of a single flight over the Gulf of Finland simultaneously with R/V Aranda's (Finnish Marine Research Institute) ground truth collection. The vessel measured e.g. sea surface salinity and sea temperature along the test lines measured with the radiometer system. During the autumn of 2007 HUT-2D participated in the CoSMOS-2007 campaign, in which three datasets from the Finnish coastal area were measured in order to demonstrate sea salinity retrieval. The campaign consisted of two two-hour measurement flights over an expected salinity gradient with HUT-2D and the Danish conventional radiometer EMIRAD. For the reference data, sea surface temperature and salinity were measured along the gradient line from a vessel. The third flight included different maneuvers, such as wing-wags, circles, and clover leafs, over the Gulf of Finland. During the same autumn, HUT-2D was used to measure datasets in northern Finland for soil moisture retrieval purposes. The flight consisted of measurement flights over test areas in Sodankylä, and Pallas. These test sites were equipped with weather stations of Finnish Meteorological Institute. Also soil moisture samples were collected at the sites. During the transition flights (approx. 800 km) from southern Finland to these test sites HUT-2D measured continuously, however, ground reference data for soil moisture was not collected beyond a few weather stations overpassed. Land classification maps for the transit flights are available. The most significant measurement campaign of HUT-2D so far was carried out during the spring of 2008. This 6-week campaign consisted of measurements of soil moisture test sites in Germany (Danube Catchment Area, DCA) and Spain (Valencia Anchor Station, VAS). The campaign at the DCA site consisted of four two-hour flights over the selected test lines in the Danube river catchment area, which is actively used for soil moisture studies. The VAC

  15. Efficacy of Bendiocarb Used for Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in Madagascar: Results With Local Anopheles Species (Diptera: Culicidae) From Experimental Hut Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamaherijaona, Sanjiarizaha; Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina Jean Jose; Assoukpa, Jade; Madec, Yoann; Boyer, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    To control malaria in Madagascar, two primary vector control interventions are being scaled up: insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of bendiocarb, which was implemented in the Malagasy Central Highlands in 2009. The current efficacy of bendiocarb against Anopheles species was evaluated in a small-scale field trial. An experimental hut trial comparing the effectiveness of bendiocarb sprayed on five substrates (cement, wood, tin, mud, and vegetative materials) was carried out against Anopheles species in two study sites located in the eastern foothills of Madagascar. No significant difference was detected in either exophily or blood-feeding rates between treated and untreated huts. The mortality rate was significantly greater in treated huts compared to untreated huts. Efficacy up to 80% was found for 5 mo posttreatment. Although effective, bendiocarb has been used for 7 yr, and therefore an alternative insecticide may be needed to avoid the emergence of resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Hut clusters on Ge(001) surfaces studied by STM and synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Feidenhans'l, R.

    1996-01-01

    Nanoscale hut clusters formed on Ge(001) surfaces by depositing one monolayer of indium and annealing at temperatures between 350 and 500 degrees C were studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It was found that the hut clusters form regular arrays over...

  17. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpi, K.; Palmen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Finland currently generates about 40% of its electricity from nuclear power. This achievement of worldwide record magnitude is based on long-lasting efforts to build and maintain the competent infrastructure and close international cooperation required by this demanding technology. This booklet published by the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission gives an overview of nuclear energy and related organizations in Finland. It describes the utility companies and nuclear power production, the manufacturing industry and its export potential, research and educational activities and the legal framework and authorities for nuclear safety and administration. International cooperation has been essential for Finland in developing its nuclear energy capacity and appreciation is espressed to many countries and international organizations which have contributed to this. At the same time Finnish organizations are willing to share the experiences and know-how they have gained in building nuclear power in a small country. This is a road which will be followed by many other countries in the decades to come. It is hoped that this booklet will also help to open new channels of cooperation in such efforts

  18. Outline of the wireless hut built in 1957 and the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica and outside environment -Preface-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkichi Hirayama

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been decided to dismantle the wireless hut built in 1957 and the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica in accordance with a renewal project plan. A Commission of Construction Experts, the Architect Committee brought the above two buildings as test samples to Japan and in cooperation with several research institutes and researchers, investigated the effect of aging. We herein report the those results.

  19. Energy attitudes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, A.T.; Jaervinen, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Energy issues are at present heavily debated in Finland. Public discussion is very emotional and biased against nuclear power. The undetermined situation together with the need for a decision on increasing the nuclear capacity led Imatran Voima Oy (Imatra Power Company) to measure the prevailing attitudes. The paper discusses the energy opinion surveys recently made in Finland. The general results give evidence of the changes occurring in the values of life. Environmental issues and the purity of energy production are seen as the most important factors of energy policy. Low price or availability and reliability are considered less important. The results of the surveys show, however, that people think that more electricity will be needed in the future. Natural gas, peat and hydroelectric power are most favoured. The attitude towards the use of coal and nuclear power is clearly more diffuse. In the survey, 21% want to increase the share of nuclear power, 32% want to keep its use at the present level and 35% want to reduce it. This 35% includes the one-fifth of the population that would like to abandon nuclear power altogether. Nuclear wastes and accidents are considered the most important factors contributing to the formation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. The other main factors are discussed in the paper. A great desire for information on energy policy together with personal decision making interests reflect the general attitude in Finland also. Totally incorrect information on nuclear energy is, however, surprisingly prevalent, which makes opposition to nuclear power understandable. All these factors make taking a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland difficult. (author)

  20. Reconstruction and durability study of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Hannuki

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The living hut was built by the 10th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-10 at Syowa Station in 1969. The living hut, which had been used over 29 years at Syowa Station, was demolished and the prefabricated building elements of the hut were brought back to Japan in 1998. The building elements were reconstructed for the durability test and the present conditions of the reconstructed living hut were investigated. The reconstruction work of the hut was finished within 5 days and with a total of 22 workers. The elements and devices were usable on the whole. The building can be reused if damaged parts are restored and external facing and interior finish are renewed.

  1. Air toxics research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahkala, M.

    1994-01-01

    Air toxics research in Finland has developed rapidly in recent years. Though they have no enormous environmental problems in Finland, the author feels that they have to increase their knowledge of more efficient energy production and control technology. Enormous emission sources are around them, but there are also huge markets for know-how and technology in the energy sector. Two Finnish national research programs will ensure the continuity of the development efforts concerning combustion technology and environmental aspects at both theoretical and practical levels

  2. Energy - Finland`s new trump card

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huopalahti, K. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    The energy sector in Finland is heavily constrained by the tough northern climate, meagre fuel reserves, an expensive infrastructure, the small domestic market and limited capital resources. However, Finland`s forest and metal industries have demanded low-cost energy, considering it vital for their existence and therefore for the prosperity of the whole country. Finland`s extensive foreign trade and open policies have also furthered this process; they have forced the industry on the one hand to face competition at home, and on the other to go abroad to compete there. The energy sector has risen to this ambitious challenge, at the same time developing into an independent industrial sector that can compete in the international market

  3. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  4. Datafile: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    For several years the two Finnish nuclear-owning utilities have obtained consistently high load factors from their four reactors, two of which were supplied from the Soviet Union and two from Sweden. In 1988 nuclear power accounted for 36 per cent of total generation. Electricity supply is a highly competitive market and much emphasis is placed on energy efficiency through the use of co-generation and district heating. The utilities are studying alternative designs for a new nuclear station, but there will be no government decision until after the next election in 1991. (author)

  5. Organisational culture at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's department of Nuclear Reactor Regulation; Organisationskulturen inom den finlaendska Straalsaekerhetscentralens (STUK) avdelning foer oevervakning av kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Norros, L. [VTT Automation, Esbo (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    A case study to investigate the organisational culture of the regulatory authority was conducted at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's (STUK) Nuclear Reactor Regulation (YTO) - department. Organisational culture is defined as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, which are basically unconscious. Objectives of the study were to conceptualise and describe the main characteristics of YTO's organisational culture and to carry out a tentative core task analysis of the inspectors' work. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used in the research. YTO's culture was identified as a hierarchy-focused culture with less emphasis on innovation or social support. However, the ideal values of the personnel emphasised also social support and goal setting. Ambiguous goals were felt by some personnel as increased uncertainty about the meaningfulness of one's job. Also a lack of feedback was mentioned. The core task analysis identified the critical functions of the regulatory practice. These functions specify the three roles of the regulatory authority, the expert role, the public role and the authority role. The culture must support the fulfilment of the requirements of all the three roles. Development needs in YTO's culture were identified and recommendations were made. (au)

  6. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivukoski, J.

    1993-01-01

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  7. Environmental monitoring in Finland 2006-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, J.

    2006-01-01

    This publication presents environmental monitoring carried out in Finland in 2006-2008. It is a summary of the environmental monitoring activities of the following national institutes: Geological Survey of Finland, Finnish Meteorological Institute, National Public Health Institute, Plant Production Inspection Centre, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Information Centre of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Statistics Finland, Finnish Environment Institute, and Regional Environment Centres. Monitoring of natural resources, environmental pressures, state of the environment, water and health, land use and environmental policy are presented. The objective was to compile the information on national environmental monitoring and to activate information exchange and cooperation in this field. (orig.)

  8. YK1 Basic professional training course on nuclear safety, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, Finnish organizations re-evaluated the manpower situation and established an organizing committee to develop and organize basic post-graduate professional training of new recruits and staff members; especially for the acute needs of the new NPP project, but also to provide in the long-term a new generation of nuclear experts to replace the present generation which will retire within the next ten years. The organizing committee included representatives of the following organizations: Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, nuclear power utilities TVO and Fortum, the Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT, the Lappeenranta and Helsinki Universities of Technology, LUT and HUT, respectively, and the Ministry of Trade and Industry, KTM. The committee decided to promptly organize a national training course on nuclear safety based on a similar course developed by the IAEA: the course structure and syllabus are alike. Although part of the course material is based on the IAEA material, it has been adapted to the Finnish conditions, and a large part of the material is completely new. The Finnish application was developed in order to make visible different standpoints of all organizations. The location of the first six-week course YK1 from September 2003 to February 2004 rotated between different organizations. There were altogether 120 lecturers and rehearsal, demonstration or excursion leaders. Half of them came from the utilities TVO and Fortum, a quarter from the authority STUK, and the rest from VTT, universities and others. The 51 participants of the course came from these same organisations. The lectures were held in Finnish, and the slides in Finnish were distributed to the participants. However, it is useful and even mandatory to know the terms also in English, and therefore the extended abstracts of the lectures were written in English. The YK1 course material was laid on the website of LUT to look for in advance or in more detail with

  9. YK1 Basic professional training course on nuclear safety, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, Finnish organizations re-evaluated the manpower situation and established an organizing committee to develop and organize basic post-graduate professional training of new recruits and staff members; especially for the acute needs of the new NPP project, but also to provide in the long-term a new generation of nuclear experts to replace the present generation which will retire within the next ten years. The organizing committee included representatives of the following organizations: Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, nuclear power utilities TVO and Fortum, the Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT, the Lappeenranta and Helsinki Universities of Technology, LUT and HUT, respectively, and the Ministry of Trade and Industry, KTM. The committee decided to promptly organize a national training course on nuclear safety based on a similar course developed by the IAEA: the course structure and syllabus are alike. Although part of the course material is based on the IAEA material, it has been adapted to the Finnish conditions, and a large part of the material is completely new. The Finnish application was developed in order to make visible different standpoints of all organizations. The location of the first six-week course YK1 from September 2003 to February 2004 rotated between different organizations. There were altogether 120 lecturers and rehearsal, demonstration or excursion leaders. Half of them came from the utilities TVO and Fortum, a quarter from the authority STUK, and the rest from VTT, universities and others. The 51 participants of the course came from these same organisations. The lectures were held in Finnish, and the slides in Finnish were distributed to the participants. However, it is useful and even mandatory to know the terms also in English, and therefore the extended abstracts of the lectures were written in English. The YK1 course material was laid on the website of LUT to look for in advance or in more detail with

  10. B14 hut at the Bronze Age settlement of Mursia (Pantelleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Debandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribute deals with the explanation of the archaeological excavation of the B14 hut, that symbolizes the residential structures of the earliest phase of the village, but at the same time it can be considered exceptional for the size and for the inner setting. The stratigraphic sequence shows several episodes of transformation of inhabited space with real twisting changes that took place early in the history of the hut. In particular, in spite of the initial planning of the dwellings, each single feature adapted shape and size to different requirements among inhabitants, both productive and domestic. Ceramics of each phase of the sequence are presented showing vase types used especially in the earliest phase of the settlement. A the end of the life, the hut was completely covered by other dwellings.

  11. WHY CHINESE TOURISTS CHOOSE FINLAND AS TRAVEL DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qiaoyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out the reasons why Chinese tourists choose Finland as travel destination. In this study, the author gives general view of Chinese outbound tourism and comes up with some reasonable recommendations for attracting more Chinese tourists to travel to Finland. Also the aim is to help readers to make improvements for increasing the competitiveness of Finland in the Chinese tourism market. The theoretical framework consist of the theory based on consumer b...

  12. Data on experiments result of three identical huts with shape-stabilized phase change materials in Japanese temperate climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Bae Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data in this article are the experimental results of three identical huts (Hut A, B and C, which were examined by using varying shape-stabilized PCMs (SSPCMs sheet levels under natural and heating conditions in winter of Chiba prefecture where Japanese temperate climate. The SSPCMs sheet established the melting and solidification-temperature ranged at 19–26 °C were used. In Hut A, no SSPCM sheets were applied; in Hut B, four layers of SSPCM sheets were applied to the floor; in Hut C, one layer of SSPCM was applied to the floor, walls, and ceilings. The data provide information on the application of SSPCM sheets to improve indoor stabilization and the heating load reduction effects.

  13. Fuel reliability experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekkonen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Four nuclear reactors have operated in Finland now for 35-38 years. The two VVER-440 units at Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant are operated by Fortum and two BWR’s in Olkiluoto are operated by Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO). The fuel reliability experience of the four reactors operating currently in Finland has been very good and the fuel failure rates have been very low. Systematic inspection of spent fuel assemblies, and especially all failed assemblies, is a good practice that is employed in Finland in order to improve fuel reliability and operational safety. Investigation of the root cause of fuel failures is important in developing ways to prevent similar failures in the future. The operational and fuel reliability experience at the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant has been reported also earlier in the international seminars on WWER Fuel Performance, Modelling and Experimental Support. In this paper the information on fuel reliability experience at Loviisa NPP is updated and also a short summary of the fuel reliability experience at Olkiluoto NPP is given. Keywords: VVER-440, fuel reliability, operational experience, poolside inspections, fuel failure identification. (author)

  14. Solar power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesa, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar cells, or photovoltaic units, have provided a useful supply of energy for low-power, non-gridconnected applications in Finland for some years. Applications have included navigational buoys, base stations for mobile phone networks, and appliances in holiday homes. Solar-powered systems have also been used in connection with grid power for over a decade, in Finland and elsewhere, and have proved generally successful - and solar energy is emerging as an increasingly interesting alternative for distributed electricity generation

  15. 'Like Playing with Fire Under a Hut' - You Will Get Burnt If You Do ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Like Playing with Fire Under a Hut' - You Will Get Burnt If You Do Not Adjust: Reflections of Social Work Students on Adjusting to University Life. ... High dropout rates in first year and the enculturation into the academic literacies essential in promoting a successful academic adjustment are some of the challenges faced by ...

  16. Growth and decay of hcp-like Cu hut-shaped structures on W(100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, Tjeerd Rogier Johannes; van Gastel, Raoul; Wormeester, Herbert; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2012-01-01

    We have studied both the morphology and structure of thin Cu deposits on W(100) during growth and desorption, using low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and selective area low-energy electron diffraction (μLEED). During growth at 674 K hut-shaped Cu crystallites with steep facets (> 54∘) coexist

  17. Pizza Hut, Domino's, and the Public Schools: Making Sense of Commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Describes different types of partnerships between schools and businesses, discussing the benefits of and drawbacks to the commercial aspects of programs like Pizza Hut's, in which children who read a certain number of books receive free pizza, and programs like Dominos', in which schools receive materials or money in return for students buying…

  18. Stone Age hut in Israel yields world's oldest evidence of bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Dani; Weiss, Ehud; Simchoni, Orit; Tsatskin, Alexander; Danin, Avinoam; Kislev, Mordechai

    2004-04-27

    The earliest archaeological remains of dwelling huts built by Homo sapiens were found in various European Upper Paleolithic open-air camps. Although floors of huts were found in a small number of cases, modern organization of the home space that includes defined resting areas and bedding remains was not discovered. We report here the earliest in situ bedding exposed on a brush hut floor. It has recently been found at the previously submerged, excellently preserved 23,000-year-old fisher-hunter-gatherers' camp of Ohalo II, situated in Israel on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. The grass bedding consists of bunches of partially charred Puccinellia confer convoluta stems and leaves, covered by a thin compact layer of clay. It is arranged in a repeated pattern, on the floor, around a central hearth. This study describes the bedding in its original context on a well preserved intentionally constructed floor. It also reconstructs on the basis of direct evidence (combined with ethnographic analogies) the Upper Paleolithic hut as a house with three major components: a hearth, specific working locales, and a comfortable sleeping area near the walls.

  19. "Conical Hut": A Basic Form of House Types in Timor Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. R.; Lim, Y. L.; Wang, M. H.; Chen, C. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the "Pair- House Type" widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house), accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder's bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep), containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the "conical hut". Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built "conical huts" for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. "Conical Hut" may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of "conical hut", which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The "conical huts" contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present the diversification that each conical hut has

  20. Profile of pregnant women using delivery hut services of the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Haldar, Partha; Singh, Arvind K; Archana, S; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    To describe women who attended two delivery huts in rural Haryana, India. The present observational study assessed routinely collected service provision data from two delivery huts located at primary health centers in the district of Faridabad. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care, use of free transport services, and maternal and neonatal indicators at delivery were assessed for all pregnant women who used the delivery hut services from January 2012 to June 2014. During the study period, 1796 deliveries occurred at the delivery huts. The mean age of the mothers was 23.3 ± 3.3 years (95% confidence interval 23.1-23.5). Of 1648 mothers for whom data were available, 1039 (63.0%) had travelled less than 5 km to the delivery hut. The proportion of mothers who belonged to a lower caste increased from 31.0% (193/622) in 2012 to 41.1% (162/394) in 2014. The proportion of mothers who were illiterate also increased, from 8.1% (53/651) in 2012 to 26.4% (104/394) in 2014. Belonging to a disadvantaged social group (in terms of caste or education) was not an obstacle to use of delivery hut services. The delivery huts might have satisfied some unmet needs of community members in rural India. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  2. Gift from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    An instrument worth $19 000 for the analysis of nuclear radiation, donated by Finland to IAEA, was handed over by the Finnish Ambassador, Mr. Otso Wartiovaara, to the Director General of IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, at the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf on 22 January. The instrument, a multi-channel analyzer with 512 channels, was constructed in Finland. It is being used in connection with all the major Agency projects under way at Seibersdorf, such as the standardization of radionuclides, agricultural research, and analytical work carried out at the request of Member States

  3. Measuring the complex admittance and tunneling rate of a germanium hut wire hole quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Shu-Xiao; Gao, Fei; Li, Hai-Ou; Xu, Gang; Wang, Ke; Liu, He; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the microwave reflectometry of an on-chip reflection line cavity coupled to a Ge hut wire hole quantum dot. The amplitude and phase responses of the cavity can be used to measure the complex admittance and evaluate the tunneling rate of the quantum dot, even in the region where transport signal through the quantum dot is too small to be measured by conventional direct transport means. The experimental observations are found to be in good agreement with a theoretical model of the hybrid system based on cavity frequency shift and linewidth shift. Our experimental results take the first step towards fast and sensitive readout of charge and spin states in Ge hut wire hole quantum dot.

  4. Pengaruh Strategi Diferensiasi Terhadap Loyalitas Konsumen Melalui Kepuasan Konsumen Pada Restoran Pizza Hut Di Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Desty Arief

    2016-01-01

    Competition among the companies which produce fast food today is highly competitive. One of the techniques to able to compete is by providing satisfaction to consumers effectively in order to obtain new customers and maintain old customers and by carrying out differentiation strategy as what has been done by Pizza Hut Restaurant in Medan. The aim of differentiation is to facilitate the facilitation of strong value for a product, and it is expected that consumers realize its value so that it c...

  5. Energy taxation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtonen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Energy taxation in Finland is described in addition to plans for reforms in this respect. It is stated that taxation on energy has primarily a fiscal motive, and it can also be used as a means of steering of energy and environmental policy. Numerical data illustrate the text. (AB)

  6. National programme: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsten, J.

    1986-01-01

    Finland's programmes in the field of reactor pressure components are presented in this paper. The following information on each of these programmes is given: the brief description of the programme; the programme's schedule and duration; the name of the project manager

  7. Energy efficiency in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In Finland a significant portion of energy originates from renewable sources and cogeneration, that is, combined production of electricity and heat. Combined heat and electricity production is typical in the Finnish industry and in the district heating sector. One third of all electricity and 15 % of district heating is produced by cogeneration. District heating schemes provide about 45 % of heat in buildings. Overall efficiency in industry exceeds 80 % and is even higher in the district heating sector. In 1996 25 % of Finland`s primary energy was produced from renewable energy sources which is a far higher proportion than the European Union average of 6 %. Finland is one of the leading users of bioenergy. Biomass including peat, provides approximately 50 % of fuel consumed by industry and is utilised in significant amounts in combined heat and electricity plants. For example, in the pulp and paper industry, by burning black liquor and bark during the production of chemical pulp, significant amounts of energy are generated and used in paper mills. Conservation and efficient use of energy are central to the Finnish Government`s Energy Strategy. The energy conservation programme aims to increase energy efficiency by 10-20 % by the year 2010. Energy saving technology plays a key role in making the production and use of energy more efficient. In 1996 of FIM 335 million (ECU 57 million) spent on funding research, FIM 120 million (ECU 20 million) was spent on research into energy conservation

  8. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbers-Mindermann, M; Berg, C; Illmann, G; Baulain, U; Algers, B

    2015-04-01

    Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts, would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition. A total of 26 Yorkshire×Swedish Landrace sows were studied. Of these, 11 sows were housed outdoors in farrowing huts during both parturitions (group=OUTOUT). The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. During their second parturition, sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts (group=INOUT). The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Parity 1: during the last 2 h prepartum, OUTOUT sows had a higher proportion of observations in the sternal lying position (Pbehavioural differences between INOUT and OUTOUT sows. In conclusion, it is not problematic for a second parity sow with initial maternal experience from an indoor farrowing pen to be kept outdoors in farrowing huts during its following farrowing.

  9. Finland country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantamaeki, Karin [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    engineering at Helsinki (TKK) and Lappeenranta (LUT) Universities of Technology; - Radiochemistry: University of Helsinki (UH); - Some activities in other universities too; - Finnish specialty in all technical areas is close connection of students with industry, research institutes and the authorities; Summer trainees; Diploma (Master's) theses; Special course at professional level after graduation covering whole area of nuclear safety: - For new staff and recruits from other fields (5 times, 270 participants), - Organised jointly by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy and all institutes in nuclear energy. 'Radiant Women' Seminar in 2007: For female decision makers and opinion leaders; Some 70 participants; Theme 'The climate changes - changes in everyday life'; Opening speech by Ms. Sirkka Hautojaervi, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of the Environment; 'Finland and its adaptation to the climate change', senior researcher Susanna Kankaanpaeae, the Finnish Environment Institute; 'Prevention of climate change in everyday life', communications director Paeivi Laitila from Motiva; 'CO{sub 2}-studies and the effect of the sea on the climate change', senior researcher Heidi Pettersson, the Marine Research Institute. Christmas party in January for Energy Channel members who visited the research department of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety authority STUK. Number of Energy Channel members: {approx}80.

