Smith, Natalie L; Smith, Thomas J; DeSantis, Diana; Suhocki, Marissa; Fenske, Danielle
Vision problems in homeless children can decrease educational achievement and quality of life. To estimate the prevalence and specific diagnoses of vision problems in children in an urban homeless shelter. A prospective series of 107 homeless children and teenagers who underwent screening with a vision questionnaire, eye chart screening (if mature enough) and if vision problem suspected, evaluation by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Glasses and other therapeutic interventions were provided if necessary. The prevalence of vision problems in this population was 25%. Common diagnoses included astigmatism, amblyopia, anisometropia, myopia, and hyperopia. Glasses were required and provided for 24 children (22%). Vision problems in homeless children are common and frequently correctable with ophthalmic intervention. Evaluation by pediatric ophthalmologist is crucial for accurate diagnoses and treatment. Our system of screening and evaluation is feasible, efficacious, and reproducible in other homeless care situations.
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has the...
Reganick, Karol A.
Notes that children and adolescents appear to suffer the most detrimental effects of homelessness. Discusses the problems faced by homeless youth and the educational systems that must respond to them, including causes and demographics of homelessness, detrimental effects of shelters, the victimization of homeless adolescents, and educational and…
Reviews discrepancies in the research on the learning and development of homeless children. Describes a child care program at a homeless shelter that enrolls both homeless and nonhomeless children; and presents case studies of two successfully adjusted homeless children. Discusses homeless children's resiliency and the need to assess their…
Homelessness influences every facet of children's lives, inhibiting their physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Homeless women face such obstacles to healthy pregnancies as chemical abuse, chronic health problems, and lack of prenatal care. Homeless infants are more likely to have low birth weights and are at greater…
Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane
The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…
Rafferty, Yvonne; Shinn, Marybeth
Reviews community-based research on the effects of homelessness on children. Homeless children face threats to their future well-being resulting from health problems, hunger, poor nutrition, developmental delays, anxiety, depression, behavioral problems, and educational underachievement. Contributing factors may include inadequate shelter,…
Shaver, Debra M.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.
This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the extent to which homeless children in the United States receive the "free and appropriate education" to which they are entitled. Data were collected through several surveys conducted in two San Francisco Bay Area counties: (1) surveys of parents in homeless shelters with 313…
A survey of 102 urban school districts in large cities indicates that school districts have responded to the requirements of the Stewart B. McKinney Act for the education of homeless children to varying degrees. However, 69 percent of districts described the problem of homeless students as nonexistent or small. (SLD)
Vissing, Yvonne M.
Despite stereotypes to the contrary, homelessness is as prevalent in rural as urban areas. This digest examines the implications of homelessness for rural children and youth and discusses possible actions by rural educators. An estimated half of the rural homeless are families with children. Compared to urban counterparts, rural homeless families…
Bires, Carie; Garcia, Carmen; Zhu, Julia
Homelessness has a devastating impact on children. Research has shown that homelessness puts children at increased risk of health problems, developmental delays, academic underachievement and mental health problems. Homelessness also has a disproportionate impact on the youngest children, who account for more than half of all children in…
Powers-Costello, Beth; Swick, Kevin J.
The focus of this article is on articulating the importance of teacher development of constructs about homeless children and families and examining factors that influence teachers' perceptions of children and families who are homeless or at high-risk of becoming homeless. The article also explores some strategies to support teachers in…
Homelessness is a growing problem in every part of the United States. Federal legislation requires state plans for educating homeless children, but will provide less than $23 per child. Summarizes some of the state plans and suggests steps school boards can take to provide homeless children with public education. (MLF)
Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda
This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2013
Given the number of young children experiencing homelessness and its devastating impacts on development, preschool programs play a critical role in meeting these children's need for quality early care and education; yet, most young homeless children do not receive early childhood services. Many barriers limit access to early childhood programs for…
The 1980s brought an unprecedented rise in the number of homeless families with children. That there may be as many as three million homeless persons in the United States, with families representing one-third of this population, indicates that homelessness is a social problem of catastrophic proportions. This paper finds that while Federal…
Molnar, Janice M.; And Others
Summarizes the small body of research to date that focuses on the effects of homelessness on children. In matters related to health, development, and education, homeless children are at a grave disadvantage, many from birth. Policy implications are outlined, concluding that children need permanent housing if they are to thrive. (DM)
... [FNS-2008-0001] RIN 0584-AD60 Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway... concerning the certification of certain children who are homeless, runaway, or migratory. This rule affects... children who are homeless, runaway, or migratory, as determined by the homeless coordinator for homeless or...
