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Sample records for hut 102b2 cells

  1. IFN-α对人皮肤淋巴瘤细胞系Hut78的影响%The Effects of IFN-α on Human Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma Cell Line Hut78

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷晓广; 汪旸; 张高磊; 涂平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of IFN-α on the proliferation and apoptosis of human cutaneous T cell lymphoma modeled cell line Hut-78, and to explore the molecular mechanism underlying it. Methods Hut78 cells werj incubated with 3 000U ,5 000U, 10 000U ,20 000U/ml IFN-α for 24, 48, 72 hours. Cell viability assays were performed to measure MTS-based cell viability at each time points. Cell apoptosis after IFN-α incubation was quantified by flow cytometry analysis. Quantification of BCL11B expression on both mRNA and protein level was measured with quantitative real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis before and after IFN-α treatment. Immunofluorescence analysis was used to observe the BCL11B expression on Hut-78 cell before and after IFN-α treatment. Results IFN-α significantly inhibited the growth of Hut78 cells. The . effect was concentration dependent and duration dependent with the lowest growth rate at the time point of 48 hours. Meanwhile, IFN-α induced cell apoptosis, also in a concentration dependent way, with cells treated with the highest concentration demonstrated the highest apoptosis rate. Furthermore, 10 000U/ml IFN-α incubated cells 3,6,9,12h time point, the BCL11B mRNA was significantly reduced. Specially, the BCLHB mRNA expression was at lowest point at 6h time point. 10 OOOU/ml IFN-α incubated cells 6,12,24h time point, the BCL11B protein also significantly reduced. The BCL11B protein expression decreased to a minimum at 12h time point. Conclusion IFN-α may exert its therapeutic effects on CTCL by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. IFN-α may induce cell apoptosis and re-sensitize CTCL cells to chemotherapy by suppressing the expression of BCL11B gene.%目的 研究IFN-α对人皮肤T细胞淋巴瘤(CTCL)细胞的增殖抑制和凋亡诱导作用,探讨IFN-α治疗CTCL的机制.方法 分别用3 000,5 000,10 000,20 000U/mL的IFN-α作用Hut78细胞24,48,72h后,利用MTS法检测Hut78细胞的生存率;

  2. Living Willow Huts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  3. [HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG plays an important role in JAK3/STAT5 signaling pathways in HTLV-1 infection cell line HUT-102].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q Q; Tan, H; Fu, Z P; Ma, Q; Song, J L

    2017-08-14

    Objective: To analyze whether heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) be involved in a permanently abnormal activated JAK/STAT signaling in ATL cells in vitro. Methods: The effect of 17-AAG on proliferation of ATL cell lines HUT-102 was assessed using CCK8 at different time points. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The specific proteins HSP90, STAT5, p-STAT5 and JAK3 were detected by Western blotting. Results: Overexpression of HSP90 in HUT-102 cell lines was disclosed (P0.05) . 17-AAG induced cell apoptosis in different time-points and concentrations. 17-AAG don't affect the expression of JAK3 gene. Conclusion: This study indicated that JAK3 as HSP90 client protein was aberrantly activated in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, leading to constitutive activation of p-STAT5 in JAK/STAT signal pathway, which demonstrated that HSP90-inhibitors 17-AAG inhibited the growth of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines by reducing cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis.

  4. Sustainable Mobile Tourist Hut for Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Jing; Villumsen, O.; Villumsen, Arne

    Greenland is experiencing growing tourism in recent years, which increases demand for tourists’ accommodation. Small huts are a traditional way for overnight stays in Greenland due to scattered population and lack of infrastructure. However, the existing huts in Greenland cannot provide satisfact...

  5. A modified experimental hut design for studying responses of disease-transmitting mosquitoes to indoor interventions: the Ifakara experimental huts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredros O Okumu

    Full Text Available Differences between individual human houses can confound results of studies aimed at evaluating indoor vector control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS. Specially designed and standardised experimental huts have historically provided a solution to this challenge, with an added advantage that they can be fitted with special interception traps to sample entering or exiting mosquitoes. However, many of these experimental hut designs have a number of limitations, for example: 1 inability to sample mosquitoes on all sides of huts, 2 increased likelihood of live mosquitoes flying out of the huts, leaving mainly dead ones, 3 difficulties of cleaning the huts when a new insecticide is to be tested, and 4 the generally small size of the experimental huts, which can misrepresent actual local house sizes or airflow dynamics in the local houses. Here, we describe a modified experimental hut design - The Ifakara Experimental Huts- and explain how these huts can be used to more realistically monitor behavioural and physiological responses of wild, free-flying disease-transmitting mosquitoes, including the African malaria vectors of the species complexes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, to indoor vector control-technologies including ITNs and IRS. Important characteristics of the Ifakara experimental huts include: 1 interception traps fitted onto eave spaces and windows, 2 use of eave baffles (panels that direct mosquito movement to control exit of live mosquitoes through the eave spaces, 3 use of replaceable wall panels and ceilings, which allow safe insecticide disposal and reuse of the huts to test different insecticides in successive periods, 4 the kit format of the huts allowing portability and 5 an improved suite of entomological procedures to maximise data quality.

  6. Living Willow Huts--Part 2: Constructing a Living Willow Hut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a step-by-step "how-to" guide on the basics of living willow hut construction. While there certainly are time-tested techniques for building willow structures, the best advice the author has is to experiment. He also suggests that varieties of "salix vimnalis" can be an ideal type of willow to be used for constructing a…

  7. Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A prototype Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly will be fabricated and delivered during Phase II. Maximum weight reduction for the Hard Upper...

  8. Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly will maximize the Hard Upper Torso - Hatch assembly weight reduction through the combination of innovative...

  9. UKRAINIAN HUT IN PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAHDAN S. P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In modern Ukrainian society, which is undergoing a national renaissance, greatly deepened interest in the symbols of material and spiritual culture as a form of identification and identity. Inseparable from life as language, song, were and are proverbs and sayings. As an expression of acute intelligence people, aesthetic preferences, high morality, humor, accuracy, wit and strength, wisdom and beauty of poetic language, they accompany mankind from antiquity and enrich the new generation. Valuable signs of Ukrainian culture proverbs are also the fact that generally have exemplary character, as giving advice, caution, warn, approve, condemn. Based on rich experience, proverbs reflect all sectors of the Ukrainian people, especially bright life, habits, lifestyle and mentality. The most important element of life without which you cannot imagine life before and today is the house - the personification of his native home, family, independence, well-being and hospitality. In the beginning attached great importance to the house, she was treated with great respect, ordered decorated holiday and protected. It found expression in many proverbs and sayings. These samples of folk wisdom affecting the eternal themes so do not lose their relevance today. Their research makes it possible to understand the deeper spirituality, especially the outlook of the Ukrainian people. Purpose. To find out the semantics of the component "khata" in the proverbs and sayings identify productivity in shaping Ukrainian folklore. Conclusion. Proverbs and sayings of the component "hut" reflect various spheres of life Ukrainian: the organization of life, family relationships, moral and ethical code, mentality, especially social relations. Home is inseparable from its inhabitants, becoming masters of character, its appearance characterizes the attitude of the hosts it, the house represents those relationships that have developed between family members

  10. Structural basis of HutP-mediated transcription anti-termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Penmetcha K R; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2006-02-01

    Bacteria often use anti-terminator proteins to sense a specific metabolite signal and direct RNA polymerase to either terminate transcription or transcribe the downstream genes of an operon. Although many proteins that regulate various operons using this mechanism have been identified, insights into their activation processes before cognate mRNA binding have remained obscure. HutP from Bacillus subtilis regulates the hut operon by an anti-termination mechanism. Recently, several crystal structures of HutP [apo-HutP, HutP-L-histidine (and histidine analog), HutP-L-histidine-Mg(2+) and HutP-L-histidine-Mg(2+)-RNA] have been reported. These structural and functional studies of HutP have revealed how the protein undergoes conformational changes in response to two key components: L-histidine and Mg(2+) ions.

  11. Next-Generation MKIII Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mike; Toscano, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    The MK III (H-1) carbon-graphite/ epoxy Hard Upper Torso (HUT)/Hatch assembly was designed, fabricated, and tested in the early 1990s. The spacesuit represented an 8.3 psi (˜58 kPa) technology demonstrator model of a zero prebreathe suit. The basic torso shell, brief, and hip areas of the suit were composed of a carbon-graphite/epoxy composite lay-up. In its current configuration, the suit weighs approximately 120 lb (˜54 kg). However, since future planetary suits will be designed to operate at 0.26 bar (˜26 kPa), it was felt that the suit's re-designed weight could be reduced to 79 lb (˜35 kg) with the incorporation of lightweight structural materials. Many robust, lightweight structures based on the technologies of advanced honeycomb materials, revolutionary new composite laminates, metal matrix composites, and recent breakthroughs in fullerene fillers and nanotechnology lend themselves well to applications requiring materials that are both light and strong. The major problem involves the reduction in weight of the HUT/ Hatch assembly for use in lunar and/or planetary applications, while at the same time maintaining a robust structural design. The technical objective is to research, design, and develop manufacturing methods that support fa b rica - tion of a lightweight HUT/Hatch assembly using advanced material and geometric redesign as necessary. Additionally, the lightweight HUT/Hatch assembly will interface directly with current MK III hardware. Using the new operating pressure and current MK III (H-1) interfaces as a starting block, it is planned to maximize HUT/Hatch assembly weight reduction through material selection and geometric redesign. A hard upper torso shell structure with rear-entry closure and corresponding hatch will be fabricated. The lightweight HUT/Hatch assembly will retrofit and interface with existing MK III (H-1) hardware elements, providing NASA with immediate "plug-andplay" capability. NASA crewmembers will have a lightweight

  12. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a haem-utilizing protein, HutX, from Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tiantian; Chi, Kaikai; Wang, Kang; Guo, Liming; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has developed a variety of mechanisms to obtain the limited-availability iron from human hosts. One important method for iron acquisition is through haem-uptake systems. Although the transport of haem has been widely studied, the fate of haem once it enters the cytoplasm remains an open question. Here, preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed on HutX, a member of the conserved haem-utilization operon from V. cholerae strain N16961. The crystals of HutX were found to belong to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.1, b = 169.0, c = 81.8 Å. There are two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding Matthews coefficient V M of 2.06 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 40.28%. PMID:25664785

  13. Crystal structure of the single-stranded RNA binding protein HutP from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruselvam, Viswanathan; Sivaraman, Padavattan; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri; Ponnuswamy, Mondikalipudur Nanjappagounder

    2014-04-18

    RNA binding proteins control gene expression by the attenuation/antitermination mechanism. HutP is an RNA binding antitermination protein. It regulates the expression of hut operon when it binds with RNA by modulating the secondary structure of single-stranded hut mRNA. HutP necessitates the presence of l-histidine and divalent metal ion to bind with RNA. Herein, we report the crystal structures of ternary complex (HutP-l-histidine-Mg(2+)) and EDTA (0.5 M) treated ternary complex (HutP-l-histidine-Mg(2+)), solved at 1.9 Å and 2.5 Å resolutions, respectively, from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans. The addition of 0.5 M EDTA does not affect the overall metal-ion mediated ternary complex structure and however, the metal ions at the non-specific binding sites are chelated, as evidenced from the results of structural features.

  14. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malouf, Nasseem M; Colagiuri, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    .... The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed...

  15. TonB-Dependent Heme/Hemoglobin Utilization by Caulobacter crescentus HutA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhesteros, Heloise; Shipelskiy, Yan; Long, Noah J; Majumdar, Aritri; Katz, Benjamin B; Santos, Naara M; Leaden, Laura; Newton, Salete M; Marques, Marilis V; Klebba, Phillip E

    2017-03-15

    Siderophore nutrition tests with Caulobacter crescentus strain NA1000 revealed that it utilized a variety of ferric hydroxamate siderophores, including asperchromes, ferrichromes, ferrichrome A, malonichrome, and ferric aerobactin, as well as hemin and hemoglobin. C. crescentus did not transport ferrioxamine B or ferric catecholates. Because it did not use ferric enterobactin, the catecholate aposiderophore was an effective agent for iron deprivation. We determined the kinetics and thermodynamics of [(59)Fe]apoferrichrome and (59)Fe-citrate binding and transport by NA1000. Its affinity and uptake rate for ferrichrome (equilibrium dissociation constant [Kd ], 1 nM; Michaelis-Menten constant [KM ], 0.1 nM; Vmax, 19 pMol/10(9) cells/min) were similar to those of Escherichia coli FhuA. Transport properties for (59)Fe-citrate were similar to those of E. coli FecA (KM , 5.3 nM; Vmax, 29 pMol/10(9) cells/min). Bioinformatic analyses implicated Fur-regulated loci 00028, 00138, 02277, and 03023 as TonB-dependent transporters (TBDT) that participate in iron acquisition. We resolved TBDT with elevated expression under high- or low-iron conditions by SDS-PAGE of sodium sarcosinate cell envelope extracts, excised bands of interest, and analyzed them by mass spectrometry. These data identified five TBDT: three were overexpressed during iron deficiency (00028, 02277, and 03023), and 2 were overexpressed during iron repletion (00210 and 01196). CLUSTALW analyses revealed homology of putative TBDT 02277 to Escherichia coli FepA and BtuB. A Δ02277 mutant did not transport hemin or hemoglobin in nutrition tests, leading us to designate the 02277 structural gene as hutA (for heme/hemoglobin utilization).IMPORTANCE The physiological roles of the 62 putative TBDT of C. crescentus are mostly unknown, as are their evolutionary relationships to TBDT of other bacteria. We biochemically studied the iron uptake systems of C. crescentus, identified potential iron transporters, and clarified

  16. B14 hut at the Bronze Age settlement of Mursia (Pantelleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Debandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribute deals with the explanation of the archaeological excavation of the B14 hut, that symbolizes the residential structures of the earliest phase of the village, but at the same time it can be considered exceptional for the size and for the inner setting. The stratigraphic sequence shows several episodes of transformation of inhabited space with real twisting changes that took place early in the history of the hut. In particular, in spite of the initial planning of the dwellings, each single feature adapted shape and size to different requirements among inhabitants, both productive and domestic. Ceramics of each phase of the sequence are presented showing vase types used especially in the earliest phase of the settlement. A the end of the life, the hut was completely covered by other dwellings.

  17. Pizza Hut, Domino's, and the Public Schools: Making Sense of Commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Describes different types of partnerships between schools and businesses, discussing the benefits of and drawbacks to the commercial aspects of programs like Pizza Hut's, in which children who read a certain number of books receive free pizza, and programs like Dominos', in which schools receive materials or money in return for students buying…

  18. Pizza Hut, Domino's, and the Public Schools: Making Sense of Commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Describes different types of partnerships between schools and businesses, discussing the benefits of and drawbacks to the commercial aspects of programs like Pizza Hut's, in which children who read a certain number of books receive free pizza, and programs like Dominos', in which schools receive materials or money in return for students buying…

  19. SMOS calibration and validation activities with airborne interferometric radiometer HUT-2D during spring 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Sievinen, P.;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present calibration and validation activities of European Space Agency’s SMOS mission, which utilize airborne interferomentric L-band radiometer system HUT-2D of the Aalto University. During spring 2010 the instrument was used to measure three SMOS validation target areas, one in...

  20. "Conical Hut": A Basic Form of House Types in Timor Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. R.; Lim, Y. L.; Wang, M. H.; Chen, C. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the "Pair- House Type" widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house), accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder's bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep), containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the "conical hut". Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built "conical huts" for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. "Conical Hut" may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of "conical hut", which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The "conical huts" contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present the diversification that each conical hut has

  1. B3 and B9 huts at the Bronze Age settlement of Mursia (Pantelleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Cantisani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hut B3 and B9, located on the southwestern edge of Sector B of the prehistoric settlement of Mursia, identify frequent structural changes inside the residential unit. The huts are characterized by architectural components and floor plans typical of the early phase of this part of the settlement and show clear traces of continuous occupation in spite of the architectural rearrangement. The reconstruction of the stratigraphic sequence, the analysis of the formation processes of the material culture, the study on the use of the space associated with specific patterns of spatial distribution of objects showed a process of formation of the archaeological record dynamic and never interrupted by clear elements of discontinuity.

  2. Environmental decision support for the construction of a "green" mountain hut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Melanie; Wittenwiler, Mathias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2008-06-01

    The construction of a modern mountain hut nearthe mountains Matterhorn and Dufourspitze in the Swiss Alps is investigated from an environmental point of view. A prospective environmental assessment was performed to minimize the environmental impact already in the planning phase of the new building; construction will start in autumn 2008. An energy balance of the existing hut was made to detect optimization potentials and to predict the necessary energy generating systems of the new building. In addition to energy supply, the environmental impacts of materials and processes were compared and evaluated with the help of Life Cycle Assessment Although energy use will increase in the new building, mainly due to the installation of a wastewater purification system, total greenhouse gas emissions will decrease.

  3. Differential substrate subsidence of the EnviHUT project pitched extensive green roof

    OpenAIRE

    Nečadová Klára; Selník Petr; Karafiátová Hana

    2017-01-01

    In primary phase of testing building physical characteristics of the EnviHUT project extensive and semi-intensive roofs with 30° inclination occurred exceptional substrate subsidence. An extensive testing field with retaining geocell-system evinced differential subsidence of individual sectors after six months. Measured subsidence of installed substrate reached 40 % subsidence compared to originally designed height (intended layer thickness). Subsequent deformation of geocell-system additiona...

  4. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbers-Mindermann, M; Berg, C; Illmann, G; Baulain, U; Algers, B

    2015-04-01

    Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts, would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition. A total of 26 Yorkshire×Swedish Landrace sows were studied. Of these, 11 sows were housed outdoors in farrowing huts during both parturitions (group=OUTOUT). The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. During their second parturition, sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts (group=INOUT). The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Parity 1: during the last 2 h prepartum, OUTOUT sows had a higher proportion of observations in the sternal lying position (Pbehavioural differences between INOUT and OUTOUT sows. In conclusion, it is not problematic for a second parity sow with initial maternal experience from an indoor farrowing pen to be kept outdoors in farrowing huts during its following farrowing.

  5. Mobile IP and Application of Dynamics HUT Mobile IP%移动IP技术及Dynamics HUT Mobile IP应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红毅

    2004-01-01

    移动IP是一种解决因特网上节点移动性问题的技术,也是目前Internet技术的一个研究热点.文中从移动IP的基本概念和原理入手,对国内外移动IP在Linux操作系统和Windows操作系统上的实现状况做一概述,并对IPv4下的Dynamics HUT Mobile IP系统在Linux平台上安装、配置和应用程序的测试作了详细的阐述,为进一步研究移动IP技术的各项技术打下基础.

  6. Luminescence dating of anthropogenic features of the San Luis Valley, Colorado: from stone huts to stone walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Shannon; Donlan, Rebecca A.; Kardos, Barbara Maat

    2015-01-01

    The Snake Nest Wall site and the Crestone Stone Huts are in the northern San Luis Valley, Colorado, and provide a unique opportunity to date high-altitude archeological sites of unknown age and origin using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). We sampled sediment underlying foundation stones of these structures to establish a chronological framework for each site's construction. OSL dating of the quartz grains directly under the Snake Nest Wall suggest that the stones and, therefore, the structure was most recently emplaced between 1855 and 1890 A.D. Dating of the sediment beneath the Crestone Stone Huts suggests the construction time of these huts is between 1860 and 1890 A.D. Analysis of the equivalent dose (DE) dispersion of the OSL samples at Snake Nest Wall and the Crestone Huts shows that the majority of sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and the low scatter suggests that short-term or shallow alluvial processes were the dominant transport for sediments. In both cases, the OSL ages show that the construction was during very recent historical times, although it is likely that the Snake Nest Wall was rebuilt in the late 19th century. Further study is warranted at the Snake Nest Wall since it shows signs of greater antiquity and a continued presence of human use. The Crestone Huts are shown to be a product of railroad building during the boomtown days of Lucky and Crestone.

  7. Towards the ecotourism: a decision support model for the assessment of sustainability of mountain huts in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubelj Ars, Mojca; Bohanec, Marko

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies mountain hut infrastructure in the Alps as an important element of ecotourism in the Alpine region. To improve the decision-making process regarding the implementation of future infrastructure and improvement of existing infrastructure in the vulnerable natural environment of mountain ecosystems, a new decision support model has been developed. The methodology is based on qualitative multi-attribute modelling supported by the DEXi software. The integrated rule-based model is hierarchical and consists of two submodels that cover the infrastructure of the mountain huts and that of the huts' surroundings. The final goal for the designed tool is to help minimize the ecological footprint of tourists in environmentally sensitive and undeveloped mountain areas and contribute to mountain ecotourism. The model has been tested in the case study of four mountain huts in Triglav National Park in Slovenia. Study findings provide a new empirical approach to evaluating existing mountain infrastructure and predicting improvements for the future. The assessment results are of particular interest for decision makers in protected areas, such as Alpine national parks managers and administrators. In a way, this model proposes an approach to the management assessment of mountain huts with the main aim of increasing the quality of life of mountain environment visitors as well as the satisfaction of tourists who may eventually become ecotourists.

  8. An Antarctic hot spot for fungi at Shackleton's historic hut on Cape Royds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Robert A; Held, Benjamin W; Arenz, Brett E; Jurgens, Joel A; Baltes, Nicolas J; Duncan, Shona M; Farrell, Roberta L

    2010-07-01

    The historic expedition huts located in the Ross Sea Region of the Antarctic and the thousands of artifacts left behind by the early explorers represent important cultural heritage from the "Heroic Era" of Polar exploration. The hut at Cape Royds built by Ernest Shackleton and members of the 1907-1908 British Antarctic Expedition has survived the extreme Antarctic environment for over 100 years, but recent studies have shown many forms of deterioration are causing serious problems, and microbial degradation is evident in the historic wood. Conservation work to reduce moisture at the hut required removal of fodder, wood, and many different types of organic materials from the stables area on the north side of the structure allowing large numbers of samples to be obtained for these investigations. In addition, wood from historic food storage boxes exposed in a ravine adjacent to the hut were also sampled. Fungi were cultured on several different media, and pure cultures were obtained and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. From the 69 cultures of filamentous fungi obtained, the most predominant genera were Cadophora (44%) followed by Thielavia (17%) and Geomyces (15%). Other fungi found included Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and isolates identified as being in Pezizomycotina, Onygenales, Nectriaceae, and others. No filamentous basidiomycetes were found. Phylogenetic analyses of the Cadophora species showed great species diversity present revealing Cadophora malorum, Cadophora luteo-olivacea, Cadophora fastigiata, as well as Cadophora sp. 4E71-1, a C. malorum-like species, and Cadophora sp. 7R16-1, a C. fastigiata-like species. Scanning electron microscopy showed extensive decay was present in the wood samples with type 1 and type 2 forms of soft rot evident in pine and birch wood, respectively. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts are of great concern, and this investigation provides insight into the

  9. Hantavirus infection during a stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelena, Hana; Zvolankova, Vlasta; Zuchnicka, Jana; Liszkova, Katerina; Papa, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Hantaviruses in Europe cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with various degree of severity. The most severe form is caused by the Dobrava/Belgrade virus (DOBV), associated with the rodent Apodemus flavicollis. During the last decade cases of infection caused by DOBV have been reported in Central Europe. The present study is a report on two Czech patients with severe HFRS who were infected during their stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia. The two patients, combined with a third case observed in the same year in a nearby village in the Czech Republic, suggest that this region in Central Europe has to be considered as endemic for HFRS.

  10. H5hut: A High-Performance I/O Library for Particle-based Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark; Adelmann, Andreas; Bethel, E. Wes; Gsell, Achim; Oswald, Benedikt; Prabhat,

    2010-09-24

    Particle-based simulations running on large high-performance computing systems over many time steps can generate an enormous amount of particle- and field-based data for post-processing and analysis. Achieving high-performance I/O for this data, effectively managing it on disk, and interfacing it with analysis and visualization tools can be challenging, especially for domain scientists who do not have I/O and data management expertise. We present the H5hut library, an implementation of several data models for particle-based simulations that encapsulates the complexity of HDF5 and is simple to use, yet does not compromise performance.

  11. H5hut: A High-Performance I/O Library for Particle-based Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark; Adelmann, Andreas; Bethel, E. Wes; Gsell, Achim; Oswald, Benedikt; Prabhat,

    2010-09-24

    Particle-based simulations running on large high-performance computing systems over many time steps can generate an enormous amount of particle- and field-based data for post-processing and analysis. Achieving high-performance I/O for this data, effectively managing it on disk, and interfacing it with analysis and visualization tools can be challenging, especially for domain scientists who do not have I/O and data management expertise. We present the H5hut library, an implementation of several data models for particle-based simulations that encapsulates the complexity of HDF5 and is simple to use, yet does not compromise performance.

  12. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: the evidence from experimental huts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R Irish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.

  13. Studies on mosquito biting risk among migratory rice farmers in rural south-eastern Tanzania and development of a portable mosquito-proof hut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Johnson K; Finda, Marceline F; Madumla, Edith P; Lingamba, Godfrey F; Moshi, Irene R; Rafiq, Mohamed Y; Majambere, Silas; Okumu, Fredros O

    2016-11-22

    Subsistence rice farmers in south-eastern Tanzania are often migratory, spending weeks or months tending to crops in distant fields along the river valleys and living in improvised structures known as Shamba huts, not fully protected from mosquitoes. These farmers also experience poor access to organized preventive and curative services due to long distances. Mosquito biting exposure in these rice fields, relative to main village residences was assessed, then a portable mosquito-proof hut was developed and tested for protecting these migratory farmers. Pair-wise mosquito surveys were conducted in four villages in Ulanga district, south-eastern Tanzania in 20 randomly-selected Shamba huts located in the distant rice fields and in 20 matched houses within the main villages, to assess biting densities and Plasmodium infection rates. A portable mosquito-proof hut was designed and tested in semi-field and field settings against Shamba hut replicas, and actual Shamba huts. Also, semi-structured interviews were conducted, timed-participant observations, and focus-group discussions to assess experiences and behaviours of the farmers regarding mosquito-bites and the mosquito-proof huts. There were equal numbers of mosquitoes in Shamba huts and main houses [RR (95% CI) 27 (25.1-31.2), and RR (95% CI) 30 (27.5-33.4)], respectively (P > 0.05). Huts having >1 occupant had more mosquitoes than those with just one occupant, regardless of site [RR (95% CI) 1.57 (1.30-1.9), P mosquitoes caught were negative for Plasmodium. Common night-time outdoor activities in the fields included cooking, eating, fetching water or firewood, washing dishes, bathing, and storytelling, mostly between 6 and 11 p.m., when mosquitoes were also biting most. The prototype hut provided 100% protection in semi-field and field settings, while blood-fed mosquitoes were recaptured in Shamba huts, even when occupants used permethrin-impregnated bed nets. Though equal numbers of mosquitoes were caught

  14. Õhutõrjerelvade ost võib tuua suure teadusinvesteeringu või tellimuse / Hannes Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    Õhutõrjerelvade riigihankele kutsutud relvatootjad peavad tegema ka pakkumise Eesti teaduskeskustelt või kaitsetööstuselt mitmesaja miljoni krooni eest toodete või teenuste ostmise kohta. Vastuostu põhimõtet rakendatakse Eestis esimest korda, hankel on kutsutud osalema relvatootjad MBDA Missile Systems ja Raytheon Company

  15. Õhutõrjerelvade ost võib tuua suure teadusinvesteeringu või tellimuse / Hannes Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    Õhutõrjerelvade riigihankele kutsutud relvatootjad peavad tegema ka pakkumise Eesti teaduskeskustelt või kaitsetööstuselt mitmesaja miljoni krooni eest toodete või teenuste ostmise kohta. Vastuostu põhimõtet rakendatakse Eestis esimest korda, hankel on kutsutud osalema relvatootjad MBDA Missile Systems ja Raytheon Company

  16. An experimental hut study to quantify the effect of DDT and airborne pyrethroids on entomological parameters of malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoma, Sheila B; Lorenz, Lena M; Ngonyani, Hassan; Sangusangu, Robert; Kitumbukile, Mohammed; Kilalangongono, Masoudi; Simfukwe, Emmanuel T; Mseka, Anton; Mbeyela, Edgar; Roman, Deogratius; Moore, Jason; Kreppel, Katharina; Maia, Marta F; Moore, Sarah J

    2014-04-01

    Current malaria vector control programmes rely on insecticides with rapid contact toxicity. However, spatial repellents can also be applied to reduce man-vector contact, which might ultimately impact malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to quantify effects of airborne pyrethroids from coils and DDT used an indoor residual spray (IRS) on entomological parameters that influence malaria transmission. The effect of Transfluthrin and Metofluthrin coils compared to DDT on house entry, exit and indoor feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were measured in experimental huts in the field and in the semi-field. Outcomes were deterrence--reduction in house entry of mosquitoes; irritancy or excito-repellency--induced premature exit of mosquitoes; blood feeding inhibition and effect on mosquito fecundity. Transfluthrin coils, Metofluthrin coils and DDT reduced human vector contact through deterrence by 38%, 30% and 8%, respectively and induced half of the mosquitoes to leave huts before feeding (56%, 55% and 48%, respectively). Almost all mosquitoes inside huts with Metofluthrin and Transfluthrin coils and more than three quarters of mosquitoes in the DDT hut did not feed, almost none laid eggs and 67%, 72% and 70% of all mosquitoes collected from Transfluthrin, Metofluthrin and DDT huts, respectively had died after 24 hours. This study highlights that airborne pyrethroids and DDT affect a range of anopheline mosquito behaviours that are important parameters in malaria transmission, namely deterrence, irritancy/excito-repellency and blood-feeding inhibition. These effects are in addition to significant toxicity and reduced mosquito fecundity that affect mosquito densities and, therefore, provide community protection against diseases for both users and non-users. Airborne insecticides and freshly applied DDT had similar effects on deterrence, irritancy and feeding inhibition. Therefore, it is suggested that airborne pyrethroids, if delivered in suitable

  17. CMOS-compatible dense arrays of Ge quantum dots on the Si(001) surface: hut cluster nucleation, atomic structure and array life cycle during UHV MBE growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapkina, Larisa V; Yuryev, Vladimir A

    2011-04-15

    We report a direct observation of Ge hut nucleation on Si(001) during UHV molecular beam epitaxy at 360°C. Nuclei of pyramids and wedges were observed on the wetting layer (WL) (M × N) patches starting from the coverage of 5.1 Å and found to have different structures. Atomic models of nuclei of both hut species have been built as well as models of the growing clusters. The growth of huts of each species has been demonstrated to follow generic scenarios. The formation of the second atomic layer of a wedge results in rearrangement of its first layer. Its ridge structure does not repeat the nucleus. A pyramid grows without phase transitions. A structure of its vertex copies the nucleus. Transitions between hut species turned out to be impossible. The wedges contain point defects in the upper corners of the triangular faces and have preferential growth directions along the ridges. The derived structure of the {105} facet follows the paired dimer model. Further growth of hut arrays results in domination of wedges, and the density of pyramids exponentially drops. The second generation of huts arises at coverages >10 Å; new huts occupy the whole WL at coverages ~14 Å. Nanocrystalline Ge 2D layer begins forming at coverages >14 Å.

  18. CMOS-compatible dense arrays of Ge quantum dots on the Si(001 surface: hut cluster nucleation, atomic structure and array life cycle during UHV MBE growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arapkina Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a direct observation of Ge hut nucleation on Si(001 during UHV molecular beam epitaxy at 360°C. Nuclei of pyramids and wedges were observed on the wetting layer (WL (M × N patches starting from the coverage of 5.1 Å and found to have different structures. Atomic models of nuclei of both hut species have been built as well as models of the growing clusters. The growth of huts of each species has been demonstrated to follow generic scenarios. The formation of the second atomic layer of a wedge results in rearrangement of its first layer. Its ridge structure does not repeat the nucleus. A pyramid grows without phase transitions. A structure of its vertex copies the nucleus. Transitions between hut species turned out to be impossible. The wedges contain point defects in the upper corners of the triangular faces and have preferential growth directions along the ridges. The derived structure of the {105} facet follows the paired dimer model. Further growth of hut arrays results in domination of wedges, and the density of pyramids exponentially drops. The second generation of huts arises at coverages >10 Å; new huts occupy the whole WL at coverages ~14 Å. Nanocrystalline Ge 2D layer begins forming at coverages >14 Å.