  10. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The booklet provides and up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear or energy sector in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. In the booklet nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market

  11. NPPCI activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1986-01-01

    Research activities at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in the control and instrumentation field have been directed both towards immediate needs and towards long term goals. The immediate needs have been connected to different ongoing investigations and to development projects in connection with process industry. Of the more long term projects the following can be explicitly mentioned: the Nordic project on human reliability; work on software reliability; design guides for digital CI systems; simulation of technical processes; artificial intelligence in nuclear power

  12. Licensing process in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiippana, Petteri

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act, the use of nuclear energy constitutes operations subject to license. The licensing process and conditions for granting a license is defined in the legislation. The licenses are applied from and granted by the Government. This paper discusses briefly the licensing process in Finland and also the roles and responsibilities of main stakeholders in licensing. Licensing of a nuclear power plant in Finland has three steps. The first step is the Decision in Principle (DiP). Goal of DiP is to decide whether using nuclear power is for the overall good for the Finnish society. The second step is Construction License (CL) and the goal of CL phase is to determine whether the design of the proposed plant is safe and that the participating organisations are capable of constructing the plant to meet safety goals. The third step is the Operating License (OL) and the goal of the OL phase is to determine whether the plant operates safely and licensee is capable to operate the plant safely. Main stakeholders in the licensing process in Finland are the utility (licensee) interested in using nuclear power in Finland, Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Government, Parliament, STUK, the municipality siting the plant and the general public. Government grants all licenses, and Parliament has to ratify Government's Decision in Principle. STUK has to assess the safety of the license applications in each step and give statement to the Ministry. Municipality has to agree to site the plant. Both STUK and the municipality have a veto right in the licensing process

  13. Preventing BEPS in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sourinthone, Aksone

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, the focus on multinationals’ tax avoidance schemes or Base Erosion & Profit Shifting (BEPS) has been increasing constantly. The OECD and the European Commission are working on new tax rulings to counter those harmful practices. The report aims to analyse and assess the anti-BEPS package: what does it contain, how can it be effective on the European level and how is Finland implementing the new recommendations? The analysis was a desktop study: peer-reviewed articles, ...

  14. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.; Barszcz, J.; Greszta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  15. Luminescence dating of anthropogenic features of the San Luis Valley, Colorado: from stone huts to stone walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Shannon; Donlan, Rebecca A.; Kardos, Barbara Maat

    2015-01-01

    The Snake Nest Wall site and the Crestone Stone Huts are in the northern San Luis Valley, Colorado, and provide a unique opportunity to date high-altitude archeological sites of unknown age and origin using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). We sampled sediment underlying foundation stones of these structures to establish a chronological framework for each site's construction. OSL dating of the quartz grains directly under the Snake Nest Wall suggest that the stones and, therefore, the structure was most recently emplaced between 1855 and 1890 A.D. Dating of the sediment beneath the Crestone Stone Huts suggests the construction time of these huts is between 1860 and 1890 A.D. Analysis of the equivalent dose (DE) dispersion of the OSL samples at Snake Nest Wall and the Crestone Huts shows that the majority of sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and the low scatter suggests that short-term or shallow alluvial processes were the dominant transport for sediments. In both cases, the OSL ages show that the construction was during very recent historical times, although it is likely that the Snake Nest Wall was rebuilt in the late 19th century. Further study is warranted at the Snake Nest Wall since it shows signs of greater antiquity and a continued presence of human use. The Crestone Huts are shown to be a product of railroad building during the boomtown days of Lucky and Crestone.

  16. Towards the ecotourism: a decision support model for the assessment of sustainability of mountain huts in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubelj Ars, Mojca; Bohanec, Marko

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies mountain hut infrastructure in the Alps as an important element of ecotourism in the Alpine region. To improve the decision-making process regarding the implementation of future infrastructure and improvement of existing infrastructure in the vulnerable natural environment of mountain ecosystems, a new decision support model has been developed. The methodology is based on qualitative multi-attribute modelling supported by the DEXi software. The integrated rule-based model is hierarchical and consists of two submodels that cover the infrastructure of the mountain huts and that of the huts' surroundings. The final goal for the designed tool is to help minimize the ecological footprint of tourists in environmentally sensitive and undeveloped mountain areas and contribute to mountain ecotourism. The model has been tested in the case study of four mountain huts in Triglav National Park in Slovenia. Study findings provide a new empirical approach to evaluating existing mountain infrastructure and predicting improvements for the future. The assessment results are of particular interest for decision makers in protected areas, such as Alpine national parks managers and administrators. In a way, this model proposes an approach to the management assessment of mountain huts with the main aim of increasing the quality of life of mountain environment visitors as well as the satisfaction of tourists who may eventually become ecotourists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Data Mining Thesis Topics in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Bajo Rouvinen, Ari

    2017-01-01

    The Theseus open repository contains metadata about more than 100,000 thesis publications from the different universities of applied sciences in Finland. Different data mining techniques were applied to the Theseus dataset to build a web application to explore thesis topics and degree programmes using different libraries in Python and JavaScript. Thesis topics were extracted from manually annotated keywords by the authors and curated subjects by the librarians. During the project, the quality...

  18. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the booklet is to provide an up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear energy or other energy sectors in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. Nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market. (orig.)

  19. Case study in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy act of Finland 1988 provides for the permits and licenses (decision in principle by the government on a new nuclear power plant-project, construction permit by the government, fuel permits by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, operating license by the government) for major nuclear installations. Political consideration from the point of view of the general interest of the society is made by the Government in the decision in Principle. If the decision in Principle is positive, it is subject to ratification by the parliament. In other words, democracy through representation, but not through referendum, is applied

  20. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: the evidence from experimental huts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R Irish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.

  1. International fashion franchise in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    The study concentrates on exploring international clothing franchise and particularly international clothing franchise in Finland. The main objective of the research is to discover obstacles Finnish franchisees encounter when bringing an international fashion franchise to Finland and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects concerning franchisees’ perspectives. In the literature review, main concepts presented are franchising, franchi...

  2. State-Based Curriculum-Making: Approaches to Local Curriculum Work in Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølstad, Christina Elde

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how state authorities in Norway and Finland design national curriculum to provide different policy conditions for local curriculum work in municipalities and schools. The topic is explored by comparing how national authorities in Norway and Finland create a scope for local curriculum. The data consist of interviews with…

  3. Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, Lasse [North Karelia University of Applied Sciences, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu (Finland); Suhonen, Niko [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Law, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts. (author)

  4. Starting a Small Business in Tampere Region in Finland : Business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigalkin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays in Finland, there are a lot of people who are searching for a job. Also, there are opportunities for opening a new business which provides better quality or cheaper service. Such findings can lead someone to create his own workplace and reduce the level of unemployment. Repair, maintenance, and service of a passenger car are very expensive in Finland, especially in central and southern parts of Finland. The author assumes that there is a possibility to provide the described servi...

  5. Establishment of a Clothing Company in Finland Based on a University Brand Case: LAMK Apparel Company

    OpenAIRE

    Biliba, Arsenii; Mishchenko, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    This thesis aims to assist LAMK Apparel Company in its entry into the clothing market, in Finland. Based on country analysis of the two target countries (Russia and Finland), its original business idea is developed together with innovative concepts. Accordingly, the business plan is created to describe an applicable development way for the idea. The authors focus on the process of establishing a clothing company in Finland based on a university brand through the implementation of a business p...

  6. Ultrastructural modification of the plasma membrane in HUT 102 lymphoblasts by long-wave ultraviolet light, psoralen, and PUVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinin, G.I.; Lo, H.K.; Hornicek, F.J.; Malinin, T.I.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrastructural alterations of the plasma membrane in HUT 102 lymphoblasts were assessed after a 2-h interaction with a suprapharmacologic (15 micrograms/ml) concentration of 8-MOP, 2-h irradiation with UVA (2.1 mW/cm2), and the exposure of the HUT 102 cells to PUVA under the same conditions. The dark reaction of HUT cells with 8-MOP resulted in the disappearance of microvilli, the emergence of plasma-membrane-associated spherical bodies, formation of lamellar fungiform membrane evaginations, and, in approximately 1% of the cells, formation of uropods and cell capping. Except for uropod formation and cell capping, UVA has induced the same plasma-membrane alterations, and was more deleterious to structural cytoplasmic integrity than 8-MOP. Morphologic changes of the plasma membrane in PUVA-exposed cells tended to replicate structural alterations elicited independently during the dark reaction by suprapharmacologic 8-MOP concentrations. Partial retention of microvilli by cells after PUVA was the sole exception. In light of all available evidence we conclude that psoralen during the dark reactions interacts with plasma membrane lipids by as yet undisclosed mechanisms and that in addition to lipids, membrane proteins are also the primary target of the initial interaction of HUT 102 cells with psoralen during PUVA treatment

  7. PV plants for Alpine huts: Installation and operating experience at seven ENEL plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, G.; Iliceto, A.; Previ, A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of supplying electric power to isolated users far from the electricity distribution grid is one of general interest. Such consumers are nowadays generally supplied with electricity produced by small diesel generator-sets, and only recently have photovoltaic arrays and wind-turbines offered an alternative to the internal combustion engine. ENEL, as a State-owned electricity utility, is interested in the development of this particular application of renewable energy sources. Enlarging a low-voltage distribution network to connect consumers whose power requirements are extremely low (about 1000 kWh/year) may, in certain conditions, be uneconomical, both for the utility, which has to absorb most of the expense involved in construction and maintenance, and for the consumer himself. The paper reports the design criteria, the tests and the problems encountered in electrifying seven alpine huts belonging to CAI (Italian Alpine Club)

  8. An experimental hut study to quantify the effect of DDT and airborne pyrethroids on entomological parameters of malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Current malaria vector control programmes rely on insecticides with rapid contact toxicity. However, spatial repellents can also be applied to reduce man-vector contact, which might ultimately impact malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to quantify effects of airborne pyrethroids from coils and DDT used an indoor residual spray (IRS) on entomological parameters that influence malaria transmission. Methods The effect of Transfluthrin and Metofluthrin coils compared to DDT on house entry, exit and indoor feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were measured in experimental huts in the field and in the semi-field. Outcomes were deterrence - reduction in house entry of mosquitoes; irritancy or excito-repellency – induced premature exit of mosquitoes; blood feeding inhibition and effect on mosquito fecundity. Results Transfluthrin coils, Metofluthrin coils and DDT reduced human vector contact through deterrence by 38%, 30% and 8%, respectively and induced half of the mosquitoes to leave huts before feeding (56%, 55% and 48%, respectively). Almost all mosquitoes inside huts with Metofluthrin and Transfluthrin coils and more than three quarters of mosquitoes in the DDT hut did not feed, almost none laid eggs and 67%, 72% and 70% of all mosquitoes collected from Transfluthrin, Metofluthrin and DDT huts, respectively had died after 24 hours. Conclusion This study highlights that airborne pyrethroids and DDT affect a range of anopheline mosquito behaviours that are important parameters in malaria transmission, namely deterrence, irritancy/excito-repellency and blood-feeding inhibition. These effects are in addition to significant toxicity and reduced mosquito fecundity that affect mosquito densities and, therefore, provide community protection against diseases for both users and non-users. Airborne insecticides and freshly applied DDT had similar effects on deterrence, irritancy and feeding inhibition. Therefore, it is suggested that

  9. An experimental hut study to quantify the effect of DDT and airborne pyrethroids on entomological parameters of malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoma, Sheila B; Lorenz, Lena M; Ngonyani, Hassan; Sangusangu, Robert; Kitumbukile, Mohammed; Kilalangongono, Masoudi; Simfukwe, Emmanuel T; Mseka, Anton; Mbeyela, Edgar; Roman, Deogratius; Moore, Jason; Kreppel, Katharina; Maia, Marta F; Moore, Sarah J

    2014-04-01

    Current malaria vector control programmes rely on insecticides with rapid contact toxicity. However, spatial repellents can also be applied to reduce man-vector contact, which might ultimately impact malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to quantify effects of airborne pyrethroids from coils and DDT used an indoor residual spray (IRS) on entomological parameters that influence malaria transmission. The effect of Transfluthrin and Metofluthrin coils compared to DDT on house entry, exit and indoor feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were measured in experimental huts in the field and in the semi-field. Outcomes were deterrence--reduction in house entry of mosquitoes; irritancy or excito-repellency--induced premature exit of mosquitoes; blood feeding inhibition and effect on mosquito fecundity. Transfluthrin coils, Metofluthrin coils and DDT reduced human vector contact through deterrence by 38%, 30% and 8%, respectively and induced half of the mosquitoes to leave huts before feeding (56%, 55% and 48%, respectively). Almost all mosquitoes inside huts with Metofluthrin and Transfluthrin coils and more than three quarters of mosquitoes in the DDT hut did not feed, almost none laid eggs and 67%, 72% and 70% of all mosquitoes collected from Transfluthrin, Metofluthrin and DDT huts, respectively had died after 24 hours. This study highlights that airborne pyrethroids and DDT affect a range of anopheline mosquito behaviours that are important parameters in malaria transmission, namely deterrence, irritancy/excito-repellency and blood-feeding inhibition. These effects are in addition to significant toxicity and reduced mosquito fecundity that affect mosquito densities and, therefore, provide community protection against diseases for both users and non-users. Airborne insecticides and freshly applied DDT had similar effects on deterrence, irritancy and feeding inhibition. Therefore, it is suggested that airborne pyrethroids, if delivered in suitable

  10. DTP2 Laboratory Situation in Tampere, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timperi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Remote Handling is very important technology in the ITER project. Even ITER is regarded as a fairly long project, for the remote handling methods, tools and systems there is not very much development time provided. The technology has to be developed and demonstrated a long before supplied to the site in Cadarache. This is a large challenge, because the complex operations and extremely high reliability requirements. In the end of 2004, the Remote Operation and Virtual Reality Centre (ROViR) was established in Tampere Finland. The start up for this facility creation was an agreement with EFDA to host the Divertor Test Platform 2 (DTP2) in Finland. During the year 2005 the ROViR Centre was put in action. The construction work for DTP2 is currently going on and the platform should be ready for hosting the remote handling development by the end of 2006. After that the laboratory will receive the robots, tools and employees for the DTP2 operation. This abstract will give an overview of the DTP 2 platform in Tampere Finland as well as describe some other projects started in 2005. Presentation describes some problems of the ITER remote handling and tells about the state-of-the-art solutions. It also highlights some of the next tasks after putting the DTP2 platform in action. There are a plenty of tasks in the development of the ITER remote handling, after DTP2 laboratory is established. (author)

  11. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1996-12-31

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  12. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P; Koskela, T; Damski, J; Supperi, A [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1997-12-31

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  13. The destabilization of the Pilatte hut (2577 m a.s.l. - Ecrins massif, France), a paraglacial process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Dubois, Laurent; Fabre, Sébastien; Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Deline, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The Pilatte hut is located at 2572 m a.s.l. at Saint-Christophe-en-Oisans (south of the Ecrins Massif, France), at a 3-hours-walk from La Bérarde hamlet. Its capacity is 120 beds for hikers and climbers who are engaged in the ascent of Les Bans (3669 m a.s.l.). Built on a rocky ledge on the right side of the Pilatte Glacier (A = 2.64 km2; L = 2.6 km), it currently dominates the glacier by about 150 m. This relief results from the retreat of the glacier since the end of the Little Ice Age, as the till around the hut was deposited during this stage. The glacier has lost about 1.8 km in length during the same period. A first wooden hut was built in 1925 and presently serves as a winter refuge. In 1954, the growth of mountain activities led to the construction of a larger hut made of cemented stones. An extension to the west made of reinforced concrete was built in 1994. But in the late 1980s, severe damages to the 1954 part of the building were already recognized: vertical cracks lining the north and south facades, ,subsidence (c. 10 cm downstream) of the ground floor, cracked interior walls. Currently, the evolution of the instability is monitored by several methods: - since 2003, cracks in the building are surveyed by 25 Saugnac gauges, while an outside fracture in the rock is surveyed by a simple extensometer; - since 2009, 8 strain gauges allow to annually measure displacements along the main fractures that delimit the unstable rock mass; - a high-resolution topographic data set acquired by terrestrial laser scanning from the surface of the glacier in July 2014 has completed the monitoring. The acting process is a translational slide of a rock mass with a volume of about 300 000 m3, initiated by the glacier shrinkage. Therefore, it has to be considered as a paraglacial process. Even if the slide velocity is presently decreasing, a demolition project of the hut is under consideration in favor of a new building on the right side of the valley, 800 m downstream the

  14. "Conical Hut": A Basic Form of House Types in Timor Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the “Pair- House Type” widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house, accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder’s bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep, containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the “conical hut”. Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built “conical huts” for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. “Conical Hut” may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of “conical hut”, which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The “conical huts” contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present

  15. Demonstration of Raman-based, dispersion-managed VCSEL technology for fibre-to-the-hut application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotich Kipnoo, E. K.; Kiboi Boiyo, D.; Isoe, G. M.; Chabata, T. V.; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2017-03-01

    For the first time, we experimentally investigate the use of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) in the fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) flavour for Africa, known as fibre-to-the-hut. Fibre-to-the-hut is a VCSEL based passive optical network technology designed and optimized for African continent. VCSELs have attracted attention in optical communication due to its vast advantages; low power consumption, relatively cheap costs among others. A 4.25 Gb/s uncooled VCSEL is used in a dispersion managed, Raman assisted network achieving beyond 100 km of error free transmission suited for FTTHut scenario. Energy-efficient high performance VCSEL is modulated using a 27-1 PRBS pattern and the signal transmitted on a G.655 fibre utilizing the minimum attenuation window.

  16. `Mountain Hut` promotion programme of Isar Amperwerke - interim project report; Foerderprogramm Berghuetten der Isar-Amperwerke - Projektstatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, G.; Reiner, H. [Isar-Amperwerke AG, Abt. ETK, Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the ``Mountain Hut`` promotion programme is to accelerate the conversion of mountain hut power supply systems to renewables. Under this programme, which exclusively promotes the installation of renewable energy systems (hydropower, solar energy, wind power, biomass), Isar Amperwerke contributes up to a maximum of 50% of the investment costs. The present article briefly reports on four projects that have already been realised. (HW) [Deutsch] Mit dem Foerderprogramm `Berghuetten` soll die Stromversorgung von Berghuetten staerker auf erneuerbare Energietraeger umgestellt werden. Die Zuschussrate der Isar-Amper-Werke betraegt dabei maximal 50%, wobei nur regenerative Energien (Wasserkraft, Solarenergie, Windkraft und Biomasse) gefoerdert werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber vier schon realisierte Projekte. (HW)

  17. Otorhinolaryngological patient injuries in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtivuori, Tuuli; Palonen, Reima; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, Helena; Holi, Tarja; Henriksson, Markus; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2013-10-01

    Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) is considered a specialty associated with few serious patient injuries. Research data that support this belief are, however, scarce. We analyzed claims associated with ORL to determine the number of Finnish cases and the possible common denominators. Register study of ORL cases in the Patient Insurance Centre (PIC), the Regional State Administrative Agencies (RSAA), and the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Care (Valvira) during the years 2004 to 2008. These three agencies are the main actors in the field of patient injury in Finland. We analyzed compensated ORL patient injury cases from the PIC and cases associated with the ORL specialty for Valvira and RSAA from 2004 to 2008 and surveyed patient treatment files, statements from specialists, and compensation decisions. Injuries were usually associated with operations; three patients who experienced injuries during these procedures died. Common ORL operations such as tonsillectomy, septoplasty, and paranasal sinus surgery were most often associated with compensated injuries. Serious injuries were few, with a total of 110 out of 422 (26.1%) claims compensated by the PIC. Of the 110 compensated cases, 30 (27.3%) were related to tumor surgery. The most usual compensated case had iatrogenic nerve injury affecting the facial or trigeminal nerves. Of the compensated cases, 79 (71.8%) were treated by specialists, 15 (13.6%) by residents, and the rest by other medical professionals. Patient injuries in ORL are seldom severe and are strongly associated with surgery. A typical compensated injury was one that occurred in a central hospital during working hours. N/A. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Finland: construction of the first geological storage of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Neri, E.

    2015-01-01

    Finland has become the first country in the world granting a construction license for a store deep geological (AGP) for radioactive waste, as reported last November 12 Posiva, the agency management of these materials in the Baltic country. After more than 40 years of research, Posiva begin construction of this facility in Olkiluoto, which will house so end spent fuel generated in power stations Olkiluoto and Loviisa and could start operating in 2023. As noted Janne Mokka, president of Posiva, this pioneering project is not only important for Finland, but for everyone because it is the first AGP enters under construction in the world. (Author)

  19. Nuclear waste management. Pioneering solutions from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Presentation outline: Background: Nuclear energy in Finland; Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Experiences; Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW); High Level Waste - Deep Geological Repository (DGR); NWM cost estimate in Finland; Conclusions: World-leading expert services

  20. Evolution of hut access facing glacier shrinkage in the Mer de Glace basin (Mont Blanc massif, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, Jacques; Ravanel, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Given the evolution of high mountain environment due to global warming, mountaineering routes and huts accesses are more and more strongly affected by glacial shrinkage and concomitant gravity processes, but almost no studies have been conducted on this relationship. The aim of this research is to describe and explain the evolution over the last century of the access to the five alpine huts around the Mer de Glace glacier (Mont Blanc massif), the larger French glacier (length = 11.5 km, area = 30 km²), a major place for Alpine tourism since 1741 and the birthplace of mountaineering, by using several methods (comparing photographs, surveying, collecting historical documents). While most of the 20th century shows no marked changes, loss of ice thickness and associated erosion of lateral moraines generate numerous and significant changes since the 1990s. Boulder falls, rockfalls and landslides are the main geomorphological processes that affect the access, while the glacier surface lowering makes access much longer and more unstable. The danger is then greatly increased and the access must be relocated and/or equipped more and more frequently (e.g. a total of 520 m of ladders has been added). This questions the future accessibility to the huts, jeopardizing an important part of mountaineering and its linked economy in the Mer de Glace area.

  1. Operational safety related human engineering research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Human errors contribute considerably to the total risk of the nuclear power plants as was clearly demonstrated at the TMI-accident in 1979. This fact was recognized early in Finland and a comprehensive research program was established in the second half of the 1970s. This paper gives a short description of some research projects in this program. (author)

  2. Problematizing Finland's Pursuit of Intercultural (Kindergarten) Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Heidi; Dervin, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The argument that teachers should become ethical intercultural teachers is increasingly recognized as legitimate. This article presents a case study in kindergarten teacher education in Finland, a country that has been at the center of global discussions about quality education. The authors question the agenda for studying and teaching in an…

  3. Sustainable energy utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.

    1996-12-31

    Finland tops the statistics for the industrialised world in the utilisation of bioenergy. In 1995 bioenergy, including peat-fired heat and power, accounted for 20 % of the total energy consumption. The declared goal of the government is to increase the use of bioenergy by not less than 25 % (1.5 million toe by the year 2005). Research and development plays a crucial role in the promotion of the expanded use of bioenergy in Finland. The aim is to identify and develop technologies for establishing and sustaining economically, environmentally and socially viable bioenergy niches in the energy system

  4. Nuclear power prospects in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The basic circumstances which stimulated Finland's interest in nuclear power are summarized in the report as follows: 'In Finland the main power resource has been, and still is, water power. It is clear, however, that the hydro potential is insufficient to cover the increasing consumption over a long period of time. Already about one half of this potential has been exploited. Thus the country will necessarily have to consider the utilization of thermal power to an increasingly large extent. There is no indigenous coal or oil. For this reason it has become necessary to investigate realistically the possibilities offered by nuclear power'

  5. Differential substrate subsidence of the EnviHUT project pitched extensive green roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nečadová Klára

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In primary phase of testing building physical characteristics of the EnviHUT project extensive and semi-intensive roofs with 30° inclination occurred exceptional substrate subsidence. An extensive testing field with retaining geocell-system evinced differential subsidence of individual sectors after six months. Measured subsidence of installed substrate reached 40 % subsidence compared to originally designed height (intended layer thickness. Subsequent deformation of geocell-system additionally caused partial slide of substrate to drip edge area. These slides also influenced initial development of stonecrop plants on its surface. Except functional shortages the aesthetical function of the whole construction is influenced by the mentioned problem. The stated paper solves mentioned issues in view of installation method optimization, selection and modification of used roof substrate and in view of modification of geometric and building installed elements retaining system arrangement. Careful adjustment of roof system geometry and enrichment of original substrate fraction allow full functionality from pitched extensive green roof setting up. The modification scheme and its substantiation is a part of this technical study output.

  6. UKRAINIAN HUT AS THE ARCHETYPAL MODEL IN THE WORKS OF ALEXANDER DOVZHENKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YEVSEYEVA H. P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Archetypal model of national dwelling is the basic and determining element of material and spiritual culture, because design features, decorative artwork, ornamentation housing, amulet symbols as elements of the home’s interior structure the ideological system and act as a kind of code for understanding the primary landmark of the national worldview. The purpose. Identify the main components of the design features of the Ukrainian house image on the material of the story "Izba" and the tale "the Enchanted Desna" Alexander Dovzhenko. Conclusions. Research of reproduction features of the Ukrainian hut image in the art world of Alexander Dovzhenko allowed to structure arhetipo model of national dwelling, which appears as the center of the universe and as the source of all organic life forms. Antagonism of the profane and of the sacred can be solved through a paradoxical focus of such binary oppositions as power/spiritual strength, closeness/openness. An important means of the essential characteristics revealing of the house image is the apophaticism device.

