WorldWideScience

Sample records for husbandry dairy development

  1. Determination of the energy efficiency in animal husbandry by the example of dairy cattle husbandry; Ermittlung der Energieeffizienz in der Tierhaltung am Beispiel der Milchviehhaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraatz, Simone

    2009-03-11

    The scarcity of resources, the progressive growth of population and the climate change require sustainability in all levels of the agricultural production. The purpose of this research is to contribute to the development of a method for a generally accepted way of balancing energy in livestock husbandry at the example of dairy farming. Afterwards sustainability indicators were determined for the assessment of the sustainable use of energy in dairy farming. For a defined standard procedure which includes an animal performance of 8,000 kg milk cow{sup -1} year{sup -1}, an energy intensity of 3.54 MJ per kg milk is calculated. The investigations show that the CED in dairy farming is strongly affected by the composition of the diet. Increasing pasture in the diet decreases the CED while concentrate in the diet has a reverse effect. Data analyses concerning the energy intensity at two farms confirm the results of the calculations. Dairy farming is a multi-output process. For that reason the allocation of the cumulative energy demand on the different products is done within the scope of a life cycle inventory analysis. The preferable solution of the allocation divides the cumulative energy demand on the four co-products as follows: 59 % for the milk production, 18 % for producing beef from the dairy cow, 2 % for the calf and 21 % for the excrement. An uncertainty analysis is done to verify the influence of single uncertainties on the results of the calculations. As result an uncertainty of {+-} 6 % of the CED of the standard procedure was calculated. This uncertainty of the calculation has a lower influence on the CED than management related decisions on the cultural practices e. g. diet compositions and service life of the cows. Energy intensity in livestock husbandry has been determined as an useful indicator and therefore a reasonable part of an indicator system for the examination of the sustainability of agricultural production procedures. (orig.)

  2. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  3. Constraints in adapting animal husbandry practices by the dairy farmers in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Gangasagare

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to review the situation of dairying in Marathwada with the objectives to identify major constraints of the dairy farmers in adapting the recommended animal husbandry practices. The survey work was carried out for the milk pocket areas in eight districts of the Marathwada region. Out of 144 dairy farmers, 109 farmers cared crossbred animals; 65 out of 85 dairy farmers adapted cooling arrangement to cross-bred cows during summer; 35 of 45 adapted washing their animals during summer; 98 of 230 dairy farmers followed vaccination to their animals; 45 of 230 dairy farmers followed de-worming their animals; 37 of 230 adapted to control the ecto-parasite; 65 of 230 reacted for removal old debris; 105 of 230 dairy farmers adapted A.I. policy and only 88 of 230 dairy farmers were positive for the animals insurance. Higher proportion of the farmers has accepted the importance of crossbred cows. Higher numbers of farmers have positive response to cool their animals. Significantly more numbers of farmers did not care to vaccinate and accept other health measures for their animals. Non-significant differences between dairy farmers adapting and non-adapting A.I. practices were recorded while significant (P>0.01 difference was observed between the farmers adapting and not adapting the insurance policy. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 347-349

  4. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries. Data...

  5. The Development of Basic Animal Husbandry Learning Package

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Suryaningsih

    2015-01-01

    Pengembangan Paket Pembelajaran Dasar-dasar Peternakan Abstract: The purpose this research is to generate a package of learning development basics animal husbandry in accordance with the characteristics of the students and the subject and test the fea-sibility of the resulting learning package. The development of learning packages using the model of Dick, Carey & Carey (2001). The results of product assessment the package of learning the basics of animal husbandry is included in the quali...

  6. Game Analysis of Interests Coordination between Grain Production and the Development of Animal Husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qian; Li, Cui-Xia; Wang, Gang-Yi

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote the common development of grain production and animal husbandry, and achieve the optimal comprehensive benefit of the entire system of grain production and the development of animal husbandry, we use the method of game theory to research the relations between grain production and the development of animal husbandry, from the perspective of interests cointegration. In accordance with the internal relations between stakeholders in grain production and the development of anim...

  7. On the Development of Animal Husbandry under New Socialist Countryside Construction of Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongming; SHEN

    2015-01-01

    The new socialist countryside construction can not do without bringing into full play superior industries. Developing animal husbandry is a key measure for increasing farmers’ income. Since western China has advantages in region,resource,social culture,and domestic and foreign market potential,the new socialist countryside construction in western China should energetically develop animal husbandry and promote the new socialist countryside construction with the aid of animal husbandry. For developing the animal husbandry,western China can exploit and consolidate market,integrate resources of animal husbandry,well develop four aspects of construction( information service,scientific and technological service,market system,and safety of livestock products),and realize precise market-oriented,ecology-oriented,and modernized development of animal husbandry in western China.

  8. Consumer attitudes towards the development of animal-friendly husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kole, A.P.W.; Kroon, van der S.M.A.; Lauwere, de C.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Recent policy developments in the area of livestock husbandry have suggested that, from the perspective of optimizing animal welfare, new animal husbandry systems should be developed that provide opportunities for livestock animals to be raised in environments where they are permitted to e

  9. Application of Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in Development of Animal Husbandry Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min QIAN; Bo NING; Shicai SHEN; Rui CHEN; Dantong LI; Ziyun PENG; Hongbin LU

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to provide references for the application of participatory monitoring and evaluation in the development of animal husbandry tech- nology. [Method] With the livelihood improvement program for agricultural and pas- toral area in northern Yunnan as the example, the development process of partici- patory animal husbandry was overviewed. And the monitoring and evaluation pro- cesses of participatory animal husbandry were introduced and analyzed. [Result] The monitoring and evaluation indicator system of participatory animal husbandry technol- ogy included 4 layers, namely technology, institutional system, personnel ability con- struction and effectiveness, and 11 third-level indicators, namely, technical characteristics, superiority-inferiority comparison, community and farmers, technical personnel, project personnel, economic indicators and social indicators. [Conclusion] This study provided the references for the application of participatory monitoring and evaluation in the development of animal husbandry technology.

  10. Game Analysis of Interests Coordination between Grain Production and the Development of Animal Husbandry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; LI Cui-xia; WANG Gang-yi

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote the common development of grain production and animal husbandry, and achieve the optimal comprehensive benefit of the entire system of grain production and the development of animal husbandry, we use the method of game theory to research the relations between grain production and the development of animal husbandry, from the perspective of interests cointegration. In accordance with the internal relations between stakeholders in grain production and the development of animal husbandry, we focus on researching the interests-sharing game behavior of the government and planting subject collectives, the planting subject collectives and planting subject individuals, the breeding subject and planting subject. The results show that there is inequality between various stakeholders, and they seek not only the price-based benefit, but also some intangible interests difficult to calculate and quantify.

  11. The Strategy for the Development of Low-carbon Animal Husbandry in Taiwan and the Lessons Drawn from It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian; CHEN; Haifeng; XIAO

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,we analyze the strategies for the development of low-carbon animal husbandry in Taiwan which mainly focuses on strengthening the livestock farm carbon reduction,promoting the livestock breeding energy conservation and emission reduction technology,and develop the environmental protection laws related to animal husbandry to combat animal husbandry pollution. Learning from the strategies and legislative management experience for the development of low-carbon animal husbandry in Taiwan,we set forth the following recommendations for improving the development of low-carbon animal husbandry in mainland China: increasing the financial investment in environmental protection; strengthening the scientific research of cleaner production; promoting sound pollution control legislation; moderately restricting the scale of livestock and poultry farm.

  12. Development of husbandry practices for the captive breeding of Key Largo woodrats (Neotoma floridana smalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Christina A; Daneault, Andre J; Carlson, Robert C; Dillenbeck, Thomas; Wheaton, Catharine J; Savage, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Key Largo woodrat is an endangered rodent endemic to the island of Key Largo in the Florida Keys. After several reports documented a steep decline in the population, the US Fish and Wildlife Service developed a recovery plan, including captive breeding and reintroduction. Captive breeding efforts were to be focused on providing animals for future reintroduction to protected areas on Key Largo. However, little was known about the husbandry needs or reproductive behavior of this elusive nocturnal species. In 2005, Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) received 11 animals and began to systematically investigate methods of breeding Key Largo woodrats. Since the program's inception, 30 pups have been born and successfully parent reared. In this report, we describe some of the husbandry techniques that have contributed to the success of the Key Largo woodrat captive breeding program at Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) . The results obtained may be of use to other facilities maintaining woodrats and other rodent species.

  13. The Development of Basic Animal Husbandry Learning Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Suryaningsih

    2015-02-01

    Key Words: learning package, development, models of Dick, Carey & Carey   Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian pengembangan ini adalah untuk menghasilkan paket pembelajaran dasar-dasar peternakan yang sesuai dengan karakteristik siswa dan mata pelajaran tersebut dan menguji tingkat kelayakan paket pembelajaran yang dihasilkan. Pengembangan paket pembelajaran  mengguna-kan model Dick, Carey & Carey (2001. Hasil penilaian produk paket pembelajaran dasar-dasar peter-nakan ini termasuk dalam kualifikasi sangat layak dan valid, sehingga dapat dipakai sebagai bahan ajar di lingkungan SPP-SPMA Provinsi Kalimantan Barat. Produk pengembangan yang dihasilkan mempunyai ciri khas yang membedakan dengan produk lain, diantaranya menggunakan model pe-ngembangan paket pembelajaran Dick, Carey & Carey, perwajahan dirancang secara menarik, materi dilengkapi foto, disusun secara terorganisasi, disajikan lebih dinamis karena banyak melibatkan aktivitas siswa, dan dapat memfasilitasi siswa untuk dapat belajar secara mandiri, sehingga diharapkan hasil penelitian ini dapat mengatasi masalah yang ada di SPP-SPMA Provinsi Kalimantan Barat. Kata kunci: paket pembelajaran, pengembangan, model Dick, Carey & Carey

  14. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote development of animal husbandry and veterinary.In 2009,Wu Chu(USA-China)Science&Culture Media Co.

  15. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in sheep and goats reared under dairy husbandry systems in Greece☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Claerebout, Edwin; Ehsan, Amimul; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Kostopoulou, Despoina; Stijn, Casaert; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geurden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are gastro-intestinal protozoa known to infect small ruminants. Both protozoa are also considered as a potential public health concern. The objective of this study was to determine their prevalence in lambs and goat kids kept under common Mediterranean dairy husbandry systems and to identify the species and genotypes infecting these small ruminants. In total, 684 faecal samples (429 from lambs and 255 from goat kids) were collected on 21 farms in Greece and examined using a quantitative immunofluorescence assay. G. duodenalis was detected in 37.3% of the lambs and 40.4% of the goat kids. On all but one of the farms G. duodenalis was detected. Most samples were typed as a mono-infection with G. duodenalis assemblage E, both on the β-giardin gene and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Only 10% of samples were typed as mixed assemblage A and E infections. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 5.1% in lambs and 7.1% in goat kids. In total, 8 out of the 14 farms with a sheep flock and 7 out of the 14 farms with a goat flock were positive. Cryptosporidium parvum (subtype IId), C. ubiquitum and C. xiaoi were identified, the latter especially in goat kids. In conclusion, the results of the present study illustrate that G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. occur frequently on both sheep and goats farms. The prevalence of zoonotic genotypes or species was low, indicating a limited but existing risk for zoonotic infections. PMID:25187088

  16. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote development of animal husbandry and veterinary.In 2009,Wu Chu(USA-China)Science&Culture Media Co.(Cranston,USA)and Anhui Wuchu Science,Technology and Culture Communication Co.,Ltd(Hefei,China)issued the journal Animal Husbandry and Feed Science(ISSN 1943-9911).The main content is basic theory and applied research about animal husbandry,veterinary,feed science and other related fields.The journal covers many research areas

  17. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  18. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  19. Dairy development and nutrition in Kilifi District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Ngolo, J.; Hoorweg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study on dairy development in Kilifi District, Kenya, are, first, to assess the importance of - small-scale - intensive dairy farming as promoted by the Ministry of Livestock through the National Dairy Development Programme (DDP) compared with other types of small-scale dairy

  20. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing systems, and evaluation of emission levels in a farming system approach. A mechanistic simulation model for the ammonia emission from dairy cow houses was developed to facilitate this.An ammonia p...

  1. Institutinal Support in the Field of Animal Husbandry Development Inštitucionálna Podpora v Oblasti Rozvoja Chovatel'stva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malatinec Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Public institutions represent an important part of animal husbandry development policy. In terms of the Slovak Republic, production of public value in the field of animal husbandry in the field of agro-biodiversity and agrarian cultural heritage maintenance in rural areas is also entrusted to professional self-governing institutions and breeding organizations besides state institutions. Within the European perspectives, it is the ELBARN — European Livestock Breeds Ark and Rescue Net which focuses on this issue. At present, there is a need to strengthen competences of the relevant institutional network, mainly in the field of marketing and sales aid for products which are created by breeders.

  2. Strengthening Dairy Cooperative through National Development of Livestock Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of dairy cattle development region needs to be conducted in accordance with the national dairy industry development plan. Dairy cattle regions have been designed and equipped with infrastructure supplies, supporting facilities, technologies, finance, processing, marketing, institutional and human resources. Dairy cooperative is one of the marketing channels of milk and milk products which have strategic roles to support the national dairy industry. Collaborations between dairy cooperatives and smallholder farmers within a district region have to be done based on agricultural ecosystems, agribusiness system, integrated farming and participatory approach. This may improve dairy cooperatives as an independent and competitive institution. Strengthening dairy cooperatives in national region dairy cattle was carried out through institutional inventory and dairy cooperatives performance; requirement of capital access, market and networks as well as education and managerial training; certification and accreditation feasibility analysis and information and technology utilization. Establishment of emerging dairy cooperatives towards small and micro enterprises is carried out by directing them to establish cooperatives which have legal certainty and business development opportunities. The impact of strengthening dairy cooperative may support dairy cattle development through increase population and milk production. Sustainable dairy cattle development needs to be supported by regional and national government policies.

  3. Theory of Sustainable Development for Animal Husbandry and Optimal Management Models of Ecological Animal Husbandry in Three Rivers Headwaters' Region%畜牧业可持续发展理论与三江源区生态畜牧业优化经营模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董全民; 赵新全; 徐世晓; 赵亮; 周华坤

    2011-01-01

    Based on concept for sustainable development of animal husbandry and scientific connotation of ecological animal husbandry, developed types of ecological animal husbandry were summarized all over the world. According to coupling principles of ecological animal husbandry, developing direction of grassland ecological animal husbandry in three rivers headwaters region was put forward, and the ecological animal husbandry should be on the premise of protecting ecology, aim at cyclic utilization of resources, be in the fashion of modern and green ecological stock keeping management. And then, this paper advanced optimal management models of ecological animal husbandry in three rivers headwaters' region, which was grazing in natural grassland/fattening model, grazing in artificial grassland/fattening model and silage after artificial grassland mowed and then grazed/fattening model, respectively.%在概述了畜牧业可持续发展的概念和生态畜牧业内涵的基础上,总结了生态畜牧业的发展类型;依据生态畜牧系统耦合理论,提出了三江源区生态畜牧业应以保护生态为前提、以资源循环利用为目标、以现代绿色生态养畜经营方式的草地生态畜牧业为发展方向;并提出了天然草地放牧+舍饲育肥、人工草地放牧+舍饲育肥、人工草地刈割青贮+人工草地放牧+舍饲育肥的三江源区生态畜牧业优化经营模式.

  4. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  5. Dairy stock development and milk production with smallholders.

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong,

    1996-01-01

    My work in technical development cooperation and missions in developing countries, touched often upon worldwide dairy development, and stimulated my interest in comparative analysis of technical and economic progress in the sector. This did not only deal with milk production, but increasingly in the course of time with the development of dairy stock as the basis for enhanced andlor expanded milk production. Dairy production, generally performed on more specialized farms in industrialized coun...

  6. AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY IN TIBET:Status Quo and Future Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Development of agri-culture and animalhusbandry in Tibetover the past 50years has played animportant role in local eco-nomic development. However,with China’s accession to theWTO,the goal of agriculturalproduction and livestockbreeding is changing fromproviding the public with foodto increasing the income offarmers and herders. Whilethe public shows more con-cern for market economicdevelopment and protection of

  7. 创新科技推动畜牧业可持续发展%On Sustainable Development of Animal Husbandry by Way of Innovative Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘如; 李荣; 赵芳

    2014-01-01

    As a strong power in animal husbandry,China is now facing the challenges of both technical and man-agement modernization. In the paper,existing problems in the animal husbandry industry were discussed to further promote the industry’s sustainable development. Besides,innovative methods of pushing forward the animal hus-bandry industry in China were proposed from the perspectives of high benefit guarantee,scientific breeding, resource utilization of excrements and intelligent management.%我国是一个畜牧业大国,产业发展需依靠技术与管理的现代化。为进一步实现畜牧业的可持续发展,分析了目前我国畜牧业发展中存在的问题,从保证畜牧业的高效益、科学合理喂养、畜禽排泄物资源化利用、畜牧产业智能管理等方面提出了推动我国畜牧业发展的创新方法。

  8. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in

  9. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eWalker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving human welfare is a global concern, but not always easy to achieve. In this regard, challenges have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU, where socialist institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow. Economic adjustments have been difficult in the new nations of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by a lack of infrastructure, human capital, and financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asia is mostly landlocked, far from market centers. Despite these barriers, development potential exists, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia’s pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, a significant impediment to realizing the market potential of the region’s animal products. It next provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD and Brucellosis. Included is a success story involving FMD eradication in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers how wildlife might act as a disease reservoir, which presents a conservation issue for the Kazakhstani case. This is followed by a discussion of the role of science in threat reduction, particularly with respect to the potential offered by geospatial technologies. The article concludes with an assessment of the research that would be necessary to identify pathways to developing the economic potential of central Asia, as changes in policy are implemented and livestock health improves.

  10. Forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden – the development of a land use conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Widmark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the forestry sector and reindeer herders in northern Sweden use the forest resources in northern Sweden, albeit for different purposes, and have adverse effects on each other. To reduce conflicts between them negotiations take place in so-called “consultations”, but the institutional arrangement does not seem to be working well; the conflicts have not been resolved, and the reindeer herders are generally more dissatisfied with the outcome than the forest companies. This paper provides an overview of the parallel development of forestry and reindeer herding in the region. In addition several issues that complicate the consultations and need to be resolved in order to secure the continued co-existence of the two activities are identified, based on an analysis of physical, societal and judicial aspects of the relationship between them.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Skogsbruk och rennäringen i norra Sverige – utveckling av en markanvändningskonflikt Skogsresursen i norra Sverige nyttjas för bland annat timmerproduktion och renbete och skogsbruket respektive rennäring påverkar varandra negativt. För att minska konflikterna har samråd instiftats men processen fungerar inte tillfredsställande eftersom det finns ett missnöje bland renskötarna. Denna studie ger en översikt av den parallella utvecklingen av de två näringarna och deras inbördes relationer och därmed identifieras flera nyckelområden som komplicerar relationen mellan de båda näringarna och därmed även samråden. Genom att analysera de fysiska, sociala och juridiska aspekterna av relationen mellan rennäring och skogsbruk pekar studien på ett antal problem som måste lösas för att kunna säkerställa en fortsatt parallell existens.

  11. Poultry housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, H A

    2010-08-01

    1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency.

  12. Modelling of nitrogen flow and excretion in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, van W.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the dairy husbandry is held responsible for a major part of the N-pollution of the environment. The objective of this thesis was to develop a model that predicts N flow in the animal and N excretion in faeces, urine and milk in order to reduce unnecessary N losses. The model was

  13. Dairy sector development Indonesia : options for cooperation with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    The dairy supply chain in Indonesia is described with its limitations and options for improvements. An integrated and participative approach with the dairy cooperatives as entry point is proposed to improve milk production at farm level. The Netherlands could contribute via development of business

  14. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often...... directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may...... need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural...

  15. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher H

    2016-05-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural traits. Such data can potentially help the decision making process, enabling early detection of health or wellbeing problems in individual animals and hence the application of appropriate corrective husbandry practices. This review focuses on new knowledge and emerging developments in welfare biomarkers (e.g. stress and metabolic diseases), activity-based welfare assessment (e.g. oestrus and lameness detection) and sensors of temperature and pH (e.g. calving alert and rumen function) and their combination and integration into 'smart' husbandry support systems that will ensure optimum wellbeing for dairy animals and thereby maximise farm profitability. Use of novel sensors combined with new technologies for information handling and communication are expected to produce dramatic changes in traditional dairy farming systems.

  16. Actively Developing Ecological Animal Husbandry, Vigorously Promoting the Ecological%积极发展生态畜牧业大力推进生态文明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树元

    2015-01-01

    Adhering to the sustainable development of ecological animal husbandry is the develop-ment of animal husbandry in Huzhou to promote ecological civilization,an important measure to seize opportunities to accelerate development,which is an important strategy for the construction of Huzhou into a strong green economy city,and ecological garden city.The Huzhou livestock industry should seize the opportunity,speed up the development of Hu sheep and other herbivores,and reasonably plan the number of live pig amount of livestock on hand while preventing and controlling environmental pollution and practicing the ecological environment protection with the development of ecological animal husband-ry organically,thus greatly promoting the income of farmers and herdsmen,the coordinated develop-ment of social economy,the realization of the sustainable economic development of Huzhou City,which is an important strategic conception of turning the urban and rural areas into much more beautiful and livable places.%坚持可持续发展的生态畜牧业是湖州畜牧业发展推进生态文明,抓住机遇加快发展的重要措施,是湖州建设绿色环保经济强市、生态园林城市发展的重要战略。湖州畜牧业要抢抓机遇,适度加快湖羊等草食畜禽发展,合理规划生猪存栏数目,防治环境污染,把生态环境保护同发展生态畜牧业有机地结合起来,从而极大地促进农牧民增收、社会经济协调发展,实现湖州市经济可持续发展,城市和乡村更加美丽宜居的重要战略构想。

  17. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY STUDY ON XINJIANG'S GRASSLAND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY%新疆草地畜牧业可持续发展战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布尔金; 赵澍; 何峰; 徐大伟; 朱小林; 李向林; 辛晓平

    2014-01-01

    Xinjiang is one of the major pastoral areas in China whose grassland accounts for 28. 83% of the na-tional territorial land area, but it has some issues including serious overgrazing, backward primitive husbandry practices, and underdeveloped social and economic development in the pasturing area. Based on the survey data on grasslands in Xinjiang from 2002 to 2008, the background, present situation and current problems in Xinjiang grassland animal husbandry were studied and strategic countermeasures on its development in livestock husbandry were exploded. The study showed that the livestock in Xinjiang had been almost tripled since last half century. The native grassland had been generally degenerated since 1980, with 10. 77%of the reduction in pasture area, 5% -10% decline in NPP, and 30% -70% decrease in high quality herbage production. On this premise, it presented a new idea for the development of Xingjiang's grassland agriculture, that is, to plan and coordinate the interaction of a complex Mountain-desert-oasis ecosystem from an overall situation of ecosystem conservation and sustainable development, to promote the modern intensive grassland agriculture with high quality artificial pasture in oasis and other regions with favorable water and soil condition, to gradually transfer husbandry production from desert plain steppe and mountain steppe to oasis, where was the center for the modern animal husbandry economy, and to make the desert plain steppe and mountain steppe become the ecological function area of eco-diversity and water conservation to protect native plants with the harmony between human and nature, realize the strategic transforma-tion from traditional grazing to modern husbandry, and establish an innovative husbandry pattern with Xinjiang characteristics.%新疆是全国重点草原牧区,草地占国土面积的28.83%,全区超70%的畜产品来源于天然草地。该文基于2002~2004年新疆草地调查数据、2006~2008年中国科学

  18. Dairy stock development and milk production with smallholders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.

    1996-01-01

    My work in technical development cooperation and missions in developing countries, touched often upon worldwide dairy development, and stimulated my interest in comparative analysis of technical and economic progress in the sector. This did not only deal with milk production, but increasingly in the

  19. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment.

  20. The Marketization Development of Animal Husbandry Economy in Modern Anhui%近代安徽畜牧经济的市场化发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪

    2014-01-01

    In modern times,with the development of the domestic and foreign markets,Anhui husbandry economy has made great progress mainly in three aspects:the rise of poultry and livestock feeding,the development of the livestock products processing industry,and the growth of the animal husbandry the trading market.Animal husbandry has become a general oper-ating and important sideline of peasant family in modern Anhui area,which plays an essential role in the local country economic structure,has become a vital component of the country economy,is closely linked to its economic life and has become an impor-tant channel to increase their income.Because of the traction of the market mechanism,the development of modern Anhui live-stock economy also shows some new features:a certain degree of specialization trends,the emergence of employment phenome-non,and the advancement of the rental relationship.All these phenomenon demonstrate that the development of the modern An-hui livestock economy is not restricted by traditional natural economic category rather than oriented to market and has shown the characteristics of commercial production.%在近代,随着国内外市场的发展,安徽地区的畜牧经济有了较大程度的发展,主要表现为三个方面:一是家禽、牲畜饲养的兴盛,二是畜牧品加工业的发展,三是畜牧交易市场的发达。畜牧业已成为近代安徽地区农民家庭普遍经营的一项重要副业,不仅在当地的农村经济结构中占据着一定的比重,成为农村经济的一个重要组成部分,而且与农民的经济生活有着密切的联系,是他们藉以增加收入的一个重要渠道。在市场机制的牵引下,近代安徽畜牧经济的发展还呈现出一些新的特点,即畜牧业的专业化经营、雇佣现象的出现以及租赁关系的发达等等,这些现象说明近代安徽畜牧经济的发展已不再囿于传统的自然经济范畴,而是开始走向市场,

  1. Amphibian biology and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pough, F Harvey

    2007-01-01

    Extant amphibians comprise three lineages-- salamanders (Urodela or Caudata), frogs and toads (Anura), and caecilians (Gymnophiona, Apoda, or Caecilia)--which contain more than 6,000 species. Fewer than a dozen species of amphibians are commonly maintained in laboratory colonies, and the husbandry requirements for the vast majority of amphibians are poorly known. For these species, a review of basic characteristics of amphibian biology supplemented by inferences drawn from the morphological and physiological characteristics of the species in question provides a basis for decisions about housing and feeding. Amphibians are ectotherms, and their skin is permeable to water, ions, and respiratory gases. Most species are secretive and, in many cases, nocturnal. The essential characteristics of their environment include appropriate levels of humidity, temperature, and lighting as well as retreat sites. Terrestrial and arboreal species require moist substrates, water dishes, and high relative humidity. Because temperature requirements for most species are poorly known, it is advisable to use a temperature mosaic that will allow an animal to find an appropriate temperature within its cage. Photoperiod may affect physiology and behavior (especially reproduction and hibernation), and although the importance of ultraviolet light for calcium metabolism by amphibians is not yet known, ecological observations suggest that it might be important for some species of frogs. Some amphibians are territorial, and some use olfactory cues to mark their territory and to recognize other individuals of their species. All amphibians are carnivorous as adults, and the feeding response of many species is elicited by the movement of prey. Diets should include a mixture of prey species, and it may be advisable to load prey with vitamins and minerals.

  2. 刍议青海农牧业保险发展策略%Qinghai's Husbandry Insurance Development Tactic Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉; 吴春庆

    2011-01-01

    To undermine the agricultural risks needs insurance,and rural economy can't develop without agricultural insurance either.Under the state situation that the productions being yielded by scatter,and as being one of pillar industries in Qinghai province,the husbandry development foundation is still feeble,and the capacity that farmers 、middle-small enterprises and cooperation to undermine risks being tenuous,so we must pay more attention to developing Qinghai's agricultural insurance,so as to reduce the farmers' risk lose,and raise their incomes.%农村经济的发展和抵御农业风险均离不开农业保险。在农产品分散生产的情况下,作为青海省支柱产业之一的农牧业发展基础还比较薄弱,农户、中小型农牧企业与合作社抵抗风险的能力也较弱,因此必须重视发展和扩大青海农业保险,以减少农户的风险损失,提高农牧民收入。

  3. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Sheep Husbandry Development in Shandong Province%山东省养羊业发展的 SWOT 分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海峰; 孙世民; 冯叶

    2014-01-01

    The strength , weakness , opportunity and threat in the development of sheep husbandry in Shandong Province were analyzed by SWOT method in this paper .And then corresponding countermeasures were put forward , such as strengthening the protection and development of local varieties and promoting large scale healthy breeding , to accelerate the transformation of Shandong from big to strong sheep breeding prov-ince.%运用SWOT分析法分析了山东省养羊业发展的优势( strength )、劣势( weakness )、机遇( opportuni-ty)和威胁(threat),并在此基础上提出了加强地方品种保护开发、推进规模化健康养殖等若干发展养羊业的对策建议,以促进山东由养羊大省向养羊强省的转变。

  4. The prospects of marketing dairy cooperatives development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Ryzhyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this article is to analyze the benefits of dairy marketing cooperatives development for small farms, milk producers. Author proposes functional development models to reflect the functions of the cooperative.The results of the analysis. The article identifies such benefits of marketing cooperation:the increase of the efficiency of dairy production through specialization with the help of individual savings which are paid by members of the cooperative supply (storage and transportation of milk;protection of members from other manifestations of monopoly (commercial sales structures;allowance to have economic benefits for each individual member of the cooperative.The author has noted that in order to improve the efficiency of the marketing of products, dairy cooperative has to comply with the following requirements:It should have its own material and technical base. If there are no significant capital investments, it is appropriate contracts for rental of space to third parties.It should buy its own vehicles, make rational schemes and routes of milk collection and maximize the use of available specialized transport.It must operate on large volumes of products. To do this, one person must carry out a significant number of functions, including the processing and marketing of dairy products produced by plants on the basis of their own material and technical base.Cooperative is recommended to have an expanded customer base that will allow selling products, even if one of the clients violates contractual liabilities.The author has determined important factors for sustainable operation and development of the dairy cooperative marketing activities such as high:quality products conforming to European standards; close cooperation with consulting services (getting qualified support can be very valuable for improving the quality and volume of sales; a wide product range of UHT milk fat content (milk must be in the range of

  5. Reindeer husbandry and local planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars P. Niia

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available A central theme in the reindeer husbandry is the conflicts between this and other economic interests as tourism, community development etc. in connection with the utilization of common territory. A retrospective glance will show that this is an old problem and not a new phenomenon. The Nordic Sami Institute has carried out a research project with the following objectives: 1.to give an account of the terms of planning for the reindeer husbandry, 2.to find out how the Såmi (Lapp community's and so the reindeer husbandry's interests are taken into account in local planning. 3.find ways for how the reindeer husbandry's use of land can be described. 4.give suggestions as to how the interests of the Sami community can better be taken into account or how it can increase its influence in relation to planning. The suggestions based upon the results from the research project are: —that the Sami community aquire competence by preparing itself for the changes in its environment. —that it builds up its own organization. —that it aquires a more noticeable influence in community planning and decision making. This project and earlier experiencies have shown that the way of influencing e.g. by land-use-planning is weak and unreliable today.Renskötsel och kommunal planering.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Ett centralt tema i renskotselsammanhang ar konflikterna mellan renskotsel och andra ekonomiska intressen som turism, samhållsutbyggnad etc. vid utnyttjande av gemensamma arealer. En historisk tillbakablick visar att denna problematik inte på något sått år någon ny foreteelse utan ett gammalt tema med variationer i tid och rum. I ett forskningsprojekt vid Sami Instituhtta har en studie genomforts med syftet att: 1.soka beskriva planeringsforutsåttningarna for renskotseln. 2. soka forklara hur renskotselns intressen tas tillvara i den kommunala fysiska planeringen. 3. finna former for hur renskotselns markanvåndning kan beskrivas. 4. att l

  6. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote

  7. PROJECT MANAGEMENT RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION OF NEW DAIRY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Henrique de Castro; Martins, Marta Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry has grown in Brazil clearly seen with organizations that have been modernized and increasingly seek to gain space, aiming to outperform the competition, maximize profits and win consumer confidence in a market where loyalty is increasingly difficult. Solid structures of Research, Development and Innovation (RD&I) are essential for the companies to remain proactive in the market and be the first to occupy niches still available on the market. This paper aims to identify whet...

  8. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  9. [Poultry husbandry and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U

    2003-08-01

    Close interactions are existing between poultry husbandry and poultry health. The more housing systems and the environment of the animals can be controlled, the less the general risk of disorders in poultry flocks--especially of diseases which are caused by the introduction of microoganisms. Resulting deterimental effects will affect not only the animals themselves, but also pose a risk indirectly for humans via food originating from animals under production. Also, by keeping the risk of infections as low as possible, the use of therapeutics can be avoided. This will reduce the risk of residues in food of animal origin. In summary, with all probability open poultry husbandry systems, especially those including free range systems pose increased risks for poultry health and consequently for the quality of food originating from poultry production. At least, those systems require highest standards of biosecurity, defined as management, location, farm layout, cleaning and desinfection incl. pest control programs, immunization and specific veterinary monitoring concepts to prevent infections.

  10. Dairy workers develop whey to sweeten profits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-11

    Scientists at the Milk Marketing Board are reported to have developed an enzyme process that will convert whey into protein for animal feed and a liquid sweetener for the food industry. In the process whey wastes are forced under pressure through a column, about 0.5m wide, packed with ceramic beads which carry the enzyme Beta- galactosidase. The enzyme converts whey to a mixture of protein and liquid sweeteners, but is not itself consumed. At present, a pilot plant processes 10,000 liters of whey every day, but when working at full capacity the plant can double or treble that output.

  11. Animal Husbandry Resource Advantage and Industrialization Develop Mode Choice in Ili River Basin,Xinjiang%伊犁河流域畜牧业产业化发展优势与模式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闻君

    2011-01-01

    新疆伊犁河流域畜牧资源丰富,是伊犁农村经济的支柱产业,在全疆国民经济中占有举足轻重的地位.在全球掀起的消费生态食品潮流下,生态畜牧业和生态畜产品有十分广阔的发展空间,为伊犁这个"牧业大州"畜牧业的发展提供了方向和机遇.在新疆生态极其脆弱且日趋恶化的大环境中,伊犁要实现从牧业大区向牧业强区的历史性跨越,必须借鉴其他地区的先进经验,大力发展生态畜牧业.%In Xinjiang Ili River Basin, there are rich Animal husbandry resource, the industry has important brace effect in rural economics of Ili area and country economics in xinjiang. When we face to eco-food consume tide of global, we find it has wide develop space that the eco-animal husbandry and eco-livestock product, it afford aspect and opportunity to Ili. If we want to achieve history span from herd big region to herd strong area, we must use the advanced experience of the world about eco-animal husbandry development, and choice eco-mode in this industry in Ili River Basin.

  12. Application of Solar energy for sustainable Dairy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istiyak Chauhan

    2013-06-01

    applications.The existing knowledge of refrigeration & air conditioning and solar energy will be appliedto design and develop energy efficient solar based refrigeration system for milk cooling atvillage level society and solar based vapour absorption system for milk and milk relatedcooling operations and for room conditioning for cold stores and packaging rooms formilk and milk products, to reduce peak load penalty. Use of solar energy has great scopefor its commercial use in the dairy processing operations as well as to design and developsolar based refrigeration systems for dairy industry.

  13. Development of an Educational Interactive Video-DVD on Dairy Health Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya, P.; Manivannan, C.

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to design, develop and test an educational interactive video-DVD on dairy health management practices. Design for the provision of menus and sub-menus in the developed video-DVD facilitated interactivity by means of branching navigation to different chapters in the video content. A total of 60 dairy farmers owning DVD…

  14. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  15. Sea otters in captivity: applications and implications of husbandry development, public display, scientific research and management, and rescue and rehabilitation for sea otter conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.; Belting, Traci F.; Triggs, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sea otters in captivity began in 1932, producing important insights for conservation. Soviet (initiated in 1932) and United States (1951) studies provided information on captive otter husbandry, setting the stage for eventual large-scale translocations as tools for population restoration. Early studies also informed effective housing of animals in zoos and aquaria, with sea otters first publicly displayed in 1954. Surveys credited displayed otters in convincing the public of conservation values. After early studies, initial scientific data for captive sea otters in aquaria came from work initiated in 1956, and from dedicated research facilities beginning in 1968. Significant achievements have been made in studies of behavior, physiology, reproduction, and high-priority management issues. Larger-scale projects involving translocation and oil spill response provided extensive insights into stress reactions, water quality issues in captivity, and effects of oil spills.

  16. Levantamento do manejo de bovinos leiteiros recém-nascidos: desempenho e aquisição de proteção passiva A survey about dairy calves husbandry: performance and passive immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Machado Neto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar diferentes sistemas de manejo relacionados à morbidez e à mortalidade de bezerros de rebanhos leiteiros recém-nascidos, com ênfase naqueles que envolvem o fornecimento de colostro. Foram utilizados 211 rebanhos na região Centro-sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, divididos em três categorias de produção: categoria A, de 200 a 600 L/dia; categoria B, de 601 a 1000 L/dia; e categoria C, >1001 L/dia. Os produtores de leite foram entrevistados e responderam um questionário que abrangia os aspectos de produção, de manejo do rebanho e de desempenho dos recém-nascidos, tendo como pontos principais questões referentes ao procedimento com o colostro, do manejo do bezerro e à mortalidade neonatal. Para a análise estatística do levantamento, foram utilizados análise de variância e testes paramétricos e não-paramétricos. Além da divisão do trabalho em categorias de produção, os dados também foram redistribuídos e analisados considerando-se os índices de mortalidade dos bezerros alto e baixo. Com o resultado das análises procedidas, foram selecionadas as principais variáveis relacionadas à mortalidade: número de animais; número de vacas; número de vacas lactantes; tempo de ocorrência do primeiro aleitamento; quantidade de colostro na primeira refeição; meio de fornecimento de colostro e de aleitamento após o aparte; origem do leite; instalações; idade de acesso dos bezerros ao concentrado e período de desmame.The present study had the objective of identifying different management systems related to newborn dairy calves morbidity and mortality, with emphasis on colostrum feeding. It was used 211 herds in the South Center Region of Minas Gerais State, separated into three production categories: category A, from 200 to 600 L/day; category B, from 601 to 1000L/day; and category C, >1001 L/day. The dairy farmers were interviewed through a questionnaire that embraced the production aspects, herd

  17. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry - including four dairy processes - cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder. BEST-Dairy tool developed in this project provides three options for the user to benchmark each of the dairy product included in the tool, with each option differentiated based on specific detail level of process or plant, i.e., 1) plant level; 2) process-group level, and 3) process-step level. For each detail level, the tool accounts for differences in production and other variables affecting energy use in dairy processes. The dairy products include cheese, fluid milk, butter, milk powder, etc. The BEST-Dairy tool can be applied to a wide range of dairy facilities to provide energy and water savings estimates, which are based upon the comparisons with the best available reference cases that were established through reviewing information from international and national samples. We have performed and completed alpha- and beta-testing (field testing) of the BEST-Dairy tool, through which feedback from voluntary users in the U.S. dairy industry was gathered to validate and improve the tool's functionality. BEST-Dairy v1.2 was formally published in May 2011, and has been made available for free downloads from the internet (i.e., http://best-dairy.lbl.gov). A user's manual has been developed and published as the companion documentation for use with the BEST-Dairy tool. In addition, we also carried out technology transfer activities by engaging the dairy industry in the process of tool development and testing, including field testing, technical presentations, and technical assistance throughout the project. To date, users from more than ten countries in addition to those in the U.S. have downloaded the BEST-Dairy from the LBNL website. It is expected that the use of BEST-Dairy tool will advance understanding of energy and

  18. Research on Dairy Foods’ Cold Chain Logistics Development Based on "Dumbbell" Integration Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of weak development of dairy foods’ cold chain logistics industry in china, we analyze the role that the improvement of living standards play in dairy foods’ cold chain logistics to put forward higher requirements. This study discusses many serious problems in Chinese dairy foods’ cold chain logistics industry, cold chain logistics system is incomplete, which cause a lot of damage to people's mental and physical. For these evergrowing problems, countries need to introduce policies and regulations, to support the development of cold chain logistics industry, increased investment, vigorously develop the integrated cold chain logistics development, so as to promote the "Dumbbell" integration development strategy of Dairy foods’ cold chain logistics industry, to deal with the relationship between government and market and make the regional contribution to the realization of Chinese dream.

  19. Trimethylamine emissions in animal husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of plant material by animals is an important transformation pathway in the nitrogen (N cycle. During the involved processes, volatile reduced alkaline nitrogen compounds, mainly ammonia (NH3 and aliphatic amines such as trimethylamine (TMA, are formed. Today, animal husbandry is estimated to constitute a main source of aliphatic amines in the atmosphere with TMA being the main emitted compound. Here, we show how the interaction between faeces and urine in animal production systems provides the primary source for agricultural TMA emissions. Excreted urine contains large quantities of urea and TMA-N-oxide, which are transformed into NH3 and TMA, respectively, via enzymatic processes provided by microbes present in faeces. TMA emissions from areas polluted with urine–faeces mixtures are on average of the order of 10 to 50 nmol m−2s−1. Released amines promote secondary aerosol particle formation in the agricultural emission plume. The atmospheric lifetime of TMA, which was estimated to be of the order of 30 to 1000 s, is determined by the condensation onto aerosol particles.

  20. Trimethylamine emissions in animal husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of plant material by animals is an important transformation pathway in the nitrogen (N cycle. During the involved processes, volatile reduced alkaline nitrogen compounds, mainly ammonia (NH3 and aliphatic amines such as trimethylamine (TMA, are formed. Today, animal husbandry is estimated to constitute a main source of aliphatic amines into the atmosphere with TMA being the main emitted compound. Here, we show how the interaction between faeces and urine in animal production systems provides the primary source for agricultural TMA emissions. Excreted urine contains large quantities of urea and TMA-N-oxide, which are transformed into NH3 and TMA, respectively, via enzymatic processes provided by microbes present in faeces. TMA emissions from areas polluted with urine-faeces mixture are on average in the order of 10 to 50 nmol m−2s−1. Released amines promote secondary aerosol particle formation in the agricultural emission plume. The atmospheric lifetime of TMA, which was estimated to be in the order of 30 to 1000 s, is determined by the condensation on aerosol particles.

  1. Trimethylamine emissions in animal husbandry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintermann, J.; Schallhart, S.; Kajos, M.; Jocher, M.; Bracher, A.; Münger, A.; Johnson, D.; Neftel, A.; Ruuskanen, T.

    2014-09-01

    Degradation of plant material by animals is an important transformation pathway in the nitrogen (N) cycle. During the involved processes, volatile reduced alkaline nitrogen compounds, mainly ammonia (NH3) and aliphatic amines such as trimethylamine (TMA), are formed. Today, animal husbandry is estimated to constitute a main source of aliphatic amines in the atmosphere with TMA being the main emitted compound. Here, we show how the interaction between faeces and urine in animal production systems provides the primary source for agricultural TMA emissions. Excreted urine contains large quantities of urea and TMA-N-oxide, which are transformed into NH3 and TMA, respectively, via enzymatic processes provided by microbes present in faeces. TMA emissions from areas polluted with urine-faeces mixtures are on average of the order of 10 to 50 nmol m-2s-1. Released amines promote secondary aerosol particle formation in the agricultural emission plume. The atmospheric lifetime of TMA, which was estimated to be of the order of 30 to 1000 s, is determined by the condensation onto aerosol particles.

  2. SITUATION, EVALUATION AND POLICY IDEAS OF DEVELOPMENT MODE OF GRASSLAND ECOLOGICAL ANIMAL HUSBANDRY%青海省草地生态畜牧业发展模式现状、评价与政策思路——以梅陇个案为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双元

    2011-01-01

    The development of grassland ecological husbandry is an important measure for the development mode transferring in Qinghai, and also has a practical significance in promoting husbandry sustainable development in Qinghai. Based a ease study of Meilon, this paer deeply analyzed the development mode of ecological husbandry in Qinghai, which showed the organization, industrialization, and ecologization were still in the start stage. Based on this analysis, this paper constructed" one center, five measures" long- term mechanism to further promote grassland ecological husbandry development in Qinghai.%发展草地生态畜牧业是青海转变畜牧业发展方式的重要举措,对于促进青海畜牧业可持续发展具有非常重要的现实意义.该文以梅陇个案为例,对青海省生态畜牧业发展模式进行了深入分析,认为青海草地生态畜牧业还处于"组织化转型、产业化起步、生态化雏形"的发展阶段.在此基础上构建了进一步促进青海草地生态畜牧业发展的"一个中心,五项措施"的长效机制.

  3. Problems in the Development of China’s Dairy Cow Breeding and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the development of dairy cow breeding in China,and analyzes the problems in the development of dairy cow breeding in China as follows:the breeding scale is small;the pasture grass production cannot meet demand;the proportion of fine breed is not high and the dairy cow yield per unit is low;it lacks epidemic prevention and quarantine mechanism;economic benefits of large-scale breeding are not high.These problems have become bottleneck in the development of the dairy cow breeding.Finally countermeasures are put forward for the development of dairy cow breeding in China as follows:developing large-scale breeding,and increasing subsidies;supporting the development of grass industry,and ensuring the supply of good feed;strengthening cultivation and promotion of fine breed,and promoting the quality of fresh milk;improving the accountability system of dairy products,and giving play to supervisory role of the news media.