  19. Alternative binding modes of l-histidine guided by metal ions for the activation of the antiterminator protein HutP of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakshnamoorthy, Balasundaresan; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kumar, Penmetcha K R

    2013-09-01

    Anti-terminator proteins control gene expression by recognizing control signals within cognate transcripts and then preventing transcription termination. HutP is such a regulatory protein that regulates the expression of the histidine utilization (hut) operon in Bacillus subtilis by binding to cis-acting regulatory sequences in hut mRNAs. During the anti-termination process, l-histidine and a divalent ion are required for hutP to bind to the specific sequence within the hut mRNA. Our previous crystal structure of the HutP-l-histidine-Mg(2+)-RNA ternary complex demonstrated that the l-histidine ligand and Mg(2+) bind together such that the backbone nitrogen and carboxyl oxygen of l-histidine coordinate with Mg(2+). In addition to the Mg(2+), other divalent ions are also known to efficiently support the l-histidine-dependent anti-termination of the hut operon, and the best divalent ion is Zn(2+). In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the HutP-l-histidine-Zn(2+) complex and found that the orientation of l-histidine coordinated to Zn(2+) is reversed relative to that of l-histidine coordinated to Mg(2+), i.e., the imidazole side chain nitrogen of l-histidine coordinates to Zn(2+). This alternative binding mode of the l-histidine ligand to a divalent ion provides further insight into the mechanisms responsible for the activation of RNA binding during the hut anti-termination process.

  20. Crystal structure of HutZ, a heme storage protein from Vibrio cholerae: A structural mismatch observed in the region of high sequence conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiuhua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HutZ is the sole heme storage protein identified in the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is required for optimal heme utilization. However, no heme oxygenase activity has been observed with this protein. Thus far, HutZ’s structure and heme-binding mechanism are unknown. Results We report the first crystal structure of HutZ in a homodimer determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The HutZ structure adopted a typical split-barrel fold. Through a docking study and site-directed mutagenesis, a heme-binding model for the HutZ dimer is proposed. Very interestingly, structural superimposition of HutZ and its homologous protein HugZ, a heme oxygenase from Helicobacter pylori, exhibited a structural mismatch of one amino acid residue in β6 of HutZ, although residues involved in this region are highly conserved in both proteins. Derived homologous models of different single point variants with model evaluations suggested that Pro140 of HutZ, corresponding to Phe215 of HugZ, might have been the main contributor to the structural mismatch. This mismatch initiates more divergent structural characteristics towards their C-terminal regions, which are essential features for the heme-binding of HugZ as a heme oxygenase. Conclusions HutZ’s deficiency in heme oxygenase activity might derive from its residue shift relative to the heme oxygenase HugZ. This residue shift also emphasized a limitation of the traditional template selection criterion for homology modeling.

  1. Combining indoor residual spraying with chlorfenapyr and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets for improved control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae: an experimental hut trial in Benin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngufor, Corine; N'Guessan, Raphael; Boko, Pelagie; Odjo, Abibatou; Vigninou, Estelle; Asidi, Alex; Akogbeto, Martin; Rowland, Mark

    2011-01-01

    .... Chlorfenapyr IRS and a pyrethroid-impregnated polyester LLIN (WHO approved) were tested separately and together in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus...

  2. Demonstration of Raman-based, dispersion-managed VCSEL technology for fibre-to-the-hut application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotich Kipnoo, E. K.; Kiboi Boiyo, D.; Isoe, G. M.; Chabata, T. V.; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2017-03-01

    For the first time, we experimentally investigate the use of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) in the fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) flavour for Africa, known as fibre-to-the-hut. Fibre-to-the-hut is a VCSEL based passive optical network technology designed and optimized for African continent. VCSELs have attracted attention in optical communication due to its vast advantages; low power consumption, relatively cheap costs among others. A 4.25 Gb/s uncooled VCSEL is used in a dispersion managed, Raman assisted network achieving beyond 100 km of error free transmission suited for FTTHut scenario. Energy-efficient high performance VCSEL is modulated using a 27-1 PRBS pattern and the signal transmitted on a G.655 fibre utilizing the minimum attenuation window.

  3. Evolution of hut access facing glacier shrinkage in the Mer de Glace basin (Mont Blanc massif, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, Jacques; Ravanel, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Given the evolution of high mountain environment due to global warming, mountaineering routes and huts accesses are more and more strongly affected by glacial shrinkage and concomitant gravity processes, but almost no studies have been conducted on this relationship. The aim of this research is to describe and explain the evolution over the last century of the access to the five alpine huts around the Mer de Glace glacier (Mont Blanc massif), the larger French glacier (length = 11.5 km, area = 30 km²), a major place for Alpine tourism since 1741 and the birthplace of mountaineering, by using several methods (comparing photographs, surveying, collecting historical documents). While most of the 20th century shows no marked changes, loss of ice thickness and associated erosion of lateral moraines generate numerous and significant changes since the 1990s. Boulder falls, rockfalls and landslides are the main geomorphological processes that affect the access, while the glacier surface lowering makes access much longer and more unstable. The danger is then greatly increased and the access must be relocated and/or equipped more and more frequently (e.g. a total of 520 m of ladders has been added). This questions the future accessibility to the huts, jeopardizing an important part of mountaineering and its linked economy in the Mer de Glace area.

  4. Experimental hut evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr on bed nets for the control of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, F W; Lyimo, I N; Oxborough, R M; Malima, R; Tenu, F; Matowo, J; Feston, E; Mndeme, R; Magesa, S M; Rowland, M

    2008-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of chlorfenapyr against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in East Africa and to identify effective dosages for net treatment in comparison with the commonly used pyrethroid deltamethrin. Chlorfenapyr was evaluated on bed nets in experimental huts against A. arabiensis and C. quinquefasciatus in Northern Tanzania, at application rates of 100-500 mg/m(2). In experimental huts, mortality rates in A. arabiensis were high (46.0-63.9%) for all dosages of chlorfenapyr and were similar to that of deltamethrin-treated nets. Mortality rates in C. quinquefasciatus were higher for chlorfenapyr than for deltamethrin. Despite a reputation for being slow acting, >90% of insecticide-induced mortality in laboratory tunnel tests and experimental huts occurred within 24 h, and the speed of killing was no slower than for deltamethrin-treated nets. Chlorfenapyr induced low irritability and knockdown, which explains the relatively small reduction in blood-feeding rate. Combining chlorfenapyr with a more excito-repellent pyrethroid on bed nets for improved personal protection, control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes and pyrethroid resistance management would be advantageous.

  5. Efficient Implementation of the Barnes-Hut Octree Algorithm for Monte Carlo Simulations of Charged Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Zecheng

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulation with Monte Carlo is an important tool to investigate the function and equilibrium properties of many systems with biological and soft matter materials solvable in solvents. The appropriate treatment of long-range electrostatic interaction is essential for these charged systems, but remains a challenging problem for large-scale simulations. We have developed an efficient Barnes-Hut treecode algorithm for electrostatic evaluation in Monte Carlo simulations of Coulomb many-body systems. The algorithm is based on a divide-and-conquer strategy and fast update of the octree data structure in each trial move through a local adjustment procedure. We test the accuracy of the tree algorithm, and use it to computer simulations of electric double layer near a spherical interface. It has been shown that the computational cost of the Monte Carlo method with treecode acceleration scales as $\\log N$ in each move. For a typical system with ten thousand particles, by using the new algorithm, the speed has b...

  6. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S

    1995-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  7. UKRAINIAN HUT AS THE ARCHETYPAL MODEL IN THE WORKS OF ALEXANDER DOVZHENKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YEVSEYEVA H. P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Archetypal model of national dwelling is the basic and determining element of material and spiritual culture, because design features, decorative artwork, ornamentation housing, amulet symbols as elements of the home’s interior structure the ideological system and act as a kind of code for understanding the primary landmark of the national worldview. The purpose. Identify the main components of the design features of the Ukrainian house image on the material of the story "Izba" and the tale "the Enchanted Desna" Alexander Dovzhenko. Conclusions. Research of reproduction features of the Ukrainian hut image in the art world of Alexander Dovzhenko allowed to structure arhetipo model of national dwelling, which appears as the center of the universe and as the source of all organic life forms. Antagonism of the profane and of the sacred can be solved through a paradoxical focus of such binary oppositions as power/spiritual strength, closeness/openness. An important means of the essential characteristics revealing of the house image is the apophaticism device.

  8. Differential substrate subsidence of the EnviHUT project pitched extensive green roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nečadová Klára

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In primary phase of testing building physical characteristics of the EnviHUT project extensive and semi-intensive roofs with 30° inclination occurred exceptional substrate subsidence. An extensive testing field with retaining geocell-system evinced differential subsidence of individual sectors after six months. Measured subsidence of installed substrate reached 40 % subsidence compared to originally designed height (intended layer thickness. Subsequent deformation of geocell-system additionally caused partial slide of substrate to drip edge area. These slides also influenced initial development of stonecrop plants on its surface. Except functional shortages the aesthetical function of the whole construction is influenced by the mentioned problem. The stated paper solves mentioned issues in view of installation method optimization, selection and modification of used roof substrate and in view of modification of geometric and building installed elements retaining system arrangement. Careful adjustment of roof system geometry and enrichment of original substrate fraction allow full functionality from pitched extensive green roof setting up. The modification scheme and its substantiation is a part of this technical study output.

  9. A GPU accelerated Barnes-Hut tree code for FLASH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukat, Gunther; Banerjee, Robi

    2016-05-01

    We present a GPU accelerated CUDA-C implementation of the Barnes Hut (BH) tree code for calculating the gravitational potential on octree adaptive meshes. The tree code algorithm is implemented within the FLASH4 adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code framework and therefore fully MPI parallel. We describe the algorithm and present test results that demonstrate its accuracy and performance in comparison to the algorithms available in the current FLASH4 version. We use a MacLaurin spheroid to test the accuracy of our new implementation and use spherical, collapsing cloud cores with effective AMR to carry out performance tests also in comparison with previous gravity solvers. Depending on the setup and the GPU/CPU ratio, we find a speedup for the gravity unit of at least a factor of 3 and up to 60 in comparison to the gravity solvers implemented in the FLASH4 code. We find an overall speedup factor for full simulations of at least factor 1.6 up to a factor of 10.

  10. A GPU accelerated Barnes-Hut Tree Code for FLASH4

    CERN Document Server

    Lukat, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    We present a GPU accelerated CUDA-C implementation of the Barnes Hut (BH) tree code for calculating the gravita- tional potential on octree adaptive meshes. The tree code algorithm is implemented within the FLASH4 adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code framework and therefore fully MPI parallel. We describe the algorithm and present test results that demonstrate its accuracy and performance in comparison to the algorithms available in the current FLASH4 version. We use a MacLaurin spheroid to test the accuracy of our new implementation and use spherical, collapsing cloud cores with effective AMR to carry out performance tests also in comparison with previous gravity solvers. Depending on the setup and the GPU/CPU ratio, we find a speedup for the gravity unit of at least a factor of 3 and up to 60 in comparison to the gravity solvers implemented in the FLASH4 code. We find an overall speedup factor for full simulations of at least factor 1.6 up to a factor of 10

  11. A case of hut lung: scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis of a domestically acquired form of pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Gujral, Manmeet; Abraham, Jerrold L; Scalzetti, Ernest M; Iannuzzi, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Hut lung is a pneumoconiosis caused by exposure to smoke derived from biomass fuels used for cooking in poorly ventilated huts. We report, to our knowledge, the first analysis of the dust deposited in the lungs in hut lung by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). A Bhutanese woman presented with shortness of breath and an abnormal chest radiograph. Chest CT scan showed innumerable tiny bilateral upper lobe centrilobular nodules. Transbronchial biopsy revealed mild interstitial fibrosis with heavy interstitial deposition of black dust. SEM/EDS showed that the dust was carbonaceous, with smaller yet substantial numbers of silica and silicate particles. Additional history revealed use of a wood/coal-fueled stove in a small, poorly ventilated hut for 45 years. The possibility of hut lung should be considered in women from countries where use of biomass-fueled stoves for cooking is common. Our findings support the classification of this condition as a mixed-dust pneumoconiosis.

  12. Cell cycle related proteins in hyperplasia of usual type in breast specimens of patients with and without breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobbi Helenice

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperplasia of usual type (HUT is a common proliferative lesion associated with a slight elevated risk for subsequent development of breast cancer. Cell cycle-related proteins would be helpful to determine the putative role of these markers in the process of mammary carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of cell cycle related proteins in HUT of breast specimens of patients with and without breast cancer, and compare this expression with areas of invasive carcinomas. Results Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against cell cycle related proteins ER, PR, p53, p21, p63, and Ki-67 in hyperplasia of usual type (HUT in specimens of aesthetic reduction mammaplasty (ARM, in specimens of mammaplasty contralateral to breast cancer (MCC, and in specimens of invasive mammary carcinomas (IMC presenting HUT in the adjacent parenchyma. The results showed that the immunoexpression of ER, PR, p21, p53, p63, and KI-67 was similar in HUT from the three different groups. The p63 expression in myoepithelial cells showed discontinuous pattern in the majority of HUT, different from continuous expression in normal lobules. Nuclear expression of p53 and p21 was frequently higher expressed in IMC and very rare in HUT. We also found cytoplasmic expression of p21 in benign hyperplastic lesions and in neoplastic cells of IMC. Conclusion Our data failed to demonstrate different expression of cell cycle related proteins in HUT from patients with and without breast cancer. However, we found discontinuous expression of p63 in myoepithelial cells around HUT adjacent to carcinomas and cytoplasmic expression of p21 in epithelial cells of hyperplastic foci. Further studies are needed to determine how these subgroups relate to molecular abnormalities and cancer risk.

  13. Olyset Duo® (a pyriproxyfen and permethrin mixture net: an experimental hut trial against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF, an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen. METHOD: The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN. Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts. RESULTS: Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P = 0.01. Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, P<0.001. The oviposition rate of surviving blood-fed An. gambiae from the control hut was 37% whereas none of those from Olyset Duo and PPF LN huts laid eggs. The tunnel test results were consistent with the experimental hut results. Olyset Duo was more protective than Olyset Net in the huts against wild pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus although mortality rates of this species did not differ significantly between Olyset Net and Olyset Duo. There was no sterilizing effect on surviving blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus with the PPF-treated nets. CONCLUSION: Olyset Duo was superior to Olyset Net in terms of personal protection and killing of pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae, and sterilized surviving blood-fed mosquitoes. Mixing pyrethroid and pyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and

  14. Implementation of biological nutrient removal from municipal wastewater in Finland - HUT/Savonlinna process, a challenge to the UCT process; Asumisjaeteveden biologisen ravinteiden poiston toteuttaminen Suomen oloissa - HUT/Savonlinna-prosessi UCT-prosessin haastajana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The laboratory for Environmental Engineering at the Helsinki University of Technology carried out two successive full-scale R and D projects on biological nutrient removal. As a result of these projects, Pihlajaniemi Wastewater Treatment at Savonlinna in 1991-1996, an activated sludge process, called the HUT/Savonlinna process, was developed. By making use of the organic carbon in wastewater and without any added chemicals, the process is able to reduce the phosphorus content of water by more than 90% and the nitrogen content by about 70%. Total phosphorus contents averaging less than 0.5 mg/l and total nitrogen contents of 8-12 mg/l are usual in the secondary settled wastewater. These projects demonstrated that biological nutrient removal from domestic wastewater would best be started in Finland with year-round complete nitrification. This is the most demanding phase in the removal of biological nutrients from municipal wastewater and also the most expensive way to treat municipal wastewater with the conventional aerated activated sludge process. From there, it would be natural to proceed to effective nitrogen removal by means of denitrification. In that way the operating costs of the treatment plant would be markedly reduced. Nitrogen removal could be implemented without any extension of the treatment plant beyond what would be needed for complete year-round nitrification. The chemical removal of phosphorus from wastewater carried out as simultaneous precipitation could then easily replaced by biological phosphorus removal. This procedure would bring the operating costs of the treatment plant below the level normal in the conventional treatment of municipal wastewaters with an activated sludge process with simultaneous phosphorus precipitation. For this modification the treatment plants would not even have to be enlarged. When biological nutrient removal from municipal wastewaters is implemented in Finland, the HUT/Savonlinna process will surely challenge the UCT

  15. An experimental hut evaluation of Olyset® nets against anopheline mosquitoes after seven years use in Tanzanian villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosha Frank W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are advocated by WHO for protection against malaria. Of the three brands of LLINs currently approved by WHO, Olyset® is the only one currently granted full recommendation. With this type of LLIN, the insecticide (permethrin is incorporated into the polyethylene fibre during manufacture and diffuses from the core to the surface, thereby maintaining surface concentrations. It has not been determined for how long Olyset nets remain protective against mosquitoes in household use. Methods Examples of Olyset nets, which had been in use in Tanzanian villages for seven years, were tested in experimental huts against naturally entering Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes. Performance was compared with new Olyset nets, conventionally treated ITNs (either newly treated with alphacypermethrin or taken from local villages after 1.5 years of use and untreated nets. All nets were artificially holed except for the seven-year Olyset nets, which had developed holes during prolonged domestic use. Results Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae in NE Tanzania are susceptible to pyrethroids. The new Olyset nets caused high mortality against An. funestus (73.9% and An. gambiae (62.7% in experimental huts. The seven-year Olyset nets caused 58.9% mortality against An. funestus and 40.0% mortality against An. gambiae. The freshly treated alphacypermethrin nets also caused high mortality against An. funestus (70.6% and An. gambiae (72.0%; this decreased to 58.4% and 69.6% respectively after 1.5 years of use. The new Olyset nets inhibited blood-feeding by 40–50%. The 7 year Olyset nets showed no feeding inhibition over that shown by the untreated nets. The alphacypermethrin treated nets failed to inhibit blood-feeding after 1.5 years of use. However iHhhdn laboratory tunnel tests samples of all types of treated net including the 7 year Olyset inhibited blood-feeding by more than 95%. Conclusion After

  16. An experimental hut evaluation of Olyset nets against anopheline mosquitoes after seven years use in Tanzanian villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malima, Robert C; Magesa, Stephen M; Tungu, Patrick K; Mwingira, Victor; Magogo, Frank S; Sudi, Wema; Mosha, Frank W; Curtis, Christopher F; Maxwell, Caroline; Rowland, Mark

    2008-02-28

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are advocated by WHO for protection against malaria. Of the three brands of LLINs currently approved by WHO, Olyset(R) is the only one currently granted full recommendation. With this type of LLIN, the insecticide (permethrin) is incorporated into the polyethylene fibre during manufacture and diffuses from the core to the surface, thereby maintaining surface concentrations. It has not been determined for how long Olyset nets remain protective against mosquitoes in household use. Examples of Olyset nets, which had been in use in Tanzanian villages for seven years, were tested in experimental huts against naturally entering Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes. Performance was compared with new Olyset nets, conventionally treated ITNs (either newly treated with alphacypermethrin or taken from local villages after 1.5 years of use) and untreated nets. All nets were artificially holed except for the seven-year Olyset nets, which had developed holes during prolonged domestic use. Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae in NE Tanzania are susceptible to pyrethroids. The new Olyset nets caused high mortality against An. funestus (73.9%) and An. gambiae (62.7%) in experimental huts. The seven-year Olyset nets caused 58.9% mortality against An. funestus and 40.0% mortality against An. gambiae. The freshly treated alphacypermethrin nets also caused high mortality against An. funestus (70.6%) and An. gambiae (72.0%); this decreased to 58.4% and 69.6% respectively after 1.5 years of use. The new Olyset nets inhibited blood-feeding by 40-50%. The 7 year Olyset nets showed no feeding inhibition over that shown by the untreated nets. The alphacypermethrin treated nets failed to inhibit blood-feeding after 1.5 years of use. However iHhhdn laboratory tunnel tests samples of all types of treated net including the 7 year Olyset inhibited blood-feeding by more than 95%. After seven years of use Olyset nets were still strongly

  17. Structure and dynamics of Type III periplasmic proteins VcFhuD and VcHutB reveal molecular basis of their distinctive ligand binding properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shubhangi; Dey, Sanjay; Ghosh, Biplab; Biswas, Maitree; Dasgupta, Jhimli

    2017-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms of xenosiderophore and heme acquisitions using periplasmic binding protein (PBP) dependent ATP-binding cassette transporters to scavenge the essential nutrient iron are elusive yet in Vibrio cholerae. Our current study delineates the structures, dynamics and ligand binding properties of two Type III PBPs of V. cholerae, VcFhuD and VcHutB. Through crystal structures and fluorescence quenching studies we demonstrate unique features of VcFhuD to bind both hydroxamate and catecholate type xenosiderophores. Like E. coli FhuD, VcFhuD binds ferrichrome and ferri-desferal using conserved Tryptophans and R102. However, unlike EcFhuD, slightly basic ligand binding pocket of VcFhuD could favour ferri-enterobactin binding with plausible participation of R203, along with R102, like it happens in catecholate binding PBPs. Structural studies coupled with spectrophotometric and native PAGE analysis indicated parallel binding of two heme molecules to VcHutB in a pH dependent manner, while mutational analysis established the relative importance of Y65 and H164 in heme binding. MD simulation studies exhibited an unforeseen inter-lobe swinging motion in Type III PBPs, magnitude of which is inversely related to the packing of the linker helix with its neighboring helices. Small inter-lobe movement in VcFhuD or dramatic twisting in VcHutB is found to influence ligand binding.

  18. Comparison of experimental hut entrance and exit behavior between Anopheles darlingi from the Cayo District, Belize, and Zungarococha, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P

    2013-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.

  19. Multiangular L-band Datasets for Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity Retrieval Measured by Airborne HUT-2D Synthetic Aperture Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Seppänen, J.; Hallikainen, M.

    2009-04-01

    SMOS is the European Space Agency's next Earth Explorer satellite due for launch in 2009. It aims for global monitoring of soil moisture and ocean salinity utilizing a new technology concept for remote sensing: two-dimensional aperture synthesis radiometry. The payload of SMOS is Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis, or MIRAS. It is a passive instrument that uses 72 individual L-band receivers for measuring the brightness temperature of the Earth. From each acquisition, i.e. integration time or snapshot, MIRAS provides two-dimensional brightness temperature of the scene in the instrument's field of view. Thus, consecutive snapshots provide multiangular measurements of the target once the instrument passes over it. Depending on the position of the target in instrument's swath, the brightness temperature of the target at incidence angles from zero up to 50 degrees can be measured with one overpass. To support the development MIRAS instrument, its calibration, and soil moisture and sea surface salinity retrieval algorithm development, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) has designed, manufactured and tested a radiometer which operates at L-band and utilizes the same two-dimensional methodology of interferometery and aperture synthesis as MIRAS does. This airborne instrument, called HUT-2D, was designed to be used on board the University's research aircraft. It provides multiangular measurements of the target in its field of view, which spans up to 30 degrees off the boresight of the instrument, which is pointed to the nadir. The number of independent measurements of each target point depends on the flight speed and altitude. In addition to the Spanish Airborne MIRAS demonstrator (AMIRAS), HUT-2D is the only European airborne synthetic aperture radiometer. This paper presents the datasets and measurement campaigns, which have been carried out using the HUT-2D radiometer and are available for the scientific community. In April 2007 HUT-2D participated

  20. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  1. Efficacy of a Mosaic Long-Lasting Insecticide Net, PermaNet 3.0, against Wild Populations of Culex quinquefasciatus in Experimental Huts in Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Dery, Dominic B; Ketoh, Guillaume K.; Chabi, Joseph; Apetogbo, George; Glitho, Isabelle A.; Baldet, Thierry; Hougard, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    PermaNet 3.0 was evaluated against Culex quinquefasciatus in experimental huts in Lomé. Endpoints were deterrence, exophily, blood feeding inhibition, and mortality. Insecticide susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed with permethrin (1%), DDT (4%), bendiocarb (0.1%), deltamethrin (0.5%, 0.05%), carbosulfan (0.4%), and chlorpyrifos methyl (0.4%). Total of 1,223 Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected. PermaNet 3.0 unwashed deterred 16.84% Culex mosquitoes. After 20 washes, i...

  2. The use of wide-mesh gauze impregnated with lambda-cyhalothrin covering wall openings in huts as a vector control method in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Voorham

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available An alternative vector control method, using lambda-cyhalothrin impregnated wide-mesh gauze covering openings in the walls of the houses was developed in an area in the Eastern part of the interior of Suriname. Experimental hut observations showed that Anopheles darlingi greatly reduced their biting activity (99-100% during the first 5 months after impregnation. A model assay showed high mortality both of mosquitoes repelled by the gauze as well as of those that succeeded in getting through it. A field application test in 270 huts showed good acceptance by the population and good durability of the applied gauze. After introducing the method in the entire working area, replacing DDT residual housespraying, the malaria prevalence, of 25-37% before application dropped and stabilized at between 5 and 10% within one year. The operational costs were less than those of the previously used DDT housespraying program, due to a 50% reduction in the cost of materials used. The method using widemesh gauze impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin strongly affects the behavior of An. darlingi. It is important to examine the effect of the method on malaria transmission further, since data indirectly obtained suggest substantial positive results.

  3. THE CONTROL OF ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOS BY THE SPRAYING OF DELTAMETHRIN ON RAFFIA CURTAINS USED IN MINERS' HUTS IN AREAS ENDEMIC FOR MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIGUEIREDO Regina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual potential of an aqueous solution of Deltamethrin (FW 25 mg i.a./m2 was evaluated on raffia curtains. These are sheets of synthetic material used in the construction of huts to house miners. Experiments were conducted during 420 days and the curtains were always rolled up in the daytime and unrolled in late afternoon. Data analyzed by logarithmic regression indicated that raffia treated with Deltamethrin had higher mortality indices than that covered with DDT. The residual capacity of Deltamethrin on raffia was high. The mortality percentage was above 85% after 360 days and dropped to about 50% at 420 days. The effect of DDT was reduced after 180 days and reached zero by the end of the experiment. Based on the results of these experiments, it is recommended that Deltamethrin be used to spray raffia curtains in mining regions and other areas that are endemic for malaria.

  4. Chlorfenapyr (A Pyrrole Insecticide) Applied Alone or as a Mixture with Alpha-Cypermethrin for Indoor Residual Spraying against Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles gambiae sl: An Experimental Hut Study in Cove, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngufor, Corine; Critchley, Jessica; Fagbohoun, Josias; N'Guessan, Raphael; Todjinou, Damien; Rowland, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Indoor spraying of walls and ceilings with residual insecticide remains a primary method of malaria control. Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a growing problem. Novel insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can improve the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Insecticide mixtures have the potential to improve efficacy or even to manage resistance in some situations but this possibility remains underexplored experimentally. Chlorfenapyr is a novel pyrrole insecticide which has shown potential to improve the control of mosquitoes which are resistant to current WHO-approved insecticides. The efficacy of IRS with chlorfenapyr applied alone or as a mixture with alpha-cypermeththrin (a pyrethroid) was evaluated in experimental huts in Cove, Southern Benin against wild free flying pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl. Comparison was made with IRS with alpha-cypermethrin alone. Fortnightly 30-minute in situ cone bioassays were performed to assess the residual efficacy of the insecticides on the treated hut walls. Survival rates of wild An gambiae from the Cove hut site in WHO resistance bioassays performed during the trial were >90% with permethrin and deltamethrin treated papers. Mortality of free-flying mosquitoes entering the experimental huts was 4% in the control hut. Mortality with alpha-cypermethrin IRS did not differ from the control (5%, P>0.656). The highest mortality was achieved with chlorfenapyr alone (63%). The alpha-cypermethrin + chlorfenapyr mixture killed fewer mosquitoes than chlorfenapyr alone (43% vs. 63%, P<0.001). While the cone bioassays showed a more rapid decline in residual mortality with chlorfenapyr IRS to <30% after only 2 weeks, fortnightly mortality rates of wild free-flying An gambiae entering the chlorfenapyr IRS huts were consistently high (50-70%) and prolonged, lasting over 4 months. IRS with chlorfenapyr shows potential to significantly improve the control of malaria

  5. Methodological Study of Cell Separation with Domestic Immunomagnetic Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To establish the method of cell separation with domestic immuomagnetic beads, three methods were investigated. Direct method, SPA method and Biotin-Avidin method were applied to separate cell strain Hut-78 and CD4 positive cells. Separation rate of strain Hut-78 was more than 90 % in direct method. Detachment rate with papain was over 95 %. Cell activity was well retained. SPA method and Biotin-Avidin methods were also effective, but the direct method was superior to the other two techniques. Before separated by the direct method, CD4 positive cells constituted 46.4 %±6.4 % of mononuclear cells (MNC), but in eliminated suspension there was only 6.2 %±2.3 % CD4 positive cells left. In the separated part, 80.6 %±7.2 % of the cells combined with the beads. It is concluded that the direct method in separating cells had high sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Evaluation of PermaNet 3.0 a deltamethrin-PBO combination net against Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Malima Robert; Maxwell Caroline; Magesa Stephen; Tungu Patrick; Masue Dennis; Sudi Wema; Myamba Joseph; Pigeon Olivier; Rowland Mark

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Combination mosquito nets incorporating two unrelated insecticides or insecticide plus synergist are designed to control insecticide resistant mosquitoes. PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance. Method An experimental hut trial comparing PermaNet 3.0, P...

  7. Interzonal air and moisture transport through large horizontal openings in a full-scale two-story test-hut: Part 2 - CFD study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, S. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Construction Engineering and Management, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, San Agustin building, 3rd floor, Campus San Joaquin, Macul, Santiago 6904411 (Chile); Fazio, P.; Rao, J. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the air and moisture transport through a large horizontal opening in a full-scale two-story test-hut with mixed ventilation by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. CFD allows extending the experimental study presented in the companion paper and overcoming some limitations of experimental data. More than 80 cases were simulated for conditions similar to those tested experimentally and for additional ventilation rates and temperature difference between the two rooms. CFD simulations were performed in Airpak and the indoor zero-equation turbulence model was used. The CFD model was extensively validated with the distributions of air speed, temperature and humidity ratio measured across the two rooms, as well as with the measured interzonal mass airflows through the horizontal opening. CFD simulation results show that temperature difference between the two rooms and ventilation rate strongly influence the interzonal mass airflows through the opening when the upper room is colder than the lower room, while warm convective air currents from the baseboard heater and from the moisture source placed in the lower room cause upward mass airflows when the upper room is warmer than the lower room. Finally, empirical relationships between the upward mass airflow and the temperature difference between the two rooms are developed. (author)

  8. African Hut---on the Original Ecological Architecture Arts%西非土屋--原生态建筑艺术浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬

    2016-01-01

    Architecture,which reflects the unique features of a region's building tradition,is a very important part of a nation's culture.With the development of modern society,the primitive architecture is facing the crisis of disappearance.This paper in-troduces the primitive architecture-African hut and explores its artistic characteristics and cultural value.%建筑是一个民族文化的重要组成部分,是一个地域独特风貌的缩影。但是随着现代社会的发展,这些原生态的本土建筑面临着消失殆尽的危机。西非土屋作为一种原生态建筑,有其独特的艺术价值和文化特色,其独有的建筑特色和理念,原生态的价值选择,值得当代建筑借鉴。

  9. Notch 1 as a potential therapeutic target in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Maria Rørbæk; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette Rahbek; Biskup, Edyta Urszula;

    2010-01-01

    mycosis fungoides (MyLa) and Sezary syndrome (SeAx, HuT-78)and in primary leukemic Sézary cells. Specific downregulation of Notch1 (but not Notch2 and Notch3) by siRNA induced apoptosis in SeAx. The mechanism of apoptosis involved the inhibition of NF-kappaB, which is the most important prosurvival...