  7. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S

    1995-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  8. Membership Contests: Encountering Immigrant Youth in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinen, Paivi; Suurpaa, Leena; Hoikkala, Tommi; Hautaniemi, Petri; Perho, Sini; Keskisalo, Anne-Mari; Kuure, Tapio; Kunnapuu, Krista

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses different aspects of social and societal membership, when minority groups of young immigrants living in Finland are under consideration. During its history, Finland has mainly been a country of emigration. In the 1990s the direction of moving turned to the contrary and the amount of immigrants in Finland increased relatively…

  9. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  10. The introduction of nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafs, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of my research was to study the introduction of nuclear power in Finland with special focus on the domestic engineering works industry. I wanted to find out what really happened during this long process, which I consider to be unique. I also tried to clearfy the reasons why it came about at all, and why it developed in such a peculiar way. My basic research questions were: (a.) When and how was nuclear power introduced in Finland? (b.) Which were the reasons for this introduction and which were the results? (c.) Which was the role of the domestic engineering works industry? I started the investigation by exploring the original situation in Finland and also in the countries which came to be a primus motor for the development. I studied the relevant literature and interviewed quite a few of the persons who in a decisive way had an influence on the long and chaotic process which led to the introduction of nuclear power in Finland. When describing the different phases in the development I stayed in principle within the historic framework, although I diverged from a strict chronological order when necessary. Neither did I in my investigation take a neutral stance regarding the two large projects that had a central position in the introduction, namely the nuclear power plants in Lovisa and in Olkiluoto. The Lovisa project implied a greater challenge and it was also more important to the domestic industry than Olkiluoto. It therefore got more attention than Olkiluoto. Oy Finnatom Ab (managed by me 1975-2001), due to its role as a spokesman for the Finnish nuclear engineering works industry, occupied a central position in my investigation. The start of the introduction may psychologically be dated to the startup in 1958 of the Ydin Exponential pile, YXP, and in 1962 of Finland Reactor I, FiR I, and the end to the signing in 1982 by Industrins Kraft, ASEA and Asea-Atom of the acceptance protocol for Olkiluoto and the final permits for Lovisa, granted by the

  11. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emissions in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee; Melanen; Ekqvist; Verta

    2000-10-02

    This paper is part of the study of atmospheric emissions of heavy metals conducted by the Finnish Environment Institute in collaboration with the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) under the umbrella of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment. The scope of our study is limited solely to anthropogenic mercury that is emitted directly to the atmosphere. This article addresses emission factors and trends of atmospheric mercury emissions during the 1990s and is based mainly on the database of the Finnish Environmental Administration. In addition, data based on the measurements taken by the VTT regarding emission factors have been used to estimate emissions of mercury from the incineration of waste. The study indicates that the total emission of mercury has decreased from 1140 kg in 1990 to 620 kg in 1997, while industrial and energy production have been on the increase simultaneously. The 45% emission reduction is due to improved gas cleaning equipment, process changes, automation, the installation of flue gas desulfurization process in coal-fired power plants and strict pollution control laws. In the past, some authors have estimated a higher mercury emission in Finland. In this study, it is also observed that there are no big changes in the quality of raw materials. Estimated emission factors can be of great help to management for estimating mercury emissions and also its risk assessment.

  12. Interzonal air and moisture transport through large horizontal openings in a full-scale two-story test-hut: Part 2 - CFD study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, S. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Construction Engineering and Management, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, San Agustin building, 3rd floor, Campus San Joaquin, Macul, Santiago 6904411 (Chile); Fazio, P.; Rao, J. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the air and moisture transport through a large horizontal opening in a full-scale two-story test-hut with mixed ventilation by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. CFD allows extending the experimental study presented in the companion paper and overcoming some limitations of experimental data. More than 80 cases were simulated for conditions similar to those tested experimentally and for additional ventilation rates and temperature difference between the two rooms. CFD simulations were performed in Airpak and the indoor zero-equation turbulence model was used. The CFD model was extensively validated with the distributions of air speed, temperature and humidity ratio measured across the two rooms, as well as with the measured interzonal mass airflows through the horizontal opening. CFD simulation results show that temperature difference between the two rooms and ventilation rate strongly influence the interzonal mass airflows through the opening when the upper room is colder than the lower room, while warm convective air currents from the baseboard heater and from the moisture source placed in the lower room cause upward mass airflows when the upper room is warmer than the lower room. Finally, empirical relationships between the upward mass airflow and the temperature difference between the two rooms are developed. (author)

  13. Superconducting magnet applications in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, P; Collan, H K; Lounasmaa, O V

    1983-01-01

    A short review of superconducting magnet applications in Finland is presented. The development work was done in areas that seem to offer potential for a significant break-through technology. So far our efforts have covered magnetic separation, electric DC machinery and medical NMR imaging, and it is now being extended to biological NMR on living tissue and to particle physics experiments. Our work has been facilitated by the recently started fabrication of domestic superconducting wire.

  14. Fuel cycle management in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeyrynen, H.; Mikkola, I.

    1987-01-01

    Both Finnish utilities producing nuclear power - Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Co. Ltd, TVO) - have created efficient fuel cycle management systems. The systems however differ in almost all respects. The reason is that the principal supplier for IVO is the Soviet Union and for TVO is Sweden. A common feature of both systems at the front end of the cycle is the building of stockpiles in order to provide for interruptions in fuel deliveries. Quality assurance supervision at the fuel factory for IVO is regulated by the Soviet Chamber of Commerce and Industry and a final control is made in Finland. The in-core fuel management is done by IVO using codes developed in Finland. The whole IVO fuel cycle is basically a leasing arrangement. The spent fuel is returned to the USSR after five years cooling. TVO carries out the in-core fuel management using a computer code system supplied by Asea-Atom. TVO is responsable for the back end of the cycle and makes preparations for the final disposal of the spent fuel in Finland. 6 refs., 2 figs

  15. Nuclear power situation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J K

    1976-01-01

    Finland plans to have its future energy policy as well-balanced and economical as possible. Dependence on oil has to be reduced and savings have to be achieved wherever possible. Some growth of energy demand will be inevitable, and most of this growth has to be nuclear. Practically all hydropower that can be reasonably exploited is being utilized already. Finland has an abundance of peat, but it can be economically used only as a regional source of energy. This leaves, as the only real alternatives for the coming decennia, coal and fission; of the two, fission is evidently the better choice. Although other forms of energy such as fusion, solar, tidal, and wind energy have to be studied as longer-range alternatives. Four nuclear power plants are presently under construction in Finland and at least a few additional ones will evidently be built before 1990. Several of them will probably be of the combined district heat and electricity-producing type. The planning of nuclear energy has recently become complicated due to financing difficulties, uncertainties regarding long-range fuel services, and public opposition. The latter is partly caused by lack of information, partly by fears of a change of life-style in communities near the planned power plant sites. (From Conclusions)

  16. Sweden, Finland and the German energy policy turnaround; Schweden, Finnland und die deutsche Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaestad, Maja [Royal Institute for Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Hakkarainen, Petri [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    After the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima Finland and Sweden have chosen completely different paths compared to Germany: both countries plan to build new nuclear power plants. The contribution discusses the historical development of nuclear power in these countries. In Sweden a political polarization exists between those who want to use renewable energies and those who expect increasing greenhouse gas emissions in case of nuclear power phaseout. In Finland no important anti-nuclear movement has been formed. The authors do not expect a change of policy in Sweden and Finland.

  17. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in Finland in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpela, H.

    1999-02-01

    A survey on the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostics and therapy has been made by STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finland. In 1997 the number of nuclear medicine examinations was 51 700 and that of the therapeutic treatments was 2 240. In 1994 the number of nuclear medicine examinations was 50 900 and that of therapeutic treatments was 2 150. The collective effective dose to the patients was 207 manSv and the mean effective dose to the population was 0.04 mSv per person. In 1994 the collective effective dose was 220 manSv. The numbers of nuclear medicine examinations and of therapeutic treatments have not changed much when compared to those in 1994. The collective effective dose has decreased. The main reason for that is the decreased use of the radionuclide 131 I. (orig.)

  18. Radon atlas of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Pennanen, M.; Reisbacka, H.; Castren, O.

    1997-11-01

    The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m 3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m 3 . The maps and tables in this report are useful tools for those who plan and decide what kind of radon mitigation measures are needed in municipalities. STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has an indoor radon database of 52 000 dwellings, for which the indoor radon concentration and construction details are known. The building site soil type of about 38 000 dwellings is known. This atlas is a summary of all indoor radon measurements made by STUK in lowrise dwellings and in first-floor flats. The results are shown as arithmetic means of 5- or 10-km squares on maps of the provinces. Three radon maps have been made for each province. On one map the data consist of all measurements the position coordinates of which are known. On the two other maps the building sites of houses are classified into permeable and low-permeable soil types. The tables show statistics for all indoor radon measurements by municipality and building site soil type. (orig.)

  19. Durability study on material of wooden panel elements used for the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimasa Konishi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the durability of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Japan's permanent Antarctic observation facility, especially of its wooden panels. The hut, of high floor type wooden panel construction, was built in January 1969. To determine the durability, part of the hut, which was brought back to Japan after 30 years, was rebuilt, then taken apart again under controlled test conditions. Tests included visual observation, testing of the wooden material, and testing of the performance of the thermal insulation material. The results showed that the material in the roof panels deteriorated considerably more than that in the walls and floors. In the severe polar conditions, the strength of the overall structure depends heavily on the joints between panels. It is clear that material on the indoor sides, and in the interiors of the panels, hardly deteriorated at all after 30 years.

  20. Olyset Duo® (a pyriproxyfen and permethrin mixture net: an experimental hut trial against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF, an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen.The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN. Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts.Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P = 0.01. Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, P<0.001. The oviposition rate of surviving blood-fed An. gambiae from the control hut was 37% whereas none of those from Olyset Duo and PPF LN huts laid eggs. The tunnel test results were consistent with the experimental hut results. Olyset Duo was more protective than Olyset Net in the huts against wild pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus although mortality rates of this species did not differ significantly between Olyset Net and Olyset Duo. There was no sterilizing effect on surviving blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus with the PPF-treated nets.Olyset Duo was superior to Olyset Net in terms of personal protection and killing of pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae, and sterilized surviving blood-fed mosquitoes. Mixing pyrethroid and pyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and management of pyrethroid resistant vectors by

  1. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland. Annex I [Example of TSOs and their Interaction with Key Stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland was established January 16, 1942. In January 1, 2015 VTT was transformed into a limited liability company by the Act on the Limited Liability Company Called VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd (8761/2014). VTT is a non-profit research and technology organisation. The Ministry of Employment and the Economy is responsible for state ownership steering. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd is a Finnish state-owned limited liability company. The liabilities and obligations of the company’s governing bodies are as defined in applicable Finnish law. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd as the parent company together with its subsidiary companies forms the VTT Group of companies. The tasks carried out by VTT to the Finnish Regulatory Body Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) or any other Regulatory Body as support to their licensing or any other regulatory function are 100 % funded by the Regulatory Body as a customer to VTT.

  2. Towards low energy consumption in Finland - An ecological change in economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sairinen, R.; Jaervilehto, P.

    1994-01-01

    Per capita energy consumption in Finland is twice the OECD average. Could Finland become a society with low energy consumption? What would that mean and why we need lower energy consumption and higher efficiency? These are questions dealt with in this article. The authors suggest that ecological goals could and should be considered in connection with the necessary changes in the economic structures resulting from the present economic depression. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of a fission-gas effects in a transient overpower test (HUT 5-7A) to FRAS3 code predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, E.E.; Randklev, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fission gas has an important bearing on fuel dynamics during reactor transients. Fission-gas bubble sizes and densities, both within grains and on grain boundaries, are characterized as functions of radial location at the axial midplane in studies of PNL-9 fuel microstructures before and after the HUT 5-7A (PNL 9-25) TREAT test. The FRAS3 code, being developed to model fission-gas effects in reactor transients, is applied to analyze the results of the HUT 5-7A test are presented to illustrate the observed phenomena and the validity of the modeling approach

  4. Evaluating private security sector market perceptions in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Santonen, Teemu; Paasonen, Jyri

    2015-01-01

    The role and signifi cance of private security services have grown in many countries, since traditional tasks of security authorities are being outsourced. The goal of this study is to empirically evaluate the perceptions of the private security market in Finland. As a result, we identifi ed three different future scenarios for the Finnish private security market, including(1) international success via innovations, (2) success via domestic markets, and (3) pessimistic success vision. It appea...

  5. Power engineers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    The Estonian delegation had been invited by Helsinki Energy to participate in the Nordic-Baltic District Heating Symposium. Distance heating enjoys a wide popularity in the Nordic countries. For heating purposes the use of biofuels, incl. peat, is highly recommended. Biofuels have found wide use in the Nordic countries, the share of peat being more considerable in Finland. The Estonians attended also the MODIS Workshop and made a visit to heat enterprises. (author)

  6. Crisis Management in the Hotel Industry in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Object of this thesis is Crisis Management in the Hotel Industry in Finland and is prepared in order to present the situation and the acting of hotel managers nowadays to guarantee guests a safe and secur stay and to rise the awareness among hoteliers towards crises as well as amongst employees, investors, stakeholders, authorities, and students from hospitality related fields. Main topic of this research is crisis management and concerns the process of developing a crisis management plan...

  7. Defining Marketing Strategies For Vihreä Tekno Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Manzari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define marketing strategies for Vihreä Tekno, a company in Vantaa, Finland. The company runs several businesses such as providing IT services, website designing, business/loyalty cards, professional logo design, PC repairs and installations, mobile application development, translation services, cleaning services, advertising and distribution services, billing/invoicing systems and so forth. In this thesis, the author analyzed the company’s current s...

  8. Tentative novel lyssavirus in a bat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, T; Tammiranta, N; Kokkonen, U-M; Kantala, T; Gadd, T

    2018-06-01

    A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2. © 2018 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  10. Health technology assessment in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency,...... findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries.......Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency......, with special responsibility in providing assessments to underpin national policies in screening. External evaluations enhanced the rapid growth. In the Finnish environment, decision making on health technologies is extremely decentralized, so Finohta has developed some practical tools for implementing HTA...

  11. Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverwijk, J.M.R.; Huisman, J.; Kaiser, F.

    2001-01-01

    With the introduction of the AMKs (Ammattikorkeakoulut) in 1990, the landscape of the Finnish higher education sector has changed immensely. The transformation of the vocational sector started in the 1980s when highly specialised study lines were combined into more comprehensive basic programmes.

  12. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2000. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces

  13. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2002. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co-operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  14. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2001. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence

  15. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2003. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co- operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  16. Number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Hakanen, A

    2002-01-01

    STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) collected the number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000. The work was based on a decree of the ministry of social affairs and health on the medical use of radiation. The work was done in cooperation with the Finnish work group of nomenclature of radiological examinations and procedures and professor Seppo Soimakallio. In 2000, ca. 4.1 million x-ray examinations were made in Finland. In 1984 and in 1995, the numbers were ca. 4.6 million and 4.2 million, respectively, indicating that the total number of x-ray examinations has remained nearly unaltered. The proportions of conventional x-ray examinations, computed tomography examinations, angiographic and interventional procedures were ca. 93.5 %, 5.0 %, 0.9 % and 0.6 %, respectively. The reported number of ultrasound examinations was ca. 0.5 million. The reported number of MRI examinations was ca. 0.1 million.

  17. Human Factors Engineering: Current Practices and Development Needs in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savioja, Paula; Norros, Leena; Liinasuo, Marja; Laarni, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    This paper describes initial findings from a study concerning the practices and development needs of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in Finland. HFE is increasing in importance as the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority Finland (STUK) is renewing the regulatory guidelines and the intention is to include requirements concerning HFE. The motivation for the paper is to discover how HFE is conducted currently in order to envision what should be aimed at when modifying requirements for design practices. In an interview with STUK it was discovered that current HFE practices encompass mainly activities related to control room modifications and as such namely verification and validation of new designs. The adoption of the entire HFE process in design and modification projects requires changes that include better integration of technical and Human Factors Engineering approaches. Boundary objects that mediate between different design disciplines are needed in order to enforce the stronger integration. Concept of operations (CONOPS) is suggested as a such boundary object.

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1990-01-01

    Finland has achieved some remarkable achievements in nuclear power production. Existing four plants have some of the best operating records in the world - high capacity factors, low occupational doses and short refuelling outages. Although public opinion was strongly turned against nuclear power after Chernobyl accident, and no decisions for new nuclear plants can be made before next elections in 1991, the nuclear option is still open. Utility companies are maintaining readiness to start new construction immediately after a positive political decision is made. One important component of the good operation history of the Finnish nuclear power plants is connected to the continuous research, development, modification and upgrading work, which is proceeding in Finland. In the following a short description is given on recent activities related to the I and C-systems of the nuclear power plants. (author). 2 tabs

  19. Nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.; Aaltonen, H.; Laaksonen, J.; Lahtinen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Reponen, H.; Rytoemaa, T.; Suomela, M.; Toivonen, H.; Varjoranta, T.

    1995-10-01

    The political and economic upheavals which have taken place in Eastern Europe have had an impact on radiation and nuclear safety throughout Europe. Emergency preparedness systems for unexpected nuclear events have been developed further in all European countries, and prosperous western nations have invested in improving the safety of East European nuclear power plants. The economic crisis facing countries of the former Soviet Union has also promoted illicit trade in nuclear materials; this has made it necessary for various border guards and police authorities to intensify their collaboration and to tighten border controls. On 3-4 October 1995, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) arranged a seminar on nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland. In addition to STUK experts, a wide range of rescue and civil defence authorities, environmental health specialists and other persons engaged in emergency preparedness attended the seminar. The publication contains a compilation of reports presented at the seminar. The reports cover a broad spectrum of nuclear threats analyzed at STUK, the impacts of radioactive fallout on human beings and on the environment, and preparedness systems by which the harmful effects of radiation or nuclear accidents can, if necessary, be minimized. (33 figs., 5 tabs.)

  20. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  1. The biomass energy market in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, it was estimated that the Finnish biomass market was in excess of 235 million dollars. The development of renewable energy, with special emphasis on biomass, was supported by the development of an energy strategy by the government of Finland. The installed capacity of biomass in Finland in 2002 was 1400 megawatt electrical (MWe). Extensive use of combined heat and power (CHP) is made in Finland, and district heating (DH) systems using biomass are gaining in popularity. Wood-based biomass technologies, retrofits to fluidized bed combustion, and wood procurement technologies were identified as the best opportunities for Canadian companies interested in operating in Finland. A country with high standards, Finland seems to look favorably on new innovative solutions. Joint ventures with Finnish companies might be an excellent way for Canadian companies to gain a foothold in Finland and expand into the European Union, the Nordic countries, the Baltic, Russia and the Central and Eastern European markets. It was further noted that Finland is one of the leading exporters of biomass technology in the world. The document provided quick facts, examined opportunities, and looked at key players. 19 refs., 4 tabs

  2. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  3. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  4. Exchange of dose data within nuclear activities in Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, O.; Malmqvist, L.

    1988-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, only Sweden and Finland have introduced nuclear power into energy production. The first still operating nuclear power plant was commissioned in Sweden in 1972 and in Finland in 1977. It was soon noticed that there was a growing tendency that small groups of workers used to move at short notice between Finland and Sweden to work in the nuclear power plants in both countries during maintenance periods. In 1983, the regulatory authorities for radiation protection, National Institute of Radiation Protection in Sweden and Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in Finland, surveyed the radiation exposure to those workers. The authorities have brought about an arrangement by means of which the central dose data bases in the other country since 1984 have been able to record without delay the radiation doses received by her own citizens in the nuclear power plants of the neighbouring country. In addition, the authorities have confirmed the procedures of controlling dose data on workers from the neighbouring country, before those workers start working in a nuclear power plant regulated by the national authorities in question. The paper describes the starting point of the activity, the established practice and the experience achieved. Until now, the practical experiences are positive. The total radiation exposure to the workers in the Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants has been relatively low at each plant site. Thus, the main objective in the exchange of dose data, is to achieve a good radiation protection control

  5. Authority planning in public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Toivanen, Olli-Matti

    2016-01-01

    The theme of this thesis was authority planning in public transport in Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The thesis was commissioned by INIT GmbH. The primary aim of this thesis was to figure out what kind of possibilities and challenges public transport authorities face in competitive tendering, contracting and cooperation with operators. An additional aim was to survey and compare authority planning in above mentioned countries, look for similarities and differences between these three countries...

  6. Yaşar Şâdi Efendi’nin “Hutût-ı Meşâhir” İsimli Hatıra Defteri ve Muhtevası

    OpenAIRE

    BERK, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    The periodicals of “Hutût-ı Meşâhir” can be considered as a type of journal. (Hutût-i meşâhir: The writings of celebrities) Many different people may be offered to write on these journals with their handwriting and they are expected to express themselves via anything like poems, aphorism or any other artistic skills spontaneously. The most comprehensive journal among the reprints of “Hutût-ı Meşâhir” that are discovered up to now, is the one that belongs to Yaşar Sadi. In the period coveri...

  7. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, L.; Mustonen, R.; Paakkola, O.

    1991-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 μSv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 μSv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 μSv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  8. The future of facility management in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasible future of facility management in Finland in order to provide an overview of the future of facility management. This is intended to serve as a guideline for the educational sector, facility management service companies, and the Facility management association in Finland (FIFMA) for future development. Qualitative method, precisely semi-structured/unstructured interview was adopted to address the problems in this study. The study c...

  9. Economics of nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjanne, Risto; Luostarinen, Kari

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear power generation fits perfectly with the long duration load profile of the Finnish power system. The good performance of the Finnish nuclear power has yielded benefits also to the consumers through its contribution to decreasing the electricity price. Furthermore, the introduction of nuclear power has resulted in a clear drop in carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation in the shift of 1970's and 1980's. In the year 2001 the four Finnish nuclear power units at Loviisa and Olkiluoto generated 22.8 TWh electricity, equivalent to 28 per cent of the total consumption. Loviisa power station has a net output capacity of 2 x 488 MW, and Olkiluoto 2 x 840 MW. The capacity factors of the four nuclear units have been above 90 per cent, which are among the highest in the world. The energy-intensive process industries in particular have strong belief in nuclear power. In November 2000, Teollisuuden Voima company (TVO) submitted to the Finnish Government an application for decision in principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit. The arguments were among other things to guarantee for the Finnish industry the availability of cheap electric energy and to meet the future growth of electricity consumption in Finland. The carbon-free nuclear power also represents the most efficient means to meet the Greenhouse Gas abatement quota of Finland. Simultaneously, the energy policy of the Government includes intensive R and D and investment support for the renewable energy sources and energy conservation, and the objective is also to replace coal with natural gas as much as reasonably possible. The fifth nuclear unit would be located in one of the existing Finnish nuclear sites, i.e. Olkiluoto or Loviisa. The size of the new nuclear unit would be in the range of 1000 to 1600 MW electric. The ready infrastructure of the existing site could be utilised resulting in lower investment cost for the new unit. The Finnish Government accepted the

  10. Regulatory concern about economic deregulation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, R.; Koutaniemi, P.