Rubin, David H.; And Others
Studied the effect of homelessness on cognitive and academic functioning of children 6 to 11 years old in comparison to a control group of housed children in the same classroom. Found no differences in cognitive functioning between homeless and housed children, but did find that homeless children performed significantly more poorly than housed…
Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana
Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…
Yamaguchi, Barbara J.; Strawser, Sherri; Higgins, Kyle
Families with children are the fastest growing group of persons who are homeless. To address their needs for education, this article discusses legal mandates, barriers to education presented by school requirements, effects of homelessness on children and youth, and the role of the educational diagnostician in providing services. Offers 14…
Strawser, Sherri; Markos, Patricia A.; Yamaguchi, Barbara J.; Higgins, Kyle
Reviews the legislative provisions and mandates governing the education of children and youth who are homeless and the barriers to education presented by school requirements. Highlights the effects of homelessness on children and youth and the role the school counselor should play in the provision of services for them. (Contains 55 references.)…
The number of mothers with young children experiencing homelessness and seeking shelter has increased in the USA over the past decade. Shelters are often characterized as environments offering few opportunities for appropriate play experiences. This article delineates the important role of play for young children experiencing homelessness and…
Yamaguchi, Barbara J.; Strawser, Sherri; Higgins, Kyle
Reviews the definition and demographics of homeless students; the effects of homelessness on developmental, psychological, behavioral, and academic growth; the legal mandates regarding homeless students; and barriers to education. Recommendations for fostering success for homeless students are offered. (Author/DB)
Mulholland, Lori; Greene, Andrea
Homeless families with children comprise the fastest growing segment of the United States homeless population. This study evaluated Year 1 of the Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project, designed to meet educational and social needs of homeless children and families, and to assist Head Start agencies in developing effective…
Homeless families with children constitute the fastest growing segment of the United States homeless population. This study evaluated Year 2 of the Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project, designed to meet educational and social needs of homeless children and families, and to assist Head Start agencies in developing effective…
Saleem, Muniba; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A
Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions, positive affect, and helpful behaviors [Gentile et al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009, 2010, 2011]. These results are consistent with the social-cognitive models of social behavior such as the general learning model [Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. However, no experimental studies have examined such effects on children. Previous research on violent video games suggests that short-term effects of video games are largely based on priming of existing behavioral scripts. Thus, it is unclear whether younger children will show similar effects. This research had 9-14 years olds play a prosocial, neutral, or violent video game, and assessed helpful and hurtful behaviors simultaneously through a new tangram measure. Prosocial games increased helpful and decreased hurtful behavior, whereas violent games had the opposite effects. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.
In the early part of 1999, the Institute for Children and Poverty surveyed almost 2,000 families with more than 4,000 children in 24 locations to assess the state of homeless children across the United States. This report tells their story. Families account for almost 40% of U.S. homeless people, and in some cities that percentage is even higher.…
Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Cuccaro, Paula M; Peskin, Melissa F; Elliott, Marc N; Coker, Tumaini R; Mrug, Sylvie; Davies, Susan L; Schuster, Mark A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver. Children were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups: victim only, aggressor only, victim-aggressor, and neither victim nor aggressor at each time point using validated measures. Multinomial, multilevel mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship among periods of homelessness and longitudinal victimization, aggression, and victim aggression compared to children who were nonvictims and nonaggressors. Results suggest that children who experienced family homelessness were more likely than domiciled children to report aggression and victim aggression but not victimization only. Multivariate analyses suggested that even brief periods of homelessness were positively associated with aggression and victim aggression (relative to neither) compared to children who were never homeless. Furthermore, childhood victimization and victim aggression significantly decreased from 5th grade to 10th grade while aggression significantly increased in 10th grade. Children who experienced family homelessness for brief periods of time were significantly more likely to be a victim-aggressor or aggressor compared to those who were never homeless. Prevention efforts should target housing security and other important factors that may reduce children's likelihood of aggression and associated victimization. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Swick, Kevin J.
Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.
Heflin, L. Juane; Rudy, Kathryn
This booklet examines the plight of homeless families who have children who need special educational services. It explores the magnitude of homelessness among families, provides empirical descriptions of homeless populations, and identifies factors contributing to the rising incidence of homelessness in the United States. Specific effects of…
...-0001] RIN 0584-AD60 Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children... interim rule entitled Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for...
Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer
The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…
Gargiulo, Richard M.
Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…
McDaniel, Grace Ann
The number of homeless children in the United States is increasing. The National Center on Family Homelessness (2010) reports that on average one in 50 children in the United States have experienced homelessness, defined as unstable housing. The needs of this student demographic are varied and complex. For the purpose of this study, the homeless…
MacGillivray, Laurie; Ardell, Amy Lassiter; Curwen, Margaret Sauceda
There are approximately 1.5 million children in the United States who go to sleep each night without a home of their own (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2009). In this article, we provide insights into how educators can create greater classroom support, particularly in literacy learning and development, for this population. Drawing from…
Friedman, Lorraine; Christiansen, Guy
The Stewart B. McKinney Act of 1987 was intended to remove barriers and ensure access to education for homeless children. But despite a 1988 consent decree, the United States Department of Education (DOE) has failed to comply with its statutory duties to implement the Act, the states have also failed to implement the Act adequately, and homeless…
D'Andrea, Michael; And Others
While most people would readily agree that all family members and especially children are likely to experience adverse effects to their personal development as a result of being homeless, it is both surprising and distressing to note how little attention this topic has received in the professional literature to date. Counselors are well-advised to…
Educational and developmental researchers suggest that children who have experienced homelessness suffer both in self-esteem and in literacy development, although early research is not complete. The Reading Connection (TRC), a community-based nonprofit organization in northern Virginia, focuses on the social aspect of reading, rather than…
Siebel, Nancy L.; Bassuk, Ellen; Medeiros, Debra
This article was originally published (November 2011) as a brief created on behalf of the Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Coordinating Center, which is a partnership of The National Center on Family Homelessness, National Alliance to End Family Homelessness, and ZERO TO THREE. The article offers a definition of…
de Bradley, Ann Aviles
Many homeless children and youth have difficulty in school due to their loss of stable housing, and lack of consistent contact with family and friends. When a child becomes homeless, schools are federally mandated to identify these students and provide the same access to a free and appropriate education as their non-homeless counterparts. Within a…
McCoy-Roth, Marci; Mackintosh, Bonnie B.; Murphey, David
Living without permanent, long-term housing creates a number of stressors for children and families, but being homeless can be particularly detrimental to the healthy development of young children. The National Center on Family Homelessness reports that more than 1.6 million children--or one in 45 children--were homeless annually in America…
This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…
Children make up half of the homeless population in the US, and of those, almost 50 percent are under age six. Homeless children face many different challenges in school. These children and their families have been invisible in school due to the indifference and stereotypes about them. This article focuses on early childhood pre-service teachers'…
Cunningham, Mary; Harwood, Robin; Hall, Sam
As homelessness increased among families and children during the 1980s and 1990s, policymakers created, and strengthened, the McKinney-Vento Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) program. The McKinney-Vento EHCY program aims to mitigate the effects of residential instability through the identification of homeless children in schools and…
Full Text Available There is increasing concern about family homelessness. Homeless mothers and their children are one of society’s most disadvantaged and at-risk populations. However, very little Australian research exploring mothers’ views on their homelessness experiences exists. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 mothers and four agency staff, this study explored homeless Australian mothers’ pathways into and out of homelessness, their specific needs and the services and supports that were (or would have been most helpful. In this sample of single mothers and their children, early experiences of homelessness and domestic violence contributed most commonly to homelessness episodes. Almost immediate engagement with welfare agencies seemed to be protective against re-experiencing homelessness, however Australian restrictions on length of program involvement and limited housing options for mothers exiting homelessness programs, may place such mothers and their children at high risk of re-entering homelessness. Younger mothers had greater needs and benefited most from personalised one-on-one support that addressed key parenting and life skills. The implications of these findings are considered in relation to service delivery to this vulnerable group and avenues for future research are noted.