  4. Modelling of nitrogen flow and excretion in dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Straalen, van, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the dairy husbandry is held responsible for a major part of the N-pollution of the environment. The objective of this thesis was to develop a model that predicts N flow in the animal and N excretion in faeces, urine and milk in order to reduce unnecessary N losses. The model was based on the concepts of modern protein evaluation systems, using data from nylon bag incubations in the rumen and intestine. Protein evaluation systems from different countries were compared and v...

  5. Peptidomics for dairy foods characterization - a method development study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Nanna Stengaard; Hammershøj, Marianne; Sørensen, John

    During storage of long shelf life dairy products undesired changes can appear in the products. One major change in liquid UHT products and re-dissolved dairy product powders is an increase in viscosity, creation of “fluffy” material or “clouds” caused by aggregation of material including proteins...... of proteins and/or proteolysis from heat stable proteases – either native bovine proteases or from psychrotropic bacteria in the raw milk, or in combination. The project therefore aims at analyzing and outlining the formation of aggregates by proteomic characterizations combined with peptidomic profiles...

  6. Dairy stock development and milk production with smallholders = De ontwikkeling van jongvee en melkproduktie met kleine boeren

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong,

    1996-01-01


    My work in technical development cooperation and missions in developing countries, touched often upon worldwide dairy development, and stimulated my interest in comparative analysis of technical and economic progress in the sector. This did not only deal with milk production, but increasingly in the course of time with the development of dairy stock as the basis for enhanced andlor expanded milk production. Dairy production, generally performed on more specialized farms in industri...

  7. Antibiotic alternatives: the substitution of antibiotics in animal husbandry?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2014-01-01

    It is a common practice for decades to use of sub-therapeutic dose of antibiotics in food-animal feeds to prevent animals from diseases and to improve production performance in modern animal husbandry. In the meantime, concerns over the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the unreasonable use of antibiotics and an appearance of less novelty antibiotics have prompted efforts to develop so-called alternatives to antibiotics. Whether or not the alternatives could really ...

  8. Econometric analysis of the development of tourism industry and husbandry economy---A case study of Tibet%旅游产业发展与农牧业经济增长关系的实证分析--以西藏为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀美; 多吉次仁

    2015-01-01

    Based on VAR model and impulse response function,time series data of tourism comprehensive income and hus-bandry economic growth (2001 -2012)are selected to quantitatively analyze causal relationship between husbandry economy and the development of tourism industry.Results show that there is a co-integration relationship in between.That is,the development of tourism industry can be influenced by husbandry economic growth,and meanwhile husbandry economy can be stimulated by the development of the tourism industry.There exists the long-term coordinate relationship between the development of tourism industry and the growth of husbandry economy.Moreover,the causes of these results are produced and corresponding suggestions are ad-vanced.%选取西藏自治区2001~2012年旅游综合收入与农牧业增加值的时间序列数据,运用VAR模型和脉冲响应函数,分析西藏旅游产业发展与农牧业经济增长之间的因果关系。结果表明,旅游产业发展和经济增长间存在双向因果关系,农牧业经济增长能影响旅游产业发展;同时,旅游产业的发展也能拉动农牧业经济,旅游产业发展与农牧业经济增长之间存在长期协整关系。在此基础上,分析出现该结果的原因并提出相应的建议。

  9. Ecologically sustainable development in dairy farms II: Nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Mexico, there is not a specific regulation dealing with manure and wastewater in confined livestock farms. In the case of dairy farms that have agricultural areas for the production of forage crops, there are some "Good Management Practices", focused on the use of manure as a source of nitrogen a...

  10. STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE IN THE ROSTOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radjabov R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we carry out the analysis of the current state of dairy farming in the country and in the Rostov region. The article shows the number of cows and milk production in farms of all categories in the country and the region. At present, Russia is ranked 6th in the world in milk production and is the largest importer of milk and dairy products. The situation is similar in the dairy industry of the Rostov region. Nowadays Rostov region ranks 5th in the Russian Federation and 2nd place in the southern Federal district in milk production. A large portion of milk (83,4% is produced in households. This indicates decentralization of livestock complex in the Rostov region. The demand for milk is met through own production by 83%. Currently, the region has just started a period of stabilization of the gross milk production. For the last 4 years the indicators of milk productivity of cows have been 13.0-14.5% higher than the national average. Much of this was facilitated by the measures of state support. With the support of Federal and regional authorities in this field it has been created a favorable investment climate for the development of dairy farming. In the article the main organizational and economic aspects of profitability of milk production have been shown. It identifies the main issues that hinder the intensification of dairy farming. The dairy sector of the Rostov region has good prospects. Main approaches to the solution of the problems of development of dairy cattle breeding in the Rostov region have been listed

  11. Composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products and their effect on tourism development of inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of dairy industry in Inner Mongolia has accelerated its economic growth, and its grassland culture has become appealing to the public. As an important support industry for the economic development in tourism area of Inner Mongolia, dairy industry can create economic value for the development of tourism. In view of the importance of dairy products-the habitat of lactic acid bacteria, this study aims to reveal the composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products and isolate lactic acid bacteria resources. Firstly, we selected 60 traditional dairy product samples (from the pasture in scenic area of Inner Mongolia as the research objects. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, lactic acid bacteria in the samples were isolated and identified; Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR technology was applied to the comparative analysis on the population of dominant bacteria in samples. It was found that there were significant differences in the numbers of dominant bacteria in different dairy products. With the advantages of improving nutritional value and extending storage time of dairy products, lactic acid bacteria is contributive to the development of dairy industry, which further promotes the prosperity of economy and tourism. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products.

  12. “定居兴牧”水源工程及技术支撑体系%Water resources projects of settlement for development of animal husbandry and its technical supporting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓铭江; 李湘权; 徐康宁; 王海涛; 罗岩

    2012-01-01

    针对“定居兴牧”水源工程勘测设计、建设管理中的难点问题和关键环节,分析和阐述了立项审批、建设资金、建设管理及质量安全三项保障措施,以及建立的坝工建设、工程水文计算及工程地质勘察、工程设计与施工技术体系三项技术支撑,提出了工程规模“择小放大”、泄水建筑物规模“择大放小”、抗震设计“评Ⅶ设Ⅷ”、灌溉模式“择高有压”、地质条件复杂“避让放弃”等技术措施和应把握的原则,建立了“定居兴牧”水源工程技术支撑体系;并针对牧民定居水资源保障和安置模式、水源工程水价及管理、受水区开发规模等问题进行了分析讨论,指出新疆已不具备大规模开发水土资源的条件,采取“集中定居、插花定居、分流转产”三种定居模式,是切合新疆实际的;水源及其配套工程效益的发挥,需要加快饲草饲料基地开发建设,走集约化、现代化发展之路;水价应考虑牧民承受能力和工程良性运行的需要,可采取财政扶持、分阶段逐步到位,实施定居区水务一体化管理,发挥项目的规模效应;定居区规模要做到“水土平衡、供需平衡”,防止“小马拉大车”;工程建成后,要加强水文监测,为水库安全度汛和调度提供可靠的基础依据.定居兴牧水源工程的顺利实施,赋予了“新疆效率”深刻的科学内涵,对于加速现代草原生态畜牧业发展,具有一定的借鉴、指导作用.%To get rid of poor pattern of production & living and anomalism all year for most herdsmen, and to limit over-loaded de-pasture for natural grass land and to control degeneration of its ecological environment, Xinjiang Government will launch 27 projects of Settlement for Development of Animal Husbandry within 3-year completion. Under the characteristics of short construction period, deficient hydrological data and complicated geological

  13. Supply Chain Optimisation in Animal Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); C.M. Smeets; J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe pig husbandry is an important economic sector. In the last decade, major changes have been made. As a result, farmers came together to introduce the "Eco Label pig", meeting the strong consumer and governmental call for high quality, animal friendly and environmentally friendly foo

  14. 发展畜牧循环经济加快农业方式转变%To Develop Recycling Economy of Animal Husbandry and Speed up Transformation of Agriculture Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔繁涛; 于玉芹; 孔祥华

    2011-01-01

    The basic concept of recycling economy of animal husbandry was defined. The pressure in the crack of urban-rural dual structure was explained. Relation between the recycling economy in animal husbandry and the new countryside construction was analyzed. Suggestions on accelerating recycling economy on animal husbandry were proposed.%本文分析了畜牧业循环经济的基本内涵,诠释了破解城乡二元结构所面临的巨大压力,剖析了畜牧业循环经济与新农村建设的关系,提出了促进农业增长方式转变的思路和建议.

  15. IMPACT OF PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY PRODUCTS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Świątkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chain and market-oriented dairy sustainability, nutritional and social objectives related to the promotion of behaviours aimed at the development are essential. At the same time, the signifi cance of the various forms of sales promotion, as a factor of consumer buying behaviour infl uence, increases. The study includes the use of the sales promotion instruments in commercial space, perceived by consumers and assessment of their impact on purchasing decisions. The study was carried out on the basis of a standardized authoring individual interview questionnaire on nationwide random-quota, registered trials, in 2007–2012, as a part of the study of consumer behaviour performed in the dairy market for KZSM (National Association of Dairy Cooperatives. The results confi rm that the effect of promotion activities is a high visibility by consumers and change of their purchasing decisions. The most important determinant of consumer purchasing behaviour are the price promotions. Most often supported by a complete set of sales promotion instruments have been modern dairy products – yoghurt, grainy and ripening cheese. Sales promotion is an important instrument of balancing the dairy market and shaping the desired behaviour of consumers.

  16. Risk Factors for Developing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders during Dairy Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Taghavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. Objective: To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal. Each task was then divided into its constituent work subdivisions (tasks. Finally, the working posture for each work subdivision was evaluated using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA. Results: Based on the results from the REBA score, the poorest risk scores (risk level 4 were associated with the following tasks: (1 manure disposal, (2 filling feed bags, and (3 pouring milk into a bucket. Other tasks such as filling corn containers, pouring corn into the milling machine, preparing the feed, pouring food into mangers, attaching the milking machine, and pouring milk from a bucket into a tank imposed high risk (risk level 3. The risk for the tasks of washing and disinfecting the udders were assessed as medium risks. Conclusion: The risk levels associated with most of the tasks on the studied farm were unacceptably high. Therefore, it is essential to implement ergonomic interventions to reduce risk levels of the tasks.

  17. [Consumptions of Meat and Dairy Products, Zinc Intake and Pubertal Development in Adolescents in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiao; Yang, Ming-zhe; Duan, Ruo-nan; Tian, Guo; Bao, Yu-xin; Chen, Yan-rong; Xue, Hong-mei; Liu, Yan; Cheng, Guo

    2015-09-01

    To determine the associations between meat, dairy and zinc intake and pubertal development in adolescents in Chengdu. A total of 1320 children and adolescents aged 9-15 years in Chengdu were recruited using a stratified cluster sampling strategy. Dietary intake was assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 3-day 24-hour dietary recall. Pubertal development was evaluated through physical examinations. Consumptions of meat and dairy, and zinc intake were compared between groups with different levels of pubertal development according to the Tanner criteria. The median age of spermarche was 13. 00 years. The boys who had had spermarche consumed more meat (including red meat) and dairy products than those who had not yet (Pmeat was positively correlated with the level of pubertal development (Pmeat and less diiry products than those who had not yet (Pproducts was negatively associated with breast development and the level of pubertal development (P meat, red meat and dairy products are associated with pubertal development in adolescents in Chengdu. However, the differences between boys and girls warrant further studies.

  18. Improving Milk Quality for Dairy Goat Farm Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cyrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate factors affecting goat’s milk quality, consumer’s satisfaction to goat’s milk, and technical responses associated with goat’s milk quality. Three farms having more than 100 dairy goats were purposively selected for the study. Thirty consumers were determined by using judgement sampling techniques to assess the satisfaction of consumer to goat’s milk quality. Data were analyzed by using fishbone diagram and House of Quality matrix. The study revealed that milk quality produced by dairy goat farms met the standard quality of milk composition namely; specific gravity, total solid, fat, protein, and total solid non-fat. The main factors affecting goat milk quantity and quality were the quality of does, pregnancy status, number of kids per birth, shape and size of the udder, lactation length, and the health status of the goat. The attributes of goat’s milk that were able to achieve customer’s satisfaction targets were nutritional content, packaging size, and goat milk color. Technical responses that were major concern in ensuring goat’s milk quality included goat breed quality and health conditions, skills and performances of farmers and employees, feed quality, farm equipment hygiene and completeness, cleanliness, and hygiene of livestock housing and environment. Technical response on livestock health condition was the first priority to be improved.

  19. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 1: Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuis-Gibbon, Lies; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Doherty, Michael L

    2011-03-31

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) systems are a risk based preventive approach developed to increase levels of food safety assurance. This is part 1 of a pilot study on the development, implementation and evaluation of a HACCP-based approach for the control of good udder health in dairy cows. The paper describes the use of a novel approach based on a deconstruction of the infectious process in mastitis to identify Critical Control Points (CCPs) and develop a HACCP-based system to prevent and control mastitis in dairy herds. The approach involved the creation of an Infectious Process Flow Diagram, which was then cross-referenced to two production process flow diagrams of the milking process and cow management cycle. The HACCP plan developed, may be suitable for customisation and implementation on dairy farms. This is a logical, systematic approach to the development of a mastitis control programme that could be used as a template for the development of control programmes for other infectious diseases in the dairy herd.

  20. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 1: Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekhuis-Gibbon Lies

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP systems are a risk based preventive approach developed to increase levels of food safety assurance. This is part 1 of a pilot study on the development, implementation and evaluation of a HACCP-based approach for the control of good udder health in dairy cows. The paper describes the use of a novel approach based on a deconstruction of the infectious process in mastitis to identify Critical Control Points (CCPs and develop a HACCP-based system to prevent and control mastitis in dairy herds. The approach involved the creation of an Infectious Process Flow Diagram, which was then cross-referenced to two production process flow diagrams of the milking process and cow management cycle. The HACCP plan developed, may be suitable for customisation and implementation on dairy farms. This is a logical, systematic approach to the development of a mastitis control programme that could be used as a template for the development of control programmes for other infectious diseases in the dairy herd.

  1. Dairy goat husbandry amongst the household agriculture: herd and economic indexes from a case study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil A caprinocultura leiteira na agricultura familiar: índices zootécnicos e econômicos de um estudo de caso no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Mendonça Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two dairy goat systems conducted according to the household model were evaluated in terms of income generation. An enterprise budget analysis was performed using data collected from August, 2004, to July, 2005. Farms named A and B were smallholdings and raised Saanem goats intensively. Herd indexes, incomes, taxes, fuel, energy, concentrates, opportunity costs and interest in capital were computed. Net present value and internal rate of return were estimated to appreciate the business appeal in terms of income generation. Herd indexes were mostly affected by management decisions interfering on the amounts and time-trends related to milk production. Seasonal variation was reduced at unit B due to heat induction, a decision not shared by farmer A. The daily body weight gain of doelings after weaning (89 and 76 g/d for A and B was low if compared to current recommendations. Average records of lactation (441 and 606 L/doe and fertility (86.95% and 85.71% were amongst the literature range. Daily tasks related to unit B consumed 5 hours and 55 minutes for an average milk production of 40.9 L/d, whereas 8 hours and 16 minutes on average were daily spent at unit A in order to produce 32.2 L/d. Unit B presented a total production cost (R$ 0.79548/L lower than unit A (R$ 1.50239/L, but operated profitably. Unit A presented a positive gross margin (R$ 0.284/L, but operated unprofitably. The income generated on B was equivalent to a monthly salary of R$ 732.96 (US$ 278.52, a competitive income compared to the Brazilian minimum wage of R$ 300.00 (US$ 114.00 paid monthly. These results corroborate the hypothesis that the dairy goat husbandry fits adequately to the household production model and generates income competitively.Dois sistemas de produção de caprinos leiteiros praticados de acordo com o modelo familiar foram avaliados quanto à geração de renda. Um teste para verificação de viabilidade econômica do empreendimento foi executado utilizando

  2. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  3. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors

  4. Dairy development in the Philippines : Visions for the future: uniformity and/or diversity, community and/or commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Although milk has been produced and processed in the Philippines for a long time, the country does not have a strong dairy tradition. Climate and ecology are not very favourable for high yields. Moreover, policies have been erratic and the country has not used the momentum towards dairy development

  5. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  6. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou;

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  7. Quick scan developments dairy markets for GDF-business partner BASF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daatselaar, C.H.G.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Prins, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing consumption of milk and dairy products in some of the major developing markets and the fall of the quota system in the major milk producing region, Europe, milk producers are getting ready for the new opportunities. Simultaneously China, as a state controlled economy is publishin

  8. Husbandry and enclosure influences on penguin behavior and conservation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew R; Deere, Nicolas J; Little, Holly A; Snipp, Ross; Goulder, Jackie; Mayer-Clarke, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Multi-zoo comparisons of animal welfare are rare, and yet vital for ensuring continued improvement of zoo enclosures and husbandry. Methods are not standardized for the development of zoo enclosures based on multiple indicators, and case study species are required. This study compares behavior and breeding success to various enclosure and husbandry parameters for the Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, for the development of improved enclosure design. Behavioral sampling was completed at Flamingo Land over a period of 8 months. Further data on behavior, enclosure design, and breeding success were collected via questionnaires, visits to zoos, and literature review. Breeding success was primarily influenced by colony age and number of breeding pairs, suggesting an important social influence on reproduction. Across zoos, there was also significant variation in behavior. The proportion of time spent in water varied between zoos (2-23%) and was used as an indicator of physical activity and natural behavior. Regression models revealed that water-use was best predicted by total enclosure area per penguin, followed by land area, with some evidence for positive influence of pool surface area per penguin. Predominantly linear/curvilinear increases in our biological indicators with enclosure parameters suggest that optimal conditions for S. humboldti were not met among the selected zoos. We propose revised minimum conditions for S. humboldti enclosure design, which exceed those in the existing husbandry guidelines. We present a framework for the evaluation of zoo enclosures and suggest that a rigorous scientific protocol be established for the design of new enclosures, based on multivariate methods. Zoo Biol. 35:385-397, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Research on the resilience of husbandry economy to snow disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Snow disaster always makes adverse influence on the pastoral economy in alpine area. Resilience theory could efficiently enhance the capacities of resisting disaster and mitigating loss of animal husbandry economy. In order to distinguish the weak parts of existed resilience system and strengthen the construction of disaster mitigating in the source of Changjiang-Yellow River, this paper has developed two methods of comprehensive index and relationship model to measure the resilience from 1980 to 2014. The comprehensive index method is based on the conceptual framework of resilience assessment. And relationship model is derived from the internal relationship between vulnerability and resilience. Through the index system of resilience, this paper also summarizes the mean influencing indicator to husbandry economy resilience. The results show:(1)From time dimension, the resilience of snow disaster in Changjiang-Yellow River is rising with fluctuations. Based on the rate, the changes could be divided into slow(1980-1996) and fast(1997-2014) growing phases. The disaster-mitigating capacity of livestock has been markedly improved; (2)From spatial dimension, the magnitude and frequency of snow disaster change weakly. But the gap of resilience in Changjiang-Yellow River has shrunk in 35 years and the resilience in source of Changjiang is distinctly better than Yellow River; (3)Among all the indicators, snow disaster plays a decisive role in the changes of resilience. The resisting capacity including infrastructure construction makes significant effects on resilience and the reducing measures consisted of income, education and agricultural finance could effectively regulate the level. Key words: husbandry economy; snow disaster; resilience; mitigation

  10. Follicle growth, corpus luteum function and their effects on embryo development in postpartum dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Absent or irregular ovarian cycles in lactating dairy cows are caused by failure to ovulate the dominant follicle at the appropriate time. The follicle then either regresses or develops into a cyst. This process can be triggered by a variety of metabolic and disease factors that act at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to inhibit pulsatile LH secretion and the LH surge, and at the ovary to reduce follicular growth and oestradiol production. Cows of poor energy status have low circulating c...

  11. IMPACT OF PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY PRODUCTS MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Świątkowska; Karol Krajewski

    2015-01-01

    Chain and market-oriented dairy sustainability, nutritional and social objectives related to the promotion of behaviours aimed at the development are essential. At the same time, the signifi cance of the various forms of sales promotion, as a factor of consumer buying behaviour infl uence, increases. The study includes the use of the sales promotion instruments in commercial space, perceived by consumers and assessment of their impact on purchasing decisions. The study was carried out on the ...

  12. Development of composition and technology of dairy dessert with carrot fiber

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Belozerova; T. N. Evstigneeva; A. A. Grigoreva

    2016-01-01

    The development of modern traditional technologies of processing of plant raw material leads to a reduction of content in it of fiber. In this regard, it becomes necessary to create a category of products, which are additionally introduced functional ingredients. Conducted researches on studying possibility of using the carrot fiber in the production of dairy products in order to enrich the composition of them dietary fiber. At the initial stage of the study determined the effect of temperatu...

  13. The development of dairying in Europe: potential evidence from food residues on ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver E. Craig

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Providing evidence of dairying is crucial to the understanding of the development and intensification of Neolithic farming practices in Europe, beyond the early stages of domestication. Until recently, research in this field had been limited to traditional archaeological methods, such as the study of pottery styles, faunal remains and specialised material artefacts. Although suggestive, these methods are unable to provide direct evidence of dairying. Advances in biomolecular methods now allow the identification of remnants of dairy products on ceramic vessels and the application of these methods to Neolithic ceramic assemblages across Europe is underway. There is no doubt that these new methods offer much scope for investigating hypotheses such as the ‘secondary products revolution’, but there are limitations. The cost of analyses prohibits indiscriminate sampling and differential survival is likely to prevent direct comparison of samples from different sites. Only by incorporating these techniques within the wider frameworks of archaeological research may theories be properly tested. Approaches to achieve this goal are discussed.

  14. Identification of research activities for the dairy sector development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    phase, which is the research support of the development process, could then be implemented with all the ... The research activities on milk production improvement in the South .... lean on statistical methods as cluster analysis or hierarchical.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal flows in animal husbandry and development of a stategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into agro-ecosystems by animal manures; Erfassung von Schwermetallstroemen in landwirtschaftlichen Tierproduktionsbetrieben und Erarbeitung einer Konzeption zur Verringerung der Schwermetalleintraege durch Wirtschaftsduenger tierischer Herkunft in Agraroekosysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, U.; Doehler, H.; Roth, U.; Eckel, H.; Goldbach, H.; Kuehnen, V.; Wilcke, W.; Uihlein, A.; Fruechtenicht, K.; Steffens, G.

    2004-07-01

    The overall objectives of the project were to assess heavy metal flows on livestock farms and to develop a strategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into animal manures. For the experiments 20 farms with animal husbandry in various regions of Germany were selected. On the farms the inputs and outputs of the elements copper and zinc, as well as lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel were balanced at the stable level. The effect of abatement measures was evaluated using a calculation tool for stable balances. It is shown, the main input pathways for heavy metals into animal manures are, apart from copper disinfectants, feeding stuffs and feed supplements. Home grown feeds are the major source of heavy metal input into the stable because they are fed in large quantities. However, the heavy metal content of the home grown feeds in particular of roughages for ruminants is low. Purchased feed stuffs (supplementary feeding stuffs and complete feeding stuffs) were found to have a higher content of heavy metals (due to supplementation with trace elements) compared to home grown feeds. Thus, pig and poultry husbandry rather than ruminant husbandry is susceptible to heavy metal accumulation of manures. Heavy metals are cycling within the farm which is of importance when discussing the environmental impact. The turnover within the farm can hardly be controlled by the farmer. Thus, effective strategies have to be targeted at the inputs, e. g. the purchased feed stuffs. A main option to reduce the heavy metal input is to lower the trace element concentrations in supplementary feed stuffs either by legislation of maximum threshold values (e. g. EG 1334/2003) or by volunteer agreements of the feed industry and agriculture. In addition, the absorption of copper and zinc by the animals should be improved using better absorbable trace element compounds and phytase. (orig.)

  16. Development of User-Friendly Software to Design Dairy Heat Exchanger and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DipankarMandal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a calculation algorithm and development of a software in Visual Basic(Visual Studio 2012 Express Desktop used in heat transfer studies when different heat exchangers are involved (e.g. Helical Type Triple Tube Heat Exchanger , Plate Type Heat Exchanger.It includes the easy calculation of heat transfer coefficient and followed by the design and simulation of heat exchanger design parameter by inputting general known parameters of a heat exchanger into the developed software—-―DAIRY –HE ―. A parametric study is conducted using the software interface to determine the length of tubes or dimensions of heat exchanger.

  17. Capture, transport and husbandry of Naucrates ductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco De Vaissier Ferro Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the capture, transport, and husbandry of Naucrates ductor, also known as pilot fish. Approximately 100 individuals were collected by Flying Sharks in the sequence of an order from multiple public aquaria. Because there is vely limited knowledge about the capture, husbandry and transport of this species, it became necessary to investigate how to achieve this while causing minimum mortality and ensuring animal welfare. Collection was done in the Azores Islands, approximately 20 nautical miles from Horta, using a standard fishing rod and hook, after attracting blue sharks with bait. The animals were transported to shore inside plastic vats and introduced to large 2,0 m wide holding tanks at the Porto Pim Aquarium, where they were held for 2 months. Multiple treatments for wounds, and parasite control, were used and are reported. Transport to mainland Portugal was done aboard a commercial vessel, inside 2,4 m wide polyethylene vats with mechanical and chemical filtration consisting of cartridge filters and protein skimmers, respectively. Once docked on shore the 40 ft. container was then moved to a truck, where it traveled to Spain and France over 6 days. The total transport time of those animals delivered last was therefore 11 days and no mortalities were sustained in transit. The remaining animals were kept in Peniche for 2 more months inside 2,4 m wide polyethylene vats, with filtration consisting of cartridge and protein skimmers, as well as daily water changes. Multiple challenges faced during the collection, holding and transport processes are presented in this presentation.

  18. Development of small Enterprises through Networking : A case study from the Danish Dairy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The article analyses how a small organic dairy uses networking to knowledge creation, getting new subcontractors and customers. In addition the realtions between vision, strategy and practice are analysed as well as the small dairies possibilities to survive in niche markets.......The article analyses how a small organic dairy uses networking to knowledge creation, getting new subcontractors and customers. In addition the realtions between vision, strategy and practice are analysed as well as the small dairies possibilities to survive in niche markets....

  19. Development of small Enterprises through Networking : A case study from the Danish Dairy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The article analyses how a small organic dairy uses networking to knowledge creation, getting new subcontractors and customers. In addition the realtions between vision, strategy and practice are analysed as well as the small dairies possibilities to survive in niche markets.......The article analyses how a small organic dairy uses networking to knowledge creation, getting new subcontractors and customers. In addition the realtions between vision, strategy and practice are analysed as well as the small dairies possibilities to survive in niche markets....

  20. Development of composition and technology of dairy dessert with carrot fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Belozerova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern traditional technologies of processing of plant raw material leads to a reduction of content in it of fiber. In this regard, it becomes necessary to create a category of products, which are additionally introduced functional ingredients. Conducted researches on studying possibility of using the carrot fiber in the production of dairy products in order to enrich the composition of them dietary fiber. At the initial stage of the study determined the effect of temperature and time of exposure to the swelling capacity of carrot fiber. Based on the organoleptic evaluation of various samples of dairy products with food fibers sour cream with fat mass fraction 20 and 25% is offered as a dairy basis for production of a dessert. The technique of introducing carrot fiber in a product is perfected and its optimal dose equal to 3% is selected. As a flavor filler used cocoa syrup, which is best combined with sour cream base. The research carried out to determine the ratio of cocoa powder and sugar in cocoa syrup, which will allow to obtain a product with a harmonious combination of the studied components. Flavoring fillers are chosen and the rational dose equal to 30% by weight of the product allowing to receive a dessert with high consumer properties is defined. It was found that it is expedient to introduce carrot fiber into the mixture to prepare syrup, because technological parameters of these transactions are almost similar. At the final stage of the study examined the effect of carrot fiber for a period of validity of the developed product. It was found that shelf life of developed product is not reduced compared with the control sample containing no dietary fibers.

  1. Methodological Aspects in Forecasting Innovation Development of Dairy Cattle Breeding in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ya Aleksandrovna Medvedeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that Russia is now a member of the World Trade Organization, long-term forecasting becomes an objectively necessary condition that helps choose an effective science-based long-term strategy for development of dairy cattle breeding that would take into consideration intellectual and innovative characteristics. Current structure of available statistical information does not meet modern challenges of innovation development and does not reflect adequately the trends of ongoing changes. The paper suggests a system of indicators to analyze the status, development and prospects of dairy cattle breeding in the region; this system provides timely identification of emerging risks and threats of deviation from the specified parameters. The system included indicators contained in the current statistical reporting and new indicators of innovation development of the industry, the quality of human capital and the level of government support. When designing the system of indicators, we used several methodological aspects of the Oslo Manual, which the Federal State Statistics Service considers to be an official methodological document concerning the collection of information about innovation activities. A structured system of indicators shifts the emphasis in the analysis of the final results to the conditions and prerequisites that help achieve forecast performance indicators in the functioning of Russia’s economy under WTO rules and make substantiated management decisions

  2. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  3. Dairy stock development and milk production with smallholders = De ontwikkeling van jongvee en melkproduktie met kleine boeren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.

    1996-01-01


    My work in technical development cooperation and missions in developing countries, touched often upon worldwide dairy development, and stimulated my interest in comparative analysis of technical and economic progress in the sector. This did not only deal with milk production, but increasi

  4. Dairy stock development and milk production with smallholders = De ontwikkeling van jongvee en melkproduktie met kleine boeren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.

    1996-01-01


    My work in technical development cooperation and missions in developing countries, touched often upon worldwide dairy development, and stimulated my interest in comparative analysis of technical and economic progress in the sector. This did not only deal with milk production, but

  5. The Cluster Association as a Way to Raise the Level of Development of Ukrainian Dairy Processing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenova Valentina G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic conditions, characterized by globalization of the world economy and increased international competition, call for new approaches to ensure the development of domestic dairy processing enterprises. This can be accomplished through the long-term flexible forms of cooperation and integration of producing both milk and dairy products. In recent times, there has been a growing popularity of a production organization model in which all participants are joining the cluster in order to improve performance and successfully compete in the international market. The article is aimed at substantiating the establishment of a cluster in the dairy industry sector of Ukraine. The article considers essence of the concept of «cluster», the feasibility of forming a cluster in the domestic dairy industry sector, and the basic stages of cluster formation. The benefits of clusters provided in this article would improve development of dairy processing enterprises, thus ensuring the competitiveness of products within the territory on which the cluster is located. In addition, they would contribute to the economic development not only of enterprises and sectors, but also of region as a whole.

  6. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Leegwater, P.

    2000-01-01

    Despite its economic and cultural potential, the Kenya Coast finds itself in a marginal position. This collective volume traces the causes behind this situation and analyses it from different angles: political, economic and social. Most of the papers included in this volume were first presented at a

  7. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Leegwater, P.

    2000-01-01

    Despite its economic and cultural potential, the Kenya Coast finds itself in a marginal position. This collective volume traces the causes behind this situation and analyses it from different angles: political, economic and social. Most of the papers included in this volume were first presented at a

  8. Development of a PCR Diagnostic Kit for Cryptosporidium andersoni in Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Rong-qiong; LI Guo-qing; XIAO Shu-min; LI Wei-hua

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an important zoonosis caused by the Cryptosporidium species. To develop a PCR diagnostic kit for molecular detection and differential diagnosis of Cryptosporidiurn spp., a portion of ITS-1 sequence of Cryptosporidium. Andersoni was chosen as the target DNA for designing the species-specific primers (ZRQF/ZR). The kit components were determined after the PCR amplification conditions were serially optimized. A series of tests were conducted in the specificity, sensitivity, stability, reproducibility, and stored period of the kit, respectively. The results showed that only C. Andersoni were amplified specific band of about 500 bp, while Cryptosporidium. Parvum, Cryptosporidium. Baileyi, Eimeria sp of dairy cow, Toxoplasma gondii, Eimeria sp of pig, Ascaris suum, Cyclospora sp, and E. Coli could not be amplified. 254 oocysts of C. Andersoni was the lowest number that could be detected using the kit. The kit worked well after being stored at room temperature, 4 and -20℃ for nine months. Fecal specimens, which were collected from a total of 243 calves on four different dairy farms in Guangdong Province, China, and one dairy farm in Henan Province, China, were examined using the kit; the positive rate of the kit was 2-13% higher than that of the routine methods. The results indicated that the kit can detect fecal samples faster, more sensitively, and conveniently, and can provide a useful tool for the identification and differentiation of C. Andersoni from the other Cryptosporidium species; it also has implications for further studies on molecular epidemiology and differential diagnostics of cryptosporidiosis in animals.

  9. Development of a method to characterize high-protein dairy powders using an ultrasonic flaw detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, M; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-02-01

    Dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders plays a critical role for achieving functional and nutritional characteristics of a finished food product. Current methods for evaluating powder dissolution properties are time consuming, difficult to reproduce, and subjective. Ultrasound spectroscopy is a rapid and precise method, but requires expensive equipment and skilled technicians to carry out the tests. In the present study, an ultrasonic flaw detector (UFD) was used as an economical alternative to characterize the powder dissolution properties. The objective of study was to develop a method to characterize the dissolution behavior of milk protein concentrate (MPC) using a UFD. The experimental setup included a UFD connected to a 1-MHz immersion transducer that was kept a constant distance from a reflector plate. To validate the method, 2 batches of MPC80 from a commercial manufacturer were procured and stored at 25 and 40°C for 4 wk. Focus beam reflectance measurement and solubility index were used as reference methods. Relative ultrasound velocity and ultrasound attenuation were acquired during the dissolution of MPC samples. To characterize the MPC dissolution, 4 parameters including standard deviation of relative velocity, area under the attenuation curve, and peak attenuation were extracted from ultrasound data. As the storage temperature and time increased, the area under the attenuation curve and peak height decreased, indicating a loss of solubility. The proposed UFD-based method was able to capture the changes in dissolution of MPC during storage at 25 and 40°C. It was observed that a high-quality MPC had a low standard deviation and a larger area under the attenuation curve. As the MPC aged at 40°C, the particle dispersion rate decreased and, consequently, an increase in standard deviation and reduction in area were observed. Overall, the UFD can be a low-cost method to characterize the dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders

  10. Emissions from animal husbandry. Greenhouse gases, environmental assessment, state of the art; Emissionen der Tierhaltung. Treibhausgase, Umweltbewertung, Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    following the application of livestock manure - an integrated approach (Rachel E. Thorman); (19) Political and administrative instruments for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from EU agriculture (Thomas Fellmann); (20) Best available techniques (BAT) - State of the revision of the BAT reference document (Ewald Grimm); (21) Emission abatement measures in pig farming (Wilhelm Pflanz); (22) Cost of ammonia emission abatement (Sebastian Wulf); (23) Measures to reduce emissions and immissions from livestock farming - implementation and inspection (Stefan Neser); (24) Emissions from animal husbandry in Austria: assessment and reporting (Barbara Amon); (25) Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a straw flow system for fattening pigs: housing and manure storage (Barbara Amon); (26) Ascertainment and assessment of energy use in livestock farming - the example of dairy farming (Werner Berg); (27) Ammonia emissions from a broiler farm: Influence of emitted concentrations on adjacent woodland (Kristina von Bobrutzki); (28) Exhaust air treatment in animal housings - How efficient are certified systems in practice? (Lars Broer); (29) Revision of methods and data for the assessment of greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from German pig production (Ulrich Daemmgen); (30) The effect of diet composition and feeding strategies on excretion rates in German pig production (Ulrich Daemmgen); (31) Strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in organic dairy farming (Andreas Gattinger); (32) Calculation of emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia and particulate matter from animal husbandry within the German agricultural emission inventory (Hans-Dieter Haenel); (33) Modelling fluxes of matter and energy for mammals in the agricultural emission inventory by taking the example dairy cow (Hans-Dieter Haenel); (34) Requirements for measures to reduce ammonia emissions from cattle husbandry (Margret Keck); (35) Sustainable nutrient management in intensive livestock areas

  11. Innovative technology and sustainable development of organic dairy farming : the case of automatic milking systems in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.

    2009-01-01

    Development of organic dairy farming in Denmark is characterized by up-scaling, increasing productivity and automation. Increasing discussion on compliance with organic principles and sustainability has been forwarded. Automatic milking systems (AMS) are part of this development and have been

  12. Application and Development Trend of Wearable Devices Technology in Dairy Farming%可穿戴设备技术在奶牛养殖中的应用及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於少文; 孔繁涛; 张建华; 赵志强; 韩书庆; 刘佳佳

    2016-01-01

    奶牛生理监测是未来奶牛养殖产业化的发展方向,使传统奶牛模式转变为以信息网络为中心的精准管理模式.可穿戴设备技术可实时获取动物生命本体信息,应用于奶牛养殖中可有效监测奶牛身体健康指数和预防疾病疫病的发生,能较大幅度提高奶牛养殖的生产效率与经济效益.围绕可穿戴设备技术在奶牛生理信息监护中的应用,分别介绍了奶牛体温、活动量、心率、呼吸频率4个参数的检测方法,阐述了国内外奶牛可穿戴设备技术的研究现状及发展趋势,以期为可穿戴设备技术在畜牧养殖中的进一步应用与研究提供参考.%Cow physiology monitoring is a development direction for dairy industry,which will change the traditional dairy industry model to a precisive management which based on information network.Wearable device technology can obtain real-time animal ontology information,and effectively monitor cow health index and prevent disease occurance.It can also sharply increase productivity and economic benefits of dairy industry.This paper introduced the application of wearable devices in cow physiology monitoring,including body temperature,activity level,heart rate and breathing rate of cows.It also expounded the research situation and development trend of wearable devices technology for cows at home and abroad,so as to provide references for further application and research on wearable devices technology in animal husbandry.

  13. TRENDS AND PRIORITIES OF DAIRY CATTLE DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF REALIZATION OF THE IMPORT-SUBSTITUTION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemova E. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors reveal contemporary issues of dairy cattle breeding. These problems are cross-sectoral in nature and are caused by economic realities, related to the crisis, high production and financial risks, lack of financial resources and insufficient state support system. The article reveals the specifics of the dairy industry, including the uniqueness of the products, the rhythm of production and high dependence of the industry on the scale of production. The authors analyze the dynamics and structure of milk production in federal districts of the Russian Federation; assess the changes in the indices of dairy cattle breeding production on farms of all categories of the Russian Federation and calculate milk production efficiency in the agricultural enterprises of Krasnodar territory. The authors have found that the major milk producers in the Krasnodar region are agricultural organizations, but their share in the gross production of milk was constantly decreasing over the period of 1990-2014. The article proves the feasibility of improving the mechanisms of state support for the dairy industry, including assistance in the creation and development of consumer cooperatives that promote the growth of efficiency and competitiveness of dairy farming

  14. Dairy intensification in developing countries: effects of market quality on farm-level feeding and breeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, A J; Teufel, N; Mekonnen, K; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B

    2013-12-01

    Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of procurement channels and associated input supply arrangements. We took as our study countries, India with its well-developed smallholder dairy sector, and Ethiopia where the smallholder dairy industry has remained relatively undeveloped despite decades of development effort. We conducted village surveys among producer groups in 90 villages across three States in India and two Regions in Ethiopia. Producer groups were stratified according to three levels of market quality - high, medium and low. Data showed that diet composition was relatively similar in India and Ethiopia with crop residues forming the major share of the diet. Concentrate feeding tended to be more prominent in high market quality sites. Herd composition changed with market quality with more dairy (exotic) cross-bred animals in high market quality sites in both India and Ethiopia. Cross-bred animals were generally more prominent in India than Ethiopia. Herd performance within breed did not change a great deal along the market quality gradient. Parameters such as calving interval and milk yield were relatively insensitive to market quality. Insemination of cross-bred cows was predominantly by artificial insemination (AI) in India and accounted for around half of cross-bred cow inseminations in Ethiopia. Data on perceptions of change over the last decade indicated that per herd and per cow productivity are both increasing in high market quality sites with a more mixed picture in medium and low-quality sites. Similarly dairy

  15. Development of Genetic Evaluation on Dairy Cattle Based on Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Indrijani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to review the development of genetic evaluation on dairy cattle based on milk production, including recording system, mathematical model of the milk curve, genetic parameters, and genetic model for predicting breeding values. Test day is the best system to record milk yield as it can be used to predict lactation curve and genetic parameters. Ali-Schaeffer curve was the best curve to estimate milk yield (r > 0.99. Fixed and random regression models have been widely used to give more advantages in breeding program. The models are able to analyse the records measured at different stage of lactation, and to predict a total breeding value from incomplete and part records. For practically used, fixed regression model (MRT is suggested because it does not have numerical problem and is easier to be used.

  16. Dairy intake in relation to breast and pubertal development in Chilean girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Pereira, Ana; Quintiliano, Daiana; Shepherd, John A; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; Michels, Karin B

    2017-05-01

    Background: Frequent dairy consumption in childhood has been related to higher growth-hormone concentrations that may affect mammary gland and pubertal development.Objective: We evaluated the relation of dairy intake to breast composition at Tanner stage 4 and age at menarche.Design: A total of 515 Chilean girls are included in the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study. The subjects have been followed longitudinally since they were 3-4 y old (from 2006 to the present). Starting in 2013, diet was assessed every 6 mo via a 24-h recall. The breast fibroglandular volume (FGV) was measured with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at Tanner stage 4. The date of menarche was reported every 6 mo. Our analysis included 290 girls with data on prospective diet and breast composition and 324 girls with data on prospective diet and age at menarche.Results: The mean ± SD breast FGV and percentage of fibroglandular volume (%FGV) (i.e., FGV divided by total breast volume times 100) at Tanner stage 4 was 81.7 ± 32.2 cm(3) and 42.0% ± 16.7%, respectively. Only sweetened, artificially flavored milk-based drinks were associated with the %FGV with girls who consumed >125 g/d having a %FGV that was 4.5% (95% CI: 0.9%, 8.1%) higher than that of girls who consumed none (P-trend = 0.007). Yogurt intake was associated with a lower FGV. Specifically, girls who consumed >125 g yogurt/d had -10.2 cm(3) (95% CI: -20.2, -0.3 cm(3)) less FGV than did girls who consumed no yogurt (P-trend = 0.03). The majority (90.7%) of girls in our cohort attained menarche before the data analyses with a mean ± SD age at menarche of 11.9 ± 0.7 y. In multivariable models, low-fat dairy, low-fat milk, and yogurt intakes were associated with a later age at menarche. In particular, girls who consumed >125 g yogurt/d had menarche, on average, 4.6 mo (95% CI: 1.9, 7.4 mo) later than girls who consumed no yogurt (P-trend = 0.01).Conclusion: More-frequent consumption of sweetened, artificially-flavored milk

  17. Examination of the impact of animal and dairy science journals based on traditional and newly developed bibliometric indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesios, C; Abas, Z

    2012-12-01

    Using traditional bibliometric indices such as the well-known journal impact factor (IFAC), as well as other more recently developed measures like the (journal) h-index and modifications, we assessed the impact of most prolific scientific journals in the field of animal and dairy science. To achieve this end, we performed a detailed investigation on the evaluation of journals quality, using a total of 50 journals selected from the category of "Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science" included in the Thomson Reuters' (formerly Institute of Scientific Information, ISI) Web of Science. Our analysis showed that among the top journals in the field are the Journal of Dairy Research, the Journal of Dairy Science, and the Journal of Animal Science. In particular, the Journal of Animal Science, the most productive and frequently cited journal, has shown rapid development, especially in recent years. The majority of the top-tier, highly cited articles are those associated with the description of statistical methodology and the standard chemical analytical methodologies.

  18. Development of a Spectrophotometric Method for Monitoring Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Tomovska*, S. Presilski, N. Gjorgievski, N. Tomovska1, M. S. Qureshi2 and N. P. Bozinovska3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE regulates the levels of blood pressure through generation of angiotensin-II from angiotensin-I. It is of great importance to have a reliable and yet simple method for a quantitative determination ACE inhibitory peptides in whey of milk products. A rapid, simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric kinetic method has been developed for determination of ACE inhibitory peptides, using competitive inhibition. Samples of dairy product from the market were used for the determination of ACE inhibitory peptides in whey. Holmquist’s kinetic method was used for determining ACE inhibitory activity in blood serum and Ronca-Testoni method was used for the determination of ACE inhibitory activity in whey. Enzymatic inhibition activity was determined using 0.8 mmol/L FAPGG (N-[3-(Furyl –Acryloyl]-L-Phenylalanyl Glycyl Glycyne as the substrate in 50 mmol/L Tris buffer at pH 8.2 at 37°C and a standard serum containing ACE. First, a solution of whey was mixed in a 1 to 10 ratio with serum (elevation containing high ACE activity. The enzymatic activity was determined by monitoring the decrease in absorbance at 340 nm as result of hydrolysis of the substrate. The concentration of ACE inhibitory peptides was determined from a standard curve of inhibitor concentration versus percent of ACE inhibition. The study suggests that the method possesses good reproducibility and accuracy. The linear range enabled determination of high enzymatic activity of ACE and all ACE inhibitory peptides from dairy products act as competitive inhibitors.