    2002-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity market may cause an increased pressure to reduce the costs of electricity generation. This makes a new challenge to the regulatory body to assess the impact of these changes on the safety of nuclear power plants. Accordingly, it is important to identify the risks to the nuclear power industry resulting from the economic deregulation. This paper is to discuss the current situation in Finland with regard to the economic deregulation of the electricity market and the experiences so far. A common view today is that the number of electricity generating power companies will be reduced in Europe because of tough competition in the electricity market. It is expected that only the biggest companies can stand the consequences of tough competition in electricity prices and the consequential pressure to reduce costs. In order to review the impact of deregulation of the electricity market some relevant points have been discussed in this paper such as change of ownership of power companies due to the economic pressure, the need to cut costs of the companies by reducing the number of their activities and increasing the efficiency in the remaining activities and/or outsourcing of activities. The need to pursue reduction or delay of planned investments in safety upgrades are discussed as well. (author)

  11. Regulatory concern about economic deregulation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, R.; Koutaniemi, P.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity market may cause an increased pressure to reduce the costs of electricity generation. This makes a new challenge to the regulatory body to assess the impact of these changes on the safety of nuclear power plants. Accordingly, it is important to identify the risks to the nuclear power industry resulting from the economic deregulation. This paper is to discuss the current situation in Finland with regard to the economic deregulation of the electricity market and the experiences so far. A common view today is that the number of electricity generating power companies will be reduced in Europe because of tough competition in the electricity market. It is expected that only the biggest companies can stand the consequences of tough competition in electricity prices and the consequential pressure to reduce costs. In order to review the impact of deregulation of the electricity market some relevant points have been discussed in this paper, such as change of ownership of power companies due to the economic pressure, the need to cut costs of the companies by reducing the number of their activities and increasing the efficiency in the remaining activities and/or outsourcing of activities. The need to pursue reduction or delay of planned investments in safety upgrades are discussed as well. (author)

  12. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  13. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  14. Independent power source hybrid system - recent examples mainly of mountain huts.; Dokuritsu dengengata no haiburiddo shisutemu -saikin no yamagoya deno jirei wo chushin ni.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T. [Kanagawa Inst. of Tech., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-09-30

    History of the independent power source hybrid systems used at such as mountain huts were outlined, and recent application examples of the hybrid systems were explained. At Natsuzawa mineral spring in Nagano pref., 7 kW of hybrid power generator system composed of solar cell and wind power generator, as well as 400 W of small hydraulic power generator are working supplying electric power for the private sewerage system, and the system without diesel generator is being tested. At Senjogahara refuge hut in South Alps, a hybrid power generation system composed of 10.7 kW of solar cell and 6.4 kW of wind power generator was installed, and is working. In mountainous area, there exist critical factors such as weather condition and difficulty in carrying equipment, accordingly, cost reduction and sizing down of relevant apparatus such as batteries and inverters are expected. (NEDO)

  15. The Fourth Way in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Iitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the general history of the Fourth Way in Finland. The Fourth Way, or simply ‘the Work’, began as a Greco-Armenian man named Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866?–1949 gathered groups of pupils in St Petersburg and Moscow in 1912. To these groups, Gurdjieff started to teach what he had learned and synthesized between ca 1896 and 1912 during his travels on spiritual search of Egypt, Crete, Sumeria, Assyria, the Holy Land, Mecca, Ethiopia, Sudan, India, Afghanistan, the northern valleys of Siberia, and Tibet. Neither Gurdjieff nor any of his disciples called themselves a church, a sect, or anything alike, but referred to themselves simply as ‘the Work’, or as ‘the Fourth Way’. The name ‘the Fourth Way’ originates in a Gurdjieffian view that there are essentially three traditional ways of spiritual work: those of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi. These ways do not literally refer to the activities of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi, but to similar types of spiritual work emphasizing exercise of emotion, body, or mind. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. It is a unique combination of cosmology, psychology, theory of evolution, and overall theory and practise aiming to help individ­uals in their efforts towards what is called ‘self-remembering’.

  16. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kerminen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP and FineSTRUCTURE (FS we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language. The main genetic division within Finland shows striking concordance with the 1323 borderline of the treaty of Nöteborg. In general, we detect genetic substructure throughout the country, which reflects stronger regional genetic differences in Finland compared to, for example, the UK, which in a similar analysis was dominated by a single unstructured population. We expect that similar population genetic reference data sets will become available for many more populations in the near future with important applications, for example, in forensic genetics and in genetic association studies. With this in mind, we report those extensions of the CP + FS approach that we found most useful in our analyses of the Finnish data.

  17. Investigation of the concrete foundation of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Hirai

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete specimens taken from the pier of the concrete foundation of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica, were brought back to Japan for investigation of deterioration conditions. This concrete was made by mixing alumina cement brought from Japan with gravel, sand, and water removed from melted snow, all taken from the surface ground of East Ongul Island on which Syowa Station is located, and by placing and shaping it into permanent form. The pier concrete is examined by composition analysis, compressive strength test and neutralization depth measurement of the cored sample. Transformation of the hydration products of alumina cement, from CAH10 to C3AH6 and AH3, was found to be completed. The maximum neutralization depth was found to be 26 mm. In addition, the compressive strength decreased by 22% from the time of construction as judged from a specimen at construction time. Based on these observations, deterioration of the concrete is in progress, but not to the extent that either its strength or durability is a problem with regard to serviceability.

  18. Comparison of experimental hut entrance and exit behavior between Anopheles darlingi from the Cayo District, Belize, and Zungarococha, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P

    2013-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.

  19. Deposition of atmospheric 210Pb and total beta activity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussi Paatero; Murat Buyukay; Juha Hatakka; Kaisa Vaaramaa; Jukka Lehto

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and regional variation of the atmospheric 210 Pb deposition in Finland was studied. The 210 Pb activity concentration in precipitation shows a decreasing trend from southeastern Finland north-westwards. An average deposition of 40 Bq/m 2 during a 12 months period was observed. The deposition of 210 Pb shows a seasonal variation with minimum in spring and maximum in autumn and winter. The specific activity of 210 Pb (activity of 210 Pb per unit mass of stable lead) in the atmosphere has returned to the level prior to World War II owing to the reduced lead emissions into the atmosphere. (author)

  20. Film-induced Tourism in Finland : Its Current State and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Anul, Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to evaluate the current state of film-induced tourism in Finland and to create suggestions for further development in the context of international markets. To the knowledge of the author, a comprehensive study about film-induced tourism in Finland has not been undertaken yet. Therefore, the thesis was designed in the form of an exploratory research with the aim to deliver some initial insights and key issues for the broad topic. The paper starts with a general ...

  1. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted in…

  2. Underground rock storage concepts for natural gas and LPG in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saerkkae, P.

    1990-01-01

    Natural gas storage concepts are developed in Finland for both deep, unlined rock storages and cryogenic lined, near-surface storages. For butane and propane, Neste Oy has two unlined rock storages in Porvoo. Up to now, experiences are good on storage of LPG in rock temperature and higher than hydrostatic pressure. (author). 3 refs, 8 figs

  3. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  4. Peat - The sustainable energy resource in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In Finland the level of energy consumption for heating, transportation and industry is higher than in many other European countries. This is due to the northern position of the country and also to the fact that Finland is sparsely inhabited. Peat is one of the Finnish domestic energy resources. This brochure provides a compact package of background information on fuel peat. All the data presented concerning the production and use of peat, employment, investments in the peat industry, emission levels resulting from the production and use of peat, new combustion technologies and peatland resources, have been collected from documents and other sources that are accessible to the general public

  5. On-site emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    General scheme of emergency preparedness in Finland is presented including legal framework, emergency organization and detailed description of plans and procedures. Emergency plan in Finland cover the following matters: classification of emergency situations and description of events and accidents, description of emergency organization, description of the arrangements for alerting and data transfer, management of an emergency situation and radiation protection, worker safety and radiation protection, on- and off-site radiation measurements during a preparedness situation, provision of information, rooms, equipment and facilities, post emergency debriefing and measures, a description of the maintenance of preparedness

  6. A Review of Telemedicine Services in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatri, Vikramajeet; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2011-01-01

    Telemedicine is gaining popularity due to the provision of ubiquitous health care services that is a fundamental need for every socialized society. In this paper, telemedicine services in Finland are discussed, as well as how they came into existence, how they are funded, evaluated, and what...... are their impacts on health care systems and society. Telemedicine services like teleradiology, telelaboratory, telepsychiatry and remote consultations, are being offered in all hospital districts. Primary health care centers in Finland are lacking telemedicine services, and are planning to have them. Electronic...

  7. Radioactive substances in foodstuffs and drinking water in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, K.; Vesterbacka, P.; Solatie, D. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of radioactive substances in the environment and foodstuffs are continuously monitored in Finland. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes the annual report of Surveillance of Environmental Radiation which shows the activity levels of artificial radionuclides in Finland. Based on the results the radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated. Natural radioactive elements will be included in the surveillance program in future years. The aim of the foodstuffs monitoring program is to obtain information from the intake of radionuclides through ingestion. The radioactivity in foodstuffs is monitored by collecting foodstuffs on market, drinking water and daily meals offered at hospitals over one week. The sampling sites are located in southern, central and northern Finland, representing the main population centres and areal differences in the consumption of foodstuffs. One of these sampling sites is located in the highest {sup 137}Cs deposition area in Finland originating from the Chernobyl accident. The foodstuff samples on market are, for example, wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and fish. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are analysed from mixed diet samples and {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs samples on market. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in daily meals are low because the agricultural products used as raw material are almost free of artificial radionuclides. The small variation in the results is caused by the differences in the types of meals that were prepared on the sampling dates and in the areal origins of raw materials. {sup 137}Cs concentration is remarkably higher in such food which contains a lot of natural products like wild berries, freshwater fish, wild mushrooms and game. As an example, the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the solid food in 2012 ranged from 0.06 - 1.0 Bq/kg, and in the drinks from 0.27 - 0.40 Bq/l, respectively. The radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated based on an analysis of

  8. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2004. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the

  9. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  10. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (RiskPilot AB (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    sense of unease that prevents complacency yet at the same time it has to foster a certain professional pride and a feeling of accomplishment to maintain work motivation and healthy occupational identity. The report gives several recommendations for further developing nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden. (Author)

  11. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E.; Kahlbom, U.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2011-02-01

    unease that prevents complacency yet at the same time it has to foster a certain professional pride and a feeling of accomplishment to maintain work motivation and healthy occupational identity. The report gives several recommendations for further developing nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden. (Author)

  12. Quality control of image-intensifier television chains in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirinen, M.

    1989-01-01

    There are some 500 image-intensifier television (TV) chains connected to fluoroscopic units in Finland, most installed in the 1970s, although the oldest still in use date back to the late 1960s. To establish performance levels of the chains, 300 of them were assessed in 1982 by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Results showed great diversity in the condition of the chains. The main reason was lack of periodical quality assurance of the chains. Recommendations for limits were established from results of assessing three parameters describing the condition of the chains: spatial resolution, automatically controlled dose-rate and contrast sensitivity. Recommendations also advise hospitals on how to arrange alternative quality assurance measurements and observations, either by hospital's maintenance staff, the manufacturer, or the supervising authority (STUK). Results following adoption of the recommendations by hospitals are presented. (author)

  13. Trends in radiology in Finland between 1995 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanen, Arvi; Jaervinen, Hannu; Soimakallio, Seppo

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of a joint nomenclature, i.e., the examination coding system used in Finland, for making a nationwide summary of the radiological examinations and interventional procedures. Another objective was to find trends in radiological practices in Finland between 1995 and 2000 by comparing the nationwide summaries made by Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). An inquiry for the numbers of radiological examinations performed in 2000 was sent to 473 medical radiation users, i.e., safety license holders obtained from the registry maintained by STUK. In 2000, the proportions of plain radiography, contrast-enhanced radiography, angiography, computed tomography and radiological interventional procedures were approximately 91.1, 1.4, 0.9, 5.0, and 1.5%, respectively (distribution of medical examinations). Between 1995 and 2000, the number of medical X-ray examinations showed a slight decrease from ca. 4.2 million to ca. 4.1 million. During the investigated five years period the frequency of contrast enhanced radiography diminished ca. 50% while the frequency of computed tomography increased ca. 20%. The reported number of ultrasonographic examinations showed a slight increase to approximately 0.5 million, whereas the reported number of MRI examinations increased approximately twofold to approximately 0.1 million. The observed trends in radiological practices are useful in attempts to optimize the resources of STUK in the field of radiological protection. (orig.)

  14. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  15. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  16. Outsourcing Housekeeping: An insight into two cleaning companies, SOL and N-Clean, in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Samra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the author was to find to get an insight into the cleaning companies, in Helsin-ki, Finland, which the hotel industry is using as an external supplier for their housekeeping de-partment. The author has looked into the cleaning companies training process for the cleaning staff, employee demographics, quality control and process of handling complaints. The ad-vantages and disadvantages of outsourcing housekeeping in the hotel sector are also investi-gated. The research method...

  17. Report of the Committee for Nuclear Energy Competence in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In October 2010, the Ministry of Employment and the Economy set up a committee to examine the long-term competence needs of the nuclear energy sector. The study was implemented by a group of experts ensuring extensive representation of the nuclear energy sector. One of the key conclusions was that comprehensive high-standard national competence is needed by nuclear sector companies and research institutes, as well as by authorities. Training of experts and sector-specific research activities call for long-term investments and cooperation, both among national actors and on an international scale. Competence needs in Finland's nuclear energy sector are growing. The nuclear power plant units presently in operation, as well as the Olkiluoto 3 unit under construction, require a competent labour force on a continuous basis. Posiva must have readiness for commencing final disposal of spent fuel by 2020. The new nuclear power projects - TVO's Olkiluoto 4 and Fennovoima's nuclear power plant, which were given favourable decisions-in-principle by the Government in 2010 - will particularly increase the need for experts. In its statement when ratifying these decisions-in-principle on 1 July 2010 Parliament required that the Government will, for its own part, create the preconditions for utilising Finnish labour, knowledge and business life as far as possible in nuclear power projects. The appointment letter of 27 October 2010 assigns the following duties to the Committee for Nuclear Energy Competence: (1) to survey the present personnel resources of nuclear actors; (2) to conduct an extensive review of the need for Finnish basic higher education, postgraduate education, further education and supplementary training; (3) to investigate the opportunities for Finnish participation in the forthcoming major nuclear power plant projects; (4) to survey the research infrastructure available to nuclear actors and research; (5) to examine Finnish research activities and

  18. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, Jorma; Korteniemi, Virpi; Halme-Tapanainen, Kristina

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  19. ASPECTS OF COMMODIFICATION OF RUSSIAN IN FINLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ханнес Виимаранта

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the commodification of Russian in Finland, where recent decades have seen a sharp rise in the size of the Russian-speaking population and the number of tourists from Russia. We particularly consider the use of Russian in the fields of traditional and medical tourism, education, and culture - all of them areas where Russian tourists show a strong preference for services in their native language. The need to provide a variety of services in Russian means that proficiency in Russian is a sig-nificant asset on the job market, both for immigrants and for the relatively small number of Finns who can speak the language. We also note that there is considerable demand among Russian-speaking parents in Fin-land for educational services to supplement their children’s school education.

  20. Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkonen, Lasse; Suhonen, Niko

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts.

  1. Geophysical investigations in the Kivetty area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Paananen, M.; Oehberg, A.; Front, K.; Okko, O.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1992-09-01

    Investigations were carried out at Kivetty site in Konginkangas, in central Finland, by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  2. Special requirements of aquaponics in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Soppela, Olli

    2016-01-01

    This thesis brings together observations about special features that should be taken into consideration when designing the technical aspects of aquaponics practices and production units in Finland. Market demands, water purification and facility temperature control methods; sources of healthy feed and the needs for artificial lighting vary significantly around the globe. The unique combination of climate conditions, legislation and zoological conditions should be taken into consideration whe...

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. By 2014 Finland already surpassed its 2020 target for renewable energy use under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The current feed-in premium system will be discontinued and is expected to be replaced with a competitive technology-neutral tendering scheme, in line with the requirements set in the 2014 State Aid guidelines

  4. Role of biofuels in Finland; Utility viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The use of wood biomass in Finland to generate energy (4.3 Mtoe) is one of the largest in the western industrialized countries. It represents 14 % of the primary energy use, while the use of peat for energy generation (1.4 Mtoe), often included in the same group, makes up 4-5 %. Significant energy groups include bark and sawdust (0.95 Mtoe) and waste liquors (2.4 Mtoe) from the chemical forest industry. Peat has primarily been used in population centres and by industry for combined generation of heat and power. The utilization of own by-products and other back-pressure generation based on peat or on imported fuels (in southern Finland), is typical for the industrial power plants. Wood biomass utilization will also be competitive in the future if it is readily collected in sufficient quantities at a given place as waste wood for industry. These biomasses include bark, various sawdusts, industrial waste chips and screenings, and as a separate group black liquor in the process circulation of the wood processing industry. The development of fluidized bed boilers in particular has provided improvement prerequisites for the use of low grade fuel batches of varying quality in combined heat and power plants. Most of the combined heat and power plants now built in Finland exceed the limit set for the competitiveness. Consequently, the prospects for an economical increase of combined heat and power generation capacity in Finland based on present technology is relatively small. The size of a competitive power plant has been determined to be about 50 MWe

  5. [HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG plays an important role in JAK3/STAT5 signaling pathways in HTLV-1 infection cell line HUT-102].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q Q; Tan, H; Fu, Z P; Ma, Q; Song, J L

    2017-08-14

    Objective: To analyze whether heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) be involved in a permanently abnormal activated JAK/STAT signaling in ATL cells in vitro. Methods: The effect of 17-AAG on proliferation of ATL cell lines HUT-102 was assessed using CCK8 at different time points. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The specific proteins HSP90, STAT5, p-STAT5 and JAK3 were detected by Western blotting. Results: Overexpression of HSP90 in HUT-102 cell lines was disclosed ( P AAG led to reduced cell proliferation, but there was no significant change in terms of cell proliferation when the concentration of 17-AAG between 2 000-8 000 nmol/L ( P >0.05) . 17-AAG induced cell apoptosis in different time-points and concentrations. 17-AAG don't affect the expression of JAK3 gene. Conclusion: This study indicated that JAK3 as HSP90 client protein was aberrantly activated in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, leading to constitutive activation of p-STAT5 in JAK/STAT signal pathway, which demonstrated that HSP90-inhibitors 17-AAG inhibited the growth of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines by reducing cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis.

  6. Internal radiation doses from radioactivity of drinking water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlos, H.; Asikainen, M.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the radioactivity of drinking water in Finland was carried out from 1974 to 1978. Samples were collected from nearly all water supply plants with more than 200 users and from privately dug or drilled wells. This paper considers drinking water as a factor in increasing the natural radiation exposure of the population and estimates the collective and per capita dose rates caused by the 222 Rn present in water. Instead of performing dose calculations, the significance of 226 Ra and uranium is assessed by means of daily intake. The assessment is made for both the whole population and three subgroups using the water from water supply plants and privately dug or drilled wells. (author)

  7. Decision nearing on final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    2000-01-01

    The programme for final disposal of spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants is entering into important phase: in the year 2000 the Finnish Government is expected to decide whether the proposal made by Posiva Oy on the spent fuel disposal is in line with the overall good of society. Associated with the decision is also Posiva's proposal on siting the disposal facility at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki municipality on the western coast of Finland. An important document underlying Posiva's application for this principle decision is the report of the environmental impact assessment, which was completed in 1999. Safety considerations play an important role in the application. New assessments have, therefore, been made on both the operational and long-term safety as well as on safety of spent fuel transportation. (author)

  8. WWER nuclear waste management regulatory experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, Tero

    2000-01-01

    About 30% of all electricity produced in Finland is generated by nuclear power. Four reactors, with a total capacity of 2 656 MW e (net), are currently in operation. At Loviisa, there are two 488 MW e WWER units (recently upgraded 440-units) and at Olkiluoto two 840 MW e BWR units. At the Loviisa plant conditioning, storage and final disposal of low-and intermediate-level wastes from reactor operation will take place at the NPP sites. Intermediate level ion exchange resins and evaporation concentrates are currently stored in tanks. However, a license application for constructing a solidification plant based on cementation is currently under STUKs regulatory review. The construction of the final repository for I/LLW at the Loviisa site was started in 1993 and the Government granted the operating license in 1998. The nuclear legislation requires disposal of spent fuel into the Finnish bedrock. (Authors)

  9. EPR becomes reality at Finland's Olkiluoto 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.; Giese, U.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR is a third-generation pressurized water reactor (PWR). Its development was started in 1992 by Framatome and Siemens within a Franco-German partnership. Since 2001 this work has been continued by Framatome ANP, which was formed when the two companies merged their nuclear businesses. The French company AREVA, world market leader in nuclear technology, holds a 66% share in Framatome ANP, with Siemens owning 34%. From the very start, development of the EPR was focused on improving plant safety and economics even further. The new reactor development was jointly financed together with the leading power utilities of both countries. The first steps towards realization of an EPR nuclear power plant were taken at Olkiluoto, Finland in 2004, consisting of initial preparation of the construction site. By mid-February 2005 the local municipality - Eurajoki - had issued a construction permit, and the Finnish Government a construction license pursuant to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. This had been preceded by a preliminary safety assessment prepared by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) for the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry in which STUK verified that it did not see any safety-related issues opposing issuance of the nuclear construction license. STUK emphasized that the evolutionary design of the EPR had been further improved by AREVA compared to the previous product lines. Concreting work began this spring and the unit will start commercial operation in 2009. Construction of an EPR has also been given the political go-ahead in France. According to the utility Electricite de France (EDF) the new reactor will be built as a forerunner of a later series at the site of Flamanville in Normandy. Construction is scheduled to begin in 2007. An EPR nuclear power plant has a rated electric capacity of around 1600 MW, depending on specific site conditions. Being the product of intense bilateral cooperation the EPR combines the technological

  10. Bases for Decisions on Final Disposal in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avolahti, Jaana

    2001-01-01

    The disposal of the spent nuclear fuel is approaching one of the significant milestones in Finland. Social debate on the nuclear waste management is going on aiming at a decision of principle on future directions of spent fuel management. The research so far has required no political decision. This current situation is preceded by preparations for two decades carried out by Posiva Oy who took over the programme managed earlier by Teollisuuden Voinia Oy, one of the country's nuclear power companies. The preparations comprise site investigations, technical concept development, research into long-term safety and an environmental impact assessment. The work carried out by Posiva is under regular assessment by the authorities. Research programmes are drawn up every year and reports are published for open review. The preparations in the next years to come aim at starting the construction of the repository in 2010 and the disposal operations are planned to be started in 2020. Various stakeholders in Finland are involved in the decision-making process on the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The process started when Posiva as an implementer applied for the Government's Decision in Principle in 1999. The Government made a favourable decision in December 2000 on the basis of different considerations. Among the important bases were the preceding favourable decisions made by the proposed siting municipality and the regulatory authority for radiation safety. At the moment the members of the Parliament are discussing the principles of the disposal in order to be able to vote on the Government's decision in the springtime. This paper discusses similarities and differences between the decisions made so far as regards the deep repository. The objective is to present the significance of the decisions from the point of view of an implementer of the repository. The Decision in Principle does not give any consent to start constructing the repository. Licenses for construction and

  11. The Identities of Young Interrnational Adoptees in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Virkki

    2008-01-01

    Of the 30,000 children adopted yearly all over the world, about 200-300 come to Finland. A former adoption donor country, Finland started receiving international adoptees in the 1970s. Nowadays, there are about 3,000 internationally adopted persons in Finland. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of young Finnish international adoptees, who were interviewed during summer and autumn 2005. Altogether three group interviews and six individual interviews were carrie...

  12. Searching for sponsors for four national rugby teams in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Niina

    2017-01-01

    How to get more sponsors to four national rugby teams in Finland? Finnish Rugby Federation and its four national teams are in the need of new long lasting sponsorship deals to fund the national teams’ tournaments in Finland and abroad. Since rugby is quite unknown sports in Finland it faces challenges in getting new sponsorship deals and also its visibility is currently very low. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the current situation of rugby, sponsorship contracts Finnish rugby F...

  13. Finland as a Knowledge Economy 2.0: Lessons on Policies and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the 1950’s into one of the leading innovation-driven, knowledge-based economies and high-tech producers in the twenty-first century. The development was rapid, and involved determined action and sometimes drastic decisions by the government and other key actors. Today, at the end of 2013, Finland is facing...... new types of challenges both domestically and internationally in efforts to maintain its societal sustainability and economic competitiveness. Finland Knowledge Economy 2.0 presents some of the key policies, elements, initiatives and decisions behind Finland’s path into the Knowledge Economy of today....... The authors hope to provide the readers inspiration, new ideas, and novel insights. Hopefully some of the lessons learned may prove valuable in another context. Based on this account of the development of Finnish Knowledge Economy, the authors have identified six areas of lessons, each described in detail...