Better Homes Fund, Newton, MA.
This report presents information on homeless children in the United States to gain the attention of policymakers and the media. Information comes from years of rigorous scientific research. The report presents both findings and solutions, including concrete steps to secure food, shelter, health care, and schooling to help homeless children and…
Howland, Allison; Chen, Li-Ting; Chen, Ming-E; Min, Mina
Homeless children usually experience high mobility. Yet, it is not clear if the degree of mobility among homeless children is associated with their academic performance. Furthermore, an emerging body of literature is beginning to examine the impact of specific living arrangements (e.g., living with families or friends) on homeless family and child…
Morris, Rita I.; Butt, Rachael A.
This qualitative study explored parents' perceptions of how their homelessness affected the development and academic achievement of their children. Grounded theory with symbolic interactionism was the framework for this study. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 34 homeless families in a variety of settings. Multiple factors…
Julianelle, Patricia F.; Foscarinis, Maria
Explores the school mobility of children and youth experiencing homelessness and the success of the McKinney-Vento Act (designed to limit the negative effects of school mobility on homeless students) in addressing this mobility. Proposes that affordable housing is the key to eliminating the mobility associated with homelessness and consequently…
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2015
According to research (Fargo et al, 2012) and federal data (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development [HUD], 2015), veterans experience homelessness at a higher rate than non-veterans. Many veterans experience homelessness as individuals, while others experience homelessness with their families (2015), which may include school-age children.…
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2014
The word "homeless" typically does not bring to mind images of children and youth, but the reality is many homeless people are under the age of 18. Some of them are a part of families experiencing homelessness, while others are on their own, despite their young age. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. § 11431 et seq.)…
Casey, Erin C.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Masten, Ann S.
The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of children of incarcerated parents (COIP) in a sample of homeless/highly mobile children, examine the relationship between parental incarceration and other risk factors, and investigate the effect of parental incarceration on child academic and mental health outcomes. The authors compared COIP (n = 45) to children whose parents were never incarcerated (n = 93) within a sample of 138, 4- to 7-year-old ethnically diverse children residing in emergency homeless shelters. Children's caregivers provided information about children's history of parental incarceration and other family experiences. Children's teachers reported academic and mental health outcomes in the subsequent school year. Compared to children with no history of parental incarceration, COIP experienced more negative life events. Regression models revealed that a history of parental incarceration was a significant predictor of teacher-reported internalizing problems. These results have implications for the identification and treatment of the highest risk homeless/highly mobile children. PMID:26478648
Kirkman, Maggie; Keys, Deborah; Bodzak, Daria; Turner, Alina
This research aimed to gain insight into the homelessness experience of children accommodated in transitional support services in an urban setting in Australia. It joins a limited international literature. Interviews incorporating interactive activities were conducted with 20 children aged 6-12 from diverse ethnicities and cultural backgrounds, most of whom were living in supported accommodation. Twelve parents/guardians were also interviewed. Children had experienced between 3 and 11 changes of residence, including hotels or motels, refuges, sleeping rough or in cars, rooming or boarding houses, and caravan parks. It was evident that homelessness adversely affected children's sense of security, mood, behaviour, physical health, education, and overall experience of childhood. As families moved from one temporary accommodation to the next, they often lost touch with the extended family and their friends, became disconnected from any sense of community, and did without familiar possessions, treasures, toys, and pets. Experiencing chaotic sequences of accommodation could leave children feeling confused, insecure, sad, and angry. It could make children feel responsible for their discouraged and unwell parents and their younger siblings. Homelessness made many children expect instability as a way of life. Children continued to be affected by problems that preceded or precipitated homelessness, such as family violence, broken relationships, and parents grappling with drug and alcohol dependence. The overwhelming conclusion to be drawn from this research is that children affected by homelessness need security, stability, and the chance to become and remain part of a community. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Attles, Henrietta S. Evans
This book is a study of the impact that changes in living environments (i.e. from homelessness in a shelter to a family's own dwelling unit) have on the academic achievement of school-age children. The study samples seven cases of public school children in grades 5 through 8 during the years 1988 to 1991. The children lived in the same shelter and…
Horowitz, Sandra V.; And Others
Presents findings concerning conflict management and coping behavior of homeless adolescents. Interviews with 176 families (mother-adolescent dyads) indicate peer conflict was the worst problem of the previous month. Homeless adolescents demonstrated conflict management and coping patterns differing in certain aspects from that described in the…
... raise awareness of the current state of child homelessness in the United States, documents the number of homeless children in every state, their well-being, their risk for child homelessness, and state level planning and policy efforts. Child ...