  19. Study on Present Status and Development of Animal Husbandry in the Farming Region in Shigatse City%日喀则市农区畜牧业现状与发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普琼; 郝明德; 王缠军

    2011-01-01

    通过农户调查,并根据日喀则市1992-2009年的统计数据,对其农牧业结构及农区畜牧业现状进行分析,归纳了其主要存在如下问题:种植业结构不合理;畜群结构单一;加工体系薄弱等.针对这些间题,提出了调整措施:调整农业产业结构,即压缩粮食播种面积,增加饲料与经济作物种植面积;改进畜群结构,增加耗粮型牲畜数量;建立饲料和农畜产品加工体系;提高农机化程度,兴修水利设施.%According to the peasant household investigation and based on the statistical figures from 1992 to 2009 in Shigatse city, Agriculture-Stock structure and the situation of animal husbandry in the farming region were analyzed and several problems were found as follows: unreasonable planting structure; the single livestock structure and weak agricultural products processing system.In view of these problems, it put forward the following adjustment measures: adjusting agricultural structure, which means reducing the grain sowing area, and enhancing the planting area of feed and economic crops; improving the livestock structure, and increasing the number of grain consuming livestock; establishing processing system of feed and animal livestock products, improving agriculture mechanization degree and building water conservancy facilities.

  20. Analysis of development of basic characteristics of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kučerová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of changes in the development of basic characteristics of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic, which cohere with the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union. The attention is paid on size of the market, growth rate, life cycle, development of prices and development of foreign trade. The total domestic consumption reached 2111.1 million litres in 2004. The industry is in the maturity. The excess of supply exists in the industry; the growth rate is low, under 5% per year. The integration of the Czech Republic into the EU didn’t bring about changes in the development of basic characteristics – size of the market, growth rate, and life cycle. The volume of production changed. The total volume of purchase of raw milk for production went down by 1.4% to the value in 2000. And all prices in the product vertical – milk and milk products (prices of agricultural producers, production prices and consumer’s prices rose.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan of the FBE MUAF in Brno, No. MSM 6215648904.

  1. Influence of lactation on metabolic characteristics and embryo development in postpartum Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillo, V; Rizos, D; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Kelly, A K; Garrett, M; Lonergan, P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct effect of lactation on the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows to support early embryo development. Twenty-one primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Immediately after calving, half of the cows were dried off (i.e., never milked), and the other half entered the milking herd and were milked twice daily. Jugular blood samples were taken twice per week from 15 d before calving to approximately 100 d postpartum to measure nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. At the same time, body weight and body condition score were recorded for each cow. At approximately 60 d postpartum (experiment 1), approximately 65 two- to four-cell embryos, produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization, were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum of all cows on d 2 of the estrous cycle. Five days later (d 7), the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically and the number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded. At approximately 90 d postpartum (experiment 2), the estrous cycles of the same cows were resynchronized and 15 to 20 in vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to the uterus of each recipient on d 7. All cows were slaughtered on d 14 to assess embryo survival and dimensions. Body weight and body condition score were significantly different between groups for the entire postpartum period of the study. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were higher and concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I were lower in lactating compared with nonlactating cows. Embryo recovery rates from lactating and dry cows were similar. In experiment 1, fewer embryos developed to the blastocyst stage in the lactating cows compared with the nonlactating cows. In experiment 2, embryo survival and conceptus dimensions were not different between lactating and

  2. Development and validation of a bilingual questionnaire for measuring udder health related management practices on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Simon; Barkema, Herman W; DesCôteaux, Luc; DeVries, Trevor J; Dohoo, Ian R; Reyher, Kristen; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Scholl, Daniel T

    2010-06-01

    Questionnaires are frequently used instruments to collect data in epidemiological studies. In countries where more than one language is spoken, the development of a questionnaire in more than one language is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and test the repeatability and validity of English and French versions of a personal interview-format questionnaire designed to capture udder health related management practices used on dairy farms. A standardized protocol was used to develop and translate the research instrument. Equivalence of the English and French questionnaires was assessed using a cross-over study design with 24 bilingual dairy producers completing both versions on three different occasions in a randomly assigned sequence. Repeatability of the questionnaire was evaluated using the test-retest method with the same questions being asked on two different occasions to 88 dairy producers participating in the National Cohort of Dairy Farms of the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network. Validity of the questions related to milking procedures and general housing was assessed using on-farm observations as a gold standard. Measures of agreement were calculated using kappa, quadratic-weighted Kappa and concordance correlation coefficients for categorical, ordinal and continuous variables, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity estimates were computed for the validity analysis. The overall equivalence of the English and French versions of the questionnaire was adequate; agreement measures when administered twice in the same language were not significantly higher than when administered in each language. Similarly, questionnaire overall repeatability was good. When accounting for prevalence bias, Kappa and CCC estimates ranged from 0.40 to 0.92 for 27 of the 29 items evaluated in the questionnaire, with 18 items yielding agreement estimates greater than 0.60. Finally, milking procedures and general housing questions validity was excellent with

  3. Follicle growth, corpus luteum function and their effects on embryo development in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D C; Taylor, V J; Cheng, Z; Mann, G E

    2003-01-01

    Absent or irregular ovarian cycles in lactating dairy cows are caused by failure to ovulate the dominant follicle at the appropriate time. The follicle then either regresses or develops into a cyst. This process can be triggered by a variety of metabolic and disease factors that act at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to inhibit pulsatile LH secretion and the LH surge, and at the ovary to reduce follicular growth and oestradiol production. Cows of poor energy status have low circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Predisposing factors include calving difficulties, inappropriate diet, reduced intake of dry matter and a high rate of body condition score loss. Various stressors predispose the follicle to cyst development by inhibiting the LH surge and ovulation; these include common infections, such as mastitis. Even when ovulation does occur, poor follicular development may result in production of an inadequate corpus luteum. The timing of the increase in progesterone in the early luteal phase (days 4-5) appears to be a key determinant of fertility, probably because it alters the secretory activity of the reproductive tract, thus influencing embryonic growth and interferon-tau production. A period of negative energy balance after calving can reduce fertility even though metabolic parameters have apparently improved at the time of service.

  4. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available.

  5. Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sathiyabarathi; Jeyakumar, S.; Manimaran, A.; Jayaprakash, G.; Pushpadass, Heartwin A.; M. Sivaram; K. P. Ramesha; D.N. Das; Kataktalware, Mukund A.; M. Arul Prakash; R. Dhinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry INR 6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the...

  6. Biofiltration for Mitigation of Methane Emission from Animal Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Werf, van der A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Removal of methane from exhaust air of animal houses and manure storage has a large potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from animal husbandry. The aim of this study was to design a biofilter for methane removal at a full-scale livestock production facility. Air from the headspace

  7. Moral Values and Attitudes Toward Dutch Sow Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, T.J.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes toward sow husbandry differ between citizens and conventional pig farmers. Research showed that moral values could only predict the judgment of people in case of culling healthy animals in the course of a disease epidemic to a certain extent. Therefore, we hypothesized that attitudes of ci

  8. Biofiltration for Mitigation of Methane Emission from Animal Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Werf, van der A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Removal of methane from exhaust air of animal houses and manure storage has a large potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from animal husbandry. The aim of this study was to design a biofilter for methane removal at a full-scale livestock production facility. Air from the headspace

  9. Moral Values and Attitudes Toward Dutch Sow Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, T.J.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes toward sow husbandry differ between citizens and conventional pig farmers. Research showed that moral values could only predict the judgment of people in case of culling healthy animals in the course of a disease epidemic to a certain extent. Therefore, we hypothesized that attitudes of ci

  10. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method to monitor cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg(-1) and 0.96 µg L(-1) for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from dairy farms.

  11. Estimation of economic values for traits of dairy sheep: I. Model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Krupová, Z; Kica, J

    2009-05-01

    A bioeconomic model was developed to estimate effects of change in production and functional traits on profit of dairy or dual-purpose milked sheep under alternative management systems. The flock structure was described in terms of animal categories and probabilities of transitions among them, and a Markov chain approach was used to calculate the stationary state of the resultant ewe flock. The model included both deterministic and stochastic components. Performance for most traits was simulated as the population average, but variation in several traits was taken into account. Management options included lambing intervals, mating system, and culling strategy for ewes, weaning and marketing strategy for progeny, and feeding system. The present value of profit computed as the difference between total revenues and total costs per ewe per year, both discounted to the birth date of the animals, was used as the criterion for economic efficiency of the production system in the stationary state. Economic values (change in system profit per unit change in the trait) of up to 35 milk production, growth, carcass, wool, and functional traits may be estimated.

  12. Constraint analysis to improve integrated dairy production systems in developing countries: the importance of participatory rural appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2007-12-01

    The paper describes the rationale and importance of the approaches and methodologies of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to enable constraint analysis, to understand the complexities of farming systems and to improve integrated dairy productivity. Implicit in this objective is Farming Systems Research (FSR), which focused on cropping systems in the 1970's, with the subsequent addition of animal components. The methodology for FSR involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and characterization (diagnosis), planning of on-farm research, on-farm testing and validation of alternatives, diffusion of results, and impact assessment. PRA is the development of FSR, which involves the active participation of farmers to identify constraints and plan appropriate solutions. In the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), the approach was adapted to 10 different country situations and led to Economic Opportunity Surveys (EOS) and Diagnostic Surveillance Studies (DSS), allowing the planning and implantation of integrated interventions to improve dairy productivity.

  13. Development and application of a method for Cr(III) determination in dairy products by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Fanny; Jitaru, Petru; Cormant, Florence; Noël, Laurent; Guérin, Thierry

    2018-02-01

    This study describes the development of an analytical approach for the determination of Cr(III) in dairy products by microwave assisted extraction, complexation in situ by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The extraction step was optimised by using an experimental design. A limit of quantification of 38µgkg(-1)dry weight (d.w.) was obtained whereas the bias (%) measured ranged from 10 to 18%. The repeatability and intermediate precision varied between 1.2-5.0% and 7.5-13.5%, respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of several dairy samples beforehand characterized in terms of Cr(VI) and total chromium (Crtotal). Cr(III) concentrations ranged from <13 to 255µgkg(-1)d.w. The results showed a good agreement between Cr(III) and Crtotal concentration levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review article was to summarize the most recent clinical field trials that have been published evaluating the use of different types of vaccines against mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Mastitis is one of the most common and economically important diseases in dairy cows in the world. The disease is considered an important welfare issue facing the dairy industry in addition to the loss of production and premature removal or death of affected cows. Losses are also related to high cost of veterinary medicines and the cost of unsalable milk of treated cows. Mastitis can be caused by either contagious or environmental pathogens both of which are best prevented rather than treated. In addition to the application of best management practices in the parlor during milking, vaccination against common udder pathogens is widely practiced in many dairy farms to prevent or reduce the severity of clinical mastitis. In this review, the most recent clinical field studies that evaluated the use of different types of vaccines in dairy cows are summarized.

  15. Development of claw traits and claw lesions in dairy cows kept on different floor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, J G C J; Schouten, W G P; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M

    2005-01-01

    Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a straw yard (SY). Twenty cows per farm were selected and stratified by parity. Information on claw traits was recorded on right lateral hind claws between October 2002 and May 2003. In addition, lesion development of interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion (IDHE) and digital dermatitis (DD) was studied in both rear feet. No differences in claw traits were detected among groups on different floor types, with the exception of claw angle. Claw angles were smallest in cows on SY. Claws of cows on SC were steeper than those on SL and GR. The study provided no evidence that floor-related differences in claw lesions were related to differences in horn growth, wear, and resulting claw shape. Lesions of IDHE developed gradually over time and did not differ among flooring types. Cows in SY had the smallest lesion scores for DD, whereas cows on SL had significantly less DD than cows on SC and GR. Incidence of DD fluctuated over time. Development of different stages of DD was monitored in-depth. Both early and healed stages were rather changeable and often turned into other disease stages. Classical ulcerative lesions (stage M2) persisted for a long time, with 20% of the initially unaffected claws having active lesions of DD within 5 mo. The M2 lesions generally did not cure effectively after claw trimming, and frequent use of footbaths resulted in a poor prognosis for recovery.

  16. Reduced Medication in Organic Farming with Emphasis on Organic Dairy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennedsgaard Torben W

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Medication is an important focus area in organic animal husbandry. The combination of goals relating to improved animal welfare and reduced use of chemicals in general creates a common wish to reduce medication. Based on data from current Danish research projects in organic dairy farming, one specific organic medication pattern or policy cannot be described. The disease treatment pattern is influenced by many factors, e.g. the interaction with colleagues, veterinarians and agricultural advisors. No significant difference could be found with regard to incidence of mastitis treatments or somatic cell counts in 27 organic and 57 conventional herds. A marked tendency to shorter treatment periods in relation to mastitis treatments was described for organic farms in comparison with conventional farms (1.9 days versus 3.2 days (5 organic and 7 conventional herds. In a study of development of health advisory service in organic herds, the dialogue between farmer, veterinarian and agricultural cattle advisor changed the treatment pattern markedly during a period of 6 months. Among important future challenges for veterinarians in organic farming is pointed at the constructive, open, and critical interaction with the single organic farmer as well as the organic animal husbandry system in general.

  17. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method to monitor cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    Full Text Available Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg(-1 and 0.96 µg L(-1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%. Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg(-1 of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L(-1. Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03. Peak excretion (2.69 mg was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03. The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from

  18. 东北地区畜牧结构历史变迁研究%Researchon the Historical Changes of Animal Husbandry Structure in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦珂; 曹幸穗

    2012-01-01

    东北地区畜牧业的发展,大致经历了四个阶段:原始畜牧业阶段(石器时代),猪、狗、马、牛的驯化递次发生;游牧畜牧业阶段(青铜时代——铁器时代),东北草原地区的主要牧畜是马、牛、羊;定牧畜牧业阶段(铁器时代),羊的饲养跃居首位,牛、马饲养退居其次;定居家畜业阶段(机器时代),畜种布局渐呈区域化、多元化态势。影响东北地区畜牧结构的因素有:环境变迁和生态适应,畜牧政策和饲养技术,文化习俗和饮食习惯,经济交流和市场影响。%The development of animal husbandry in Northeast region has generally thought as four stages: primitive animal husbandry (Stone Age), pig, dog, horse and cattle' s do- mestication happened in turn; nomadic animal husbandry (Bronze Age -Iron Age), main livestock breeding including horse, cattle and sheep happened in the Grassland of Northeast region; animal husbandry (Iron Age), sheep ranking top, cattle and horse breeding second; sedentary animal husbandry (Machine Times), the breeding layout gradually showing re- gional and diversifying situation. The influential factors to the animal husbandry structure in Northeast region are: environmental change and ecological adaptation, animal husbandry policy and feeding technology, cultural and eating habits, economic exchange and market influence.

  19. Trends in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya Kumar, Bathal; Vijayendra, Sistla Venkata Naga; Reddy, Obulam Vijaya Sarathi

    2015-01-01

    Health awareness has grown to a greater extent among consumers and they are looking for healthy probiotic counterparts. Keeping in this view, the present review focuses recent developments in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products. All over the world, dairy probiotics are being commercialized in many different forms. However, the allergy and lactose intolerance are the major set-backs to dairy probiotics. Whereas, flavor and refreshing nature are the major advantages of non-dairy drinks, espe...

  20. Development of Claw Traits and Claw Lesions in Dairy Cows kept on different floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a str

  1. Development and application of a multi-attribute sustainability function for Dutch dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Romero, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability in dairy farming is determined by using aspects (economic, social and ecological). Per aspect a number of measurable attributes is selected. Difficulty for determining the sustainability of farming systems is the combination of the different attribute measures into a sustainability

  2. Development and application of a multi-attribute sustainability function for Dutch dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Romero, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability in dairy farming is determined by using aspects (economic, social and ecological). Per aspect a number of measurable attributes is selected. Difficulty for determining the sustainability of farming systems is the combination of the different attribute measures into a sustainability fu

  3. A global survey of banteng (Bos javanicus) housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden, Lewis J; Rose, Paul E

    2016-11-01

    Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their elevated conservation status, and established, increasing global captive population, zoos do not yet have information on optimal husbandry. To help address this problem, a husbandry survey was distributed to all global holders of banteng. Questions focused on herd demographic structure, exhibit features (including mixed-species exhibition), dietary provision, and behavioral management. Completed surveys from 16 zoos enabled analysis of contemporary practice between institutions. Results indicate differences in enclosure size between zoos, and that herd size is unlikely to predict enclosure size. Herd sizes are smaller than wild examples, and enclosure space (per animal) is significantly smaller than a potential wild range. Banteng are frequently maintained successfully in mixed species exhibits alongside a wide range of other taxa. Nutrient analysis focused on fiber and protein, and although provision of these nutrients appears comparable between zoos, more work is needed on browse and forage intake to determine overall diet suitability. Behavior management shows variation between zoos, with numerous collections providing browse but only a minority undertaking training, and not all providing enrichment. The overall diversity in findings between zoos suggest future research areas that should focus on key aspects of behavioral ecology, such as wild foraging behavior, food plant selection and day/night activity patterns, which may help underpin husbandry guidelines and excellent animal welfare. Zoo Biol. 35:546-555, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Determination of Sugars in Dairy Products: Development of a New Standard Method for the International Dairy Federation and the Internal Organization for Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Peter; Ernste-Nota, Veronica; Visser, Klaas; van Soest, Jeroen; Brunt, Kommer

    2017-09-01

    A method using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with a pulsed amperometric detector (PAD) for the determination of mono- and disaccharides is described. The method was accepted by the International Dairy Federation and the Internal Organization for Standardization as a new work item for the determination of sugars in dairy matrixes, and the Milk and Milk Products technical committee of ISO/TC 34/SC 5 accepted the topic "Milk and milk products - Determination of the sugar contents - High-performance anion-exchange chromatographic method (HPAEC-PAD)" as a new work item. The proposed method consists of an aqueous ethanol extraction of the sugars in the dairy sample, followed by clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. The clarified filtrate is diluted and then directly introduced in the HPAEC-PAD system for quantification of the sugars. A single-laboratory validation of the proposed method has been scheduled for spring 2017.

  5. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers.

  6. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  7. Using Delphi Surveying Techniques to Gather Input from Non-Academics for Development of a Modern Dairy Manufacturing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Helen S.; Smith, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The current face of the dairy manufacturing industry has changed from its traditional conception. Industry emphasis is moving away from traditional dairy products, such as fluid milk, ice cream, and butter, and moving toward yogurts, dairy beverages, and value-added products incorporating ingredients derived from milk and whey. However, many…

  8. The development of a model for the prediction of feed intake and energy partitioning in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing the supply of on-farm grown forages with the production targets of the dairy herd is a crucial aspect of the management of a dairy farm. Models which provides a rapid insight of the impact of the ration, feed quality and feeding management on feed intake and performance of dairy cows are

  9. Effect of selenium on the development of selected indicators of fertility in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balicka-Ramisz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine selenium (Se concentration in the blood serum of dairy cows and to establish its influence on the level of production and reproduction traits. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on the farm located in Western Pomerania - Poland and involved 120 cows, which were selected using the analog method on the basis of their physiological state, lactation number, milk yield, age, and genotype. The following indices were analyzed in individual groups: Calving interval, gestation interval, insemination index, standstill of placenta. Se concentration in the blood serum was determined with the spectrofluorometric method. Results: The mean serum Se concentration was in cows 0.038 μg/ml. The use of Se preparations has raised fertility, which was documented statistically. Conclusion: The study revealed that the problem of Se deficiency is still present in some dairy cattle herds in Western Pomerania - Poland.

  10. Planning Change of the Type of Economic Development of Enterprises of the Dairy Industry with Consideration of Influence of the Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulynych Yuriy M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies a necessity of transition of dairy industry enterprises to the intensive type of economic development. It offers a mathematical model of transition to the intensive type of development. The model is build on the basis of the well-known methods. The author offers two variants of formation of the intensive type of development during the period of planning. Pursuant to the first variant, it is planned to increase expenditures of an enterprise during the period of planning, pursuant to the second – to reduce expenditures of the period of planning compared to the basic one. The author considers and analyses the essence of the innovation strategy of dairy enterprises and offers a model of formation of such a strategy at an enterprise. The article considers main problems that suppress investment activity in the country. The author focuses, in particular, on the following: inconsistent investment policy of the state in the food sphere, poorly developed innovation infrastructure, monopoly of reporcessors in the dairy products markets and low level of profitability of dairy enterprises. In conclusion the author offers measures on formation of investment attractiveness of the dairy industry.

  11. Evidence of Sperm Storage in Nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellaris, Linnaeus 1758: Juveniles Husbandry and Tagging Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Micarelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758, is a shark of the Scyliorhinidae family, close to the Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758, frequently hosted in public aquaria. Information on biology and ecology is deficiently available regarding this species of sharks. In the Mediterranean basin, they are occasional rare and vulnerable species (Serena, 2005. In 2003 a female specimen of Scyliorhinus stellaris, 90 cm long, fished in the Tyrrhenian Sea was transferred to Tuscany Argentario Mediterranean Aquarium and placed in a 20.000 L tank. The female laid 42 eggs and juveniles were born on 2004 and 2005. They were transferred to the aquarium laboratory in order to get standard protocol for correct juveniles husbandry. After a total of 18-month observations, some of them were tagged and let free on 2006. To collect data about nursehound shark needs in terms of feeding and growing in captivity, especially during the first life years, is a necessary and fundamental step in order to develop a Mediterranean program of tagging and study in the field of conservation policy proposal. Husbandry protocol for this species’ juveniles was developed in this study. This is the first reported case of a nursehound storing sperm for 2 years, in captivity (Pratt, 1993; Hamlett et al., 2002; Awruch, 2007.

  12. Development and application of a processing model for the Irish dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, U; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Garrick, D J; Shalloo, L

    2010-11-01

    A processing-sector model was developed that simulates (i) milk collection, (ii) standardization, and (iii) product manufacture. The model estimates the product yield, net milk value, and component values of milk based on milk quantity, composition, product portfolio, and product values. Product specifications of cheese, butter, skim and whole milk powders, liquid milk, and casein are met through milk separation followed by reconstitution in appropriate proportions. Excess cream or skim milk are used in other product manufacture. Volume-related costs, including milk collection, standardization, and processing costs, and product-related costs, including processing costs per tonne, packaging, storage, distribution, and marketing, are quantified. Operating costs, incurred irrespective of milk received and processing activities, are included in the model on a fixed-rate basis. The net milk value is estimated as sale value less total costs. The component values of fat and protein were estimated from net milk value using the marginal rate of technical substitution. Two product portfolio scenarios were examined: scenario 1 was representative of the Irish product mix in 2000, in which 27, 39, 13, and 21% of the milk pool was processed into cheese (€ 3,291.33/t), butter (€ 2,766.33/t), whole milk powder (€ 2,453.33/t), and skim milk powder (€ 2,017.00/t), respectively, and scenario 2 was representative of the 2008 product mix, in which 43, 30, 14, and 13% was processed into cheese, butter, whole milk powder, and skim milk powder, respectively, and sold at the same market prices. Within both scenarios 3 milk compositions were considered, which were representative of (i) typical Irish Holstein-Friesian, (ii) Jersey, and (iii) the New Zealand strain of Holstein-Friesian, each of which had differing milk constituents. The effect each milk composition had on product yield, processing costs, total revenue, component values of milk, and the net value of milk was examined

  13. An improved data base for the description of dairy cows in the German agricultural emission model GAS-EM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus;

    2010-01-01

    The application of the previously published detailed model describing dairy cow husbandry in the German agricultural emission model requires an extended and improved data base. This concerns animal weights, weight gains, regional feed regimes, feeding requirements and feed properties as well as a...

  14. An improved data base for the description of dairy cows in the German agricultural emission model GAS-EM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The application of the previously published detailed model describing dairy cow husbandry in the German agricultural emission model requires an extended and improved data base. This concerns animal weights, weight gains, regional feed regimes, feeding requirements and feed properties as well...... of animal performance. The knowledge of hitherto unpublished data allows for a recalculation and revaluation of nitrogen excretions and ammonia emission factors....

  15. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, HuaiDong; Li, Ming; Hao, Lazhu; Ge, Maoyue

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating...

  16. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  17. THE DIFFICULTY LEVEL OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN THE DAIRY INDUSTRY OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubilene Ramos de Araújo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates the degree of difficulty (and their nature to perform the steps of the news products development process (PDP in the dairy industry of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. A descriptive/ quantitative survey was performed with decision makers from 68 dairy processing industries in the state of Rio Grande do Sul which are under federal or state sanitary supervision. Considering all steps of PDP, about 40% of the problems were related with management issues against 20% with financial, 20% commercial and 20% of a technological nature. In particular, the steps of the PDP in which the decision makers of the companies surveyed have more difficult were related to “testing of prototypes – exploring new ingredients and packages”, “the definition of suppliers” in the development phase, and the “study of shopping behavior and consumers attitudes”, after launching the new product. These difficulties may be related to a change in the profile of the innovations developed in this sector, with a lower dependence on suppliers and a greater appropriability concern – which requires greater technical skills and a more aligned vision among “production” and “management” staff.

  18. The challenge and developing strategy of dairy industry in Ningxia%宁夏奶产业面临的挑战与发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温万; 王瑜; 邵怀峰

    2013-01-01

    宁夏奶产业发展面临奶牛饲养管理有待规范、奶业科技水平仍然较低、资源与环境约束日益增大、生鲜乳价格形成机制不合理、生鲜乳质量监管体系不完善和动物疾(疫)病防控形势严峻等因素的挑战。为持续推进奶产业发展需加快奶牛养殖模式创新,推进奶产业集约化发展;强化科技支撑,促进奶产业升级;加强饲草料生产基地建设,保障奶牛高产饲料供给;创建区域性奶业联合会,提高奶产业组织化程度;强化生鲜乳质量安全监管,确保生鲜乳市场安全;完善疫病监控和防疫体系,保障奶产业安全发展。%Various factors challenge the dairy industry in Ningxia, involving the feeding management of dairy cows to be regulated, restriction on resource and environment increasing greatly, unreasonable pricing system on fresh milk, quality regulation to be imperfect and animal disease (epidemic) to be severe. In order to ensure the sustained development on dairy industry of Ningxia, Farming form should be innovated to promote the intensive development of dairy industry; Science and technology support should be strengthened to update dairy industry; the construction of production base on forage should be consolidated to ensure the supply of high yield of forage for dairy cows; Regional unity of dairy industry should be developed to increase the systematization of dairy industry; Quality management on fresh milk should be enhanced to ensure the security of fresh milk market; the system of disease and epidemic prevention should be improved to ensure the safe development of dairy industry.

  19. Occurrence of Antibiotics and Emerging Contaminants in Dairy Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of a variety of emerging contaminants including pathogens, naturally occurring and synthetic steroid hormones, and various pharmaceuticals, particularly antibiotics. For example, more than twenty million pounds of antibiotics are sold for use in animal husbandry with 95% going towards therapeutic use. Here, we focus on the application and potential environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals and disinfectants on dairies. Recommended drug applications are available from national databases. Statistical data on actual usage, however, are not available. We complement national data with interviews and dairy visits for further evaluation of drug and chemical usage (not including pesticides used on crops and fertilizer) and an overall assessment of the potential antibiotics output in dairy waste. We find that aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and coccidiostats make up much of the total mass of antibiotics used. On dairies using the ionophoric antibiotic monensin as feed additive, monensin makes up a large fraction of the total antibiotics use (by mass). Other chemicals of potential concern include disinfectants used to prevent mastitis, detergents used in the milking parlor, footbath reagents to prevent and treat lameness, and insecticides used to control flies and mites.

  20. Functional dairy products and its development way%功能性乳制品及其相关开发途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宁

    2012-01-01

    功能性乳制品是日益苛求食品安全的人们对营养品的自然追求,其需求量必将随着人们生活水平的提高而逐渐增加.西方发达国家早已青睐功能性乳制品的开发,并着手加以研究并得以快速的发展,但中国无疑尚处在开发的初始期.文章对什么是“功能性乳制品”进行界定,对其概念做出科学的诠释,探讨开发功能性乳制品的基本途径,研究功能性乳制品的生产现状和它生产的主要产品及开发中所存在的一些问题,对功能性乳制品发展的前景做出展望.%Functional dairy products are increasingly demanding food safety people on nutrition natural pursuit, its demand is bound with the improvement of people's living standard gradually increased. Western developed countries have already favored functional dairy products development. and proceed to study and to rapid development, but our country is still in the development initial period undoubtedly. The article will functional dairy products definition, the concept of making scientific interpretation, discuss the development of functional dairy products the basic approach of functional dairy products,production status and its production of main products and same problems in the exploitation of functional dairy products, and the future development.

  1. Entrepreneurship of Dutch dairy farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several developments in the Netherlands as well as in the other countries within the EU are forcing dairy farmers to reconsider their involvement in dairy production. Farmers are being called to account more for the entrepreneurial element of their farming behaviour. Up till now it was unclear how d

  2. Dairy cluster design for Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, J.; Lee, van der J.

    2015-01-01

    At the request of the Dutch and Myanmar governments, a project team consisting of researchers from Wageningen University & Research centre and experts from dairy processor Royal FrieslandCampina, feed company Royal De Heus and AgriWorks consultancy have developed a design for a dairy cluster in Myan

  3. Scrutiny of brand social identity perspective and its effect in brand loyalty development (case of study: Kaleh Dairy Products Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Dehdashti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, discussion and investigation on the subject of brand has found especial place in science and trade. Many of researchers and managers have conclude that certainly, brand and branding science are the worthiest asset of a company necessary for improvement of marketing process. Yet, brand identity which is an intra-organizational factor and one of the most important discussing subjects of marketing and brand has been considered in a few studies. Therefore, this study with the purpose of studying the impact of brand identity on brand loyalty development has been conducted in the food industry and as a sample in a dairy company. For this purpose, Kaleh brand as a representative of the Kaleh Dairy Company as a well known brand in Iran is selected for study. Statistical population includes all customers of the company in Tehran metropolitan and 475 customers have been chosen as the sample of research. This study is typically survey based in which, a questionnaire is developed for data collection. In order to examine the proposed model, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA techniques have been utilized. According to the findings, the impact of brand identity on brand loyalty in the selected company of the food industry is confirmed. In addition, findings indicate that the brand with strong identity is the origin of forming long term relationships between customer and company, which in turn leads to customer loyalty.

  4. The environmental impact of the animal husbandry buildings (B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÎRBU Marcela

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Microclimates parameters can be conducted by endowment with proper equipments and installations thatinside space is to satisfy animal’s biological needs, sometimes on economic ways. The aggressive environmentsfrom husbandry buildings react on building materials. The concrete is recommended to avoid cracking ofconcrete using the corrosion resistant iron like reinforcement. The brickwork - The non-corrodibility can beimproved with petroleum impregnation, bitumen or tar coal, obtaining black bricks resistant to acids and bases.The wood - The fungi constituted the most dangerous wood degradation agents, as much through the rottennesseffect as through attack quick extension. The fungi grow on wood in high humidity conditions from husbandryconstructions.

  5. 毛泽东畜牧业思想述论%Discussing the Thoughts of Mao Zedongˊs Animal Husbandry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周有健

    2015-01-01

    Upbringing in peasantˊs family,learning from marxist theory of animal husbandry and concerning on the peopleˊs livelihood decided Mao Zedongˊs animal husbandry. The main content Mao Zedongˊs thought of animal hus-bandry included the union of farming,forestry,animal husbandry,peopleˊs meat,foreign exchange-earning,pigs as a center and comprehensive development of animal husbandry. In the practice of building the characteristics of Chi-na socialist,reflecting the animal husbandry thoughts of Mao Zedong requires us to treat complex and center theory carefully,the integrated and coordinated efforts of all works.%出生农家成长经历、自觉地汲取马克思主义畜牧业理论和对民生的关注凝铸成毛泽东在革命战争年代和社会主义革命、建设时期一贯重视畜牧业的情结。强调农、林、牧相结合以及基于养猪对积肥、百姓肉食、出口创汇等作用的思考提出的以养猪为中心,全面发展畜牧业的主张是毛泽东畜牧业思想的具体外显。在建设中国特色社会主义新时期,反思毛泽东畜牧业思想要求谨慎对待情结和中心论,统筹协调抓好各项工作。

  6. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where...

  7. The Tanga Dairy Platform: Fostering Innovations for more Efficient Dairy Chain Coordination in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Joseph Cadilhon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Tanga Dairy Platform, created in 2008, is an informal forum of different stakeholders involved in the dairy industry of Tanzania’s Northeastern Tanga region. The platform’s objective is to exchange knowledge and develop joint actions to common problems. Six years on, it is a sustainable example of a commodity association addressing the joint problems of the region’s dairy industry. The platform has achieved a common understanding among chain actors on dairy price structure; it has successfully lobbied policy makers to reduce value-added tax on dairy inputs and products, and to remove limitations on urban dairy farming in Tanga city.

  8. 添加型功能性乳制品的开发现状与前景%The Development Situation and Prospects of Additive Functional Dairy Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕊蕊; 符恒; 刘永峰

    2014-01-01

    随着我国人民生活水平的提高,功能性乳制品的需求量逐渐增加。西方国家对功能性乳制品早已有所开发,并使其迅猛发展,而我国正处于开发研究阶段。本文对维生素/矿物质乳制品、膳食纤维乳制品、天然植物型乳制品、添加蛋白质和氨基酸类乳制品等添加型功能性乳制品的开发现状进行了介绍,分别论述了这些不同类型乳制品的特性和功效,并对其发展前景进行了分析。%As the development of people’s life,the need of additive functional dairy products is increasing. Our country are in the state of development while the research by western countries had developed deeply. In this paper,the development status of additive functional dairy products in China were introduced,such as vitamin/mineral substance dairy products,dairy products with dietary ifber,natural plant type of dairy products,The characteristics of those dif erent types of dairy products and efifcacy were discussed respectively,and the problems and trends were summarized.

  9. Scrutiny of brand social identity perspective and its effect in brand loyalty development (case of study: Kaleh Dairy Products Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre shahrokh dehdashti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, discussion and scrutiny about brand has found especial place in science and university assembly and place in a realm of trade too. Many of searchers and companies managers has conclude that certainly, brand and branding science is worthest asset for a company for improvement of marketing process. Yet, brand identity which is an intra-organizational factor and one of the most important discussions on marketing and brand is considered in a few studies. On this basis, present study with the purpose of studying the impact of brand identity impact on brand loyalty development is conducted in food industry (dairy products. In present study, Kaleh brand (Kaleh Dairy Products Company as a well – recognized brand in Iran is selected for studying. All customers of the company in Tehran Metropolitan are selected as research statistical population and a sample of 475 customers was chosen. This is a survey – type research in which questionnaire is used to collect data. To analyze and confirm model, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA techniques are utilized. According to research findings, the impact of brand identity on brand loyalty in food industry was confirmed. Brand with strong identity is the origin of forming long term relationships between customer and company, and it is result will be loyalty.

  10. Development of ruminal and fecal microbiomes are affected by weaning but not weaning strategy in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jade Meale

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of weaning, considered the most stressful and significant transition experienced by dairy calves, influences the ability of a calf to adapt to the dramatic dietary shift and thus, can influence the severity of production losses through the weaning transition. However, the effects of various feeding strategies on the development of rumen or fecal microbiota across weaning are yet to be examined. Here we characterized the pre- and post-weaning ruminal and fecal microbiomes of Holstein dairy calves exposed to two different weaning strategies, gradual (step-down or abrupt. We describe the shifts towards a mature ruminant state, a transition which is hastened by the introduction of the solid feeds initiating ruminal fermentation. Additionally, we discuss the predicted functional roles of these communities, which also appear to represent that of the mature gastrointestinal system prior to weaning, suggesting functional maturity. This assumed state of readiness also appeared to negate the effects of weaning strategy on ruminal and fecal microbiomes and therefore, we conclude that the shift in gastrointestinal microbiota may not account for the declines in gain and intakes observed in calves during an abrupt weaning.

  11. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo O

    2012-09-20

    Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM) animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and dystocia, resulting in a lower robustness. Their feed intake capacity is reduced, necessitating a diet with a greater nutrient density. The modified myofiber type is responsible for a lower capillary density, and it induces a more glycolytic metabolism. There are associated changes for the living animal and post-mortem metabolism alterations, requiring appropriate slaughter conditions to maintain a high meat quality. Intramuscular fat content is low, and it is characterized by more unsaturated fatty acids, providing healthier meat for the consumer. It may not always be easy to find a balance between the different disciplines underlying the livestock husbandry of DM animals to realize a good performance and health and meat quality.

  12. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo O. Fiems

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and dystocia, resulting in a lower robustness. Their feed intake capacity is reduced, necessitating a diet with a greater nutrient density. The modified myofiber type is responsible for a lower capillary density, and it induces a more glycolytic metabolism. There are associated changes for the living animal and post-mortem metabolism alterations, requiring appropriate slaughter conditions to maintain a high meat quality. Intramuscular fat content is low, and it is characterized by more unsaturated fatty acids, providing healthier meat for the consumer. It may not always be easy to find a balance between the different disciplines underlying the livestock husbandry of DM animals to realize a good performance and health and meat quality.

  13. The contribution of dairying to household welfare of the small commercial dairy keepers in Khartoum north province (KNP, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elniema Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 53 small livestock commercial producers of which 32 were in Silate, 9 in Kadaro and 12 in Halfaya divisions were randomly selected and interviewed using structured questionnaire. Following this, 9 small commercial households, 3 of each division were selected based on milk production activity. The aim of the research was to study, quantify the socio-economic aspects and to develop recommendations for future research and development of the small commercial households in the peri–urban region of KNP. The study revealed that livestock production especially dairying was ranked first (75.6% as the most important source of household income in the study area. Income from livestock was used on the farm needs, family needs, house construction, investment and stock replacement. The majority of farmers (71.7% sold their products at the farm gate homestead or neighbourhood (0-15 km, while 28.3 % at markets far from their location (16 - < 25 km. On average, Silate and Kadaro households earned 214.7 Sudanese Pound (SDG and 322.5 SDG a year per cow, respectively. In terms of economic profitability, both Silate and Kadaro households engaged in livestock production earned a profit. High variability between the three divisions was observed due to loses of money e.g. Halfaya (-118.6 SDG. It could be concluded that under the current husbandry practices, the contribution of livestock to small commercial farmers in KNP was satisfactory but does not fulfil farmers’ goals.

  14. Metabolic responses and "omics" technologies for elucidating the effects of heat stress in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zhao, Shengguo; Tian, He; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Yang, Hongjian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-11-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects various industries that rely on animal husbandry, particularly the dairy industry. A better understanding of metabolic responses in HS dairy cows is necessary to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of HS and offer a new perspective for future research. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of responses of body metabolism (lipid, carbohydrate, and protein), endocrine profiles, and bovine mammary epithelial cells during HS. Furthermore, we summarize the metabolomics and proteomics data that have revealed the metabolite profiles and differentially expressed proteins that are a feature of HS in dairy cows. Analysis of metabolic changes and "omics" data demonstrated that HS is characterized by reduced lipolysis, increased glycolysis, and catabolism of amino acids in dairy cows. Here, analysis of the impairment of immune function during HS and of the inflammation that arises after long-term HS might suggest new strategies to ameliorate the effects of HS in dairy production.

  15. A comprehensive dairy valorization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, A; Cruijssen, F; van der Vorst, J G A J; Claassen, G D H; Kampman, J L

    2013-02-01

    Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensive dairy valorization model that serves as a decision support tool for mid-term allocation of raw milk to end products and production planning. The developed model was used to identify the optimal product portfolio composition. The model allocates raw milk to the most profitable dairy products while accounting for important constraints (i.e., recipes, composition variations, dairy production interdependencies, seasonality, demand, supply, capacities, and transportation flows). The inclusion of all relevant constraints and the ease of understanding dairy production dynamics make the model comprehensive. The developed model was tested at the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina (Amersfoort, the Netherlands). The structure of the model and its output were discussed in multiple sessions with and approved by relevant FrieslandCampina employees. The elements included in the model were considered necessary to optimally valorize raw milk. To illustrate the comprehensiveness and functionality of the model, we analyzed the effect of seasonality on milk valorization. A large difference in profit and a shift in the allocation of milk showed that seasonality has a considerable impact on the valorization of raw milk.

  16. Development and Diversity of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc Bacteriophages in Dairies Using Undefined Mesophilic DL-Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammed, Musemma Kedir

    complete loss of fermentation. Dairy phages have for long time been studied using traditional culture-dependent methods but not using metagenomic approaches. Part of this project was devoted to develop a method for dairy metavirome extraction and analysis. Several whey mixtures derived by defined...... mesophilic starters through induction of whole cultures. Results obtained from metavirome analysis presented evidence that the Lc. lactis P335 group of phages were the most frequently induced. Other Lc. lactis phages such as 936, 949, 1706, c2 and Leuconostoc phages were also detected in the cultures...

  17. 42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care... SYSTEM § 9.6 Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia. (a) What are the... chimpanzees can be trained through positive reinforcement to cooperate with a variety of veterinary...

  18. Precision of test methods : determination of repeatability and reproducibility by inter-laboratory tests : application in development and assessment of dairy methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werdmuller, G.A.; Ruig, de W.G.

    1983-01-01

    The International Standard ISO 5725 is sometimes considered to be too extended for practical use in the development and assessment of dairy methodology. Therefore the Joint IDF/ISO/AOAC Group of Experts E 30 Statistics of analytical data - decided upon a simplified description, based on ISO 5725, to

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated at Calving from the Uterus, Vagina, Vulva, and Rectoanal Junction of a Dairy Cow That Later Developed Metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Soo Jin; Cunha, Federico; Ginn, Amber; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey; Galvão, Klibs N

    2017-03-16

    Escherichia coli is involved in the pathogenicity of metritis in cows. We report here the genome sequences of E. coli strains isolated at calving from the uterus, vagina, vulva, and rectoanal junction of a dairy cow that later developed metritis. The genomic similarities will give an insight into phylogenetic relationships among strains. Copyright © 2017 Jeon et al.

  20. Women perspective in the future of Sami reindeer husbandry (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Joks

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Women's traditional tasks are invisible in the official image of reindeer husbandry. The reindeer husbandry nowadays is represented as a meat producer, and the official documents are focused on the work with the reindeer herd. Traditionally, work with the herd and slaughtering belonged to men. In focusing only on certain tasks in the total industry, a lot of other important and necessary work will remain invisibly. A myth that reindeer husbandry is only for men arises easily, too. Bureaucrats, researchers and others who participate in the official debates on reindeer husbandry strengthen this myth. Since women and their tasks are not much visible in the official view of reindeer husbandry, they are indirectly defined outside the reindeer keeping and its activities. However, reindeer husbandry is more manifold than the official documents are presenting. Women's invisibility in the official image of reindeer husbandry strengthens further since only 17% of the production units are registered on women. Though the Reindeer-Management Act of 1996 was changed in the way that spouses together can be owners of a production unit, most men are still registered as leaders of the units. As a main rule, unmarried women and women who are married with men without production units have their herd under their father's or brother's unit. Thus, most women are formally under the leadership of men. Women's legal position is therefore weak since the rights of reindeer husbandry today are connected closely to the production unit. In leaving out important tasks and to describe reindeer husbandry as a work for only men can give a wrong image of reindeer husbandry and this false impression is strengthened when often repeated.

  1. Invited review : Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-01-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. A

  2. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy farms in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahmsén, Markus; Persson, Ylva; Kanyima, Benon Mbabazi; Båge, Renée

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an extensive problem in the dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of SCM in dairy cattle in the urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to gain information about pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns. The study was conducted as a field study in 18 smallholder dairy farms in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda. All cows at the farms were physically examined, and cows with signs of clinical mastitis were excluded. Cows (n = 195) were tested with California Mastitis Test (CMT), and udder quarters with CMT score ≥3 (scale 1-5) were milk sampled for bacteriological analysis. To allow further sub-analysis of the results, the stage of lactation, parity, milk production, production type, udder hygiene, and cow breed were recorded. Results indicate that 86.2 % (n = 168) of the tested cows had SCM in one or more quarters. The most common bacteriological outcome was infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci (54.7 %), followed by negative growth (24.9 %) and streptococci (16.2 %); all of which (n = 34) were sensitive to penicillin. Of the tested staphylococci (n = 17), the majority (58.9 %) were positive for penicillinase production. Factors with significant impact on the prevalence of SCM at cow level were the stage of lactation, parity, and production type. The results suggest that the prevalence of SCM in Uganda is substantially higher than reported in previous studies and in other comparable developing countries. This implies that SCM deserves more attention and that improvement in dairy cow husbandry in terms of hygiene and management is necessary.