  14. Financial provision for future nuclear waste management in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeaetaeinen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The main principle as regards nuclear waste management in Finland is that the operator that has produced nuclear waste is responsible for the management of all such nuclear waste. It has to take care of its waste (including that of decommissioning) until it has been disposed of in a manner accepted by the authorities. Spent nuclear fuel is considered to be nuclear waste subject to disposal into a final repository. According to the Nuclear Energy Act, all nuclear waste produced in Finland must be handled, stored and disposed of in Finland. The spent fuel and other nuclear wastes are stored at the power plant sites until they are disposed of. At the both two sites there already are the final repositories for low and intermediate level waste. The funding system is based on the principle that, if a nuclear facility would stop its operation and also stop to produce more waste, the money in the Fund and the securities given to the State would, together, always suffice to handle the situation and take care of the management of all the existing waste and dismantling and decommissioning of the plant. As the actual waste management measures would not be taken immediately, the interest accrued, in the meantime, by this existing capital is used to compensate for the inflation and cost escalation. The critical question is how the system takes into account the difficulty of arriving at reliable estimates. The Finnish funding system contains some built-in features to minimise the risk of the State having to contribute additional funds to carrying out these operations. The system continuously requires new updated estimates that must take into account the practical experience accumulating world-wide. The estimates must, however, always be based on technology currently available. Additionally, the law also requires that the uncertainty of available information about prices and costs shall be taken into account, in a reasonable manner, as raising the estimated liability. In the case

  15. 76 FR 29191 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland and the Netherlands would likely lead...) from Finland and the Netherlands. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Orders: Purified...

  16. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  17. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  18. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  19. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  20. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  1. Building a new nuclear power plant in Finland? Studies performed. Annex 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, E.

    2002-01-01

    The electricity consumption per capita is high in Finland due to the country's industrial structure and to the climatic conditions. Industry consumes 55% of the electricity in Finland. The demand of electricity is expected to grow at a rate of 1.5% a year until 2010, and further at a yearly rate of 1% until 2015. This will require 3800 MW of new generating capacity by 2015. A recent study indicates that in base-load power production in Finland the generating costs of a nuclear plant are the lowest in comparison with generation using coal, natural gas or peat. The difference to coal would be 9%, to gas 18% and to peat 40%. The target for Finland to reduce greenhouse gas emissions under the EU burden sharing is 0%. In comparison with business as usual scenarios, however, the reduction need is of the magnitude of 20%, one of the hardest in the EU. Finland already has taken into use the methods, which now are considered essential within the EU for reducing the CO 2 releases. Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted on 15 November 2000 to the Council of State an application for a decision in principle concerning the construction of additional nuclear capacity. The submission of the application is reasoned by the shareholders' need for additional electricity. Furthermore, nuclear power, together with renewable energy sources, makes it possible to comply with the Kyoto protocol commitments. The actual investment decision can be made first after a positive decision in principle has been received from the Council of State and the Parliament. The submission of the application was preceded by a number of studies, the contents of which are summarised. (author)

  2. Job Insecurity and Mental Well-Being in Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Patrik Vulkan; Antti Saloniemi; Jørgen Svalund; Anna Väisänen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how the flexicurity arrangement of low job security, high employment security, and good income security advocated by various authors affects the mental well-being of employees. Data are derived from a survey carried out in 2010–2011 among employees in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The main findings are that all three forms of cognitive security (the perceived risk) have an independent effect on mental well-being and that the worry of insecurity (the affective component) ...

  3. Activity of the 7Be isotope in plants from south-west Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, T.; Kaellman, K.M.; Agren, D.; Lill, J.O.

    2007-01-01

    We report the measurements of 7 Be activity in nine vegetable species through the detection of its 477.6 keV γ-ray of 7 Li. The plants were grown 10 km south of the city of Turku in south-west Finland, located at approximately about 23E, 62N. The results show that nettle, salad and cucumber have activities that exceed the detection limit. (author)

  4. Nuclide transport models for HLW repository safety assessment in Finland, Japan, Sweden, and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Kim, Sung Gi; Koh, Won Il

    1997-10-01

    Disposal and design concepts in such countries as Sweden, Finland, Canada and Japan which have already published safety assessment reports for the HLW repositories have been reviewed mainly in view of nuclide transport models used in their assessment. This kind of review would be very helpful in doing similar research in Korea where research program regarding HLW has been just started. (author). 44 refs., 2 tabs., 30 figs

  5. Area Handbook Series: Finland: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    franchise . The first national election, that of 1907, yielded Europe’s largest social democratic parliamentary faction. In a single step, Finland went from...place (see fig. 10). They were the first in Europe to gain the franchise , and by the 1980s they routinely constituted about one-third of the...52,498 Income from property and entrepreneurship ......... 1,936 2,228 2,649 2,986 2,812 Other domestic current transfers ............... 2,822 3,301 3,858

  6. Parenting educational styles in Slovenia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sevčnikar, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life the subject of parenting and child upbringing is often discussed among people who find themselves in the role of parents, babysitters and grandparents striving for best results (Peček Čuk and Lesar, 2009). My thesis focuses on parenting styles of mothers and fathers in Slovenia and in Finland. In the first, theoretical part, I have explained the concepts of socialization and parenting. I have defined the meaning of the term family and different family types. I have also c...

  7. Country policy profile - Finland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Electricity biogas, biomass, and wind is supported through a premium tariff. Furthermore, Finland promotes RES through two subsidy schemes. A state grant for investment in RES supports sustainable energy research projects as well as renewable energy production facilities. A second subsidy scheme provides investment support to farmers investing in facilities producing heat from RES. A price-based mechanism, the so-called 'Heat bonus' that is a fixed payment per MWh, promotes cogeneration of heat and electricity from biogas and biomass (RES LEGAL Europe, 2014)

  8. Incidence of Savant Syndrome in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, T; Ruusila, L; Ruusila, U

    2000-08-01

    The general incidence of Savant Syndrome was assessed in Finland. First, a survey was made of all 583 facilities which served people with mental retardation. Second, letters asking for information regarding people with Savant Syndrome were published in two key Finnish journals of the field. We received reports of 45 cases of Savant Syndrome. This makes an incidence rate of 1.4 per 1,000 people with mental retardation. The most common form of exceptional skills was calendar calculation, followed by feats of memory.

  9. Country policy profile - Finland. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    Electricity biogas, biomass, and wind is supported through a premium tariff. Furthermore, Finland promotes RES through two subsidy schemes. A state grant for investment in RES supports sustainable energy research projects as well as renewable energy production facilities. A second subsidy scheme provides investment support to farmers investing in facilities producing heat from RES. A price-based mechanism, the so-called 'Heat bonus' that is a fixed payment per MWh, promotes cogeneration of heat and electricity from biogas and biomass (RES LEGAL Europe, 2014)

  10. An energy handbook for teachers in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavonen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook for teachers is to provide an introduction to the principles and practices of energy education. It is composed of three sections plus commercial materials from energy companies. Part 1 discusses important aspects of energy and teaching methods. Part 2 provides graphical information showing how energy is produced and consumed in Finland. Part 3 is an introduction to energy from various aspects. One focus in the handbook is nuclear energy. Workshops on energy are also proposed to teachers. 8 figs., 2 refs

  11. Finland – Russia Business cooperation 2014 - 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kononova, Polina

    2015-01-01

    During the years of 2014 and 2015 a lot of changes have happened in Russia’s and Fin-land’s foreign policy. It could really affect the business cooperation between those two countries, so in my thesis I want to take a look into this situation, since this is a really hot topic to-day. The purpose of this thesis was to analyze changes in cooperation between Finland and Russia during embargo on products and to find out how companies keep their positions on Russian market. Another purpose was...

  12. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  13. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Meinander, O.; Haarala, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  14. Number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenkanen-Rautakoski, P.

    2010-06-01

    STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finlad) collected the number of radiological examinations classified to those made to adult and child patients in Finland in 2008. The work was based on the statute of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health on the medical use of radiation. In 2008, approximately 3.9 million x-ray examinations were made in Finland. Earlier, the number of x-ray examinations has been investigated in 1984, 1995, 2000 and in 2005. During this time the total number of x-ray examinations has slightly diminished. During 2005 and 2008 the number of x-ray examinations has slightly increased, although the average number of examinations per inhabitant has still slightly decreased. The proportions of conventional x-ray examinations, computed tomography examinations, angiographic and interventional procedures were ca. 90.2%, 8.3%, 0.8% and 0.8%, respectively. In proportion to the Finnish population about 717 x-ray examinations per 1000 inhabitants were performed in 2008. Dental examinations are excluded from this number, but CT examinations (ca. 60 per 1000 inhabitants) and interventional x-ray procedures (ca. 5 per 1000 inhabitants) are included. Slightly more than 0.5 million ultrasound examinations and 190 000 MRI examinations were reported. Of the all x-ray examinations made in 2008, ca 7.5% were made to child patients. 0-16-year-old were thought to be child patients in this study. 8% of conventional x-ray examinations and 2% of computed tomography examinations and angiographic examination were made to child patients. (orig.)

  15. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J; Maekinen, E; Meinander, O; Haarala, S [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  16. Waste management policy and its implementation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekipentti, I.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main principles of Finnish nuclear legislation is that the waste producers - i.e. power companies - shall bear the total responsibility for all waste management operations including final disposal and for all the costs of these operations. The government shall assume the responsibility after the final repository has been approved as fulfilling the safety requirements and after sufficient financial assurances covering the costs of continued surveillance have been given to the authorities. The terms of the operation licences prefer the export of high-level waste to a foreign destination, but as an alternative require preparatory activities for final disposal in domestic territory. The spent fuel from two of the four existing units is returned to the fuel supplier country, the Soviet Union, but the management of spent fuel from the two other units is open. In Finland nuclear waste management has become one of the key problems in the public debate relating to the use of nuclear energy and especially to the licensing of additional nuclear power units. The small size of the national economy may cause some additional difficulties in the efforts to solve waste management problems. Public opinion is in favour of plans for waste management arrangements and facilities being prepared in advance of the licensing of new nuclear units, although it might accept the fact that it is not reasonable to carry out the actual management operations until after rather long storage. The small size of the national economy together with the fact that there are only four nuclear power units in Finland essentially limits the ability to allocate major resources to waste management R and D work and to develop Finnish solutions independently. The political situation which prevails as regards back-end operations internationally may even hinder the extended construction of nuclear plants and use of nuclear energy

  17. Advanced digital I and C technology in nuclear power plants. A success story from Finland and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebschner, T.; Heidowitzsch, B.

    2005-01-01

    FRAMATOME ANP together with Siemens PGL have just commissioned the I and C systems for the Chinese Nuclear Power Plant Tianwan Unit 1, design the I and C systems for the first European Pressurized Water Reactor Olkiluoto 3 in Finland and started one of the most extensive and ambitious modernization project in a nuclear power plant for Loviisa NPP in Finland. The presentation delivers an insight into the problematic of digital I and C systems integration and focuses on aspects regarding design criteria, Structure and test approaches. (author)

  18. Finland: construction of the first geological storage of the world; Finlandia: construccion del primer almacen geologico del mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, E.

    2015-07-01

    Finland has become the first country in the world granting a construction license for a store deep geological (AGP) for radioactive waste, as reported last November 12 Posiva, the agency management of these materials in the Baltic country. After more than 40 years of research, Posiva begin construction of this facility in Olkiluoto, which will house so end spent fuel generated in power stations Olkiluoto and Loviisa and could start operating in 2023. As noted Janne Mokka, president of Posiva, this pioneering project is not only important for Finland, but for everyone because it is the first AGP enters under construction in the world. (Author)

  19. 76 FR 27663 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland and Netherlands would be likely to lead [[Page 27664

  20. Circannual rhythm in the incidence of cryptorchidism in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E; Haavisto, Anne-Maarit

    2005-01-01

    Conflicting data on circannual variation in birth rates of urogenital malformations have been reported previously. To assess risk factors of cryptorchidism we studied the seasonal variation of cryptorchidism in Finland. We performed a prospective cryptorchidism study in Turku, Finland, from 1997 ...

  1. The Discourse on Multicultural Education in Finland: Education for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Gunilla; Londen, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased immigration and therefore increased cultural diversity in its schools. This paper examines the multicultural education discourse in Finland by analysing the national and municipal curricula for the comprehensive school, educational policy documents and teacher education curricula. The focus is on how multicultural…

  2. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  3. The nuclear power situation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    and's limited choice of energy sources makes nuclear power especially lly attractive and it is estimated that in 1985 14% of the energy consumed will be nuclear, which will then be the second most important source after oil (49%). Four power reactors, Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO 1 and 2, are at present under construction. The first two are Russian PWRs, the latter two Asea-Atom BWRs. Loviisa 3 and 4 are planned but not yet ordered, and plans for a 1000 MWe plant to the West of Helsinki exist. The nuclear controversy in Finland has mainly been repetitions of the US and Swedish debates since 1970. However, local opposition to the project W. of Helsinki, based on the sociological effects of the inflow of Finnish speaking workers into a rural Swedish speaking district has become apparent. In the long term 13 major nuclear power plants are envisaged by the year 2000. Finland is party to the NPT and the IAEA safeguard system. (JIW)

  4. Radioactivity of household water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Saxen, R.

    1991-01-01

    A nationwide study on artificial and natural radioactivity in household water has been under way in Finland since the 1960s. The occurrence of artificial radionuclides in the surface water of drainage basins has been monitored extensively. The proportion of household water derived from surface waters in Finland is currently 48 %, but its usage is decreasing whereas that of groundwater is increasing at an annual rate of 1 - 2 %. The natural radioactivity of household water has been studied in almost all of the waters distributed by public waterworks and in 5400 private ground water wells. The downward trend in 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 3 H concentrations in surface water continued from the middle 1960s until the Chernobyl accident. After the accident ten different radionuclides were detected in surface waters, but only 137 Cs made a minor contribution the radiation dose. The maximum effective dose via ingestion of water was about 0.001 mSv in 1986, and considerably lower in the following years

  5. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.; Tuomenvirta, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  6. Ore potential of basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reino, J.; Ekberg, M.; Heinonen, P.; Karppanen, T.; Hakapaeae, A.; Sandberg, E.

    1993-02-01

    The report is associated with a study programme on basic rocks, which has the aim to complement the preliminary site investigations on repository for TVO's (Teollisuuden Voima Oy) spent nuclear fuel. The report comprises a mining enterprise's view of the ore potential of basic plutonic rocks in Finland. The ores associated with basic plutonic rocks are globally known and constitute a significant share of the global mining industry. The ores comprise chromium, vanadium-titanium-iron, nickel-copper and platinum group element ores. The resources of the metals in question and their mining industry are examined globally. A review of the use of these metals in the industry is presented as well. General factors affecting the mining industry, such as metal prices, political conjunctures, transport facilities, environmental requirements and raw material sources for the Finnish smelters have been observed from the point of view of their future effect on exploration activity and industrial development in Finland. Information on ores and mineralizations associated with Finnish basic rocks have been compiled in the report. The file comprises 4 chromium occurrences, 8 vanadium-titanium-iron occurrences, 13 PGE occurrences and 38 nickel-copper occurrences

  7. A review of the seismotectonics of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    1992-12-01

    Recent major improvements in our knowledge about seismicity, crustal structure, primary stress field and tectonics together with other extensive geophysical and geological investigations have provided a good basis for a review of the seismotectonic setting of Finland. Correlations have been found to be present for the seismicity in Finland with the seismotectonic zones inside the Baltic Shield and with the seismicity of the North Atlantic Ridge. The current stress field in the Fennoscandian Shield seems to be dominated by ridge push forces. This conclusion is based on earthquake focal mechanisms, in-situ stress measurements and geodetic information. The report discusses the possible block movements induced by future glaciation. Location of the seismotectonic zones, duration of the glaciation and the presence of locally anomalous shear stresses seem to relate to the distribution of the discovered post-glacial faults in Fennoscandia. Special attention is paid to local seismotectonics. Potential direct or indirect effects on underground openings are possible due to local earthquakes or the creep. The importance of slow deformation processes in the bedrock is emphasized. (orig.)

  8. Electricity statistics for Finland 1997; Saehkoetilasto 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, H; Savolainen, T [Adato Energia Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    Until 1995 the electrical statistics information has according to the law about electric utilities and facilities been collected and handled by the Electrical Inspectorate. In 1996 the work was done by the Finnish Electricity Association and it was commissioned by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Since 1996 the collection and handling of the information is based on the Electricity Market Act. The information is mainly submitted by the producers and distributors of electricity and processed since 1997 in Adato Energia Oy owned jointly by Finnish Energy Industries Federation, Finnish District Heating Association and Finnish Electricity Association. This action is based on a mutual contract of the Statistics Finland, Adato Energia Oy, Finnish Energy Industries Federation and Finnish Electricity Association. The Electricity Statistics for Finland 1997 contains several summaries about the consumption and the production. There is also summaries about the networks, the effects of electricity, the capacities of electricity, the fuels used in production and the dwellings heated by electric power. Like before a list of names, addresses, persons and telephone numbers is available. Additionally a list comprising the power consumption in all Finnish communes and a glossary in three languages (Finnish, Swedish and English) are included

  9. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T; Tuomenvirta, H [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  10. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Anttonen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in SME's and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in occupational safety and health are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product.

  11. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  12. Energy and sustainable development in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.N. World Summit on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 was the origin of the international framework for sustainable development. As a basis for joint, sustainable action by governments, organizations, industries, and the public, the participating countries signed the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and drafted the associated action program, Agenda 21. Sustainable development comprises these three determinant factors: - Economy. - Ecology. - Social aspects. This is where entrepreneurial responsibility for society comes in. If industries want to generate overall positive effects, they must be efficient, competitive, and profitable on a long-term basis. Power supply systems meeting the criteria of sustainable development must be reliable, economically viable, socially acceptable, and environmentally compatible. The power supply in Finland is meeting these sustainability requirements in many ways. Finland's electricity supply is decentralized, using a variety of energy sources. Electricity can be generated and made available at low cost. The Finnish power industry is an important employer and a major factor in the economy. Moreover, electricity is generated in advanced types of power plants. In this way, the structure of the Finnish power supply system incorporates important factors of sustainable development. (orig.)

  13. Review of safety related control room function research based on experience from nuclear power plants in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juslin, K.; Wahlstroem, B.; Rinttilae, E.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive human engineering research programme was established in the second half of the 1970's at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The research is performed in cooperation with the utility companies Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and includes topics such as Handling of alarm information, Disturbance analysis systems, Assessment of control rooms and Validation of safety parameter display systems. Reference is also made to the Finnish contribution to the OECD Halden Reactor Project (Halden) and the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy (NKA) research projects. In this paper feasible realization alternatives of safety related control room functions are discussed on the basis of experience from the nuclear power plants in Finland, which at present are equipped with extensive process computer systems. A proposal for future power plant information systems is described. It is intended that this proposal will serve as the basis for future computer systems at nuclear power plants in Finland. (author)

  14. Fuel peat utilization in Finland: resource use and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO 2 emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO 2 for 8 % of the N 2 O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs

  15. Licensing and supervision of nuclear facilities in Finland; Genehmigung und Aufsicht von nuklearen Anlagen in Finnland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksonen, J. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    STUK is the independent nuclear supervisory agency in Finland with administrative powers; its staff has the technical and scientific competence required for safety assessments and for supervision. STUK operates under the supervision of the Ministry for Social Affairs and Health which, to demonstrate its independence, has no duties in the energy sector and, in addition, supervises STUK in administrative matters, not in scientific and technical decisions. Internal rules of STUK ensure neutrality also of its staff in matters of energy policy. The activities of STUK as a supervisory and licensing authority in Finland are described in detail for the management of spent nuclear fuel and the new Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant currently under construction. (orig./GL)

  16. Aging fatherhood in Finland - first-time fathers in Finland from 1987 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Miia; Bloigu, Aini; Hemminki, Elina; Gissler, Mika; Klemetti, Reija

    2016-06-01

    The increase in maternal age has been well documented in Western societies, but information on paternal age trends is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in age and other background characteristics of first-time fathers in Finland in the period 1987-2009. A random 60% sample of first-time fathers in each year from 1987 to 2009 was obtained from Statistics Finland (n=344,529). Five-year intervals were used (three years in 1987-1989). Sociodemographic characteristics of older first-time fathers (⩾40 years) were compared over time using logistic regression. In the logistic regression, immigrants were excluded from the study population as they may have had children before migrating to Finland. The mean age of first-time fathers increased from 28.7 to 30.4 years in 1987-2009. The change was greatest in the Capital Region and smallest in Northern and Eastern Finland. Fatherhood at the age of ⩾40 years doubled from 3.1% to 6.8%. From 2005 to 2009, men who lived in rural areas and the Capital Region, had a long education, were divorced or widowed, had been born in a rural area and were native Finnish speakers, were more likely than other men to be old when they became fathers. CONCLUSIONS DURING THE STUDY PERIOD, THE AVERAGE AGE OF FIRST-TIME FATHERS INCREASED BY TWO YEARS FURTHER STUDIES ARE NEEDED TO EXAMINE WHETHER DELAYS IN FIRST-TIME FATHERHOOD AFFECT FERTILITY, CHILD HEALTH AND THE USE OF SOCIAL AND HEALTH SERVICES. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Ways to maintain nuclear safety competence in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanttola, T.; Mattila, L.; Reiman, L.

    2000-01-01

    In mid-1990's, both Finnish nuclear power operators started extensive plant modernization. National surveys indicated that the present age distribution of nuclear power experts implies shortage of resources through retirement within 10 years, unless education is timely enhanced. The current rate of nuclear energy specific education, about 10 master's degrees per year, will be too low, particularly if construction of new nuclear capacity were started. The problem is recognised, and some measures have been initiated. In Finland continued public funding for nuclear energy research is judged important to assure impartial expertise for the safety authorities. This research has been organised as national research programmes, where the requirement to raise experts is emphasised. Challenging tasks have proved to be important in motivating the students and the permanent personnel. The specific features of the VVER reactors, participation in international R and D projects and, recently, design and assessment of ALWR concepts have offered such possibilities. The image of nuclear energy affects the interest of young generation when choosing a career. One way to improve the situation is to increase communication with the public and direct information to the potential students. The need for other than technical skills is also reflected in the latest work programme of the Young Generation Network, organised by the Finnish Nuclear Society. (authors)

  18. Nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland; Ydinuhkat ja varautuminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R; Aaltonen, H; Laaksonen, J; Lahtinen, J; Rantavaara, A; Reponen, H; Rytoemaa, T; Suomela, M; Toivonen, H; Varjoranta, T

    1995-10-01

    The political and economic upheavals which have taken place in Eastern Europe have had an impact on radiation and nuclear safety throughout Europe. Emergency preparedness systems for unexpected nuclear events have been developed further in all European countries, and prosperous western nations have invested in improving the safety of East European nuclear power plants. The economic crisis facing countries of the former Soviet Union has also promoted illicit trade in nuclear materials; this has made it necessary for various border guards and police authorities to intensify their collaboration and to tighten border controls. On 3-4 October 1995, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) arranged a seminar on nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland. In addition to STUK experts, a wide range of rescue and civil defence authorities, environmental health specialists and other persons engaged in emergency preparedness attended the seminar. The publication contains a compilation of reports presented at the seminar. The reports cover a broad spectrum of nuclear threats analyzed at STUK, the impacts of radioactive fallout on human beings and on the environment, and preparedness systems by which the harmful effects of radiation or nuclear accidents can, if necessary, be minimized. (33 figs., 5 tabs.).

  19. Development of stump utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkkainen, M

    1975-01-01

    Presents a historical review of the utilization of stump- and rot-wood in Finland, based on Finnish literature from the mid 19th century until to-day. Pine stumps were used for tar production to a small extent during the 19th century, and on a much larger scale during the two World Wars. Other industrial uses of stumpwood have hitherto been of minor importance, but stumps are now beginning to be used in the pulp industry. The largest quantity of stumpwood used has always been that taken by the rural population for fuel; it amounted to >200 000 m/sup 3/ solid measure in the 1930's, and was still >100 000 m/sup 3/ in the 1960's.

  20. Future probabilities of coastal floods in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellikka, Havu; Leijala, Ulpu; Johansson, Milla M.; Leinonen, Katri; Kahma, Kimmo K.

    2018-04-01

    Coastal planning requires detailed knowledge of future flooding risks, and effective planning must consider both short-term sea level variations and the long-term trend. We calculate distributions that combine short- and long-term effects to provide estimates of flood probabilities in 2050 and 2100 on the Finnish coast in the Baltic Sea. Our distributions of short-term sea level variations are based on 46 years (1971-2016) of observations from the 13 Finnish tide gauges. The long-term scenarios of mean sea level combine postglacial land uplift, regionally adjusted scenarios of global sea level rise, and the effect of changes in the wind climate. The results predict that flooding risks will clearly increase by 2100 in the Gulf of Finland and the Bothnian Sea, while only a small increase or no change compared to present-day conditions is expected in the Bothnian Bay, where the land uplift is stronger.