Andrew J. Barnes
Full Text Available Children in homeless families have high levels of adversity and are at risk for behavior problems and chronic health conditions, however little is known about the relationship between cognitive-emotional self-regulation and health among school-aged homeless children. Children (n = 86; mean age 10.5 living in shelters were assessed for health, family stress/adversity, emotional-behavioral regulation, nonverbal intellectual abilities, and executive function. Vision problems were the most prevalent health condition, followed by chronic respiratory conditions. Cumulative risk, child executive function, and self-regulation problems in children were uniquely related to child physical health. Homeless children experience problems with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral regulation as well as physical health, occurring in a context of high psychosocial risk. Several aspects of children’s self-regulation predict physical health in 9- to 11-year-old homeless children. Health promotion efforts in homeless families should address individual differences in children’s self-regulation as a resilience factor.
This booklet presents information concerning homelessness and the education of homeless children nationwide and in Illinois. Estimates of the number of homeless children vary widely. Reasons for homeless children's failure to attend school include school residency requirements, delays in transfer of documents, and lack of transportation. The…
Cotton, Antoinette H; Roden, Janet
In developed countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, homeless families are amongst the fastest growing subpopulations of the homeless. This paper seeks to explore the major issues involved in the health and nursing care of such families, and proposes that the patterns of knowing in nursing offer a pertinent, guiding framework for nurses to understand the phenomenon and to optimize holistic nursing care for homeless families with children.
Duffield, Barbara; Julianelle, Patricia; Santos, Michael
This document provides answers to frequently asked questions on the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act and the education rights of children and youth in homeless situations, based on the amendments made by the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015, which took effect on October 1, 2016. The answers are general responses based on federal statutes,…
Parry, Yvonne Karen; Grant, Julian; Burke, Lynette
Homeless families are the fastest growing segment of the homelessness population. Homelessness services are often the first to know when children are at risk of disengagement with health, welfare and education services. Changes to Australian policy to explicitly attend to the needs of children are attempts to address the complexity of, and provide better outcomes for, homeless children. There are mounting levels of evidence describing some of the needs of children who are homeless. Using the scoping study methodological framework, this review of academic and grey literature identified the extent to which service providers provide for the needs of homeless children. The literature search was conducted from September 2012 to April 2013 using ProQuest, Science Direct, Sage and OVID databases. Therefore, the objectives of this scoping study were to: (i) identify the specific needs of children in homelessness; (ii) describe recent changes in policy relating to care for children in homelessness services; (iii) explore the evidence on how service providers can enact care for children in homelessness services; (iv) identify the types of practice changes that are needed to optimise outcomes for children; and (v) identify the gaps in service delivery. This article describes the Australian policy changes and explores the potential impact of subsequent sector reforms on the internal practices in front-line homelessness services, in order to overcome structural and systemic barriers, and promote opportunities for children in homeless families. This scoping study literature review contributes to the understanding of the impact of policy change on front-line staff and suggests possible practice changes and future research options. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yousey, Yvonne; Leake, Jacquelyn; Wdowik, Melissa; Janken, Janice K
To improve the nutritional status of homeless children by implementing an educational program for their mothers and the cafeteria staff at a homeless shelter. Program evaluation including before and after measures of mothers' nutritional knowledge and nutritional quality of foods served in the cafeteria. Fifty-six mothers with children aged 18 months to 6 years and 3 cafeteria staff. Four nutrition classes developed by a registered nutritionist were taught to mothers by clinic nurses; 3 nutrition classes were taught to the cafeteria staff by the nutritionist. Mothers scored higher on posttests than on pretests, indicating improved nutritional knowledge. Minimal differences in the nutritional quality of foods served to residents were observed after staff education. This project demonstrates the challenges of altering the nutritional status of children in a homeless shelter. Despite mothers showing better knowledge of nutritional requirements for children, the types of food served in the cafeteria were an obstacle to them in practicing what they had learned. The cafeteria staff's ability to demonstrate their learning was impeded by the constraints of food donations. Educational strategies may need to be augmented by policies to improve the nutritional status of children in homeless shelters.