  10. Combining indoor residual spraying with chlorfenapyr and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets for improved control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae: an experimental hut trial in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor Corine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neither indoor residual spraying (IRS nor long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are able to fully interrupt transmission in holoendemic Africa as single interventions. The combining of IRS and LLINs presents an opportunity for improved control and management of pyrethroid resistance through the simultaneous presentation of unrelated insecticides. Method Chlorfenapyr IRS and a pyrethroid-impregnated polyester LLIN (WHO approved were tested separately and together in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bed nets were deliberately holed with either six or 80 holes to examine the effect of increasing wear and tear on protectiveness. Anopheles gambiae were genotyped for the kdr gene to assess the combination's potential to prevent the selection of pyrethroid resistance. Results The frequency of kdr was 84%. The overall mortality rates of An. gambiae were 37% and 49% with the six-hole and 80-hole LLINs, respectively, and reached 57% with chlorfenapyr IRS. Overall mortality rates were significantly higher with the combination treatments (82-83% than with the LLIN or IRS individual treatments. Blood feeding (mosquito biting rates were lowest with the 6-hole LLIN (12%, intermediate with the 80-hole LLIN (32% and highest with untreated nets (56% with the 6-hole and 54% with the 80-hole nets. Blood feeding (biting rates and repellency of mosquitoes with the combination of LLIN and chlorfenapyr IRS showed significant improvement compared to the IRS treatment but did not differ from the LLIN treatments indicating that the LLINs were the primary agents of personal protection. The combination killed significantly higher proportions of Cx. quinquefasciatus (51%, 41% than the LLIN (15%, 13% or IRS (32% treatments. Conclusion The chlorfenapyr IRS component was largely responsible for controlling pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes and the LLIN component was largely

  11. Combining indoor residual spraying with chlorfenapyr and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets for improved control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae: an experimental hut trial in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngufor, Corine; N'Guessan, Raphael; Boko, Pelagie; Odjo, Abibatou; Vigninou, Estelle; Asidi, Alex; Akogbeto, Martin; Rowland, Mark

    2011-11-16

    Neither indoor residual spraying (IRS) nor long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are able to fully interrupt transmission in holoendemic Africa as single interventions. The combining of IRS and LLINs presents an opportunity for improved control and management of pyrethroid resistance through the simultaneous presentation of unrelated insecticides. Chlorfenapyr IRS and a pyrethroid-impregnated polyester LLIN (WHO approved) were tested separately and together in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bed nets were deliberately holed with either six or 80 holes to examine the effect of increasing wear and tear on protectiveness. Anopheles gambiae were genotyped for the kdr gene to assess the combination's potential to prevent the selection of pyrethroid resistance. The frequency of kdr was 84%. The overall mortality rates of An. gambiae were 37% and 49% with the six-hole and 80-hole LLINs, respectively, and reached 57% with chlorfenapyr IRS. Overall mortality rates were significantly higher with the combination treatments (82-83%) than with the LLIN or IRS individual treatments. Blood feeding (mosquito biting) rates were lowest with the 6-hole LLIN (12%), intermediate with the 80-hole LLIN (32%) and highest with untreated nets (56% with the 6-hole and 54% with the 80-hole nets). Blood feeding (biting) rates and repellency of mosquitoes with the combination of LLIN and chlorfenapyr IRS showed significant improvement compared to the IRS treatment but did not differ from the LLIN treatments indicating that the LLINs were the primary agents of personal protection. The combination killed significantly higher proportions of Cx. quinquefasciatus (51%, 41%) than the LLIN (15%, 13%) or IRS (32%) treatments. The chlorfenapyr IRS component was largely responsible for controlling pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes and the LLIN component was largely responsible for blood feeding inhibition and personal

  12. MDM2 inhibitor nutlin-3a induces apoptosis and senescence in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Role of p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfé, Valentina; Biskup, Edyta Urszula; Johansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    cell lines, P53 mutation analysis identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (R196Stop in Hut-78) and a homozygous missense mutation (G245S in SeAx). In MyLa2000, Mac1, and Mac2a carrying wild-type P53, nutlin-3a induced apoptosis and senescence demonstrated by permanent G0/G1 cell-cycle block...... and expression of the senescence-associated β-galactosidase. This effect was abolished in cells in which p53 was silenced by small interfering RNA. Sézary cells lack functional p53 and were resistant to nutlin-3a. However, nutlin-3a potentiated the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutics not only in cells...... with intact p53 but also in Hut-78, SeAx, and Sézary cells. Thus, targeting p53 by nutlin-3a may constitute a therapeutic approach in CTCL because of increased apoptosis and senescence of tumor cells....

  13. Autophagy is associated with cucurbitacin D-induced apoptosis in human T cell leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tsukasa; Song, Yuan; He, Cuiying; Wang, Duo; Morita, Kentaro; Tsukada, Junichi; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Yoshida, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that the inflammasome inhibitor cucurbitacin D (CuD) induces apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the effects of co-treatment with an additional Bcl-xL inhibitor, Z36. Treatment with Z36 induced cell death in leukemia cell lines, with MT-4 cells exhibiting the lowest sensitivity to Z36. Co-treatment of cells with Z36 and CuD resulted in a greater degree of cell death for Hut78 and Jurkat cells than treatment with CuD alone. In contrast, co-treatment of MT-4 cells with Z36 and CuD had a suppressive effect on cell death. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) suppressed the growth of leukemia cell lines HuT78, Jurkat, MT-1, and MT-4. CuD-induced cell death was enhanced by 3-MA in Jurkat cells, but inhibited in MT-4 cells. Western blotting results revealed cleavage of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP), supporting CuD-induced cell death; 3-MA enhanced CuD-Z36-induced PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results indicate that autophagy negatively regulates chemical-induced cell death of leukemia cells, and that controlling autophagy could be beneficial in the development of more effective chemotherapies against leukemia.

  14. Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 decreases p53-dependent apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tianling; Biskup, Edyta; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette Rahbek; Niazi, Omid; Ødum, Niels; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-07-26

    Treatment of advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) is challenging because they are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. USP2 has been shown to promote resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in several cancer models.We show here USP2 is expressed in quiescent and activated T-cells and its expression is 50% lower in CTCL cell lines (MyLa2000, SeAx and Hut-78) than in normal T-cells. USP2 is expressed in neoplastic cells in early, plaque-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) and is downregulated in advanced tumor stages. Upon treatment with psoralen with UVA (PUVA) or a p53 activator, nutlin3a, USP2 expression is significantly increased in MyLa2000 (p53wt/wt), but not in SeAx (p53mut) or Hut-78 (p53-/-). USP2 knockdown decreases MyLa2000 cell viability after PUVA by 50% but not Hut-78, suggesting that the function of USP2 in CTCL cells is p53-dependent. Furthermore, USP2 knockdown results in a decreased Mdm2 expression and upregulation of p53. Taken together, our findings suggest that USP2 stabilizes Mdm2 which antagonizes pro-apoptotic activity of p53 and possibly contributes to therapeutic resistance in CTCL.

  15. Chemotherapeutic treatment is associated with Notch1 induction in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Biskup, Edyta; Manfè, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    level in MyLa2000 and Hut78. Upregulation of well-established Notch targets supported the functional activity of Notch1. Transfection of Notch1 siRNA into MyLa2000 cells was not able to suppress the effects of chemotherapy on Notch1 activation significantly. Notch1 knockdown in combination...... with doxorubicin, etoposide, or gemcitabine compared to chemotherapy alone decreased cell viability by 12, 20, and 26%, respectively (p family members. Our results...

  16. Experimental hut evaluation of bednets treated with an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl or a pyrethroid (lambdacyhalothrin alone and in combination against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel Vincent

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of Africa. It is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethroids for use on treated nets. Certain compounds of an earlier generation of insecticides, the organophosphates may have potential as net treatments. Methods Comparative studies of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM, an organophosphate with low mammalian toxicity, and lambdacyhalothrin (L, a pyrethroid, were conducted in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from the area are resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates (kdr and insensitive acetylcholinesterase Ace.1R. Several treatments and application rates on intact or holed nets were evaluated, including single treatments, mixtures, and differential wall/ceiling treatments. Results and Conclusion All of the treatments were effective in reducing blood feeding from sleepers under the nets and in killing both species of mosquito, despite the presence of the kdr and Ace.1R genes at high frequency. In most cases, the effects of the various treatments did not differ significantly. Five washes of the nets in soap solution did not reduce the impact of the insecticides on A. gambiae mortality, but did lead to an increase in blood feeding. The three combinations performed no differently from the single insecticide treatments, but the low dose mixture performed encouragingly well indicating that such combinations might be used for controlling insecticide resistant mosquitoes. Mortality of mosquitoes that carried both Ace.1R and Ace.1S genes did not differ significantly from mosquitoes that carried only Ace.1S genes on any of the treated nets, indicating that the Ace.1R allele does not confer effective resistance to chlorpyrifos-methyl under the realistic conditions of an experimental hut.

  17. Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 decreases p53-dependent apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Tianling; Biskup, Edyta; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette Rahbek;

    2016-01-01

    expression is 50% lower in CTCL cell lines (MyLa2000, SeAx and Hut-78) than in normal T-cells. USP2 is expressed in neoplastic cells in early, plaque-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) and is downregulated in advanced tumor stages. Upon treatment with psoralen with UVA (PUVA) or a p53 activator, nutlin3a, USP2...... expression is significantly increased in MyLa2000 (p53wt/wt), but not in SeAx (p53mut) or Hut-78 (p53-/-). USP2 knockdown decreases MyLa2000 cell viability after PUVA by 50% but not Hut-78, suggesting that the function of USP2 in CTCL cells is p53-dependent. Furthermore, USP2 knockdown results in a decreased...... Mdm2 expression and upregulation of p53. Taken together, our findings suggest that USP2 stabilizes Mdm2 which antagonizes pro-apoptotic activity of p53 and possibly contributes to therapeutic resistance in CTCL....

  18. The histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin synergizes with lenalidomide and enhances tumor cell death in T-cell lymphoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Maria; Civallero, Monica; Fiorcari, Stefania; Pozzi, Samantha; Marcheselli, Luigi; Bari, Alessia; Ferri, Paola; Sacchi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the cytotoxic interactions of romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent, in a T-cell lymphoma preclinical model. Hut-78 and Karpas-299 cells were treated with romidepsin and lenalidomide alone and in combination. The interaction between romidepsin and lenalidomide was evaluated by the Chou–Talalay method, and cell viability and clonogenicity were also evaluated. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry. ER stress, caspase activation, and the AKT, MAPK/ERK, and STAT-3 pathways were analyzed by Western blot. Combination treatment with romidepsin and lenalidomide had a synergistic effect in Hut-78 cells and an additive effect in Karpas-299 cells at 24 hours and did not decrease the viability of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This drug combination induced apoptosis, increased ROS production, and activated caspase-8, −9, −3 and PARP. Apoptosis was associated with increased hallmarks of ER stress and activation of UPR sensors and was mediated by dephosphorylation of the AKT, MAPK/ERK, and STAT3 pathways.The combination of romidepsin and lenalidomide shows promise as a possible treatment for T-cell lymphoma. This work provides a basis for further studies. PMID:27657380

  19. Thermal conditions of rock slopes below unstable infrastructure in Alpine permafrost area: the cases of the Cosmiques hut and the Grands Montets cable-car station (Mont Blanc massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Magnin, Florence; Mörtl, Christian; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Thermal state of steep permafrost-affected rock faces is crucial to assess the safety and reliability of mountain infrastructure as current permafrost degradation affects the rock slope stability. In the Mont-Blanc massif, 23 infrastructures are built on such a rock face with 13 of them that are characterized by a high risk of destabilization (Duvillard et al., 2015), including the upper station of the Grands Montets cable car (3325 m a.s.l.) as well as the Cosmiques hut (3613 m a.s.l.) on which we will focus. These two buildings have already been affected by different geomorphological processes. A rockfall event (600 m3) occurred for example on the SE face on the Arête inférieure des Cosmiques on the 21st of August 1998 (Ravanel et al., 2013) and the Grands Montets case shows a slow subsidence of the stairway over the last decade. In order to better assess the role of the permafrost in these processes and to gain insight on possible future geomorphic activity, we characterized the current permafrost conditions and simulated its changes up to the end of the 21st century using two complementary approaches: (i) the result of ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) surveys carried out in October 2016 on the northern and southern faces right below the Cosmiques hut (at the level of the foundations) and at the Aiguilles des Grands Montets; (ii) the modeling of mean annual rock surface temperature for 2016 and at the end of the 21st century (Magnin et al., in rev.). Duvillard P.-A., Ravanel L., Deline P. (2015). Risk assessment of infrastructure destabilisation due to global warming in the high French Alps. Journal of Alpine Research, 103 (2). Magnin F., Josnin J.-Y., Ravanel L., Pergaud J., Pohl B., Deline P. (in rev.). Modelling rock wall permafrost degradation in the Mont Blanc massif from the LIA to the end of the 21st century. The Cryosphere Discuss., doi:10.5194/tc-2016-132. Ravanel L., Deline P., Lambiel C. and Vincent C. (2013). Instability of a high alpine

  20. Efficacy of Olyset® Duo, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Côte d'Ivoire: an experimental hut trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Alphonsine A; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P; Djenontin, Armel; Kabran, Jean-Paul K; Dosso, Youssouf; Kone, Aboubacar; Moiroux, Nicolas; Pennetier, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors has spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative tools and molecules are urgently needed for effective vector control. One of the most promising strategies to prevent or delay the development of resistance is to use at least two molecules having unrelated modes of action in combination in the same bed net. We evaluated in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire, a new polyethylene long-lasting insecticidal net (LN) product, Olyset® Duo, incorporating permethrin (PER) and pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth regulator (IGR). PPF alone or in combination with permethrin had a significant impact on fertility (7-12% reduction relative to control) and no effect on fecundity of wild multi-resistant An. gambiae s.s. These results triggered crucial research questions on the behaviour of targeted mosquitoes around the LN. To maximize the sterilizing effect of PPF in the combination, there would be a need for a trade-off between the necessary contact time of the insect with PPF and the surface content of the pyrethroid insecticide that is bioavailable and induces excito-repellency. © A.A. Koffi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  1. Efficacy of Olyset® Duo, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Côte d’Ivoire: an experimental hut trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Alphonsine A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors has spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative tools and molecules are urgently needed for effective vector control. One of the most promising strategies to prevent or delay the development of resistance is to use at least two molecules having unrelated modes of action in combination in the same bed net. We evaluated in experimental huts in Côte d’Ivoire, a new polyethylene long-lasting insecticidal net (LN product, Olyset® Duo, incorporating permethrin (PER and pyriproxyfen (PPF, an insect growth regulator (IGR. PPF alone or in combination with permethrin had a significant impact on fertility (7–12% reduction relative to control and no effect on fecundity of wild multi-resistant An. gambiae s.s. These results triggered crucial research questions on the behaviour of targeted mosquitoes around the LN. To maximize the sterilizing effect of PPF in the combination, there would be a need for a trade-off between the necessary contact time of the insect with PPF and the surface content of the pyrethroid insecticide that is bioavailable and induces excito-repellency.

  2. Activation of intracellular angiotensin AT2 receptors induces rapid cell death in human uterine leiomyosarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Fritsch, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The presence of AT2 receptors in mitochondria and their role in NO generation and cell aging were recently demonstrated in various human and mouse non-tumour cells. We investigated the intracellular distribution of AT2 receptors including their presence in mitochondria and the role in the induction...... densities in mitochondria. Activation of the cell membrane AT2 receptors by a concomitant treatment with angiotensin II and the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, induces apoptosis but does not affect the rate of cell death. We demonstrate for the first time that the high-affinity, non-peptide AT2 receptor...... of apoptosis and cell death in cultured human uterine leiomyosarcoma (SK-UT-1) cells and control human uterine smooth muscle cells (HutSMC). The intracellular levels of the AT2 receptor are low in proliferating SK-UT-1 cells but the receptor is substantially up-regulated in quiescent SK-UT-1 cells with high...

  3. Activation of intracellular angiotensin AT₂ receptors induces rapid cell death in human uterine leiomyosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Fritsch, Jürgen; Zuhayra, Maaz; Schütze, Stefan; Steckelings, Ulrike M; Recanti, Chiara; Namsoleck, Pawel; Unger, Thomas; Culman, Juraj

    2015-05-01

    The presence of angiotensin type 2 (AT₂) receptors in mitochondria and their role in NO generation and cell aging were recently demonstrated in various human and mouse non-tumour cells. We investigated the intracellular distribution of AT₂ receptors including their presence in mitochondria and their role in the induction of apoptosis and cell death in cultured human uterine leiomyosarcoma (SK-UT-1) cells and control human uterine smooth muscle cells (HutSMC). The intracellular levels of the AT₂ receptor are low in proliferating SK-UT-1 cells but the receptor is substantially up-regulated in quiescent SK-UT-1 cells with high densities in mitochondria. Activation of the cell membrane AT₂ receptors by a concomitant treatment with angiotensin II and the AT₁ receptor antagonist, losartan, induces apoptosis but does not affect the rate of cell death. We demonstrate for the first time that the high-affinity, non-peptide AT₂ receptor agonist, Compound 21 (C21), penetrates the cell membrane of quiescent SK-UT-1 cells, activates intracellular AT₂ receptors and induces rapid cell death; approximately 70% of cells died within 24 h. The cells, which escaped cell death, displayed activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, i.e. down-regulation of the Bcl-2 protein, induction of the Bax protein and activation of caspase-3. All quiescent SK-UT-1 cells died within 5 days after treatment with a single dose of C21. C21 was devoid of cytotoxic effects in proliferating SK-UT-1 cells and in quiescent HutSMC. Our results point to a new, unique approach enabling the elimination non-cycling uterine leiomyosarcoma cells providing that they over-express the AT₂ receptor.

  4. Photodynamic effects on T-cells and skin lesions of a patient with mycosis fungoides using porphyrin photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Karsten; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning; Rueck, Angelika C.; Kaufmann, Roland; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Sterry, Wolfram

    1994-02-01

    PUVA is a well established phototreatment modality for various dermatoses, like T cell lymphomas, using long-wavelength UV radiation. In contrast, PDT bases on the combination of photosensitizers, especially porphyrins, and radiation mainly in the red spectral region. We analyzed the photochemical effects of both treatments on cell lines MyLa and HuT78, established from patients with cutaneous T cell lymphomas. Our observations document the capability of PDT to inhibit proliferation of transformed T cells similar to PUVA thus pointing out its potential in the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphomas.

  5. Evaluation of PermaNet 3.0 a deltamethrin-PBO combination net against Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malima Robert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combination mosquito nets incorporating two unrelated insecticides or insecticide plus synergist are designed to control insecticide resistant mosquitoes. PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance. Method An experimental hut trial comparing PermaNet 3.0, PermaNet 2.0 and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net was conducted in NE Tanzania using standard WHOPES procedures. The PermaNet arms included unwashed nets and nets washed 20 times. PermaNet 2.0 is a long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating deltamethrin as a single active. Results Against pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to unwashed PermaNet 2.0 in terms of mortality (95% killed, but showed differences in blood-feeding rate (3% blood-fed with PermaNet 3.0 versus 10% with PermaNet 2.0. After 20 washes the two products showed no difference in feeding rate (10% with 3.0 and 9% with 2.0 but showed small differences in mortality (95% with 3.0 and 87% with 2.0. Against pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus, mediated by elevated oxidase and kdr mechanisms, the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed 48% and PermaNet 2.0 killed 32% but after 20 washes there was no significant difference in mortality between the two products (32% killed by 3.0 and 30% by 2.0. For protecting against Culex PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to PermaNet 2.0 when either unwashed or after 20 washes; both products were highly protective against biting. Laboratory tunnel bioassays confirmed the loss of biological activity of the PBO/deltamethrin-treated panel after washing. Conclusion Both PermaNet products were highly effective against susceptible Anopheles gambiae. As a long-lasting net to control or protect against pyrethroid

  6. Efficacy of PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Alphonsine A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistance in vectors could limit the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs because all LLINs are currently treated with pyrethroids. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and wash resistance of PermaNet® 3.0 compared to PermaNet® 2.0 in an area of high pyrethroid in Côte d'Ivoire. PermaNet® 3.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 85 mg/m2 on the sides of the net and with deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide on the roof. PermaNet® 2.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2 across the entire net. Methods The study was conducted in the station of Yaokoffikro, in central Côte d'Ivoire. The efficacy of intact unwashed and washed LLINs was compared over a 12-week period with a conventionally-treated net (CTN washed to just before exhaustion. WHO cone bioassays were performed on sub-sections of the nets, using wild-resistant An. gambiae and Kisumu strains. Mosquitoes were collected five days per week and were identified to genus and species level and classified as dead or alive, then unfed or blood-fed. Results Mortality rates of over 80% from cone bioassays with wild-caught pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s were recorded only with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0. Over 12 weeks, a total of 7,291 mosquitoes were collected. There were significantly more An. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. caught in control huts than with other treatments (P An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp, were lower for the control than for other treatments (P 0.05 except for unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 (P Conclusions This study showed that unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 caused significantly higher mortality against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp than PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN. The increased efficacy with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 over PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN was also demonstrated by higher KD and mortality rates (KD > 95% and mortality rate > 80% in cone bioassays performed with wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s

  7. UKRAINIAN HUT - RETURN TO THE HISTORY

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    BABENKO V. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Today's generation of young people is at the crossroads of different ages, outlooks, in transition between past and future. It is very difficult to find their identity in the modern world, find themselves in time and history ... The transfer of national experience of each state, attracting traditions, norms and values of each people to cultural and historical treasure of the world has always been, is and will be the most important functions of education in the historical development mankind. Collective monograph "History and tradition hatobuduvannya Ukrainian Dnipro region" is a significant step in achieving this primary function of education. This work, with which you can solve important tasks now facing the humanitarian academic disciplines such as help the young person understand the most important humanistic values and traditions of our society; promote understanding of the nature of social and interpersonal relations, their sociocultural and other aspects; orient students to study subjects that form in their understanding of the identity of the individual, helping to master a certain amount of knowledge that underlie the formation of personal citizenship. Analysis of previous publications. Detection of the social nature and essence of tradition and history ukrayinskohonarodnohozhytla, its role and place in society, correlation and mechanism of succession as a prerequisite for social progress, dedicated work Voropay A., G. Chubinskogo Bulasheva A., H. Wolf, V.Voytovych [ 3; 6; 1; 2; 4] and other scientists. The authors gathered economically Ukrainian traditions prevailing among the people for many centuries the lives of our ancestors. Modern scholars A. Danyluk, V. Samoilovych, Mr. Yurchenko [5; 7] and highlighted the continued use of Ukrainian traditions in hatno-commercial construction. Nevertheless there are very few developments relating to such influential in economic and industrial terms, the region as the Dnieper region. Conclusions. Having the honor to participate at least in a way this is extremely important and profound book about Ukraine and Ukrainians want to complete their review of our words of prominent Ukrainian historian and culture expert Miroslav Popovich: "... Ukraine makes people not blood and earth. Ukraine makes them and the culture in which they are involved ... Ukraine - people who maintain and develop from generation to generation certain standard of living, values and norms, life and culture ... Buildings, books, music, live only when they read, perceive understand. What a huge and bottomless that dumb us the walls of ancient monasteries and pages of new and old books - silent until we find the key to understanding and empathy - all that is a national culture, without which callous earth and stranger blood ... options accident and loss of values lot revival only one option. This careful preservation of all that served in our history, truth, goodness and beauty. "

  8. THE HUT ME SKIN AS TRANSITIONAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Rota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This was a keynote address delivered at the International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France. Focus was on individual sessions and art therapy with play as a way to create a space for creation and emerging of Self.

  9. Detecting hidden sources-STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The task of the team was to locate and to identify hidden sources in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and 5`x5` NaI system. The team found two sources in real-time and additional two sources after 24 h analysis time. After the locations and characteristics of the sources were announced it was found out that altogether six sources would have been possible to find using the measured data. The total number of sources was ten. The NaI detector was good at detecting and locating the sources and HPGe was most useful in identification and calculation of the activity estimates. The following development should be made: 1) larger detectors are needed, 2) the software has to be improved. (This has been performed after the exercise) and 3) the navigation must be based on DGPS. visual navigation causes easily gaps between the flight lines and some sources may not be detected. (au).

  10. Carborne fallout mapping - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, P.; Nikkinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the summer 1995 altogether 8,625 spectrometric and 3,108 dose-rate measurements were performed in Padasjoki Auttoinen village using carborne measuring devices. As a result {sup 137}Cs fallout and dose-rate maps were produced. The highest measured values in the test area II were 160 kBq m{sup -2} for fallout and 0.22 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} for dose-rate. One hot spot was found beside the test area (dose rate 0.31 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}). On the cultivated areas the measured count rates in {sup 137}Cs-window are three to four times lower than in the forest areas in average, indicating an altered depth profile of caesium. (au).

  11. Chemotherapeutic treatment is associated with Notch1 induction in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Biskup, Edyta; Manfè, Valentina; Savorani, Cecilia; Liszewski, Walter; Wirèn, Johan; Specht, Lena; Gniadecki, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The Notch pathway is important for survival of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) cells. We investigated the effect of chemotherapy (doxorubicin, etoposide, and gemcitabine) and radiation modalities on Notch signaling in CTCL cell lines. Chemotherapy induced Notch1 expression at the mRNA and protein level in MyLa2000 and Hut78. Upregulation of well-established Notch targets supported the functional activity of Notch1. Transfection of Notch1 siRNA into MyLa2000 cells was not able to suppress the effects of chemotherapy on Notch1 activation significantly. Notch1 knockdown in combination with doxorubicin, etoposide, or gemcitabine compared to chemotherapy alone decreased cell viability by 12, 20, and 26%, respectively (p < 0.05). Additionally, X-rays (in MyLa2000 but not SeAx) and psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) (in MyLa2000, Hut78, and SeAx) increased the expression of Notch1 family members. Our results indicate that CTCL cells activate the Notch pathway in vitro in response to chemotherapy and radiation modalities as a possible protective mechanism.

  12. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits tax-dependent activation of nuclear factor kappa B and of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 positive leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Azar, Rania; Hassan, Hani Mutlak Abdulla; Tayeb, Safwan; Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil; Damanhouri, Ghazi Abdullah; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Abuzenadah, Adel; Chaudhary, Adeel; Kumosani, Taha; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Mathias; Yacoub, Haitham; Azhar, Esam; Barbour, Elie

    2014-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenol molecule from green tea and is known to exhibit antioxidative as well as tumor suppressing activity. In order to examine EGCG tumor invasion and suppressing activity against adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), two HTLV-1 positive leukemia cells (HuT-102 and C91- PL) were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of EGCG for 2 and 4 days. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by 100 μM at 4 days, with low cell lysis or cytotoxicity. HTLV-1 oncoprotein (Tax) expression in HuT- 102 and C91-PL cells was inhibited by 25 μM and 125 μM respectively. The same concentrations of EGCG inhibited NF-kB nuclearization and stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in both cell lines. These results indicate that EGCG can inhibit proliferation and reduce the invasive potential of HTLV-1- positive leukemia cells. It apparently exerted its effects by suppressing Tax expression, manifested by inhibiting the activation of NF-kB pathway and induction of MMP-9 transcription in HTLV-1 positive cells.

  13. Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

  14. The use of wide-mesh gauze impregnated with lambda-cyhalothrin covering wall openings in huts as a vector control method in Suriname Uso de tela de malha larga impregnada com lamba-cyhalotrina como método de controle vetorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Voorham

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available An alternative vector control method, using lambda-cyhalothrin impregnated wide-mesh gauze covering openings in the walls of the houses was developed in an area in the Eastern part of the interior of Suriname. Experimental hut observations showed that Anopheles darlingi greatly reduced their biting activity (99-100% during the first 5 months after impregnation. A model assay showed high mortality both of mosquitoes repelled by the gauze as well as of those that succeeded in getting through it. A field application test in 270 huts showed good acceptance by the population and good durability of the applied gauze. After introducing the method in the entire working area, replacing DDT residual housespraying, the malaria prevalence, of 25-37% before application dropped and stabilized at between 5 and 10% within one year. The operational costs were less than those of the previously used DDT housespraying program, due to a 50% reduction in the cost of materials used. The method using widemesh gauze impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin strongly affects the behavior of An. darlingi. It is important to examine the effect of the method on malaria transmission further, since data indirectly obtained suggest substantial positive results.Foi desenvolvido, na parte oriental do interior do Suriname um método alternativo de controle antivetorial, usando uma tela de malha larga impregnada com lambda-cyhalotrina, cobrindo as aberturas das paredes das casas. Observações com casas experimentais mostraram uma redução de picadas muita alta (99% de Anopheles darlingi durante os primeiros 5 meses após a impregnação. Um ensaio mostrou alta mortalidade dos mosquitos, repelidos ao tentar passar pelo tule, além daqueles que conseguiram passar. A aplicação no campo revelou resultados promissores deste método de controle antivetorial, boa aprovação da população e baixos custos operacionais em relação à borrifação residual com DDT.

  15. Pterostilbene Induces Cell Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma by Suppressing the ERK1/2 Pathway

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    Gaomei Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterostilbene is a natural 3,5-dimethoxy analog of trans-resveratrol that has been reported to have antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is one of the more aggressive yet uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Although there has been increasing research into T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, the molecular mechanisms of the antitumor effects of pterostilbene against this malignancy are still largely unknown. The aim of this study is to confirm the effects of pterostilbene in T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Jurkat and Hut-78 cells treated with pterostilbene were evaluated for cell proliferation using Cell Counting Kit-8, and apoptosis, cell cycle progression, reactive oxygen species generation, and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed using flow cytometry. The level of protein expression was detected by western blot. The results demonstrated that pterostilbene significantly inhibited the growth of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cell lines in vitro and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, pterostilbene treatment markedly induced S-phase cell cycle arrest, which was accompanied by downregulation of cdc25A, cyclin A2, and CDK2. Pterostilbene also induced the generation of reactive oxygen species and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our study demonstrated the potential of pterostilbene to be an effective treatment for T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

  16. Inhibition of interleukin-13 gene expression in T cells through GATA-3 pathway by arsenic trioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xin; HE Hai-yan; YANG Yan; DAI Shan-lin; SUN Pei-li; YIN Kai-sheng; HUANG Mao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Arsenic trioxide (AT) has a long history of use in both traditional Chinese medicine and in modern medicine in asthma therapy.Recently,Yin et al1 found that AT even at small doses reduced the airway inflammation of sensitized guinea pigs.However the mechanism underlying this is still largely unknown.Interleukin 13 (IL-13),as one of the important TH2 cytokines,plays an important role in asthma pathogenesis through promoting eosinophilic inflammation,mucus secretion and airway hyperresponsiveness.2 To further explore the molecular anti-inflammatory basis of AT,we employed Hut-78 cells,a human T cell line,with activation via CD3/CD28 receptors to mimick in vivo co-stimulation to investigate the effect of AT on IL-13 transcription.

  17. Instrumented Suit Hard Upper Torso (HUT) for Ergonomic Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crewmembers undergo strenuous suited training for EVA missions. Frequent exposure to such activities can eventually lead to Cumulative Trauma Disorders/Injuries and...

  18. Mom’s Hut,A Restful Harbor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1996-01-01

    I have become very fond of returning to my own parents’ home, and to my mother’s side, ever since I was 30. When I am tired of life in the noisy city and being a mother and wife, returning to my mother’s side makes me feel like a daughter again. There I am free from worries and can enjoy the tender care and love of my mother. In the morning, lying in bed lazily in the most comfortable posture, I do not need to urge my son to get up for school. The clatter Mother makes when she goes to the kitchen to prepare breakfast is the

  19. Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Hui Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs are postulated to play critical roles in cancer development, including metastasis and recurrence, CSC imaging would provide valuable information for cancer treatment and lead to CSC-targeted therapy. To assess the possibility of in vivo CSC targeting, we conducted basic studies on radioimmunotargeting of cancer cells positive for CD133, a CSC marker recognized in various cancers. Antibodies against CD133 were labeled with 125I, and their in vitro cell binding properties were tested. Using the same isotype IgG as a control, in vivo biodistribution of the labeled antibody retaining immunoreactivity was examined in mice bearing an HCT116 xenograft in which a population of the cancer cells expressed CD133. Intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody was examined and compared to the CD133 expression pattern. The 125I-labeled anti-CD133 antibody showed a modest but significantly higher accumulation in the HCT116 xenograft compared to the control IgG. The intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody mostly overlapped with the CD133 expression, whereas the control IgG was found in the area close to the necrotic tumor center. Our results indicate that noninvasive in vivo targeting of CSCs could be possible with radiolabeled antibodies against cell membrane markers.