  1. Trends in occupational hygiene in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pääkkönen, Rauno; Koponen, Milja

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate and describe the current status of, and prospects for, the future of occupational hygiene in Finland. The main sources of information include a seminar held in the annual meeting of Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society and interviews with different stakeholders. Nanotechnology and other new materials, changing work environments, circular economy including green jobs, new medical methods and advances of construction methods were recognized as future challenges. Future work opportunities for occupational hygiene experts included exposure assessments in indoor air surveys, private consulting and entrepreneurship in general, international activities and product safety issues. Unclear topics needing more attention in the future were thought to be in new exposures, sensitive persons, combined effects, skin exposures and applicability of personal protective equipment. Occupational hygiene should broaden its view; occupational hygienists should have to cooperate with other specialists and grasp new challenges.

  2. Aquifer thermal energy storage in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iihola, H; Ala-Peijari, T; Seppaenen, H

    1988-01-01

    The rapid changes and crises in the field of energy during the 1970s and 1980s have forced us to examine the use of energy more critically and to look for new ideas. Seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (T < 100/sup 0/C) on a large scale is one of the grey areas which have not yet been extensively explored. However, projects are currently underway in a dozen countries. In Finland there have been three demonstration projects from 1974 to 1987. International co-operation under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, Annex VI, 'Environmental and Chemical Aspects of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers and Research and Development of Water Treatment Methods' started in 1987. The research being undertaken in 8 countries includes several elements fundamental to hydrochemistry and biochemistry.

  3. Research News from Norway, Sweden, and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Norge: 1 Forskningsavd ved Reindriftsadministrasjonen. 2 Avd. for arktisk biologi, Univ. i Tromsø 3 Viltforskningen ved DN, Trondheim 4 Institutt for biologi og geologi, Univ. i Tromsø 5 Institutt for husdyrnæring, Norges landbrukshøgskole 6 Institutt for zoologi, Norges landbrukshøgskole 7 Stipendiat Norges landbruksvit. forskningsråd 8 Statens veterinære laboratorium i Nord-Norge Sverige: 1 Renförsöksavdelningen, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet 2 Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt 3 Statens naturvårdsverk Finland: 1 Vilt- och fiskeriforskningsinstitutet, Renforskning 2 Kaamanen försöksstation, Renägareföreningen 3 Veterinärmedicinska högskolan 4 Helsingfors universitets husdjursvetenskapliga institut 5 Kuopios och Uleåborgs universiteter 6 Helsingfors universitets geologiska institut 7 Jyväskyläs universitet 8 Lantbrukets forskningscentral

  4. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  5. A cluster of measles linked to an imported case, Finland, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Elina; Zöldi, Viktor; Vuorinen, Sakari; Murtopuro, Satu; Elonsalo, Ulpu; van Beek, Janko; Haveri, Anu; Kontio, Mia; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Puumalainen, Taneli; Sane, Jussi

    2017-08-17

    One imported and five secondary cases of measles were detected in Finland between June and August 2017. The measles sequences available for five laboratory-confirmed cases were identical and belonged to serotype D8. The large number of potentially exposed Finnish and foreign individuals called for close cooperation of national and international public health authorities and other stakeholders. Raising awareness among healthcare providers and ensuring universally high vaccination coverage is crucial to prevent future clusters and outbreaks. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  6. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristonmaa, S.

    2000-04-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  7. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristonmaa, S.

    1999-03-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  8. Emergency preparedness in Finland: improvement of the measurement equipment used in the assessment of internal doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muikku, M.; Rahola, T. [STUK - Radiation and nuclear safety authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations is evident. Internal exposure can be assessed using direct measurement results or by using information on activity concentrations in inhaled air and in foodstuffs combined with inhalation and consumption data. As a part of the continuous improving of emergency preparedness in Finland, S.T.U.K. - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority has obtained 35 monitors for thyroid measurements in field conditions and initiated a project to revise the radiation measurement equipment in local food and environmental laboratories. (authors)

  9. Avaliação de Coberturas de Cabanas de Maternidade em Sistema Intensivo de Suínos Criados ao Ar Livre (Siscal, no Verão Maternity Hut Covering Evaluation in Outdoor Pig Production System, Summer Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Giovanni de Abreu

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as condições térmicas ambientais de diferentes materiais de cobertura de cabana de maternidade, no verão, utilizando os seguintes tratamentos: 1 cabana de maternidade coberta com fécula de isopor 2 cabana de maternidade coberta com isolamento de alumínio 3 cabana de maternidade coberta com tela e capim na cobertura 4 cabana de maternidade coberta com lona e capim na cobertura 5 ambiente ao ar livre e 6 à sombra da árvore. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com 6 tratamentos nas parcelas, 5 horas nas subparcelas e 3 repetições. A categoria animal utilizada foi porcas lactantes, Landrace x Large White, distribuídas aleatoriamente por ordem de parto. Foi determinada a Umidade Relativa do Ar (UR, a Velocidade do Ar, a Temperatura Ambiente (Ta e foram calculados o Índice de Temperatura de Globo e Umidade (ITGU e a Carga Térmica Radiante (CTR. Apesar de os materiais utilizados como cobertura de maternidade terem melhorado o conforto térmico das porcas em relação as condições ambientais, ainda, não foram suficientes em atender as condições ideais de conforto térmico.The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental thermal conditions of different maternity hut covering materials, in the summer period through the following treatments: 1 maternity hut with polystyrene fecula covering 2 maternity hut with isolation of aluminum covering 3 maternity hut with screen and grass covering 4 maternity hut with canvas and grass covering 5 outdoor environment 6 under shade a tree. The six treatments were arranged in a randomized split-plot design where the six treatments were in the plot with five schedules hours in the subplots and three replicates. Sow lactantes Landrace x Large White were alloted at random considering farrowing order. Relative Humidity Air (RH, Air Speed, and Environmental Temperature (Te data were determined

  10. The Vyborg bang 2. Study of a rumor in Vyborg, Russia about a nuclear accident in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saukko, P.

    1994-01-01

    The report is a case study on a rumor that spread in the town Vyborg in Russia in May 1994 about a nuclear accident in Finland. The rumor seems to have started when a small valve leakage at one of the NPP in Finland and an emergency exercise at the same plant got confused. For a few days the Vyborgians and the Vyborgian media were wondering what had happened in Finland. The aim of this study done in August 1994 was to trace the series of events in both Finland and in Vyborg that led the inception and persistence of the rumor. Using the tools provided by research on organizational and crisis communication, it also evaluates what went wrong and attempts to provide some ideas on how episodes like this could be avoided in the future. Another goal of the study was to map the social context that makes it intelligible why a rumor like this one found such a fertile soil in Vyborg and was not killed right away. The study is based on interviews with Finnish authorities, with the Vyborgian journalists, and with a couple of Russian authorities involved in the case. The Vyborgian and Finnish print and broadcast media's coverage of the rumor are also analyzed

  11. Present and future trends in pellet markets, raw materials, and supply logistics in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selkimaeki, Mari; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Roeser, Dominik; Prinz, Robert; Sikanen, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    Wood pellets have become an important fuel in heat and power production, and pellet markets are currently undergoing rapid development. In this paper, the pellet markets, raw materials and supply structures are analyzed for Sweden and Finland, based on a database of the current location and production capacity of the pellet producers, complemented with existing reports and literature. In Sweden, a total of 94 pellet plants/producers were identified, producing 1.4 million tonnes of pellets, while the domestic consumption was 1.7 million tonnes, and about 400,000 t of pellets were imported to fulfil the demand in 2007. In Finland, 24 pellet plants/producers were identified and the production was around 330,000 t while the domestic consumption was 117,000 t in 2007. In Finland, pellet market has been long time export oriented, whereas domestic consumption has been growing mainly in the small scale consumer sector, estimated 15,000 households had pellet heating systems in 2008. In the future, the increasing number of pellet users will require a reliable delivery network and good equipment for bulk pellet deliveries. Provision of new raw materials and ensuring the good quality of pellets through the whole production, delivery and handling chain will be fundamental in order to increase the use of pellets and sustain the ability to compete with other fuels. (author)

  12. Historical theses on nursing and caring sciences in Finland: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukana, Anne; Leena, Salminen; Marjo, Kaartinen; Helena, Leino-Kilpi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to review the theses (masters, licentiate and doctoral theses) on the history of nursing and caring sciences in Finland. The research questions were as follows: 1.What is the number and characteristics of these historical theses (target groups, methods and sources) on nursing and caring sciences have been produced in Finland? 2.What periods of time have been under investigation in these theses? 3.What topics have been investigated in these theses? The theses on the history of nursing and caring sciences were retrieved from the theses index of the universities that offer education in nursing and caring sciences in Finland. The literature search covered the time period 1979-2010. Altogether, 58 theses were reviewed and analysed via content analysis. Of all of the theses (n = 3969) produced in nursing and caring sciences, 58 of them focused on historical topics (theses examined the history of the 1900s, whereas only a few of them examined time periods before that. The four main topics of the theses were nursing practice, nursing education, nursing management and philosophy of nursing. The most common topic was nursing practice, especially psychiatric nursing. Research on the history of nursing and caring sciences in Finland has received only marginal attention from researchers. This literature review offers a description of the historical research produced on nursing and caring sciences and the topics of interest. In future, it will be necessary to more closely examine several historical topics that have been neglected in the study of nursing and caring sciences. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Possibilities and future of wind power production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, E.; Tammelin, B.

    1997-01-01

    The article was prepared for two presentations for Finnish MPs late autumn 1996 in connection of the handling of new energy taxation in Finland. The governmental proposal was going to favour the use of coal and unfavour the use of renewable energy sources. The total amount of installed wind power in Finland (7 MW) was compared to some other European countries. Anyhow it is well known that the wind potential in Finland due to its long coast line, large archipelago and great number of arctic mountains, all with very good wind climate, offers a great opportunity for effective exploitation of wind energy. The price of wind energy in Finland is 30 p/kWh (about 0,05 ECU) and it is estimated that with bigger power plan units it could be 20 p/kWh. Different ways to support wind energy production was presented with examples from Germany, Denmark and Sweden. (orig.) (8 refs.)

  14. The Identities of Young Interrnational Adoptees in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Virkki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 30,000 children adopted yearly all over the world, about 200-300 come to Finland. A former adoption donor country, Finland started receiving international adoptees in the 1970s. Nowadays, there are about 3,000 internationally adopted persons in Finland. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of young Finnish international adoptees, who were interviewed during summer and autumn 2005. Altogether three group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out. The main aim was to study cultural identity and experiences of difference. The primary objective of this study is to give a voice to young international adoptees in Finland and present results as examples of how the dominant population adapts to difference.

  15. Amateur observations of exoplanets in Finland: History and recent activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, V.; Haukka, H.; Oksanen, A.; Kehusmaa, P.; Hentunen, V.-P.

    2017-09-01

    Exoplanet have been observed by Finnish amateur astronomers already 17 years. Recently there are two active observers, but the interest to photometric observations on exoplanet transits is increasing in Finland.

  16. Glacial rebound and crustal stress in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambeck, K.; Purcell, A.

    2003-11-01

    The last ice age of Fennoscandinavia continues to have geological repercussions across Finland despite the last ice having retreated almost 10,000 years ago: land uplift, shoreline retreat, and the stress state of the crust continues to evolve. This report focusses on the glacial rebound signals for Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia and explores the consequences of the ongoing deformation. The rebound signals include the geological evidence as well as instrumental observations: the tide gauge and lake-level measurements of the past century, the changes in geodetic levels recorded in the repeat levelling surveys of the region and the direct measurement of crustal deformation (radial and horizontal) using high-precision space-geodesy measurements. These signals provide constraints on the Earth's rheology, its elasticity and viscosity, and the glacial history of the region. Once observationally constrained, the rebound models are used to predict both the ongoing evolution of shorelines and the changing state of stress within the crust. This report covers: (i) A review of glacial rebound modelling for Scandinavia (Sections 2 and 3). (ii) Review of observational evidence relating to sea-level change and crustal rebound (Section 4). (iii) New earth and ice-sheet model results from the inversion of the geological evidence for sea-level change, including models of shoreline evolution (Sections 5 and 6). (iv) Earth-model results from the inversion of the geodetic evidence for sea-level change (Section 7). (v) Development of crustal stress models for past and present stress states (Section 8). (vi) Conclusions and recommendations (Section 9). Specific conclusions reached pertain to: (i) Thickness of ice cover over Scandinavia since the Last Glacial Maximum, particularly for the Lateglacial period. (ii) Sea-level change and shoreline evolution for the Baltic area since the time the region became ice-free for the last time. (iii) The predicted rates of present-day crustal

  17. Finland: Scandinavia's top gas user sees demand rising rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The rising demand for natural gas in Finland which already uses more gas than any other Nordic country is noted. The natural gas market which is based on sales to large industries and for heating is compared to the market in Denmark which is geared to small private heating customers. Imports of Norwegian gas allowing increased sales for power generation in Finland, and the influence of the impending Finnish application for membership of the EC on the gas market are considered. (UK)

  18. Business Culture Differences in Communication between Finland and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemaiel, Karima

    2013-01-01

    The topic for this thesis is the business culture differences in communication between Finland and Tunisia. The business world is increasingly international which means that the business men and women should acknowledge the cultural differences which they are facing when conducting business in a foreign culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify business culture differences between Finland and Tunisia. By identifying the culture differences this thesis was able to find answers...

  19. Additional nuclear power in Finland; Challenge for economics and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raumolin, H.I.

    1989-01-01

    The overview of energy situation in Finland is presented. Additional base-load power is needed in the second half of the 1990's. The experience of nuclear power including the price of electricity as well as construction and operation of power plants is presented. Challenges for new nuclear power are described. The challenges can be met by utilizing the good experience gained in Finland, as well as the competitive situation on the international market

  20. Service design for Chinese restaurant management in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis is focused on understanding the service and operation model of Chinese restaurants in Finland, identifying the gaps between the service suppliers’ and the customers’ view on service quality and trying to find out the best Chinese restaurant service design in Finland. The conceptual framework of the thesis is based on the service design, the scale to measure the service quality - SERVQUAL model, and the comparison of Finnish and Chinese food culture and...

  1. Main messages for the new nuclear unit in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, Anneli

    2001-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted last year, on 15th November, to the Council of State an application for a decision in principle concerning the construction of additional nuclear capacity. In this presentation, the main messages to decision makers for the new unit are discussed. Also the studies, which the messages are based on, are described. According to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act, a company considering a nuclear plant project must apply for a decision in principle from the Government beforehand. The Government then decides whether the project is in accordance with the overall good of the society. If the decision is positive, it needs ratification by the Parliament. Before the Government decision, various interested parties are heard, including the municipality of location and the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority. The phase of statements is underway and they all will be ready by the end of March 2001. The entire application process takes approximately 1-2 years. The main messages arguing for more nuclear power in Finland were as follows. The new nuclear power plant unit replaces old fossil power plants and satisfies the need for additional demand of electricity; makes possible to meet the requirements of the Kyoto agreement; reduces the dependence on the imported energy and assures a stable and predictable electricity price. Messaging concerning a new nuclear power plant unit is made in co-operation with several organisations. The most important of them, in addition to the company shareholders, are the companies which have shown interested in the new project as well as the Finnish Energy Industries Federation (Finergy) and the Confederation of Finnish Industry and Employers. A transparency folder 'Nuclear electricity 2000' was put together of the messages in collaboration with the organisations. The folder was distributed to about 400 opinion leaders in the energy field. To ensure the consistency of the messages, several interest group meetings

  2. Assuring future competence in nuclear safety in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, K.

    2004-01-01

    possible that also this training will be organised with licensees. Another focus area in STUK's training program is quality management and especially QM and QA related to manufacturing and contractors. For achieving better competence on this area STUK has decided to train inspectors as Lead Auditors on external training courses. Independently from STUK's competence analysis a six-week basic professional training course on nuclear safety was organised by STUK with two technical universities (Helsinki and Lappeenranta), Ministry of Trade and Industry, VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) and licensees. This was a remarkable investment on nuclear safety competence. A recruitment plan was also produced. Already 9 new experts have been recruited. Individual programs for familiarization and training have been produced. New experts have been recruited for example for reactor physics, stress analysis, software reliability, construction, fire safety, lay-out and electrical engineering. For some expertise areas it is difficult to recruit new specialists and therefore STUK has made partnership agreements or consultant contracts with other organisations such as VTT and foreign regulators. For example automation is one of these areas. Until now our experiences have been mainly encouraging. Lessons learned: It is STUK's experience that the competence analysis is worth the trouble. It gives the organisation and employees a common conception on its competences and on future needs. It also makes it easier to motivate all staff members to use their working hours on training and capability building. On the other hand it must be admitted that it takes resources and all employees have not been very anxious to do this. The results of competence analysis should lead to some improvement projects. The progress of improvement actions should be followed-up on regularly basis. It is important not to forget to communicate the results to employees. (author)

  3. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1992-01-01

    Finland has remarkable achievements in nuclear power. The existing four plants have some of the best operating records in the world - high capacity factors, low occupational doses and short refuelling outages. Public opinion was strongly turned against nuclear power after Chernobyl accident, and the previous government decided not to allow for the construction of a fifth nuclear unit during its period of reign. The opposition has however slowly been diminishing. According to the latest polls the opinion is almost balanced. Finnish power companies are going to file an application for a decision-in-principle to build a new plant to the new government appointed in April 1991. A readiness to start new construction project immediately after a positive political decision is made has been maintained during the intermediate period. Continuous research, development, modification and upgrading work provide important components of the good operational history of the Finnish nuclear power plants. Efforts have also been devoted to identifying possible new problems arising from the use of distributed digital C and I technology. The following a short description is summarizing recent activities related to the C and I-systems of the nuclear power plants. (author). 3 tab

  4. Borehole geophysical investigations of Lavia deep testhole, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, Pauli

    1985-02-01

    According to the Goverment's decision in principle in 1983 Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is making preparations for all the steps of final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plants. Before the actual site investigation phase, TVO drilled a deep borehole in Lavia, Western Finland. The borehole is used during 1984-85 for testing investigation techniques and methods used for bedrock characterization. Borehole geophysical loggings performed in Lavia consisted of galvanic electrical, transient electromagnetic, radiometric, temperature, seismic and magnetic msurements. This composite survey provided both lithological and structural information of rock mass. The neutron-neutron, density, natural gamma radiation and susceptibility methods characterized rock type. Fracturing and its type could be interpreted most effectively with resistivity, acoustic P-wave velocity and density logs. Temperature and tube-wave measurements revealed several fractured zones related to possible water flow in rock. Lavia investigations indicated that a high quality of instrumentation and careful calibration are necessary for site investigations. The large amount of log data also requires efficient data collection and processing systems both in the field and laboratory. (author)

  5. Instrumentation renewal at the FIR 1 research reactor in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Bruno; Kall, Leif

    1982-01-01

    The Finnish TRIGA Mark II reactor (FIR 1 100 kW, later 250 kW steady state power and pulsing capability up to 250 MW) has been in operation for 20 years. The reactor is the only research reactor in Finland and is an important research training and service facility, which obviously will be operated for 10...20 years ahead. The mechanical parts of the reactor are in good shape. Some minor modifications have previously been made in the instrumentation. However, the original instrumentation could hardly have been used for 10...20 years ahead without extensive modifications and modernization. After a careful evaluation and planning process the whole reactor instrumentation was renewed in 1981 at a cost of about 400 000 dollar. The renewal was carried out in cooperation with the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which delivered the nuclear part of the instrumentation and with the Finnish company Valmet Oy Instrument Works, which delivered the conventional instrumentation, including the automatic power control system and the control console. The instrumentation, which is located in-a new isolated control room is based on modern industrial standard modular units with standardized signal ranges, electronic testing possibilities, galvanically isolated outputs etc. The instrument renewal project was brought successfully to completion in November 1981 after only about 10 working days of shut down time. The reactor is now in routine operation and the experiences gained from the new instrumentation are excellent. (author)

  6. Assessing Security of Supply: Three Methods Used in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivonen, Hannu

    Public Private Partnership (PPP) has an important role in securing supply in Finland. Three methods are used in assessing the level of security of supply. First, in national expert groups, a linear mathematical model has been used. The model is based on interdependency estimates. It ranks societal functions or its more detailed components, such as items in the food supply chain, according to the effect and risk pertinent to the interdependencies. Second, the security of supply is assessed in industrial branch committees (clusters and pools) in the form of indicators. The level of security of supply is assessed against five generic factors (dimension 1) and tens of business branch specific functions (dimension 2). Third, in two thousand individual critical companies, the maturity of operational continuity management is assessed using Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in an extranet application. The pool committees and authorities obtain an anonymous summary. The assessments are used in allocating efforts for securing supply. The efforts may be new instructions, training, exercising, and in some cases, investment and regulation.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Author Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gröbner, Susanne N; Worst, Barbara C; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    In this Article, author Benedikt Brors was erroneously associated with affiliation number '8' (Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA); the author's two other affiliations (affiliations '3' and '7', both at the German Cancer Researc...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... An algorithm to retrieve Land Surface Temperature using Landsat-8 Dataset Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2225-8531.

  10. Firewood processing devices in Finland 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.; Kaerhae, K.

    2002-01-01

    This Forestry Bulletin presents a review of the market situation for firewood processing devices in Finland during March 2002. The review is based on a questionnaire sent to device manufacturers. The firewood processing devices have traditionally been divided into three groups according to their functions: cross-cutting devices, splitting devices and cross-cutting and splitting devices. With a cross-cutting device the tree can be cross-cut only. Because it is easily possible to build the splitting function into a cross-cutting device, merely manufacturing a cross-cutting devices is rare. In all the splitting machines on the market, the splitting is carried out on a horizontally operated hydraulic cylinder pushing against a splitting blade. The types of cross-cutting blade mostly used in cross-cutting and splitting devices are circular i.e. circular saw blade, and chain saw. These devices are called firewood sawing machines. In firewood chopping machines that have a chopping blade, the wood is cross-cut using a spiral or guillotine blade. The splitting is done by a wedge blade or an axe blade. The firewood chopping machines can cross-cut and split stems up to a maximum of 20-22 cm in diameter. Circular blade firewood machines use either a cone screw or hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. They can handle wood of 20-30 cm thick in diameter. Machines using a chain saw can process stems of a maximum 30-45 cm thick in diameter. All firewood machines that work with a chain saw use a hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. According to the questionnaire responses, there were 14 (12 Finnish, one Norwegian and one Italian) manufacturers of firewood processing devices in the market. There were over 80 device models. There were only three cross-cutting devices, thirty splitting devices and forty cross-cutting splitting devices. The price range of the devices was 500-66,000 euros (including 22% VAT). According to the MTT Agrifood Research Finland

  11. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  12. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  13. Forest Energy Project of Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergiaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M [Regional Council of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland (1994 - 1996) was one of the leading regional demonstration projects in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilisation. The target of this provincial project was to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilisation of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co- operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organisations. The project was a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains were formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they were also demonstrated. The project offered hence a wide test field for regional and national techno / economical wood fuel development. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project was a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. VTT Energy and the Forestry Board of Central Finland were responsible for the practical development work. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels took part in the project. The project were carried out during the years 1994 - 1996. The total costs were 4.4 million FIM. The aim is to create a practical model for the entire system, by which enables the economically profitable increment of the utilisation of chip fuels in Central Finland by 100 GWh/1996 and 500 GWh/a (about 250 000 m{sup 3}) to the end of the decade. (orig.)

  14. Insecticidal and sterilizing effect of Olyset Duo (R), a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s. : a release-recapture assay in experimental huts

    OpenAIRE

    Djènontin, A.; Alou, L. P. A.; Koffi, A.; Zogo, B.; Duarte, E.; N'Guessan, R.; Moiroux, Nicolas; Pennetier, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the widespread distribution of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors, we did a release-recapture trial in experimental huts to investigate the insecticidal and sterilizing effects of a novel long-lasting net (LN), Olyset (R) Duo, incorporating a mixture of permethrin (PER) and the insect growth regulator (IGR), pyriproxyfen (PPF). An LN containing PPF alone and a classic Olyset (R) Net were tested in parallel as positive controls. The effect of progressive number of ho...

  15. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town.