  3. Astyanax transgenesis and husbandry: how cavefish enters the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elipot, Yannick; Legendre, Laurent; Père, Stéphane; Sohm, Frédéric; Rétaux, Sylvie

    2014-08-01

    Astyanax mexicanus, a teleost fish comprising both sighted river-dwelling and blind cave-dwelling morphs, is becoming increasingly used in the field of developmental and evolutionary biology. Thus, new experimental and technological tools are needed on this emerging fish model by the expanding scientific community. Here, we describe Astyanax husbandry and egg spawning habits, a prerequisite to the successful establishment of Astyanax transgenic lines. We then compare two different transgenesis methods on both surface and cave Astyanax. Both meganuclease (I-SceI)- and transposase (Tol2)-mediated transgenesis are equivalently efficient, resulting in ∼40% mosaic transgenic fish in F0. Furthermore, the transmission rate was analyzed in F1 in the case of the I-SceI method and was found to be 16%. Finally, the transgene was found stable up the F3 generation, demonstrating the feasibility of generating stable transgenic lines in Astyanax and opening a wide range of possibilities for this fish model.

  4. Husbandry of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and the cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Michail; Digka, Nikoletta; Theodoridi, Antonia; Campo, Aurora; Barsakis, Konstantinos; Skouradakis, Gregoris; Samaras, Athanasios; Tsalafouta, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    The effect of common husbandry conditions (crowding, social environment, water quality, handling, and background color) on the cortisol stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, was investigated to check the usefulness of zebrafish as a model organism in aquaculture research. In addition, a noninvasive methodology for assessing stress was evaluated. Zebrafish showed a fast cortisol response with high values at 30 min that returned to basal levels within 2 h of poststress. There was a significant positive correlation between trunk cortisol concentrations and the free water cortisol rate (r(2)=0.829-0.850, pzebrafish. It is concluded that adult laboratory zebrafish had a preference for a transparent or black background aquarium, at a number of 10 individuals per 2 L of available water volume, to express their normal behavior and avoid increased cortisol stress reaction.

  5. The captive husbandry and reproduction of the pink-eared turtle (Emydura victoriae) at Perth Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikhorst, G S; Clarke, B R; McPharlin, M; Larkin, B; McLaughlin, J; Mayes, J

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, Perth Zoo acquired six pink-eared turtles (Emydura victoriae) from the wild for display in the reptile facility. There is very little documented information on pink-eared turtles in captivity. This article looks at the reproductive biology, ecology, behavior, diet, and captive husbandry of the species. Eight clutches of eggs were documented over a 2-year period with an average clutch size of 10 eggs. Egg size was recorded with three clutches incubated to hatching. Ten hatchlings were maintained for a growth and development study. Measurements of weight, carapace length, width, height, and plastron length were recorded weekly for about 12 months, and then monthly for approximately 2 years. The data were analyzed and showed positive growth curves in all animals. Sexual dimorphism was observed after 20 weeks and sexual maturity in males observed after 2 years.

  6. CIRCULAR-ECONOMY MODELS OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY INDUSTRY IN JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Liang; LI Bo; SONG Tao; TONG Lian-jun

    2006-01-01

    Animal husbandry industry in Jilin Province is developing rapidly toward the one in large-scale, standardization and industrialization. It is upgrading to a higher level. This lays the foundation for the industry to practice ecological industry. Following the policies of Chinese Government, more and more enterprises are being engaged in seeking the effective ways of circular-economy. This paper does some researches on the projects of two major enterprises in this industry, redesigns the eco-industrial chains using principles of industrial ecology, and provides two models of circular-economy, namely vertical circulation and horizontal combination. After that, it analyzes the technological and economic effectiveness of the two designing plans. At the end, it summaries the traits of suitable circular-economy models adopted in the industry.

  7. 2013年内蒙古奶业发展分析%Analysis of Inner Mongolia Dairy Industry Development in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜哲; 高博; 乔光华

    2014-01-01

    本文从乳品生产、牛奶价格、养殖结构以及优质饲草行业发展等4个方面,分析了2013年内蒙古奶业发展情况,认为当地奶业发展在进入转型调整期后,受国内、国际乳品市场价格和供求力量对比等因素影响,奶牛养殖行业结构升级与生产稳定之间存在微妙的动态平衡,乳品加工企业更加倾向于高盈利性产品市场的开拓。虽然产业自身及其外部都存在不确定性因素,但内蒙古奶业总体仍处于上升发展阶段。建议政府和金融机构加快理念转换,创新服务产品,为奶业发展营造更加稳定有利的外部环境。%The paper researched on the situation of Inner Mongolia dairy development in 2013 by analysis of dairy production, milk prices, farming structure and high quality forage grass production .The results showed there is a subtle dynamic balance between upgrade of dairy farming and the stability of production in the transition period, because being affected by domestic and international dairy market price and the forces of supply and demand. Dairy production enterprises tend to explore more profitable products market. Although there are some of the uncertain factors , Inner Mongolia dairy industry is stil in the rising phase of development .It is suggested that government and ifnancial institutions should transform ideas of development and innovate service products in order to creating a more stable and favorable environment for dairy industry development .

  8. Climate change, land use conflicts, predation and ecological degradation as challenges for reindeer husbandry in northern Europe: what do we really know after half a century of research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg

    2012-07-01

    Reindeer grazing has been entitled as ecological keystone in arctic-alpine landscapes. In addition, reindeer husbandry is tightly connected to the identity of the indigenous Sámi people in northern Europe. Nowadays, reindeer husbandry is challenged in several ways, of which pasture degradation, climate change, conflicting land uses and predation are the most important. Research on reindeer-related topics has been conducted for more than half a century and this review illuminates whether or not research is capable to match these challenges. Despite its high quality, traditional reindeer-related research is functionally isolated within the various disciplines. The meshwork of ecology, socio-economy, culture and politics, however, in which reindeer husbandry is embedded by various interactions, will remain unclear and difficult to manage, if actors and relationships are kept separate. We propose some targets for new integrative research approaches that incorporate traditional knowledge and focus on the entire human-ecological system 'reindeer husbandry' to develop solutions for its challenges.

  9. Genomic interplay in bacterial communities: implications for growth promoting practices in animal husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piklu eRoy Chowdhury

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of antibiotics heralded the start of a ‘Golden Age’ in the history of medicine. Over the years, the use of antibiotics extended beyond medical practice into animal husbandry, aquaculture and agriculture. While the ‘Golden Age’ featured the rapid discovery of a series of new classes of antibiotics, the current discovery/development pipeline has been less productive. We are now faced with the threat of diseases mediated by pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to all major classes of antibiotic. Evolution of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics results from the inherent genetic capability that bacteria have to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, under antibiotic selection pressures, bacteria have acquired resistance to all classes of antibiotics, sometimes very shortly after their introduction. Multiple drug resistant (MDR bacteria are found worldwide and are possibly signalling the end of the antibiotic era. Arguably, the evolution and rapid dissemination of MDR genes en-masse across microbial pathogens is one of the most serious threats to human health. In this context, effective surveillance strategies to track the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics are vital to managing global infection control. These surveillance strategies are necessary for not only human health but also for animal health and plant production. Shortfalls in the present surveillance strategies need to be identified. Raising awareness of the genetic events that promote co-selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobials is an important prerequisite to the design and implementation of molecular surveillance strategies. In this review we will discuss how surveillance strategies are important for our understanding of the possible relationship between the use of low-dose antibiotics in animal husbandry and evolution of MDR in Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. Genomic interplay in bacterial communities: implications for growth promoting practices in animal husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; McKinnon, Jessica; Wyrsch, Ethan; Hammond, Jeffrey M; Charles, Ian G; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of antibiotics heralded the start of a "Golden Age" in the history of medicine. Over the years, the use of antibiotics extended beyond medical practice into animal husbandry, aquaculture and agriculture. Now, however, we face the worldwide threat of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to all existing major classes of antibiotic, reflecting the possibility of an end to the antibiotic era. The seriousness of the threat is underscored by the severely limited production of new classes of antibiotics. Evolution of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics results from the inherent genetic capability that bacteria have to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, under antibiotic selection pressures, bacteria have acquired resistance to all classes of antibiotics, sometimes very shortly after their introduction. Arguably, the evolution and rapid dissemination of multiple drug resistant genes en-masse across microbial pathogens is one of the most serious threats to human health. In this context, effective surveillance strategies to track the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics are vital to managing global infection control. These surveillance strategies are necessary for not only human health but also for animal health, aquaculture and plant production. Shortfalls in the present surveillance strategies need to be identified. Raising awareness of the genetic events that promote co-selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobials is an important prerequisite to the design and implementation of molecular surveillance strategies. In this review we will discuss how lateral gene transfer (LGT), driven by the use of low-dose antibiotics in animal husbandry, has likely played a significant role in the evolution of multiple drug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative bacteria and has complicated molecular surveillance strategies adopted for predicting imminent resistance threats.

  11. MicroRNA-152 regulates DNA methyltransferase 1 and is involved in the development and lactation of mammary glands in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding, endogenous regulatory RNAs that function by controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Using small RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR techniques, we found that the expression of miR-152 was significantly increased during lactation in the mammary glands of dairy cows producing high quality milk compared with that in cows producing low quality milk. Furthermore, DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1, which is a target of miR-152, was inversely correlated with the expression levels of miR-152 in the mammary glands of dairy cows. Dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs were used as in vitro cell models to study the function of miR-152. The forced expression of miR-152 in DCMECs resulted in a marked reduction of DNMT1 at both mRNA and protein levels. This in turn led to a decrease in global DNA methylation and increased the expression of two lactation-related genes, serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (Akt and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ. In contrast, inhibition of miR-152 showed the opposite results. By using an electronic Coulter counter (CASY-TT and flow cytometer, we discovered that miR-152 enhanced the viability and multiplication capacity of DCMECs. In conclusion, miR-152 plays an important role in the development and lactation processes in the mammary glands of dairy cows. Our data provide insights into dairy cow mammary gland development and lactation.

  12. Trends in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya Kumar, Bathal; Vijayendra, Sistla Venkata Naga; Reddy, Obulam Vijaya Sarathi

    2015-10-01

    Health awareness has grown to a greater extent among consumers and they are looking for healthy probiotic counterparts. Keeping in this view, the present review focuses recent developments in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products. All over the world, dairy probiotics are being commercialized in many different forms. However, the allergy and lactose intolerance are the major set-backs to dairy probiotics. Whereas, flavor and refreshing nature are the major advantages of non-dairy drinks, especially fruit juices. Phenotypic and genotypic similarities between dairy and non-dairy probiotics along with the matrix dependency of cell viability and cell functionality are reviewed. The heterogeneous food matrices of non-dairy food carriers are the major constraints for the survival of the probiotics, while the probiotic strains from non-dairy sources are satisfactory. Technological and functional properties, besides the viability of the probiotics used in fermented products of non-dairy origin are extremely important to get a competitive advantage in the world market. The functional attributes of dairy and non-dairy probiotic products are further enhanced by adding prebiotics such as galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide and inulin.

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and camels in the State of Eritrea; influence of husbandry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Skjerve, E; Holstad, G; Woldehiwet, Z; Macmillan, A P

    2000-10-01

    Samples from 2427 cattle, 661 goats, 104 sheep, 98 camels and 82 horses were screened for brucella infections by the Rose Bengal Test and positive reactors confirmed by the complement fixation test. In cattle, the highest individual seroprevalence was in dairy herds kept under the intensive husbandry system, with an individual prevalence of 8.2% and unit (herd) seroprevalence of 35.9%. This was followed by the pastoral husbandry system in the Western Lowlands with 5.0% individual but a higher unit (vaccination site) prevalence of 46.1%. The lowest was in the mixed crop-livestock system in the Southern Highlands with individual 0.3% and unit (village) prevalence of 2.4%. In sheep and goats, no positive animals were detected in the mixed crop-livestock areas. In the Eastern Lowlands individual prevalences of 3.8% (goats) and 1.4% (sheep) and unit prevalence of 33.3% (goats) and 16.7% were found, while 14.3% of individual goats and 56.3% of the units in the Western Lowlands were positive. No positive horses were found. The present study documents the first serological evidence of Brucella spp. infection in camels (3.1%) in Eritrea.

  14. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  15. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo O.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Selection for an increased meatiness in beef cattle has resulted in double-muscled (DM) animals, owing to the inactivation of the myostatin gene. These animals are characterized by an excellent conformation and an extremely high carcass yield, coinciding with a reduced organ mass. As a consequence, voluntary feed intake is reduced, but feed efficiency is considerably improved, although maintenance requirements are not clearly reduced. DM animals are more susceptible to respiratory disease, stress and dystocia, requiring extra attention for accommodation and welfare. Carcasses of DM animals are very lean, and intramuscular fat content is low. The fatty acid profile is different when compared with non-DM animals, containing less saturated fatty acids. Collagen content of the meat is lower, so that meat from double-muscled animals is mostly more tender. However, meat tenderness, color and juiciness are not always improved. A different metabolism as a consequence of faster glycolytic myofibers can be partly responsible for this phenomenon. DM animals are interesting for the producer and butcher, and beneficial for the consumer, if an appropriate nutrition and accommodation, and adequate slaughter conditions are taken into account. Abstract Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM) animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and

  16. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaidong; WANG; Ming; LI; Lazhu; HAO; Maoyue; GE

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating features of leisure agriculture in the park; establishing the brand of leisure-oriented training base in science and technology park; carrying out exploration into operation mode of leisure agriculture in the park.

  17. Development and validation of a visual body condition scoring system for dairy goats with picture-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Brandão, S; Monteiro, A; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G

    2015-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is the most widely used method to assess changes in body fat reserves, which reflects its high potential to be included in on-farm welfare assessment protocols. Currently used scoring systems in dairy goats require animal restraint for body palpation. In this study, the Animal Welfare Indicators project (AWIN) proposes to overcome this constraint by developing a scoring system based only on visual assessment. The AWIN visual body condition scoring system highlights representative animals from 3 categories: very thin, normal, and very fat, and was built from data sets with photographs of animals scored by a commonly used 6-point scoring system that requires palpation in 2 anatomical regions. Development of the AWIN scoring system required 3 steps: (1) identification and validation of a body region of interest; (2) sketching the region from photographs; and (3) creation of training material. The scoring system's reliability was statistically confirmed. An initial study identified features in the rump region from which we could compute a set of body measurements (i.e., measures based on anatomical references of the rump region) that showed a strong correlation with the assigned BCS. To validate the result, we collected a final data set from 171 goats. To account for variability in animal size and camera position, we mapped a subset of features to a standard template and aligned all the rump images before computing the body measurements. Scientific illustrations were created from the aligned images of animals identified as representative of each category to increase clarity and reproducibility. For training material, we created sketches representing the threshold between consecutive categories. Finally, we conducted 2 field reliability studies. In the first test, no training was given to 4 observers, whereas in the second, training using the threshold images was delivered to the same observers. In the first experiment, interobserver results

  18. How to measure husbandry success? The life expectancy of zoo ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, D W H; Bingaman Lackey, L; Streich, W J; Fickel, J.; Hatt, J M; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Relative life expectancy (i.e. the average life expectancy of a species expressed as a percentage of the maximum longevity ever reported for this species) may describe husbandry success in captive populations. By correlating the relative life expectancy with biological characteristics and husbandry factors for different species, reasons for variations in relative life expectancy can be detected. We analysed data for 166,901 ruminants of 78 species and demonstrated the presence of such a corre...

  19. Development Status and Advantages of Dairy Farming Industry in Nenjiang County%嫩江县奶牛养殖业发展现状及优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金艳

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of improving the development of dairy farming industry in Nenjiang county ,propel-ling the county economy development ,the main status of the dairy farming industry in Nenjiang county was e-pitomized .The advantages of the dairy farming industry in Nenjiang county were analyzed from three aspects as geographical advantage ,policy advantage and market advantage .With the excellent development environment that Nenjiang county was the commodity grain production base ,it proposed some advices for the supporting policies and market guidance of the dairy farming industry development in Nenjiang county based on the mod -ern agriculture realization ,farmer’s income improvement and well-to-do society construction .%  为促进嫩江县奶牛养殖业发展,推进县城经济发展进程,概括了嫩江县奶牛养殖业基本情况,从嫩江县的地域优势、政策优势和市场优势来分析嫩江县奶牛养殖业发展的优势。结合嫩江县作为商品粮生产基地的发展环境,就实现现代农业、增加农民收入及建设小康社会的目标,提出嫩江县奶牛养殖业发展的政策扶持和市场引导。

  20. A systems approach to the South African dairy industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elsabe Gagiano

    can dairy producers effectively respond to these market forces? .... Furthermore, most dairy products sold in the retail trade are standard and niche ... development aimed at profitable milk production and the incorporation of the research results ...

  1. What is the benefit of organically-reared dairy cattle? Societal perception towards conventional and organic dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Christoph-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.

  2. Schmallenberg virus antibody development and decline in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd in Germany, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Holsteg, Mark; Sasserath, Michael; Beer, Martin

    2015-12-31

    In late 2011, the novel insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Central Europe. Since that year, a dairy cattle herd kept in the German region in which the virus was initially detected was continuously monitored. In order to evaluate the development of the within-herd seroprevalence, but also to assess the long-term persistence of antibodies against SBV in individual animals, blood samples of all cows older than 24 months were taken yearly after the respective vector season and serologically analyzed. In December 2011, in 74% of the tested animals SBV-specific antibodies were detectable. Additional scattered seroconversions were observed between the 2011 and 2012 vector seasons, thereafter all seronegative animals remained negative. Until December 2014, the intra-herd seroprevalence decreased to 58%. A total of 122 cows infected presumable in autumn 2011 were sampled every year, 9 of them became seronegative until December 2014. Consequently, though SBV-specific antibodies were detected in about 90% of the monitored animals for more than three years, a lifelong antibody-based immunity is not expected in every animal. The loss of anti-SBV antibodies in individual animals combined with the missing infection of young stock results in a declining herd seroprevalence and increases the risk of a renewed virus circulation to a greater extent within the next years.

  3. Research Advance in the Development of Blueberry Dairy Products%蓝莓乳制品开发研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈小媛; 王芳; 贾强

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry dairy products are more popular with consumers, because blueberries have a variety of healthpromoting effects. This paper describes the nutrition value and health-promoting functions of blueberries, reviews the current status of development of blueberry dairy products and the recent advance in research on key production technologies, and explores future perspectives.%蓝莓具有多种保健功能,将其与牛乳组合开发新型蓝莓乳制品会倍受消费者青睐。本文对蓝莓营养价值、保健功能等进行概述,重点阐述蓝莓乳制品开发现状及其生产关键技术研究进展,并对其发展前景作出展望。

  4. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system.

  5. Evaluating an intervention to reduce lameness in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, D C J; Leach, K A; Barker, Z E; Sedgwick, A K; Maggs, C M; Bell, N J; Whay, H R

    2012-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cattle remains a significant welfare concern for the UK dairy industry. Farms were recruited into a 3-yr study evaluating novel intervention approaches designed to encourage farmers to implement husbandry changes targeted toward reducing lameness. All farms completing the study were visited at least annually and received either monitoring only (MO, n=72) or monitoring and additional support (MS, n = 117) from the research team. The additional support included traditional technical advice on farm-specific solutions, facilitation techniques to encourage farmer participation, and application of social marketing principles to promote implementation of change. Lameness prevalence was lower in the MO (27.0 ± 1.94 SEM) and MS (21.4 ± 1.28) farms at the final visit compared with the same MO (38.9 ± 2.06) and MS (33.3 ± 1.76) farms on the initial visit. After accounting for initial lameness, intervention group status, and year of visit within a multilevel model, we observed an interaction between year and provision of support, with the reduction in lameness over time being greater in the MS group compared with the MO group. Farms in the MS group made a greater number of changes to their husbandry practices over the duration of the project (8.2 ± 0.39) compared with those farms in the MO group (6.5 ± 0.54). Because the lameness prevalence was lower in the MS group than the MO group at the start of the study, the contribution of the additional support was difficult to define. Lameness can be reduced on UK dairy farms although further work is needed to identify the optimum approaches. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Food Safety and Security Challenges in Emerging African Food Producing Areas through a One Health Lens: The Dairy Chains in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rachel; Mantovani, Alberto; Frazzoli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e.g., sustainable use of fertilizers, feeds, veterinary drugs, and pesticides) to protect consumers from food safety hazards. Social innovation based on the empowerment of the primary food producers emerges as crucial for sustainable and safe food production. Sustainable policies should be supported by the mobilization of stakeholders of One Health, which is a science-based approach to linking human health and nutrition with the health and management of food producing animals and environmental safety. In the context of the complex, multifaceted scenario of Mali dairy production, this article presents how a cost-effective animal health and food safety scheme could be established in the dairy production chain. Because milk is a major commodity in this country, benefits could be derived in food security, public health, the resilience of the farming system, animal husbandry, and international trade.

  7. Herd composition and slaughtering strategy in reindeer husbandry – revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Holand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available I will review the drastic change seen in herd composition and slaughtering strategy the last decades inthe reindeer husbandry of Fennoscandia (i. e. Finland, Norway and Sweden. Herd composition was traditionally a function of the multipurpose herd, where reproduction of draught power played a major role. Hence, the slaughter scheme was based on adult males, in particular castrates. The herd represented the owner's capital and was viewed as the best insurance for staying in business. Indeed, a big and well composed herd announced social status as well as authority. Historically this has resulted in rises and falls in reindeer numbers. Control of the herd was being emphasized through age and sex composition and selection of behavioural traits and easily recognisable animals which favour handling. A high proportion of adults alleviated control of the herd as it eased the herding and reduced the mortality risk as they were able to withstand the highly stochastic environment. The introduction of the snowmobiles in the 1960s revolutionized the herding and transportation and hence reduced the importance of the male segment of the herd and amplified the ongoing transformation of the modern society into a market based economy. Now, the challenge was to efficiently convert the limited primary plant production into animal product, mainly meat. This is primarily achieved by balancing the animal numbers in accordance to the forage resources. However, also herd composition and slaughtering strategy are essential for maximizing the meat output per area unit. A highest possible proportion of reproductive females combined with a slaughtering scheme based on calves was tested and partly implemented in Soviet-Union already in the 1930s and introduced in the 1960s in Finland. Also in parts of Norway and Sweden this scheme was modified and tested. However, the formal work of refining and testing this new strategy based on modern population theory blended with

  8. Farm-level plans and husbandry measures for aquatic animal disease emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C V; Phillips, M J; Bhat, B V; Umesh, N R; Padiyar, P A

    2008-04-01

    Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better management practices (BMPs) should be simple, science-based, cost-effective and appropriate to their context if farmers are to adopt and implement them. As part of a regional initiative by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) to control aquatic animal diseases, effective extension approaches to promote the widespread adoption of BMPs have been developed in India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, and have proved their worth. A highly successful programme, which addresses rising concerns about the effect of disease on the sustainability of shrimp farming in India, is now in its seventh year. In this paper, the authors present a brief insight into the details of the programme, its outcomes and impact, the lessons learned and the way forward.

  9. An Analysis of the Dairy Supply Chain in Inner Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years, people have started to pay attention to the health issues with the focus on the food hygiene and safety. Therefore, the liquid milk and dairy products have gradually become the essential food in daily life. However, many quality problems occurred during the expansion of the dairy industry. With an interest in the dairy industry in Inner Mongolia of China, its predominant geological location and long history of dairy culture lead to Inner Mongolia developed into the centr...

  10. Effects of husbandry parameters on the life-history traits of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis: effects of temperature, photoperiod, and population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; Pounds, Nadine; File-Emperador, Sharon; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

    2006-04-01

    These experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis. The overall objective of the program is to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations of this species in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this article, we focus on the effects of photoperiod, temperature, and population density on adult fecundity and juvenile growth. Increasing photoperiod from 12 to 16 h of light per day had no effect on adult fecundity or egg hatching and relatively minor effects on juvenile growth and development. Rearing snails at temperatures between 22 degrees C and 28 degrees C did not influence the rates of egg production or egg clutch size. However, the rates of growth and development (of eggs and juveniles) increased with increasing temperature in this range, and when temperatures were reduced to 22 degrees C egg-hatching success was impaired. Juvenile growth and development were more sensitive to rearing density than adult fecundity traits. On the basis of the present results, we conclude that rearing individuals of M. cornuarietis at a temperature of 25 degrees C, a photoperiod of 12L:12D, and a density of <0.8 snails L(-1) (with lower densities for juvenile snails) should provide favorable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations of this species.

  11. On the usefulness of dairy research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, P.

    1998-01-01

    This article considers the role and position of fairly fundamental, long-term dairy research that is for the most part technology oriented. Such research is mainly aimed at providing the necessary background knowledge for developments in dairy manufacture. Good research of this kind needs integratio

  12. Development of animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy farming in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Good animal health and welfare is an explicit goal of organic livestock farming, and will need continuous development and adjustment on the farms. Furthermore, the very different conditions in different regions of Europe calls for models that can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. A European project with participants from seven countries have been established with the aim of developing principles for animal health and welfare planning in organi...

  13. 乳制品进口对我国乳业发展的影响及有关政策建议%Impact, Reasons and Policy Recommendations of Dairy Products Imports to China Dairy Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秀芬; 郑世艳; 赵宇红

    2013-01-01

    Dairy product imports played an important role in meeting domestic demand,improving dairy industry level and adjusting production structure.With the effect of frequent dairy quality and safety incidents,increasing domestic demand and international trade environment,in recent years,China dairy imports value has growed rapidly,which brought pressure on the dairy farming.Many dairy companies undergoes survive crisis,which damages the interests of dairy producers and consumers.This article analyzed the reasons and impact on China dairy industry of dairy products import,and then proposed some policy recom mendations to support and protect China dairy industry.%乳制品进口对满足国内需求、促进我国乳业整体水平的提高和生产结构调整起到一定作用.受乳品质量安全事件频发、生鲜乳标准降低、国内需求不断增加和国际贸易环境的影响,近年来乳制品进口量增加,对我国奶牛养殖业形成压力,使众多乳制品企业出现生存危机,侵害了乳业广大生产者和消费者的利益.本文分析了乳制品进口对我国乳业影响,并提出了有关支持和保护我国乳业发展的政策建议.

  14. A mechanistic model of whole-tract digestion and methanogenesis in the lactating dairy cow: Model development, evaluation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, J.A.N.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Cammell, S.B.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary intervention to reduce methane emissions from lactating dairy cattle is both environmentally and nutritionally desirable due to the importance of methane as a causative agent in global warming and as a significant loss of feed energy. Reliable prediction systems for methane production over a

  15. [Water requirements, water supply and thermoregulation in small ruminants in pasture-based husbandry systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, D; Strobel, H; Axt, H; Voigt, K

    2015-01-01

    Water is an essential source of life and is available to animals as free water, water content of feed, film water (e. g. dew) and metabolic water. The water requirements of small ruminants are influenced by the type of feed, climate, stage of production, type and length of the fleece or hair coat, husbandry factors and the general health of the animal. Differences in water metabolism, drinking behaviour and the efficiency of temperature regulation are further influenced by species, breed, production type, husbandry system, acclimatisation and adaptation. Small ruminants have been, and are still predominantly kept in extensive husbandry systems. They are therefore genetically and phenotypically well adapted to these conditions and possess a range of physiological and behavioural mechanisms to deal with adverse and suboptimal weather conditions. Regarding animal welfare, there is considerable debate in the discussion and assessment of what constitutes a sufficient water supply for small ruminants under different husbandry conditions, often involving differences between theoretical demands and practical experience. This publication reviews and summarises the current literature regarding water requirements, water metabolism and thermoregulatory mechanisms of small ruminants to provide the basis for an informed assessment of extensive husbandry systems in terms of compliance with animal-welfare requirements.

  16. Designer-made meat and dairy products: Consumer-led product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Valli, Carlotta

    2001-01-01

    true with regard to products like meat, which are mostly sold unbranded. In a pan-European study, a new method to analyse the way consumers perceived quality in food products was applied to derive European-wide consumer segments, using beef and yoghurt as product examples. Product concepts specifically...... targeting these segments were derived and tested with consumers from these segments. Results show considerable potential for the development of food products which are differentiated in a consumer-based way. The paper closes with a step-model for consumer-led product development adapted to the current state......Consumers differ in the kind of qualities they expect from food products, and they also differ in the way they infer quality from the product information available. Nevertheless, much product innovation in the food sector is still not geared towards specific consumer segments. This is especially...

  17. Designer made meat and dairy products: Consumer-led product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Valli, Carlotta

    true with regard to products like meat, which are mostly sold unbranded. In a pan-European study, a new method to analyse the way consumers perceived quality in food products was applied to derive European-wide consumer segments, using beef and yoghurt as product examples. Product concepts specifically...... targeting these segments were derived and tested with consumers from these segments. Results show considerable potential for the development of food products which are differentiated in a consumer-based way. The paper closes with a step-model for consumer-led product development adapted to the current state......Consumers differ in the kind of qualities they expect from food products, and they also differ in the way they infer quality from the product information available. Nevertheless, much product innovation in the food sector is still not geared towards specific consumer segments. This is especially...

  18. Designer-made meat and dairy products: Consumer-led product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Valli, Carlotta

    2001-01-01

    Consumers differ in the kind of qualities they expect from food products, and they also differ in the way they infer quality from the product information available. Nevertheless, much product innovation in the food sector is still not geared towards specific consumer segments. This is especially...... true with regard to products like meat, which are mostly sold unbranded. In a pan-European study, a new method to analyse the way consumers perceived quality in food products was applied to derive European-wide consumer segments, using beef and yoghurt as product examples. Product concepts specifically...... targeting these segments were derived and tested with consumers from these segments. Results show considerable potential for the development of food products which are differentiated in a consumer-based way. The paper closes with a step-model for consumer-led product development adapted to the current state...

  19. The Development Situation and Prospects of Dairy Industry in Hunan Province in 2012%2012年湖南省奶业的发展状况与前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹; 张婷; 张佩华; 王加启; 沈维军; 兰欣怡; 刘海林; 覃春富; 柴宇光

    2013-01-01

    为促进湖南省奶业发展,本文对2012年湖南省奶业信息进行了监测.监测结果表明,2012年湖南省奶牛存栏数比2011年下降59.8%.生鲜乳价格持续走低,而奶牛饲料价格普遍上涨.生鲜乳质量安全状况一般,防治费用较高,部分乳制品加工企业拖欠奶款严重,使奶牛养殖面临困境.%In order to promote the development of dairy industry in Hunan province,some information of dairy industry in this province was monitoned in this essay.The results showed that the total number of dairy herds in 2012 was 59.8% lower than which in 2011 in Hunan Province.Raw milk price declined continuously while the prices of dairy cattle feedstuffs generally rose.The quality of raw milk was mediocreby with the higher cost in prevention.Dairy farming was in trouble due to some of the dairy processing factories were seriously in arrears.

  20. Traditional goat husbandry practice under pastoral systems in South Omo zone, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfahun, Biruh; Kebede, Kefelegn; Effa, Kefena

    2017-03-01

    This study was carried out to describe goat production system under pastoralists' management in three districts of South Omo zone, southern Ethiopia. The districts were Benatsemay, Hamer, and Dasenech. Questionnaires were developed and used to collect data regarding pastoralists' management practices and production system of goats. A total of 180 households were interviewed to capture relevant information. Data collected through questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis to generate descriptive statistics. Ranking was explained by calculating indexes. The primary purpose of raising goats was for social prestige in Benatsemay and Hamer but for milk production in Dasenech. Body size was the primary preference in Benatsemay and Hamer while milk yield was preferred most in Dasenech. Rangeland grazing was the major feed source in the study area in both dry and wet seasons. Pond and river were the common sources of water reported by farmers in the study districts but inadequate and poor quality. Disease prevalence was the top major constraint in goat husbandry in the three districts.

  1. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  2. Development and Application of Nested PCR Assay for Detection of Dairy Cattle-Derived Cyclospora sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shu-min; LI Guo-qing; LI Wei-hua; ZHOU Rong-qiong; YANG Jian-wei

    2007-01-01

    To develop a nested PCR assay for the detection of cattle-derived Cyclospora sp.,two pairs of primers were designed on the basis of the cattle-derived Cyclospora sp.sequences.These primers selectively amplified a 168-bp DNA fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of cattle-derived Cyclospora sp.With these primers,a nested PCR assay for the detection of cattlederived Cyclospora sp.was developed.The nested PCR assay was specific and there is no cross-reaction with other parasites,such as Eimeria spp.,Cryptosporidium spp.,Giardia sp.,Toxoplasma sp.,Trichuris sp.and cattle ciliate.The assay was able to detect as low as 2.85 x 10-2 fg of the control positive DNA.The results of the detection of clinical samples indicated that the assay coincided with microscopic examination.The results show that the nested PCR assay will be an effective tool for the detection of Cyclospora sp.in cattle feces.

  3. Digestive development in neonatal dairy calves with either whole or ground oats in the calf starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2015-05-01

    A series of 3 trials was conducted to determine effects of whole or ground oats in starter grain on reticulorumen fermentation and digestive system development of preweaned calves. Male Holstein calves (43.1±2.3kg at birth; n=8, 9, and 7 for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were housed in individual pens in a heated facility; bedding was covered with landscape fabric to prevent consumption of bedding by the calves. In trials 1 and 2 only, calves were fitted with rumen cannulas by wk 2 of life. In all trials, a fixed amount of starter (containing 25% oats either ground and in the pellet or whole) was offered daily; orts were fed through the cannula in trials 1 and 2. Calves were randomly assigned to an all-pelleted starter or pellets plus whole oats. Rumen contents (trials 1 and 2) were sampled weekly at -8, -4, 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after grain feeding for determination of pH and volatile fatty acids. Calves were killed 3 wk (trial 1) or 4 wk (trials 2 and 3) after grain was offered; organs were harvested, emptied, rinsed, and weighed to gauge digestive organ development. Starter intake was not different between treatments. Weekly measurements of rumen digesta pH did not change and only subtle changes were observed in molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Molar proportion of butyrate and pH linearly decreased with age, whereas acetate proportion increased. Reticulorumen weight and papillae length tended to be greater for calves fed pelleted starter, whereas abomasum weight was greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Fecal particle size and starch content were greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Under the conditions of this study, physical form of oats in starter grain did not affect rumen fermentation measurements; greater rumen weight and papillae length in calves fed pelleted starter may be the result of greater nutrient availability of ground oats. Under the conditions of this study with young calves on treatments for

  4. Development of a non-dairy probiotic fermented product based on almond milk and inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Neus; Cháfer, Maite; Chiralt, Amparo; González-Martínez, Chelo

    2015-09-01

    A new fermented almond "milk" that combined the properties of both almonds and probiotics was considered to cover the current versatile health-promoting foods' demand. Almond milk fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was studied by using a Central Composite design with response surface methodology, and different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) were optimised to assure high probiotic survivals in the final product. The optimal formulation was physicochemically characterised throughout cold storage (28 days) and both probiotic survivals to in vitro digestion and proteolysis were quantified. Results showed that a high probiotic population (>10(7) cfu/mL) was obtained in the previously optimised almond milk throughout storage time, which correspond to the addition of 0.75 g of glucose/100 mL, 0.75 g of fructose/100 mL, 2 g/100 mL inulin and 6 mL/100 mL inoculum. Glucose was used as the main nutrient and the production of mannitol by L. reuteri was detected. The fermentation process increased the viscosity values, forming a weak gel structure, whose physical properties hardly changed. Probiotic bacteria notably survived (51%) to the in vitro digestion, surely related to the inulin presence, which would add value to the developed product by enhancing the potential health benefits of its consumption.

  5. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Problems Digesting Dairy Products? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...

  6. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  7. Strategic analysis and choice of dairy industry development in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省乳业发展的战略分析与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 翟丽丽; 杨敏杰

    2011-01-01

    运用SWOT模型分析了黑龙江省乳业发展与战略选择.研究表明:黑龙江省乳业在奶源、产业基础、宏观政策和技术整合方面具有优势,农村地区乳品消费需求的增长、"禁鲜令"的废止和"三聚氰胺"事件也为黑龙江省乳业的发展提供了机遇,但是由于现有的奶源利用效率较低、技术设备水平不高、产品市场竞争力不足、产业整合缓慢和人才外流等问题,黑龙江省乳业尚未显示出强大的竞争力;针对上述问题,探讨性地提出了开发奶源的盈利模式、产业整合战略、进军细分市场、培养复合型乳业人才等乳业发展的战略方向.%The development and strategic choices of dairy industry in Heilongjiang Province were analyzed using the SWOT model.The research showed that the dairy industry in Heilongjiang Province had advantages in raw milk resources,industrial foundation, macroeconomic policy and technical integration,and was also offered developmental opportunities owing to the increasing consumption demand in rural areas and the abolition of “the regulation of prohibiting fresh milk” as well as “the melamine safety incident”, but did not exhibit a great competitive power because of such problems as a low efficiency of using raw milk resources, a low technical and equipment level, a low competitive power in products market, and slowness in dairy industry integration.Therefore, the strategies of developing dairy industry in Heilongjiang Province were proposed in terms of developing profit-making modes of raw milk resources, readjusting the industrial structure, entering into the subdivision markets and fostering the talent with composite skills.

  8. The Biology and Husbandry of the African Spiny Mouse (Acomys cahirinus) and the Research Uses of a Laboratory Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Cheryl L; Gawriluk, Thomas R; Seifert, Ashley W

    2016-01-01

    African spiny mice (Acomys spp.) are unique precocial rodents that are found in Africa, the Middle East, and southern Asia. They exhibit several interesting life-history characteristics, including precocial development, communal breeding, and a suite of physiologic adaptations to desert life. In addition to these characteristics, African spiny mice are emerging as an important animal model for tissue regeneration research. Furthermore, their important phylogenetic position among murid rodents makes them an interesting model for evolution and development studies. Here we outline the necessary components for maintaining a successful captive breeding colony, including laboratory housing, husbandry, and health monitoring aspects. We also review past and present studies focused on spiny mouse behavior, reproduction, and disease. Last, we briefly summarize various current biomedical research directions using captive-bred spiny mice.

  9. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  10. The Development Current Situation and Prospects of Dairy Industry in Hunan Province in 2013%2013年湖南省奶业发展现状与前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩奇鹏; 李松励; 张养东; 张佩华; 朱丹; 张婷; 刘海林

    2014-01-01

    To regain the people's confidence in the dairy industry in Hunan province, this article in 2013 conducted an investigation on the development status of dairy industry. Survey results showed that, although the number of dairy cows in Hunan province in 2013 fell 0.96% over 2012, but raw milk prices continued to rise, and dairy feed was used more scientific and rational. Meanwhile, the quality and safety situation of raw milk had been greatly improved. Through government support and corporate restructuring, some dairy products processing enterprises have pay off the milk of dairy farmers. By the introduction of domestic and foreign advanced equipment and the management idea, there will be new development for dairy breeding in Hunan.%本文对2013年湖南省奶业的发展现状进行了调研,调研结果表明,虽然2013年湖南省奶牛存栏数比2012年下降0.96%,但是生鲜乳价格持续上涨,而且奶牛饲料使用更加科学合理。同时,生鲜乳质量安全状况得到了很大改善。通过政府的支持和企业改组,部分乳制品加工企业拖欠奶农的奶款已经基本还清,同时引进国内外先进设备和管理思路,使湖南奶牛养殖业进入新的发展阶段。

  11. Overview of the dairy and food processing research conducted at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, ERRC, and research to develop sustainable food processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DFFRU is dedicated to solving critical problems in the utilization of milk and specialty crop byproducts by developing high-quality, value-added functional foods and consumer products. The presentation will give an overview of the research projects that will benefit human health and well-being. ...

  12. Co-innovation in sustainable laying hen husbandry systems: Investigating the interactive framing of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartkruis, J.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Moors, E.; Farla, J.; Smits, R.

    2010-01-01

    Many different actors, like businesses, farmers, the government, societal organizations, consultants and research institutes, are involved in the design and implementation of “the Roundel”, which is a sustainable laying hen husbandry system. It is assumed that interactions between these different ac

  13. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, V.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Interaction and coupling in the emission of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.; Groenestein, C.M.; Hilhorst, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g.,

  15. Smallholder Dairy Value Chain Interventions; The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) – Status Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, I.F.; Koech, R.K.; Jansen, A.; Lee, van der J.

    2016-01-01

    The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) is a 4.5-year programme funded by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and implemented by SNV Netherlands Development Organisation in collaboration with stakeholders in the dairy industry. The overall goal of KMDP is to contribute to the developme

  16. Reindeer husbandry, the Swedish market for reindeer meat, and the Chernobyl effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostedt, G

    1998-12-31

    Reindeer husbandry in Sweden is an exclusive right for the Sami, northern Scandinavia`s indigenous people, and a cornerstone in the Sami culture. During the latest decades reindeer husbandry has however been under significant pressure for different reasons, among them low profitability. Part of the explanation for the low profitability lies in the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Due to the prevailing winds at the time of the accident northern Sweden, and consequently the grazing areas for the reindeer husbandry, was relatively heavily affected by radioactive fallout. This meant that reindeer meat suffered from a relatively high level of contamination. This has had effects both on the supply, since large numbers of reindeer had to be discarded, and on the demand, since the problem with contamination induced preference shifts away from reindeer meat. The purpose of this paper is to present an economic model of the Swedish reindeer husbandry and the market for reindeer meat, and to report some econometric results based on a data set from 1973/74 to 1995/96 on prices, quantities and other variables connected to the Swedish reindeer herding industry. The time period covers the main aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. In the theoretical section a model for the reindeer herder`s supply of reindeer meat is presented. The model is based on the fact that most reindeer herders only receive part of their income from reindeer husbandry. In the econometric section the demand and supply curves that are relevant for the reindeer herding industry are identified, using two-stage least squares regression. The most striking feature of the empirical results is a `backward-bending` supply function for the number of slaughtered reindeer, which is consistent with the theoretical model. The results also show a strong negative demand effect on reindeer meat after the Chernobyl accident 8 refs, 10 figs. Arbetsrapport 268

  17. Husbandry practices and gut health outcomes in weaned piglets: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandar Jayaraman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The immediate post-weaning period is one of the most stressful phases in a pig's life, and during this period, piglets are usually exposed to environmental, social and psychological stressors which have direct or indirect effects on gut health and overall growth performance. In this review, the impact of husbandry practices on gut health outcomes and performance of piglets is discussed. Husbandry practices in the swine barn generally include nutrition and management practices, maintenance of hygienic standards and disease prevention protocols, and animal welfare considerations. Poor husbandry practices could result in reduced feed intake, stress and disease conditions, and consequently affect gut health and performance in weaned piglets. Reduced feed intake is a major risk factor for impaired gut structure and function and therefore a key goal is to maximize feed intake in newly weaned piglets. In weaned piglets, crowding stress could reduce pig performance, favor the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria resulting in diarrhea, stimulate immune responses and interfere with beneficial microbial activities in the gut. Sanitation conditions in the swine barn plays an important role for optimal piglet performance, because unclean conditions reduced growth performance, shifted nutrient requirements to support the immune system and negatively affected the gut morphology in weaned piglets. Appropriate biosecurity measures need to be designed to prevent disease entry and spread within a swine operation, which in turn helps to keep all pigs and piglets healthy. Collectively, husbandry practices relating to feeding and nutrition, animal welfare, biosecurity and disease prevention are important determinants of gut health and piglet performance. Thus, it is suggested that adopting high husbandry practices is a critical piece in strategies aimed at raising pigs without the use of in-feed antibiotics.

  18. Nutrition-induced Changes of Growth from Birth to First Calving and Its Impact on Mammary Development and First-lactation Milk Yield in Dairy Heifers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; Südekum, K-H; Pattanaik, A K

    2012-09-01

    This review focuses on the nutritional effects from birth until age at first calving on growth, mammary developmental changes, and first-lactation milk yield in heifer calves. The advancement in the genetic potential and the nutritional requirements of the animals has hastened the growth rate. Genetic selection for high milk yield has suggested higher growth capacity and hence increasing nutritional inputs are required. Rapid rearing by feeding high energy or high concentrate diets not only reduces the age of sexual maturity but also lowers the time period of attaining the age of first calving. However, high energy diets may cause undesirable fat deposition thereby affecting future milk yield potential. Discrepancies exist whether overfed or overweight heifers at puberty can influence the mammary development and future milk yield potential and performance. The data on post-pubertal nutritional management suggested that body weight at calving and post-pubertal growth rate is important in first lactation milk yield. There is a continuous research need for strategic feeding that accelerates growth of dairy heifers without reduction in subsequent production. Nutritional management from birth, across puberty and during pregnancy is critical for mammary growth and for producing a successful cow. This review will mostly highlight studies carried out on dairy breeds and possible available opportunities to manipulate nutritional status from birth until age at first calving.

  19. Nutrition-induced Changes of Growth from Birth to First Calving and Its Impact on Mammary Development and First-lactation Milk Yield in Dairy Heifers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Lohakare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the nutritional effects from birth until age at first calving on growth, mammary developmental changes, and first-lactation milk yield in heifer calves. The advancement in the genetic potential and the nutritional requirements of the animals has hastened the growth rate. Genetic selection for high milk yield has suggested higher growth capacity and hence increasing nutritional inputs are required. Rapid rearing by feeding high energy or high concentrate diets not only reduces the age of sexual maturity but also lowers the time period of attaining the age of first calving. However, high energy diets may cause undesirable fat deposition thereby affecting future milk yield potential. Discrepancies exist whether overfed or overweight heifers at puberty can influence the mammary development and future milk yield potential and performance. The data on post-pubertal nutritional management suggested that body weight at calving and post-pubertal growth rate is important in first lactation milk yield. There is a continuous research need for strategic feeding that accelerates growth of dairy heifers without reduction in subsequent production. Nutritional management from birth, across puberty and during pregnancy is critical for mammary growth and for producing a successful cow. This review will mostly highlight studies carried out on dairy breeds and possible available opportunities to manipulate nutritional status from birth until age at first calving.