Full Text Available Oral habits, comprising of thumb and lip sucking, lip and nail biting, tongue thrusting and mouth breathing are commonly caused by disturbance in mental development. These persistent habits may lead to disturbance in physical growth, causing disorders such as malocclusion. Homeless children are prone to this condition. The purpose of this descriptive research was to present the prevalence of oral habits in homeless children under care of Yayasan Bahtera Bandung, by survey technique. The sample consisted of 92 children collected by purposive sampling. This research was conducted through interviews and clinical examnations of the oral cavity to elucidate signs of oral habits. The result showed 50% of homeless children performed oral habits, consisting of 26 boys (55,32% and 20 girls (44.44%. The prevalence of thumb sucking habit was 21.74%, lip sucking or biting was 17.37%, tongue thrusting was 4,35%, nail biting and mouth breathing tied at 3,26%. The research concluded that a part of homeless children had oral habits, with boys as slight majority, and thumb sucking was the most performed.
Full Text Available Despite their poor health status, homeless women encounter many barriers to care. The objectives of our study were to estimate the prevalence of unmet healthcare needs in homeless women and to analyse associated relationships with the following factors: financial and spatial access to care, housing history, migration status, healthcare utilisation, victimization history, caring for children, social network and self-perceived health status.We used data from 656 homeless women interviewed during the ENFAMS representative survey of sheltered homeless families, conducted in the Paris region in 2013. Structural equation models (SEM were used to estimate the impact of various factors on homeless women's unmet healthcare needs.Among those interviewed, 25.1% (95%CI[21.3-29.0] had at least one unmet healthcare need over the previous year. Most had given up on visiting general practitioners and medical specialists. No association with factors related to financial access or to health insurance status was found. However, food insecurity, poor spatial health access and poor self-perceived health were associated with unmet healthcare needs. Self-perceived health appeared to be affected by victimization and depression.The lower prevalence of unmet healthcare needs in homeless women compared with women in stable housing situations suggests that homeless women have lower needs perceptions and/or lower expectations of the healthcare system. This hypothesis is supported by the results from SEM. Strategies to provide better access to care for this population should not only focus on financial interventions but also more broadly on spatial healthcare access, cultural norms, and perceptions of health. Reducing their unmet needs and improving their access to healthcare and prevention must include an improvement in their living, financial and housing conditions.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.
This document presents witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the effects of homelessness on children and families. In their opening statements, Representatives George Miller and Dan Coats emphasize that homelessness threatens the physical health and safety of children, places them at risk of…
Baker, Jean M.
This book examines the challenges facing gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual youth, suggesting ways to bring about significant and positive differences in homes, schools, and communities. It presents the experiences of such children, in their own words, as they gradually discover they are different from most other children in their sexual…
Greta Jean Yates; Michael Joseph Silverman
On a single night in January in 2014 there were 194,000 children living with their families in shelters in the United States (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2015). A typical family experiencing homelessness consists of a single mother with two to three children. Children experiencing homelessness are more likely to face academic, social, and emotional problems compared to children in poverty. As there is currently a dearth of peer reviewed publications related to music therapy with c...
Hurt, Jakob, 1839-1907
Ilm.: Tarto Kalender 1868, lk. 21-37 ; Tarto Kalender 1869, lk. 21-32 ; Tarto Kalender 1870, lk. 21-34 ; Tarto Kalender 1873, lk. 41-48 ; J. Hurt. Inemisest. Tartu, 1868 ; J. Hurt. Inemisest. Faksiimiletrükk. Tallinn, 1990
Richards, Rickelle; Smith, Chery
In-depth interviews were conducted with homeless children (n=56, aged 6-13 years) in an urban center in Minnesota, USA, to determine factors influencing food choice, food access, and weight status, with interview questions developed using the Social Cognitive Theory. Interview transcripts were coded and then evaluated both collectively and by weight status ( or = 85th percentile=overweight). Forty-five percent of children were overweight. Environmental, parental, and personal factors emerged as common themes influencing food access and choice. Despite children's personal food preferences, homelessness and the shelter environment created restrictive conditions that influenced food choice and access. Shelter rules, lack of adequate storage and cooking facilities, and limited food stores near the shelter, impacted the type and quality of food choices, ultimately affecting hunger, weight status, and perceived health.