  16. The use of forest chips in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    International commitments require the industrial world to restrict their greenhouse gas emissions. In Finland, where the annual timber cut per capita is more than ten times the average cut in the other EU countries, the primary means to reduce CO 2 emissions is to replace fossil fuels with forest biomass. The annual consumption of wood-based energy corresponds to 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) or almost 20% of the total primary energy consumption. The goal is to rise the annual production of wood-based energy to 7.8 million toe by 2010. Substantial part of the targeted increase could be obtained by forest chips produced of unmerchantable small-diameter trees and logging residues. The goal for 2010 is to use 5 million solid m 3 of forest chips, which equals to 0.9 million toe. The use of forest chips is increasing. About 474 000 solid m 3 of forest chips were used as fuel in 1999. At the moment, the growth is rapid especially in cogeneration plants producing both heat and electricity. The growth is based primarily on chips obtained from logging residues. The price of forest chips decreased considerably during the 1990s but the price range remained wide. Chips made of logging residues are cheaper than those made of small trees. The average price of forest chips at the plant, VAT excluded, is about 53 FIM per MWh. In Sweden, the average price is more than 40% higher

  17. Exposure to solar UV in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K; Leszczynski, K; Visuri, R; Ylianttila, L [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40 % below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase in biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. A special interest in Northern Europe is the effect of high reflection of UV from the snow. The period from the mid March to the mid May is critical in Northern Finland, because in that time the UV radiation is intense enough to cause significant biological effects, and the UV enhancing snow still covers the ground. Moreover, there is some evidence of increasing springtime depletions of ozone over Arctic regions. In this study the increase of UV exposure associated with the ozone depletions was examined with measurements and theoretical calculations. The measurements were carried out with spectroradiometrically calibrated Solar Light Model 500 and 501 UV radiometers which measure the erythemally effective UV doses and dose rates. The theoretical UV doses and dose rates were computed with the clear sky model of Green

  18. Radioactivity of people in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Illukka, E.; Pusa, S.

    1989-08-01

    The atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in the 1950s, '60s and '70s caused global radioactive fallout. After the reactor accident at Chernobyl on April 26, 1986, radioactive fallout was carried by by air streams to most parts of Europe. In 1987 radionuclides causing internal contamination were transported to man only via different foodchains and no longer via inhalation, as had happened immediately after the Chernobyl accident. To determine the level of radionuclides in the body and to estimate the internal radiation doses caused by the Chernobyl accident, whole-body counting measurements were performed. Ten different groups of people were measured during 1987. Three were local reference groups, two groups of radiation workers, one a population group representing the whole country and four groups representing those with special dietary habits. The weighted mean 137 Cs body burden in the population group was 2000 Bq at the end of 1987, the minimum body burden being 200 Bq and the maximum 10000 Bq. The measurement results showed that the maximum body burdens were reached in the summer 1987. The groups with special diets did not necessarily follow this pattern. The mean effective dose equivalents delivered in 1987 to people in Finland, estimated by using the measurement results of the population group, was 0.08 mSv, the corresponding dose equivalent in 1986 bein 0.06 mSv

  19. Radioactivity of people in Finland in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Illukka, E.; Pusa, S.

    1991-03-01

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl radioactive fallout was carried by air streams to most parts of Europe. In 1988 radionuclides causing internal contamination were transported to man only via foodchains and no longer via inhalation, as had happened immediately after the Chernobyl accident. To determine the level of radionuclides in the body and to estimate the internal radiation doses caused by the Chemobyl accident, whole-body counting measurements were performed. Nine different groups of people were measured during 1988. Three were local reference groups, two groups of radiation workers, one a population group representing the whole country and three groups representing those with special dietary habits. The weighted mean 137 Cs body burden in the population group was 1300 Bq at the end of 1988, the minimum body burden being 50 Bq and the maximum 7700 Bq. The measurement data showed that the maximum body burdens were reached in summer 1987. The group with special diets did not necessarily follow this pattern. The mean effective dose equivalents delivered to people in Finland in 1988, estimated by using the measurement data on the population goup, was 0.05 mSv the corresponding dose equivalent in 1987 being 0.08 mSv

  20. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Rahola, T.

    1989-05-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied to determine its radionuclide concentrations. Measurements were made to find out whether any radionuclides from the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto and from hospitals and medical laboratories could be detected in sludge additional to those originating from global and Chernobyl fallout. In the treatment process of water, aluminium sulphate sludge is developed at treatment plants using surface water. This kind of sludge was measured since it also concentrates radionuclides. Fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear power station after the accident predominated in all sewage sludge samples in Finland. In 1987 six different radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout were detected in sewage sludge. In spring when the snow melted and large quantities of run off water flowed into the treatment plants, the activity concentrations clearly increased, but then started decreasing again. At the end of the year the highest measured 137 Cs activity concentrations were below 1000 Bq kg -1 dry weight. The highest activity concentration in sludge originated from iodine used fro medical purposes

  1. Exposure to solar UV in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, K.; Visuri, R.; Ylianttila, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40 % below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase in biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. A special interest in Northern Europe is the effect of high reflection of UV from the snow. The period from the mid March to the mid May is critical in Northern Finland, because in that time the UV radiation is intense enough to cause significant biological effects, and the UV enhancing snow still covers the ground. Moreover, there is some evidence of increasing springtime depletions of ozone over Arctic regions. In this study the increase of UV exposure associated with the ozone depletions was examined with measurements and theoretical calculations. The measurements were carried out with spectroradiometrically calibrated Solar Light Model 500 and 501 UV radiometers which measure the erythemally effective UV doses and dose rates. The theoretical UV doses and dose rates were computed with the clear sky model of Green

  2. Author's capabilities in author indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Shoichi

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a author capability of current author indexing practices in journal literature indexing practices in 'Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology of Japan'. This Journal employed keywords freely assigned by author and not taken from INIS Thesaurus or other vocabulary list. Author examined 413 literatures, comparing keywords assigned by the literatures' authors with descriptor's (ATOMINDEX) assigned by an experienced professional indexer. The results of the comparisons showed that the average set of terms assigned by author included about 70% of all the terms assigned to the same literature by the professional indexer. Authors eventually would contribute, for the most effective point to create reference to information is at the time of its generation. Consequently, it may be possible to transfer them easily to descriptors in every secondary information system. (author)

  3. Effect of aging and adhesive durability on panel plywood of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotsugu Sekiguchi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We herein report on an evaluation of durability of plywood of the old living hut built in 1969 brought back to Japan in terms of adhesiveness as well as adhesive strength between of wooden frame and plywood. Measuring water absorption percentage of test samples taken from wooden panel, we tested on adhesive bonding between veneers and compressed shearing of plywood and wooden frame ,and then measure their adhesive bonding. As a result, we conclude that plywood used for interior obtains high adhesive strength due to low water absorption percentage of the plywood on the other hand, the absorption strength of plywood for exterior is remarkably weakened because of the high water absorption percentage. In addition to that, since adhesive strength between panel plywood and wooden frame is stronger than that of between veneers, epoxy resin is suitable, yet we recognized that adhesion specs on metal panel for exterior should be reviewed in future. After all, weakened adhesive strength of plywood is mainly caused by moisture content in the plywood, and in order to improve panel durability, it is necessary to prevent wooden materials from rising moisture content with countermeasures of incoming of snow melting water, anti-condensation , and anti-rust of steel plate for exterior wall, as well as improve performance of water resisting adhesive.

  4. Implementation of Industrial Emissions Directive in Finland. Impacts assessment; Teollisuuspaeaestoedirektiivin toimeenpanon vaikutukset Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attila, M.; Groenroos, J.; Jantunen, J.

    2012-08-15

    The report deals with environmental, administrative and social effects of the Industrial Emissions Directive (Iced) implementation in Finland. The scope of industrial activities under the IED was determined and compared with the IPPC-directive and existing national environmental legislation. The sectors specifically looked into were large combustion plants, pulp and paper industry, iron and steel industry, as well as intensive rearing of pigs and poultry. Particularly the application of best available techniques (BAT), emissions and environmental impacts within these sectors in Finland were evaluated. The study included interviews of permit and enforcement authorities about their views of the effects on authority tasks, human resource needs and other aspects including administrative procedures. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were also made for industry representatives. Moreover, impacts on emergence and dissemination of innovations were assessed. According to the IED the environmental permit conditions including the emission limit values are to be based on the BAT conclusions, which are reviewed approximately every 10 years. Public consultation of permit applications, permit decisions and supervision documents through electronic media is strengthened which improves means for participation of citizens in the environmental permit process and enforcement activities. The implementation of the IED brings about significant emission reductions in large combustion plants over the next decade and thereafter. To some extent also emissions from pulp and paper industry as well as metal industry in Finland will be reduced. On European level the IED will produce positive effects through reduced transboundary air pollution. The implementation of the IED requires significant investments in large combustion plants, in particular, but also in many processing industry installations. More human resources also need to be allocated to permit and enforcement authority functions for

  5. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1998-08-01

    The report describes regulatory control of the use of nuclear energy by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland in 1997. Nuclear regulatory control ascertained that the operation of Finnish NPPs was in compliance with the conditions set out in operating licences and current regulations. In addition to NPP normal operation, STUK oversaw projects at the plant units relating to power uprating and safety improvements. STUK prepared statements for the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the applications for renewing the operating licenses of Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs. The most important items of supervision in nuclear waste management were studies relating to the final disposal of spent fuel from NPPs and the review of the licence application for a repository for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste from Loviisa NPP. Preparation of general safety regulations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, to be published in the form of a Council of State Decision, was started. By safeguards control, the use of nuclear materials was verified to be in compliance with current regulations and that the whereabouts of every batch of nuclear material were always known. Nuclear material safeguards were stepped up to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. In co-operation with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Institute of Seismology (University of Helsinki), preparations were undertaken to implement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). For enforcement of the Treaty and as part of the international regulatory approach, STUK is currently developing laboratory analyses relating to airborne radioactivity measurements. The focus of co-operation funded by external sources was as follows: improvement of the safety of Kola and Leningrad NPPs, improvement of nuclear waste management in North-West Russia, development of the organizations of nuclear safety authorities in Eastern Europe and development

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visemih, Willium Muffee. Vol 9, No 2 (2001) - Articles The Role Of Internal Control In The Rural Development Of Cameroon: The Case Of The South West Development Authority (Soweda) Abstract. ISSN: 0856-6372. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 6 (2011) - Articles Mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a vertical wavy channel containing porous and fluid layer with traveling thermal waves. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 8 ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Singh, J. Vol 3, No 2 (2011) - Articles Plane waves in a rotating generalized thermo-elastic solid with voids. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-2839. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 12 (2008) - Articles On the wave equations of shallow water with rough bottom topography. Abstract · Vol 14 (2009) - Articles Energy generation in a plant due to variable sunlight intensity

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Iliopsoas haematoma in a rugby player. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-516X. AJOL African ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Ismail, A. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Investigate of wave absorption performance for oil palm frond and empty fruit bunch at 5.8 GHz. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Isa, M.F.M.. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Simulation on ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Duwa, S S. Vol 8 (2004) - Articles Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous charged dust beam. Abstract · Vol 9 (2005) - Articles The slide away theory of lower hybrid bursts

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 45 (2016) - Articles From vectors to waves and streams: An alternative approach to semantic maps1. Abstract PDF · Vol 48 (2017) - Articles Introduction: 'n Klein ietsie for Johan Oosthuizen

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... to blast loadings. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of injuries sustained during ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the ...

  19. Nuclear waste disposal research and studies on natural groundwater colloids in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.

    1995-01-01

    In Finland there are two programmes carrying out studies on the safe disposal of nuclear fuel. One programme is funded by the nuclear power producing companies and the other one is publicly financed. Different natural sites are being investigated within the two programme of the nuclear power producing companies, while the publicly financed programme is concentrating its investigations on the Finnish natural analogue site at Palmottu. Both programmes are briefly discussed. Within both programmes some studies on natural groundwater colloids have been performed. However, a characterization of organic colloids has been performed on only one occasion so far. The colloid studies and results are discussed. (authors). 8 refs

  20. New nuclear power plant unit in Finland accepted by the Finnish Parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetkae, M.

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear option has been included in Finland's energy strategy since late 1990's. Based on TVO's application the Finnish Parliament accepted in May 2002 the decision in principle to build a new nuclear power plant unit. The main arguments were the growth of electricity demand, reduction of CO 2 emissions, security of energy supply and reasonable as well as predictable electricity price. TVO's intention is to get the new power plant unit into commercial operation at the end of this decade.(author)

  1. Regulatory Experiences from Effective Step-wise Implementation of the SNF Disposal in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hämäläinen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Finland is one of the foremost countries in the world in developing a disposal solution for spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The Construction License Application (CLA) for the Olkiluoto SNF encapsulation and disposal facility was submitted by Posiva, the implementer, to the authorities at the end of 2012 and the Government is expected to decide about the license during autumn 2015. In 1983 the Government made a strategy decision on the objectives and target time schedule for the research, development and technical planning of nuclear waste management. Decision included the milestones for site selection, submittal of construction license and start of disposal operations.

  2. Interim report on fallout situation in Finland from April 26 to May 4 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    As known, a reactor unit of type RBMK 1000 ignited on April 26, 1986, approximately at 5 am Finnish time in the reactor site in Chernobyl, some 130 kilometers from the city of Kiev in the USSR. The Soviet authorities gave an official announcement saying that the reactor fire had ended on May 5 and the reaction had stopped. This report presents results from external radiation measurements and analysis of environmental samples in Finland from April 26 to May 4, 1986. (L.K)

  3. Spatial clustering of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Finland at place of birth and place of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, Clive E.; Boyle, P. J.; Löytönen, M.

    2003-01-01

    location at the time of death as the basis for cluster detection, rather than exploring clusters at other points in the life cycle. In this study, the authors examine 1,000 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis distributed throughout Finland who died between June 1985 and December 1995. Using a spatial......Previous evidence for spatial clustering of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is inconclusive. Studies that have identified apparent clusters have often been based on a small number of cases, which means the results may have occurred by chance processes. Also, most studies have used the geographic...... stages of the cases' life cycle, different conclusions about where potential risk factors may exist might result....

  4. Present situation of heating enterpreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solmio, H.

    1997-01-01

    Heating entrepreneurs are farmers, who usually have a wood-lot of their own, or entrepreneurs, who have undertaken to look after the supply of fuel to real estates and their heating. The TTS- Institute conducted an analysis of the scope of heating enterpreneurship in connection with the project belonging to the national Bioenergy Research Programme. According to the responses obtained in a mail questionnaire study conducted in autumns 1996, and other data obtained on the subject, there were 36 active heating entrepreneur sites in Finland in December 1996. Heating enterpreneurship, usually involving the supply of chipped wood, has become more common during the past few years. In 1994, it was started at ten places, in 1995 at eight places, and in 1996 at twelve places. The majority, nearly three quarters, of the heating enterpreneurship sites at the end of 1996 were school buildings and one fifth were district heating plants. The solid fuel boiler capacity of all the plants in the study was 11.5 MW. The district heating plants were 0.3-2.5 MW in capacity, the school buildings were in the 60-500 kW range, old peoples'' homes had capacities of 300-370 kW. Except for one school building using sod peat as primary fuel, wood chips was the primary fuel used by institutional buildings. The enterprise form was that of an entrepreneur or a pool formed by entrepreneurs in the case of 27 entrepreneurs, a company in the case of 6, and a co-operative society in the case of three. There were 56 heating-enterpreneurship sites at the implementation or planning stage. Four fifths of them involved heat generation capacity of less than 500 kW and one fifth a capacity of 0.5-2.0 Mw Tyoetehoseuran Metsaetiedote. 13 refs., 3 figs

  5. Living arrangements and mental health in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Martelin, Tuija; Martikainen, Pekka; Pirkola, Sami; Koskinen, Seppo

    2006-01-01

    Background Non‐married persons are known to have poor mental health compared with married persons. Health differences between marital status groups may largely arise from corresponding differences in interpersonal social bonds. However, official marital status mirrors the social reality of persons to a decreasing extent, and living arrangements may be a better measure of social bonds. Little is known about mental health in different living arrangement groups. This study aims to establish the extent and determinants of mental health differences by living arrangement in terms of psychological distress (GHQ) and DSM‐IV psychiatric disorders (CIDI). Methods Data were used from the nationally representative cross sectional health 2000 survey, conducted in 2000–1 in Finland. Altogether 4685 participants (80%) aged 30–64 years were included in these analyses; comprehensive information was available on measures of mental health and living arrangements. Living arrangements were measured as follows: married, cohabiting, living with other(s) than a partner, and living alone. Results Compared with the married, persons living alone and those living with other(s) than a partner were approximately twice as likely to have anxiety or depressive disorders. Cohabiters did not differ from the married. In men, psychological distress was similarly associated with living arrangements. Unemployment, lack of social support, and alcohol consumption attenuated the excess psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity of persons living alone and of those living with other(s) than a partner by about 10%–50% each. Conclusions Living arrangements are strongly associated with mental health, particularly among men. Information on living arrangements, social support, unemployment, and alcohol use may facilitate early stage recognition of poor mental health in primary health care. PMID:16698975

  6. Nationwide survey of resuscitation education in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, H; Silfvast, T; Turpeinen, A; Paakkonen, H; Uusaro, A

    2009-09-01

    Good-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is highlighted in the International Resuscitation Guidelines, but clinically the quality of CPR is often poor. Education of CPR has a major role in the primary skills imparted to students. Different methods can be used to teach CPR quality. We evaluated the current status of their usage in Finland institutes teaching students of emergency medicine at different levels. The following institutes were included in an anonymous survey: medical schools (teaching future physicians), universities of applied sciences (paramedics), colleges (emergency medical technicians) and emergency services college (fire-fighters). Hours of teaching theory lessons of CPR and hours of small group training were evaluated. In particular, we focussed on the teaching methods for adequate chest compression rate and depth. Twenty-one of 30 institutes responded to the questionnaire. The median for hours of theory lessons of CPR was 8h (range: 2-28 h). The median for hours of small group training was 10 (range: 3-40 h). The methods of teaching adequate chest compression rate were instructors' visual estimation in 28.5% of the institutions, watch in 33.3%, metronome in 9.5% and manikins' graphic in 28.5% of institutions. The methods of teaching adequate chest compression depth were instructors' visual estimation in 33.3%, in manikins light indicators in 23.8% and manikins' graphics in 52.3% of institutions. The hours of theoretic lessons and small group training vary widely among different institutes. In one-third of institutions, the instructor's visual estimation was a sole method used to teach adequate chest compression rate and depth. Different technical methods were surprisingly seldom used.

  7. New NPP Construction Experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm-Lytz, K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the experiences of the new nuclear power plant construction projects. The topics include the licensing and regulatory oversight process, completion of the design prior to construction, experience and know-how of the participating organisations, quality management in a nuclear construction project, safety culture aspects in a nuclear construction project, and the role and importance of regulator’s oversight. Finland has recent experience of new nuclear power plant construction, one plant unit being under construction close to commissioning phase and one plant unit in construction license phase. Each nation is solely responsible for the safety of its nuclear installations. Therefore, there are also national practices how nuclear power plants are licensed and how the safety and quality of these plants are verified during construction and operation. Differences in licensing, regulations and regulatory practices may have an impact on the design of the plant. There may be differences in how the detailed design has to be documented and how and when it needs to be submitted for approval to the regulator. To avoid surprises due to differences, it is beneficial for the owner and plant vendor to familiarize themselves early enough on the national practices and regulations to ensure that regulatory expectations and processes can be taken into account in the project implementation. In addition, the owner and the plant vendor have to understand what are the national safety goals and safety requirements that the plant has to fulfil, and what they mean to the detailed design of the plant. These have to be clarified and explicitly defined by the owner in terms of design criteria in the bidding documentation to avoid difficulties in the future steps of the project.

  8. Authoring Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviranus, Jutta

    Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

  9. Nuclear facility projects in Finland: quality of environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaatainen, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Finland, three public EIA hearings arranged by the contact authority concerning nuclear facilities were organised in 1999: the EIAs of two reactors planned to be constructed in Eurajoki (Olkiluoto) and in Loviisa, and the EIA of a final disposal facility of spent nuclear fuel, to be situated either in Olkiluoto, Loviisa, Romuvaara or Kivetty. Additionally, an application for a decision-in-principle concerning a final disposal facility to be constructed in Olkiluoto was submitted. The Ministry of Trade and Industry is the contact authority in all nuclear projects in Finland. Probably due to the simultaneity of the processes and the great importance of nuclear facility projects to the whole of society, the public opinions did not include only views about environmental impacts of each project, but also opposing and overall views about the use of nuclear energy and its safety. As for the final disposal project, alternative methods were introduced and opposition to the project itself was expressed instead of or in addition to the environmental impacts. (author)

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeking Behavior Towards Dysmenorrhea among Female Students of a Private University in Ogun State, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2320-2041. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register ... (2013) - Articles Technical Note: Development of a Photobioreactor for Microalgae Culture ... Design, Construction and Evaluation of Motorized Okra Slicer Abstract PDF ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring on Attitudes toward Internet Fraud among Undergraduate Students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2070-0083. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Incubators and the Effects of a Spray-Disinfectant - A Quarterly Ammonium Compound Abstract. ISSN: 1116-1043. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    676X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , happiness, hope and marital satisfaction among married people in Makurdi Metropolis, Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1596-9231. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communication-style and parental neglect as predictors of aggressive tendencies among Secondary School adolescents. Abstract. ISSN: 0189-0263. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to ... No 1 (2014) - Articles Knowledge and Attitudes towards Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) among Community Nurses in Remo Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test in schizophrenia. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-6786. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ” Passages in the Context of Homosexuality Controversy: A Nigerian Perspective Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-7040. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plant interactions and arthropod trophic structure in an endangered grassland in the Free State province, South Africa Abstract. ISSN: 1022-0119. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  1. Author Details

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get ... Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of medium voltage switchgear for data collection and transmission. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112- ...

  2. Author Details

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or ... The prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and infant feeding practices ... Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Design and Implementation of an M/M/1 Queuing Model Algorithm and its Applicability in ... Vehicle Identification Technology to Intercept Small Arms and Ammunition on Nigeria Roads

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    509X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  5. Environmental impact assessments of a fifth nuclear power plant unit in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, Jorma; Koivisto, Katarina

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of president questionnaires and media monitoring of press cuttings concerned with siting of the new fifth in a row Finnish NPP. Two years ago both Fortum Power and Heat Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) launched their Environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedures of a new nuclear power unit in Finland. The EIA procedures were launched to investigate the environmental impacts of a fifth nuclear power plant which possibly will be built in Loviisa or at Olkiluoto. In Finland there are four operating NPP units, two in Loviisa (Fortum) and two in Eurajoki, Olkiluoto (TVO). In the EIA procedure citizens and various associations and authorities have an opportunity to express their views on the matters related to the project. The Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) as the coordination authority arranges the organisation of the EIA hearings and the collection of statements and opinions. The EIA procedure in Finland takes place in two stages. The first stage i.e. the EIA programme describes the project and presents the plan on how the environmental effects are investigated and assessed. In the second stage the actual assessment of the environmental effects of the project will be submitted. Both Fortum and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) launched in spring 1998 their EIA procedures. The main alternatives are the Loviisa 3 project includes two plant type alternatives. The size of the plant is between 1000 and 1700 MWe, and the extension project of the Olkiluoto NPP to build a NPP unit of about 1000-1500 MWe at Olkiluoto. The EIA reports were submitted to the MTI in August 1999 and after that they were on display for two months for opinions and statements

  6. The 2005 energy year in Finland: Electricity consumption down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Electricity consumption declined by 2.5% in 2005, largely as a result of a six-week labour dispute in the paper indusry and mild weather conditions, according to a report on energy industry develop rents in 2005 published by Finnish Energy Industries. Over the longer term, energy consumption is forecast to grow by close to 2% a year. Water levels in waterways and water systems across the Nordic countries returned to normal in 2005 after a long period of reduced resources, stabilising hydropower output generally Following high levels of electricity exports westwards in 2004, electricity imports from the West reached almost record levels in Finland in 2005. Together with imports from Russia, Finland imported more electricity last year than ever before - and a full fifth of Finland's energy needs were covered by net electricity imports in 2005. Two thirds of imports came from Russia, with imports reaching almost the maximum capacity of the countries' interconnectors

  7. Description of the electric power and energy trade in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komulainen, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Finnish State has traditionally controlled the import of electricity, larger related investments and pricing. Lately, a market orientated economic policy has influenced energy policy and the amount of state control has gradually decreased. Decisions have yet to be made with regard to the fifth nuclear power reactor. The paper deals briefly with the subjects of the electric power, natural gas and oil markets. Finland's transmission network has connections to the former Russia and the Baltic countries. According to agreements within the European Community, Finland must now make changes in its electric power supply structure. Competition will be encouraged and monopolies discouraged. Pricing shall be transparent, and power plants must present written documentation for their management system, price regulations etc. A law must be passed to legitimate trade across the country's borders. Emphasis will be laid on energy conservation and energy research and consultant services. It is claimed that Finland's level of technology in this area lives up to international standards. (AB)

  8. Air Pollution Mortality in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Lehmijoki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse health consequences of air pollution are of concern currently and there is a fear that these consequences escalate along with economic growth. The effect of economic growth on air pollution deaths is analyzed in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden by applying the Environmental Kuznets Curve approach, according to which economic growth has competing effects on air pollution and related deaths. On the one hand, emissions tend to increase as the scale of economic activity increases, but on the other hand, consumers and firms in richer countries use cleaner goods and adopt cleaner technologies. In Denmark and Finland, the latter effects are stronger, while in Sweden the opposite is true. Therefore, air pollution deaths will decrease in Denmark and Finland but increase in Sweden. Since country's own emissions do not determine air pollution completely, the paper briefly analyzes emissions from the Baltic countries and Russia.