  20. The antihistamines clemastine and desloratadine inhibit STAT3 and c-Myc activities and induce apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döbbeling, Udo; Waeckerle-Men, Ying; Zabel, Franziska; Graf, Nicole; Kündig, Thomas M; Johansen, Pål

    2013-02-01

    Mycosis fungoides and its leukaemic counterpart Sézary syndrome are the most frequent cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL), and there is no cure for these diseases. We evaluated the effect of clinically approved antihistamines on the growth of CTCL cell lines. CTCL cell lines as well as blood lymphocytes from patients with Sézary syndrome were cultured with antihistamines, and the cell were analysed for proliferation, apoptosis and expression of programmed death molecules and transcription factors. The two antihistamines clemastine and desloratadine, currently used for symptom alleviation in allergy, induced potent reduction of the activities of the constitutively active transcription factors c-Myc, STAT3, STAT5a and STAT5b in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome cell lines. This inhibition was followed by apoptosis and cell death, especially in the Sézary syndrome-derived cell line Hut78 that also showed increased expression of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) after clemastine treatment. In lymphocytes isolated from Sézary syndrome patients, the CD4-positive fraction underwent apoptosis after clemastine treatment, while CD4-negative lymphocytes were little affected. Because both c-Myc and STAT transcription factors are highly expressed in proliferating tumours, their inhibition by clemastine, desloratadine and other inhibitors could complement established chemotherapies not only for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas but perhaps also other cancers.

  1. Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-activated dendritic cells promote HIV-1 trans-infection and suppress CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wan; Qin, Yan; Bai, Lei [Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Lan, Ke [Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jian-Hua, E-mail: Jh_wang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2013-06-05

    Infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is commonly occurred in AIDS patients. KSHV and HIV-1 act cooperatively in regulating infection with each other and in human carcinogenesis. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the pivotal cells in host immunity, may be modulated by both viruses, for immunoevasion and dissemination, therefore, the interaction between DCs and each virus has been a prior focus for pathogenesis elucidation. Here, we assessed the potential effect of KSHV on DC–HIV-1 interaction. We found that KSHV stimulation could promote maturation of monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4{sup +} T cells, demonstrating the immunosuppression induced by KSHV. More importantly, KSHV-stimulated MDDCs could capture more HIV-1 and efficiently transferred these infectious viruses to Hut/CCR5 T cell line. Our results reveal the novel modulation of DC-mediated HIV-1 dissemination by KSHV, and highlight the importance of studying DC–HIV-1 interaction to elucidate HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. - Highlights: ► KSHV impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4{sup +} T cells. ► KSHV stimulation matured MDDCs and enhanced HIV-1 endocytosis. ► KSHV stimulated MDDCs increased ICAM-1 expression and tighten contact with T cells. ► KSHV-stimulated MDDCs promoted HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4{sup +} T cells.

  2. Multiparameter cell affinity chromatography: separation and analysis in a single microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Gao, Yan; Pappas, Dimitri

    2012-10-02

    The ability to sort and capture more than one cell type from a complex sample will enable a wide variety of studies of cell proliferation and death and the analysis of disease states. In this work, we integrated a pneumatic actuated control layer to an affinity separation layer to create different antibody-coating regions on the same fluidic channel. The comparison of different antibody capture capabilities to the same cell line was demonstrated by flowing Ramos cells through anti-CD19- and anti-CD71-coated regions in the same channel. It was determined that the cell capture density on the anti-CD19 region was 2.44 ± 0.13 times higher than that on the anti-CD71-coated region. This approach can be used to test different affinity molecules for selectivity and capture efficiency using a single cell line in one separation. Selective capture of Ramos and HuT 78 cells from a mixture was also demonstrated using two antibody regions in the same channel. Greater than 90% purity was obtained on both capture areas in both continuous flow and stop flow separation modes. A four-region antibody-coated device was then fabricated to study the simultaneous, serial capture of three different cell lines. In this case the device showed effective capture of cells in a single separation channel, opening up the possibility of multiple cell sorting. Multiparameter sequential blood sample analysis was also demonstrated with high capture specificity (>97% for both CD19+ and CD4+ leukocytes). The chip can also be used to selectively treat cells after affinity separation.

  3. Ellipticine induces apoptosis in T-cell lymphoma via oxidative DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savorani, Cecilia; Manfé, Valentina; Biskup, Edyta; Gniadecki, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is often mutated in human cancers. Restoring its antitumor activity has been shown to be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. Here we analyzed the activity and mechanism of a p53 reactivator, ellipticine, in a cellular model of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a disease that is progressive, chemoresistant and refractory to treatment. We tested the effect of ellipticine in three cell lines with different p53 status: MyLa2000 (p53(wt/wt)), SeAx ((G245S)p53) and Hut-78 ((R196Stop)p53). Ellipticine caused apoptosis in MyLa2000 and SeAx and restored the transcriptional activity of (G245S)p53 in SeAx. However, p53 siRNA knockdown experiments revealed that p53 was not required for ellipticine-induced apoptosis in CTCL. The lipophilic antioxidant α-tocopherol inhibited ellipticine-dependent apoptosis and we linked the apoptotic response to the oxidative DNA damage. Our results provide evidence that ellipticine-induced apoptosis is exerted through DNA damage and does not require p53 activation in T-cell lymphoma.

  4. Measurement of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard

    2014-08-01

    Recently, the occurrence of 2',3'-cyclic nucleoside monophosphates (2',3'-cNMPs) in addition to 3',5'-cNMPs in mammalian tissues was reported. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the measurement of four 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides, i.e., 2',3'-cAMP, 2',3'-cCMP, 2',3'-cGMP, 2',3'-cUMP, in cell samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax eclipse XCB-C18 (50 mm×4.6 mm; 1.8 μm column; Agilent) connected to a QTRAP5500 system (AB Sciex) operating in positive ionization mode. Calibration curves were constructed in the range 0.41 fmol/μL to 1666.6 fmol/μL for 2',3'-cAMP, 2',3'-cCMP, and 2',3'-cGMP, and 3.3-1666.6 fmol/μL for 2',3'-cUMP, respectively, showing squared correlation coefficients >0.9992. Accuracy and inter- and intra-day precision lay within the required ranges of <20% for LLOQ and <15% for higher concentration levels. The method was applied to the analysis of nucleotides in two different cell lines (Hek293T and HuT-78). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. LFA-1/ICAM-1 Ligation in Human T Cells Promotes Th1 Polarization through a GSK3β Signaling-Dependent Notch Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Navin K; Fazil, M H U Turabe; Ong, Seow Theng; Chalasani, Madhavi Latha S; Low, Jian Hui; Kottaiswamy, Amuthavalli; P, Praseetha; Kizhakeyil, Atish; Kumar, Sunil; Panda, Aditya K; Freeley, Michael; Smith, Sinead M; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kelleher, Dermot

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report that the integrin LFA-1 cross-linking with its ligand ICAM-1 in human PBMCs or CD4(+) T cells promotes Th1 polarization by upregulating IFN-γ secretion and T-bet expression. LFA-1 stimulation in PBMCs, CD4(+) T cells, or the T cell line HuT78 activates the Notch pathway by nuclear translocation of cleaved Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) and upregulation of target molecules Hey1 and Hes1. Blocking LFA-1 by a neutralizing Ab or specific inhibition of Notch1 by a γ-secretase inhibitor substantially inhibits LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated activation of Notch signaling. We further demonstrate that the Notch pathway activation is dependent on LFA-1/ICAM-1-induced inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is mediated via Akt and ERK. Furthermore, in silico analysis in combination with coimmunoprecipitation assays show an interaction between NICD and GSK3β. Thus, there exists a molecular cross-talk between LFA-1 and Notch1 through the Akt/ERK-GSK3β signaling axis that ultimately enhances T cell differentiation toward Th1. Although clinical use of LFA-1 antagonists is limited by toxicity related to immunosuppression, these findings support the concept that Notch inhibitors could be attractive for prevention or treatment of Th1-related immunologic disorders and have implications at the level of local inflammatory responses.

  6. Cell-based laboratory evaluation of coagulation activation by antineoplastic drugs for the treatment of lymphoid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misae Tsunaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Combining vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin (Dox led to improved response rates in the treatment of lymphoid tumors. However, deep-vein thrombosis has been noted as one of the most serious side effects with these drugs, and how these regimens cause deep-vein thrombosis is unclear. Methods: We investigated the procoagulant effects of vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin in lymphoid tumors, focusing on tissue factor, phosphatidylserine, and antithrombin. The human vascular endothelial cell line EAhy926 as well as the lymphoid neoplastic cell lines HUT78 (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, Molt4 (acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia, and Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma were employed to investigate these procoagulant effects. Results: Vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin induced exposure of phosphatidylserine and procoagulant activity on the surface of lymphoid tumor cells. Vorinostat and doxorubicin also induced phosphatidylserine exposure and increased procoagulant activity on EAhy926 cells. Expression of tissue factor antigen was induced by doxorubicin on the surface of each type of cells, whereas expression of tissue factor mRNA was unchanged. Secretion of antithrombin from HepG2 cells was reduced only by L-asparaginase. Conclusion: These data suggest that vorinostat and doxorubicin may induce procoagulant activity in vessels through apoptosis of tumor cells and through phosphatidylserine exposure and/or tissue factor expression on vascular endothelial cells. L-asparaginase may induce a thrombophilic state by reducing the secretion of anticoagulant proteins such as antithrombin. The laboratory methods described here could be useful to evaluate the procoagulant effects of antineoplastic drugs.

  7. 13-methyltetradecanoic acid exhibits anti-tumor activity on T-cell lymphomas in vitro and in vivo by down-regulating p-AKT and activating caspase-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Cai

    Full Text Available 13-Methyltetradecanoic acid (13-MTD, a saturated branched-chain fatty acid purified from soy fermentation products, induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. We investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanism of action of 13-MTD on T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-NHL cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Growth inhibition in response to 13-MTD was evaluated by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay in three T-NHL cell lines (Jurkat, Hut78, EL4 cells. Flow cytometry analyses were used to monitor the cell cycle and apoptosis. Proteins involved in 13-MTD-induced apoptosis were examined in Jurkat cells by western blotting. We found that 13-MTD inhibited proliferation and induced the apoptosis of T-NHL cell lines. 13-MTD treatment also induced a concentration-dependent arrest of Jurkat cells in the G1-phase. During 13-MTD-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, a caspase enzymolysis product were detected after incubation for 2 h, and increased after extending the incubation time. However, there was no change in the expression of Bcl-2 or c-myc proteins. The appearance of apoptotic Jurkat cells was accompanied by the inhibition of AKT and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB phosphorylation. In addition, 13-MTD could also effectively inhibit the growth of T-NHL tumors in vivo in a xenograft model. The tumor inhibition rate in the experimental group was 40%. These data indicate that 13-MTD inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation followed by caspase activation, which may provide a new approach for treating T-cell lymphomas.

  8. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against the gp46 of human T-cell leukemia virus type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, E; Legrand, E; Astier-Gin, T; Dalibart, R; Geoffre, S; Dalbon, P; Guillemain, B; Londos-Gagliardi, D

    1994-04-01

    Essential HTLV-I biological functions depend on the structural motives of the surface glycoprotein (gp46). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been generated in order to identify functional regions of gp46. We obtained three monoclonal antibodies (3F3F10, 4F5F6 and 7G5D8) by immunizing Balb/c mice with beta-propiolactone inactivated HTLV-I producing cells and partially purified gp46. The mAbs are of the IgG 1 subclass. They have been characterized by western blot analysis, reactivity with HTLV-I and HTLV-II producing cells and ELISA binding assays using synthetic peptides. The immunoblot analysis performed with sheets prepared with the virus released by HUT 102 and 2060 cells (an HTLV-I virus producing cell line established in our laboratory) indicate that the three mAbs recognize a 46 kDa product as did the anti -gp46 mAb 0.5 alpha (18). Reactivity of the three mAbs with various cell lines was examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The mAb 7G5D8 stained strongly the membrane of all HTLV-I producing cells (MT2, C91/PL, HUT102 and cells of seven lines established in our laboratory and by A. Gessain); uninfected lymphoid cells (HSB-2, MOLT 4, CEM and PHA activated lymphocytes from normal donors) were negative. Interestingly cells of a HTLV-II producing line (344 MO) were positive. The mAbs 3F3F10 and 4F5F6 reacted with the same cells as did 7G5D8 but the fluorescence intensity was much lower than that observed with this later. A long synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunodominant region of the gp46 defined by the amino acids 175-199 and 10-mer peptides overlapping this region were used in an approach to identify the recognized epitope(s). The long 175-199 peptide was recognized by the three mAbs. 3F3F10 and 4F5F6 recognized none of the 10-mer peptides whereas 7G5D8 bound to 186-195 and 182-191 peptides. In addition 7G5D8 did not inhibit either syncytia formation or virus infection. In view of the data concerning the previously described mAbs 0.5 alpha

  9. The Structural Insulated Panel SIP Hut: Preliminary Evaluation of Energy Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-19

    labor hours 80.00 91.25 60.75 240.00 Labor cost (hrs x wage rate) $1,753.60 $2,000.20 $1,331.64 $5,260.80 Material cost* $14,500.00 $14,500.00...cost, a mean hourly wage of $21.92 was used (Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wages , May... ceiling ) basic wood-framed uninsulated structure with exterior and interior ply- wood walls, interior plywood ceiling , and a metal over plywood covered

  10. Chagas disease: from bush to huts and houses. Is it the case of the Brazilian amazon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coura José Rodrigues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the major problems facing the Amazon - human migration from the other areas and uncontrolled deforestation - constitute the greatest risk for the establishment of endemic Chagas disease in this part of Brazil. At least 18 species of triatomines had been found in the Brazilian Amazon, 10 of them infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, associated with numerous wild reservoirs. With wide-range deforestation, wild animals will perforce be driven into other areas, with tendency for triatomines to become adapted to alternative food sources in peri and intradomicilies. Serological surveys and cross-sectional studies for Chagas disease, carried out in rural areas of the Rio Negro, in the Brazilian Amazon, showed a high level of seropositivity for T. cruzi antibodies. A strong correlation of seroreactivity with the contact of gatherers of piaçava fibers with wild triatomines could be evidenced.

  11. Huts and Nuts’ or ’Hearts and Minds?’ -- Anthropologists and Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-06

    military. During World War I, a leading cultural anthropologist Franz Boas publicly criticized four of his contemporaries for using their profession as...Ku Klux Klan. Ruth Benedict’s mentor Franz Boas was the first to introduce “scientific antiracism” which Benedict faithfully fleshed out in her 1934

  12. Source passing test in Vesivehmaa air field - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, P.; Nikkinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Carborne radiation monitors were tested for point source responses at distances 10 m, 20 m, 50 m, 100 m, 150 m, and 200 m using speed of 20 km h{sup -1} and 50 km h{sup -1}. A large pressurised ionisation chamber (PIC), and HPGe detector (relative efficiency 36.9%) and a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector (size 5`x5`) were used. The sources had a nominal activity of 22 MBq ({sup 60}Co) and 1.85 GBq ({sup 137}Cs). The {sup 60}Co source strength was under the detection limit in all measurements. The detection of the {sup 137}Cs source is visually clear up to 50 m for the spectrometers and up to 20 m for PIC. Statistical analysis shows that {sup 137}Cs source could be detected up to 100 m with the spectrometers and up to 50 m with PIC if the background is well known. (au).

  13. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs on a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and NaI system (5`x5`). Both systems produced similar maps. The average {sup 137}Cs fallout within the area (lakes and ponds included) was 88 kBq m{sup -2,} the maximum value being 161 kBq m{sup -2}. In an emergency the HPGe is superior to NaI because of its better energy resolution, giving possibility to obtain nuclide-specific results. (au).

  14. Direct differentiation of atrial and ventricular myocytes from human embryonic stem cells by alternating retinoid signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiangzhe Zhang; Li Chen; Tian Tian; Xin Wang; Pu Li; Jurgen Hescheler; Guangju Ji; Yue Ma; Junjie Jiang; Pengcheng Han; Qi Yuan; Jing Zhang; Xiaoqian Zhang; Yanyan Xu; Henghua Cao; Qingzhang Meng

    2011-01-01

    Although myocyte cell transplantation studies have suggested a promising therapeutic potential for myocardial infarction, a major obstacle to the development of clinical therapies for myocardial repair is the difficulties associated with obtaining relatively homogeneous ventricular myocytes for transplantation. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)are a promising source of cardiomyocytes. Here we report that retinoid signaling regulates the fate specification of atrial versus ventricular myocytes during cardiac differentiation of hESCs. We found that both Noggin and the panretinoic acid receptor antagonist BMS-189453 (RAi) significantly increased the cardiac differentiation efficiency of hESCs. To investigate retinoid functions, we compared Noggin+RAi-treated cultures with Noggin+RA-treated cultures. Our results showed that the expression levels of the ventricular-specific gene IRX-4 were radically elevated in Noggin+RAi-treated cultures. MLC-2V, another ventricular-specific marker, was expressed in the majority of the cardiomyocytes in Noggin+RAi-treated cultures, hut not in the cardiomyocytes of Noggin+RA-treated cultures. Flow cytometry analysis and electrophysiologicai studies indicated that with 64.7 ± 0.88% (mean ± s.e.m) cardiac differentiation efficiency, 83% of the cardiomyocytes in Noggin+RAi-treated cultures had embryonic ventricular-like action potentials (APs). With 50.7 ± 1.76% cardiac differentiation efficiency, 94% of the cardiomyocytes in Noggin+RA-treated cultures had embryonic atrial-like APs. These results were further confirmed by imaging studies that assessed the patterns and properties of the Ca2+ sparks of the cardiomyocytes from the two cultures. These findings demonstrate that retinoid signaling specifies the atrial versus ventricular differentiation of hESCs. This study also shows that relatively homogeneous embryonic atrial- and ventricular-like myocyte populations can be efficiently derived from hESCs by specifically regulating Noggin

  15. Lateral Mobility and Nanoscale Spatial Arrangement of Chemokine-activated α4β1 Integrins on T Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Costa, Alberto; Isern de Val, Sol; Sevilla-Movilla, Silvia; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine stimulation of integrin α4β1-dependent T lymphocyte adhesion is a key step during lymphocyte trafficking. A central question regarding α4β1 function is how its lateral mobility and organization influence its affinity and avidity following cell stimulation with chemokines and/or ligands. Using single particle tracking and superresolution imaging approaches, we explored the lateral mobility and spatial arrangement of individual α4β1integrins on T cells exposed to different activating stimuli. We show that CXCL12 stimulation leads to rapid and transient α4β1activation, measured by induction of the activation epitope recognized by the HUTS-21 anti-β1antibody and by increased talin-β1 association. CXCL12-dependent α4β1 activation directly correlated with restricted lateral diffusion and integrin immobilization. Moreover, co-stimulation by CXCL12 together with soluble VCAM-1 potentiated integrin immobilization with a 5-fold increase in immobile integrins compared with unstimulated conditions. Our data indicate that docking by talin of the chemokine-activated α4β1 to the actin cytoskeleton favors integrin immobilization, which likely facilitates ligand interaction and increased adhesiveness. Superresolution imaging showed that the nanoscale organization of high-affinity α4β1 remains unaffected following chemokine and/or ligand addition. Instead, newly activated α4β1 integrins organize on the cell membrane as independent units without joining pre-established integrin sites to contribute to cluster formation. Altogether, our results provide a rationale to understand how the spatiotemporal organization of activated α4β1 integrins regulates T lymphocyte adhesion. PMID:27481944

  16. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  17. Cells, cells, and more cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M Tariq; Gres, Katherine E; Petitto, Virginia B; Cross, Shelley Ann

    2007-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman presented with bilateral optic nerve swelling, vitreous cells, and cerebrospinal fluid monocytic pleocytosis. A chest radiograph and computed tomography demonstrated a lesion in the left lung, which histologically was confirmed to be a small-cell lung carcinoma. The serum was positive for the anti-CV2 (anti-CRMP-5) antibody. Following treatment with chemoradiation the optic nerve swelling and vitritis resolved. The differential diagnosis of uveal-meningeal diseases is discussed and the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of paraneoplastic syndromes reviewed.

  18. Dendritic Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Sevda Söker

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells, a member of family of antigen presenting cells, are most effective cells in the primary immune response. Dendritic cells originated from dendron, in mean of tree in the Greek, because of their long and elaborate cytoplasmic branching processes. Dendritic cells constitute approximately 0.1 to 1 percent of the blood’s mononuclear cell. Dendritic cells are widely distributed, and specialized for antigen capture and T cell stimulation. In this article, structures and functions of...

  19. High-throughput RNA sequencing-based virome analysis of 50 lymphoma cell lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Subing; Strong, Michael J; Wang, Xia; Moss, Walter N; Concha, Monica; Lin, Zhen; O'Grady, Tina; Baddoo, Melody; Fewell, Claire; Renne, Rolf; Flemington, Erik K

    2015-01-01

    Using high-throughput RNA sequencing data from 50 common lymphoma cell culture models from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project, we performed an unbiased global interrogation for the presence of a panel of 740 viruses and strains known to infect human and other mammalian cells. This led to the findings of previously identified infections by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In addition, we also found a previously unreported infection of one cell line (DEL) with a murine leukemia virus. High expression of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) transcripts was observed in DEL cells, and we identified four transcriptionally active integration sites, one being in the TNFRSF6B gene. We also found low levels of MuLV reads in a number of other cell lines and provided evidence suggesting cross-contamination during sequencing. Analysis of HTLV-1 integrations in two cell lines, HuT 102 and MJ, identified 14 and 66 transcriptionally active integration sites with potentially activating integrations in immune regulatory genes, including interleukin-15 (IL-15), IL-6ST, STAT5B, HIVEP1, and IL-9R. Although KSHV and EBV do not typically integrate into the genome, we investigated a previously identified integration of EBV into the BACH2 locus in Raji cells. This analysis identified a BACH2 disruption mechanism involving splice donor sequestration. Through viral gene expression analysis, we detected expression of stable intronic RNAs from the EBV BamHI W repeats that may be part of long transcripts spanning the repeat region. We also observed transcripts at the EBV vIL-10 locus exclusively in the Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line, Hs 611.T, the expression of which were uncoupled from other lytic genes. Assessment of the KSHV viral transcriptome in BCP-1 cells showed expression of the viral immune regulators, K2/vIL-6, K4/vIL-8-like vCCL1, and K5/E2-ubiquitin ligase 1 that was significantly higher than expression of

  20. Consumer Preferences on eating-out at Fast Food Restaurants: A quantitative study of Pizza Hut Outlets in India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The concept of meal as eating a variety of kinds of food at regular intervals have now been replaced by breaks of fast individual eating, and mostly the young crowd nowadays do not have a proper eating pattern and prefer quick and tasty food. The fast food Industry identifies the preferences of adolescents and children, and targets a major part on their marketing schemes on them, since they have an important portion of their customer base. Young adults, another major important segment of thei...

  1. The Importance of Affective Containment during Unwelcome Educational Change: The Curious Incident of the Deer Hut Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Di; James, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Educational change can call up a range of feelings that can pose a number of problems for those experiencing and/or organizing it. This article analyses the processes of educational change from a psychodynamic standpoint. In particular it explores affective containment, which enables feelings to be fully experienced and to be used productively. an…

  2. Impact of insecticide-treated nets on wild pyrethroid resistant Anopheles epiroticus population from southern Vietnam tested in experimental huts

    OpenAIRE

    Trung Ho; Speybroeck Niko; Berkvens Dirk; Chinh Vu; Van Bortel Wim; Coosemans Marc

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study, the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets was evaluated in terms of deterrence, blood-feeding inhibition, induced exophily and mortality on a wild resistant population of Anopheles epiroticus in southern Vietnam, in order to gain insight into the operational consequences of the insecticide resistance observed in this malaria vector in the Mekong delta. Method An experimental station, based on the model of West Africa and adapted to the behaviour of the target...

  3. Impact of insecticide-treated nets on wild pyrethroid resistant Anopheles epiroticus population from southern Vietnam tested in experimental huts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Ho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets was evaluated in terms of deterrence, blood-feeding inhibition, induced exophily and mortality on a wild resistant population of Anopheles epiroticus in southern Vietnam, in order to gain insight into the operational consequences of the insecticide resistance observed in this malaria vector in the Mekong delta. Method An experimental station, based on the model of West Africa and adapted to the behaviour of the target species, was built in southern Vietnam. The study design was adapted from the WHO phase 2 guidelines. The study arms included a conventionally treated polyester net (CTN with deltamethrin washed just before exhaustion, the WHO recommended long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN PermaNet 2.0® unwashed and 20 times washed and PermaNet 3.0®, designed for the control of pyrethroid resistant vectors, unwashed and 20 times washed. Results The nets still provided personal protection against the resistant An. epiroticus population. The personal protection ranged from 67% for deltamethrin CTN to 85% for unwashed PermaNet 3.0. Insecticide resistance in the An. epiroticus mosquitoes did not seem to alter the deterrent effect of pyrethroids. A significant higher mortality was still observed among the treatment arms despite the fact that the An. epiroticus population is resistant against the tested insecticides. Conclusion This study shows that CTN and LLINs still protect individuals against a pyrethroid resistant malaria vector from the Mekong region, where insecticide resistance is caused by a metabolic mechanism. In the light of a possible elimination of malaria from the Mekong region these insights in operational consequences of the insecticide resistance on control tools is of upmost importance.

  4. Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  5. Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  6. Cell Biochips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioufle, B. Le; Picollet-D'Hahan, N.

    A cell biochip is a microsystem, equipped with electronic and microfluidic functions, designed to manipulate or analyse living cells. The first publications in this emerging area of research appeared toward the end of the 1980s. In 1989 Washizu described a biochip designed to fuse two cells by electropermeabilisation of the cytoplasmic membrane [1]. Research centers have devised a whole range of cell chip structures, for simultaneous or sequential analysis of single cells, cell groups, or cell tissues reconstituted on the chip. The cells are arranged in a square array on a parallel cell chip for parallel analysis, while they are examined and processed one by one in a microchannel in the case of a series cell chip. In contrast to these biochips for high-throughput analysis of a large number of cells, single-cell chips focus on the analysis of a single isolated cell. As in DNA microarrays, where a large number of oligonucleotides are ordered in a matrix array, parallel cell chips order living cells in a similar way. At each point of the array, the cells can be isolated, provided that the cell type allows this, e.g., blood cells, or cultivated in groups (most adhesion cells can only survive in groups). The aim is to allow massively parallel analysis or processing. Le Pioufle et al. describe a microdevice for the culture of single cells or small groups of cells in a micropit array [2]. Each pit is equipped to stimulate the cell or group of cells either electrically or fluidically. Among the applications envisaged are gene transfer, cell sorting, and screening in pharmacology. A complementary approach, combining the DNA microarray and cell biochip ideas, has been put forward by Bailey et al. [3]. Genes previously arrayed on the chip transfect the cultured cells on the substrate depending on their position in the array (see Fig. 19.1). This way of achieving differential lipofection on a chip was then taken up again by Yoshikawa et al. [4] with primary cells, more

  7. Engineering cell-cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-10-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  8. Stem cells in cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, Agneta; English, Denis; Sanberg, Paul R

    2006-12-01

    This commentary documents the increased number of stem cell-related research reports recently published in the cell transplantation field in the journal Cell Transplantation. The journal covers a wide range of issues in cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine and is attracting clinical and preclinical articles from around the world. It thereby complements and extends the basic coverage of stem cell physiology reported in Stem Cells and Development. Sections in Cell Transplantation cover neuroscience, diabetes, hepatocytes, bone, muscle, cartilage, skin, vessels, and other tissues, as well as tissue engineering that employs novel methods with stem cells. Clearly, the continued use of biomedical engineering will depend heavily on stem cells, and these two journals are well positioned to provide comprehensive coverage of these developments.

  9. Engineering Cell-Cell Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Daniel F.; Natividad, Robert J.; Asthagiri, Anand R.

    2014-01-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling based on quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilizing synthetic cells, advanced ‘chassis’ and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues. PMID:23856592

  10. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  11. Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an overview of photovoltaic cells that are currently manufactured and those being developed, including one or several p-n junction, organic and dye-sensitized cells using quantum dots. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of various photovoltaic cells, identifies the main parameters, explains the main reasons for the losses that may occur in photovoltaic cells and looks at the ways to minimize them.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Engineering Cell-Cell Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S.; Milano, Daniel F.; Natividad, Robert J.; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-01-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cel...

  13. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  14. Changes in skin levels of two neutotrophins (glial cell line derived neurotrohic factor and neurotrophin-3) cause alterations in cutaneous neuron responses to mechanical stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrey Lawson; Sabrina L. Mcllwrath; H. Richard Koerber

    2008-01-01

    Neurotrophins are important for the development and maintenance of both high and low threshold mechanoreceptors (HTMRs and LTMRs). In this series of studies, the effects of constitutive overexpression of two different neurotrophins, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and glial cell line derived neurotrohic factor (GDNF), were examined. Previous studies indicated that both of them may be implicated in the normal development of mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Neurons from mice transgenically altered to overexpress NT-3 or GDNF (NT-3-OE or GDNF-OE mice) in the skin were examined using several physiological, immunohistochemi-cal and molecular techniques. Ex vivo skin/nerve/DRG/spinal cord and skin/nerve preparations were used to determine the response characteristics of the cutaneous neurons; immunohistochemistry was used to examine the biochemical phenotype of DRG cells and the skin; RT-PCR was used to examine the levels of candidate ion channels in skin and DRG that may correlate with changes in physiologi-cal responses. In GDNF-OE mice, I-isolectin B4 (IB4)-immunopositive C-HTMRs (nociceptors), a large percentage of which are sensitive to GDNF, had significantly lower mechanical thresholds than wildtype (WT) neurons. Heat thresholds for the same cells were not different. Mechanical sensitivity changes in GDNF-OE mice were correlated with significant increases in acid sensing ion channels 2a (ASIC2a) and 2b (ASIC2b) and transient receptor potential channel AI (TRPAI), all of which are putative mechanosensitive ion channels. Overexpression of NT-3 affected the responses of A-LTMRs and A-HTMRs, hut had no effect on C-HTMRs. Slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) LTMRs and A-HTMRs had increased mechanical sensitivity compared to WT. Mechanical sensitivity was correlated with significant increases in acid-sensing ion channels ASIC1 and ASIC3. This data indicates that both neurotrophins play roles in determining mechanical thresholds of cutaneous HTMRs and LTMRs and that sensitivity

  15. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  16. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  17. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  18. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    '. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products....

  19. Stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redi, Carlo Alberto; Monti, Manuela; Merico, Valeria; Neri, Tui; Zanoni, Mario; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The application of stem cells to regenerative medicine is one of the actual hot topics in biomedicine. This research could help the cure of a number of diseases that are affecting a large share of the population. Some good results in cell replacement have already been obtained (infarcted heart, diabetes, Parkinson disease), apart from those of more traditional applications like severe burns and blood tumors. We are now facing crucial questions in stem cell biology. One of the key questions is how a cell begins to proliferate or differentiate. Genome reprogramming, both following nuclear transfer and cytoplast action, will likely highlight some of the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. In turn, these clues should be useful to the production of populations of reprogrammed cells that could develop into tissues or, in the future, into proper organs. We will overview what stem cells are, what roles they play in normal developmental processes and how stem cells could have the potential to treat diseases.

  20. Host cells and cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn N; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy based on the use of viral vectors is entirely dependent on the use of animal cell lines, mainly of mammalian origin, but also of insect origin. As for any biotechnology product for clinical use, viral -vectors have to be produced with cells derived from an extensively characterized cell bank to maintain the appropriate standard for assuring the lowest risk for the patients to be treated. Although many different cell types and lines have been used for the production of viral vectors, HEK293 cells or their derivatives have been extensively used for production of different vector types: adenovirus, oncorectrovirus, lentivirus, and AAV vectors, because of their easy handling and the possibility to grow them adherently in serum-containing medium as well as in suspension in serum-free culture medium. Despite this, these cells are not necessarily the best for the production of a given viral vector, and there are many other cell lines with significant advantages including superior growth and/or production characteristics, which have been tested and also used for the production of clinical vector batches. This chapter presents basic -considerations concerning the characterization of cell banks, in the first part, and, in the second part, practically all cell lines (at least when public information was available) established and developed for the production of the most important viral vectors (adenoviral, oncoretroviral, lentiviral, AAV, baculovirus).