  20. Development of a predictive model for growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a skim milk medium and validation studies in a range of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P M; Rea, M C; Harrington, D

    1996-05-01

    A predictive model based on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in milk is described. The main aim of this work was to generate a predictive model in milk acidified with lactic acid to mimic conditions found in a range of dairy products. A complete factorial design was employed to determine the effects of pH (4.5-7.5), temperature (3-35 degrees C) and salt concentration (0-8%) on growth of the organism. There were 210 design points and growth curves were individually fitted for the Gompertz function using non-linear regression. Descriptors of the curves, such as lag phase duration (LPD), exponential growth rate (EGR) and generation time (GT) were calculated and polynomial models were developed relating these to pH, temperature and salt concentration. The selected cubic polynomial model gave acceptable predictive estimates of growth and was stable, i.e. predictions were repeatable over the range of environmental variables studied. The model was further tested to determine its capacity for predicting growth of listeria in a range of dairy foods and these validation studies confirm its usefulness as a rapid means of estimating growth of the organism under specified environmental conditions.

  1. Vocational College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Professional"Four Phases and Five Steps"Entrepreneurial Training Mode Practice——Take Jiangsu Agri-animal Husbandry Vocational College as an example%高职畜牧兽医专业"四阶段五环节"创业型人才培养模式实践探索——以江苏农牧科技职业学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申峻松; 钱佳蓓; 王利刚; 洪俊

    2015-01-01

    Target of higher vocational education not only to train the employed, but to nurture entrepreneurs, entrepreneur-ship to create more jobs. Jiangsu Agri-animal Husbandry Vocational College makes effective exploration on Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Professional and personnel training, combined with professional edu-cation from entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial skills development starting formation of animal husbandry and vet-erinary professional"four-phase and five aspects"entrepreneurial training model of practice initiatives.%高职教育的目标不但要培养就业者,还要培养创业者,以创业带动更多人就业.江苏农牧科技职业学院对畜牧兽医专业创业型人才培养进行了有效探索,从创业教育结合专业教育,创业技能培养出发,形成了畜牧兽医专业"四阶段五环节"创业型人才培养模式的实践举措.

  2. Depressive-Like Behavioral Response of Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys during Routine Animal Husbandry Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Hennessy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors—lying on the substrate and day time sleeping—that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7 to 14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood.

  3. Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, E C; Morais, A R; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar.

  4. Authenticity assessment of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    The authenticity of dairy products has become a focal point, attracting the attention of scientists, producers, consumers, and policymakers. Among many others, some of the practices not allowed in milk and milk products are the substitution of part of the fat or proteins, admixtures of milk of different species, additions of low-cost dairy products (mainly whey derivatives), or mislabeling of products protected by denomination of origin. A range of analytical methods to detect frauds have been developed, modified, and continually reassessed to be one step ahead of manufacturers who pursue these illegal activities. Traditional procedures to assess the authenticity of dairy products include chromatographic, electrophoretic, and immunoenzymatic methods. New approaches such as capillary electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry have also emerged alongside the latest developments in the former procedures. This work intends to provide an updated and extensive overview since 1991 on the principal applications of all these techniques together with their advantages and disadvantages for detecting the authenticity of dairy products. The scope and limits of different tools are also discussed.

  5. Definition of yearly emission factor of dust and greenhouse gases through continuous measurements in swine husbandry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Annamaria; Guarino, Marcella

    The object of this study was to develop an accurate estimation method to evaluate the contribution of the various compartments of swine husbandry to dust and GHG (greenhouse gases, CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O) emission into the atmosphere during one year of observation. A weaning, a gestation, a farrowing and a fattening room in an intensive pig house were observed in three different periods (Autumn-Winter, Springtime and Summer, monitoring at least 60% of each period (20% at the beginning, in the middle and at the end) of each cycle). During monitoring, live weight, average live weight gain, number of animals and its variation, type of feed and feeding time were taken into account to evaluate their influence on PM 10, or the fraction of suspended particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm [Emission Inventory Guidebook, 2007. B1100 Particle Emissions from Animal Husbandry Activities. Available from: (accessed October 2008)] and to define GHG emission. The selected piggery had a ventilation control system using a free running impeller to monitor continuously real-time environmental and management parameters with an accuracy of 5%. PM 10 concentration was monitored by a sampler (Haz Dust EPAM 5000), either continuously or through traditional gravimetric technique, and the mean value of dust amount collected on the membranes was utilized as a correction factor to be applied to continuously collected data. PM 10 concentration amount incoming from inlets was removed from PM 10 emission calculation, to estimate the real contribution of pig house dust pollution into atmosphere. Mean yearly emission factor of PM 10 was measured in 2 g d -1 LU -1 for the weaning room, 0.09 g d -1 LU -1 for the farrowing room, 2.59 g d -1 LU -1 for the fattening room and 1.23 g d -1 LU -1 for the gestation room. The highest PM 10 concentration and emission per LU was recorded in the fattening compartment while the lowest value was recorded in the farrowing room. CO

  6. A mathematical model to describe the diurnal pattern of enteric methane emissions from non-lactating dairy cows post-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane emission is not only a source of energy loss in ruminants, but also a potent contributor to greenhouse gas production. To identify the nature and timing of interventions to reduce methane emissions requires knowledge of temporal kinetics of methane emissions during animal husbandry. Accordingly, a mathematical model was developed to investigate the pattern of enteric methane emissions after feeding in dairy cows. The model facilitated estimation of total enteric methane emissions (V, g produced by the residual substrate (V1, g and newly ingested feed (V2, g. The model was fitted to the 10 h methane emission patterns after morning feeding of 16 non-lactating dairy cows with various body weights (BW, and the obtained parameters were used to predict the kinetics of 24 h methane emission for each animal. The rate of methane emission (g/h reached a maximum within 1 to 2 h after feeding, followed by a gradual post-prandial decline to a basal value before the next feeding. The model satisfactorily fitted curves for each cow according to the criterion of goodness-of-fit, and provided biological descriptions for fluctuations in methane emissions based on basal V1 and feeding V2 in response to the changes in BW and dry matter intake (DMI of different dairy cows. The basal V1 and feeding V2 are probably maintained by slow- and readily-degradable substrates, respectively. The former contributed at least 0.6 of methane production. In summary, the model provides a means to separate basal V1 and feeding V2 within V, and can be used to predict 24 h emission from a single feeding period.

  7. Improved national calculation procedures to assess energy requirements, nitrogen and VS excretions of dairy cows in the German emission model GAS-EM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus;

    2009-01-01

    The calculation module for the assessment of feed intake and excretion rates of dairy cows in the German agricultural emission model GAS-EM is described in detail. The module includes the description of methane emissions from enteric fermentation as well as the assessment of volatile solids...... matter intake. The results agree well with those obtained from regression models and respective experiments. The model is able to refl ect national and regional peculiarities in dairy cow husbandry. It is an adequate tool for the establishment of emission inventories and for the construction of scenarios...

  8. Development of a rapid SNP-typing assay to differentiate Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis strains used in probiotic-supplemented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonaco, Sara; Furumoto, Emily J; Loquasto, Joseph R; Morra, Patrizia; Grassi, Ausilia; Roberts, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    Identification at the genus, species, and strain levels is desirable when a probiotic microorganism is added to foods. Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BAL) are commonly used worldwide in dairy products supplemented with probiotic strains. However, strain discrimination is difficult because of the high degree of genome identity (99.975%) between different genomes of this subspecies. Typing of monomorphic species can be carried out efficiently by targeting informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Findings from a previous study analyzing both reference and commercial strains of BAL identified SNP that could be used to discriminate common strains into 8 groups. This paper describes development of a minisequencing assay based on the primer extension reaction (PER) targeting multiple SNP that can allow strain differentiation of BAL. Based on previous data, 6 informative SNP were selected for further testing, and a multiplex preliminary PCR was optimized to amplify the DNA regions containing the selected SNP. Extension primers (EP) annealing immediately adjacent to the selected SNP were developed and tested in simplex and multiplex PER to evaluate their performance. Twenty-five strains belonging to 9 distinct genomic clusters of B. animalis ssp. lactis were selected and analyzed using the developed minisequencing assay, simultaneously targeting the 6 selected SNP. Fragment analysis was subsequently carried out in duplicate and demonstrated that the assay yielded 8 specific profiles separating the most commonly used commercial strains. This novel multiplex PER approach provides a simple, rapid, flexible SNP-based subtyping method for proper characterization and identification of commercial probiotic strains of BAL from fermented dairy products. To assess the usefulness of this method, DNA was extracted from yogurt manufactured with and without the addition of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12. Extracted DNA was then subjected to the minisequencing

  9. Feeding measures to reduce nitrogen excretion in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, Sam; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, José M; Messens, Winy; De Brabander, Daniël L

    2009-04-01

    Feeding measures with a potential to improve N efficiency in dairy cattle husbandry were studied at two levels of undegradable protein balance (OEB). In each of the two experiments, two simultaneous Latin squares were conducted, each with three treatments and three lactating Holstein cows. Decreasing the OEB of the diet improved N efficiency and resulted in lower N excretion per kg milk. To avoid a negative effect of the decreased OEB on the production results, spreading the concentrate intake (as TMR or in five meals) seemed to be most promising, although only few significant effects were found. The use of protected protein sources or the addition of clinoptilolite were not successful in improving N-efficiency. The rather well balanced mixed basal diet and the large variation between animals seem to have hampered the assessment of such significant influences.

  10. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, milk and dairy product consumption by children and adolescents in many countries has waned over the past decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source o...

  11. Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-01-01

    Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated the effect of received predation compensation on individual husbandry units’ future herd size. The main findin...

  12. 2nd Nordic NJF Seminar on Reindeer Husbandry Research "Reindeer herding and land use management - Nordic perspectives"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Soppela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd NJF Seminar on Reindeer Husbandry Research was held at the Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland from 19 to 21 October 2014. The seminar was organised under the framework of Reindeer Husbandry Research Section of NJF (Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists, established in 2012. Over 100 Nordic and international delegates including researchers, managers, educators, students and reindeer herders participated in the seminar.

  13. Traditional llama husbandry and breeding management in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markemann, A; Valle Zárate, A

    2010-01-01

    The llama claims the largest population of the domestic South American camelids, most of which are raised in Bolivia. More than 53,000 rural families are dedicated to llama husbandry as part of their livelihood strategy. Contemporary Andean societies deliberately select animals for specific traits and employ substantial livestock management to secure subsistence. This study presents traditional llama husbandry and breeding management activities in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia. Traditional selection traits for male and female llamas are documented and assessed by a ranking and a ratio-scaled evaluation. Husbandry and management parameters are in concordance with other studies conducted in the region, but show a high variation. Average llama herd sizes are rather small (mu = 45.6). In some herds, breeding males are utilized for a long time and mix with other herds, causing concerns about inbreeding. Preferred trait groups for llama males according to farmers' responses were body conformation, fibre, testicle conformation, fleece colour and height at withers. Traditional selection criteria generally relate to the phenotype, but also include the commercially interesting fibre trait. The presented results should be considered in breeding and management programmes for the respective llama population to ensure sustainable use of this genetically and culturally valuable resource.

  14. Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Östlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  15. Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry INR 6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the economic loss to the dairy farmers and dairy industry. Automated methods for early and reliable detection of mastitis are currently in focus under precision dairying. Skin surface temperature is an important indicator for the diagnosis of cow’s illnesses and for the estimation of their physiological status. Infrared thermography (IRT is a simple, effective, on-site, and noninvasive method that detects surface heat, which is emitted as infrared radiation and generates pictorial images without causing radiation exposure. In human and bovine medicine, IRT is used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of normal and physiological status.

  16. Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M; Jeyakumar, S; Manimaran, A; Jayaprakash, G; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Sivaram, M; Ramesha, K P; Das, D N; Kataktalware, Mukund A; Prakash, M Arul; Kumar, R Dhinesh

    2016-10-01

    The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry ₹6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the economic loss to the dairy farmers and dairy industry. Automated methods for early and reliable detection of mastitis are currently in focus under precision dairying. Skin surface temperature is an important indicator for the diagnosis of cow's illnesses and for the estimation of their physiological status. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a simple, effective, on-site, and noninvasive method that detects surface heat, which is emitted as infrared radiation and generates pictorial images without causing radiation exposure. In human and bovine medicine, IRT is used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of normal and physiological status.

  17. Feasibility Study of Moringa Oleifera as a Natural Coagulant for the Treatment of Dairy Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available India is a country of villages with animal husbandry as one of the most important occupations of the rural population. The dairy industry involves processing raw milk into products such as consumer milk, butter, cheese, yogurt, condensed milk, dried milk (milk powder, and ice cream, using processes such as chilling, pasteurization, and homogenization. Dairy effluents contain dissolved sugars and proteins, fats, and possibly residues of additives. The current technology for treating dairy wastewaters typically consists of biological aerobic and anaerobic digestion or facultative digestion. In the present study, a natural coagulant named Moringa Oleifera, was used to treat raw dairy wastewater. The Optimum MO dosage was found for 425, 212 and 150µm to be 300mgL-1, 500mgL-1 and 500mgL-1 respectively. Optimum pH of dairy wastewater to treat by Moringa Oleifera is 7.212µm particle size Moringa Oleifera reduced COD, total solids and oil & grease to 800, 884 and 94.4mgL-1 from its initial value of 2240, 1920 and 636.8mgL-1 respectively when experiments were run under optimum condition.

  18. Perspectives for manure digestion in Dutch dairy cow and pig farms; Perspectieven mestvergisting op Nederlandse melkvee- en varkensbedrijven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dooren, H.J.C.; Van Lent, A.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    At the Research Institute for Animal Husbandry (PV) a desk study has been conducted on the feasibility of anaerobic manure digestion for individual Dutch dairy and pig farms, based on data from the literature, from internet and from contacting experts in the Netherlands and abroad. PV carried out a preliminary study back in 1997, during which a model was developed for calculating the economic impact of manure digestion for various farm scenarios. In the latest study new information was incorporated into the model. The improved model can do calculations for pig farms and can calculate environmental impacts. The calculations assume the total energy from biogas produced by the digestion is used to generate electricity. The investment in the unit must be recouped from the savings made on purchasing electricity and natural gas, and by supplying electricity to the grid. [Dutch] Een bureaustudie is uitgevoerd naar de haalbaarheid van mestvergisting voor Nederlandse melkvee- en varkensbedrijven op basis van gegevens uit literatuur, van internet en via diverse contacten met experts in binnen- en buitenland. In 1997 is reeds een eerste studie uitgevoerd waarin een rekenmodel is ontwikkeld waarmee het economisch effect van mestvergisting voor verschillende bedrijfssituaties berekend kan worden. In deze studie is dit model verder uitgebouwd. Nieuwe kennis is ingebracht, de berekeningen zijn uitgebreid naar varkensbedrijven en berekeningen t.a.v. milieueffecten zijn toegevoegd.

  19. U.S. Dairy at a Global Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Blayney, Donald P.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Bolling, H. Christine; Jones, Keithly G.; Langley, Suchada V.; Normile, Mary Anne; Somwaru, Agapi

    2006-01-01

    Current dynamics in world dairy markets and the potential for global and domestic trade policy reform are bringing the U.S. dairy sector to a new crossroads as it faces competitive forces from outside its borders. Those forces—demand for new products by consumers in industrialized countries, changes in technology, rapid economic growth in emerging developing countries, particularly in Asia, and the increasing role of multinational firms in domestic and global dairy markets—are leading to incr...

  20. The prospect of biogas among small-holder dairy goat farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prospect of biogas among small-holder dairy goat farmers in the Uluguru ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... In Mgeta ward, Morogoro region, introduction of Norwegian dairy goats in the 1980s has ...

  1. Economic and social considerations of breeding for polled dairy cows versus dehorning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy producers today face labor, equipment, and medical costs associated with dehorning heifers. Further, complications requiring veterinary intervention occur with some probability. The objective of this work is to develop preliminary cost estimates of selecting for polled dairy heifers. Stochasti...

  2. 动物伦理学视野中的畜牧业%Animal Husbandry in the View of Animal Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋劲松

    2015-01-01

    Judging from the trend of development in animal ethics, the relationship between man and ani-mals is shifting from taking animals as resources to use to the perception of animals being capable of feeling pain and being equal to the human being. Under the pressure of growing health consciousness, animal protec-tion movements and environmental protection movements, modern animal husbandry, which aims to supply the market with large amounts of meat and pursues quantity-expansion growth, is facing serious trouble and must be thoroughly transformed. Animal husbandry should be gradually transformed from breeding animals to produce meat, leather, wool and other services to developing animal husbandry tourism. Through enabling people to experience communication with animals to obtain economic returns, a sympathetic, healthy, and ecological transformation of animal husbandry can be realized.%从动物伦理学的发展潮流看,人类与动物的关系,正在从把动物作为资源来利用,向把动物作为感知痛苦的生命来保护,甚至把动物当作与人类平等的生命来保护转变。以提供大量肉食为市场目标,追求数量增长型的现代畜牧业,在日益高涨的健康意识、动保运动、环保运动的三重压力下,面临着严重困境,必须彻底转型。畜牧业应该逐步从主要饲养动物以生产肉食、皮革、羊毛等方式来为人类服务,转变为开发观光畜牧业,通过让人们体验与动物的交流来获得经济回报,从而实现实现畜牧业的慈悲、健康、环保转型。

  3. Effect of social housing on the development of feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated how social housing affects pre- and postweaning feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were housed either individually (IH; 10 calves) or in pairs (PH; 10 calves) from birth. Calves were offered grain concentrate and milk replacer ad libitum via an artificial teat (1 teat provided per calf) and weaned by incrementally diluting the milk replacer from 39 to 49 d of age. Postweaning, IH calves were paired within treatment and all pens (n=5 per treatment) were offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum and followed until 13 wk of age. We recorded feeding times from video for 3 consecutive days in wk 6, 9, and 12 of age and used this to calculate daily meal frequency and meal duration. In wk 9 and 12, frequency and duration of synchronized feeding were also calculated. In addition, preference tests were conducted at time of feed delivery in wk 10 to assess the preference of each calf to feed alongside or out of visual contact of their pen mate. Pair-housed calves consumed more concentrate, in more frequent meals, than IH calves in the week before weaning (wk 6) and continued to have greater concentrate intake during weaning. Milk intake was not affected by treatment, but calves in PH pens consumed their milk in more frequent and smaller meals. Postweaning, intake was similar between treatments, but calves raised in PH pens continued to have meals that were more frequent and shorter in duration. Both treatments had a similar frequency of synchronized meals. However, when offered a choice to feed alone or alongside their pen mate during preference testing, calves raised in PH pens spent more time feeding in the presence of their pen mate than calves raised in IH pens. These results suggest that meal patterns established in response to different early social environments may persist after weaning and that early social contact may have longer-term effects on social feeding behavior. Copyright

  4. Dynamic monitoring of reproduction records for dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, C.; Østergaard, S.; Ancker, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended...

  5. Celebration of China's Dairy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ Nowadays, 2.8 million cows are bred in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, making up 20% of the country's total. It's four times of a decade ago. The two advanced cow breeding technologies, frozen sperm and manual-work fecundation, have been introduced in the whole autonomous region. The milk output of per cow has reached over 5 tons. The dairy industry has developed into the top one among the six major industries in Inner Mongolia.

  6. 苹果汁发酵乳饮料的研制%Development of a Fermented Apple Dairy Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢; 简素平; 徐静; 汪海利

    2012-01-01

    A highly nutritional fermented dairy beverage with a unique flavor was prepared with apple juice and milk. As determined by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods based on pH and sensory evaluation score, the optimal fermentation substrate composition was made up of 55% milk, 12% apple juice and 5.5% sucrose, and the optimal fermentation conditions were 3.0% of inoculum size, 5.0 h of fermentation time and 40 °C of fermentation temperature.%以苹果汁和牛奶为原料,以pH值和感官评分为指标,通过单因素和正交试验,确定苹果汁发酵乳的最优配方及工艺参数。产品的最佳配比:牛奶添加量55%、苹果汁添加量12%、蔗糖添加量5.5%。最佳发酵工艺条件:乳酸菌接种量3.0%、发酵时间5.0h、温度40℃。

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROXIMATE MULTIVARIATE TWO-STEP APPROACH FOR THE JOINT GENETIC EVALUATION OF AUSTRIAN AND GERMAN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pfeiffer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate genetic evaluation in modern dairy cattle breeding programs became important in the last decades. The simultaneous estimation of all production and functional traits is still demanding. Different meta-models are used to overcome several constraints. The aim of this study was to conduct an approximate multivariate two-step procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values and yield deviations of five fertility traits of Austrian Pinzgau cattle and to compare results with routinely estimated breeding values. The approximate two-step procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values performed better than the procedure applied to yield deviations. Spearman rank correlations for all animals, sires and cows were between 0.996 and 0.999 for the procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values and between 0.866 and 0.995 for the procedure applied to yield deviations. The results are encouraging to move from the currently used selection index in routine genetic evaluation towards an approximate two-step procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values.

  8. Development of a preliminary diagnostic measure for bovine leukosis in dairy cows using peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISHIIKE, Masao; HAOKA, Michiyo; DOI, Takashi; KOHDA, Tomoko; MUKAMOTO, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the association between antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV), BLV proviral load, and white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts was performed with 774 dairy cows. The average age, WBC counts and lymphoid cell counts tended to be higher in BLV antibody-positive cows than in antibody-negative cows. There was a similar trend in levels of proviral DNA. We analyzed age, WBC counts and lymphocyte counts by principal component analyses to create a distribution chart of the principle component scores. Using the chart, we categorized cows into four quadrants based on additional information, such as the presence of antibody and the levels of proviral DNA. Antibody-positive cows and cows with high BLV proviral load were found mostly in one quadrant of the chart, indicating that it is possible to predict the risk of infection without any knowledge on antibody status by using information, such as WBC counts as a biomarker. When only antibody-positive cows were included in the analysis, a characteristic distribution of different levels of proviral DNA was seen in the quadrants, suggesting that it is possible to estimate the extent of bovine leukosis infection by using this analysis. For this analysis and categorization of the cows into quadrants, we computed a mathematical formulation using discriminant analysis based on age and WBC and lymphocyte counts. This mathematical formulation for the hematological preliminary diagnosis of the disease is recommended as a screening tool to monitor bovine leukosis. PMID:27064146

  9. Evaluation of a potentially probiotic non-dairy beverage developed with honey and kefir grains: Fermentation kinetics and storage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorda, Fernanda A; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto V; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Rakshit, Sudip K; Soccol, Carlos R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the fermentation process of honey with kefir grains through a comprehensive understanding of its rheological properties, probiotic cell viability, instrumental color parameters and kinetic aspects in a batch bioreactor and during storage. The results showed that kefir grains were well adapted to bioreactor conditions, reaching high levels of cell viability (over 10(6) CFU mL(-1) for total yeast and bacteria), phenolic compounds content (190 GAE/100 g) and acidification after 24 h of fermentation at 30 ℃. Colorimetric analysis showed that lightness (L*) and redness (a*) remained constant, while yellowness intensities (b*) decreased during fermentation time. After 35 days of storage, honey kefir beverage maintained its chemical characteristics and microbial viability as required to be classified as a probiotic product. The Ostwald-de-Waele (R(2 )≥ 0.98) and Herschel-Bulkley (R(2 )≥ 0.99) models can be used to predict the behavior of honey kefir beverage. The parameters analyzed in this study should be taken into account for industrial production of this novel non-dairy beverage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. 乳品中有害微生物的检测技术和发展方向%Detection Technology and Development Direction of Harmful Microorganism in Dairy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维平

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, China's dairy safety incidents occurred frequently, the vast majority of which are caused by large-scale dairy poisoning incidents due to pathogenic bacteria. Common pathogenic bacteria in dairy are salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli and campylobacter jejuni. The study from the perspective of food security, made a systematic introduction of the major high hazard dairy pathogens and the development direction of current detection methods of harmful microorganisms.%近几年来,中国的乳品安全事件屡屡发生,在所发生的乳品安全事件中,绝大多数都是由于污染致病菌引起的大规模乳品中毒事件。在乳品中较为常见的病原菌检测品种有沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、空肠弯曲菌等。本研究从食品安全的角度出发,较为系统地介绍了乳品中主要的高危害致病菌以及当前乳品中有害微生物的检测方法、乳品中微生物检测技术的发展方向。

  11. Learning from nature: bottlenose dolphin care and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Randall S

    2009-11-01

    The world's longest-running study of a wild dolphin population, operated by the Chicago Zoological Society since 1989, has focused on the multi-generational resident community of about 160 bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, since 1970. Observational and capture-release research on the biology, behavior, life history, ecology, and health of individually identifiable bay residents of up to 59 years of age and spanning five generations has helped to inform collection managers at the Brookfield Zoo and partner institutions. Age, sex, and genetic compositions of colonies at cooperating institutions have been based on observations of social structure and genetic paternity testing in Sarasota Bay to optimize breeding success. Breeding success, including calf survivorship, is evaluated relative to individual wild dolphin reproductive histories, spanning as many as nine calves and four decades. Individual rearing patterns for wild dolphins provide guidance for determining how long to keep mothers and calves together, and help to define the next steps in the calves' social development. Health assessments provide data on expected ranges of blood, milk and urine values, morphometrics, and body condition relative to age, sex, and reproductive condition. Calf growth can be compared with wild values. Target weights and blubber thicknesses for specific age and sex classes in specified water temperatures are available for wild dolphins, and caloric intakes can be adjusted accordingly to meet the targets. A strength of the program is the ability to monitor individuals throughout their lives, and to be able to define individual ranges of variability through ontogenetic stages.

  12. Husbandry risk factors associated with subclinical coccidiosis in young cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E S E; Smith, R P; Ellis-Iversen, J

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an observational longitudinal study of cattle farms in England and Wales, which aimed to identify management practices associated with the presence of Eimeria spp. infection in young cattle. Thirty cattle farms situated in England and Wales were selected and one group of more than 20 young cattle aged 5-18 months of age was monitored on each farm. Three variables were identified as significantly associated with status in a multivariable model. The odds of finding Eimeria spp. were lower on farms that kept sheep on the same premises as the cattle, as was an increase in the maximum age within the sampled group. The latter probably reflects the development of post-infection immunity within the sampled animals. Good water-trough hygiene protected against Eimeria spp. oocyst excretion, with the odds of detection being higher on farms where it was reported that the water troughs were not cleaned and emptied more than once per month. The value of frequent emptying and cleaning of water troughs in reducing the exposure of calves to Eimeria spp. and thus lowering the impact of coccidiosis, both clinical and subclinical should be communicated to cattle farmers. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation on Appropriate Dairy Developing Mode in Chinese Central Plains Economic Region%中原经济区奶牛适宜发展模式的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林枫; 杨改青; 陈宇; 谭伟杰; 蒋潇涵; 申远航; 宋丰; 刘占秦

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the feature of dairy farm in Chinese Central Plains Economic Region(CCPER) and take specific developing measure.Some scale dairy farms in CCPER were investigated,including Henan,Hebei,Shandong,Shanxi and Anhui provinces.The investigative information covered feeds supply,waste treatment and utilization,scale size,and dairy managing mode,etc.Based on the investigation.The advantages and disadvantages of different scale size and dairy managing modes were compared.After analyzing,we put forward several reference proposals to the administrative department in making dairy advancing policy in the future.%为深入了解中原经济区的规模化奶牛场特点,采取有针对性的奶业发展措施,通过对中原经济区内河南、河北、山东、山西、安徽等地各种类型规模化奶牛场的调查,在了解规模化奶牛场发展现状的基础上,对奶牛场的饲料供给、粪污处理、适宜规模、经营模式等方面进行了详细分析,提出了规模化奶牛场适宜的发展规模和经营模式,供有关部门制定奶业政策时参考.

  14. Sustainability of dairy farming location in the auckland region, new zealand

    OpenAIRE

    KIKUCHI, Toshio

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the author discussed about distribution and locational changes of factory and town milk supply dairy farms in the Auckland region and tried to make clear sustainability of dairy farming location. The location of factory milk supply dairy farms expanded outward and moved out to peripheral areas of this region, because dairying environments were deteriorating with the development of subdivision, the increase of property tax and the expansion of residential areas. Although the prop...

  15. Stochastic simulation using @Risk for dairy business investment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.D.; Boehlje, M.D.; Gray, A.W.; Hogeveen, H.; Kenyon, S.J.; Eicher, S.D.; Schutz, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm sy

  16. Inverse association between dairy intake and hypertension: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Schouten, E.G.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effect of different types of dairy food products on the development of hypertension. Objective: The objective was to determine whether the incidence of hypertension in older Dutch subjects is associated with intake of dairy products. Design: We examined the rela

  17. Stochastic Simulation Using @ Risk for Dairy Business Investment Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business was developed to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm system within a partial budgeting fram...

  18. Scenarios for a future dairy chain in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeter, R.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess qualitatively, through a participatory approach, the potential for increasing the value added in the Dutch dairy production chain. A workshop involving stakeholders and experts in the Dutch dairy sector developed three scenarios, envisioned according to the

  19. Inverse association between dairy intake and hypertension: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Schouten, E.G.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effect of different types of dairy food products on the development of hypertension. Objective: The objective was to determine whether the incidence of hypertension in older Dutch subjects is associated with intake of dairy products. Design: We examined the rela

  20. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  1. Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-08-01

    Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated the effect of received predation compensation on individual husbandry units' future herd size. The main finding in this study is that predation compensation had a positive effect on husbandry units' future herd size. The effect of predation compensation, however, was nonlinear in some years, indicating that predation compensation had a positive effect on future herd size only up to a certain threshold whereby adding additional predation compensation had little effect on future herd size. More importantly, the effect of predation compensation was positive after controlling for reindeer density, indicating that for a given reindeer density husbandry units receiving more predation compensation performed better (measured as the size of future herds) compared to husbandry units receiving less compensation.

  2. Dairy production medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risco, Carlos A; Melendez Retamal, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    ... Insemination José Eduardo P . Santos Applications of Ultrasonography in Dairy Cattle Reproductive Management Jill D. Colloton 3 7 19 27 33 73 81 99 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Diseases that Affect the Reprod...

  3. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  4. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  5. Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Doreen; Schmid, Alexandra

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin B12 is synthesized exclusively by microorganisms; therefore, humans must absorb it from food. Excellent sources of B12 are foods of ruminant origin, so dairy and meat products play an important role in efforts to meet the official daily B12 intake recommendation of 3.0 μg. Concentrations of the vitamin vary within foods of ruminant origin, with the highest concentrations found in offal such as liver and kidney. In comparison, dairy products have much lower quantities of the vitamin. In bovine milk, the B12 concentration is stable with regard to breed, feed, season, and stage of lactation, but in ruminant meat, the amount of B12 can vary based on the feeding and husbandry of the animal as well as the cut of meat chosen and its preparation. Processing of ruminant food, including thermal treatment, usually diminishes the vitamin B12 concentration. This review summarizes the vitamin B12 content of foods and discusses the impact of food processing on vitamin content. The contribution of ruminant food sources to B12 intake is specifically evaluated, with its bioavailability taken into account. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt J Gron

    Full Text Available New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C. site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

  7. Dilemmas and Solutions of Urban Animal Husbandry in Shanghai%上海都市畜牧业的困境与出路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春燕; 黄国桢; 周培

    2013-01-01

    In order to answer whehter it is possible to develop aninal husbandary in urban areas and how to perform,the husbandary product scale fluctuaion,contradiction between husbandary products supply and envriotnemtal pollution,and the double-side impacts of aminal husbanadry on envrionment in Shanghai were investigated,the dilemmas and the solutions of urban aninal husbandary development in Shanghai were figured out as well.The investigation showed that the transformation of processing model from environmental pollution into ecological protection is the way out of urban animal husbandry in Shanghai.Ecological protection husbandry requires the rational plan of stock farms and need to follow the rules of waste recycling and reuse linking farming and husbandry at macro level.The rational plan of stock farms need to consider not only the allocated area of farming land for husbandry based on its ecological carrying capability,but also the spacial structure feature of urban farming which is ‘ short range centralised and wide range scattered',and to choose the location according to ‘farming and husbandry combined units'.The waste recycling and reuse system has three mechanisms according to individual market operators:closed self-circulation,closed external-circulation and open circulation.%为回答都市畜牧业能否发展、怎样发展的问题,对上海主要畜产品产业规模波动、畜产品保障供给与畜牧业环境污染的矛盾和畜牧业对环境的双刃剑作用进行分析,揭示了上海都市畜牧业的困境与出路.研究表明上海都市畜牧业的出路在于由环境污染型转变为生态维护型.生态维护型都市畜牧业在宏观层面需要进行畜牧场的合理规划布局和建立种养结合废弃物循环利用机制.畜牧场的合理规划布局不仅需要以土地承载力为基础对养殖场合理配置农田面积,还需要考虑都市农区“小集中,大分散”的空间格局特征,按照“种养结合单元

  8. A survey of husbandry practices for lorisid primates in North American zoos and related facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Grace; Kuhar, Christopher W; Dennis, Patricia M; Lukas, Kristen E

    2013-01-01

    Zoos and related facilities in North America currently manage five species in the primate family Lorisidae: the greater (Nycticebus coucang), Bengal (N. bengalensis) and pygmy (N. pygmaeus) slow lorises, red slender loris (Loris tardigradus), and potto (Perodicticus potto). We used an online survey to describe institutional housing and husbandry practices for these species and assess the extent to which practices are consistent with established guidelines. Our results show that most captive lorisids are housed solitarily or in pairs. Most individuals occupy a single exhibit space in a building dedicated to nocturnal animals. Facilities are commonly meeting recommendations for abiotic exhibit design and are providing animals with an enriched environment. However, pottos and slender lorises currently occupy exhibit spaces smaller than the recommended minimum, and the impact of cleaning protocols on olfactory communication should be critically evaluated. Few facilities are taking advantage of the benefits of positive reinforcement training for promoting animal welfare. Research is greatly needed on the effects of exhibit lighting on behavior, health, and reproduction; and to determine how best to manage the social needs of lorisids with naturally dispersed social structures. Although captive populations of slender lorises, pottos, and slow lorises are declining, we suggest that improved husbandry knowledge has the potential to positively influence population sustainability and to enhance future efforts to manage the growing pygmy loris population. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Problems and challenges for user participation: The system of representation in reindeer husbandry in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Ulvevadet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a case study of reindeer husbandry management in Norway. I argue that the inclusion of resource users in a co-management process may at times increase social tension and weaken the system of governance. The co-management experience indicates that the system works well in most areas. However, because of the differences in contextual circumstances, the system suffers from a legitimacy deficit with respect to how representatives are appointed and how interests are distributed among the various boards. The study argues that even if policies and institutions are adapted to local contexts, there may be a need for a stronger connection between the co-management boards and other institutions, such as the Sami Parliament and the Reindeer Husbandry Administration. Specifically, I argue that instead of increasing legitimacy through equal user-group representation in management decision making, the very structures of the system—in particular, nominations and appointments—may lead to unequal user-group representation and thus threaten the success of the management system.

  10. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hawkins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as welfare, because experimental confounds due to physiological and psychological stress will be minimised.

  11. Modifications to husbandry and housing conditions of laboratory rodents for improved well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Abigail L; Corrow, Dorcas J

    2005-01-01

    For a change to be considered enriching, the change must enhance animal welfare and improve biological functioning of the animals. A review of the literature shows that a consensus on the definition of changes constituting "environmental enrichment" has yet to be reached. For this reason, the results of studies on the effects of rodent enrichment are inconsistent. In many cases, changes have not been shown to be real improvements. However, enrichment is increasingly appreciated as a way to improve the well-being of rodents, providing them with opportunities for species-specific behaviors that might be available to them in the wild. Frequently defined as "change to the environment," enrichment can be as complex as devices (frequently termed "toys") or as simple as the provision of tissues from which mice readily construct nests. Nest making is a learned behavior in rats, and laboratory rats do show preferences for chewable objects in their environment. Rather than attempting a comprehensive review of the entire literature on environmental enrichment and its effects on rodent physiology and behavior, this paper focuses on husbandry and housing alterations that may improve the welfare of laboratory rodents. The effects of beneficial changes in housing and husbandry on rodent well-being and on experimental variability--and thus cost--are discussed. Areas that require more research are suggested. Also suggested are possible inexpensive and effective enrichment schemes for laboratory mice that might include reducing the cage floor space per mouse combined with providing nesting material.

  12. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of the Competitiveness’ assessment of dairy industry at the Ukraine’s dairy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy Shkarlet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical foundation of the assessment urgency of the competitiveness in the current market conditions. Put the competitive assessment of three enterprises of Ukraine’s dairy industry. Enterprise must clearly understand the extent in which it is competitive at the market and can compared with the competitors. The high competitiveness standard is a guarantee of high performance obtaining and ensuring of survival at the strict conditions of a market economy. The competitiveness is an abstract but not exact quantity, which greatly complicates the assessment process. Dairy is one of the leading in food industry. Dairy products are vitally important for everyone; therefore it’s necessary to pay special attention to the development of industry. The assessment of competitiveness will facilitate to the development of dairy industry in general. In the article compute the integral competitiveness index for three enterprises of dairy industry, and put the SWOT-analysis of leading company and least competitive enterprise

  13. The Canadian National Dairy Study 2015-Adoption of milking practices in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Bauman, C; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F

    2017-03-16

    Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms. A bilingual questionnaire measuring use of various practices, including an udder health-specific section, was developed and sent to all Canadian dairy farms. The questions in the udder health section of the questionnaire were adapted from a bilingual questionnaire previously validated and containing questions regarding general milking hygiene and routine, and on-farm mastitis management. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate simple associations between adoption of practices and various explanatory variables including region, milking system, herd size, and bulk tank somatic cell count. In total, 1,373 dairy producers completed the survey. The regional distribution of the participants was representative of the Canadian dairy farm population, and milk quality was, on average, similar to nonparticipants. Overall, Canadian dairy producers followed the recommendations for milking procedures, but some were more extensively used than others. Fore-stripping, cleaning teats, wiping teats dry, using single-cow towels, and use of postmilking teat disinfectant were widely adopted. Use of gloves and glove hygiene, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, and use of automatic takeoffs were not as extensively implemented. Adoption percentages for several practices, including use of gloves, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, teat drying methods, and use of automatic takeoffs were significantly associated with milking system, herd size, and region. It

  14. A partnership of universities and agri-business for an effective dairy herd management learning experience for undergraduates: the Dairy Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber Nielsen, M S; Domecq, J J; Davis, L E; Beede, D K; Budine, M; Martsolf, F

    2003-03-01

    The Dairy Challenge contest allows undergraduate students to apply knowledge gained in the classroom in an evaluation of the management practices of commercial dairy farms. University faculty partnered with industry representatives to develop the competition. Participants in the Dairy Challenge do the following: 1) critically evaluate dairy herd management practices and make recommendations for improvements; 2) visit local dairy farms and gain knowledge of different farms' management practices; 3) meet and interact with potential employers from the dairy industry during the contest; 4) evaluate herd records and utilize knowledge of dairy herd management software and computer presentation tools; 5) test their speaking, presentation, and problem-solving skills; and 6) work as a team to build consensus and tag-team speaking formats. Teams of four undergraduate students critically evaluate a commercial dairy farm using herd records, a description of farm operations, and tour of the farm facilities. The farmer answers questions pertaining to management of the farm in a group interview with all teams and in a separate interview with each individual team. Teams give a 20-min presentation that is scored on the description and assessment of the management practices and recommendations for improvements in management and facilities. Additionally, scoring is based on apparent level of preparation, speaking, presentation skills, and responses to judges' questions. The judges are university specialists and dairy industry professionals. This capstone experience allows students to interact with dairy farmers and representatives from the dairy industry and expands their knowledge and skills gained during their academic career.

  15. Dairy Tool Box Talks: A Comprehensive Worker Training in Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Maristela; Carroll, Heidi; Foos, Rebecca; Erickson, Tracey; Garcia, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Today's dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to the lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers, and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote "best practices" and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee's language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort, and personal safety. The "Dairy Tool Box Talks" program was conducted over a 10-week period with nine sessions according to farm's various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell counts were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program. "Dairy Tool Box Talks" resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of elevated blood pressure and consumption of dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, R A; Lee, J H; Truby, H; Palermo, C E; Walker, K Z

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health priority in developed countries and worldwide, and is strongly associated with increased risk and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to examine the association between dairy food intake during adulthood and the development of elevated blood pressure (EBP), specifically comparing the association of EBP with consumption of low-fat dairy foods versus high-fat dairy foods, as well as cheese versus fluid dairy foods (milk or yogurt). Seven databases were searched and five cohort studies selected for inclusion, involving nearly 45,000 subjects and 11,500 cases of EBP. Meta-analysis of consumption of dairy foods and EBP in adults gave a relative risk (RR) of 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.94). Separation of high- and low-fat dairy foods, however, indicated a significant association with low-fat dairy foods only (RR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.74-0.95)). Additional analyses showed no association between EBP and cheese, although fluid dairy foods were significantly associated with a reduced development in EBP (RR of 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.98)). Little heterogeneity was observed among the data presented. This meta-analysis supports the inverse association between low-fat dairy foods and fluid dairy foods and risk of EBP. Understanding these relationships can aid in the development of public health messages involving dairy foods, and supports current recommendations.

  17. 湖北省畜牧业内部生产结构探索及总产值预测%Exploration of the Internal Production Structure of Animal Husbandry in Hubei Province and Prediction of Its Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊

    2011-01-01

    To fully understand the developmental actuality of animal husbandry in Hubei Province, and promote its faster and better development.This paper used the hierarchical clustering method to analyze the structure of animal products and animal species in Hubei Province while starts the theoretical study, and used the gray system to predict the total output value of animal husbandry in 2009-2012 in Hubei Province.The results show that animal husbandry in Hubei Province mainly breeds pigs, poultry, beef cattle and sheep, and keeps horses, donkeys, mules and other livestock species, and also output a small amount of wool, silk cocoons and honey products and so on, with great development potential, and the output is in the steadily increasing trend.Recommending to optimize the internal production structure of animal husbandry in the province, and to implement an integration of the production, processing, circulation, to accelerate the pace of development of animal husbandry.%为充分认识湖北省畜牧业发展现状,促进其更快更好发展.在展开理论研究的同时,运用层次聚类法对省内畜产品结构和畜种结构进行了分析,运用灰色系统对湖北省2009-2012年畜牧业总产值进行了预测.结果显示,湖北省畜牧业以发展生猪、家禽、肉牛和肉羊养殖为主,以畜养马、驴、骡等多元畜禽种类为目标,同时还产出少量羊毛、蚕茧和蜂蜜等产品,具有较大发展潜力,且畜牧业总产值呈逐年稳定增长趋势;建议应不断优化省内畜牧业内部生产结构,实行生产、加工、流通一体经营等,以加快畜牧业发展速度.

  18. Therapeutic potential of dairy bioactive peptides: A contemporary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Saira; Huma, Nuzhat; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Aleem, Muhammad; Abbas, Munawar

    2016-02-06

    Dairy products are associated with numerous health benefits. These are a good source of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein (bioactive peptides), lipids, minerals, and vitamins, which are essential for growth, development, and maintenance of the human body. Accordingly, dairy bioactive peptides are one of the targeted compounds present in different dairy products. Dairy bioactive compounds can be classified as antihypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmunomodulant, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, opoid, anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity, and mineral-binding agents, depending upon biological functions. These bioactive peptides can easily be produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, and during fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. For this reason, fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, cheese, and sour milk, are gaining popularity worldwide, and are considered excellent source of dairy peptides. Furthermore, fermented and non-fermented dairy products are associated with lower risks of hypertension, coagulopathy, stroke, and cancer insurgences. The current review article is an attempt to disseminate general information about dairy peptides and their health claims to scientists, allied stakeholders, and, certainly, readers.

  19. Unraveling innovation platforms – Insights from co-evolution of innovation in a smallholder dairy development program in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilelu, C.W.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Leeuwis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Challenges facing agricultural development, particularly in developing countries dominated by smallholder farming are increasingly framed in the context of weak innovation systems and capacities in the growing literature on agricultural innovation systems. Innovation systems (IS) approaches emphasiz

  20. Animal Husbandry Production Pollution%畜牧业生产对生态环境的污染及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刑廷铣

    2001-01-01

    畜禽粪尿、畜牧场的污水和臭气以及由排泄物残留而来的矿物元素和其它废弃物给生态环境带来直接污染;由农畜产品残留而来的农药、重金属元素、抗生素、激素和霉菌素等给生态环境带来间接污染。这些污染物通过污染土壤、水源和大气而危害农作物生产和人畜健康,甚至诱发严重的畜产品污染事件。为防止畜牧业污染,必须制订一个正确的畜牧业发展战略,采取有效的防治对策,并开发应用防治技术,建立综合式生态农业生产体系,从而达到畜牧业的持续发展。%The direct pollution on eco-environment are from feces and urine from animals and poultry,sewage water and odor from farms as well as residual mineral elements from animal excretion and other wastes.The indirect pollution on eco-environment come from residual pesticides,heavy metal elements, antibiotics, hormones and mold toxins from animal husbandry products. Polluting soil,water source and air ,these pollutants endanger the crop production and the health of human and animal,and even result in serious pollution of animal-husbandry products. To prevent this pllution,it is necessary to make up a correct developing strategy for animal husbandry production, take the effective measures to prevent and control,develop treatment technology,and establish a comprehensive eco-agriculture production system so as to achieve sustainable development.