  9. Safeguards by Design at the Encapsulation Plant in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingegneri, M.; Baird, K.; Park, W.-S.; Coyne, J.M.; Enkhjin, L.; Chew, L.S.; Plenteda, R.; Sprinkle, J.; Yudin, Y.; Ciuculescu, C.; Koutsoyannopoulos, C.; Murtezi, M.; Schwalbach, P.; Vaccaro, S.; Pekkarinen, J.; Thomas, M.; Zein, A.; Honkamaa, T.; Hamalainen, M.; Martikka, E.; Moring, M.; Okko, O.

    2015-01-01

    Finland has launched a spent fuel disposition project to encapsulate all of its spent fuel assemblies and confine the disposal canisters in a deep geological repository. The construction of the underground premises started several years ago with the drilling, blasting and reinforcement of tunnels and shafts to ensure the safe deep underground construction and disposal techniques in the repository, while the design of the encapsulation plant (EP) enters the licencing phase preliminary to its construction. The spent fuel assemblies, which have been safeguarded for decades at the nuclear power plants, are going to be transported to the EP, loaded into copper canisters and stored in underground tunnels where they become inaccessible after backfilling. Safeguards measures are needed to ensure that final spent fuel verification is performed before its encapsulation and that no nuclear material is diverted during the process. This is an opportunity for the inspectorates to have the infrastructure necessary for the safeguards equipment incorporated in the design of the encapsulation plant before licencing for construction occurs. The peculiarity of this project is that it is going to run for more than a century. Therefore, significant changes are to be expected in the technical capabilities available for implementing safeguards (e.g., verification techniques and instruments), as well as in the process itself, e.g., redesign for the encapsulation of future fuel types. For these reasons a high degree of flexibility is required in order to be able to shift to different solutions at a later stage while minimizing the interference with the licencing process and facility operations. This paper describes the process leading to the definition of the technical requirements by IAEA and Euratom to be incorporated in the facility's design. (author)

  10. Radioecology of human food chains and forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, Aino H.

    2003-01-01

    Ageing of radioactive fallout also signifies that contributions of various foodstuffs to the human ingestion dose will change with time. The long-term contamination of forest vegetation has motivated studies on contribution of wild food to dietary radiocaesium and radiostrontium. Consumption rates of these foodstuffs have shown variation by geographical regions in Finland, the loss of radiocaesium during cooking of mushrooms has been found significant, and the approximation of the loss using survey data on the actual practices in households was also shown important for dietary assessment. Forest industry needs information for planning its own emergency response, particularly concerning production of acceptable timber after contamination of forests by radioactive fallout. In recent years experimental evidence has been obtained for the mitigating effect of forest management methods, namely soil preparation and fertilisation, on radioactive contamination of forest vegetation. Thereby realistic options for intervention have been suggested. Further testing will improve the information on effectiveness of different methods and duration of management influence in different types of forests. Results from systematic field experiments have also provided data and conceptual views for forest modelling, e.g. for RODOS, a European decision support system for off-site emergency preparedness. The future topics in terrestrial radioecology will altogether support production of safe foodstuffs and safe use of forests after contamination of rural areas. Evaluation of practicability of countermeasures will greatly benefit from measured radioecological parameters in the contaminated areas and from additional field tests. Natural radionuclides and their connection to both agricultural and semi-natural dose pathways ought to be studied. Radiation impact due to bioenergy production and use of ash is close to forest ecosystem studies. Returning of wood ash to forests will maintain and

  11. Implications of the Fukushima accident of nuclear safety in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtonen, Keijo

    2012-01-01

    A severe accident took place in Japan at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The immediate cause of the accident was a tsunami caused by the earthquake and the fact that the consequences of large tsunamis were not adequately considered in the design of the plant. Although tsunamis are not considered a real threat in Europe, the European Council requested on 25 March 2011 the European Nuclear Safety Regulators' Group (ENSREG) and the European Commission to undertake a comprehensive and transparent risk and safety assessment (''stress test'') of European nuclear power plants [ENSREG 2011A]. This report is prepared to evaluate the safety provisions of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants as specified in the European ''stress tests''. The technical description is based on the Licensees' reports on the issues within these specifications [Fortum 2011; TVO 2011]. Furthermore, evaluation on the current situation carried out by Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is provided, and the possibilities to further enhance safety in the Finnish NPPs are presented. According to the ENSREG specifications, earthquakes, flooding and extreme weather conditions were studied in the stress tests. In addition, consequences of losses of some safety functions and finally management of severe accidents were studied, irrespective of their probabilities. The European stress tests cover in Finland all the operating nuclear power plants (Loviisa 1 and 2, Olkiluoto 1 and 2) and the unit under construction (Olkiluoto 3). The intermediate storages of spent fuel in Loviisa and in Olkiluoto are included in the stress tests. The new NPP units to be constructed which do not yet have a construction license, (Fennovoima 1, Olkiluoto 4) are not considered in the European stress tests. (orig.)

  12. The role of national ethics commissions in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halila, Ritva

    2003-08-01

    There are six national ethics commissions in Finland. The National Advisory Board on Research Ethics was first established in 1991, followed by the National Advisory Board on Biotechnology and the Board on Gene Technology in 1995. The National Advisory Board on Health Care Ethics was established in 1998, followed by its Sub-Committee on Medical Research Ethics in 1999. The Co-operation Group for Laboratory Animal Sciences was established in 2001. Only the Board on Gene Technology works as a national authority and gives binding opinions and recommendations about the use of genetically modified organisms. The Sub-Committee on Medical Research Ethics acts a national research ethics committee and gives opinions about research projects. Other advisory boards do not make legally binding decisions, but their expertise gives a lot of power to their opinions and statements. The commissions work in close collaboration with each other, having regular meetings. They arrange seminars and conferences, and share information with each other. The commissions also share duties and information in international collaboration. How the voice and opinions of these commissions is heard in society lies in the wide, multi-professional expertise of their members. Large commissions and wide expertise may make it difficult to find consensus in their opinions and statements, although wide expertise may, more than discussion in a small expert group, help to further process difficult ethical issues. Collaboration between different bodies is important in order to share duties, and also to add more emphasis to the statements and opinions where different bodies share interests. In our country, the interest that national commissions share is research ethics, where the advisory boards and their members have discharged collaborative activities for years.

  13. Cutaneous Complications Related to Tattoos: 31 Cases from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous complications related to permanent tattoos affect 2-30% of those patients who have tattooed their skin. Little is known about the cases of tattoo complications in Finland. The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective review of a series of Finnish patients with cutaneous tattoo reactions. We collected cases of tattoo reactions from the Department of Dermatology at Helsinki University Central Hospital, from members of the Finnish dermatological society and from various other sources (author's private practice, tattooists, professional internet forum). We analysed the demographics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and microscopic findings on the skin biopsies, and evaluated the therapeutic outcome. Thirty-one patients (16 men and 15 women, mean age 37.8) were included from 9 cities, mainly from Helsinki. Fifty-two percent (16/31) presented with an allergic tattoo reaction mainly against the red colour (75%, 12/16). Reactions were clinically polymorph ranging from scattered papules or nodules to complete infiltration of a colour. Lesions were itchy and sometimes painful. The reactions were lichenoid, granulomatous, pseudolymphomatous or less specific with a dermal lympho-histiocytic or plasmocytic infiltrate. Other diagnoses included tattoo blow-out (13%), melanoma within a tattoo, naevi within a tattoo (10% each), lichen planus (6%), granulomatous reaction with uveitis, sarcoidosis and dermatofibroma (3% each). Allergic tattoo reactions were mainly treated with local corticosteroid (CS) ointments, CS infiltration or surgical removal. This review is the largest series of tattoo complications in the Baltic area. It illustrates the wide spectrum of complications. Prospective, controlled therapeutic studies are necessary to assess the best treatment protocols for tattoo allergies and tattoo reaction management in general. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Implementation Practices of Finland in Facilitating IAEA Verification Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martikka, E.; Ansaranta, T.; Honkamaa, T.; Hamalainen, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Member States provide the information to the IAEA according to the Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols. For example, the requirements to provide the reports and declarations are very general and there are no explanation what the IAEA is looking for from that information. It is important for the States to understand how their efforts to collect and provide information, and to facilitate IAEA verification activities, contribute to the achievement of objectives and finally to draw conclusions on the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear materials in a State. The IAEA is producing a new series of guidance called Safeguards Implementation Practices, SIP, guides, which are shedding light on the requirements and sharing the good practices of States. It is hoped that the SIP Guides will create a better understanding of the needs of the IAEA and the important role of States and facility operators in achieving safeguards objectives. The guides are also important for the States to share their lessons learned and good practices for the benefit of other States that might be developing their capabilities or enhancing their processes and procedures. The way is very wide and long, when a State decides to start up a new nuclear programme. At first there is a need for legislation, regulatory body, contact point, international agreements and then finally practical implementation of the safeguards in the nuclear facilities. There are a lot of issues to be prepared in advance to facilitate the IAEA's implementation of verification activities successfully, effectively and with the good quality. Using the structure of the IAEA's draft SIP Guide on Facilitating Verification Activities as a framework, this paper will describe the most relevant implementation practices and experiences in Finland. (author)

  15. Extended mutation spectrum of Usher syndrome in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västinsalo, Hanna; Jalkanen, Reetta; Bergmann, Carsten; Neuhaus, Christine; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Jauhola, Liisa; Bolz, Hanno Jörn; Sankila, Eeva-Marja

    2013-06-01

    The Finnish distribution of clinical Usher syndrome (USH) types is 40% USH3, 34% USH1 and 12% USH2. All patients with USH3 carry the founder mutation in clarin 1 (CLRN1), whereas we recently reported three novel myosin VIIA (MYO7A) mutations in two unrelated patients with USH1. This study was carried out to further investigate the USH mutation spectrum in Finnish patients. We analysed samples from nine unrelated USH patients/families without known mutations and two USH3 families with atypically severe phenotype. The Asper Ophthalmics USH mutation chip was used to screen for known mutations and to evaluate the chip in molecular diagnostics of Finnish patients. The chip revealed a heterozygous usherin (USH2A) mutation, p.N346H, in one patient. Sequencing of MYO7A and/or USH2A in three index patients revealed two novel heterozygous mutations, p.R873W in MYO7A and c.14343+2T>C in USH2A. We did not identify definite pathogenic second mutations in the patients, but identified several probably nonpathogenic variations that may modify the disease phenotype. Possible digenism could not be excluded in two families segregating genomic variations in both MYO7A and USH2A, and two families with CLRN1 and USH2A. We conclude that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity of USH1 and USH2 in Finland, making molecular diagnostics and genetic counselling of patients and families challenging. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. The chopped firewood trade in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaenen, A.; Kaerhae, K.

    2003-01-01

    The TTS Institute studied the operations of chopped firewood merchants and described the cost structure of commercial chopped firewood production. The research material was collected via postal questionnaire in 2002 after being sent to those firewood merchants assumed to be selling chopped firewood. Acceptable responses were received from 244 firewood merchants. In addition, ten firewood merchants were interviewed. In 2001, the firewood merchants sold an average of 151 m 3 of chopped firewood. Half of the firewood merchants sold less than 51 m 3 of chopped firewood. The main source of income for the majority of chopped firewood merchants was agriculture and forestry. If approximately 300,000 m 3 of chopped firewood is sold annually, according to the research there are about 2,000 chopped firewood merchants in Finland. However, only a very few entrepreneurs get their main income from the chopped firewood trade. The majority of raw material for chopped firewood came from the merchant's own forest. Birch was the most commonly used species. 54% of the chopped firewood was made from pulpwood, 19% from pole size trees and 18% from split firewood. The drying methods for chopped firewood were most often natural drying outside in covered stocks or cages, natural drying in stacks or natural drying of mechanically debarked or debarked timber in stacks. Less than a tenth of the merchants dried their chopped, firewood using artificial cold air-drying. The share of packaged chopped firewood was 14% i.e. approximately 42,000 m 3 . Chopped firewood was packed mostly into small packages (about 10 kg). The chopped firewood trade is a local business: the average transport distance from the merchant's store to the customer was 25 km. The chopped firewood merchants delivered 73% of lie chopped firewood themselves. An agricultural tractor and a trailer were the most common transport method. The most important customer group is detached houses. The average production costs amongst the

  17. How do Locals in Finland Identify Resident Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Säävälä

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the identi? cation by Finns of foreign residents in Finland by analyzing data from a representative sample survey carried out in 2002. When people were asked to name a group of foreigners residing in Finland, the majority ?rst mentioned Somalis, despite the fact that only 4 percent of foreign residents are Somali and 6 percent of foreign-language speakers speak Somali. The general tendency when identifying resident foreigners is to refer primarily to ethnic or national groups; references to status (e.g. refugee, return migrant, guest worker or religion (e.g. Muslim are rare in the survey. In terms of ethnicity, identifying foreign residents in Finland is inconsistent, particularly as Russians and Estonians, the two largest groups, are not readily seen as foreign residents. The prevalence of answering Somalis could be considered an outcome of the maximally visible difference between Finns and Somalis. A logistic regression analysis is used to examine whether identifying resident foreigners differs according to socio-economic and educational characteristics, age, gender, region, and attitude towards the number of resident foreigners in Finland. The variables that signi? cantly in? uence the probability of answering Somalis and Russians are the respondents region, age, attitude towards the number of foreign residents in Finland, and to some extent, gender and higher education. Respondents occupational status, vocational education or income does not have a signi? cant impact on the answers. Regional differences appear to be a major factor affecting how foreigners are identi? ed, which shows that although the need to consider resident foreigners as visibly, culturally and linguistically maximally different may be a nearly universal base line for creating difference and identity, identifying foreign residents in Finland is not entirely independent of demographic realities.

  18. Authors' Response:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Auger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors suggest that one method for increasing awareness of the benefits of data sharing can be affected by administering a survey, hopefully encouraging either a minority or majority influence on other members of the behavioural science community. The authors describe the process for creating such a survey and provide their survey, although untested. This is a well-timed article as the existing literature on social and behavioural science data is quite thin. The majority/minority influence of norms is a nice theoretical construct to explore. This is definitely one approach to increase awareness of the benefits of data sharing.

  19. Implementing nuclear non-proliferation in Finland. Regulatory control, international cooperation and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okko, O [ed.

    2012-07-01

    The regulatory control of nuclear materials (i.e. nuclear safeguards) is a prerequisite for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Finland. Safeguards are required for Finland to comply with international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation - mainly the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This regulatory control is exercised by the Nuclear Materials Section of the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The results of STUK's nuclear safeguards inspection activities in 2011 continued to demonstrate that the Finnish licence holders take good care of their nuclear materials. There were no indications of undeclared nuclear materials or activities and the inspected materials and activities were in accordance with the licence holders' declarations.

  20. IWGFPT/IAEA 13. plenary meeting 21-23 May 1997 country report: Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraesvirta, R [IVO Power Engineering LTd (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Nuclear fuel performance in Finland is discussed, reviewing the following issues: nuclear energy situation in Finland; fuel performance and fuel design; water chemistry; main research and development programmes. 2 refs, 3 figs.

  1. IWGFPT/IAEA 13. plenary meeting 21-23 May 1997 country report: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraesvirta, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fuel performance in Finland is discussed, reviewing the following issues: nuclear energy situation in Finland; fuel performance and fuel design; water chemistry; main research and development programmes. 2 refs, 3 figs

  2. Why does Finland need a new nuclear power plant? CO2 mitigation target can only be reached with nuclear power in the energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author illustrates the decision-making process in Finland referring to the following aspects: options and cost - cost comparison fossil fuels vs nuclear power - alternatives examined - potential benefit - commitments resulting from the Kyoto Protocol - jobs - acceptance of the population - safety and waste management. (orig./CB) [de

  3. CONSIDERATION REGARDING THE TAXATION IN FINLAND AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA LUCIA CROITORU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows through comparison, in the first phase, the main features of the tax system focusing on direct and indirect taxes, in Finland and Romania, and then presents an analysis of the evolution of the structure and level of taxes in both countries. Last but not least, is presented an analysis of the level of tax burden and also the factors that influenced the pressure in these two countries. The diversity of the fiscality in Finland and Romania reflecting the political choice of a given moment and is the result of the economic and social structure of each country.

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    Krakstad, J-O. Vol 32, No 2 (2010) - Articles Dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus: fatty acid composition of their blubber and prey species. Abstract. ISSN: 1814-232X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Clasquin-Johnson, M. Vol 29, No 2 (2009) - Articles The centuries-old dialogue between buddhism and christianity. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2309-9089. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Johnson, J. Vol 12, No 1 (2009) - Articles Climate Change and Fishery Sustainability in Lake Victoria Abstract. ISSN: 0002-0036. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Musenge, E. Vol 21, No 4 (2009) - Articles Common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer players in Johannesburg east district. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-516X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    Fuzzy inference system of Tsukamoto method in decision making on determination of insurance premium amount for due damages of flood natural disaster. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Wong, K.L.. Vol 10, No 1S (2018): Special Issue - Articles Key performance indicators for measuring sustainability in health care industry in Malaysia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    Millogo/Rasolodimby, J. Vol 3, No 4 (2009) - Articles Plantes utilisées pour attirer les essaims de l'abeille domestique (Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille) au Burkina Faso Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    Saleh, S. Vol 9, No 6S (2017) - Articles An analysis on compensation of claims regarding to personal Injury and loss of earning on several court cases. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Mukwabi, D.M.. Vol 94, No 1 (2017) - Articles Contamination of the minnow Rastrineobola argenta, through handling at landing sites and retail markets around Lake Victoria Abstract. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    Craddock, Michelle. Vol 32, No 3 (2009) - Articles Reflexivity and the Grothendieck property for positive tensor products of Banach lattices-II Abstract. ISSN: 1727-933X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Smith, G. Vol 21, No 6 (2007) - Articles Print based learning might still be the answer to the digital divide. Abstract. ISSN: 1011-3487. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Ugboma, Margaret U. Vol 3, No 1-2 (2012) - Articles Bridging the digital divide: with special reference to Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2360-994X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Bennett, M. Vol 5, No 3 (2005) - Articles Crossing the digital divide: the contribution of information technology to the professional performance of malaria researchers in Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

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    Adams, L. Vol 40 (2010) - Articles Uncertainty in information seeking behaviour in the virtual playground of Generation Y students at Stellenbosch University Abstract. ISSN: 1025-8892. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Ugoji, FN. Vol 14, No 1 (2011) - Articles Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Predictors of Academic Procrastination Among Undergraduates in a Nigerian Abstract · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Gebremedhin, Mussie Mezgebo. Vol 10, No 1 (2016) - Articles Procrastination in Recognizing the Rights of Domestic Workers in Ethiopia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-9881. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Adesina, FT. Vol 19, No 1 (2011) - Articles Influence of academic procrastination and personality types on academic achievement and efficacy of in-school adolescents in Ibadan Abstract. ISSN: 1117-1421. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    Azure, JA. Vol 10, No 1 (2011) - Articles Correlates of course anxiety and academic procrastination in higher education. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-6224. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

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    Nwafor, A. U.. Vol 36, No 2 (2017) - Articles Experimental validation of optimum resistance moment of concrete slabs reinforced with carbon fibre-reinforced plastic. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2467-8821. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Dzasu, WE. Vol 4, No 1 (2011) - Articles Effects of Groundnut Husk Ash-blended Cement on Chemical Resistance of Concrete Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-6035. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

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    Umar, L A. Vol 24, No 3 (2006) - Articles Survey Of Ketosis In Lactating Wadara Cows Abstract. ISSN: 0794-4845. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER ...

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    Langaney, A. Vol 1, No 2 (2009) - Articles Critical Short Report: Human population genetics and “ancestrality” business - Short report. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1737-8176. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  1. Author Details

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    Cinelli, G. Vol 28, No 1 (2015) - Articles La funzione etica e catartica della rappresentazione della sofferenza in storia della colonna infame di manzoni. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2225-7039. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Adewumi, A. Vol 1, No 2 (2009) - Articles Relationship Between Plasma Homocysteine and Vitamin B12 Levels in Clinically Diagnosed Cases of Cardiovascular Accident in Lagos, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2076-6270. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Akinsola, OJ. Vol 14, No 1-2 (2014) - Articles Plasma Homocysteine and Haematological Changes in Infertile Women in Lagos, Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1597-7889. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Abd Elmonem, Sawsan M. Vol 19, No 1 (2018) - Articles Abnormal maternal biomarkers of homocysteine and methionine metabolism and the risk of congenital heart defects. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1110-8630. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

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    Abudu, O. Vol 1, No 1 (2009) - Articles Homocysteine Levels in Nigerian Women with Pre-eclampsis/Eclampsia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2076-6270. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Agada, N. Vol 1, No 2 (2009) - Articles Relationship Between Plasma Homocysteine and Vitamin B12 Levels in Clinically Diagnosed Cases of Cardiovascular Accident in Lagos, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2076-6270. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

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    Oladipo, OO. Vol 30, No 5 (2011) - Articles Plasma Homocysteine Level and its Relationship to Clinical Profile in Parkinson's Disease Patients at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-160X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

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    Kanjou, Y. Vol 1, No 2 (2009) - Articles Original Synthetic Report: Study of Neolithic human graves from Tell Qaramel in North Syria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1737-8176. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Agu, KC. Vol 19, No 3 (2015) - Articles Influence of Spent-Engine Oil on Hematology, Renal and Liver Status of Auto- Mechanics of Benin-City, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-8362. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Mbam, BCE. Vol 19, No 1 (2013) - Articles Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems. Abstract. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER ...

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    Onwubiko, HA. Vol 8, No 3 (2011) - Articles Metal induced conformational changes of prion protein into Β-sheet isoforms similar to amyloid. Abstract. ISSN: 1597-3115. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Tutu, E. Vol 27, No 1 (2007) - Articles Friction coefficient of maize, cowpea and groundnuts on different structural surfaces. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-0395. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

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    Aveyire, J. Vol 27, No 1 (2007) - Articles Friction coefficient of maize, cowpea and groundnuts on different structural surfaces. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-0395. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

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    Amao, A.O. Vol 4, No 1 (2009) - Articles Natural foods and feeding habits of the African honey bee Apis mellifera adansonii Latrielle (1804) in Zaria, northern Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1597-6343. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Ademolu, A. A.. Vol 11, No 1-2 (2015) - Articles Laboratory Evaluation of Insecticidal Activities of Some Botanicals against Four Insect Pests of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0331-5428. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    Achou, M. Vol 28 (2014) - Articles Etude de la diversité morphométrique de deux populations d'abeilles domestiques (Apis mellifera intermissa et Apis mellifera sahariensis) du sud Algérien Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2352-9717. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Fasasi, KA. Vol 8 (2010) - Articles Effect of age of honeybee queens of Apis mellifera adansonii (Hymenoptera: apidae) on the rate of brood production in modern bee-hives. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-972X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    Fasasi, KA. Vol 13, No 1 (2011) - Articles Studies on the life cycle and morphometrics of honeybees, Apis Mellifera adansonii (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a Mangrove Area of Lagos, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-4896. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Alkan, M. Vol 20, No 10 (2017) - Articles Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio predicts postoperative pain after orthognathic surgery. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-3077. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

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    Jones, T. Vol 96 (2007) - Articles Cassin\\'s hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus in Ndundulu Forest: a first record for Tanzania, with biogeographical implication. Abstract. ISSN: 1026-1613. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...