Recchia, Holly E; Wainryb, Cecilia; Bourne, Stacia; Pasupathi, Monisha
This study examined children's and adolescents' narrative accounts of everyday experiences when they harmed and helped a friend. The sample included 100 participants divided into three age groups (7-, 11-, and 16-year-olds). Help narratives focused on the helping acts themselves and reasons for helping, whereas harm narratives included more references to consequences of acts and psychological conflicts. With age, however, youth increasingly described the consequences of helping. Reasons for harming others focused especially on the narrator's perspective whereas reasons for helping others were centered on others' perspectives. With age, youth increasingly drew self-related insights from their helpful, but not their harmful, actions. Results illuminate how reflections on prosocial and transgressive experiences may provide distinct opportunities for constructing moral agency. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Ren, D.; Wesselmann, E..D.; Williams, K.D.
Because ostracism hurts, it can trigger aggression. Guided by the theoretical framework of the temporal need-threat model of ostracism, we review the existing research that investigates this ostracism-aggression link over the last two decades. Both correlational and experimental research have
Full Text Available The presented study investigated the effects of a four-week academic and activity – enriched summer program on vocabulary development and writing achievement of homeless children residing in traditional shelter facilities. When compared to controls the experimental students did not reveal gains in vocabulary and spelling as measured by two norm referenced tests. They did however demonstrate highly significant gains in writing ability based on the New York State standards criteria, reflecting five qualities of writing. On two project-developed instruments designed to measure improvement in book vocabulary and tennis skills, they showed significant increases based on analyses of their pre- and posttest scores. The program closed achievement gaps, fulfilled standards criteria, and may be the first of its kind in the homeless literature whereby students’ writing development was compared to matched controls as vocabulary development occurred based on literary readings.
National Association of State Coordinators for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth.
Profiles of the 1995-96 implementation of the Stewart B. McKinney Act's Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) Programs in 37 states are presented in this document. In these 37 states, at least 173,082 homeless children and youth were served through programs funded by the McKinney Act, and at least 465 local education agencies received…
Ott, Corilyn Mae
This qualitative multiple case study explored the factors that contribute to the development of social belonging in the classroom for children who are homeless age's five to seven. Previous empirical research has shown the importance of children who are homeless developing belonging in the classroom and other research has shown the negative…
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2016
Children and youth who experience homelessness face many barriers to education, yet school can be a source of stability, affirmation, and hope during a time of chaos and trauma when a young person loses his or her housing. Community service providers play a key role in linking homeless children and youth to schools and providing wraparound…
McChesney, Kay Young
Synthesizes research findings from 10 studies on urban homeless families; and details their demographic characteristics, including the number of children, race, ethnicity, and family composition. Focus is on mothers with children and the effects of homelessness on children. (SLD)
Hurley, Jennifer J.; Looby, Winnie; Goodrum, Ashley R.; Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Bonti, Gregg K.; Raymon, Becca A.; Condon, Rebecca; Schwaeber, Sami E.; Mauceri, Melina E.; Bourne, Erin M.; Callahan, Elizabeth D.; Hardy, Danielle L.; Mathews, Pamela
Early intervention (EI) services are provided for families and children at risk for or with developmental delays. Early intervention includes services that are provided in the natural environment as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 2004). The natural environment is where children and families would naturally spend…
Robertson, Donna Friedman
Describes a qualitative research project examining homelessness's effects on children's schooling, highlighting a South Carolina intervention program's success. Research disclosed an informal homelessness "caste system," the political unpopularity of providing homeless services, homeless kids' high rates of academic failure and problem…
Claims that religious messages in public school are not acceptable and are hurtful to kids who do not subscribe to the beliefs expressed in those messages. Describes the author's personal experience in helping a teacher transform the script for "Christmas Magic" into the more inclusive "Holiday Magic." (RS)
Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.