  1. Dairy products and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Johanna W

    2011-10-01

    Cancer is a group of more than 100 diseases in which cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion, and sometimes metastasis. Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients and several bioactive constituents that may influence cancer risk and progression. Much of the focus of human, population-based studies has been on the effects of intake of milk and total dairy products or of calcium intake. Based on a systematic review of the epidemiologic literature, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research report concluded there was a probable association between milk intake and lower risk of colorectal cancer, a probable association between diets high in calcium and increased risk of prostate cancer, and limited evidence of an association between milk intake and lower risk of bladder cancer. For other cancers, the evidence was mixed or lacking. Since the 2007 report, several additional, large-cohort studies have been published, including two that show an inverse association between intake of cultured dairy products and bladder cancer. Little is known about the potential effect of various bioactives produced during rumen microbe metabolism on cancer risk. Furthermore, studies support a role of live microbes present in some dairy products in the modulation of the human gut microbial community and gut metabolism. Given the growing appreciation for the role of the gut microbial community in relation to immune function and health and disease, including cancer, the potential role of various dairy products in the modulation of the human gut microbiome warrants further evaluation. Key teaching points: As a dietary exposure, dairy products are a complex group of foods and composition varies by region, which makes evaluation of their association with disease risk difficult. For most cancers, associations between cancer risk and intake of milk and dairy products have been examined only in a small number of cohort studies, and data are inconsistent or

  2. A comprehensive dairy valorization model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaszewska, A.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Kampman, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensi

  3. Silage Quality and Dairy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    High quality silages are often the keystone of rations for dairy cows. Rations for dairy animals may contain 10 to 90%; therefore silage quality, which encompasses all silage characteristics that impact animal performance, is often crucial in meeting the nutrient requirements for dairy production. N...

  4. Dairy innovations over the past 100 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H

    2009-09-23

    The dairy industry in the United States has undergone many changes over the past century. Adulteration and contamination of milk were rampant before the passage and enforcement of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, and the introduction and eventual acceptance of certified and pasteurized milk have provided consumers with a consistently safe product. Homogenization and advances in the packaging and transport of milk gradually took hold, improving the milk supply. Other developments included the concentration of milk and whey, lactose-reduced milk, and the popularization of yogurt. Consumers have benefited from advances in butter packaging, low-fat ice cream, cheese manufacture, and yogurt technology, which has helped create the large demand for dairy products in the United States. Current trends and issues, including the increasing popularity of organic and artisanal products and the use of rBST, will shape the future of the dairy industry.

  5. Characterisation of adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Baltenweck, I; Duncan, A J

    2017-04-01

    While there is a general consensus that using dairy technologies, such as improved breeds of dairy cows, can substantially increase farm productivity and income, adoption of such technologies has been generally low in developing countries. The underlying reasons for non-adoption of beneficial technologies in the dairy sector are not fully understood. In this study, we characterised adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya based on farmers' resources ownership in order to identify why many farmers in Ethiopia and Kenya have not adopted improved dairy technologies. As compared to non-adopters, farmers who adopt dairy technology own relatively more farm resources. The result signals that differences in resource endowments could lead to divergent technology adoption scenarios. Results show that a higher proportion of sample smallholders in Kenya have adopted dairy technologies than those in Ethiopia. Except for the use of veterinary services, fewer than 10% of sample farmers in Ethiopia have adopted dairy technologies-less than half the number of adopters in Kenya. The higher level of dairy technology adoption in Kenya can be ascribed partly to the long history of dairy development, including improvements in the value chain for the delivery of inputs, services and fluid milk marketing. Interventions that deal with the constraints related to access to farm resources and input and output markets could facilitate uptake of dairy technology in developing countries.

  6. Study on the circular economy of dairy industry in Hohhot,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Shouxian; Lu Chunxia; Zhang Lei

    2008-01-01

    On August 8,2005,Hohhot was awarded the title of"Chinese Dairy Capital".Now dairy industry is one of the pillar industries in Hohhot,with strong driving effect to the development of social economy.However,the sustainahle development of dairy indus'try in Hohhot is threatened hy rapid scale expansion and restriction of environmental supporting capacity.In accord with the ideas and requirements of the circular economy theory,this paper analyzes dairy industry pattern from two aspects and establishes the industry system.The dairy industry mainly consists of cow breeding and dairy,process.The cireular economy must set about from the two aspects.For the most part,dairy processing should start from the two most key links,namely packing and water using.

  7. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5-8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21-35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows.

  8. Development of a decision support system for individual dairy farms in mixed irrigated farming systems in the Nile delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabana, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The principal animal production system in Egypt is the mixed crop-livestock production system with a semi-intensive/semi-commercial orientation. The development strategies emphasized in this study contribute to the development and implementation of improved technologies.The role and place of the liv

  9. Development of Fourier transform mid-infrared calibrations to predict acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, and citrate contents in bovine milk through a European dairy network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelet, C; Bastin, C; Gelé, M; Davière, J-B; Johan, M; Werner, A; Reding, R; Fernandez Pierna, J A; Colinet, F G; Dardenne, P; Gengler, N; Soyeurt, H; Dehareng, F

    2016-06-01

    To manage negative energy balance and ketosis in dairy farms, rapid and cost-effective detection is needed. Among the milk biomarkers that could be useful for this purpose, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) have been proved as molecules of interest regarding ketosis and citrate was recently identified as an early indicator of negative energy balance. Because Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry can provide rapid and cost-effective predictions of milk composition, the objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of this technology to predict these biomarkers in milk. Milk samples were collected in commercial and experimental farms in Luxembourg, France, and Germany. Acetone, BHB, and citrate contents were determined by flow injection analysis. Milk mid-infrared spectra were recorded and standardized for all samples. After edits, a total of 548 samples were used in the calibration and validation data sets for acetone, 558 for BHB, and 506 for citrate. Acetone content ranged from 0.020 to 3.355mmol/L with an average of 0.103mmol/L; BHB content ranged from 0.045 to 1.596mmol/L with an average of 0.215mmol/L; and citrate content ranged from 3.88 to 16.12mmol/L with an average of 9.04mmol/L. Acetone and BHB contents were log-transformed and a part of the samples with low values was randomly excluded to approach a normal distribution. The 3 edited data sets were then randomly divided into a calibration data set (3/4 of the samples) and a validation data set (1/4 of the samples). Prediction equations were developed using partial least square regression. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) of cross-validation was 0.73 for acetone, 0.71 for BHB, and 0.90 for citrate with root mean square error of 0.248, 0.109, and 0.70mmol/L, respectively. Finally, the external validation was performed and R(2) obtained were 0.67 for acetone, 0.63 for BHB, and 0.86 for citrate, with respective root mean square error of validation of 0.196, 0.083, and 0.76mmol/L. Although

  10. Husbandry streaa during early life stages affects the stress response and health status of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varsamos, S.; Flik, G.; Pepin, S.E.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Breuil, G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In aquaculture management it is important to establish objective criteria to assess health and welfare of the fish. Here we show that European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) confronted with husbandry-associated stress (tank cleaning, i.e. scrubbing, and water temperature variation) during

  11. 中职畜牧兽医专业实践性教学创新分析%Innovative Analysis on Practical Teaching of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Specialty in Secondary Vocational School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜海琴

    2016-01-01

    目前我国各种类型的农业类院校都设有畜牧业相关专业,畜牧兽医专业也不再是民众心中所想的传统专业,随着科学技术的不断进步,现代农业的不断深化,其领域的专业性早已改变了民众对其陈旧的观念,其行业依然要求高素质、高能力的全面性人才。而今诸多职业院校农业类专业的传统教学模式教学方法严重制约了畜牧业专业人才的培养进度,并且造成恶性循环,使其专业的深入发展停滞不前。本文通过对当今中职校畜牧兽医专业教学模式教学理念的具体分析,综合主观及客观的各方面因素,就中职校畜牧兽医专业教学给予创新型指导性意见。%At present in various types of Colleges of agriculture with animal husbandry industry, animal husbandry and vet-erinary professionals is no longer the traditional professional people think, with the continuous progress of science and tech-nology, the deepening of modern agriculture, the field of professional has changed people to their old ideas, the industry still requires a comprehensive talents with high quality, high capability. Now many professional colleges and universities of tradi-tional teaching mode of agricultural professional teaching methods have seriously restricted the progress of the training of pro-fessional talents of animal husbandry, and caused a vicious circle, so that the depth of its professional development. In this pa-per, through the concrete analysis of the teaching philosophy of Modern Vocational School of animal husbandry and veterinary professional teaching mode, subjective and objective aspects factors Sino Vocational School of animal husbandry and veterin-ary professional teaching given innovative guidance.

  12. Transformation of the dairy industry toward sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, Natapol; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Spaargaren, Gert

    2016-01-01

    After decades of promoting organic agriculture, organic dairy production and consumption have been widely embraced by industrialized countries and have recently emerged in newly industrialized countries, although they take different shapes in different countries. In this article, the development

  13. Characteristics of a Dairy Process under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    was evaluated with a minimization of the process pasteurization and cooling temperatures through vertex enumeration method. The quantitative analysis of the dairy process established a framework in developing of different flexible units, such as integrated milk and milk-based product productions, multi-task...

  14. Transformation of the dairy industry toward sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, Natapol; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Spaargaren, Gert

    2016-01-01

    After decades of promoting organic agriculture, organic dairy production and consumption have been widely embraced by industrialized countries and have recently emerged in newly industrialized countries, although they take different shapes in different countries. In this article, the development

  15. Farming or seasonal migration? - Potential futures of reindeer husbandry in Fennoscandia studied with Social-Ecological System (SES) approach, co-production of knowledge, and scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käyhkö, Jukka; Horstkotte, Tim; Vehmas, Jarmo; Forbes, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The area allocated for reindeer husbandry in Finland, Sweden and Norway covers approximately 40 % of each country. As the livelihood requires large, relatively unfragmented territories while being marginal in terms of direct income, land-use conflicts between various livelihoods and activities, such as forestry, agriculture, mining, energy production, tourism, and nature protection are common phenomena in the region. Simultaneously, rapid societal change, urban exodus and fading traditions as well as climate warming and subsequent ecosystem change may put the livelihood at stake. We have probed potential futures of reindeer husbandry in Northern Fennoscandia using the Social-Ecological System (SES) approach, knowledge co-production in stakeholder-scientist workshops in all three countries, and scenario building based on quantitative data and narratives. Regarding the future of the livelihood, we have identified some crucial components in the SES that are influential in determining the direction of development. We produced four potential pathways of future development and demonstrate that important factors controlling the direction of development include governance and actor relations. Governance is often considered distant and opaque by local stakeholders, fostering conflicts in land allocation, while unclear regulations at local level reinforce emerging conflict situations leading to distrust and restrained communication between the actors. Regionally, these conflicts may lead to decreased resilience and threaten the future of the livelihood altogether. Therefore, research should focus on supporting the reform process of institutional arrangements and governance mechanisms, and fostering co-design and co-production processes that ease distrust and improve resilience of the livelihood in multifunctional landscapes.

  16. Unraveling innovation platforms – Insights from co-evolution of innovation in a smallholder dairy development program in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Challenges facing agricultural development, particularly in developing countries dominated by smallholder farming are increasingly framed in the context of weak innovation systems and capacities in the growing literature on agricultural innovation systems. Innovation systems (IS) approaches emphasize the collective dimension of innovation pointing to the need to effect necessary linkages and interaction among multiple actors. IS thinking also pays attention to the co-evolution of innovation p...

  17. A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations.

  18. Planning of dairy farm and dairy plant based ecotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyoto, A. S.; Tama, I. P.; Tantrika, C. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    One of a dairy production company producing pasteurized milk and yoghurt drink, whose brand has widely known in East Java, has a factory plant in Batu City, one of tourism destinations in Indonesia. Behind the factory plant, there is a vacant land with an estimated total area of 2.3 ha and a vacant cowshed which had not been used for cattle ranching. Because of that, the company planned to develop the vacant land as a dairy farm and plant based ecotourism. In addition, dairy farm and dairy plant based tourism attractions are still rarely found in Batu. Thus, the first aim of this study was to analyse the potencies of the company that related to future plans of ecotourism built. The second aim was to set up the strategies that can be done in order to actualize the ecotourism project. The next aim was to plan the ecotourism, especially the facilities planning and the facilities arrangement on the vacant land. Strategic management approach was used to analyse the potencies and to determine the strategies. To select the proper facilities, tourists were asked to give appraisal by using questionnaire. Appraisal result was mapped onto four quadrants spatial map to see advantages and shortcomings of each facility along with choosing the right facilities to be built. Those facilities and tourist activities were compared with ecotourism criteria to make sure that the facilities were appropriate to provide not only entertainment but also ecotourism function. To arrange the chosen facilities, the step in Systematic Layout Planning were conducted to generate a propose layout of facilities arrangement. Based on potencies analysis, in Internal-External matrix, the company current position was on quadrant 2 (grow and build), with the most appropriate strategy was intensive or integrative. The proposed strategies were to build the new infrastructure, to renovate cowshed, and to add new tourism facilities on the land. There were 11 selected facilities based on MDS. Moreover, based

  19. Milking the Plains: movement of large dairy operations into southwestern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lisa M B; Lu, Max; Kromm, David E

    2010-01-01

    Western Kansas has an historical identification with cattle, with a focus on cattle ranching and more specifically since the 1950s, beef-cattle feedlots. Since the mid-1990s large dairy operations have moved into southwestern Kansas. Today more than twenty large dairies house more than 70,000 milk cows. These operate as confined feeding operations similar to beef-cattle feedlots. Regional advantages for the dairy industry include affordable land with wide-open space, local residents' cattle- and dairy-friendly attitudes, and other factors. Regional promoters have actively recruited dairies, and a dairy-business support system has emerged. The prospects for continued expansion of dairies in southwestern Kansas are unclear; despite the locational advantages and the possibility that the industry may continue to relocate here, as did the cattle-feeding industry several decades ago, further moves into the area may depend on continued resources availability and additional infrastructure development.

  20. EFFECT OF SHEARING DURING PREGNANCY ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE POST-PARTUM PERIOD OF EWES ON EXTENSIVE HUSBANDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Marques Guyoti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of shearing during pregnancy has been described as a tool for improving productivity in sheep and for minimizing perinatal mortality in lambs through the increase of fetal development. This study assessed the effect of shearing around 74 days of gestation on the productive performance of ewes and lambs during the first month of life. Forty Corriedale ewes were inseminated in autumn in Southern Brazil. All ewes were kept together at the same pasture under extensive husbandry conditions. The ewes were randomly separated into two treatment groups: twenty animals were completely sheared at 74 ± 6 days of pregnancy, and twenty were kept without sheared during pregnancy, composing the control group. Ewes and their lambs were evaluated at three different times during the experiment: at birth, between 15 and 21 days post-partum and between 22 and 45 days post-partum. Ewes had their body condition score, body weight, placental weight, milk production and serum concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate measured, while lambs had hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma lactate and glucose, as well as body weight at birth and until wean determined. Values of hematocrit and hemoglobin were lower and body weight at birth and at wean was higher in the group of lambs born from sheared ewes. Placenta weight was higher in sheared ewes. Body condition score and beta-hydroxybutyrate showed no differences between groups. Milk production of sheared ewes (1.26 L/day was higher than in control group (0.93 L/day. Shearing ewes at 74 days of pregnancy was efficient for the better development of lambs at post-birth, reducing perinatal mortality rates.

  1. Integrated assessment on the vulnerability of animal husbandry to snow disasters under climate change in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanqiang; Wang, Shijin; Fang, Yiping; Nawaz, Zain

    2017-10-01

    Animal husbandry is a dominant and traditional source of livelihood and income in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the third largest snow covered area in China and is one of the main snow disaster regions in the world. It is thus imperative to urgently address the issue of vulnerability of the animal husbandry sector to snow disasters for disaster mitigation and adaptation under growing risk of these disasters as a result of future climate change. However, there is very few literature reported on the vulnerability of animal husbandry in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This assessment aims at identifying vulnerability of animal husbandry at spatial scale and to identify the reasons for vulnerability for adaptive planning and disaster mitigation. First, historical snow disaster characteristics have been analyzed and used for the spatial weight for vulnerability assessment. Second, indicator-based vulnerability assessment model and indicator system have been established. We combined risk of snow hazard, sensitivity of livestock to disaster, physical exposure to disaster, and community capacity to adapt to snow disaster in an integrated vulnerability index. Lastly, vulnerability of animal husbandry to snow disaster on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been evaluated. Results indicate that high vulnerabilities are mainly concentrated in the eastern and central plateau and that vulnerability decreases gradually from the east to the west. Due to global warming, the vulnerability trend has eased to some extent during the last few decades. High livestock density exposure to blizzard-prone regions and shortages of livestock barn and forage are the main reasons of high vulnerability. The conclusion emphasizes the important role of the local government and community to help local pastoralists for reducing vulnerability to snow disaster and frozen hazard. The approaches presented in this paper can be used for snow disaster mitigation, resilience

  2. Development of a flow cytometric method to analyze subpopulations of bacteria in probiotic products and dairy starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a rapid and sensitive technique that can determine cell numbers and measure various physiological characteristics of individual cells by using appropriate fluorescent probes. Previously, we developed an FCM assay with the viability probes carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) a

  3. A survey of silage management practices on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heguy, J M; Meyer, D; Silva-del-Río, N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to gather baseline information on corn silage-management practices to develop an outreach curriculum for dairy producers and growers. In spring 2013, dairy producers in the San Joaquin Valley (California) were surveyed on their silage-management practices. Response rate was 14.5% (n=160) and herd size averaged 1,512 milking cows. Harvest date was set solely by the dairy producer (53.4%) or with the assistance of the crop manager, custom chopper, or nutritionist (23.3%). On some dairies (23.3%), the dairy producer delegated the harvest date decision. Most dairies (75.0%) estimated crop dry matter before harvest, and the preferred method was milk line evaluation. Dairy producers were mostly unfamiliar with harvest rate but the number [1 (35.9%), 2 (50.3%), or 3 to 5 (13.8%)] and size [6-row (17.7%), 8-row (67.3%), or 10-row (15.0%)] of choppers working simultaneously was reported. Most dairies used a single packing tractor (68.8%) and weighed every load of fresh chopped corn delivered to the silage pit (62%). During harvest, dry matter (66.9%), particle length (80.4%), and kernel processing (92.5%) were monitored. Most dairies completed filling their largest silage structure in less than 3 d (48.5%) or in 4 to 7 d (30.9%). Silage covering was completed no later than 7 2h after structure completion in all dairies, and was often completed within 24 h (68.8%). Packed forage was covered as filled in 19.6% of dairies. Temporary covers were used on some dairies (51.0%), with filling durations of 1 to 60 d. When temporary covers were not used, structures were filled in no more than 15 d. After structure closure, silage feedout started in 1 to 3 wk (44.4%), 4 to 5 wk (31.4%), or 8 or more wk (24.2%). Future considerations included increasing the silage storage area (55.9%), increasing the number of packing tractors (37.0%), planting brown mid-rib varieties (34.4%), buying a defacer to remove silage (33.1%), and creating drive-over piles (32

  4. Assessment of management and basic beef quality assurance practices on Idaho dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, J B; Chahine, M

    2009-03-01

    contracts (1%). To market calves, dairies used private treaty sales (52%), auction markets (42%), order buyers (14%), and forward contracts (1%). The results of this study will be used by University of Idaho Extension faculty in the design, development, and delivery of dairy BQA program information and materials.

  5. 7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.112 Dairy products. Dairy products means products manufactured for...

  6. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dairy products. 1170.4 Section 1170.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.4 Dairy products. Dairy Products means: (a) Manufactured dairy products that are used by the Secretary to...

  7. Dairy chemistry and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, P.; Jenness, R.

    1984-01-01

    Milk and products made from it affect the lives of a large proportion of the world’s population. Many dairy products are consumed at times and in places far removed from the point at which the milk was produced. This is made possible by the chemical and physical treatments and fractionations applied

  8. Dairy Sector Profit Squeeze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Like any other industries in China,the potential in the dairy industry is huge but competition is tough,The big players such as Mengniu and Yili are happy to stay engaged in a price war that has raged for the last year,seemingly not affected by rising raw material prices.

  9. Beta carbonic anhydrases: novel targets for pesticides and anti-parasitic agents in agriculture and livestock husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza; Barker, Harlan; Hytönen, Vesa P; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Parkkila, Seppo

    2014-08-29

    The genomes of many insect and parasite species contain beta carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) protein coding sequences. The lack of β-CA proteins in mammals makes them interesting target proteins for inhibition in treatment of some infectious diseases and pests. Many insects and parasites represent important pests for agriculture and cause enormous economic damage worldwide. Meanwhile, pollution of the environment by old pesticides, emergence of strains resistant to them, and their off-target effects are major challenges for agriculture and society. In this study, we analyzed a multiple sequence alignment of 31 β-CAs from insects, some parasites, and selected plant species relevant to agriculture and livestock husbandry. Using bioinformatics tools a phylogenetic tree was generated and the subcellular localizations and antigenic sites of each protein were predicted. Structural models for β-CAs of Ancylostoma caninum, Ascaris suum, Trichinella spiralis, and Entamoeba histolytica, were built using Pisum sativum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-CAs as templates. Six β-CAs of insects and parasites and six β-CAs of plants are predicted to be mitochondrial and chloroplastic, respectively, and thus may be involved in important metabolic functions. All 31 sequences showed the presence of the highly conserved β-CA active site sequence motifs, CXDXR and HXXC (C: cysteine, D: aspartic acid, R: arginine, H: histidine, X: any residue). We discovered that these two motifs are more antigenic than others. Homology models suggested that these motifs are mostly buried and thus not well accessible for recognition by antibodies. The predicted mitochondrial localization of several β-CAs and hidden antigenic epitopes within the protein molecule, suggest that they may not be considered major targets for vaccines. Instead, they are promising candidate enzymes for small-molecule inhibitors which can easily penetrate the cell membrane. Based on current knowledge, we conclude that

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTOCOCCUS STRAINS AND THEIR USING IN DAIRY TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Greif

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis species is one of the most important groups of lactic acid bacteria that are used in the dairy industry. Lactococci are generally found on plants and the skins of animals. Special interest is placed on the study of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, as they are the strains used as starter cultures in industrial dairy fermentation. The major functions of this species in dairy fermentation are the production of lactic acid, formation of flavour and aroma compounds, development of ripened cheese texture and antimicrobial activity against spoilage bacteria and moulds.doi:10.5219/162

  11. Succession and Enhancement Mechanism of Ecosystem Productivity in the De-farming Area of the Ecotone Between Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiong; ZHANG Li-feng

    2008-01-01

    The succession and enhancement mechanism of the ecosystem productivity with the characteristics of de-farming in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in North China was discussed in order to provide an ideaology or a technical basis for maintaining the impetus of ecological restoration and economic development in this region. A case study was applied in combination with the theoretical analysis. The results indicated that the biomass productivity of the de-farming subsystem decreased by 38.4-72.3% compared with that of farming subsystem in the ecosystem. The main function of de-farming subsystem was focused on ecological productivity, it caused the ideal beneficial recycling'de-farming → planting grass → raising animals → earn money' difficult to be realized. With the differentiation of de-farming subsystem, the natural and social resources input to the farming subsystem were accumulated. This laid a basis for the new attributes of economic productivity to be upgraded. The case study indicated that the economic productivity of the ecosystem was increased by 8.85-13.35 times due to re-coupling between the de-farming subsystem and the farming subsystem as well as coupling between microhabitat differentiation and crop production in the subsystems, where the microhabitat differentiation could enrich water and fertilizer in the same field. It was concluded that the important mechanisms to enhance the system productivity in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of North China included structure rebuilding and opening of the de-farming ecosystem and taking the advantage of complementary cooperative production among different regions under the market economy and rebuilding an open agro-pasture production structure.f

  12. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than

  13. Development and Diversity of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc Bacteriophages in Dairies Using Undefined Mesophilic DL-Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammed, Musemma Kedir

    Bacteriophages (phages) attacking strains of Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis and Leuconostoc species, used as starter cultures in mesophilic dairy productions, produce huge problems through waste of ingredients, increased processing time, reduced product quality, consistency and safety, and occasionally...... samples from a dairy using a traditional mother-bulk-cheese vat system showed the presence of 936 and P335 phages already in the mother culture stage and, consequently, in the bulk starter and in the cheese vats but not in the cheese milk. We further dealt with temperate phages associated with undefined...... binding protein-encoding gene (rbp) analysis, several of the 936-phage groups were predicted to be able to attack strains of Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris. An overpressure in the processing room and curd pressing rooms resulted in an increase in the instability of subgroups of 936 phages during the first...

  14. The Tools of Financial Policy in the Dairy Products Subdivision of the Agroindustrial Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bielosviet Oleksandr. V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at definition and classification of tools of the State financial policy in the dairy products subdivision of the agroindustrial complex (DPS of AIC). The article considers the financial policy tools used in terms of targeted programs of the State support for the DPS of AIC: the State target program for development of Ukrainian villages, sectoral program for dairy breeding and the project of the conception of the State target program for development of dairy breeding in Uk...

  15. Development of nature-oriented dairy farm systems with an optimization model: the case of 'Farming for Nature' in 'de Langstraat', the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    `Farming for Nature¿, a relatively new policy instrument being tried out in the Netherlands, is evaluated. The concept has been designed to allow dairy farmers to improve nature conservation on their farms. Under the scheme, no manure, fertilizer, or feed - concentrates or roughage - may be imported into farm systems from external sources. The feasibility of such a self-sustaining system and the conditions required for it to deliver the desired results, are explored with a farm-based linear p...

  16. Participatory Livestock Farmer Training for improvement of animal health in rural and peri-urban smallholder dairy herds in Jinja, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Byarugaba, D.K.; Nakavuma, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  Within the framework of a research project investigating methods to decrease mastitis incidence, farmer groups for participatory training in a modified Farmer Field School approach were initiated in order to improve animal health and farmer knowledge in mastitis control technologies...... knowledge and experience from training in systematic clinical examination of animals, evaluation of the farm environments, and identification of improvements. Much of the acquired new knowledge was about basic dairy cow management and husbandry practices. In addition, they gave examples of how they were now...

  17. Competition during the milk-feeding stage influences the development of feeding behavior of pair-housed dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how the feeding behavior of pair-housed calves develops in response to reduced teat and feed place availability. Twenty Holstein bull calves were pair housed and provided with milk replacer (MR) and grain concentrate ad libitum via either (1) 1 teat and feed bucket/pen, such that calves could not feed simultaneously [competitive feeding (CF)] or (2) 2 teats and feed buckets/pen [noncompetitive feeding (NCF)]. The calves were weaned during wk 7 of life by incrementally diluting the MR. Postweaning, all pens were managed identically and offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum via 2 feed buckets/pen (NCF) in period 1 (wk 8 and 9) and period 3 (wk 12 and 13) and exposed to a competitive challenge with CF in period 2 (wk 10 and 11). Feeding times and competitive interactions were recorded from video for 3 d/wk in wk 2, 4, and 6 and 2 d/wk in wk 8 to 13. Meal criteria were used to calculate daily meal frequency, meal time, and synchronized meal time (the percentage of meal time when calves within the pen were engaged in simultaneous meals). Milk replacer intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with calves in CF pens having lower MR intake (wk 2: 8.3 vs. 10.0 L/calf per day for CF vs. NCF), but compensating by increasing intake to a greater extent over time (wk 4-5: 13.3 vs. 11.7 L/d for CF vs. NCF). Corresponding to MR intake, meal frequencies and feeding times evolved differently over this period, increasing in CF pens and decreasing in NCF pens (wk 2: 5.8 vs. 11.1 and wk 4-6: 6.2 vs. 5.1 meals/d for CF vs. NCF). Calves in CF pens also spent less time engaged in synchronized meals (28 vs. 51% of meal time; standard error=7.1) and displaced each other 5 times more frequently during synchronized eating. Postweaning, calves in previously CF pens maintained 5 times greater displacement frequencies and had fewer overlapping meals than calves in previously NCF pens (34.5 vs. 40.7% of meals, respectively). Postweaning, when calves

  18. Structural changes in dairy business in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Vujčić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia today is in the economy transition process that also includes agriculture aiming to increase production and achieving competitive standard with international and European markets. Currently, domestic cow milk production ensures 80% of annual milk and dairy products requirements with the 20% import. In the period from 1990-1992, during the patriot war, 103000 cows and heifers were destroyed. Since then, Croatia started the gradual process of reorganization of the agricultural private sector including dairy business in order to increase production insensitivity.The agricultural structure of dairy segment is unsatisfactory with only 23.39% of farms holding four or more heifers. Households with 3 cows per farm dominate with average real estate of 0.10-3.0 acres.Changes in milk production (1990-2003 are reflected in the decrease of the number of breeding cattle – index 56.13%, and decrease of milk market producers from 65 000 to 65 151. Never the less, positive trends towards stabilization in milk production (2003 – 642 mil litres and annual milk intake increased from 342 mil litres in 1990 to 472 mil litres in 2003 (index 138.08% can be noticed. Changes in the structure of milk producers show certain positive movements as 23.39% of producers have 53.40% cows and respectively participation in milk production and buy off. Until 2008, with determined development conditions, cow milk production can increase for 42% and from 2703 litres to average of 4000 litres per dairy cow.

  19. Non-dairy Based Probiotics: A Healthy Treat for Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Sharma, Satish K; Gupta, Ram K

    2016-08-17

    Dairy-based fermented products and yoghurts have been utilized as potential probiotic products since ancient times. However, recent upsurge in interest of consumers towards dairy alternatives has opened up new vistas for non-dairy probiotic research and development. Various matrices and substrates such as cereals, fruit juices, or mixture thereof are being utilized for delivering these beneficial microorganisms. Each matrix offers some advantages over the other. Vast knowledge available on a number of conventional fermented foods can also be utilized for future research in this area. The present review provides an insight on the recent research/developments in the field of non-dairy probiotic foods with particular reference to the foods consumed conventionally, in addition to their commercial availability and a way forward.

  20. The effect of milk-feeding method and hay provision on the development of feeding behavior and non-nutritive oral behavior of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, K C; Miller-Cushon, E K

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the interactive effects of common feeding management factors on the development of feeding and non-nutritive oral behaviors in preweaned calves through the weaning transition. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments that differed by milk-feeding method (teat or bucket) and ad libitum access to chopped timothy hay: control, milk provided by bucket and no access to hay (CON; n = 10); milk provided by bucket and access to hay (H; n = 10); milk provided via a teat and access to hay (TH; n = 10). Calves had ad libitum access to concentrate and water, and were fed 6 L/d of pasteurized waste milk, divided into 2 meals. All calves were weaned by removing the second milk meal for 9 ± 2 d, beginning at 36 d of age. Daily concentrate and hay intake were recorded, and calves were weighed weekly to measure growth. We recorded the behavior of all calves using 2 s time-lapse video during time periods that encompassed milk meals, from 6000 h to 1000 h and 1600 h to 2000 h, on 2 consecutive focal days in wk 2 and 4. We continuously monitored lying time and activity using electronic data loggers. During the preweaning period, hay selection by H and TH calves was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with TH calves increasing hay intake to a greater extent over time. Similarly, we observed a tendency for a treatment × week interaction for hay dry matter intake. Before weaning, concentrate intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, increasing to a greater extent over time for H and TH calves, but was greater overall for CON calves. As predicted, milk-feeding method and hay provision influenced the proportion of time devoted to feeding and non-nutritive behaviors. The CON calves spent the greatest amount of time performing non-nutritive sucking directed at the pen, TH calves the least, and H calves intermediate amounts. Considering the time TH calves sucked on their teat when milk was not present in addition to the time they spent sucking

  1. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  2. U.S. DAIRY FORAGE RESEARCH CENTER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  3. 乳制品中活双歧杆菌检测试剂盒的研制及应用%Development and Application of Detection Kit for Viable Bifidobacteria in Dairy Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林芳; 孟祥晨

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish a Real-Time and fluorescent quantitative PCR kit for detection of viable bifidobacteria in dairy products. Methods A Real-Time and fluorescent quantitative PCR kit is developed to detect via-ble bifidobacteria in dairy products with the method of EMA Real-Time PCR. Results The standard curve of determi-nation of viable bifidobacteria by EMA Real-Time PCR was established. A fluorescent quantitative PCR kit was devel-oped for detecting viable Bifidobacterium in dairy products. For this kit, the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficient of variation were both less than 5%, and cross-reaction with other lactic acid bacteria in dairy products didn't exist.The detection limit was 2×104 CFU/mL. This kit could be stored over 6 months at-20 ℃ and 3 months at 4℃. A-mong the 12 market yoghurt detected, the results obtained by kit were not significantly different from that obtained by the plate counting (P > 0.05). Conclusion The correlation coefficient of standard curve was more than 0.98. This kit was sensitive, specific and good repeated for detecting viable bifidobacteria in dairy products. This kit could be used to determine viable bifidobacteria in dairy products quantitatively.%在EMA Real-Time PCR检测方法的基础上,组装检测乳制品中活双歧杆菌的荧光定量PCR试剂盒.建立了EMA Real-Time PCR检测乳制品中活双歧杆菌的标准曲线.组装出检测乳制品中活双歧杆菌的荧光定量PCR试剂盒.该试剂盒批内及批间变异系数(CV)均小于5%;对乳制品中常见乳酸菌无交叉反应;最低检测限为2×10-4 CFU/mL.该试剂盒在-20℃下,至少可保存6个月,4℃可保存3个月.分别采用研究所获得的试剂盒和平板菌落计数法检测12份市售酸乳中的活双歧杆菌的数量,2种检测方法计数结果差异不显著(P>0.05).该方法所建立的标准曲线相关系数大于98%.所研制的试剂盒重复性较好、特异性较强、灵敏度较高,可以准确地定量

  4. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare....... Observation and documentation of animal housing design, cleanliness, feeding management and types of feed available to the cows, milking management, disease and pest management was done in the Kiambu and Kajiado Counties of Kenya. An analysis was performed for indicators of health and welfare with husbandry...

  5. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare....... Observation and documentation of animal housing design, cleanliness, feeding management and types of feed available to the cows, milking management, disease and pest management was done in the Kiambu and Kajiado Counties of Kenya. An analysis was performed for indicators of health and welfare with husbandry...

  6. Application of Chlortetracycline in Animal Husbandry%金霉素在畜牧业中的应用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍涛; 杨旭; 李书至

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarized the application actuality of chlortetracycline which as antibiot-ic feed additives in animal husbandry, and analyzed the application prospect of chlortetracycline in future.%本文阐述了金霉素作为抗生素类饲料添加剂在畜牧业中的应用现状,并对其应用前景进行了展望.

  7. Indirect Effects on Heathland Conservation and Wolf Persistence of Contradictory Policies that Threaten Traditional Free-Ranging Horse Husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bao, José V.; Sazatorníl, V.; Llaneza, Luis; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Conservation agencies within the European Union promote the restoration of traditional land uses as a cost-effective way to preserve biodiversity outside reserves. Although the European Union pursues the integration of the environment into strategic decision-making, it also dictates sectoral policies that may damage farmland biodiversity. We illustrate this point by outlining the socioeconomic factors that allow the persistence of traditional free-ranging horse husbandry in Galicia, northwest...

  8. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  9. Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Laura D; Levy, Karen; Menezes, Neia P; Freeman, Matthew C

    2014-06-01

    Domestic animal husbandry, a common practice globally, can lead to zoonotic transmission of enteric pathogens. However, this risk has received little attention to date. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the evidence for an association between domestic exposure to food-producing animals and cases of human diarrhea and specific enteric infections. We performed a systematic review of available literature to examine domestic livestock and poultry as risk factors for diarrhea and applied pre-determined quality criteria. Where possible, we carried out meta-analysis of specific animal-pathogen pairs. We found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to domestic food-producing animals and diarrheal illness across a range of animal exposures and enteric pathogens. Out of 29 studies included in the review, 20 (69.0%) reported a positive association between domestic animal exposure and diarrhea. Domestic exposure to poultry revealed a substantial association with human campylobacteriosis (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.90-3.93). Our results suggest that domestic poultry and livestock exposures are associated with diarrheal illness in humans. Failure to ascertain the microbial cause of disease may mask this effect. Exposure to domestic animals should be considered a risk factor for human diarrheal illness and additional studies may identify potential mitigation strategies to address this risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Factors influencing the success of animal husbandry cooperatives: A case study in Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aligholi Heydari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This survey study aimed at identifying the factors influencing the success of animal husbandry cooperatives in Southwest Iran. Using a questionnaire, the data were collected from 95 managing directors of the cooperatives who were chosen through a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. This study showed an essential need for a systemic framework to analyze the cooperatives’ success. The results showed that the “Honey Bee”, “Cattle (dairy”, and “Lamb” cooperatives were the most successful among different kinds of the cooperatives. Also, among individual attributes, “interest”, “technical knowledge”, and “understanding the concept of cooperative”; among economic variables, “income” and “current investment”; and among external factors, “market access” have significant correlation with the success while structural variables have no significant relation. Furthermore, among all the factors, four variables (“interest”, “understanding the concept of cooperative”, “market access”, and “other incomes” can explain the variations of the success.

  11. Husbandry and growth rates of neonate epaulette sharks, Hemiscyllium ocellatum in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Eric J; Rufo, Kimberly S

    2012-01-01

    In this report, I describe husbandry techniques that are used to successfully hatch and raise epaulette sharks, Hemiscyllium ocellatum, in captivity. Egg cases and hatchlings were held in floating baskets within a 1,306-L tank, at water temperatures of 24.4-25.5°C. From 56 egg cases, 27 neonates successfully hatched, and 22 survived. Based on seven tagged egg cases, the average gestation time was 140.3 ± 4.6 days with a range of 134 and 148 days. Upon hatching, neonate length was 16.2 ± 0.522 cm, with a range of 15.24-17.30 cm, and weight was 19.9 ± 2.06 g, with a range of 16.50-24.5 g. Growth rates of four individuals were recorded over time. Finely chopped capelin, Mallotus villosus, fillets, supplemented with a multivitamin were the primary food items accepted by neonates. The success in rearing H. ocellatum can likely be attributed to a low stress environment, limited disruption, an easy to consume diet, multivitamin supplementation, and excellent water quality. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Research as the basis for decision-making in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Norvik

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal challenge for Norwegian reindeer husbandry in Finnmark today - seen from the viewpoint of both the central political authorities and the industry itself - is disequilibrium between the number of reindeer and their forage resources. Productivity is low, the economy is worse and a large number of reindeer owners have an unsatisfactory number of animals and an unsatisfactory income. The animals are becoming smaller and smaller. Social and economic problems are increasing. There is an obvious danger of long term damage to the pasture areas. How long term, nobody knows. There are no clear research results to guide us but, I am glad to say, research is under way and satellite imagery represents a good, new tool. Research must have a free hand - but it cannot be fully independent. Researchers must try to direct their activities towards providing both the industry and the politicians with a solid basis on which to base their decisions. It is therefore my hope that «productive» research receives as high priority as possible. With limited funding available for research and the relatively small size of the indus-try, it is important that its requirements and its own demands for help from researchers be attended to.

  13. Technological level and epidemiological aspects of sheep husbandry in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora M.G. Gouveia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and health aspects of sheep husbandry were assessed on 213 sheep flocks in 142 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. An updated questionnaire was filled out for each flock, requesting data on the farm, the flock and the farmer by the veterinarians of the State Government Agency for Animal Health (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária. Thirteen important variables were selected and scored to determine the technological level of the 117 farms; 0.9% of them was classified as high technological level, 45.3% as medium technological level and 53.0% as low technological level. Lamb production was the main objective of the farms and the main features were low-frequencies of individual identification of animals (16.9%, technical assistance (31.9%, use of quarantine for newly acquired animals (0.9% the separation of animals by age group (3.7% and requeste the sanitary certificate at purchasing of animals (11.7%. The main health problems reported were abortion (23.9%, keratoconjunctivitis (17.9%, contagious ecthyma (13.6%, pneumonia (10.3%, diarrhea (9.3% and caseous lymphadenitis (6.1%. Information of the epidemiological situation and the mainly health measures used in the sheep farms are important to improve the productivity and quality of the lamb.

  14. Caring Dairy: A Sustainable Dairy Farming Initiative in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Hooch Antink, R.H.J.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Mauser, A.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the concept of sustainability in dairy farming has grown as a result of the continuous pressure on farm incomes, occurrence of animal diseases with a major impact on the image of dairy farming, concerns about animal welfare, and environmental problems caused by agriculture. There are,

  15. Caring Dairy: A Sustainable Dairy Farming Initiative in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Hooch Antink, R.H.J.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Mauser, A.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the concept of sustainability in dairy farming has grown as a result of the continuous pressure on farm incomes, occurrence of animal diseases with a major impact on the image of dairy farming, concerns about animal welfare, and environmental problems caused by agriculture. There are, ho

  16. The Analysis of Integration Sustainability of Coffee Plantation and Goat Husbandry (a Case Study in Ampelgading subdistrict, Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Arofi, Fofa; Rukmana, Didi; Ibrahim, Bachrul

    2015-01-01

    Ampelgading sub-district is one of the coffee production center in Malang who perform the integration system combined with the goats husbandry. To determine the achievement level of the integration sustainability of the coffee plantations and goat husbandry, it is needed the systems approach and an assessment of the sustainability criteria. This study aims to determine the status of sustainability and attributes that influence in determining the status of sustainability it self. To get sampl...

  17. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxocariasis among Volunteers Animal Husbandry Workers and Veterinary in Southern Anatolia in Turkey in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi SOZEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Human toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of Toxocaracanis. We examine the Toxocara seroprevalance in veterinarians and animal husbandry workers living in the Mugla Province, Turkey to evaluate better the risk factors for Toxocara exposure.Methods: In 2014, 376 volunteers participated in the study in 2014. All blood specimens were tested using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit and ELISA positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB method.Results: The seroprevalence of Toxocara, as determined by WB, was 8%. A statistically significant correlation was evident between patient age and Toxo­cara positivity among animal husbandry workers (P = 0.029. A strong associa­tion was also evident between sex and seropositivity in the animal husbandry group (P=0.024. Veterinarians working in pet clinics did in fact exhibit higher Toxocara seropositivities relative to those of other groups (P = 0.029. A statisti­cally significant difference was detected between the rural geographic areas surveyed (P = 0.04.Conclusion: In Mugla Province, seroprevalence of Toxocara is lower than other regions. Despite the low seroprevalence observed, especially in high risk professions toxocariasis remains an important medical concern within the region. 

  18. The use of passerine bird species in laboratory research: implications of basic biology for husbandry and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Feenders, Gesa

    2010-01-01

    Passerine birds are important models in fundamental biological research, with as many as 300,000 individuals used in laboratory experiments worldwide annually. However, because the use of passerines is rare compared with that of more conventional laboratory animals, there is often a lack of information about the basic biology and husbandry requirements of these species. We aim to address this deficit by providing an overview of the most salient aspects of passerine biology and their implications for laboratory husbandry and welfare. We start by describing the characteristics that make these birds useful and interesting research subjects. Specifically, we highlight features (e.g., birdsong) of passerine biology that differentiate these birds from more common laboratory animals. Next, we consider the implications of passerine biology for husbandry in the laboratory. Many of the aspects of passerine biology that make these species valuable to scientists are also likely to be affected by environmental variables; a good knowledge of these variables is necessary in order to choose appropriate laboratory conditions for passerines. We outline how the developmental history of the birds and choices of caging, feeding, and environmental regimes might influence their physiology and behavior and thus affect both the welfare of the birds and the quality of the resulting data. We stress the importance of a sound understanding of the biology of any species to ensure good welfare and good science.

  19. Dairy Tool Box Talks: a comprehensive worker training in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Rovai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote ‘best practices’ and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee’s language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort and personal safety. The Dairy Tool Box Talks program was conducted over a ten week period with nine 30-minute sessions according to farm’s various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell count were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program.Dairy Tool Box Talks resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Preservatives in Dairy Products by HPLC and Chemometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh; Sima Sasanfar; Anita Chalipour; Elham Pirhadi; Ghazal Yahyapour; Armin Mohammadi; Akram Rostami; Mohsen Amini; Mannan Hajimahmoodi

    2017-01-01

    Cheese and yogurt are two kinds of nutritious dairy products that are used worldwide. The major preservatives in dairy products are sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and natamycin. The maximum permitted levels for these additives in cheese and yogurt are established according to Iranian national standards. In this study, we developed a method to detect these preservatives in dairy products by reversed phase chromatography with UV detection in 220 nm, simultaneously. This method was performe...