  1. Sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anemia - sickle cell; Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS); Sickle cell disease Images Red blood cells, sickle cell Red blood cells, normal Red blood ... multiple sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ... Heeney MM, Ware RE. Sickle cell disease. In: Orkin SH, Fisher DE, Ginsburg D, Look ...

  2. Cell, cell, cell: fuel cell applications moving ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2001-11-01

    Developments in fuel cell technology within the last decade, such as the targeting by major automakers of non-polluting fuel cells as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, are reviewed. For example, Ballard Power Systems of Vancouver is the exclusive supplier to both DaimlerCrysler and the Ford Motor Company of the fuel cell stacks that produce the power in fuel cell systems. Ballard plans the commercial launch of transit bus engines in 2002 and automotive products between 2003 and 2005. The company also sees huge opportunities for fuel cells in stationary and portable power applications. At the same time, the Calgary-based fuel cell division of Energy Ventures Inc. is developing a direct methanol fuel cell that eliminates the intermediate step of 'reforming' methanol into hydrogen that is required in the Ballard process. Energy Ventures targets small niche markets such as small utility vehicles for its direct methanol fuel cell. A completely self-contained fuel cell of this type is expected to be ready in 2002. Solid oxide fuel cells for off-grid remote power units as well as for home heat and power is yet another field of development that will be particularly attractive to operations in remote areas where reliable grid electricity is expensive and hard to obtain. A prototype 2.3 kW residential power system using natural gas was made available by Global Thermoelectric Inc in June 2001; field testing is planned for 2002, with commercial production in late 2003 or 2004. The Calgary-based Snow Leopard Resources Inc plans to use pure hydrogen sulphide obtained from sour natural gas as a hydrogen source. The prime focus of Snow Leopard is on gas plants looking for ways to increase their efficiency, obtain carbon dioxide credits and generate electricity on site. This type of fuel cell also could be of interest to companies with shut-in sour gas since these companies could use the stationary fuel cell system to generate electricity.

  3. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  4. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  5. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  6. T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed d Corporate Support Corporate Partners National Teams Partnership Opportunities d Personal Stories Ambassadors & Familiar Faces Life ... d Our Healthcare Voice Home What Is MS? Definition of MS T Cells Share this page Facebook ...

  7. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  8. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  9. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  10. CellTracks cell analysis system for rare cell detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagan, Michael T.; Trainer, Michael N.; Bendele, Teresa; Rao, Chandra; Horton, Allen; Tibbe, Arjan G.; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The CellTracks system is a Compact Disk-based cell analyzer that, similar to flow cytometry, differentiates cells that are aligned while passing through focused laser beams. In CellTracks, only immuno-magnetically labeled cells are aligned and remain in position for further analysis. This feature is

  11. Tuning Collective Cell Migration by Cell-Cell Junction Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.; Mayor, R.

    2017-01-01

    Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph receptor

  12. Tuning Collective Cell Migration by Cell-Cell Junction Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.; Mayor, R.

    2017-01-01

    Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph

  13. Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like ... normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood ...

  14. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickle cell disease?Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary condition (which means it runs ... disease, hemoglobin SS disease, hemoglobin synthesis, hemoglobinopathies, ... cell anemia, sickle cell crisis, vaso-occlusive crisis Family Health, ...

  15. Potent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  16. Potent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  17. Electrochemical Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising a negative electrode, an electrolyte and a positive electrode in which the positive electrode structure comprises a lithium cobalt manganese oxide of the composition Li¿2?Co¿y?Mn¿2-y?O¿4? where 0

  18. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  19. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  20. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  1. [Inflammatory dendritic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Elodie; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells are a rare and heterogeneous population of professional antigen-presenting cells. Several murine dendritic cell subpopulations have been identified that differ in their phenotype and functional properties. In the steady state, committed dendritic cell precursors differentiate into lymphoid organ-resident dendritic cells and migratory tissue dendritic cells. During inflammation appears an additional dendritic cell subpopulation that has been termed « inflammatory dendritic cells ». Inflammatory dendritic cells differentiate in situ from monocytes recruited to the site of inflammation. Here, we discuss how mouse inflammatory dendritic cells differ from macrophages and from other dendritic cell populations. Finally, we review recent work on human inflammatory dendritic cells.

  2. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  3. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  4. CellFinder: a cell data repository

    OpenAIRE

    Stachelscheid, H.; Seltmann, S.; Lekschas, F.; Fontaine, J.F.; Mah, N.; Neves, M.; Andrade-Navarro, M.A.; Leser, U; Kurtz, A.

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue t...

  5. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as bi...

  6. Pop / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest : Elton John "Songs From The West Coast". The Cranberries "Wake Up And Smell The Coffee". The White Stripes "White Blood Cells". Ozzy Osbourne "Down To Earth". Erinevad esitajad ". Hut Recordings 1991-2001". Freestylers "Pressure Point". David Bowie "Original Soundtrack: Christiane F. Wir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo"

  7. Pop / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest : Elton John "Songs From The West Coast". The Cranberries "Wake Up And Smell The Coffee". The White Stripes "White Blood Cells". Ozzy Osbourne "Down To Earth". Erinevad esitajad ". Hut Recordings 1991-2001". Freestylers "Pressure Point". David Bowie "Original Soundtrack: Christiane F. Wir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo"

  8. Electrorefining cell evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

    1989-04-14

    Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  10. Sickle cell test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abnormal hemoglobin that causes sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells ... has two abnormal hemoglobin S genes. A person with sickle cell trait has only one of these abnormal genes and ...

  11. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, T P; Bickham, U; Bayne, C J

    2013-06-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome.

  12. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  13. Optimizing cell viability in dropletbased cell deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Jan; Visser, C.W.; Henke, S.J.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Biofabrication commonly involves the use of liquid droplets to transport cells to the printed structure. However, the viability of the cells after impact is poorly controlled and understood, hampering applications including cell spraying, inkjet bioprinting, and laser-assisted cell transfer. Here,

  14. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Cell-cell Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-Huai

    2004-01-01

    Cell-cell recognition is the key for multicellular organisms to survive. This recognition critically depends on protein-protein interactions from opposing cell surfaces. Recent structural investigations reveal unique features of these cell surface receptors and how they interact. These interactions are specific, but usually relatively weak, with more hydrophilic forces involved in binding. The receptors appear to have specialized ways to present their key interacting elements for ligand-binding from the cell surface. Cell-cell contacts are multivalent. A large group of cell surface molecules are engaged in interactions. Characteristic weak interactions make possible for each individual molecule pair within the group to constantly associate-dissociate-reassociate, such that the cell-cell recognition becomes a dynamic process. The immunological synapse is a good example for immune receptors to be orchestrated in performing immunological function in a collective fashion.

  16. Photoelectrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA); Boudreau, Robert A. (Norton, MA)

    1983-06-14

    A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

  17. NKT Cell Responses to B Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxin Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer T (NKT cells are a unique subset of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes that express characteristics of both T cells and natural killer cells. NKT cells mediate tumor immune-surveillance; however, NKT cells are numerically reduced and functionally impaired in lymphoma patients. Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d molecules and co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor immunity by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. In the presence of exogenous antigen, both mouse and human NKT cell lines produce cytokines following stimulation by B cell lymphoma lines. NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B cell lymphoma, and it was found that during early stages, NKT cell responses were enhanced in lymphoma-bearing animals compared to disease-free animals. In contrast, in lymphoma-bearing animals with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, NKT cells were functionally impaired. In a mouse model of blastoid variant mantle cell lymphoma, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a potent NKT cell agonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, resulted in a significant decrease in disease pathology. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that NKT cells from α-GalCer treated mice produced IFN-γ following α-GalCer restimulation, unlike NKT cells from vehicle-control treated mice. These data demonstrate an important role for NKT cells in the immune response to an aggressive hematologic malignancy like mantle cell lymphoma.

  18. nduced pluripotent stem cells and cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst-stage embryo. They hold a huge promise for cell therapy with their self-renewing ability and pluripotency, which is known as the potential to differentiate into all cell types originating from three embryonic germ layers. However, their unique pluripotent feature could not be utilised for therapeutic purposes due to the ethical and legal problems during derivation. Recently, it was shown that the cells from adult tissues could be reverted into embryonic state, thereby restoring their pluripotent feature. This has strenghtened the possiblity of directed differentition of the reprogrammed somatic cells into the desired cell types in vitro and their use in regenerative medicine. Although these cells were termed as induced pluripotent cells, the mechanism of pluripotency has yet to be understood. Still, induced pluripotent stem cell technology is considered to be significant by proposing novel approaches in disease modelling, drug screening and cell therapy. Besides their self-renewing ability and their potential to differentiate into all cell types in a human body, they arouse a great interest in scientific world by being far from the ethical concerns regarding their embryonic counterparts and their unique feature of being patient-specific in prospective cell therapies. In this review, induced pluripotent stem cell technology and its role in cell-based therapies from past to present will be discussed. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 550-561

  19. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; Wang, S.; Wang, Y; Wang, X-N.

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ‘entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  20. Tumor cell "dead or alive": caspase and survivin regulate cell death, cell cycle and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Shiraki, K

    2001-04-01

    Cell death and cell cycle progression are two sides of the same coin, and these two different phenomenons are regulated moderately to maintain the cellular homeostasis. Tumor is one of the disease states produced as a result of the disintegrated regulation and is characterized as cells showing an irreversible progression of cell cycle and a resistance to cell death signaling. Several investigations have been performed for the understanding of cell death or cell cycle, and cell death research has remarkably progressed in these 10 years. Caspase is a nomenclature referring to ICE/CED-3 cysteine proteinase family and plays a central role during cell death. Recently, several investigations raised some possible hypotheses that caspase is also involved in cell cycle regulation. In this issue, therefore, we review the molecular basis of cell death and cell cycle regulated by caspase in tumor, especially hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  1. Nanostructured Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-08-09

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue "Nanostructured Solar Cells", published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  2. Cell death pathways in directly irradiated cells and cells exposed to medium from irradiated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jella, Kishore Kumar; Garcia, Amaya; McClean, Brendan; Byrne, Hugh J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare levels of apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic cell death and senescence after treatment with both direct radiation and irradiated cell conditioned medium. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were irradiated (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy) using a cobalt 60 teletherapy unit. For bystander experiments, the medium was harvested from donor HaCaT cells 1 hour after irradiation and transferred to recipient HaCaT cells. Clonogenic assay, apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic cell death, senescence and cell cycle analysis were measured in both directly irradiated cells and bystander cells A reduction in cell survival was observed for both directly irradiated cells and irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM)-treated cells. Early apoptosis and necrosis was observed predominantly after direct irradiation. An increase in the number of cells in G2/M phase was observed at 6 and 12 h which led to mitotic cell death after 72 h following direct irradiation and ICCM treatment. No senescence was observed in the HaCaT cell line following either direct irradiation or treatment with ICCM. This study has shown that directly irradiated cells undergo apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic cell death whereas ICCM-treated cells predominantly undergo mitotic cell death.

  3. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shengjuan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bergen, Werner G. [Program in Cellular and Molecular Biosciences/Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Hausman, Gary J. [Animal Science Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2771 (United States); Zan, Linsen, E-mail: zanls@yahoo.com.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Dodson, Michael V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  4. 《娘梅歌》和《娥并与桑洛》之比较%A Comparison between Niang Hut Ge and Ebing and Sangluo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽琴

    2008-01-01

    同是民间爱情叙事诗,侗族的和傣族的无论是在内容还是在艺术上都具有极大的价值.文章从悲剧主题和结局、形象塑造、艺术风格等三个方面对这两部长诗进行比较,挖掘出它们独具的审美魅力,阐释它们的审美差异性,从而揭示了它们的审美差异性是植根于不同的民族文化的结果.

  5. Use of a Box Model to Estimate the Airborne Concentration of Volatilized DDT in an Experimental Hut in a Tropical Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    powder ...through  observation.    Once  the  cloth  appeared  dry   and  white  crystalline   powder  (DDT)  had  adhered  to  the...with   detergent  (Alconox;  Alconox  Inc.,   White  Plains,  NY),  then  rinsed  with  tap  water,  followed  by

  6. Electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuts, J.J.F.G.; Willems, J.J.G.S.A.

    1987-10-13

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising a negative electrode. The electrochemically active material of which consists of an intermetallic compound forming a hydride with hydrogen, which compound has the CaCu/sub 5/-structure and the compositional formula AB/sub m/C/sub n/, where m+n is between 4.8 and 5.4, where n is between 0.05 and 0.6, in which A consists of Misch-metal or of one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Y, Ti, Hf, Zr, Ca, Th, La and the remaining rare earth metals, in which the total atomic quantities of the elements Y, Ti, Hf and Zr may not be more than 40% of A. B consists of two or more elements selected from the group formed by Ni, Co, Cu, Fe and Mn, where the maximum atomic quantity per gram atom of A is for Ni: 3.5, for Co:3.5, for Cu:3.5, for Fe:2.0 and for Mn:1.0, and C consists of one or more elements selected from the group formed by Al, Cr and Si in the indicated atomic quantities: Al:0.05-0.6, Cr:0.05-0.5 and Si:0.05-0.5, characterized in that the electrochemically active material additionally comprises one or more metals selected from the group formed by Pd, Pt, Ir and Rh, the atomic quantity per gram atom of A being from 0.001 to 0.5.

  7. CELL RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    REVIEWSInducible resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis in B cells…………………………………ROTHSTEIN Thomas L (245)Executionary pathway for apoptosis: lessons from mutant mice………………………………………WOO Minna, Razqallah Hakem, Tak W Mak (267)The SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase: Signaling mechanisms and biological functions…………………………………QU Cheng Kui (279)REGULAR ARTICLESTemperature dependent expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis…………………………KONG Wei Hua, Zheng GU, Jining LU, Jiake TSO (289)Transgenic mice overexpressing γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I develop obesity…………………………………MA Ying Hua, Jia Hua HU, Xiao Gang ZHOU, Ruo Wang ZENG, Zhen Tong MEI, Jian FEI, Li He GUO (303)Genetic aberration in primary hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation between p53 gene mutation and loss-of-heterozygosity on chromosome 16q21-q23 and 9p21-p23………………………………………WANG Gang, Chang Hui HUANG, Yan ZHAO, Ling CAI, Ying WANG, Shi Jin XIU, Zheng Wen JIANG, Shuang YANG, Xin Tai ZHAO, Wei HUANG, Jian Ren GU (311)Identification and genetic mapping of four novel genes that regulate leaf deve- lopment in Arabidopsis………………………………………………SUN Yue, Wei ZHANG, Feng Ling LI, Ying Li GUO, Tian Lei LIU, Hai HUANG (325)NOTICE FOR CONTRIBUTORS…………………………………(337)CONTENTS of Vol. 10, 2000…………………………………………………(338)

  8. Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Michael D.; Petit, Valérie; Russell, I. Alasdair; Giraddi, Rajshekhar; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F.; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M.; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A.; Stingl, John

    2014-01-01

    Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt acin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using 2 independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage tracing approach we follow the progeny of α-smooth muscle actin-expressing myoepithelial cells and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy. PMID:25173976

  9. Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Michael D; Petit, Valérie; Alasdair Russell, I; Giraddi, Rajshekhar R; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A; Stingl, John

    2014-10-01

    Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt actin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using two independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage-tracing approach we follow the progeny of myoepithelial cells that express α-smooth muscle actin and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy.

  10. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G; Hausman, Gary J; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-04-12

    Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  11. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  12. Cell sheet engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Yamato

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed ‘cell sheet engineering’ in order to avoid the limitations of tissue reconstruction using biodegradable scaffolds or single cell suspension injection. Our concept is tissue reconstruction, not from single cells, but from cell sheets. Cell sheets are prepared using temperature-responsive culture dishes. Temperature-responsive polymers are covalently grafted onto the dishes, allowing various types of cells to adhere and proliferate at 37°C. The cells spontaneously detach when the temperature is reduced below 32°C without the need for proteolytic enzymes. The confluent cells are noninvasively harvested as single, contiguous cell sheets with intact cell-cell junctions and deposited extracellular matrix (ECM. We have used these harvested cell sheets for various tissue reconstructions, including ocular surfaces, periodontal ligaments, cardiac patches, and bladder augmentation.

  13. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  14. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... here Home » Glossary Back to top Glossary Adult stem cell Astrocyte Blastocoel Blastocyst Bone marrow stromal cells Bone ...

  15. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  16. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  17. Natural Killer Cell Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have historically been considered short-lived cytolytic cells that can rapidly respond against pathogens and tumors in an antigen-independent manner and then undergo cell death...

  18. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  19. CellFinder: a cell data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelscheid, Harald; Seltmann, Stefanie; Lekschas, Fritz; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Mah, Nancy; Neves, Mariana; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Leser, Ulf; Kurtz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue types from RNA-seq and microarrays and 553 905 protein expressions for 535 cells/tissues. Text mining of a corpus of >2000 publications followed by manual curation confirmed expression information on ∼900 proteins and genes. CellFinder's data model is capable to seamlessly represent entities from single cells to the organ level, to incorporate mappings between homologous entities in different species and to describe processes of cell development and differentiation. Its ontological backbone currently consists of 204 741 ontology terms incorporated from 10 different ontologies unified under the novel CELDA ontology. CellFinder's web portal allows searching, browsing and comparing the stored data, interactive construction of developmental trees and navigating the partonomic hierarchy of cells and tissues through a unique body browser designed for life scientists and clinicians.

  20. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  1. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  2. Cell control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This extensive report provides an essential overview of cells and their use as factory automation building blocks. The following issues are discussed in depth: Cell integration Cell software and standards Future technologies applied to cells Plus Cell control applications including: - rotary parts manufacturing - diesel engine component development - general cell control development at the General Electric Corporation - a vendor list.

  3. Nanostructured Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue “Nanostructured Solar Cells”, published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  4. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  5. Cell mechanics: a dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiaxiang; Li, Yizeng; Vig, Dhruv K.; Sun, Sean X.

    2017-03-01

    Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary. These mass fluxes can come from polymerization/depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton, as well as osmotic and hydraulic pressure-driven flow of water across the cell membrane. By combining hydraulic pressure control with force balance conditions at the cell surface, we discuss a quantitative mechanism of cell shape and volume control. The broad consequences of this model on cell mechanosensation and tissue mechanics are outlined.

  6. Cell surface engineering of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debanjan; Zhao, Weian; Gupta, Ashish; Loh, Wei Li; Karnik, Rohit; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    By leveraging the capacity to promote regeneration, stem cell therapies offer enormous hope for solving some of the most tragic illnesses, diseases, and tissue defects world-wide. However, a significant barrier to the effective implementation of cell therapies is the inability to target a large quantity of viable cells with high efficiency to tissues of interest. Systemic infusion is desired as it minimizes the invasiveness of cell therapy, and maximizes practical aspects of repeated doses. However, cell types such as mesenchymal stem cells exhibit a poor homing capability or lose their capacity to home following culture expansion (i.e. FASEB J 21:3197-3207, 2007; Circulation 108:863-868, 2003; Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation 32:1005-1011; Blood 104:3581-3587, 2004). To address this challenge, we have developed a simple platform technology to chemically attach cell adhesion molecules to the cell surface to improve the homing efficiency to specific tissues. This chemical approach involves a stepwise process including (1) treatment of cells with sulfonated biotinyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide to introduce biotin groups on the cell surface, (2) addition of streptavidin that binds to the biotin on the cell surface and presents unoccupied binding sites, and (3) attachment of biotinylated targeting ligands that promote adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Specifically, in our model system, a biotinylated cell rolling ligand, sialyl Lewisx (SLeX), found on the surface of leukocytes (i.e., the active site of the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL-1)), is conjugated on MSC surface. The SLeX engineered MSCs exhibit a rolling response on a P-selectin coated substrate under shear stress conditions. This indicates that this approach can be used to potentially target P-selectin expressing endothelium in the more marrow or at sites of inflammation. Importantly, the surface modification has no adverse impact on MSCs' native phenotype including their multilineage

  7. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Brockhoff, G. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reck, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Zeitler, K. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Hautmann, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, T.E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, G. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, C., E-mail: christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of direct rhenium-188-labeled anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab for radioimmunotherapy of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Mario de [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: mario.dedecker@health.wa.gov.au; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Slegers, Guido [Department of Medical Imaging of Domestic Animals, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Dierckx, Rudi A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vos, Filip de [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-15

    Alemtuzumab (Campath, Berlex) is a humanized IgG1 rat monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface CD52 antigen, found on lymphocytes and monocytes. It is being developed for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), autoimmune disease and for the prevention of transplant rejection. This study focused on synthesis, quality control, in vitro evaluation and biodistrubution of {sup 188}Re-labeled alemtuzumab for radioimmunotherapy of B-cell CLL. {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab was synthesized using a direct radiolabeling method. Reduction of the intramolecular disulfide bonds of the antibody was performed with tris-(carboxyethyl)-phosphine (Pierce), using a 1:60 molar excess. Reaction took place at room temperature for 20 min. A PD-10 desalting column was used to purify the reduced antibody from excess phospine. Complexation and transchelation of {sup 188}ReO{sub 4}{sup -} was achieved using sodium gluconate as weak chelator and SnCl{sub 2} as reducing agent. Quality control was done using instant thin-layer chromatography. Binding assays were performed on a CD52-positive cell line (HuT-78). Female NMRI mice were injected intravenously with 20 {mu}g radiolabeled alemtuzumab and killed at preset time intervals for biodistribution studies. Tissues were dissected, weighed and counted for determination of radioactivity. Data were expressed as percentage injected activity per gram of tissue (% IA/g tissue) or as percentage injected activity (% IA). {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab was prepared achieving high radiochemical yields. Labeling efficiency of more than 95% can be obtained using optimal reaction conditions. {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab showed good in vitro stability, remaining intact at 24 h after radiolabeling. In mice, {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab showed high uptake in the blood (25.10{+-}1.36% IA at 1 h p.i.), followed by a biexponential clearance (t{sub 1/2{alpha}}=4.790 h and t{sub 1/2{beta}}=55.45 h). Increased uptake was observed in kidneys and heart (9

  9. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidoptera

  10. Tracking adult stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context,

  11. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidoptera

  12. T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting the Facts T-Cell Lymphoma Overview Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two main forms of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma ... develop into lymphomas: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells). T-cell lymphomas account for ...

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  14. Individual cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovel, R T; Sweet, R G

    1979-01-01

    Current cell sorting machines do not preserve the individual identity of processed cells; after analysis, the cells are assigned to a subpopulation where they are pooled with other similar cells. This paper reports progress on a system that sorts cells individually to precise locations on a microscope slide and preserves them for further observation with a light microscope while recording flow measurement data for each cell. Various electronic and mechanical modifications to an existing sorting machine are described that increase drop placement accuracy and permit individual cell sorting.

  15. Stem Cell Organoid Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E.; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Organoid systems leverage the self-organizing properties of stem cells to create diverse multi-cellular tissue proxies. Most organoid models only represent single or partial components of a tissue, and it is often difficult to control the cell type, organization, and cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions within these systems. Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D organization within organoids to further enhance their utility in research and therapies. PMID:26748754

  16. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  17. Innate Memory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Stephen C.; Lee, You Jeong; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Memory T cells are usually considered to be a feature of a successful immune response against a foreign antigen, and such cells can mediate potent immunity. However, in mice, alternative pathways have been described, through which naïve T cells can acquire the characteristics and functions of memory T cells without encountering specific foreign antigen or the typical signals required for conventional T cell differentiation. Such cells reflect a response to the internal rather the external environment, and hence such cells are called innate memory T cells. In this review, we describe how innate memory subsets were identified, the signals that induce their generation and their functional properties and potential role in the normal immune response. The existence of innate memory T cells in mice raises questions about whether parallel populations exist in humans, and we discuss the evidence for such populations during human T cell development and differentiation. PMID:25727290

  18. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ganglion cell like cells, diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Shankar Ammanagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cutaneous swelling found on the left anterior axillary fold of a 41-year-old man. Gross examination of specimen excised from the dermis showed a well-circumscribed nodule histologically composed of spindle cells with interspersed ganglion cell like cells. On hematoxylin and eosine (H and E staining it was diagnosed as ganglioneuroma. Ganglioneuromas are rare, benign, fully differentiated tumors that contain mature schwann cells, ganglion cells, fibrous tissue, and nerve fibers. They are commonly found along the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia and sometimes in the adrenal medulla. However primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma is an extremely rare tumor. Immunohistochemical workup revealed a fibroblastic origin and hence the case was diagnosed as fibromatosis with ganglion cell like fibroblasts. This case report suggests that the features considered diagnostic of ganglioneuromas can occur in other cutaneous lesions and, therefore, this diagnosis cannot be offered only on the basis of H and E.

  20. Generation of iPS Cells from Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Various types of somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem cells may generate iPS cells more efficiently than do differentiated cells. We show that granulosa cells exhibit characteristic of somatic stem cells and can be reprogrammed to iPS cells more efficiently or with few factors. Here, we describe generation of mouse and pig iPS cells from granulosa cells with high efficiency.

  1. B cell helper assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrignani, Sergio; Tonti, Elena; Casorati, Giulia; Dellabona, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Activation, proliferation and differentiation of naïve B lymphocytes into memory B cells and plasma cells requires engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR) coupled to T-cell help (1, 2). T cells deliver help in cognate fashion when they are activated upon recognition of specific MHC-peptide complexes presented by B cells. T cells can also deliver help in a non-cognate or bystander fashion, when they do not find specific MHC-peptide complexes on B cells and are activated by alternative mechanisms. T-cell dependent activation of B cells can be studied in vitro by experimental models called "B cell helper assays" that are based on the co-culture of B cells with activated T cells. These assays allow to decipher the molecular bases for productive T-dependent B cell responses. We show here examples of B cell helper assays in vitro, which can be reproduced with any subset of T lymphocytes that displays the appropriate helper signals.

  2. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  3. 血浆抗内皮细胞抗体检测在弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎中的临床价值%The Clinical Value of Plasma Anti-Endothelial Cell Antibodies in Patients with Diffuse Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天新; 谢耀盛; 陈波; 丁晓凯; 张挺; 许菲菲

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the correlation between plasma anti - endothelial cell antihody( AECA ) and the diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis.Methods :39 patients with SLE were divided into two group, one group with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis and the other without it.The positive rate and concentration of AECA in the two groups were detected using indirect immunofluorescence technique.Results : AECA positive rate was 38.5% in all 39 lupus nephritis patients.The group with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis had higher AECA positive rate and plasma concentration than another group without diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis,hut the difference was no significance.The area under the ROC curve of AECA for diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis was 0.63( 95%Confidence Interval 0.45 ~ 0.81 , P = 0.20 ).Conclusion : Positive rate of AECA was relatively higher in patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis.AECA was not a good predictive factor for diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis.%目的:探讨抗内皮细胞抗体与弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎的相关性.方法:将39例狼疮患者分为弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎组和非弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎组.用间接免疫荧光法检测上述两组血浆抗内皮细胞抗体的阳性率及浓度.结果:在39例狼疮患者中,抗内皮细胞抗体的阳性率为38.5%.弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎组AECA的阳性率和浓度均高于非弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎组,但差异无统计学意义.AECA预测弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎的ROC曲线下面积为0.63,95%可信区间为0.45~0.81,P=0.20.结论:血浆抗内皮细胞抗体在弥漫增生性狼疮性肾炎中有较高的阳性率,但不能作为预测指标.

  4. 神经心源性晕厥患者血浆儿茶酚胺及红细胞膜β-受体的变化%The changes of catecholamine and β-receptor of red blood cell membrane in the patients with neurocardiogenic mediated syncope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉光亮; 仝识非; 李永华; 黄瑞

    2000-01-01

    目的:研究儿茶酚胺、β-受体在神经心源性晕厥(NMS)发生机制中的作用。方法:用荧光法和受体的放射配基结合法分别测定NMS(24例)组及正常对照组(20例)β-受体的密度和亲和力以及倾斜试验(HUT)过程中血浆儿茶酚胺浓度的变化。结果:NMS患者HUT倾斜80°3 min及晕厥发作时血浆中儿茶酚胺浓度明显高于倾斜前平卧位(P<0.05~0.01),亦明显高于对照组(P<0.01)。NMS患者红细胞膜上β-受体无论密度或亲和力与对照组相比均无明显差异。结论:儿茶酚胺浓度的过度增高可能在NMS发病过程中起重要作用,β-受体在NMS发病中的作用尚不明确。%Objective:To study the effects of catecholamine and β-receptor of redblood cell membrane in the pathogenesis of neurocardiogenic mediated syncope (NMS).Method:High-speedion-exchange column chromatography was used to measure the changes of plasma catecholamine concentration during head-up tilt test; receptor radioligand binding assay was used to measure the number and affinity of β-adrenoceptors between patients with NMS (n=24) and normal control subjects (n=20).Result:The plasma catecholamine concentrations were higher during in patients with NMS than that in control subjects (P<0.05~0.01).No significant differences in the number and affinity of β-receptor were seen between two groups.Conclusion:It suggests that significant increase of catecholamine concentration may play an important role in the pathogenesis of NMS.The number and affinity of β-receptor have not difference between patients with NMS and normal control subjects.

  5. Single cell mechanics of keratinocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulevich, Valentin; Yang, Hsin-ya; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Liu, Gang-yu

    2010-11-01

    Keratinocytes represent the major cell type of the uppermost layer of human skin, the epidermis. Using AFM-based single cell compression, the ability of individual keratinocytes to resist external pressure and global rupturing forces is investigated and compared with various cell types. Keratinocytes are found to be 6-70 times stiffer than other cell types, such as white blood, breast epithelial, fibroblast, or neuronal cells, and in contrast to other cell types they retain high mechanic strength even after the cell's death. The absence of membrane rupturing peaks in the force-deformation profiles of keratinocytes and their high stiffness during a second load cycle suggests that their unique mechanical resistance is dictated by the cytoskeleton. A simple analytical model enables the quantification of Young's modulus of keratinocyte cytoskeleton, as high as 120-340 Pa. Selective disruption of the two major cytoskeletal networks, actin filaments and microtubules, does not significantly affect keratinocyte mechanics. F-actin is found to impact cell deformation under pressure. During keratinocyte compression, the plasma membrane stretches to form peripheral blebs. Instead of blebbing, cells with depolymerized F-actin respond to pressure by detaching the plasma membrane from the cytoskeleton underneath. On the other hand, the compression force of keratinocytes expressing a mutated keratin (cell line, KEB-7) is 1.6-2.2 times less than that for the control cell line that has normal keratin networks. Therefore, we infer that the keratin intermediate filament network is responsible for the extremely high keratinocyte stiffness and resilience. This could manifest into the rugged protective nature of the human epidermis.

  6. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon R. Pine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

  7. Tracking adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans

    2011-02-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian stem cells, as numerous experimental systems and genetic tools are available. In this review, we describe strategies commonly used to identify and functionally characterize adult stem cells in mice and discuss their potential, limitations and interpretations, as well as how they have informed our understanding of adult stem-cell biology. An accurate interpretation of physiologically relevant stem-cell assays is crucial to identify adult stem cells and elucidate how they self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny.