  1. Dairy food products: good or bad for cardiometabolic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D Ian

    2016-12-01

    Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasingly and is a key risk for CVD development, now recognised as the leading cause of death globally. Dietary strategies to reduce CVD development include reduction of saturated fat intake. Milk and dairy products are the largest contributors to dietary saturated fats in the UK and reduced consumption is often recommended as a strategy for risk reduction. However, overall evidence from prospective cohort studies does not confirm a detrimental association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. The present review critically evaluates the current evidence on the association between milk and dairy products and risk of CVD, T2DM and the metabolic syndrome (collectively, cardiometabolic disease). The effects of total and individual dairy foods on cardiometabolic risk factors and new information on the effects of the food matrix on reducing fat digestion are also reviewed. It is concluded that a policy to lower SFA intake by reducing dairy food consumption to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk is likely to have limited or possibly negative effects. There remain many uncertainties, including differential effects of different dairy products and those of differing fat content. Focused and suitably designed and powered studies are needed to provide clearer evidence not only of the mechanisms involved, but how they may be beneficially influenced during milk production and processing.

  2. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O'Sullivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01. Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01. Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01, due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health.

  3. User's Manual for BEST-Dairy: Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Ke, J.; Sathaye, J.

    2011-04-20

    This User's Manual summarizes the background information of the Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2, 2011), including'Read Me' portion of the tool, the sections of Introduction, and Instructions for the BEST-Dairy tool that is developed and distributed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  4. Dairy cattle production in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Liinamo, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is a major player on world markets for most dairy products and produces the largest single share of the global market. Dairying is one of the most profitable sectors of EU agriculture. Milk yields per cow have increased steadily in every member state between 1985 and 1997. Ov

  5. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... for the assessment of pain in dairy cattle under production conditions....

  6. Characteristics of a Dairy Process under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    was evaluated with a minimization of the process pasteurization and cooling temperatures through vertex enumeration method. The quantitative analysis of the dairy process established a framework in developing of different flexible units, such as integrated milk and milk-based product productions, multi-task......In this work, the characteristics of a dairy production process under diverse product uncertainties are investigated through a process simulation. The flexibility analysis method of Grossmann and his co-workers (Swaney and Grossmann, 1985) is applied through a process simulation tool, PRO/II. A new...... set of physical property models for diary products were developed and built into PRO/II system. Milk products viscosity and process system pressure drop were employed as the process characteristic parameters to determine a process operation window. The flexibility of the operation window vertexes...

  7. Systematic Review of the Association between Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular-Related Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to determine if dairy product consumption is detrimental, neutral, or beneficial to cardiovascular health and if the recommendation to consume reduced-fat as opposed to regular-fat dairy is evidence-based. A systematic review of meta-analyses of prospective population studies associating dairy consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) was conducted on the basis of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Quality of evidence was rated by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scale. High-quality evidence supports favorable associations between total dairy intake and hypertension risk and between low-fat dairy and yogurt intake and the risk of T2D. Moderate-quality evidence suggests favorable associations between intakes of total dairy, low-fat dairy, cheese, and fermented dairy and the risk of stroke; intakes of low-fat dairy and milk and the risk of hypertension; total dairy and milk consumption and the risk of MetS; and total dairy and cheese and the risk of T2D. High- to moderate-quality evidence supports neutral associations between the consumption of total dairy, cheese, and yogurt and CVD risk; the consumption of any form of dairy, except for fermented, and CAD risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and yogurt and stroke risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, cheese, yogurt, and fermented dairy and hypertension risk; and the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and fermented dairy and T2D risk. Data from this systematic review indicate that the consumption of various forms of dairy products shows either favorable or neutral associations with cardiovascular-related clinical outcomes. The review also emphasizes that further research is urgently needed to compare the impact of

  8. Research Progress on Phytoestrogen in Production of Animal Husbandry%植物雌激素在畜牧生产中应用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓倩; 何剑斌; 寇云

    2013-01-01

    The phytoestrogen is a kind of bioactive substance existing in plants,it's similar with animal estrogen,and it has ability to integrate with target cell. It has some kinds of physiological functions and bidirectional adjustment,such as it can promote animals willgrow, enhance the body immunity, improve animals'egg laying and milk performance, prevent cancer and so on. It is a major component of some medicine. Due to have enormous medical value,people begin to pay attention to it and use it in human disease treatment,improve animal husbandry productivity in recent years. The author will review plant estrogen action mechanism and the effect of phytoestrogen on improving the production performance of dairy cows,egg quality,the farrowing of sow and the survival rate of piglet.%植物雌激素(phytoestrogen)是一类存在于植物中,类似于动物雌激素并具有与靶细胞受体结合能力的生物活性物质,具有双向调节作用,其生理功能多种多样,如促进动物生长、提高机体免疫力、提高动物的泌乳性能和产蛋性能、预防癌症等,是许多药物的重要组分.由于其具有巨大的药用价值,近几年来受到人们的广泛重视,并将其应用于治疗人类疾病、提高畜牧业生产中.作者就植物雌激素的作用机制及在奶牛、蛋鸡、猪生产中添加植物雌激素对提高奶牛生产性能,改善蛋鸡蛋品质、提高产蛋量,母猪泌乳量及仔猪成活率的影响作一综述.

  9. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  10. Dairy beverages and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Gilbert, Jo-Anne

    2010-01-01

    High dairy intakes have been associated with lower rates of obesity in observational studies, but mechanisms to explain the association are lacking. A high intake of dairy protein reduces spontaneous food intake and may be one important mechanism, but more specific effects of dairy calcium seem...... to exist. We have found that high versus low calcium intakes from dairy products had no effect on 24-h energy expenditure or substrate oxidation rates, but fecal fat excretion increased approximately 2.5-fold on the high-calcium diets. In a meta-analysis of intervention studies we found that increasing...... dairy calcium intake by 1200mg/day resulted in increased fecal fat excretion by 5.2 (1.6-8.8) g/day. Newer research shows that humans possess taste receptors for calcium in the gastrointestinal tract and that signaling may be linked to appetite regulation. A new line of evidence suggests...

  11. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  12. Case study of networking in the Danish small and medium sized dairy firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2001-01-01

    The networking of small and mediumsized dairy firms in denmark is an effective way to get new information about markets, technology, competitors and prospective possiblities to develop new products.......The networking of small and mediumsized dairy firms in denmark is an effective way to get new information about markets, technology, competitors and prospective possiblities to develop new products....

  13. 77 FR 8717 - Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1170 RIN 0581-AD12 Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting AGENCY: Agricultural... manufacturers of dairy products to report sales information for a mandatory dairy product reporting program. The... for this final rule. Background: The Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting Program, 7 CFR part 1170,...

  14. Animal husbandry in Moretele 1 of North-West Province: implications for veterinary training and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Letsoalo

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding the keeping of animals in the Moretele 1 area of North-West Province, South Africa. Therefore, the status and dynamics of animal husbandry, as well as a general assessment of the needs of animal owners in this area were researched. Results of the investigation will be used to make recommendations for improved veterinary extension servicing in the area. Semi-structured interviews, based on discussions with relevant stakeholders in the community and a resultant problem conceptualisation, were undertaken at 266 randomly selected households in 51 villages and centres in the area, after which the data was checked and verified before being captured and analysed. The findings reveal that within the field of veterinary extension delivery: 1 there is a demand for visual and written extension material, 2 the extension services must function where clients reside, 3 limitations in terms of infrastructure are present and should be addressed through partnerships and coordination amongst all the role-players in the Moretele 1 area, and 4 cattle and poultry are the most important of the animal species and should be the focus points of extension, but the need to curb zoonotic disease should not be disregarded. In this regard veterinary clinics, private veterinarians and other role-players should be used in partnership with extension workers. Lastly, the veterinary clinic is regarded as helpful in many respects by the community consulted and the service should be upgraded and made available to a wider client base, especially where private and state veterinarians are unavailable or too expensive in such resource-limited communities.

  15. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli in husbandry animals: the African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C A; Zarazaga, M; Ben Sallem, R; Jouini, A; Ben Slama, K; Torres, C

    2017-05-01

    In the last few years, different surveillances have been published in Africa, especially in northern countries, regarding antimicrobial resistance among husbandry animals. Information is still scarce, but the available data show a worrying picture. Although the highest resistance rates have been described against tetracycline, penicillins and sulphonamides, prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are being increasingly reported. Among ESBLs, the CTX-M-1 group was dominant in most African surveys. Within this group, CTX-M-15 was the main variant both in animals and humans, except in Tunisia where CTX-M-1 was more frequently detected among Escherichia coli from poultry. Certain blaCTX-M-15 -harbouring clones (ST131/B2 or ST405/D) are mainly identified in humans, but they have also been reported in livestock species from Tanzania, Nigeria or Tunisia. Moreover, several reports suggest an inter-host circulation of specific plasmids (e.g. blaCTX-M-1 -carrying IncI1/ST3 in Tunisia, IncY- and Inc-untypeable replicons co-harbouring qnrS1 and blaCTX-M-15 in Tanzania and the worldwide distributed blaCTX-M-15 -carrying IncF-type plasmids). International trade of poultry meat seems to have contributed to the spread of other ESBL variants, such as CTX-M-14, and clones. Furthermore, first descriptions of OXA-48- and OXA-181-producing E. coli have been recently documented in cattle from Egypt, and the emergent plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mcr-1 gene has been also identified in chickens from Algeria, Tunisia and South Africa. These data reflect the urgent need of a larger regulation in the use of veterinary drugs and the implementation of surveillance programmes in order to decelerate the advance of antimicrobial resistance in this continent. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. A C⋅As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C⋅As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe2+-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C⋅As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C⋅As lyase. PMID:24821808

  17. A C⋅As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P

    2014-05-27

    Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C ⋅ As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe(2+)-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C ⋅ As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C ⋅ As lyase.

  18. Optimal husbandry of hatchling Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi) during a captive head-start program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wines, Michael P; Johnson, Valerie M; Lock, Brad; Antonio, Fred; Godwin, James C; Rush, Elizabeth M; Guyer, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Optimal husbandry techniques are desirable for any headstart program, but frequently are unknown for rare species. Here we describe key reproductive variables and determine optimal incubation temperature and diet diversity for Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi) grown in laboratory settings. Optimal incubation temperature was estimated from two variables dependent on temperature, shell dimpling, a surrogate for death from fungal infection, and deviation of an egg from an ovoid shape, a surrogate for death from developmental anomalies. Based on these relationships and size at hatching we determined optimal incubation temperature to be 26°C. Additionally, we used incubation data to assess the effect of temperature on duration of incubation and size of hatchlings. We also examined hatchling diets necessary to achieve optimal growth over a 21-month period. These snakes exhibited a positive linear relationship between total mass eaten and growth rate, when individuals were fed less than 1711 g of prey, and displayed constant growth for individuals exceeding 1711 g of prey. Similarly, growth rate increased linearly with increasing diet diversity up to a moderately diverse diet, followed by constant growth for higher levels of diet diversity. Of the two components of diet diversity, diet evenness played a stronger role than diet richness in explaining variance in hatchling growth. These patterns document that our goal of satiating snakes was achieved for some individuals but not others and that diets in which total grams consumed over the first 21 months of life is distributed equivalently among at least three prey genera yielded the fastest growth rates for hatchling snakes.

  19. Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii) Knowledge and Attitudes of Australian Cat Breeders and Their Husbandry Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Bosward, K L; Heller, J

    2016-09-13

    A Q fever outbreak in a small animal veterinary hospital, associated with a cat caesarean section, initiated a cat seroprevalence study (n = 712) that found circulating antibodies to Coxiella burnetii was highest in cattery-confined breeding cats (9.3%). These findings stimulated interest about potential sources of C. burnetii infection for cats and humans associated with cats. Cat breeders are potentially a group at increased risk of C. burnetii infection, and this study sought to identify potential risk factors. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted targeting all domestic cat breeders registered with an affiliate member body in Australia in 2015. Responses from 177 cat breeders across Australia were analysed. Forty per cent of responding cat breeders had not heard of Q fever. Raw meat was fed as an integral constituent of the diet by 89% of respondents. Eighty per cent of respondents allowed queens access to the home for parturition, and assistance of queens and resuscitation of kittens at the time of birth were reported by 97% of respondents. Respondents who perceived some level of exposure to Q fever through their breeding activities were three times less likely to perform mouth-to-snout resuscitation (OR 0.3 95% CI 0.1-0.9; P = 0.034) than those who did not perceive a risk of exposure. Similarly, respondents who perceived Q fever as a risk through breeding activities were close to eight times more likely to use personal protective equipment during parturition (OR 7.7 95% CI 1.5-39.9; P = 0.015) than those who did not. Husbandry practices of cat breeders that may increase the risk of C. burnetii transmission require further targeted investigations to assess the contribution of these risk factors to the acquisition of disease. Concurrent education forums are recommended to inform Australian cat breeders of the aetiopathogenesis of Q fever.

  20. Can a snow structure model estimate snow characteristics relevant to reindeer husbandry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Rasmus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Snow affects foraging conditions of reindeer e.g. by increasing the energy expenditures for moving and digging work or, in contrast, by making access of arboreal lichen easier. Still the studies concentrating on the role of the snow pack structure on reindeer population dynamics and reindeer management are few. We aim to find out which of the snow characteristics are relevant for reindeer in the northern boreal zone according to the experiences of reindeer herders and is this relevance seen also in reproduction rate of reindeer in this area. We also aim to validate the ability of the snow model SNOWPACK to reliably estimate the relevant snow structure characteristics. We combined meteorological observations, snow structure simulations by the model SNOWPACK and annual reports by reindeer herders during winters 1972-2010 in the Muonio reindeer herding district, northern Finland. Deep snow cover and late snow melt were the most common unfavorable conditions reported. Problematic conditions related to snow structure were icy snow and ground ice or unfrozen ground below the snow, leading to mold growth on ground vegetation. Calf production percentage was negatively correlated to the measured annual snow depth and length of the snow cover time and to the simulated snow density. Winters with icy snow could be distinguished in three out of four reported cases by SNOWPACK simulations and we could detect reliably winters with conditions favorable for mold growth. Both snow amount and also quality affects the reindeer herding and reindeer reproduction rate in northern Finland. Model SNOWPACK can relatively reliably estimate the relevant structural properties of snow. Use of snow structure models could give valuable information about grazing conditions, especially when estimating the possible effects of warming winters on reindeer populations and reindeer husbandry. Similar effects will be experienced also by other arctic and boreal species.

  1. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level.

  2. Relationships between biotic and abiotic range characteristics and productivity of reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lundqvist

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer husbandry is a form of pastoralism where vast areas are used as forage ranges throughout the year. The productivity of the reindeer industry in Sweden is affected by a multitude of factors on different geographical and temporal scales. Our aim was to find combinations of factors characterizing the environmental conditions for reindeer husbandry in the 51 herding districts in Sweden, which correlate strongly with variations in productivity both between herding districts in general and between years within districts. Productivities were described by estimated herd growth rates and carcass condition of slaughtered females and calves. These dependent variables were related to the environmental independent variables using linear regression models and structural equation modelling. The independent variables were either considered as stable (e.g. topography, vegetation and infrastructure or temporally changing (e.g. season lengths, weather events, disturbances and animal slaughter strategies. The most relevant independent variables were included in a cluster analysis to suggest a grouping of herding districts based on similarities in environmental conditions. Considerably larger variation in productivity was found between herding districts than between years. Different variables were found to be important for between-district and within-district variations, respectively. Season lengths and animal densities were found significant at both levels of variation. Other variables found to be relevant were ruggedness, snow condition, harassing insect activity, supplementary feeding, calf slaughter ratio and previousyear animal condition. Snow precipitation, ice-crust formation and forage quality were presumed to be relevant for reindeer productivity, but were not found to have a large impact on productivity. These factors, however, may have been counteracted by husbandry measures, statistically incorporated in animal density variables, or by being

  3. 宋元明清时期的畜牧业技术及其在吉林的借鉴%Animal Husbandry Technology and Reference to Jilin in Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭黎明; 徐秀文; 夏宇旭; 赵阳

    2012-01-01

    宋元明清时期是国家从分裂割据、若干民族政权并立,到各民族融合进一步加强,逐步走向中华民族的统一时期.其边疆与中原通过贸易的方式相互融合,促进了经济的发展乃至科学技术的进步,畜牧技术、兽医技术和渔业技术都有很大提高.羊、马、牛、猪、鸡、鸭、鹅都有许多优良品种涌现,并有许多史书记载了家畜禽的饲养管理方式、渔业捕捞与贩运的方式与规模.这些珍贵的农业资源遗产,对于今天畜牧业的发展具有启示意义.%The integrity of each nation was strengthened through trade during Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, which advanced economic development and scientific techniques improvement in animal husbandry, veterinary and fishery. Fine varieties of sheep, horse, cattle, pig, chick, duck and goose occurred, the breeding and management way, fishery tracking scale were recorded in book. These precious agriculture resource heritages have significance for animal husbandry development.

  4. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKyselkova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry contributes to the worldwide problem of increasing antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Intensive animal production is considered an important source of antibiotic resistance genes released to the environment, while the contribution of smaller farms remains to be evaluated. Here we monitor the spread of tetracycline resistance (TC-r genes at a middle-size conventional dairy farm, where chlortetracycline (CTC, as intrauterine suppository is prophylactically used after each calving. Our study has shown that animals at the farm acquired the TC-r genes in their early age (1-2 weeks, likely due to colonization with TC-resistant bacteria from their mothers and/or the farm environment. The relative abundance of the TC-r genes tet(W, tet(Q and tet(M in fresh excrements of calves was about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher compared to heifers and dairy cows, possibly due to the presence of antibiotic residues in milk fed to calves. The occurrence and abundance of TC-r genes in fresh excrements of heifers and adult cows remained unaffected by intrauterine CTC applications, with tet(O, tet(Q and tet(W representing a ‘core TC-resistome’ of the farm, and tet(A, tet(M, tet(Y and tet(X occurring occasionally. The genes tet(A, tet(M, tet(Y and tet(X were shown to be respectively harbored by Shigella, Lactobacillus and Clostridium, Acinetobacter, and Wautersiella. Soil in the farm proximity, as well as field soil to which manure from the farm was applied, was contaminated with TC-r genes occurring in the farm, and some of the TC-r genes persisted in the field over 3 months following the manure application. Concluding, our study shows that antibiotic resistance genes may be a stable part of the intestinal metagenome of cattle even if antibiotics are not used for growth stimulation, and that smaller dairy farms may also contribute to environmental pollution with antibiotic resistance genes.

  5. Remote sensing and in situ measurements of methane and ammonia emissions from a megacity dairy complex: Chino, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Melton, Christopher; Tratt, David M; Buckland, Kerry N; Clarisse, Lieven; Coheur, Pierre; Frash, Jason; Gupta, Manish; Johnson, Patrick D; Leen, J Brian; Van Damme, Martin; Whitburn, Simon; Yurganov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) directly and indirectly affect the atmospheric radiative balance with the latter leading to aerosol generation. Both have important spectral features in the Thermal InfraRed (TIR) that can be studied by remote sensing, with NH3 allowing discrimination of husbandry from other CH4 sources. Airborne hyperspectral imagery was collected for the Chino Dairy Complex in the Los Angeles Basin as well as in situ CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and NH3 data. TIR data showed good spatial agreement with in situ measurements and showed significant emissions heterogeneity between dairies. Airborne remote sensing mapped plume transport for ∼20 km downwind, documenting topographic effects on plume advection. Repeated multiple gas in situ measurements showed that emissions were persistent on half-year timescales. Inversion of one dairy plume found annual emissions of 4.1 × 10(5) kg CH4, 2.2 × 10(5) kg NH3, and 2.3 × 10(7) kg CO2, suggesting 2300, 4000, and 2100 head of cattle, respectively, and Chino Dairy Complex emissions of 42 Gg CH4 and 8.4 Gg NH3 implying ∼200k cows, ∼30% more than Peischl et al. (2013) estimated for June 2010. Far-field data showed chemical conversion and/or deposition of Chino NH3 occurs within the confines of the Los Angeles Basin on a four to six h timescale, faster than most published rates, and likely from higher Los Angeles oxidant loads. Satellite observations from 2011 to 2014 confirmed that observed in situ transport patterns were representative and suggests much of the Chino Dairy Complex emissions are driven towards eastern Orange County, with a lesser amount transported to Palm Springs, CA. Given interest in mitigating husbandry health impacts from air pollution emissions, this study highlights how satellite observations can be leveraged to understand exposure and how multiple gas in situ emissions studies can inform on best practices given that emissions reduction of one gas could increase those of

  6. Recovery from Mastitis in Dairy Cows – Development of Behaviour, Milk Production and Inflammatory Markers in the Weeks during and after Naturally Occurring Clinical Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop

    2015-01-01

    after bovine mastitis and to create a basis for future facilitation of recovery, the present thesis focussed on two selected aspects of recovery; a behavioural as well as an inflammatory aspect, aiming to 1) describe the behaviour of dairy cows in the days before, during and after antibiotic treatment...... and the infected cows were not fully recovered within eight weeks after antibiotic treatment. The presented combination of inflammatory as well as behavioural aspects of the recovery from bovine mastitis is new, and these results provide a more complete description of the recovery status of individual cows after...... of culling and death. Although mastitis has received significant scientific attention, one aspect of bovine mastitis has only been touched upon very briefly; the characterization of the recovery period and its potential for modulation. Hence, in order to increase the understanding of the recovery period...

  7. Assessing the potential value for an automated dairy cattle body condition scoring system through stochastic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.M.; Boehlje, M.D.; Gray, A.W.; Hogeveen, H.; Kenyon, S.J.; Eicher, S.D.; Schutz, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm sy

  8. Risk perception and management in smallholder dairy farming in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, K.; Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies on smallholder dairy farmers' risk perceptions and management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research of developing countries. This study focuses on farmers' risk perception and management strategies of smallholder dairy farms in urban and peri-urba

  9. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are

  10. Characterizing sources of nitrate leaching from an irrigated dairy farm in Merced County, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der M.L.; Harter, T.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M.C.; Meyer, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Dairy farms comprise a complex landscape of groundwater pollution sources. The objective of our work is to develop a method to quantify nitrate leaching to shallow groundwater from different management units at dairy farms. Total nitrate loads are determined by the sequential calibration of a sub-re

  11. Household nutrition and income impacts of using dairy technologies in mixed crop-livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunte, Kebebe

    2017-01-01

    Technologies like improved breeds of dairy cows and improved forages have the potential to significantly increase dairy cow productivity and farmers' profits in developing countries. However, adoption of such technologies has been low in Ethiopia, despite numerous efforts to disseminate the

  12. Chain cooperation as a critical success factor in Smart Dairy Farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Wulfse, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Smart Dairy Farming (SDF) consortium works on proof of concept and on development of sensors, IT infrastructure, decision models and work instructions designed to support dairy farmers and farm advisors in extending the lifespan of their cows. Various companies (chain partners Friesland Ca

  13. Effect of sub-clinical mastitis on milk yield and composition of dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sub-clinical mastitis on milk yield and composition of dairy goats in Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... prevalence of mastitis in dairy goats appears to be high but studies on the influence of ...

  14. Assessing the potential value for an automated dairy cattle body condition scoring system through stochastic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.M.; Boehlje, M.D.; Gray, A.W.; Hogeveen, H.; Kenyon, S.J.; Eicher, S.D.; Schutz, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm

  15. Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam : report of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of the workshop "Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam" which was held with Vietnamese stakeholders on January 17-18, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City as part of the project "Forage and Grass Production for Dairy Development in Vietnam" funded by the

  16. Changes in the veterinary management of dairy cattle: threats or opportunities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    Developments in dairy practice. During the last 25 years many Western countries have witnessed substantial changes in the role of veterinarians working in dairy cattle practice. Until the 1970s, the emphasis of their work was on the treatment of individual, clinically diseased animals, and it was

  17. Growth and Performance of the Ugandan Dairy Sector: Elites, Conflict and Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Mwebaze, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Abstract – The dairy sector is one of the only agricultural sectors in Uganda that has enjoyed sustained high growth since the late 1980s. Milk and the cold dairy chain developed especially in the South-Western part of the country. Some farmers have since adopted improved breeds and better...

  18. Improving reproducibility and external validity. The role of standardization and data reporting of laboratory rat husbandry and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura-Andrade, José Luiz; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista de; Sousa, João Batista de

    2017-03-01

    To identify the most relevant flaws in standardization in husbandry practices and lack of transparency to report them. This review proposes some measures in order to improve transparency, reproducibility and eventually external validity in experimental surgery experiments with rat model. We performed a search of scientific articles in PUBMED data base. The survey was conducted from august 2016 to January 2017. The keywords used were "reproducibility", "external validity", "rat model", "rat husbandry", "rat housing", and the time frame was up to January 2017. Articles discarded were the ones which the abstract or the key words did not imply that the authors would discuss any relationship of husbandry and housing with the reproducibility and transparency of reporting animal experiment. Reviews and papers that discussed specifically reproducibility and data reporting transparency were laboriously explored, including references for other articles that could fulfil the inclusion criteria. A total of 246 articles were initially found but only 44 were selected. Lack of transparency is the rule and not the exception when reporting results with rat model. This results in poor reproducibility and low external validity with the consequence of considerable loss of time and financial resources. There are still much to be done to improve compliance and adherence of researchers, editors and reviewers to adopt guidelines to mitigate some of the challenges that can impair reproducibility and external validity. Authors and reviewers should avoid pitfalls of absent, insufficient or inaccurate description of relevant information the rat model used. This information should be correctly published or reported on another source easily available for readers. Environmental conditions are well known by laboratory animal personnel and are well controlled in housing facilities, but usually neglected in experimental laboratories when the rat model is a novelty for the researcher.

  19. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  20. Land husbandry: an agro-ecological approach to land use and management Part 1: Considerations of landscape conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Shaxson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this, the first of two papers, the roles of key features of any landscape in determining potentials for erosional losses of soil and water are considered from an agro-ecological viewpoint. In this light, the effectiveness of past commonly-accepted approaches to soil and water conservation are often found to have been inadequate. In many cases they have tackled symptoms of land degradation without appreciating fully the background causes, which often relate to inadequate matching of land-use/land-management with features of the landscape. A number of reasons for this mismatch are suggested. Understanding the ecological background to land husbandry (as defined below will improve the effectiveness of attempts to tackle land degradation. In particular, an ecologically based approach to better land husbandry helps to foresee potential problems in some detail, so that appropriate forward planning can be undertaken to avoid them. This paper describes some practical ways of undertaking an appropriate survey of significant landscape features, enabling the definition and mapping of discrete areas of different land-use incapability classes. This is accompanied by an example of how the outcome was interpreted and used to guide the selection of appropriate areas which were apparently suitable for growing flue-cured tobacco within an area of ca. 140 km2 in Malawi. This process relied on knowledge and experience in various disciplines (interpretation of air-photos, topographic survey, soil survey, vegetation analysis, hydrology, soil & water conservation, geology, agronomy so as to ensure that the mapping process was based on the principles of better land husbandry.

  1. Knowledge of poultry diseases, biosecurity and husbandry practices among stakeholders in poultry production in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ON Ameji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial poultry production is low in Kogi State even before the advent of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Nigeria. The low level of poultry production has persisted long after the socio-economic impacts of HPAI had improved. A study was conducted among 94 poultry stakeholders in the state with the use of questionnaire to assess their knowledge of poultry diseases, biosecurity and poultry husbandry practices in six Local Government Areas of Kogi State. The findings showed that 60.0% of poultry production was rural while the rest were backyard (semi commercial poultry. About 64.7% of poultry kept were under extensive management with the commonest diseases seen under this management system being Newcastle disease (62.9%, Coccidiosis (52.3%, Fowl pox (46.9%, Gumboro disease (39.1% and Fowl typhoid (36.1%. Biosecurity was poor as 92.9% of respondents did not have footbath or hand wash disinfection; 70% would throw away poultry litter in the refuse dump; 12% would use the poultry litter as manure while 11% would sell out the litter. In addition, 64.7% of the poultry farmers obtained their rearing stock from the live bird market and other unknown sources while only 35.3% obtained theirs from the hatchery. The findings of this study showed that the low level of commercial poultry production in Kogi State might be due to the impacts of diseases and poor husbandry practices undertaken by the farmers. It is recommended that government should train poultry farmers on biosecurity, disease prevention and the adoption of modern husbandry practices suitable for the traditional poultry production system.

  2. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  3. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Beth Ann; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Wittman, Hannah; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50) before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care) while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation). Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care) appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  4. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ann Ventura

    Full Text Available Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50 before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation. Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  5. Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

    2008-02-12

    This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified.

  6. Husbandry factors and health conditions influencing the productivity of French rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huneau-Salaün

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 productivity data from 95 kindling to finishing rabbit farms in France were analysed to identify rearing factors and health conditions that influenced their productivity. Farm productivity, expressed on a yearly basis, was described with 4 productivity indices: doe fertility and prolificacy, viability of young rabbits in the nest and mortality during the fattening period. The productivity data were obtained with the technical support of the farm and expressed in a standardised way. The average numerical productivity observed in the sample of farms was 50.9 rabbits produced per doe and per year (CI95% [49.6-52.2]. The husbandry management and health conditions were described based on a questionnaire filled out during an interview with the farmer and a farm visit. Explanatory data were organised into meaningful blocks relative to biosecurity measures, del using a Partiamaternity management, the sanitary context and the farm structure. The relationship between the 4 thematic blocks and the productivity indices was studied in a single mol Least Squares (PLS regression model. Fertility (81.0%, CI95% [80.0-82.0] and viability of young at nest (85.1%, CI95% [85.0-85.3] and mortality rate during fattening: 7.2%, CI95% [6.4-7.9] were significantly associated with common factors relative to maternity management and the health context whereas prolificacy (9.7 live kits per parturition, CI95% [9.5-9.9] was mostly influenced by a specific set of variables pertaining to those 2 blocks. Farm structure and biosecurity measures had a limited impact on fertility and on kit viability before weaning. The health conditions of the doe herd and the fattening rabbits were found to be significantly associated with several productivity indexes, but their impacts on productivity were as high as the impact of the other blocks. Genetic strain of the females, doe replacement strategy and nursing and weaning practices appeared to significantly influence reproductive

  7. International Dairy Notes, August 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse, Edward V.

    2005-01-01

    The USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) publishes an annual estimate of agricultural exports by state. This Babcock Institute update focuses on Wisconsin dairy exports from ERS's latest report covering FY2004.

  8. Impact of processes of transformation on dairy enterprises’ activity under crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.V. Davydiuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the dairy enterprises’ activity in Zhytomyr region, in particular, the ways of adaptation to the major crisis factors and outlining the prospects of the industry. The paper considers macro factors impact on the dairy enterprises’ activity during the period from 2005 to 2015. Synthesis of these factors allowed us to determine major of them. The main changes in the dairy 147 enterprises’ activity under determined factors have been researched. Retrospective statistical analysis of indicators of financial and economic activities of dairy enterprises in Zhytomyr region has been carried out. There were the following issues that restrained the development of dairy enterprises in Ukraine, e.g. the crises that were caused by the absence of effective market-oriented economic system; the retardation of forage from needs of livestock breeding; the lack of economic relations between suppliers of raw milk and dairy enterprises; the high cost price of milk supplied by households and poor quality of milk etc. The analysis of the dairy enterprises in Zhytomyr region allowed to show rather significant changes in the key indicators of economic activity. Thus, the most impact on the dairy enterprises’ activity was observed in 2006 and 2009 years when there was the significant drop in the index of industrial production. However, profitability began growing. Significant changes were observed in the range of products. The research has identified the prospects of the industry, so we can predict the further reduction in the number of dairy enterprises. The efforts of leading enterprises of dairy products will continue focusing on the further development of product range and brands and adaptation to European practices of management. Keywords: manufacturing; macro environment; processes of transformation; crisis; dairy production; rate of localization; standardization.

  9. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  10. AHP 21: Sacred Dairies, Dairymen, and Buffaloes of the Nilgiri Mountains in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Walker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1,500 Toda people inhabit the Nilgiri Mountains in south India. Arguably the most remarkable characteristic of Toda culture is the sacred nature of the husbandry of herds of long-horned mountain water buffaloes. No other community in India has so single-mindedly focused its ritual attention on one particular animal species. Every important task associated with the buffalo herds – milking, milk-processing, giving salt, naming, seasonal migrations, burning pastures, introducing new equipment into the dairies, etc. – has been embellished with ritual. Todas make a clear-cut distinction between temple and domestic buffaloes. Ordinary men (but not women herd the latter, whose milk and milk-products (buttermilk, butter, and clarified butter, but not flesh (since the community espouses vegetarianism may be consumed, bartered, or sold without restriction. Males who are responsible for herding temple buffaloes conduct their daily lives in a manner preserving greater ritual purity than ordinary men. Moreover, they are not just dairymen, but also the community's priests. They must guard the ritual purity of the dairies they serve, and all that is in them, for these are the Todas' temples – sacred places, infused with divinity.

  11. Some new aspects of nutrition, health conditions and fertility of intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Lombardelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Speaking in terms of the general relationship between nutrition and reproduction, many different aspects are more or less involved depending on geographical areas, species, production systems, technological levels etc. There are deficiency conditions: energy, proteins, vitamins and minerals; but also some excesses (namely protein and few minerals or toxic substances such as micotoxins or plant compounds (i.e. phyto-oestrogens. Their relevance is different in the intensive systems for better feeds and relative easiness to create appropriate diets. Nevertheless, intensification does not reduce the nutritional risks for livestock reproduction for several reasons: namely, a suspected higher susceptibility of high genetic merit cows to the usual stresses. There is also a new risk: metabolic stress (e.g. negative energy balance. The latter is particularly relevant when early lactation and new pregnancy are close (as in dairy cows, however, of great importance are also oxidative stress and disease stress (pro-inflammatory cytokines. In dairy cows, inflammatory phenomena around calving - when an immune response occurs in spite of clinical symptoms are missing - are significantly related to a lower pregnancy rate. A possible explanation can be seen in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, which modify liver synthesis and seem to impair energy balance thereby reducing feed intake and increasing energy expenditure. This suggests that in order to improve fertility not only better feeding mecahnisms, but any husbandry tool that can reduce diseases and health disorders are needed.

  12. Sacred Dairies, Dairymen, and Buffaloes of the Nilgiri Mountains in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Walker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1,500 Toda people inhabit the Nilgiri Mountains in south India. Arguably the most remarkable characteristic of Toda culture is the sacred nature of the husbandry of herds of long-horned mountain water buffaloes. No other community in India has so single-mindedly focused its ritual attention on one particular animal species. Every important task associated with the buffalo herds – milking, milk-processing, giving salt, naming, seasonal migrations, burning pastures, introducing new equipment into the dairies, etc. – has been embellished with ritual. Todas make a clear-cut distinction between temple and domestic buffaloes. Ordinary men (but not women herd the latter, whose milk and milk-products (buttermilk, butter, and clarified butter, but not flesh (since the community espouses vegetarianism may be consumed, bartered, or sold without restriction. Males who are responsible for herding temple buffaloes conduct their daily lives in a manner preserving greater ritual purity than ordinary men. Moreover, they are not just dairymen, but also the community's priests. They must guard the ritual purity of the dairies they serve, and all that is in them, for these are the Todas' temples – sacred places, infused with divinity.

  13. Survey on smallholder dairy farms in the Mid-Country, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bont, J.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available On smallholder dairy farms (average 2.7 cows 40 cows and their calves were followed over a period of one year. Calving interval was 453 days, interval calving to first heat was 106 days and calving to conception 175 days. The number of services or inseminations per conception was 1, 6 ; natural service was more successful than artificial insemination. Inefficient oestrus detection was the major cause for poor reproductive performance. Average milk production up to six months postpartum was 1225 litres with a peak yield of 8.2 litres. Quantifies of concentrate fed (2.5kg/day were not related to the yield and remained constant. Average birth weight was 27 kg ; daily growth rate up to six months was 272 g. Mortality up to six and twelve months was 18 and 40 % respectively. Deficient colostrum feeding and omphalitis were common. Gastrointestinal nematodosis and coccidiosis were present but levels of infection and absence of clinical signs did not justify blind treatments. It is suggested that although husbandry and veterinary problems exist, economie factors like low milk price and high cost of inputs are the major causes for stagnancy in the smallholder dairy sector in this area.

  14. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  15. Emergy evaluation of contrasting dairy systems at multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Mathieu; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Lecomte, Philippe; Corson, Michael S; Wilfart, Aurélie

    2013-11-15

    Emergy accounting (EmA) was applied to a range of dairy systems, from low-input smallholder systems in South Mali (SM), to intermediate-input systems in two regions of France, Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR), to high-input systems on Reunion Island (RI). These systems were studied at three different levels: whole-farm (dairy system and cropping system), dairy-system (dairy herd and forage land), and herd (animals only). Dairy farms in SM used the lowest total emergy at all levels and was the highest user of renewable resources. Despite the low quality of resources consumed (crop residues and natural pasture), efficiency of their use was similar to that of industrialised inputs by intensive systems in RI, PC and BR. In addition, among the systems studied, SM dairy farms lay closest to environmental sustainability, contradicting the usual image of high environmental impact of cattle production in developing countries. EmA also revealed characteristics of the three intensive systems. Systems from RI and PC had lower resource transformation efficiency and higher environmental impacts than those from BR, due mainly to feeding strategies that differed due to differing socio-climatic constraints. Application of EmA at multiple levels revealed the importance of a multi-level analysis. While the whole-farm level assesses the overall contribution of the system to its environment, the dairy-system level is suitable for comparison of multi-product systems. In contrast, the herd level focuses on herd management and bypasses debates about definition of system boundaries by excluding land management. Combining all levels highlights the contribution of livestock to the global agricultural system and identifies inefficiencies and influences of system components on the environment.

  16. Diversity of spoilage fungi associated with various French dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Lucille; Valence, Florence; Pawtowski, Audrey; Auhustsinava-Galerne, Lizaveta; Frotté, Nicolas; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Deniel, Franck; Coton, Emmanuel; Mounier, Jérôme

    2017-01-16

    Yeasts and molds are responsible for dairy product spoilage, resulting in significant food waste and economic losses. Yet, few studies have investigated the diversity of spoilage fungi encountered in dairy products. In the present study, 175 isolates corresponding to 105 from various spoiled dairy products and 70 originating from dairy production environments, were identified using sequencing of the ITS region, the partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and/or EFα genes, and the D1-D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene for filamentous fungi and yeasts, respectively. Among the 41 species found in spoiled products, Penicillium commune and Penicillium bialowiezense were the most common filamentous fungi, representing around 10% each of total isolates while Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Trichosporon asahii were the most common yeasts (4.8% each of total isolates). Several species (e.g. Penicillium antarcticum, Penicillium salamii and Cladosporium phyllophilum) were identified for the first time in dairy products or their environment. In addition, numerous species were identified in both spoiled products and their corresponding dairy production environment suggesting that the latter acts as a primary source of contamination. Secondly, the resistance to chemical preservatives (sodium benzoate, calcium propionate, potassium sorbate and natamycin) of 10 fungal isolates representative of the observed biodiversity was also evaluated. Independently of the fungal species, natamycin had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (expressed in gram of preservative/l), followed by potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and calcium propionate. In the tested conditions, Cladosporium halotolerans and Didymella pinodella were the most sensitive fungi while Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida parapsilosis were the most resistant towards the tested preservatives. This study provides interesting information on the occurrence of fungal contaminants in dairy products and environments that may help developing

  17. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion.

  18. Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar--results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Khin, A; Hla, T; Meers, J

    2006-01-01

    There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay divisions. The breeding and training of fighting cocks was practised only in the Mandalay division, with well-trained birds sold for very high prices. Apart from this, chickens were raised in both regions mainly for small disposable income and were generally sold when money was needed, in particular during religious festivals. Chicken traders on bicycles, often called 'middle men', usually purchase birds from farmers in about 10 villages per day. Several 'middle men' supply birds to wealthier chicken merchants, who sell these birds at larger chicken markets. There is in general limited knowledge among farmers about the prevention of Newcastle disease via vaccination. Commercial indigenous chicken production is practised in Myanmar, but family poultry farming dominates indigenous chicken production in the country.

  19. Olfaction variation in mouse husbandry and its implications for refinement and standardization: UK survey of animal scents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Salesansky, Noelia; Mazlan, Nur H; Whitfield, Lucy E; Wells, Dominic J; Burn, Charlotte C

    2016-10-01

    Olfaction plays a crucial role in mouse communication, providing information about genetic identity, physiological status of conspecifics and alerting mice to potential predators. Scents of animal origin can trigger physiological and behavioural responses that could affect experimental responses and impact positively or negatively on mouse welfare. Additionally, differing olfactory profiles could help explain variation in results between laboratories. A survey was sent to animal research units in the UK to investigate potential transfer of scents of animal origin during routine husbandry procedures, and responses were obtained from animal care workers and researchers using mice in 51 institutions. The results reveal great diversity between animal units regarding the relevant husbandry routines covered. Most [71%] reported housing non-breeding male and female mice in the same room, with 76% reporting that hands were not washed and gloves not changed between handling male and female mice. The most commonly reported species housed in the same facility as mice was the rat (91%), and 41% of respondents were aware that scents from rats could affect mice. Changing of gloves between handling mice and other species was reported by 79% of respondents. Depending on the aspect considered, between 18 and 33% of respondents believed human and non-human animal odours would strongly affect mouse physiology, behaviour or standardization, while approximately 32-54% believed these effects would be weak. This indicates uncertainty regarding the significance of these factors. Understanding and controlling these practices could reduce unwanted variability in experimental results and maximize welfare. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Application Progress of ELISA in Animal Husbandry%ELISA技术在畜牧业中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文君; 张映; 方礼禄; 张凤

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) has the advantages of fast, simple operation, highly accurate and specific, strong sensitivity and easy to standardization. ELISA has been widely used in clinical medicine, biological chemistry, analytical chemistry, food safety monitoring, environment pollution control, animal husbandry, etc. This paper recommended the application progress of ELISA in animal husbandry industry.%酶联免疫吸附试验具有操作简便、快速准确、特异性高、敏感性强、易于标准化等优点,已广泛应用于临床医学、生物化学、分析化学、食品安全监测、环境污染控制、畜牧业等领域。文章综述了酶联免疫吸附试验在畜牧行业申的应用进展。

  1. Characteristics of a Dairy Process under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    set of physical property models for diary products were developed and built into PRO/II system. Milk products viscosity and process system pressure drop were employed as the process characteristic parameters to determine a process operation window. The flexibility of the operation window vertexes...... was evaluated with a minimization of the process pasteurization and cooling temperatures through vertex enumeration method. The quantitative analysis of the dairy process established a framework in developing of different flexible units, such as integrated milk and milk-based product productions, multi......-task process unit, etc....

  2. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  3. Value-Added Dairy Products from Grass-Based Dairy Farms: A Case Study in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingbin; Parsons, Robert; Colby, Jennifer; Castle, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    On-farm processing of value-added dairy products can be a way for small dairy farms to diversify production and increase revenue. This article examines characteristics of three groups of Vermont farmers who have grass-based dairy farms--those producing value-added dairy products, those interested in such products, and those not interested in such…

  4. Value-Added Dairy Products from Grass-Based Dairy Farms: A Case Study in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingbin; Parsons, Robert; Colby, Jennifer; Castle, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    On-farm processing of value-added dairy products can be a way for small dairy farms to diversify production and increase revenue. This article examines characteristics of three groups of Vermont farmers who have grass-based dairy farms--those producing value-added dairy products, those interested in such products, and those not interested in such…

  5. Dairy farmers' attitudes and intentions towards improving dairy cow foot health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Garforth, C.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cow foot health is a subject of concern because it is considered to be the most important welfare problem in dairy farming and causes economic losses for the farmer. In order to improve dairy cow foot health it is important to take into account the attitude and intention of dairy farmers. In

  6. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomašević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 % claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in 29.6 % of the companies, while only 11.1 % had implemented and certified IFS standard. The most important incentive for implementing food safety management systems for Serbian dairy producers was to increase and improve safety and quality of dairy products. The cost of product investigation/analysis and hiring external consultants were related to the initial set-up of food safety management system with the greatest importance. Serbian dairy industry was not greatly concerned by the financial side of implementing food safety management systems due to the fact that majority of prerequisite programmes were in place and regularly used by almost 100 % of the producers surveyed. The presence of competency gap between the generic knowledge for manufacturing food products and the knowledge necessary to develop and implement food safety management systems was confirmed, despite the fact that 58.8 % of Serbian dairy managers had university level of education. Our study brings about the innovation emphasizing the attitudes and the motivation of the food production staff as the most important barrier for the development and implementation of HACCP. The most important identified benefit was increased safety of dairy products with the mean rank scores of 6.85. The increased customer confidence and working discipline of staff employed in food processing were also found as important benefits of implementing/operating HACCP. The study shows that the level of HACCP

  7. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort...... dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk...... to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  8. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  9. Factors for consumer choice of dairy products in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers.

  10. Some estimated effects of the planned harnessing of the Ounasjoki river on reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirkko Nieminen

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available The harnessing of waterways for electrical power has caused permanent pasture losses and prevented the free movement of the reindeer herds in Finland. Many great changes occurred after construction of the two large artificial lakes of Lokka and Porttipahta (total 630 km2 in the Lappi reindeer herders association in the 1960s. The planned harnessing of the Ounasjoki river consists of 10 power plants and 2 big and 12 smaller artificial lakes (total 270 km2. The plan will have effects on the income of 1070 owners in 7 reindeer herders associations. The losses in reindeer husbandry estimated by three different methods were maximally 476, 2824 and 9900 reindeer (value of meat production 0.12 to 2.5 million FIM/year, 64 jobs and various herding buildings (value 3.9 million FIM. Two new reindeer farmes would become unusuable (0.5 million FIM and in addition hay production from seasonally flooded fields (approx. 25 000 - 30 000 FIM/year would be lost. The building of new forces in the reindeer herders association areas of Ounasjoki river would require 6.2 million FIM.Ounasjoen rakentamissuunnitelman mahdolliset vaikutukset porotalouteen.Abstract in Finnsish / Yhteenveto: Vesistojen valjastaminen såhkontuottoon on tuhonnut porolaitumia ja vaikcuttanut porojen vapaata liikkumista Suomessa. Tasta on hyvånå esimerkkinå Lokan ja Portipahdan tekoaltaiden (yhteenså 630 km2 rakentaminen Lapin paliskunnassa 1960-luvulta alkacn. Ounasjoen rakentamissuunnitelma kåsittåå 10 voimalaitosta ja 2 isoa ja 12 picnempåå tekoallasta (yhteenså 270 km2. Rakennussuunnitelma vaikuttaa 1070 poronomistajan talouteen 7 cri paliskunnassa. Kolmella eri mcnetelmallå laskien jouduttaisiin enimmillåån våhentåmåån 476, 2824 ja 9900 lukuporoa (lihantuotto 0,12-2,5 milj. mk/vuosi sekå menetettåisim 64 ympårivuotista tyopaikkaa ja kocttaisiin useita eri rakennevahinkoja (arvoltaan noin 3,9 milj. mk. Kaksi uutta porotilaa jåisi kåyttokclvottomiksi (0,5 milj. mk ja

  11. Predation in the reindeer husbandry area in Finland during 1976-86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1976-86 predators killed a total of 11 295 reindeer in the Finnish reindeer husbandry area. Predators killed mostly calves and hinds. With the exception of the Kåsivarsi and Muotkatun-turi reindeer herding cooperatives, kills of predators were concentrated in the reindeer herding areas on the eastern border. During 1976-86 predators killed most reindeer in April - June, and the majority of preys were calves. Most reindeer were killed by wolves (26.9%, bears (24.7%, wolverines (22.6% and eagles (15.9%. Wolves, bears, wolverines and lynxes killed mainly adult reindeer, eagles killed mainly calves. Wolves killed reindeer mainly during October - January, lynxes during January - April, wolverines during February - April, eagles during May - July and bears during May - October. During the last years the number of reindeer killed by lynxes has increased in Finland.Petovahingot Suomen poronhoitoalueella vuosina 1976-86.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Viimeisen kymmenen vuoden aikana porojen måårå on lisååntynyt suuresti Suomessa. Vuosina 1976-86 pedot tappoivat Suomen poronhoitoalueella yhteenså 11 295 poroa. Pedot tappoivat pååasiassa vasoja ja vaatimia. Käsivarren ja Muotkatunturin paliskuntia lukuunottamatta petovahingot kohdistuivat lhinn poronhoitoalueen itrajalla oleviin paliskuntiin. Vuosina 1976-86 pedot tappoivat poroja eniten huhti-kesåkuun aikana. Eniten pedot tappoivat tuolloin vasoja. Eniten poroja tappoivat sudet (26.9%, karhut (24.7%, ahmat (22.6% ja kotkat (15.9%. Sudet, karhut, ahmat ja ilvekset tappoivat pååasiassa aikuisia poroja, kotkat vasoja. Sudet tappoivat poroja låhinnå loka-tammikuussa, ilvekset tammi-huhtikuussa, ahmat helmi-heinåkuussa ja karhut touko-lokakuussa. Viime vuosina ilvesten tappamien porojen måårå on kas vanut Suomessa.Rovdjursskador inom det finska renskotselsområdet under åren 1976-86.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Under de senaste tio åren har antalet tamrenar

  12. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaocun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT, 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy ( 3 servings/d diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain compared to diets low

  13. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T

    2013-01-01

    studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R......Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...

  14. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (Africa had relatively low costs (Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  15. A SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM C/T-13910 AND CONSUMPTION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS IN UZBEK POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the relationship between C/C-13910 genotyping and consumption of dairy products in an Uzbek population and to study the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms for dairy products in the LNP C/C-13910 carriers. METHODS: 100 Uzbeks were examined for nucleotide polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dairy tolerance was analyzed by a questionnaire, developed to assess dyspepsia after milk and dairy consumption. RESULTS: The genetic allele variant C/C-13910, the marker of lactase non-persistence, was found in 81% of cases in the Uzbek population. In 19% of the subjects, the genotype C/T-13910 was found. No statistically significant relationship was found between the lactase deficiency genotype and consumption of dairy products (p>0,05. The majority of the participants with the genotype C/C-13910 were reported to consume dairy products every day or several times in week. Among carriers of genotype LNP gastrointestinal symptoms, when consuming dairy products, do not occur more often than in those with genotype LP (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Despite the high prevalence of lactase deficiency in the Uzbek population, Uzbeks tolerate dairy products well and regularly consume them. Regular consumption of fermented milk products in the diet of the Uzbek population is likely to compensate for the rare use of milk and helps with the intake of calcium and other nutrients contained in milk.

  16. The economics of dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christopher A

    2003-07-01

    The structure of the dairy farm industry has been changing rapidly in recent years. Milk production has increased, with dramatic increases in milk produced per cow and with a steep decline in number of milk cows and fewer farms with larger herds. The change in dairy farm size has not been uniform across regions. The growth in farm size has occurred much more rapidly in the Pacific and South regions than in the traditional dairy-producing regions (Upper Midwest, Northeast, and Corn Belt). Using USDA data to examine costs and returns over time reveals that the incentives to produce milk have been much greater in the Pacific and South regions in recent years. Although the cash costs are similar across regions, accounting for all costs including unpaid factors such as labor and capital replacement yields a clear advantage for the Pacific region. Dairy farm size and cost of production are jointly determined. The incentive to increase farm size is derived from the economies of size that may be achieved by spreading the capital, labor, and managerial costs across more units of milk production. Empiric evidence from previous studies indicates a declining cost of production over a large range of herd sizes. Even in the presence of a flat average cost curve, the incentive to maximize farm income provides incentive to increase production. Adjustment costs may fix dairy production facilities in their current use. Those firms facing higher adjustment costs because of individual or regional characteristics or because of different timing of growth will be smaller or grow more slowly than if they faced smaller adjustment costs. This situation may explain the continued lag of farm size and technology adoption in the traditional dairy producing regions relative to the Pacific and South regions where the more recent population growth coincided with the presence of modern, large-scale production technologies. Finally, dairy marketing policies almost certainly have affected the

  17. 7 CFR 58.519 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy products. 58.519 Section 58.519 Agriculture..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... Material § 58.519 Dairy products. (a) Raw skim milk. All raw skim milk obtained from a secondary...

  18. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  19. Evolution of microbiological analytical methods for dairy industry needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eSohier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culture-based methods have been used to enumerate microbial populations in dairy products. Recent developments in molecular methods now enable faster and more sensitive analyses than classical microbiology procedures. These molecular tools allow a detailed characterization of cell physiological states and bacterial fitness and thus, offer new perspectives to integration of microbial physiology monitoring to improve industrial processes. This review summarizes the methods described to enumerate and characterize physiological states of technological microbiota in dairy products, and discusses the current deficiencies in relation to the industry’s needs. Recent studies show that PCR-based methods can successfully be applied to quantify fermenting microbes and probiotics in dairy products. Flow cytometry and omics technologies also show interesting analytical potentialities. However, they still suffer from a lack of validation and standardization for quality control analyses, as reflected by the absence of performance studies and official international standards.

  20. Dairy Products, Dietary Calcium, and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstelten, Jorrit L; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy products may be involved in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease by modulating gut microbiota and immune responses, but data from epidemiological studies examining this relationship are limited. We investigated the association between prediagnostic intake of these foods...... and dietary calcium, and the subsequent development of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: In total, 401,326 participants were enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. At recruitment, consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk...... intervals (CIs), adjusted for total energy intake and smoking. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quartile, the ORs for the highest quartile of total dairy products and dietary calcium intake were 0.61 (95% CI, 0.32-1.19, p trend = 0.19) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.28-1.42, p trend = 0.23) for CD, and 0.80 (95% CI...

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN DAIRY SECTOR IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek ZDENĚK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important for the stability of Europe and Czech milk market is to remain competitive in world markets, as the main way for balance on the internal market is based on successful export of dairy products to third countries. Price volatility and environmental sustainability are seen as the most serious current problems in the dairy industry and dairy farming. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of the production and milk prices in the EU and assess the main factors that affect labour productivity. The number of cows per worker is one of the most important factors affecting labour productivity. Effect of prices on labour productivity in monetary expression is not as significant as is usually assumed. The technical equipment of labour should be an important factor influencing the number of cows per worker. The hypothesis that higher technical equipment of labour should create better conditions for higher productivity could be assumed.

  2. Biogas Application Options within Milk Dairy Cooperatives in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Sommart, Kritapon

    2016-01-01

    By means of a case study conducted within a milk dairy cooperative in Tambon Ban Kor, a district in Khon Kaen Province, this paper analyze opportunities for implementing a biogas development ‘hub’ in Thailand for achieving bio-economic and environmental benefits within a local rural community....... Options for collecting manure and other types of relevant biomass residues within the area are identified. Manure and biomass residues are thus suggested treated in a multi-purpose & centralized biogas plant - the first in Thailand - established in connection to the dairy company, owned by the dairy...... cooperative, etc. The biogas plant substitutes the use of fossil fuels, and surplus electricity can be exported to the power grid and provide extra income. Local crop farmers and ago-industries could benefit economically from sale of biomass residues to the energy plant. The environment will benefit from e...

  3. A tale of two dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Milk has always been susceptible to price fluctuations. Farmers are used to putting away money during good times to see themselves through lean times. Recently, however, the cycles have become more violent, with lows falling lower and highs rising not quite so high and the intervals between peaks and valleys shrinking. In 1970, when milk was bringing farmers the same amount that it is today, there were nearly 650,000 dairy farms in the United States. Now there are fewer than one tenth as many, only about 54,000. The largest 1 percent of dairy farms (a figure than includes only enormous factory farms with over 2,000 cows) produced nearly one quarter of the milk we consume. Recently, dairy farmers banded together to propose a radical solution to the dairy crisis. In order to survive, they concluded, American dairy farmers would have to join together to control the supply of milk, an approach along lines similar to the one taken in Canada.

  4. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  5. Developing a predictive model for the energy content of goat milk as the basis for a functional unit formulation to be used in the life cycle assessment of dairy goat production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, P P; Ronchi, B

    2017-07-27

    Recent reports on livestock environmental impact based on life cycle assessment (LCA) did not fully consider the case of the dairy goat. Assignment of an environmental impact (e.g. global warming potential) to a specific product needs to be related to the appropriate 'unitary amount' or functional unit (FU). For milk, the energy content may provide a common basis for a definition of the FU. To date, no ad hoc formulations for the FU of goat milk have been proposed. For these reasons, this study aimed to develop and test one or more predictive models (DPMs) for the gross energy (GE) content of goat milk, based on published compositional data, such as fat (F), protein, total solids (TS), solid non-fat matter (SNF), lactose (Lac) and ash. The DPMs were developed, selected and tested using a linear regression approach, as a meta-analysis (i.e. meta-regression) was not applicable. However, in the final stage, a control procedure for spurious findings was carried out using a Monte Carlo permutation test. Because several published predictive models (PPMs) for GE in cow milk and goat milk were found in the literature, they were tested on the same data set with which the DPMs were developed. The best-performing DPMs and PPMs were compared directly with a subset of the individual data retrieved from the literature. Overall, the paucity of direct measurements of the GE in goat milk was a limiting factor in collecting data from the literature; thus, only a small data set (n=26) was established, even though it was considered sufficiently representative of milks from different goat breeds. The three best PPMs based on F alone gave more biased estimates of the GE content of the goat milk than the three new DPMs based on F, F and SNF and F and TS, respectively. Accordingly, three different formulations of FU are proposed, depending on the availability of data including both F and TS (or F and SNF) or F alone. Even though several metrics can be used in defining the FU for milk to

  6. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  7. Meat, dairy, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007.

  8. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the fut...

  9. Household Animal and Human Medicine Use and Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Risk Factors for Emerging Zoonotic Disease and Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roess, A A; Winch, P J; Akhter, A; Afroz, D; Ali, N A; Shah, R; Begum, N; Seraji, H R; El Arifeen, S; Darmstadt, G L; Baqui, A H

    2015-11-01

    Animal antimicrobial use and husbandry practices increase risk of emerging zoonotic disease and antibiotic resistance. We surveyed 700 households to elicit information on human and animal medicine use and husbandry practices. Households that owned livestock (n = 265/459, 57.7%) reported using animal treatments 630 times during the previous 6 months; 57.6% obtained medicines, including antibiotics, from drug sellers. Government animal healthcare providers were rarely visited (9.7%), and respondents more often sought animal health care from pharmacies and village doctors (70.6% and 11.9%, respectively), citing the latter two as less costly and more successful based on past performance. Animal husbandry practices that could promote the transmission of microbes from animals to humans included the following: the proximity of chickens to humans (50.1% of households reported that the chickens slept in the bedroom); the shared use of natural bodies of water for human and animal bathing (78.3%); the use of livestock waste as fertilizer (60.9%); and gender roles that dictate that females are the primary caretakers of poultry and children (62.8%). In the absence of an effective animal healthcare system, villagers must depend on informal healthcare providers for treatment of their animals. Suboptimal use of antimicrobials coupled with unhygienic animal husbandry practices is an important risk factor for emerging zoonotic disease and resistant pathogens.

  10. Exploring the Use of ICTs in Learning and Disseminating Livestock Husbandry Knowledge to Urban and Peri-Urban Communities in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Consolata

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of various Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in learning and disseminating relevant information on livestock husbandry in Tanzania. The paper is part of a study that investigated the extent of use of ICTs by urban and peri-urban livestock keepers and how access and dissemination of livestock…

  11. Marketing Operations of Dairy Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The Nation's 435 dairy cooperatives marketed 95.6 billion pounds of milk, or about 77 percent of all milk sold to plants and dealers in 1980. There were 146 cooperatives with no milk handling facilities, 97 with only milk and cream receiving stations, and 192 operating 456 dairy processing and manufacturing plants. Cooperatives sold about 16 percent of the Nation's packaged fluid products, 10 percent of the ice cream, 64 percent of the butter, 87 percent of the dry milk products, 22 percent o...

  12. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows,

  13. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  14. Genomic selection in dairy cattle: the USDA experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection has revolutionized dairy cattle breeding. Since 2000, assays have been developed to genotype large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at relatively low cost. The first commercial SNP genotyping chip was released with a set of 54,001 SNP in December 2007. Over 15,000 ...

  15. Evaluation of a Lameness Scoring System for Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, P T; Munksgaard, L; Tøgersen, F A

    2008-01-01

    Lameness is a major problem in dairy production both in terms of reduced production and compromised animal welfare. A 5-point lameness scoring system was developed based on previously published systems, but optimized for use under field conditions. The scoring system included the words "in most...

  16. Dairy and functional foods research in the Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit is the only group in the Agricultural Research Service that is dedicated to solving critical problems in milk utilization and fruit and vegetable byproducts from specialty crops. The many areas of investigation include development of specialty cheese, c...

  17. Veterinary advisory practice and sustainable production on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Oenema, O.; Boersema, S.; Cannas da Silva, J.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of ‘sustainable livestock production’ has greatly developed over the past decades. Currently, a certain degree of consensus has been reached. The concept comprises four major components: economy, ecology, society, and ethics. Dairy farmers, especially those with grassland-based

  18. Veterinary advisory practice and sustainable production on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Oenema, O.; Boersema, S.; Cannas da Silva, J.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of ‘sustainable livestock production’ has greatly developed over the past decades. Currently, a certain degree of consensus has been reached. The concept comprises four major components: economy, ecology, society, and ethics. Dairy farmers, especially those with grassland-based productio

  19. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P < 0.01) and hot ( P < 0.001) seasons. Signs of heat stress were recorded only in the hot season ( P < 0.001). The visual assessment from outside the pen confirms the on-farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  20. A survey of management practices that influence production and welfare of dairy cattle on family farms in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Hötzel, M J; Longo, C; Balcão, L F

    2013-01-01

    A survey on dairy production in family dairy farms in the northwest of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was carried out to assess husbandry practices and elements of the living environment that may influence animal welfare and productivity. Three farm systems common in the region were compared: extensive, pasture-based, and semi-intensive. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with farmers, followed by an inspection of the production environment and of dairy cows on 124 dairy farms. Some welfare and production problems were common to the 3 systems, mainly subclinical mastitis and tick infestations, which affected one-third of cows, deficiencies in the provision of drinking water and shade, and poor hygiene practices during milking. Some problems were specific to farming systems, such as lameness and hock injuries on the semi-intensive farms, and inadequate milking infrastructure and greater frequencies of cows with low body condition scores on extensive and pasture-based farms. A greater proportion of farms in the semi-intensive group had modern, herringbone-type milking parlors, applied the California Mastitis Test, and followed teat disinfection practices, and more pasture-based farms provided shade in the paddocks. The widespread use of pasture and adapted genotypes and individual identification of animals were positive aspects present in all systems. The absence of health and production records in more than half of the farms may prevent farmers from recognizing certain problems. Results of this survey may guide public policies aiming to improve milk productivity and quality with sustainable and low-cost production practices.

  1. On the decline of ground lichen forests in the Swedish boreal landscape: Implications for reindeer husbandry and sustainable forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Per; Cory, Neil; Svensson, Johan; Hedenås, Henrik; Jougda, Leif; Borchert, Nanna

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are a bottleneck resource for circumpolar populations of reindeer, and as such, for reindeer husbandry as an indigenous Sami land-use tradition in northern Sweden. This study uses ground lichen data and forest information collected within the Swedish National Forest Inventory since 1953, on the scale of northern Sweden. We found a 71 % decline in the area of lichen-abundant forests over the last 60 years. A decline was observed in all regions and age classes and especially coincided with a decrease of >60 year old, open pine forests, which was the primary explanatory factor in our model. The effects of reindeer numbers were inconclusive in explaining the decrease in lichen-abundant forest. The role that forestry has played in causing this decline can be debated, but forestry can have a significant role in reversing the trend and improving ground lichen conditions.

  2. Effect of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme with reference to biocontrol strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimeng, E J; Mutinga, M J

    1993-03-01

    A study was carried out at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, to assess the impact of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding and identify indigenous biocontrol agents with potential for controlling mosquito breeding in the scheme. The study established a close relationship between the schedule of the farming practices (particularly the flooding phase) and mosquito breeding. Two groups of agents, entomopathogenic bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) and larvivorous fish, were identified. Laboratory evaluation of the agents produced encouraging results. The bacterial isolates showed broad-spectrum larvicidal potency against Anopheles, Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae and 2 of the fish species, Tilapia zilli and Oreochromis niloticus, demonstrated a strong predation for a mosquito larval diet. To facilitate their use in effective biocontrol strategies, the agents would require further evaluation under field conditions.

  3. Effect of Self-developed Anionic Salt Diets on the Performance of Prapartum High Yielding Dairy Cows%高产奶牛围产前期饲喂自配阴离子盐的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福元; 宋志强; 姜新生; 廉德平

    2011-01-01

    采用30头经产荷斯坦奶牛,按照配对试验设计,研究在围产前期(产前21d)添加自配阴离子盐添加剂对奶牛采食、尿液pH值及产后100d的产奶量、发病率和直接经济效益的影响。试验结果发现,饲喂阴离子盐添加剂日粮奶牛采食量与对照组无显著差异,饲喂4d后可使尿液pH值显著降低,产后100d的产奶量显著提高,发病率显著下降,直接经济效益显著提高。由此表明高产奶牛围产前期饲粮中添加阴离子盐,能够改善奶牛产后的健康状况,提高泌乳性能及经济效益,也表明,自配阴离子盐添加剂饲喂效果确实。%30 Holstein muhiparous cows, according to paired experimental design,were studied the effect of self-developed anionic salt diets fed during the prapartum (prenatal 21 days) on the intake , urine PH value and 100 days postpartum milk yield, disease rate of dairy cows. The results found that the intake of cows fed anionic salt additive dietary has no significant differences from the control group . after being fed 4 days, the urine pH was significantly lower , 100 days postpartum milk yield was significantly increased and the incidence rate decreased significantly, direct economic benefit was improved significantly. It is suggested that adding anionic salt in high dairy cows diets would improve the health status of postpartum cows, improve lactation performance and economic benefits. Theretore , self--developed anion salt does have effect.

  4. Animal husbandry and landscape management in mining landscapes. Literature survey and analysis for the region south of Leipzig; Tiergebundene Landnutzung und Landschaftspflege in Bergbaufolgelandschaften. Literaturuebersicht und Bewertung am Beispiel des Suedraumes Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, S.

    1999-07-01

    Scientific research on animal husbandry in surface mining regions has started about a decade ago and preliminary results are now available. These regions include large surfaces, the future utilisation of which is still uncertain and which have a particular potential for nature protection. The project presented here analysed options for the utilisation and maintenance of the surface mining regions with a particular emphasis on domestic animals and game farming. The 600 sqkm mining region of Leipzig south (western Saxony) was chosen as a test region. The investigations were based on exhaustive bibliographic research, the analysis of statistical data and expert interviews. Animal husbandry can be part of a comprehensive concept for the ecological revitalisation of surface mining regions. They contain large areas with a high potential for nature protection which should be maintained and developed accordingly. Domestic animals can contribute to the management of nature protection sites on dumping areas by maintaining the vegetation at intermediate stages of succession where selected biotopes or species are to be conserved. Ruminants are important also for the management of reclaimed agricultural land which is used as grassland in order to preserve it for future agricultural use. Landscape management with herbivores is also an option for slopes of pits. The availability of sufficient feed is the limiting factor for animal husbandry on those areas and determines the pasturing systems to be chosen. (orig). [German] Mit wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zur Tierhaltung auf Bergbaufolgeflaechen wurde begonnen, und es liegen erste Forschungsergebnisse vor. Die Bergbaufolgelandschaft umfasst grosse Flaechen, deren Folgenutzung unsicher ist bzw. deren Naturschutzpotential besonders hervorgehoben wird. Das Ziel des Projektes bestand in der Analyse charakteristischer Nutzungs- und Pflegevarianten fuer Bergbaufolgelandschaften unter Beruecksichtigung von Nutz- und Wildtierhaltung. Als

  5. PRIORITY GUIDELINES OF DAIRY BREEDING DEVELOPMENT IN AN AGRARIAN COMPANY Приоритетные направления развития молочного скотоводства в аграрном предприятии

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have considered and justified: the priority guidelines of dairy breeding development in an agrarian company based on technological processes modernization in branch, the work discipline raise and the merchandising improvement

  6. Streamlined analysis of lactose-free dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Morlock, Lauritz P; Lemo, Carot

    2014-01-10

    Functional food for lactose-intolerant consumers and its global prevalence has created a large market for commercially available lactose-free food products. The simplest approach for detection and quantitation of lactose in lactose-free dairy products was developed. A one-step sample preparation was employed and the resulting 10% sample solution was directly subjected to the chromatographic system. LODs down to 0.04 mg/L were obtained for dairy products by application volumes up to 250 μL on a rectangular start zone, which is the lowest LOD reported in matrix so far. The highly matrix-robust, streamlined approach was demonstrated for a broad range of dairy products, even with high fat and protein contents. The mean recovery rate for 11 types of dairy products spiked at the strictest lactose content discussed (0.01%) was 90.5±10.5% (n=11). The mean repeatability for 11 dairy products spiked at the 0.01% level was 1.3±1.0% (n=11). It is the simplest approach with regard to sample preparation at low running costs (0.3 Euro or 0.4 USD/analysis) and fast analysis time (3 min/analysis). It enabled an efficient product screening, and at the same time, the quantitation of lactose in relevant samples. This streamlined analysis is highly attractive to the field of food safety and quality control of lactose-free dairy products, for which a limit value for lactose is expected soon in the EU. This methodological concept can be transferred to other challenging fields.

  7. A simulation model "CTR Dairy" to predict the supply of nutrients in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chilibroste, P.; Dijkstra, J.; Robinson, P.H.; Tamminga, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation rumen model has been developed to function under non-steady state conditions in order to allow prediction of nutrient availability in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding systems. The model simulates availability of glycogenic, aminogenic and lipogenic nutrients to lactating d

  8. Dairy donkey: an alternative building layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bibbiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative milk source for human infants. The use of donkey milk is not limited to the paediatric field, being used in geriatric nutrition and in the cosmetic industry. In 2010, the Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, was involved in a project supported by the Tuscany Region Rural Development Fund 2007- 2013 dealing with the creation of a donkey milk productive chain. The project has as its main partner the Bandite di Scarlino, an agro-forestry complex of considerable size. It covers approximately 9000 hectares, which fall in Scarlino, Castiglione della Pescaia, Follonica and Gavorrano municipalities, under Tuscany regional control. The so-called FILAMI project (Filiera Latte Asino Amiatino, acronym of the goal of the project in Italian had among its goals helping preserve an indigenous breed of donkeys called Amiatina. Salimei (2011 assessed that the presence of the foal during milking does not affect milk ejection in jennies (the female donkey adapted to the milking procedure, but when foals are not present the milking routine is more manageable for the animals and for optimal milk harvest; in accordance, in the present farming system the jenny has been kept separately from the foal during the milking session. To this purpose, the stable, the milking parlour and the paddocks must be well organised with a proper milking routine. Milking facilities must be designed for the milk treatment and storage at low temperature or for freezing. Currently, the milk undergoes a pasteurisation cycle for human consumption, or directed to the cosmetic industry. Moreover, the milking facilities should fulfil the creation of a milk collection centre in order to play an important role between the dairy donkey farms and the dairy industry. In this paper, the technical and technological aspects of the donkey stable, paddocks, milking parlour, mobile milking unit, and processing

  9. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  10. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  11. Dairy farmers' use and non-use values in animal welfare: Determining the empirical content and structure with anchored best-worst scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to identify empirically the types of use and non-use values that motivate dairy farmers in their work relating to animal welfare of dairy cows. We also sought to identify how they prioritize between these use and non-use values. Use values are derived from productivity considerations; non-use values are derived from the wellbeing of the animals, independent of the present or future use the farmer may make of the animal. In particular, we examined the empirical content and structure of the economic value dairy farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows. Based on a best-worst scaling approach and data from 123 Swedish dairy farmers, we suggest that the economic value those farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows covers aspects of both use and non-use type, with non-use values appearing more important. Using principal component factor analysis, we were able to check unidimensionality of the economic value construct. These findings are useful for understanding why dairy farmers may be interested in considering dairy cow welfare. Such understanding is essential for improving agricultural policy and advice aimed at encouraging dairy farmers to improve animal welfare; communicating to consumers the values under which dairy products are produced; and providing a basis for more realistic assumptions when developing economic models about dairy farmers' behavior.

  12. Exploring the Determinants of Consumer Behavior in West Bank, Towards Domestic and Imported Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate factors influencing the purchasing behavior of Palestinian customers towards domestic and imported dairy products (Israeli and foreign. The secondary data were obtained from the competent authorities. On the other hand, primary data were gathered by utilizing personal interviews and questionnaires. 450 questionnaires were distributed to all governorates of the West Bank. It has been concluded from statistical results that middle-income households concern mainly about quality, image and product validity period. In contrast, low-income households consider mainly product price. The consumer was satisfied with Israeli products that meet his needs. On the other hand, local consumer highly considered price and personal knowledge when purchasing local dairy products. Advertising negatively affected the consumer purchasing behavior of Israeli and foreign dairy products, in contrast it positively affected his behavior when purchasing local dairy products. Period of validity was the most influential factor on the purchasing decision for domestic and imported dairy products. It has been found that consumer expenditures on Israeli dairy products were the highest followed by local and foreign products. Recommendations are as follows: i producers should develop products that could meet the needs and desires of consumers, ii draw effective marketing policies, depending on technologists specialized in dairy industry, iii take into account consumer awareness when developing advertising strategy, and iv quality control should be adjusted in accordance with product specifications and standards.

  13. Lameness detection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertem, Van T.; Bahr, C.; Schlageter Tello, A.; Viazzi, S.; Steensels, M.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Lokhorst, C.; Maltz, E.; Halachmi, I.; Berckmans, D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if a multi-sensor system (milk, activity, body posture) was a better classifier for lameness than the single-sensor-based detection models. Between September 2013 and August 2014, 3629 cow observations were collected on a commercial dairy farm in

  14. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  15. Metagenomic analysis of dairy bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammed, Musemma Kedir; Kot, Witold Piotr; Neve, Horst

    2017-01-01

    Despite their huge potential for characterizing the biodiversity of phages, metagenomic studies are currently not available for dairy bacteriophages, partly due to the lack of a standard procedure for phage extraction. We optimized an extraction method that allows to remove the bulk protein from...

  16. Coping strategies in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.In Chapter 1, current concepts of adaptation and stress a

  17. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current concept

  18. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  19. Effects of plastic-film mulching and nitrogen application on forage-oriented maize in the agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong DU; Xiuju BIAN; Weihong ZHANG; Fucun YANG; Lifeng ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    To counter the actual problems of forage shortage and low quality existing in the agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone in North China,a research was conducted to study the effects of plastic-film mulching and nitrogen application on the production of forageoriented maize with the aim of producing water-saving forage with high-yield and good quality.Field experiments combined with laboratory experimental estimation and analysis was adopted.Plastic-film mulching increased the dry biomass of forage-oriented maize by 23.8% with effectively improving the maize's nitrogen absorption so that the apparent utilization ratio and output-input ratio of nitrogen were enhanced.The content of crude protein in maize plant was increased and thus,forage nutritive quality was improved.Plastic-film mulching remodeled the maize field water consumption scheduling pattern and increased the water use efficiency by over 10%.Nitrogen application to forage-oriented maize co-improved the biomass and the nutritive quality with the nutritive matter (percentage and yield) several times of the biomass.Nitrogen application increased maize biomass production by 36.1%-39.5% and it increased the contents of crude protein and crude fat in maize plant by 109% and 145%,respectively.The yields of the two nutritive matters increased by 160% and 210%.Nitrogen application at the were considered as the most proper rates to guarantee high yield and good quality of forage-oriented maize and were the rates to keep the available nitrogen balanced in the soil.Plastic-film mulching and nitrogen fertilizer application to forage-oriented maize was an effective way of producing forage with high yield and good quality,relieving the shortage of animal forage and acceleratingecological recovery and economic development in this ecotone in North China.

  20. Measurement method for urine puddle depth in dairy cow houses as input variable for ammonia emission modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, Nico; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cow houses are a major contributor to ammonia (NH3) emission in many European countries. To understand and predict NH3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses a mechanistic model was developed and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the contribution to NH3 emission of each input var

  1. Measurement method for urine puddle depth in dairy cow houses as input variable for ammonia emission modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, Nico; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cow houses are a major contributor to ammonia (NH3) emission in many European countries. To understand and predict NH3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses a mechanistic model was developed and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the contribution to NH3 emission of each input

  2. 甜味剂在乳品工业中的应用%Application of sweeteners to dairy industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李发财; 杨海军

    2004-01-01

    Sweeteners have always played an important role in food industry, especially in the dairy industry which has developed rapidly in the recent years. With the diversified demands from the consumers and the intensified competition in the market, the various dairy producers enrich the healthy requirements of their products by adding sweeteners.

  3. Relationship of the Interests between the Dairy Farmer and the Company in Ecological Agriculture——A Case of the Dairy Industry in Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Development status of dairy industry in Sichuan Province,China is analyzed,indicating that how to ensure the high-quality and ecological production of peasant households has become an important issue for the safety and healthy of the masses and the development of dairy industry.Game model is established and the solution for the model is obtained.Based on analyzing the relationship of the interests between the dairy farmer and the company in ecological agriculture,two mixed strategies of Nash equilibrium are obtained.One is that when the probability is equal to α*1,there are no differences between purchasing or not purchasing;if the probability of company purchase is equal to β*1,there are no differences between producing high-quality milk and poor-quality milk.The other is that if the probability of dairy farmer under normal transaction is equal to α*2,there are no differences for the company to select high-quality inspection or low-quality inspection;if the probability of high-quality inspection is equal to β*2,passing off inferior milk as high-grade one has no differences with normal transaction.Therefore,moral risk of the dairy farmer should be prevented by probability β*1 and high-quality inspection.Finally,countermeasures are put forward,such as reducing the risk of transaction,ensuring the basic interest of the dairy farmer engaged in ecological production,intensifying the supervision,correctly preventing the moral risk of dairy farmer,improving the laws and regulations,and coordinating interests between dairy farmer and company in industrial chain.

  4. The distribution of fat in dried dairy particles determines flavor release and flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2014-04-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms.

  5. The robustness of reindeer husbandry – need for a new approach to elucidate opportunities and sustainability of the reindeer industry in its socio-ecological context (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öje Danell

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of transformations and adaptations in the Sami use of land for their subsistence over a long period of time has led to the reindeer husbandry of today. In Sweden the Sami rights to land and water are today legally connected to the practising of reindeer husbandry as a livelihood. Together with a few associated commodities, it has become considered is the only lasting Sami land-use. In the Sami culture, a central element is the association of the people with the land and the subsistence on what is provided in nature. Consequently, this association between people and land is today kept alive by the reindeer husbandry practiced as a livelihood, which thereby also produces and manages an essential base for the culture. The developments in the surrounding society are currently reducing the latitude for the reindeer industry at an accelerated rate and thereby also its capacity to handle new situations. In the complicated ecological, economic, social and institutional contexts, where reindeer husbandry is practiced, there is a large risks for sudden and unpredicted disintegrations and collapses at different system levels. The consequences thereof for the long term continuation and adaptability of Sami land use are largely unpredictable. If it leads to a collapse of reindeer industry as mode of land-use, the risks of additional deterioration of the Sami indigenous rights is also apparent and thereby the scope for new solutions as well. This will likely have serious negative consequences for the viability of the Sami culture concurrently with declining live dependences of the land. The situation of reindeer husbandry has similarities with management crises in many other integrated socio-ecological systems, which have led to sustainability failures and unpredicted consequences. These insights seem to be deficient in the treatment of the problems, which reindeer industry is facing. Scientists could probably make a very important contribution by

  6. Cellular proliferation rate and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and IGFBP-3 and estradiol receptor alpha expression in the mammary gland of dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, A F; Dallard, B E; Baravalle, C; Licoff, N; Formía, N; Ortega, H H; Becú-Villalobos, D; Mejia, M E; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary ductal morphogenesis during prepuberty occurs mainly in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and estradiol stimulation. Dairy heifers infected with gastrointestinal nematodes have reduced IGF-1 levels, accompanied by reduced growth rate, delayed puberty onset, and lower parenchyma-stroma relationship in their mammary glands. Immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to determine variations in cell division rate, IGF-1 system components, and estradiol receptors (ESR) during peripubertal development in the mammary glands of antiparasitic-treated and untreated Holstein heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Mammary biopsies were taken at 20, 30, 40, and 70 wk of age. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunolabeling, evident in nuclei, tended to be higher in the parenchyma of the glands from treated heifers than in those from untreated. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) type 2 and type 3 immunolabeling was cytoplasmic and was evident in stroma and parenchyma. The IGFBP2-labeled area was lower in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, a maximal expression of this protein was seen at 40 wk of age, whereas in the untreated group the labeling remained constant. No differences were observed for IGFBP3 between treatment groups or during development. Immunolabeling for α ESR (ESR1) was evident in parenchymal nuclei and was higher in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, ESR1 peaked at 30 wk of age and then decreased. These results demonstrate that the parasite burden in young heifers negatively influence mammary gland development, affecting cell division rate and parameters related to estradiol and IGF-1 signaling in the gland.

  7. Formula Selection for Dairy Fresh Manure Transformed into Civilian Fuel Materials%牛鲜粪便转化民用燃料原料配方的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广有

    2012-01-01

    养牛业已成为我国农业经济发展和畜牧业生产中的一个重要支柱产业,规模集约化发展的同时所产生大量粪便等污物得不到有效环保处理,对环境造成了严重污染。本文采用正交试验,将奶牛鲜粪便、煤粉、除臭吸附粘合剂原料均匀混合处理,对牛鲜粪便转化民用燃料技术环保再利用进行了研究,结果表明,含水量较高的奶牛鲜粪便最低利用率可达40%,除臭吸附粘合剂最适合添加比例为11%,就可及时将牛鲜粪便中大量粪水和挥发性污染大气有害气体吸附固定住,也便于加工成多种形状的民用燃料加以再利用,具有强大的环保功能和鲜粪便循环再利用特点,对推动养牛业健康可持续发展具有重大意义。%Cattle industry has become one of important pillar industry in China's rural economy development. Animal husbandry and scale of the intensive development produce the large amount of waste and sewage, the environment affected by the serious pollution. The orthogonal test was conduct in this study. The cow fresh manure, pulverized coal deodorant adsorption bond raw material processing, mixing of dairy fresh manure into civil fuel technology environmental protection reuse was studied, the result showed that the minimum ratio of fresh manure with higher water content can reach 40%, the most suitable adding ratio for deodorant adsorption adhesive was 11 %, the fresh manure in feces and volatile atmospheric pollution harmful gas adsorption can be fixed and facilitate processed into various shape of civil fuel to recycle, so it has strong environmental protection function and give important significance to dairy in dustry.

  8. Applying Dairy Cow Behavior in Management Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Kai; LIU Zongping; WANG Zongyuan

    2009-01-01

    Applying dairy cow behavior in management practice is an effective way of improving cow health, welfare and performance. This paper first reviewed daily time budget and normal patterns of dairy cow behavior, and then discussed the influence of major management conditions and practices (such as competitive environments, stocking density, grouping strategies) on cow's feeding, lying and social behavior. Finally, new findings of using feeding behavior to predict disorders in transition period were addressed. It was suggested that dairy researchers and farmers should take advantage of related knowledge of dairy cow behavior to improve dairy cow health and welfare. More research is required to further study dairy cow behavior so as to better apply it in practical management and meet the needs of production.

  9. The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.

  10. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  11. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

    2013-01-01

    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  12. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-02

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  13. The determinants of the performance of dairy smallholders in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Baur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Malawi is stagnating although neighbouring countries steadily increase outputs. In this paper, we explored the determinants of the performance of dairy smallholders. As indicators of on-farm performance we used annual milk yield, calving intervals, and annual dairy income. Regression models revealed that milk yield was negatively related with farmer’s age, female farmer, and household size, but positively influenced by farmers’ experience. Calving intervals were strongly associated with labour costs and breeding method. Income from dairying was only associated with farmers’ education but varied strongly with region. Regional effects existed for all performance indicators which may partly be rooted in land scarcity in the south and the efforts of development agencies to promote dairying in the northern and central regions. Results also revealed a tendency for pure breeds to produce higher outputs, but crossbreeds due to lower costs provided better income. Thus, we recommend that experienced farmers become involved in extension programs to provide comprehensive services that help farmers make more efficient use of their scarce assets, and thus realise more of the animals’ genetic potential with regard to the three observed performance indicators.

  14. Dairy Production in Bosnia and Herzegovina over The Past Quarter Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedad SAKIC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of agricultural production is one of the economic priorities for Bosnia and Herzegovina. The dairy sector, including primary animal products and processed dairy foods, is a core sector for agricultural development. In 2006 the agriculture sector contributed about 10.4% of GDP, in 2008 8.4%, 2009 7.8%, 2011 8.7% and 2012 8.2%. Dairy farming dominates agricultural production and total livestock production contributes almost 60% of agricultural GDP. Milk production should be primarily directed towards cheaper and better quality of products. This is possible with active credit lines, more investment in the modernization and expansion of existing production capacity, as well as with construction of new large specialized farms, and new technologies, especially in the way of housing and handling of animals, nutrition, hygiene, etc. Current work is a brief review of the dairy sector at the past quarter century prepared by using data from different sources.

  15. Vitamin D status of dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well-appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not...

  16. Effect of Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Training on Dairy Worker Knowledge and Welfare-Related Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ashley E.; Ahola, Jason K.; Chahine, Mireille; Roman-Muniz, I. Noa

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether on-farm dairy beef quality assurance (BQA) training affected dairy worker knowledge of BQA and welfare-related practices. Dairy personnel who participated in the BQA training were administered an exam before and after the training to gauge the amount of knowledge gained. The average exam score was 21.0…

  17. Implementation of strategies for mastitis control in dairy herds in Macedonia: A case report

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    Atanasov Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is probably the most common and costly disease in modern dairy cow husbandry. The aim of the present paper was to report the results concerning udder health after implementation of a specific strategy using both field and laboratory methods. During the period June 2010-December 2011 a total of 674 dairy cows from four dairy farms were included in the investigation. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed by detection of signs of inflammation in the udder, while subclinical mastitis was diagnosed at the animal level by an increased Somatic Cell Count (SCC using laboratory tests, and subsequently confirmed at quarter level by California Mastitis Test (CMT.Microbiological analysis of the milk samples was carried out by standard procedures using Gram staining, biochemical tests and automated identification system.The distribution of somatic cell counts on cow level (n=674 was:305 (45.3% with SCC less than 100,000SCC/mL, 236 (35.0% 100,001 - 350,000 SCC/mL, and 133 (18.7% with more than 350,000SCC/mL. From a total of 1684 quarters tested by CMT, 644 quarters (38.2% were positive and 1040 quarters (61.8% were negative. In 60 out of 101 quarters that had a positive CMT result and no current treatment and that were sampled for bacteriology, bacteria could be isolated. Main bacteria identified, were coagulase - negative staphylococci (40.0%, Streptococcus agalactiae was present in 25.0%, Escherichia coli in 16.6%, Proteus spp. in 11.7% and Staphylococcus aureus in 6.7% of the bacteriological positive samples. After introducing specific mastitis-control measures, focusing on milking hygiene, dry-off treatment, and antibiotic treatment of both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis cases, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was reduced from 38.2to 10.8%, while the incidence of clinical mastitis decreased from 21.0% to 4.9%.In conclusion, the implementation of a standard mastitis control plan based on a regular assessment of the somatic cell count can

  18. New perspectives on dairy and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Julie A; Hobbs, Ditte A

    2016-08-01

    CVD are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. One of the key dietary recommendations for CVD prevention is reduction of saturated fat intake. Yet, despite milk and dairy foods contributing on average 27 % of saturated fat intake in the UK diet, evidence from prospective cohort studies does not support a detrimental effect of milk and dairy foods on risk of CVD. The present paper provides a brief overview of the role of milk and dairy products in the diets of UK adults, and will summarise the evidence in relation to the effects of milk and dairy consumption on CVD risk factors and mortality. The majority of prospective studies and meta-analyses examining the relationship between milk and dairy product consumption and risk of CVD show that milk and dairy products, excluding butter, are not associated with detrimental effects on CVD mortality or risk biomarkers that include serum LDL-cholesterol. In addition, there is increasing evidence that milk and dairy products are associated with lower blood pressure and arterial stiffness. These apparent benefits of milk and dairy foods have been attributed to their unique nutritional composition, and suggest that the elimination of milk and dairy may not be the optimum strategy for CVD risk reduction.

  19. Using Bacteriocins in Milk and Dairy Products

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    Evrim Güneş Altuntaş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by bacteria are ribosomally synthesed and antimicrobial peptides. Lots of strains of bacteria can produce bacteriocin. There are lots of researchs on using bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB which are known as safe (GRAS in foods. With this respect bacteriocin experiments have been generally in meat and dairy products where can become spoilage easily. It is allowed to use nisin in cheese a dairy product, and with cheese the experiments about using nisin, pediocin, lacticin, variacin etc. are going on the other dairy products. In this review some experiments on using bacteriocins and their results on milk and dairy products are reported.

  20. Food Sector Transformation and Standards in Zambia: Smallholder Farmer Participation and Growth in the Dairy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Neven, David; Katjiuongua, Hikuepi; Adjosoediro, Ingrid; Reardon, Thomas; Chuzu, Pia Nwanza; Tembo, Gelson; Ndiyoi, Mukelabai

    2006-01-01

    Market liberalization in Zambia has led to a rapid and fundamental transformation of its dairy sector. Mainly through foreign direct investment and international partnerships, a new formal dairy sector, characterized by institutional, organizational and technological innovation, emerged from the ashes of abandoned government projects. Sensing the development opportunity that arose from an untapped milk supply potential in Zambia's traditional smallholder livestock production and a growing mil...