  8. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  9. What are Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem cells are those that can only form specific cells in the body such as blood cells based. Based on the sources of stem cells we have three types of these cells: Autologous: Sources of the patient own cells are (Autologous either the cells from patient own body or his or her cord blood. For this type of transplant the physician now usually collects the periphery rather than morrow because the procedure is easier on like a bane morrow harvest it take place outside of an operating room, and the patient does not to be under general unsetting . Allogenic: Sources of stem cells from another donore are primarily relatives (familial allogenic or completely unrelated donors. Xenogenic: In these stem cells from different species are transplanted e .g striatal porcine fetal mesan cephalic (FVM xenotransplants for Parkinson’s disease. On sites of isolation such as embryo, umbilical cord and other body tissues stem cells are named embnyonic, cord blood, and adult stem cells. The scope of results and clinical application of stem cells are such as: Neurodegenerative conditions (MS,ALS, Parkinson’s, Stroke, Ocular disorders- Glaucoma, retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Auto Immune Conditions (Lupus, MS,R. arthritis, Diabetes, etc, Viral Conditions (Hepatitis C and AIDS, Heart Disease, Adrenal Disorders, Injury(Nerve, Brain, etc, Anti aging (hair, skin, weight control, overall well being/preventive, Emotional disorders, Organ / Tissue Cancers, Blood cancers, Blood diseases

  10. Tetraspanins in Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xupin; Zhang, Jiaping; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of small transmembrane proteins that are expressed in almost all eukaryotic cells. Through interacting with one another and with other membrane and intracellular proteins, tetraspanins regulate a wide range of proteins such as integrins, cell surface receptors, and signaling molecules, and thereby engage in diverse cellular processes ranging from cell adhesion and migration to proliferation and differentiation. In particular, tetraspanins modulate the function of proteins involved in all determining factors of cell migration including cell–cell adhesion, cell–ECM adhesion, cytoskeletal protrusion/contraction, and proteolytic ECM remodeling. We herein provide a brief overview of collective in vitro and in vivo studies of tetraspanins to illustrate their regulatory functions in the migration and trafficking of cancer cells, vascular endothelial cells, skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts), and leukocytes. We also discuss the involvement of tetraspanins in various pathologic and remedial processes that rely on cell migration and their potential value as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26091149

  11. Stem cells in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cell research. Instead, scientists have explored other cell sources, including progenitor and stem cells derived from adult tissues and stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid and placenta. In addition, novel techniques for generating stem cells in the laboratory are being developed. These techniques include somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is placed into an oocyte, and reprogramming of adult cells to induce stem-cell-like behavior. Such techniques are now being used in tissue engineering applications, and some of the most successful experiments have been in the field of urology. Techniques to regenerate bladder tissue have reached the clinic, and exciting progress is being made in other areas, such as regeneration of the kidney and urethra. Cell therapy as a treatment for incontinence and infertility might soon become a reality. Physicians should be optimistic that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering will one day provide mainstream treatment options for urologic disorders.

  12. Apigenin inhibits renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shuai; Zhu, Yi; Li, Jiang-Feng; Wang, Xiao; Liang, Zhen; Li, Shi-Qi; Xu, Xin; Chen, Hong; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Xie, Li-Ping

    2017-03-21

    Apigenin, a natural flavonoid found in vegetables and fruits, has antitumor activity in several cancer types. The present study evaluated the effects and mechanism of action of apigenin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. We found that apigenin suppressed ACHN, 786-0, and Caki-1 RCC cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A comet assay suggested that apigenin caused DNA damage in ACHN cells, especially at higher doses, and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest through ATM signal modulation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated p53 knockdown showed that apigenin-induced apoptosis was likely p53 dependent. Apigenin anti-proliferative effects were confirmed in an ACHN cell xenograft mouse model. Apigenin treatment reduced tumor growth and volume in vivo, and immunohistochemical staining revealed lower Ki-67 indices in tumors derived from apigenin-treated mice. These findings suggest that apigenin exposure induces DNA damage, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, p53 accumulation and apoptosis, which collectively suppress ACHN RCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Given its antitumor effects and low in vivo toxicity, apigenin is a highly promising agent for treatment of RCC.

  13. Cell shape recognition by colloidal cell imprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borovička, Josef; Stoyanov, S.D.; Paunov, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The results presented in this study are aimed at the theoretical estimate of the interactions between a spherical microbial cell and the colloidal cell imprints in terms of the Derjaguin, Landau, Vervey, and Overbeek (DLVO) surface forces. We adapted the Derjaguin approximation to take into accou

  14. Are mesenchymal stromal cells immune cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be promising agents for the treatment of immunological disease. Although originally identified as precursor cells for mesenchymal lineages, in vitro studies have demonstrated that MSCs possess diverse immune regulatory capacities. Pre-cl

  15. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Schwann Cell Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by recapitu

  16. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  17. Cell-ECM traction force modulates endogenous tension at cell-cell contacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venkat Maruthamuthu; Benedikt Sabass; Ulrich S. Schwarz; Margaret L. Gardel; Shu Chien

    2011-01-01

    .... A direct relationship between the total cellular traction force on the ECM and the endogenous cell-cell force exists, indicating that the cell-cell tension is a constant fraction of the cell-ECM traction...

  18. Natural Killer Cell Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-10-20

    Natural killer (NK) cells have historically been considered short-lived cytolytic cells that can rapidly respond against pathogens and tumors in an antigen-independent manner and then undergo cell death. Recently, however, NK cells have been shown to possess traits of adaptive immunity and can acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. In this review, we discuss evidence of NK cell memory and the mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these innate lymphocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pluripotent stem cells for Schwann cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2015-04-01

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by recapitulating the various stages of in vivo neural crest formation and SC differentiation. In this review, we survey the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these in vivo processes. We then focus on the current in vitro strategies for generating SCs from two sources of pluripotent stem cells, namely embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Different methods for SC engineering from ESCs and iPSCs are reviewed and suggestions are proposed for optimizing the existing protocols. Potential safety issues regarding the clinical application of iPSC-derived SCs are discussed as well. Lastly, we will address future aspects of SC engineering.

  20. The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-13

    The generation of insulin-producing β cells from stem cells in vitro provides a promising source of cells for cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. However, insulin-producing cells generated from human stem cells show deficiency in many functional characteristics compared with pancreatic β cells. Recent reports have shown molecular ties between the cell cycle and the differentiation mechanism of embryonic stem (ES) cells, assuming that cell fate decisions are controlled by the cell cycle machinery. Both β cells and ES cells possess unique cell cycle machinery yet with significant contrasts. In this review, we compare the cell cycle control mechanisms in both ES cells and β cells, and highlight the fundamental differences between pluripotent cells of embryonic origin and differentiated β cells. Through critical analysis of the differences of the cell cycle between these two cell types, we propose that the cell cycle of ES cells may act as a brake for β-cell regeneration. Based on these differences, we discuss the potential of modulating the cell cycle of ES cells for the large-scale generation of functionally mature β cells in vitro. Further understanding of the factors that modulate the ES cell cycle will lead to new approaches to enhance the production of functional mature insulin-producing cells, and yield a reliable system to generate bona fide β cells in vitro.

  1. Regulatory T cells and B cells: implication on autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Zheng, Song Guo

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Although most studies are focusing on the role of Treg cells in T cells and T cells-mediated diseases, these cells also directly affect B cells and other non-T cells. This manuscript updates the role of Treg cells on the B cells and B cell-mediated diseases. In addition, the mechanisms whereby Treg cells suppress B cell responses have been discussed.

  2. Cell signaling review series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiming Lin; Zhenggang Liu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Signal transduction is pivotal for many, if not all, fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and programmed cell death. Deregulation of cell signaling may result in certain types of cancers and other human diseases.

  3. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or ... A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant. A bone marrow transplant may be necessary ...

  4. Sickle Cell Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nature, Wash Post, SciAm, CNN - Google Custom Search Sickle Cell Anemia News -- ScienceDaily January 18, 1970 Read articles summarizing medical research on sickle-cell anemia. NYT, Nature, Wash Post, SciAm, CNN - Google Custom ...

  5. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  6. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... why are they important? Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types ... of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2016 [cited October 9, 2017 ] Available at < //stemcells. ...

  7. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Advancements in Sickle Cell Disease New supplement from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describes the state of sickle cell disease related care in the United States. Read Supplement ...

  8. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  9. Engineering Stem Cell Organoids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-01

    .... Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D...

  10. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  11. Odontogenic ghost cell tumour with clear cell components: clear cell odontogenic ghost cell tumour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Hoon; Ahn, Sang Gun; Kim, Su Gwan; Kim, Jin

    2004-07-01

    A case of odontogenic ghost cell tumour (OGCT) with clear cell components was encountered in the mandible of a 63-year-old man. The tumour revealed ameloblastomatous-type epithelial components accompanied by clusters of ghost cells and dentinoid juxtaposed to the odontogenic epithelium. In addition, some areas of the tumour tissue showed sheets and islands of clear, glycogen containing epithelial cells, which were separated by a thin fibrous connective tissue stroma. Both ameloblastic and clear cells exhibited positive immunoreactivities for cytokeratin 19 and AE1/3. It is not known whether this tumour represents a clear cell change of a pre-existing OGCT or a separate and distinct neoplasm derived de novo from the odontogenic epithelium. This tumour was given the term 'clear cell OGCT' because it captures the clear cell components, which is one of the most prominent distinguishing features of the tumour.

  12. Sickle Cell Disease Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Disease Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... 1. True or False: Only African Americans get sickle cell disease. A True B False 2. True or ...

  13. Sickle cell anemia.

    OpenAIRE

    ŘÍHOVÁ, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about the disease called sickle cell anemia, or drepanocytosis. In this thesis is described the history of the disease, pathophysiology, laboratory features, various clinical features, diferencial diagnosis, quality of life in sickle cell anemia and therapy.

  14. Cell-SELEX Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aptamers are molecules identified from large combinatorial nucleic acid libraries by their high affinity to target molecules. Due to a variety of desired properties, aptamers are attractive alternatives to antibodies in molecular biology and medical applications. Aptamers are identified through an iterative selection–amplification process known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Although SELEX is typically carried out using purified target molecules, whole live cells are also employable as selection targets. This technology, Cell-SELEX, has several advantages. For example, generated aptamers are functional with a native conformation of the target molecule on live cells, and thus, cell surface transmembrane proteins would be targets even when their purifications in native conformations are difficult. In addition, cell-specific aptamers can be obtained without any knowledge about cell surface molecules on the target cells. Here, I review the progress of Cell-SELEX technology and discuss advantages of the technology. PMID:23515081

  15. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  16. Mast cell activation disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    only IgE dependent allergic diseases but also play a ... Mast cells are tissue fixed effector cells of allergic ..... alleviated high intensity symptoms of MCAD.29 ... Osteoporosis, osteolysis, bone pain: biphosphonates (vitamin D plus calcium.

  17. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging.

  18. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  19. Mast cell proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Elin; Melo, Fabio R; Pejler, Gunnar

    2012-12-01

    Mast cells are versatile effector cells of the immune system, contributing to both innate and adaptive immunity toward pathogens but also having profound detrimental activities in the context of inflammatory disease. A hallmark morphological feature of mast cells is their large content of cytoplasmic secretory granules, filled with numerous secretory compounds, including highly negatively charged heparin or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of serglycin type. These anionic proteoglycans provide the basis for the strong metachromatic staining properties of mast cells seen when applying various cationic dyes. Functionally, the mast cell proteoglycans have been shown to have an essential role in promoting the storage of other granule-contained compounds, including bioactive monoamines and different mast cell-specific proteases. Moreover, granule proteoglycans have been shown to regulate the enzymatic activities of mast cell proteases and to promote apoptosis. Here, the current knowledge of mast cell proteoglycans is reviewed.

  20. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  1. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  2. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  3. Storage of cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Katharine A

    2011-01-01

    The successful storage of cell lines depends upon many factors, including the condition of the cells to be frozen and the experience of the operator. Attempting to freeze down unhealthy, contaminated or poorly labelled cells can have huge implications for a research laboratory. This chapter outlines the importance of good record keeping, vigilant monitoring, aseptic technique, and high-quality reagents in the successful storage and downstream propagation of cell lines.

  4. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  5. STEM CELLS AND PROTEOMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong-ming; GUO Tian-nan; HUANG Shi-ang

    2006-01-01

    The distinctive features of proteomics are large-scale and high throughput. The key techniques of proteomics are two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Stem cell can differentiate into all kinds of cells, tissues and organs. There are many proteins and cytokines involved in the process of differentiation. Applying proteomics techniques to the research of the complex process of stem cell differentiation is of great importance to study the mechanism and applications of stem cell differentiation.

  6. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  7. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  8. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  9. Stem cell heterogeneity revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne S; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite...... of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance....

  10. SYNOVIAL CELL SARCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten cases of synovial cell sarcoma are reported. The youngest patient was a 2'A years old boy with synovial cell sarcoma of the knee and the oldest one was a man with synovial cell sarcoma of the elbow.

  11. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  12. Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, William M

    2007-03-01

    Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (OTCBB: ACTC) is a biotechnology company applying novel human embryonic stem cell technologies in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We believe that regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the field by enabling scientists to produce human cells of any kind for use in a wide array of therapies.

  13. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  14. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  15. Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, John T.

    1984-01-01

    This introduction to photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells reviews topics pertaining to solar energy conversion and demonstrates the ease with which a working PEC cell can be prepared with n-type silicon as the photoanode and a platinum counter electrode (both immersed in ethanolic ferrocene/ferricenium solutions). Experiments using the cell are…

  16. Adventures with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…

  17. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  18. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  19. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human embryo

  20. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  1. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  2. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...

  3. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to real

  4. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...

  5. Battery cell module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shambaugh, J.S.

    1981-11-23

    A modular lithium battery having a plurality of cells, having electrical connecting means connecting the cells to output terminals, and venting means for releasing discharge byproducts to a chemical scrubber is disclosed. Stainless steel cell casings are potted in an aluminum modular case with syntactic foam and epoxy. The wall thickness resulting is about 0.5 inches.

  6. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Gross

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, CD8+ T-cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Efficient infection of CD4+ T-cells requires cell-cell contacts while cell-free virus transmission is inefficient. Two types of cell-cell contacts have been described to be critical for HTLV-1 transmission, tight junctions and cellular conduits. Further, two non-exclusive mechanisms of virus transmission at cell-cell contacts have been proposed: (1 polarized budding of HTLV-1 into synaptic clefts; and (2 cell surface transfer of viral biofilms at virological synapses. In contrast to CD4+ T-cells, dendritic cells can be infected cell-free and, to a greater extent, via viral biofilms in vitro. Cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 requires a coordinated action of steps in the virus infectious cycle with events in the cell-cell adhesion process; therefore, virus propagation from cell-to-cell depends on specific interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 transmission with a focus on the HTLV-1-encoded proteins Tax and p8, their impact on host cell factors mediating cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal remodeling, and thus, virus propagation.

  8. Alte Marchen?--alter Hut. Neue Marchen!--neuer Hut? 3 Moderne Marchen bearbeitet als Horspiele, mit Aufgaben und Ubungen (Old Fairy Tales?--Old Hat. New Fairy Tales!--New Hat? Three Modern Fairy Tales Presented in a Radio Play, with Activities and Drills).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, Michael

    Three German modern "fairy tales" are presented in a radio play format with exercises based on the tales. Detailed suggestions for the exercises and other class activities based on the manual are included. While serving as a comprehension exercise of the preceding text, the exercises and other activities recommended to accompany them depart from…

  9. Cell-ECM traction force modulates endogenous tension at cell-cell contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Gardel, Margaret L

    2011-03-22

    Cells in tissues are mechanically coupled both to the ECM and neighboring cells, but the coordination and interdependency of forces sustained at cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions are unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that the endogenous force sustained at the cell-cell contact between a pair of epithelial cells is approximately 100 nN, directed perpendicular to the cell-cell interface and concentrated at the contact edges. This force is stably maintained over time despite significant fluctuations in cell-cell contact length and cell morphology. A direct relationship between the total cellular traction force on the ECM and the endogenous cell-cell force exists, indicating that the cell-cell tension is a constant fraction of the cell-ECM traction. Thus, modulation of ECM properties that impact cell-ECM traction alters cell-cell tension. Finally, we show in a minimal model of a tissue that all cells experience similar forces from the surrounding microenvironment, despite differences in the extent of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion. This interdependence of cell-cell and cell-ECM forces has significant implications for the maintenance of the mechanical integrity of tissues, mechanotransduction, and tumor mechanobiology.

  10. Distribution of insoluble polysaccharides in the shoot apex of Rhododendron arboreum Linn. during the annual growth cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hemant K. Badola; Ganesh S. Paliwal

    2014-01-01

    Starch grains occur all over the dormant shoot apex of Rhododendron arboreum except in the bud scales. They are abundant in the peripheral, rib and pith meristem cells. as well as in the youngest leaf primordia. Tannin is present in the entire dormant bud hut for the cells of the apical meristem and leaf primordia. Gradually, tannin degradation into numerous globules occurs. This is concomitant with the disappearance of starch grains and indicates the earliest structural manifestation of spri...

  11. Mechanics rules cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang James HC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cells in the musculoskeletal system are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo. Years of research have shown that these mechanical forces, including tension and compression, greatly influence various cellular functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation, and secretion of matrix proteins. Cells also use mechanotransduction mechanisms to convert mechanical signals into a cascade of cellular and molecular events. This mini-review provides an overview of cell mechanobiology to highlight the notion that mechanics, mainly in the form of mechanical forces, dictates cell behaviors in terms of both cellular mechanobiological responses and mechanotransduction.

  12. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  13. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  14. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...... scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  15. New cell sources for T cell engineering and adoptive immunotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Themeli, Maria; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-01-01

    .... Here we review emerging T cell engineering approaches that utilize alternative T cell sources, which include virus-specific or T cell receptor-less allogeneic T cells, expanded lymphoid progenitors...

  16. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  17. Internalization of NK cells into tumor cells requires ezrin and leads to programmed cell-in-cell death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wang; Zhen Guo; Peng Xia; Tingting Liu; Jufang Wang; Shan Li; Lihua Sun; Jianxin Lu; Qian Wen; Mingqian Zhou; Li Ma; Xia Ding; Xiaoning Wang; Xuebiao Yao

    2009-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes are key players in the orchestration of immune response and elimination of defective cells. We have previously reported that natural killer (NK) cells enter target tumor cells, leading to either target cell death or self-destruction within tumor cells. However, it has remained elusive as to the fate of NK cells after internaliza-tion and whether the heterotypic cell-in-cell process is different from that of the homotypic cell-in-cell event recently named entosis. Here, we show that NK cells undergo a cell-in-cell process with the ultimate fate of apoptosis within tumor cells and reveal that the internalization process requires the actin cytoskeletal regulator, ezrin. To visualize how NK cells enter into tumor cells, we carried out real-time dual color imaging analyses of NK cell internalization into tumor cells. Surprisingly, most NK cells commit to programmed cell death after their entry into tumor cells, which is distinctively different from entosis observed in the homotypic cell-in-cell process. The apoptotic cell death of the internalized NK cells was evident by activation of caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, NK cell death after internalization is attenuated by the caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, confirming apoptosis as the mode of NK cell death within tumor cells. To determine protein factors essential for the entry of NK cells into tumor cells, we car-ried out siRNA-based knockdown analysis and discovered a critical role of ezrin in NK cell internalization. Impor-tantly, PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin promotes the NK cell internalization process. Our findings suggest a novel regulatory mechanism by which ezrin governs NK cell internalization into tumor cells.

  18. Islet cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Anabel; Khoo, Adrian; Tejedo, Juan R; Bedoya, Francisco J; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, there has been great success in driving stem cells toward insulin-expressing cells. However, the protocols developed to date have some limitations, such as low reliability and low insulin production. The most successful protocols used for generation of insulin-producing cells from stem cells mimic in vitro pancreatic organogenesis by directing the stem cells through stages that resemble several pancreatic developmental stages. Islet cell fate is coordinated by a complex network of inductive signals and regulatory transcription factors that, in a combinatorial way, determine pancreatic organ specification, differentiation, growth, and lineage. Together, these signals and factors direct the progression from multipotent progenitor cells to mature pancreatic cells. Later in development and adult life, several of these factors also contribute to maintain the differentiated phenotype of islet cells. A detailed understanding of the processes that operate in the pancreas during embryogenesis will help us to develop a suitable source of cells for diabetes therapy. In this chapter, we will discuss the main transcription factors involved in pancreas specification and beta-cell formation.

  19. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  20. Cell viability assays: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of cell viability plays a fundamental role in all forms of cell culture. Sometimes it is the main purpose of the experiment, such as in toxicity assays. Alternatively, cell viability can be used to -correlate cell behaviour to cell number, providing a more accurate picture of, for example, anabolic -activity. There are wide arrays of cell viability methods which range from the most routine trypan blue dye exclusion assay to highly complex analysis of individual cells, such as using RAMAN microscopy. The cost, speed, and complexity of equipment required will all play a role in determining the assay used. This chapter aims to provide an overview of many of the assays available today.

  1. Cell Factory Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-03-22

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories.

  2. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  3. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  4. Peripheral giant cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padam Narayan Tandon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral giant cell granuloma or the so-called "giant cell epulis" is the most common oral giant cell lesion. It normally presents as a soft tissue purplish-red nodule consisting of multinucleated giant cells in a background of mononuclear stromal cells and extravasated red blood cells. This lesion probably does not represent a true neoplasm, but rather may be reactive in nature, believed to be stimulated by local irritation or trauma, but the cause is not certainly known. This article reports a case of peripheral giant cell granuloma arising at the maxillary anterior region in a 22-year-old female patient. The lesion was completely excised to the periosteum level and there is no residual or recurrent swelling or bony defect apparent in the area of biopsy after a follow-up period of 6 months.

  5. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  6. Human regulatory B cells control the TFH cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Achouak; Simon, Quentin; Mohr, Audrey; Séité, Jean-François; Youinou, Pierre; Bendaoud, Boutahar; Ghedira, Ibtissem; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jamin, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Follicular helper T (TFH) cells support terminal B-cell differentiation. Human regulatory B (Breg) cells modulate cellular responses, but their control of TFH cell-dependent humoral immune responses is unknown. We sought to assess the role of Breg cells on TFH cell development and function. Human T cells were polyclonally stimulated in the presence of IL-12 and IL-21 to generate TFH cells. They were cocultured with B cells to induce their terminal differentiation. Breg cells were included in these cultures, and their effects were evaluated by using flow cytometry and ELISA. B-cell lymphoma 6, IL-21, inducible costimulator, CXCR5, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressions increased on stimulated human T cells, characterizing TFH cell maturation. In cocultures they differentiated B cells into CD138(+) plasma and IgD(-)CD27(+) memory cells and triggered immunoglobulin secretions. Breg cells obtained by Toll-like receptor 9 and CD40 activation of B cells prevented TFH cell development. Added to TFH cell and B-cell cocultures, they inhibited B-cell differentiation, impeded immunoglobulin secretions, and expanded Foxp3(+)CXCR5(+)PD-1(+) follicular regulatory T cells. Breg cells modulated IL-21 receptor expressions on TFH cells and B cells, and their suppressive activities involved CD40, CD80, CD86, and intercellular adhesion molecule interactions and required production of IL-10 and TGF-β. Human Breg cells control TFH cell maturation, expand follicular regulatory T cells, and inhibit the TFH cell-mediated antibody secretion. These novel observations demonstrate a role for the Breg cell in germinal center reactions and suggest that deficient activities might impair the TFH cell-dependent control of humoral immunity and might lead to the development of aberrant autoimmune responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Involvement of plant stem cells or stem cell-like cells in dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to procambium cells (stem cell-like cells are dedifferentiated and survive more easily than other cell types. This finding indicates that stem cells or stem cell-like cells may influence the dedifferentiating niche. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of stem cell maintenance and dedifferentiation regulation. We also summarize current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance between differentiation and dedifferentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation of stem cells or stem cell-like cells with dedifferentiation.

  8. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  9. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  10. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  11. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  12. Cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Dosal, F L; Estrada, J A; Piérard, G E

    1991-04-01

    We report an unusual cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells characterized by the presence of intraepidermal cells resembling Toker's cells of the nipple. These cells were EMA positive and could be related to the histogenesis of some Paget's disease.

  13. Cell to substratum and cell to cell interactions of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Altan; Berberoglu, Halil

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the cell to substratum and cell to cell interactions of a diverse group of microalgae based on the Extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek (XDLVO) approach using the previously reported physico-chemical surface properties. The microalgae included 10 different species of green algae and diatoms from both freshwater and saltwater environments while the substrata included glass, indium-tin oxide (ITO), stainless steel, polycarbonate, polyethylene, and polystryrene. The results indicated that acid-base interactions were the dominating mechanism of interaction for microalgae. For green algae, if at least one of the interacting surfaces was hydrophobic, adhesion at primary minimum was predicted without any energy barrier. However, most diatom systems featured energy barriers for adhesion due to repulsive van der Waals interactions. The results reported in this study are expected to provide useful data and insight into the interaction mechanisms of microalgae cells with each other and with substrata for a number of practical applications including prevention of biofouling of photobioreactors and other man-made surfaces, promotion of biofilm formation in algal biofilm photobioreactors, and developing bioflocculation strategies for energy efficient harvesting of algal biomass. Particularly, Botryococcus braunii and Cerithiopsis fusiformis were identified as promising species for biofloccuation and biofilm formation in freshwater and saltwater aquatic systems, respectively. Finally, based on the observed trends in this study, use of hydrophilic algae and hydrophilic coatings over surfaces are recommended for minimizing biofouling in aquatic systems.

  14. PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS (REVIEW ARTICLE)

    OpenAIRE

    Benli, Deniz Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    A solar cell is a device that converts sunlight into electricity. There are different types of solar cells but this report mainly focuses on a type of new generation solar cell that has the name organo-metal halide perovskite, shortly perovskite solar cells. In this respect, the efficiency of power conversion is taken into account to replace the dominancy of traditional and second generation solar cell fields by perovskite solar cells. Perovskite solar cell is a type of solar cell including a...

  15. Cell-to-cell transmission can overcome multiple donor and target cell barriers imposed on cell-free HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peng; Agosto, Luis M; Ilinskaya, Anna; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Truong, Rosaline; Derse, David; Uchil, Pradeep D; Heidecker, Gisela; Mothes, Walther

    2013-01-01

    Virus transmission can occur either by a cell-free mode through the extracellular space or by cell-to-cell transmission involving direct cell-to-cell contact. The factors that determine whether a virus spreads by either pathway are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the relative contribution of cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission to the spreading of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We demonstrate that HIV can spread by a cell-free pathway if all the steps of the viral replication cycle are efficiently supported in highly permissive cells. However, when the cell-free path was systematically hindered at various steps, HIV transmission became contact-dependent. Cell-to-cell transmission overcame barriers introduced in the donor cell at the level of gene expression and surface retention by the restriction factor tetherin. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies that efficiently inhibit cell-free HIV were less effective against cell-to-cell transmitted virus. HIV cell-to-cell transmission also efficiently infected target T cells that were relatively poorly susceptible to cell-free HIV. Importantly, we demonstrate that the donor and target cell types influence critically the extent by which cell-to-cell transmission can overcome each barrier. Mechanistically, cell-to-cell transmission promoted HIV spread to more cells and infected target cells with a higher proviral content than observed for cell-free virus. Our data demonstrate that the frequently observed contact-dependent spread of HIV is the result of specific features in donor and target cell types, thus offering an explanation for conflicting reports on the extent of cell-to-cell transmission of HIV.

  16. Cell-to-cell transmission can overcome multiple donor and target cell barriers imposed on cell-free HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhong

    Full Text Available Virus transmission can occur either by a cell-free mode through the extracellular space or by cell-to-cell transmission involving direct cell-to-cell contact. The factors that determine whether a virus spreads by either pathway are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the relative contribution of cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission to the spreading of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. We demonstrate that HIV can spread by a cell-free pathway if all the steps of the viral replication cycle are efficiently supported in highly permissive cells. However, when the cell-free path was systematically hindered at various steps, HIV transmission became contact-dependent. Cell-to-cell transmission overcame barriers introduced in the donor cell at the level of gene expression and surface retention by the restriction factor tetherin. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies that efficiently inhibit cell-free HIV were less effective against cell-to-cell transmitted virus. HIV cell-to-cell transmission also efficiently infected target T cells that were relatively poorly susceptible to cell-free HIV. Importantly, we demonstrate that the donor and target cell types influence critically the extent by which cell-to-cell transmission can overcome each barrier. Mechanistically, cell-to-cell transmission promoted HIV spread to more cells and infected target cells with a higher proviral content than observed for cell-free virus. Our data demonstrate that the frequently observed contact-dependent spread of HIV is the result of specific features in donor and target cell types, thus offering an explanation for conflicting reports on the extent of cell-to-cell transmission of HIV.

  17. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  18. Biology of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Grahame J; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Trapp, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental roles of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve formation and regeneration have been recognized for more than 100 years, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that integrate Schwann cell and axonal functions continue to be elucidated. Derived from the embryonic neural crest, Schwann cells differentiate into myelinating cells or bundle multiple unmyelinated axons into Remak fibers. Axons dictate which differentiation path Schwann cells follow, and recent studies have established that axonal neuregulin1 signaling via ErbB2/B3 receptors on Schwann cells is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Extracellular matrix production and interactions mediated by specific integrin and dystroglycan complexes are also critical requisites for Schwann cell-axon interactions. Myelination entails expansion and specialization of the Schwann cell plasma membrane over millimeter distances. Many of the myelin-specific proteins have been identified, and transgenic manipulation of myelin genes have provided novel insights into myelin protein function, including maintenance of axonal integrity and survival. Cellular events that facilitate myelination, including microtubule-based protein and mRNA targeting, and actin based locomotion, have also begun to be understood. Arguably, the most remarkable facet of Schwann cell biology, however, is their vigorous response to axonal damage. Degradation of myelin, dedifferentiation, division, production of axonotrophic factors, and remyelination all underpin the substantial regenerative capacity of the Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. Many of these properties are not shared by CNS fibers, which are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms responsible for the complex biology of Schwann cells continues to have practical benefits in identifying novel therapeutic targets not only for Schwann cell-specific diseases but other disorders in which axons degenerate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Frederick R; Umen, James G

    2015-05-01

    The position of Chlamydomonas within the eukaryotic phylogeny makes it a unique model in at least two important ways: as a representative of the critically important, early-diverging lineage leading to plants; and as a microbe retaining important features of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that has been lost in the highly studied yeast lineages. Its cell biology has been studied for many decades and it has well-developed experimental genetic tools, both classical (Mendelian) and molecular. Unlike land plants, it is a haploid with very few gene duplicates, making it ideal for loss-of-function genetic studies. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle has a striking temporal and functional separation between cell growth and rapid cell division, probably connected to the interplay between diurnal cycles that drive photosynthetic cell growth and the cell division cycle; it also exhibits a highly choreographed interaction between the cell cycle and its centriole-basal body-flagellar cycle. Here, we review the current status of studies of the Chlamydomonas cell cycle. We begin with an overview of cell-cycle control in the well-studied yeast and animal systems, which has yielded a canonical, well-supported model. We discuss briefly what is known about similarities and differences in plant cell-cycle control, compared with this model. We next review the cytology and cell biology of the multiple-fission cell cycle of Chlamydomonas. Lastly, we review recent genetic approaches and insights into Chlamydomonas cell-cycle regulation that have been enabled by a new generation of genomics-based tools. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cell-Substrate Adhesion by Amoeboid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Bret; Panta, Krishna

    Amoeboid migration is a rapid (10 μm min-1) mode of migration that some tumor cells exhibit. To permit such rapid movement, the adhesive contacts between the cell and the substrate must be relatively short-lived and weak. In this study, we investigate the basic adhesive character of amoeboid cells (D. discoideum) in contact with silanized glass substrates. We observe the initiation and spreading of the adhesive contacts that these cells establish as they settle under gravity onto the substrate and relax towards mechanical equilibrium. The use of interference reflection microscopy and cellular tethering measurements have allowed us to determine the basic adhesive properties of the cell: the membrane-medium interfacial energy; the bending modulus; the equilibrium contact angle; and the work of adhesion. We find the time scale on which settling occurs to be longer than expected. Implications of these results on adhesion and migration will be discussed. The authors are grateful for support from NSF (CBET-1451903) and NIH (1R21EY026392).

  1. Isolation of rare cancer cells from blood cells using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Sano, Michael B; Shafiee, Hadi; Stremler, Mark A; Davalos, Rafael V

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) for isolating cancer cells from blood cells. Devices with throughput of 0.2 mL/hr (equivalent to sorting 3×10(6) cells per minute) were used to trap breast cancer cells while allowing blood cells through. We have shown that this technique is able to isolate cancer cells in concentration as low as 1 cancer cell per 10(6) hematologic cells (equivalent to 1000 cancer cells in 1 mL of blood). We achieved 96% trapping of the cancer cells at 600 kHz and 300 V(RMS).

  2. Embryonic stem cell-somatic cell fusion and postfusion enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Huseyin; Verma, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are able to reprogram somatic cells following cell fusion. The resulting cell hybrids have been shown to have similar properties to pluripotent cells. It has also been shown that transcriptional changes can occur in a heterokaryon, without nuclear hybridization. However it is unclear whether these changes can be sustained following removal of the dominant ES nucleus. In this chapter, methods are described for the cell fusion of mouse tetraploid ES cells with somatic cells and enrichment of the resulting heterokaryons. We next describe the conditions for the differential removal of the ES cell nucleus, allowing for the recovery of somatic cells.

  3. New Cell Sources for T Cell Engineering and Adoptive Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themeli, Maria; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The promising clinical results obtained with engineered T cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy, call for further advancements to facilitate and broaden their applicability. One potentially beneficial innovation is to exploit new T cell sources that reduce the need for autologous cell manufacturing and enable cell transfer across histocompatibility barriers. Here we review emerging T cell engineering approaches that utilize alternative T cell sources, which include virus-specific or T cell receptor-less allogeneic T cells, expanded lymphoid progenitors, and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived T lymphocytes. The latter offer the prospect for true off-the-shelf, genetically enhanced, histocompatible cell therapy products. PMID:25842976

  4. Myoepithelial cells in pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Balachander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial cells are a normal constituent of the salivary acini and ducts and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Microscopically myoepithelial cells are thin and spindle-shaped and ultrastructurally they possess a number of Cytoplasmic processes that extend between and over the acinar and ductal-lining cells, and they show features of both smooth muscle and epithelium. They play a vital role during expulsion of saliva and regulates the electrolytic exchange. They also perform as tumor suppressors and are considered to play a very important role in differentiation of various salivary gland tumors and help in the diagnosis of tumors. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells in both benign and malignant tumors can take numerous forms including epithelioid, plasmacytoid, spindle and clear cell variant, and this variability largely accounts for difficulties in histopathological diagnosis.

  5. Melanoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The cancer stem cell concept significantly broadens our understanding of melanoma biology. However, this concept should be regarded as an integral part of a holistic cancer model that also includes the genetic evolution of tumor cells and the variability of cell phenotypes within a dynamic tumor microenvironment. The biologic complexity and methodological difficulties in identifying cancer stem cells and their biomarkers are currently impeding the direct translation of experimental findings into clinical practice. Nevertheless, it is these methodological shortcomings that provide a new perspective on the phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of melanoma with important consequences for future therapies. The development of new combination treatment strategies, particularly with regard to overcoming treatment resistance, could significantly benefit from targeted elimination of cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitkumar B Pandav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma, also known as inflammatory pseudotumor is a tumor-like lesion that manifests primarily in the lungs. But it may occur in various other anatomic locations like orbit, head and neck, liver and rarely in the oral cavity. We here report an exceedingly rare case of gingival plasma cell granuloma in a 58 year old woman who presented with upper gingival polypoidal growth. The histopathological examination revealed a mass composed of proliferation of benign spindle mesenchymal cells in a loose myxoid and fibrocollagenous stroma along with dense infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells predominantly containing plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma.

  7. Regulatory T cell memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  8. Trafficking and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Florian; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2009-07-01

    The migration of single cells and epithelial sheets is of great importance for gastrulation and organ formation in developing embryos and, if misregulated, can have dire consequences e.g. during cancer metastasis. A keystone of cell migration is the regulation of adhesive contacts, which are dynamically assembled and disassembled via endocytosis. Here, we discuss some of the basic concepts about the function of endocytic trafficking during cell migration: transport of integrins from the cell rear to the leading edge in fibroblasts; confinement of signalling to the front of single cells by endocytic transport of growth factors; regulation of movement coherence in multicellular sheets by cadherin turnover; and shaping of extracellular chemokine gradients. Taken together, endocytosis enables migrating cells and tissues to dynamically modulate their adhesion and signalling, allowing them to efficiently migrate through their extracellular environment.

  9. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely...... focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies...... in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta...

  10. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  11. Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Risler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present article is an invited contribution to the Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Robert A. Meyers Ed., Springer New York (2009). It is a review of the biophysical mechanisms that underly cell motility. It mainly focuses on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and cell-motility mechanisms. Bacterial motility as well as the composition of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is only briefly mentioned. The article is organized as follows. In Section III, I first present an overview of the diversity of cellular motility mechanisms, which might at first glance be categorized into two different types of behaviors, namely "swimming" and "crawling". Intracellular transport, mitosis - or cell division - as well as other extensions of cell motility that rely on the same essential machinery are briefly sketched. In Section IV, I introduce the molecular machinery that underlies cell motility - the cytoskeleton - as well as its interactions with the external environment of the cell and its main regulatory pathways. Sec...

  12. Myoepithelial cells in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, N; Masthan, K M K; Babu, N Aravindha; Anbazhagan, V

    2015-04-01

    Myoepithelial cells are a normal constituent of the salivary acini and ducts and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Microscopically myoepithelial cells are thin and spindle-shaped and ultrastructurally they possess a number of Cytoplasmic processes that extend between and over the acinar and ductal-lining cells, and they show features of both smooth muscle and epithelium. They play a vital role during expulsion of saliva and regulates the electrolytic exchange. They also perform as tumor suppressors and are considered to play a very important role in differentiation of various salivary gland tumors and help in the diagnosis of tumors. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells in both benign and malignant tumors can take numerous forms including epithelioid, plasmacytoid, spindle and clear cell variant, and this variability largely accounts for difficulties in histopathological diagnosis.

  13. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge; Garcia-Martinez; Bjorn; Bakker; Klaske; M; Schukken; Judith; E; Simon; Floris; Foijer

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells(IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to reality. However,as somatic cells might have accumulated various chromosomal abnormalities,including aneuploidies throughout their lives,the resulting IPSCs might no longer carry the perfect blueprint for the tissue to be generated,or worse,become at risk of adopting a malignant fate. In this review,we discuss the contribution of aneuploidy to healthy tissues and how aneuploidy can lead to disease. Furthermore,we review the differences between how somatic cells and stem cells respond to aneuploidy.

  14. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  16. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  17. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phadnaik Mangesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma is a rare reactive lesion composed of polyclonal plasma cells. It manifests primarily in the lungs, but may occur in various other anatomic locations like the oral cavity. Intraoral plasma cell granulomas involving the tongue, lip, oral mucosa and gingiva have been reported in the past. This case presents a 54-year-old female with chronic periodontitis and mandibular anterior gingival overgrowth treated by Phase I therapy (scaling and root planing and excisional biopsy. Histological examination revealed inflammatory cell infiltrate containing sheets of plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma. This case highlights the need to biopsy for unusual lesions to rule out potential neoplasms.

  18. Mammary epithelial cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kass, Laura; Erler, Janine Terra; Dembo, Micah

    2007-01-01

    a repertoire of transmembrane receptors, of which integrins are the best characterized. Integrins modulate cell fate by reciprocally transducing biochemical and biophysical cues between the cell and the extracellular matrix, facilitating processes such as embryonic branching morphogenesis and lactation...... in the mammary gland. During breast development and cancer progression, the extracellular matrix is dynamically altered such that its composition, turnover, processing and orientation change dramatically. These modifications influence mammary epithelial cell shape, and modulate growth factor and hormonal...

  19. Immobilized Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-31

    beads, the plasmid is twice as stable as in cells In a process where immobilized cells produce material grown in continuous culture over 200...carrageenan) or chemically cross-linked, or- Penicillium chrysogenum than in washed freely suspended ganic polymer (Ca-alginate, polyacrylamide, and mycelium ...these materials are formed into the freely suspended cells stopped after 6 days. If the beads of several millimeters in diameter by allowing the

  20. Cell Wall Proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Boudart, Georges; Minic, Zoran; Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we will focus on the contribution of proteomics to the identification and determination of the structure and function of CWPs as well as discussing new perspectives in this area. The great variety of proteins found in the plant cell wall is described. Some families, such as glycoside hydrolases, proteases, lectins, and inhibitors of cell wall modifying enzymes, are discussed in detail. Examples of the use of proteomic techniques to elucidate the structure of various cell wall...

  1. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  2. Lymphomas of large cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, W G; Gétaz, E P

    1977-09-03

    Historial aspects of the classification of large-cell lymphomas are described. Immunological characterization of the lymphomas has been made possible by identification of T and B lymphocytes according to their cell membrane surface characteristics. The pathogenesis of lymphomas has been clarified by the germinal (follicular) centre cell concepts of Lennert and Lukes and Collins. The various classifications are presented and compared. Whether these subdivisions will have any relevance in the clinical context remains to be seen.

  3. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  4. Cells as Drops and Drops as Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Eric R.

    2013-03-01

    How do the mechanical properties of tissues emerge from the interactions of individual cells? To shed some light on this fundamental biological question, we consider a model system of clusters of cohesive cells adherent to soft substrates. We quantify traction forces over a wide range of cluster sizes. The scaling of traction stresses with cluster size suggests the emergence of an apparent surface tension for large colonies. To explore the possible impact of cellular surface tension on physiology, we consider the behavior of liquid droplets on soft substrates. In this case, we find that the competition of surface tension and substrate elasticity can lead to rich phenomenology, mimicking certain aspects of the physiology of cells and tissues.

  5. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; O'Donnell, Charles W; Deng, Francis; Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia Walton; DiIorio, Philip; Rezania, Alireza; Gifford, David K; Melton, Douglas A

    2014-02-25

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic β cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts are essential to validate hPSC-derived cells. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of sorted insulin-expressing (INS(+)) cells derived from three independent hPSC lines, human fetal pancreata, and adult human islets points to two major conclusions: (i) Different hPSC lines produce highly similar INS(+) cells and (ii) hPSC-derived INS(+) (hPSC-INS(+)) cells more closely resemble human fetal β cells than adult β cells. This study provides a direct comparison of transcriptional programs between pure hPSC-INS(+) cells and true β cells and provides a catalog of genes whose manipulation may convert hPSC-INS(+) cells into functional β cells.

  6. Origins of pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, B A J; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, S M

    2011-08-01

    Different types of pluripotent stem cells can be identified and cultured in vitro. Here an overview is presented of the various pluripotent stem cells types. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells that have been cultured in vitro provided the groundwork for future pluripotent cell cultures. Conditions established for these cells such as culture on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the importance of fetal calf serum were initially also used for the culture of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts. Embryonic stem cells derived from human blastocysts were found to require different conditions and are cultured in the presence of activin and basic fibroblast growth factor. Recently pluripotent stem cells have also been derived from mouse peri-implantation epiblasts. Since these epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) require the same conditions as the human ES cells it has been suggested that human ES cells are more similar to mouse EpiSCs than to mouse ES cells. Pluripotent cell lines have also been derived from migratory primordial germ cells and spermatogonial stem cells. The creation of pluripotent stem cells from adult cells by the introduction of reprogramming transcription factors, so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells allowed the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need of creation of a human blastocyst after cloning by somatic cells nuclear transfer. Recently it has become clear however that iPS cells may be quite different to ES cells in terms of epigenetics.

  7. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  8. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  9. Assessment of cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon; Nguyen, Vy; Coder, David

    2013-01-01

    Cell viability may be judged by morphological changes or by changes in membrane permeability and/or physiological state inferred from the exclusion of certain dyes or the uptake and retention of others. This unit presents methods based on dye exclusion, esterase activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as protocols for determining the pre-fixation viability of fixed cells either before or after fixation with amine-reactive dyes suitable for a range of excitation wavelengths. Membrane-impermeable dead cell and live cell dyes as well as dye-exclusion procedures for microscopy are also included.

  10. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  11. Analysing immune cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Joost B; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J

    2009-11-01

    The visualization of the dynamic behaviour of and interactions between immune cells using time-lapse video microscopy has an important role in modern immunology. To draw robust conclusions, quantification of such cell migration is required. However, imaging experiments are associated with various artefacts that can affect the estimated positions of the immune cells under analysis, which form the basis of any subsequent analysis. Here, we describe potential artefacts that could affect the interpretation of data sets on immune cell migration. We propose how these errors can be recognized and corrected, and suggest ways to prevent the data analysis itself leading to biased results.

  12. Applications of Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Emmanuel C

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the different purposes for which the cell microencapsulation technology can be used. These include immunoisolation of non-autologous cells used for cell therapy; immobilization of cells for localized (targeted) delivery of therapeutic products to ablate, repair, or regenerate tissue; simultaneous delivery of multiple therapeutic agents in cell therapy; spatial compartmentalization of cells in complex tissue engineering; expansion of cells in culture; and production of different probiotics and metabolites for industrial applications. For each of these applications, specific examples are provided to illustrate how the microencapsulation technology can be utilized to achieve the purpose. However, successful use of the cell microencapsulation technology for whatever purpose will ultimately depend upon careful consideration for the choice of the encapsulating polymers, the method of fabrication (cross-linking) of the microbeads, which affects the permselectivity, the biocompatibility and the mechanical strength of the microbeads as well as environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, osmotic pressure, and storage solutions.The various applications discussed in this chapter are illustrated in the different chapters of this book and where appropriate relevant images of the microencapsulation products are provided. It is hoped that this outline of the different applications of cell microencapsulation would provide a good platform for tissue engineers, scientists, and clinicians to design novel tissue constructs and products for therapeutic and industrial applications.

  13. Cell sorting in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krens, S F Gabby; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2011-01-01

    During the development of multicellular organisms, cell fate specification is followed by the sorting of different cell types into distinct domains from where the different tissues and organs are formed. Cell sorting involves both the segregation of a mixed population of cells with different fates and properties into distinct domains, and the active maintenance of their segregated state. Because of its biological importance and apparent resemblance to fluid segregation in physics, cell sorting was extensively studied by both biologists and physicists over the last decades. Different theories were developed that try to explain cell sorting on the basis of the physical properties of the constituent cells. However, only recently the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control the physical properties driving cell sorting, have begun to be unraveled. In this review, we will provide an overview of different cell-sorting processes in development and discuss how these processes can be explained by the different sorting theories, and how these theories in turn can be connected to the molecular and cellular mechanisms driving these processes.

  14. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  15. Rapid cooled lens cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, David M.; Hsu, Ike C.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the optomechanical design, thermal analysis, fabrication, and test evaluation processes followed in developing a rapid cooled, infrared lens cell. Thermal analysis was the key engineering discipline exercised in the design phase. The effect of thermal stress on the lens, induced by rapid cooling of the lens cell, was investigated. Features of this lens cell that minimized the thermal stress will be discussed in a dedicated section. The results of thermal analysis on the selected lens cell design and the selection of the flow channel design in the heat exchanger will be discussed. Throughout the paper engineering drawings, illustrations, analytical results, and photographs of actual hardware are presented.

  16. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    .... Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes...

  17. Littoral Cells 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Littoral cells along the California Coast. Originally digitized by Melanie Coyne from the Assessment and Atlas of Shoreline Erosion Along the California Coast...

  18. Littoral Cells 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Littoral cells along the California Coast. Originally digitized by Melanie Coyne from the Assessment and Atlas of Shoreline Erosion Along the California Coast...

  19. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  20. A focus on parietal cells as a renewing cell population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif; M; Karam

    2010-01-01

    The fact that the acidsecreting parietal cells undergo continuous renewal has been ignored by many gastroenterologists and cell biologists. In the past, it was thought that these cells were static. However, by using 3Hthymidine radioautography in combination with electron microscopy, it was possible to demonstrate that parietal cells belong to a continuously renewing epithelial cell lineage. In the gastric glands, stem cells anchored in the isthmus region are responsible for the production of parietal cells...

  1. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J.; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G.; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, ...

  2. Regulation of B Cell to Plasma Cell Transition within the Follicular B Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nera, K-P; Kyläniemi, M K; Lassila, O

    2015-09-01

    Persistent humoral immunity depends on the follicular B cell response and on the generation of somatically mutated high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Upon activation by an antigen, cognately activated follicular B cells and follicular T helper (TFH ) cells initiate germinal centre (GC) reaction during which high-affinity effector cells are generated. The differentiation of activated follicular B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells is guided by complex selection events, both at the cellular and molecular level. The transition of B cell into a plasma cell during the GC response involves alterations in the microenvironment and developmental state of the cell, which are guided by cell-extrinsic signals. The developmental cell fate decisions in response to these signals are coordinated by cell-intrinsic gene regulatory network functioning at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  3. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  4. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  5. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  6. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways.

  7. Single-cell sequencing in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2016-04-15

    Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of stem cell populations, but these differences are masked when bulk cells are used for omic analysis. Single-cell sequencing technologies serve as powerful tools to dissect cellular heterogeneity comprehensively and to identify distinct phenotypic cell types, even within a 'homogeneous' stem cell population. These technologies, including single-cell genome, epigenome, and transcriptome sequencing technologies, have been developing rapidly in recent years. The application of these methods to different types of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells, has led to exciting new findings in the stem cell field. In this review, we discuss the recent progress as well as future perspectives in the methodologies and applications of single-cell omic sequencing technologies.

  8. Molecular mechanisms controlling the cell cycle in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelalim, Essam M

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are originated from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst stage embryo. They can proliferate indefinitely, maintain an undifferentiated state (self-renewal), and differentiate into any cell type (pluripotency). ES cells have an unusual cell cycle structure, consists mainly of S phase cells, a short G1 phase and absence of G1/S checkpoint. Cell division and cell cycle progression are controlled by mechanisms ensuring the accurate transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. Therefore, control of cell cycle is a complicated process, involving several signaling pathways. Although great progress has been made on the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of ES cell cycle, many regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the cell cycle of ES cells and describes the relationship existing between cell cycle progression and the self-renewal.

  9. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... activation through coculture with T cells activated by anti-T-cell receptor or anti-CD3 antibodies suggest that cellular interaction with T cells, independent of antigen presentation or lymphokine secretion, induces or triggers B cells to become responsive to T-derived lymphokines, and that this may...

  10. Stem cell regulation: Implications when differentiated cells regulate symmetric stem cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyem, Marte Rørvik; Måløy, Frode; Jakobsen, Per; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2015-09-07

    We use a mathematical model to show that if symmetric stem cell division is regulated by differentiated cells, then changes in the population dynamics of the differentiated cells can lead to changes in the population dynamics of the stem cells. More precisely, the relative fitness of the stem cells can be affected by modifying the death rate of the differentiated cells. This result is interesting because stem cells are less sensitive than differentiated cells to environmental factors, such as medical therapy. Our result implies that stem cells can be manipulated indirectly by medical treatments that target the differentiated cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells): Potential stem cells of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, engineering and disease treatment. The dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, the multipotent capacity of DFAT cells and comparisons and contrasts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are discussed in this review.

  12. [Acute plasma cell leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.

  13. T-cell costimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1996-01-01

    The CD40L molecule expressed by CD4+ regulatory T lymphocytes is known to deliver signals that activate B cells and macrophages. It now appears that CD40L regulates T cells themselves, during both their development and their participation in adaptive immune responses....

  14. Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2016-01-01

    -derived stromal cells (ASCs) to enrich the fat graft, a procedure termed cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL). The aim of this review was to systematically review the current preclinical and clinical evidence for the efficacy of CAL compared with conventional lipotransfer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search...

  15. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  16. Cystic Granular Cell Ameloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Thillaikarasi, Rathnavel; Balaji, Jayaram; Gupta, Bhawna; Ilayarja, Vadivel; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Vidula, Balachander; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam; Ponniah, Irulandy

    2010-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive benign epithelial odontogenic tumor, while unicystic ameloblastoma is a relatively less aggressive variant. Although rare in unicystic or cystic ameloblastoma, granular cell change in ameloblastoma is a recognized phenomenon. The purpose of the present article is to report a case of cystic granular cell ameloblastoma in 34-year old female.

  17. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  18. Programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  19. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  20. Tumor cell metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  1. Transparent solar cell module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, G. J.; Dillard, P. A.; Fritz, W. M.; Lott, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Modified solar cell module uses high transmission glass and adhesives, and heat dissipation to boost power per unit area by 25% (9.84% efficiency based on cell area at 60 C and 100 mW/sq cm flux). Design is suited for automatic production and is potentially more cost effective.

  2. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get Screened for Sickle Cell Trait Did you know there’s more than one way ...

  3. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  4. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  5. Stem cells in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today.

  6. Biosensors for Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Son, Kyungjin; Liu, Ying; Revzin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors first appeared several decades ago to address the need for monitoring physiological parameters such as oxygen or glucose in biological fluids such as blood. More recently, a new wave of biosensors has emerged in order to provide more nuanced and granular information about the composition and function of living cells. Such biosensors exist at the confluence of technology and medicine and often strive to connect cell phenotype or function to physiological or pathophysiological processes. Our review aims to describe some of the key technological aspects of biosensors being developed for cell analysis. The technological aspects covered in our review include biorecognition elements used for biosensor construction, methods for integrating cells with biosensors, approaches to single-cell analysis, and the use of nanostructured biosensors for cell analysis. Our hope is that the spectrum of possibilities for cell analysis described in this review may pique the interest of biomedical scientists and engineers and may spur new collaborations in the area of using biosensors for cell analysis.

  7. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  8. Electrochemical cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-06-22

    Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.

  9. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazaretian, S.P.; Schenberg, M.E.; Simpson, I.; Slootweg, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour and dentinogenic ghost cell tumour. This is the case of a middle-aged male who presented with a slow-growing maxillary tumour. He was asymptomatic until pain symptoms developed prior to initi

  10. Tetraspanins in Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKöberle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are key mediators of the immune system, most prominently known for their role in eliciting harmful allergic reactions. Mast cell mediator release (e. g. by degranulation is triggered by Fc{epsilon}RI recognition of antigen – IgE complexes. Until today no therapeutic targeting of this and other mast cell activation pathways is established. Among possible new candidates there are tetraspanins that have been described on mast cells already several years ago.Tetraspanins are transmembrane proteins acting as scaffolds, mediating local clustering of their interaction partners and thus amplify their activities. More recently, tetraspanins were also found to exert intrinsic receptor functions. Tetraspanins have been found to be crucial components of fundamental biological processes like cell motility and adhesion. In immune cells, they not only boost the effectiveness of antigen presentation by clustering MHC molecules, they are also key players in all kinds of degranulation events and immune receptor clustering. This review focuses on the contribution of tetraspanins clustered with Fc{epsilon}RI or residing in granule membranes to classical mast cells functions but also undertakes an outlook on the possible contribution of tetraspanins to newly described mast cell functions and discusses possible drugging strategies.

  11. Ghrelin and cell differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geyang Xu; Yin Li; Wenjiao An; Weizhen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is a gastric hormone that has been found to have a wide variety of biological functions. This review summarizes our current understanding of the effects of ghrelin on cell differentiation and tissue development, with an emphasis on the lineage determination of mesenchymal stem cells.

  12. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  13. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  14. Cell Phones for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, James H.; Hagevik, Rita A.

    2008-01-01

    Cell phones are fast becoming an integral part of students' everyday lives. They are regarded as important companions and tools for personal expression. School-age children are integrating the cell phone as such, and thus placing a high value on them. Educators endeavor to instill in students a high value for education, but often meet with…

  15. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus

    2014-03-17

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  16. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nadia Aparecida; Netto, Jose Fillus

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  17. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appe...

  18. NCAM regulates cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Kawa, Anna; Walmod, Peter S; Belman, Vadym; Gallagher, Helen C; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Nina

    2002-01-15

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine inhibitor of NCAM-negative cell locomotion through a heterophilic interaction with a cell-surface receptor. As we showed that the two N-terminal immunoglobulin modules of NCAM, which are known to bind to heparin, were responsible for this inhibition, we presume that this receptor is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. A model for the inhibitory effect of NCAM is proposed, which involves competition between NCAM and extracellular components for the binding to membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

  19. cell tumours of childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neuron-specific-enolase, vimentin and neurofilament us- .... ated on a 4-point scale based on the number of positive cells: Negative staining (—) = no tumour cell stained. Minimal .... the same laboratory, have been shown previously to be.

  20. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  1. Retinal stem cells and potential cell transplantation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tai-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chien, Ke-Hung; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The retina, histologically composed of ten delicate layers, is responsible for light perception and relaying electrochemical signals to the secondary neurons and visual cortex. Retinal disease is one of the leading clinical causes of severe vision loss, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt's disease, and retinitis pigmentosa. As a result of the discovery of various somatic stem cells, advances in exploring the identities of embryonic stem cells, and the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, cell transplantation treatment for retinal diseases is currently attracting much attention. The sources of stem cells for retinal regeneration include endogenous retinal stem cells (e.g., neuronal stem cells, Müller cells, and retinal stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone) and exogenous stem cells (e.g., bone mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells). The success of cell transplantation treatment depends mainly on the cell source, the timing of cell harvesting, the protocol of cell induction/transplantation, and the microenvironment of the recipient's retina. This review summarizes the different sources of stem cells for regeneration treatment in retinal diseases and surveys the more recent achievements in animal studies and clinical trials. Future directions and challenges in stem cell transplantation are also discussed.

  2. Transition of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous. A fraction of these cells constitute multipotent cells that can self-renew and mainly give rise to mesodermal lineage cells such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. The ability of MSCs to differentiate into endothelial cell

  3. Induction of embryonic stem cells to hematopoietic cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to get hematopoietic cells from embryonic stem (ES) cells and to study development mechanisms of hematopoietic cells, the method of inducing embryonic stem cells to hematopoietic cells was explored by differenciating mouse ES cells and human embryonic cells in three stages. The differentiated cells were identified by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and Wright's staining. The results showed that embryoid bodies (EBs) could form when ES cells were cultured in the medium with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). However, cytokines, such as stem cell factor (SCF), thrombopoietin (TPO), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythropoietin (EPO) and granular colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), were not helpful for forming EBs. SCF, TPO and embryonic cell conditional medium were useful for the differentiation of mouse EBs to hematopoietic progenitors. Eighty-six percent of these cells were CD34+ after 6-d culture. Hematopoietic progenitors differentiated to B lymphocytes when they were cocultured with primary bone marrow stroma cells in the DMEM medium with SCF and IL-6. 14 d later, most of the cells were CD34-CD38+. Wright's staining and immunohistochemistry showed that 80% of these cells were plasma-like morphologically and immunoglubolin positive. The study of hematopoietic cells from human embryonic cells showed that human embryonic cell differentiation was very similar to that of mouse ES cells. They could form EBs in the first stage and the CD34 positive cells account for about 48.5% in the second stage.

  4. Mast cells and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Laurent; Hermine, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    The prominent role for mast cells in the inflammatory response has been increasingly well documented in recent years. Mast cells not only contribute to maintain homeostasis via degranulation and to generate IgE-mediated allergic reactions, but also sit at a major crossroads for both innate and adaptive immune responses. The part played by mast cells in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis identifies mast cells as a valuable treatment target in these diseases. Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors targeting the c-Kit mast cell receptor have been found effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and multiple sclerosis. When used in combination with other available drugs, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors may improve the therapeutic management of these diseases.

  5. Mast cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Dubreuil, Patrice; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Hermine, Olivier; Damaj, Gandhi

    2013-02-21

    Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a very rare form of aggressive systemic mastocytosis accounting for mast cell activation-involvement of the liver, spleen, peritoneum, bones, and marrow-are frequent. Diagnosis is based on the presence of ≥ 20% atypical mast cells in the marrow or ≥ 10% in the blood; however, an aleukemic variant is frequently encountered in which the number of circulating mast cells is < 10%. The common phenotypic features of pathologic mast cells encountered in most forms of mastocytosis are unreliable in MCL. Unexpectedly, non-KIT D816V mutations are frequent and therefore, complete gene sequencing is necessary. Therapy usually fails and the median survival time is < 6 months. The role of combination therapies and bone marrow transplantation needs further investigation.

  6. Dynamics of cell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel A.

    2007-09-01

    Many physiological processes depend on the response of biological cells to mechanical forces generated by the contractile activity of the cell or by external stresses. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitivity of cells and the elasticity of the matrix, we predict the dynamics and orientation of cells in both the absence and presence of applied stresses. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the cellular forces in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency.

  7. Physics of adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Safran, Samuel A.

    2013-07-01

    One of the most unique physical features of cell adhesion to external surfaces is the active generation of mechanical force at the cell-material interface. This includes pulling forces generated by contractile polymer bundles and networks, and pushing forces generated by the polymerization of polymer networks. These forces are transmitted to the substrate mainly by focal adhesions, which are large, yet highly dynamic adhesion clusters. Tissue cells use these forces to sense the physical properties of their environment and to communicate with each other. The effect of forces is intricately linked to the material properties of cells and their physical environment. Here a review is given of recent progress in our understanding of the role of forces in cell adhesion from the viewpoint of theoretical soft matter physics and in close relation to the relevant experiments.

  8. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  9. Cell-Size Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Amanda A.; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of a given type maintain a characteristic cell size to function efficiently in their ecological or organismal context. They achieve this through the regulation of growth rates or by actively sensing size and coupling this signal to cell division. We focus this review on potential size-sensing mechanisms, including geometric, external cue, and titration mechanisms. Mechanisms that titrate proteins against DNA are of particular interest because they are consistent with the robust correlation of DNA content and cell size. We review the literature, which suggests that titration mechanisms may underlie cell-size sensing in Xenopus embryos, budding yeast, and Escherichia coli, whereas alternative mechanisms may function in fission yeast. PMID:26254313

  10. Cell manipulation in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available.

  11. Cell Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The engineering process of creating cell control systems is described, and a Cell Control Engineering (CCE) concept is defined. The purpose is to assist people, representing different disciplines in the organisation, to implement cell controllers by addressing the complexity of having many systems...... in physically and logically different and changing manufacturing environments. The defined CCE concept combines state-of-the-art of commercially available enabling technologies for automation system software development, generic cell control models and guidelines for the complete engineering process....... It facilitates the understanding of the task and structure of cell controllers and uses this knowledge directly in the implementation of the system. By applying generic models CCE facilitates reuse of software components and maintenance of applications. In many enterprises, software makes up an increasing part...

  12. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  13. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  14. Metallization of bacteria cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎向锋; 李雅芹; 蔡军; 张德远

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria cells with different standard shapes are well suited for use as templates for the fabrication of magnetic and electrically conductive microstructures. In this paper, metallization of bacteria cells is demonstrated by an electroless deposition technique of nickel-phosphorus initiated by colloid palladium-tin catalyst on the surfaces of Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus. The activated and metallized bacteria cells have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that both Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus had no deformation in shape after metallization; the metallized films deposited on the surfaces of bacteria cells are homogeneous in thickness and noncrystalline in phase structure. The kinetics of colloid palladium-tin solution and electroless plating on bacteria cells is discussed.

  15. Storing Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  16. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  17. HBeAg can up regulate regulatory T cell in cord blood%HBeAg能上调新生儿脐带血中调节性T细胞的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓梅; 施可庆; 刘建; 孙江川; 刘菊莲; 冯丽娟; 张大志

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To detect the frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127low- regulatory T cell ( Treg )in cord blood born from HBsAg positive mother and to determine the relationship between mother's HBeAg and HBV persistent infection after the children were born.Methods:According to mother's HBeAg status,63 cord blood of neonates delivered by H BsAg positive mothers were divided into group A ( HBeAg positive )and group B(HBeAg negative).22 cases of cord blood of neonates from HBsAg negative mother were served as group C ( healthy controls ).The frequency of Treg was analyzed by three-color immunofluorescence flow cytometry.HBV serum markers and HBVDNA level both in cord blood and mother's peripheral blood were detected. Results:In group A, 24 of 33 cord blood of neonates were HBeAg positive,but none of them were HBeAg positive in group B and group C.AII of the cord blood were HBVDNA negative.There was no relationship about the HBeAg quantity between mother's peripheral blood and cord blood(P>O.OS).Compared with group B and group C, the percentage of Treg significantly increased in group h ( P<0.05 ) , hut the number was not dramatically different between group B and group C (P>0.05).The frequency of Treg did not relate to HBVDNA level and HBeAg quantity either in mother's peripheral blood or in cord blood. Conclusion: HBeAg may have substantial impact on the development of fetal immune system and bring on their immunotolerance to HBV by upregulating Treg in cord blood.%目的:观察HBsAg阳性产妇新生儿脐带血CD4+CD25+CD127low/-调节性T细胞(Regulatory T cell,Treg)的数量,探讨HBeAg在新生儿HBV持续性感染中的作用.方法:共收集63例HBsAg阳性产妇新生儿脐带血,按照产妇产前HBeAg状态分为A组33例HBeAg阳性,B组30例HBeAg阴性,C组22例HBsAg阴性产妇做为对照组.利用三色流式分析法分析新生儿脐带血单个核细胞(Cord blood monocytes,CBMCs)中的Treg的频数.并检测产妇及其脐带

  18. Cell cycle regulation in human embryonic stem cells: links to adaptation to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Tomas; Dolezalova, Dasa; Holubcova, Zuzana; Hampl, Ales

    2013-03-01

    Cell cycle represents not only a tightly orchestrated mechanism of cell replication and cell division but it also plays an important role in regulation of cell fate decision. Particularly in the context of pluripotent stem cells or multipotent progenitor cells, regulation of cell fate decision is of paramount importance. It has been shown that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) show unique cell cycle characteristics, such as short doubling time due to abbreviated G1 phase; these properties change with the onset of differentiation. This review summarizes the current understanding of cell cycle regulation in hESCs. We discuss cell cycle properties as well as regulatory machinery governing cell cycle progression of undifferentiated hESCs. Additionally, we provide evidence that long-term culture of hESCs is accompanied by changes in cell cycle properties as well as configuration of several cell cycle regulatory molecules.

  19. Advances in stem cell research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In 1998, biologists Thomson and Gearhart successfully derived stem cells from human embryos. One year later, several researchers discovered that adult stem cells still retain the ability to be differentiated into unrelated types of cells. Advances in stem cell research open a promising direction for applied medical science. Moreover, it may also force scientists to reconsider the fundamental theory about how cells grow up. Stem cell research was considered by Science as the top of the ten breakthroughs of science of the year[1]. This paper gives a survey of recent advances in stem cell research. 1 Overview In the 1980s, embryonic stem cell and/or embryonic germ cell line (ES cell line, EG cell line) of multifarious mammalian animals, especially those of non-human pri-mates, had been established. In 1998, Thomson and Shamblott obtained ES, EG cell lines from human blasto-cysts and gonad ridges of early human embryos, respec-tively. Their research brought up an ethical debate about whether human embryos can be used as experimental materials. It was not appeased until 1999 when research-ers discovered that stem cells from adults still retain the ability to become different kinds of tissue cells. For in-stance, brain cells can become blood cells[2], and cells from bone marrow can become cells in liver. Scientists believe, for a long time, that cells can only be developed from early pluripotent embryo cells; the differentiation potential of stem cells from mature tissues is restricted to only one of the cell types of the tissue where stem cells are obtained. Recent stem cell researches, however, sub-verted the traditional view of stem cells. These discoveries made scientists speed ahead with the work on adult stem cells, hoping to discover whether their promise will rival that of ES cells.

  20. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  1. From Adult Bone Marrow Cells to Other Cell Lineages:Transdifferentiation or Cells Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation or local injection of bone marrow cells can induce unexpected changes of their fate. The results of these experiments showed that after transplantation or injecton, some of tissue specific somatic cells such as hepatocytes, skeleton, cardiac muscle cells and brain cells expressed the donor cell-specific genes, such as Y chromosome. There are two hypotheses that can explain this phenomenon. One is bone marrow stem cell transdifferentiation and the other is spontaneous cell fusion.

  2. Hilar mossy cell circuitry controlling dentate granule cell excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro eJinde

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamatergic hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus can either excite or inhibit distant granule cells, depending on whether their direct excitatory projections to granule cells or their projections to local inhibitory interneurons dominate. However, it remains controversial whether the net effect of mossy cell loss is granule cell excitation or inhibition. Clarifying this controversy has particular relevance to temporal lobe epilepsy, which is marked by dentate granule cell hyperexcitability and extensive loss of dentate hilar mossy cells. Two diametrically opposed hypotheses have been advanced to explain this granule cell hyperexcitability – the dormant basket cell and the irritable mossy cell hypotheses. The dormant basket cell hypothesis proposes that mossy cells normally exert a net inhibitory effect on granule cells and therefore their loss causes dentate granule cell hyperexcitability. The irritable mossy cell hypothesis takes the opposite view that mossy cells normally excite granule cells and that the surviving mossy cells in epilepsy increase their activity, causing granule cell excitation. The inability to eliminate mossy cells selectively has made it difficult to test these two opposing hypotheses. To this end, we developed a transgenic toxin-mediated, mossy cell-ablation mouse line. Using these mutants, we demonstrated that the extensive elimination of hilar mossy cells causes granule cell hyperexcitability, although the mossy cell loss observed appeared insufficient to cause clinical epilepsy. In this review, we focus on this topic and also suggest that different interneuron populations may mediate mossy cell-induced translamellar lateral inhibition and intralamellar recurrent inhibition. These unique local circuits in the dentate hilar region may be centrally involved in the functional organization of the dentate gyrus.

  3. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  4. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinic...

  5. Many facets of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Research area on stem cells is one of frontiers in biology.The collection of five research articles in this issue aims to cover timely developments in stem cell biology, ranging from generating and identifying stem cell line to manipulating stem cells, and from basic mechanism analysis to applied medical potential.These papers reflect the various research tasks in stem cell biology.

  6. Quantitative imaging of epithelial cell scattering identifies specific inhibitors of cell motility and cell-cell dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerke, D.; le Duc, Q.; Blonk, I.; Kerstens, A.; Spanjaard, E.; Machacek, M.; Danuser, G.; de Rooij, J.

    2012-01-01

    The scattering of cultured epithelial cells in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a model system that recapitulates key features of metastatic cell behavior in vitro, including disruption of cell-cell adhesions and induction of cell migration. We have developed image analysis tools that

  7. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  8. World War 2 in Alaska: A Historic and Resources Management Plan. Volume 1. A History of World War 2 in Alaska and Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    ordnance damage and/or insulation. A further variation on the same theme was the Jamesway Hut, a 16 foot wide hemispherical structure in eight foot...standard Army 16’ by 16’ pyramidal tent. Used with Sibley coal stoves and oil burners for temporary troop housing throughout Alaska. Jamesway hut...34 category includes Army winterized tents, Jamesway huts, Stout houses, Yakutat huts, skid sheds, Cowin huts, Loxstave units, and Navy cabanas. It is

  9. Embryonic stem cells: testing the germ-cell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2011-10-25

    The exact cellular origin of embryonic stem cells remains elusive. Now a new study provides compelling evidence that embryonic stem cells, established under conventional culture conditions, originate from a transient germ-cell state.

  10. Single-cell model of prokaryotic cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Kristo; Aaviksaar, Tõnis; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-01-21

    One of the recognized prokaryotic cell cycle theories is Cooper-Helmstetter (CH) theory which relates start of DNA replication to particular (initiation) cell mass, cell growth and division. Different aspects of this theory have been extensively studied in the past. In the present study CH theory was applied at single cell level. Universal equations were derived for different cell parameters (cell mass and volume, surface area, DNA amount and content) depending on constructivist cell cycle parameters (unit mass, replication and division times, cell age, cell cycle duration) based on selected growth laws of cell mass (linear, exponential). The equations derived can be integrated into single-cell models for the analysis and design of bacterial cells. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Immunology of Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Yang

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of pluri-potent stem cells to repair the tissues in which stem cells reside holds great promise in development of novel cell replacement therapeutics for treating chronic and degenerative diseases. However,numerous reports show that stem cell therapy, even in an autologous setting, triggers lymphocyte infiltration and inflammation. Therefore, an important question to be answered is how the host immune system responds to engrafted autologous stem cells or allogeneous stem cells. In this brief review, we summarize the progress in several related areas in this field, including some of our data, in four sections: (1) immunogenicity of stem cells; (2)strategies to inhibit immune rejection to allograft stem cells; (3) immune responses to cancer stem cells; and (4)mesenchymal stem cells in immune regulation. Improvement of our understanding on these and other aspects of immune system-stem cell interplay would greatly facilitate the development of stem cell-based therapeutics for regenerative purposes.

  12. Neurohistological Investigations on General Oxygen Deficiency of the Brain. 2. The Behavior of Astocytes After Acute and Subacute Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-03-01

    clasmatodendrosis might be explained as a con- deprived of the oxygen supply, causing the acute sequence of a necrobiosis caused by the arrest onset...odendrosis is a necrobiosis His opinion brief instant anoxia has not a deadly hut a stimo- rust now be modified to allow for the fact that ulative effect...in a strict sense does not exist. It is actually a necrobiosis of Astrocytes within a tissue infiltrate in a case of an the cells, which is

  13. A Comparative Study of Body Language in Classroom Teaching between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继贤

    2008-01-01

    Many researches show that the relationship between teachers and students cell be improved if teachers make effective age of body language to communicate.Besides,students'cognitive ability and efficiency in learning will be promoted.Studies on body language are beneficial not only to our linguistic theory hut also to our classroom teaching and learning.And the Successful teaching is such teaching which not only pays attention to verbal communication but also not overlooks communicative function of body language.

  14. Llgl1 Connects Cell Polarity with Cell-Cell Adhesion in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossin, Yves; Lee, Minhui; Klezovitch, Olga; Kon, Elif; Cossard, Alexia; Lien, Wen-Hui; Fernandez, Tania E; Cooper, Jonathan A; Vasioukhin, Valera

    2017-06-05

    Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCCs) are devastating developmental disorders. We report here that mice with embryonic neural stem-cell-specific deletion of Llgl1 (Nestin-Cre/Llgl1(fl/fl)), a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila cell polarity gene lgl, exhibit MCCs resembling severe periventricular heterotopia (PH). Immunohistochemical analyses and live cortical imaging of PH formation revealed that disruption of apical junctional complexes (AJCs) was responsible for PH in Nestin-Cre/Llgl1(fl/fl) brains. While it is well known that cell polarity proteins govern the formation of AJCs, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We show that LLGL1 directly binds to and promotes internalization of N-cadherin, and N-cadherin/LLGL1 interaction is inhibited by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of LLGL1, restricting the accumulation of AJCs to the basolateral-apical boundary. Disruption of the N-cadherin-LLGL1 interaction during cortical development in vivo is sufficient for PH. These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stretching cells with DEAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, S.; Rosset, S.; Shea, H. R.

    2012-04-01

    Biological cells regulate their biochemical behavior in response to mechanical stress present in their organism. Most of the available cell cultures designed to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on cells are cm2 area, far too large to monitor single cell response or have a very low throughput. We have developed two sets of high throughput single cell stretcher devices based on dielectric elastomer microactuators to stretch groups of individual cells with various strain levels in a single experiment. The first device consists of an array of 100 μm x 200 μm actuators on a non-stretched PDMS membrane bonded to a Pyrex chip, showing up to 4.7% strain at the electric field of 96 V/μm. The second device contains an array of 100 μm x 100 μm actuators on a 160% uniaxially prestretched PDMS membrane suspended over a frame. 37% strain is recorded at the nominal electric field of 114 V/μm. The performance of these devices as a cell stretcher is assessed by comparing their static and dynamic behavior.

  16. Rethinking Guard Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelia, Diana; Lawson, Tracy

    2016-11-01

    Stomata control gaseous fluxes between the internal leaf air spaces and the external atmosphere and, therefore, play a pivotal role in regulating CO2 uptake for photosynthesis as well as water loss through transpiration. Guard cells, which flank the stomata, undergo adjustments in volume, resulting in changes in pore aperture. Stomatal opening is mediated by the complex regulation of ion transport and solute biosynthesis. Ion transport is exceptionally well understood, whereas our knowledge of guard cell metabolism remains limited, despite several decades of research. In this review, we evaluate the current literature on metabolism in guard cells, particularly the roles of starch, sucrose, and malate. We explore the possible origins of sucrose, including guard cell photosynthesis, and discuss new evidence that points to multiple processes and plasticity in guard cell metabolism that enable these cells to function effectively to maintain optimal stomatal aperture. We also discuss the new tools, techniques, and approaches available for further exploring and potentially manipulating guard cell metabolism to improve plant water use and productivity. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Cell density monitoring and control of microencapsulated CHO cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Harriet Emma

    2015-01-01

    Though mammalian cells play a key role in the manufacturing of recombinant glycosylated proteins, cell cultures and productivity are limited by the lack of suitable systems to enable stable perfusion culture. Microencapsulation, or entrapping cells within a semi-permeable membrane, offers the potential to generate high cell density cultures and improve the productivity by mimicking the cells natural environment. However, the cells being secluded by the microcapsules membrane are difficult to ...

  18. Plasma cells negatively regulate the follicular helper T cell program

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    B lymphocytes differentiate into antibody-secreting cells under the antigen-specific control of follicular helper T (TFH) cells. Here, we demonstrate that isotype-switched plasma cells expressed MHCII, CD80 and CD86 and intracellular machinery required for antigen presentation. Antigen-specific plasma cells could access, process and present sufficient antigen in vivo to induce multiple TH cell functions. Importantly, antigen-primed plasma cells failed to induce interleukin 21 or Bcl-6 in naïv...

  19. Dedifferentiated fat cells: A cell source for regenerative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ideal cell source for tissue regeneration remains a challenge in the stem cell field. The ability of progeny cells to differentiate into other cell types is important for the processes of tissue reconstruction and tissue engineering and has clinical, biochemical or molecular implications. The adaptation of stem cells from adipose tissue for use in regenerative medicine has created a new role for adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can easily be isolated from adipose cell su...

  20. Single Cell Characterization of Prostate Cancer-Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    al., 2010). In addition, there were a significant number of cell cycle and mitosis associated transcripts in the highly expressed gene set including...red blood cell lysis with 10 volumes of 16 PharmLyse (BD Biosciences) for 15 minutes at room temperature . Remaining cells were pelleted at 4uC for 15...processes (23%, GO:0008152) or the cell cycle (10%, GO:0007049), consistent with mitotically active cells (Fig. 4C). Cell cycle and mitosis associated

  1. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    progenitor cells (NPCs) by expressing an activated form of Notch1 (N1ICD) or oncogenic PIK3CA (PIK3CA*) in the developing mouse cerebellum, using cell...resistance, pediatric cancer, brain tumor, Notch1, PIK3CA, cell of origin, molecular subtypes, neural stem cells, neural progenitor cells, tumor initiation...neural progenitor cells, tumor initiation. 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Major goals of the project: The stated goals of this project are to: 1) test the

  2. Mesothelial cell differentiation into osteoblast- and adipocyte-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sally M Lansley; Searles, Richelle G.; Hoi, Aina; Thomas, Carla; Moneta, Helena; Herrick, Sarah E; Thompson, Philip J; Mark, Newman; Sterrett, Gregory F; Prêle, Cecilia M; Mutsaers, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Serosal pathologies including malignant mesothelioma (MM) can show features of osseous and/or cartilaginous differentiation although the mechanism for its formation is unknown. Mesothelial cells have the capacity to differentiate into cells with myofibroblast, smooth muscle and endothelial cell characteristics. Whether they can differentiate into other cell types is unclear. This study tests the hypothesis that mesothelial cells can differentiate into cell lineages of the embryonic mesoderm i...

  3. Cell Growth Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Exogene Corporation uses advanced technologies to enhance production of bio-processed substances like proteins, antibiotics and amino acids. Among them are genetic modification and a genetic switch. They originated in research for Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Extensive experiments in cell growth through production of hemoglobin to improve oxygen supply to cells were performed. By improving efficiency of oxygen use by cells, major operational expenses can be reduced. Greater product yields result in decreased raw material costs and more efficient use of equipment. A broad range of applications is cited.

  4. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  5. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  6. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  7. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  8. Cardiac stem cell niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Leri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The critical role that stem cell niches have in cardiac homeostasis and myocardial repair following injury is the focus of this review. Cardiac niches represent specialized microdomains where the quiescent and activated state of resident stem cells is regulated. Alterations in niche function with aging and cardiac diseases result in abnormal sites of cardiomyogenesis and inadequate myocyte formation. The relevance of Notch1 signaling, gap-junction formation, HIF-1α and metabolic state in the regulation of stem cell growth and differentiation within the cardiac niches are discussed.

  9. Giant Cell Fibroma

    OpenAIRE

    Tahere Nosratzehi; Lale Maleki

    2013-01-01

    Giant cell fibroma is a fibrous tumor which represents about 2 to 5% of all oral fibrotic proliferations. Compared to traumatic fibroma, giant (traumatic fibroma or irritation fibroma) cell fibroma occurs at a younger age. In about 60% of the cases the lesion is diagnosed within the first three decades of life and is slightly more in women. 50% of the cases is observed in the gum and will appear as a nodule with a papillary surface [1]. The giant cell fibroma is treated by conservative excisi...

  10. Congenital granular cell epulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rachel; Perez, Mia C N

    2014-01-01

    Congenital granular cell epulis is a rarely reported lesion of unknown histogenesis with a strong predilection for the maxillary alveolar ridge of newborn girls. Microscopically, it demonstrates nests of polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm, a prominent capillary network, and attenuated overlying squamous epithelium. The lesion lacks immunoreactivity for S-100, laminin, chromogranin, and most other markers except neuron-specific enolase and vimentin. Through careful observation of its unique clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features, this lesion can be distinguished from the more common adult granular cell tumor as well as other differential diagnoses.

  11. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  12. Conversion of primordial germ cells to pluripotent stem cells: methods for cell tracking and culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Go; Suda, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are unipotent cells committed to germ lineage: PGCs can only differentiate into gametes in vivo. However, upon fertilization, germ cells acquire the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body, including germ cells. Therefore, germ cells are thought to have the potential for pluripotency. PGCs can convert to pluripotent stem cells in vitro when cultured under specific conditions that include bFGF, LIF, and the membrane-bound form of SCF (mSCF). Here, the culture conditions which efficiently convert PGCs to pluripotent embryonic germ (EG) cells are described, as well as methods used for identifying pluripotent candidate cells during culture.

  13. Stem cell biology and cell transplantation therapy in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakada, Fumitaka; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Masayo

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocyst stage embryos, have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body and to grow indefinitely while maintaining pluripotency. During development, cells undergo progressive and irreversible differentiation into specialized adult cell types. Remarkably, in spite of this restriction in potential, adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed and returned to the naive state of pluripotency found in the early embryo simply by forcing expression of a defined set of transcription factors. These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are molecularly and functionally equivalent to ES cells and provide powerful in vitro models for development, disease, and drug screening, as well as material for cell replacement therapy. Since functional impairment results from cell loss in most central nervous system (CNS) diseases, recovery of lost cells is an important treatment strategy. Although adult neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions, the CNS has poor potential for regeneration to compensate for cell loss. Thus, cell transplantation into damaged or diseased CNS tissues is a promising approach to treating various neurodegenerative disorders. Transplantation of photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from human ES cells can restore some visual function. Patient-specific iPS cells may lead to customized cell therapy. However, regeneration of retinal function will require a detailed understanding of eye development, visual system circuitry, and retinal degeneration pathology. Here, we review the current progress in retinal regeneration, focusing on the therapeutic potential of pluripotent stem cells.

  14. Embryonic stem cells: prospects for developmental biology and cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Anna M; Boheler, Kenneth R

    2005-04-01

    Stem cells represent natural units of embryonic development and tissue regeneration. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, in particular, possess a nearly unlimited self-renewal capacity and developmental potential to differentiate into virtually any cell type of an organism. Mouse ES cells, which are established as permanent cell lines from early embryos, can be regarded as a versatile biological system that has led to major advances in cell and developmental biology. Human ES cell lines, which have recently been derived, may additionally serve as an unlimited source of cells for regenerative medicine. Before therapeutic applications can be realized, important problems must be resolved. Ethical issues surround the derivation of human ES cells from in vitro fertilized blastocysts. Current techniques for directed differentiation into somatic cell populations remain inefficient and yield heterogeneous cell populations. Transplanted ES cell progeny may not function normally in organs, might retain tumorigenic potential, and could be rejected immunologically. The number of human ES cell lines available for research may also be insufficient to adequately determine their therapeutic potential. Recent molecular and cellular advances with mouse ES cells, however, portend the successful use of these cells in therapeutics. This review therefore focuses both on mouse and human ES cells with respect to in vitro propagation and differentiation as well as their use in basic cell and developmental biology and toxicology and presents prospects for human ES cells in tissue regeneration and transplantation.

  15. A novel cell subset:Interferon-producing killer dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports introduce a novel cell subset of DCs with antigenic phenotypes shared by both NK cells and B cells, but without surface markers of pDCs and T cells, appearing to be a chimera of NK cells and DCs, namely interferon-producing killer dendritic cells(IKDCs).IKDCs not only secret type I and type II interferons to recognize and kill tumor cells effectively, but also express MHC-II molecules to present antigens.Thus, IKDCs are considered as important immunosurveilance cells for tumors, providing a link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  16. Cell therapy for diabetes mellitus: an opportunity for stem cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, B; Bedoya, F J; Tejedo, J R; Hmadcha, A; Ruiz-Salmerón, R; Lim, S; Martin, F

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a deficit in beta cell mass and a failure of glucose homeostasis. Both circumstances result in a variety of severe complications and an overall shortened life expectancy. Thus, diabetes represents an attractive candidate for cell therapy. Reversal of diabetes can be achieved through pancreas and islet transplantation, but shortage of donor organs has prompted an intensive search for alternative sources of beta cells. This achievement has stimulated the search for appropriate stem cell sources. Both embryonic and adult stem cells have been used to generate surrogate beta cells or otherwise restore beta cell functioning. In this regard, several studies have reported the generation of insulin-secreting cells from embryonic and adult stem cells that normalized blood glucose values when transplanted into diabetic animal models. Due to beta cell complexity, insulin-producing cells generated from stem cells do not possess all beta cell attributes. This indicates the need for further development of methods for differentiation and selection of completely functional beta cells. While these problems are overcome, diabetic patients may benefit from therapeutic strategies based on autologous stem cell therapies addressing late diabetic complications. In this article, we discuss the recent progress in the generation of insulin-producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells, together with the challenges for the clinical use of diabetes stem cell therapy.

  17. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo

    2008-05-09

    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  18. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive

  19. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive wh

  20. Perivascular cells for regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); M. Corselli (Mirko); W.C. Chen (William); B. Péault (Bruno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are currently the best candidate therapeutic cells for regenerative medicine related to osteoarticular, muscular, vascular and inflammatory diseases, although these cells remain heterogeneous and necessitate a better biological characterization. We an

  1. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  2. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inherited from the other, a person will have sickle cell trait . People with sickle cell trait are generally healthy. Only rarely do people with sickle cell trait have complications similar to those seen in people ...

  3. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  4. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  5. Fibronectin-cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Austria, M R; Woods, A

    1990-01-01

    Fibronectins are widespread extracellular matrix and body fluid glycoproteins, capable of multiple interactions with cell surfaces and other matrix components. Their structure at a molecular level has been resolved, yet there are still many unanswered questions regarding their biologic activity...... in vivo. Much data suggests that fibronectins may promote extracellular matrix assembly, and cell adhesion to those matrices. However, one outstanding enigma is that fibronectins may, under different circumstances, promote both cell migration and anchorage. An analysis of the interaction of fibroblasts...... with proteolytically derived and purified domains of plasma fibronectin revealed that the type of adhesion and the correlated cytoskeletal organization depended on multiple interactions of fibronectin domains with the cell surface. Human dermal fibroblasts were capable of interacting with the integrin-binding domain...

  6. Plant Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greb, Thomas; Lohmann, Jan U

    2016-01-01

    .... While the promise of organ regeneration and the end of cancer have captured our imagination, it has gone almost unnoticed that plant stem cells represent the ultimate origin of much of the food we...

  7. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  8. RSW Cell Centered Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New cell centered grids are generated to complement the node-centered ones uploaded. Six tarballs containing the coarse, medium, and fine mixed-element and pure tet....

  9. Whole cell entrapment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Jorge A; Rivero, Cintia W

    2013-01-01

    Microbial whole cells are efficient, ecological, and low-cost catalysts that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical, environmental, and alimentary industries, among others. Microorganism immobilization is a good way to carry out the bioprocess under preparative conditions. The main advantages of this methodology lie in their high operational stability, easy upstream separation and bioprocess scale-up feasibility. Cell entrapment is the most widely used technique for whole cell immobilization. This technique-in which the cells are included within a rigid network-is porous enough to allow the diffusion of substrates and products, protects the selected microorganism from the reaction medium, and has high immobilization efficiency (100 % in most cases).

  10. Acoustics Noise Test Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...

  11. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  12. CAM and NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms.

  13. Mast cells & Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eJönsson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Classically, allergy depends on IgE antibodies and on high-affinity IgE receptors expressed by mast cells and basophils. This long accepted IgE/FcεRI/mast cell paradigm, on which the definition of immediate hypersensitivity was based in the Gell and Coomb’s classification, appears too reductionist. Recently accumulated evidence indeed requires that not only IgE but also IgG antibodies, that not only FcεRI but also FcγR of the different types, that not only mast cells and basophils but also neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and other myeloid cells by considered as important players in allergy. This view markedly changes our understanding of allergic diseases and, possibly, their treatment.

  14. Beta Cell Breakthroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supply one person's insulin needs. Floating in a coffee cup–sized flask of reddish liquid in Melton's ... cells with nutrients and oxygen and transport their waste away. If the box is too big, only ...

  15. The Giant Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  16. Red Cell Distribution Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to diagnose: Other blood disorders such as thalassemia , an inherited disease that can cause severe anemia ... cold hands and feet A family history of thalassemia, sickle cell anemia or other inherited blood disorder ...

  17. Cell Centred Database (CCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Cell Centered Database (CCDB) is a web accessible database for high resolution 2D, 3D and 4D data from light and electron microscopy, including correlated imaging.

  18. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  19. Colorful Microbial Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Damm

    Yeast cell factories are powerful tools used for the production of high-value natural compounds otherwise not easily available. Many bioactive and industrially important plant secondary metabolites can be produced in yeast by engineering their biosynthetic pathways into yeast cells, as these both...... anthocyanins. Yeast cell factories present a platform to circumvent the problem of low yields of interesting molecular structures in plant tissues, as hand-picking of desired enzyme activities allows for specific biosynthesis of the precise pigment of interest, as well as choosing more stable structures...... for heterologous biosynthesis is possible. In cell factories, great improvements in yields can be achieved through molecular engineering of flux from endogenous yeast precursors, e.g. by elimination of by-product formation, and by genetic optimization of pathway components, such as fine-tuning of expression levels...

  20. Plasma cell leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández de Larrea, C; Kyle, R A; Durie, B G M

    2013-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic......-pathological entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10(9)/l) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds...... regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding...

  1. The intestinal stem cell.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; van de Wetering, M.L.; Clevers, H.

    2008-01-01

    The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death. The epithelium is shaped into spatially distinct compartments that are dedicated to

  2. Acoustics Noise Test Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...

  3. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  4. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  5. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  6. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  7. Plasma Cell Cheilitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thami Gurvinder P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of plasma cell cheilitis with good response to glucocorticoids, is described for its rarity and probable aetiological correlation with habit of use of nasal snuff is discussed.

  8. Merkel cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, M; Watanabe, H; Kobayashi, H; Ohnishi, Y; Shitara, A; Nitto, H

    1987-06-01

    A Merkel cell tumor appeared on the left cheek of an 83-year-old female was reported. The tumor was located mainly in the dermis and infiltrated to the subcutaneous adipose tissue with an involvement of the blood vessels and lymphatics at the periphery. Electron-microscopically, few of the dense-cored granules and the single globular aggregates of intermediate filaments at the nuclear indentations were observed. Electron-microscopic uranaffin reaction proved positive reaction on the dense-cored granules. Half of the cytoplasmic border was smooth, while the rest had short projections. Desmosomes or junctional complexes were not detected among the tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of tumor cell showed positive reaction to both neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and keratin. The single globular positive spots of the latter were localized in accordance with the aggregates of intermediate filaments. These findings suggested a neurogenic origin with double differentiation, epithelial and neuroendocrine, of the Merkel cell tumor.

  9. Intestinal M cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    We have an enormous number of commensal bacteria in our intestine, moreover, the foods that we ingest and the water we drink is sometimes contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is always exposed to such microbes, friend or foe, so to contain them our gut is equipped with specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body. GALT is the intestinal immune inductive site composed of lymphoid follicles such as Peyer's patches. M cells are a subset of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) residing in the region of the epithelium covering GALT lymphoid follicles. Although the vast majority of IEC function to absorb nutrients from the intestine, M cells are highly specialized to take up intestinal microbial antigens and deliver them to GALT for efficient mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. I will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and functions.

  10. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  11. Concise Review: Asymmetric Cell Divisions in Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Murke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic stem cells are rare cells with unique properties residing in many organs and tissues. They are undifferentiated cells responsible for tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and contain both the capacity to self-renew in order to maintain their stem cell potential and to differentiate towards tissue-specific, specialized cells. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms controlling somatic stem cell fate decisions remains sparse. One mechanism which has been described to control daughter cell fates in selected somatic stem cell systems is the process of asymmetric cell division (ACD. ACD is a tightly regulated and evolutionary conserved process allowing a single stem or progenitor cell to produce two differently specified daughter cells. In this concise review, we will summarize and discuss current concepts about the process of ACD as well as different ACD modes. Finally, we will recapitulate the current knowledge and our recent findings about ACD in human hematopoiesis.

  12. Dazl Promotes Germ Cell Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Yu; Ping Ji; Jinping Cao; Shu Zhu; Yao Li; Lin Zheng; Xuejin Chen; Lixin Feng

    2009-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that through the formation of embryoid bodies (Ebs) germ cells can be derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we describe a transgene expression approach to derive germ cells directly from ES cells in vitro without EB formation. Through the ectopic expression of Deleted in Azoospermia-Like (Dazl), a germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein,both motile tailed-sperm and oocytes were induced from mouse ES (mES) cells in culture. Furthermore, transient overexpression of Dazl led to suppression of Nanog but induced germ cell nuclear antigen in mES cells. Dazl knockdown resulted in reduction in the expression of germ cell markers including Stella, MVH and Prdm1. Our study indicates that Dazl is a master gene controlling germ cell differentiation and that ectopic expression of Dazl promotes the dynamic differentiation of mouse ES cells into gametes in vitro.

  13. Optimized lithium oxyhalide cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, W. P.; Schlaikjer, C.; Polsonetti, P.; Jones, M.

    1993-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride cells were optimized with respect to electrolyte and carbon cathode composition. Wound 'C-size' cells with various mixtures of Chevron acetylene black with Ketjenblack EC-300J and containing various concentrations of LiAlCl4 and derivatives, LiGaCl4, and mixtures of SOCl2 and SO2Cl2 were evaluated as a function of discharge rate, temperature, and storage condition.

  14. Parietal cell vagotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, V H; Coupland, G A

    1975-07-12

    In a series of 100 consecutive patients who had parietal cell vagotomy performed, no drainage procedure was performed in 56 while 44 were drained. Dumping was significantly less in those who were not drained. All patients were tested for adequacy of vagotomy and for function of the nerve of Latarget at operation. Four patients have had further operations, two for proven recurrent ulcers. Parietal cell vagotomy has given excellent clinical results in this group of patients.

  15. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  16. Regulatory T cell memory

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblum, Md; Way, SS; Abbas, AK

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime–challenge models of infection. However, recent work ...

  17. Single cell dynamic phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Katherin Patsch; Chi-Li Chiu; Mark Engeln; Agus, David B.; Parag Mallick; Shannon M. Mumenthaler; Daniel Ruderman

    2016-01-01

    Live cell imaging has improved our ability to measure phenotypic heterogeneity. However, bottlenecks in imaging and image processing often make it difficult to differentiate interesting biological behavior from technical artifact. Thus there is a need for new methods that improve data quality without sacrificing throughput. Here we present a 3-step workflow to improve dynamic phenotype measurements of heterogeneous cell populations. We provide guidelines for image acquisition, phenotype track...

  18. Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhaniya Shikha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT is a rare tumorous form of calcifying odontogenic cyst and only a small number of cases have been described. It is a locally invasive neoplasm that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial islands, ghost cells and dentinoid. The present report describes a case of a 21-year-old male with a tumor in the posterior region of the mandible, showing features of DGCT.

  19. Thin, Lightweight Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Improved design for thin, lightweight solar photovoltaic cells with front contacts reduces degradation of electrical output under exposure to energetic charged particles (protons and electrons). Increases ability of cells to maintain structural integrity under exposure to ultraviolet radiation by eliminating ultraviolet-degradable adhesives used to retain cover glasses. Interdigitated front contacts and front junctions formed on semiconductor substrate. Mating contacts formed on back surface of cover glass. Cover glass and substrate electrostatically bonded together.

  20. Olfactory ensheathing cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippili Kaushal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs are found in the olfactory bulb and olfactory nasal mucosa. They resemble Schwann cells on light and electron microscopy, however, immunohistochemical staining can distinguish between the two. There are less than 30 cases of olfactory groove schwannomas reported in the literature while there is only one reported case of OEC tumor. We report an OEC tumor in a 42-year-old male and discuss the pathology and origin of this rare tumor.