An analysis of data from a survey of more than 100 parents residing in emergency shelter in San Diego, California, reveals a portrait of poverty that is prevalent among women and children in the United States today. Homeless families in San Diego, as in the rest of the country, are most often headed by women in their early thirties whose prospects…
Vostanis, P; Tischler, V; Cumella, S; Bellerby, T
Children and mothers who have suffered domestic or neighbourhood violence constitute a high risk group, although it has not been clear whether their mental health needs are specifically related to the type of violence. This paper reports on the prevalence of mental health problems in homeless parents and children who have experienced domestic and neighbourhood violence and their access to social support networks. Three groups of families who had become homeless were compared: those experiencing domestic violence (48 with 75 children), victims of neighbourhood violence (14 with 29 children), and those who became homeless for other reasons (31 with 54 children). Mothers completed a service use semi-structured interview, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, the Family Support Scales, and the SF-36 Health Status Questionnaire. Levels of psychiatric morbidity were high in the group experiencing domestic violence (35.7% in children and 21.9% in mothers) and higher still in those who were victims of neighbourhood violence (52.2% in children and 50% in mothers). Levels of social support were found to be an important factor, particularly in relation to professional support and support from other family members, as they predicted both child and maternal psychopathology. Mental health interventions for victims of domestic and neighbourhood violence should be integrated with community programmes of social reintegration. Mental health professionals should work in close collaboration with Housing Departments, Social Services, Education and the Police.
Shinn, Marybeth; Samuels, Judith; Fischer, Sean N; Thompkins, Amanda; Fowler, Patrick J
A randomized trial compared effects of a Family Critical Time Intervention (FCTI) to usual care for children in 200 newly homeless families in which mothers had diagnosable mental illness or substance problems. Adapted from an evidence-based practice to prevent chronic homelessness for adults with mental illnesses, FCTI combines housing and structured, time-limited case management to connect families leaving shelter with community services. Families were followed at five time points over 24 months. Data on 311 children-99 ages 1.5-5 years, 113 ages 6-10 years, and 99 ages 11-16 years-included mother-, teacher-, and child-reports of mental health, school experiences, and psychosocial well-being. Analyses used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate intervention effects and changes in child functioning over time. Referral to FCTI reduced internalizing and externalizing problems in preschool-aged children and externalizing for adolescents 11-16. The intervention led to declines in self-reported school troubles for children 6-10 and 11-16. Both experimental and control children in all age groups showed reductions in symptoms over time. Although experimental results were scattered, they suggest that FCTI has the potential to improve mental health and school outcomes for children experiencing homelessness.
Drake, M A
Data were collected on the nutrient intake and nutritional status of 96 single mothers and their 192 dependent children who had been displaced from their homes. The objective of the study was to provide information on the dietary adequacy of a newly identified subgroup of homeless persons, single women and their dependent children. Once situated in temporary housing, those participating in the study indicated that they believed that they were receiving sufficient food. However, a nutrient analysis found that the study subjects in all age groups were consuming less than 50 percent of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for iron, magnesium, zinc, and folic acid. Adults were consuming less than 50 percent of the RDA for calcium. The type and amounts of fats consumed were in higher than desirable quantities for a significant number of subjects of all ages. The health risk factors of iron deficiency anemia, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia were prevalent. The findings indicate a need to examine and remedy nutrient intake deficiencies among single women who are heads of household and their dependent children in temporary housing situations. Diet-related conditions found included low nutrient intakes that may affect child growth and development, risk factors associated with chronic disease, and lack of appropriate foods and knowledge of food preparation methods in shelter situations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1594741
Alhusen, Jeanne L; Norris-Shortle, Carole; Cosgrove, Kim; Marks, Lauren
Family homelessness is associated with adverse outcomes in mothers and their young children. Evidence-based programs are needed to support the socioemotional needs of these families. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceived benefits of participating in a mindfulness program in mother-child dyads receiving services at a therapeutic nursery serving homeless children under the age of 3 years. A convenience sample of 17 predominantly African American mothers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four themes were derived from the data regarding the perceived benefits of the mindfulness program: "me" time, maternal self-regulation, dyadic connectedness, and child well-being. Results demonstrate the perceived benefits of mindfulness on the parent-child relationship and have important implications for families at an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Because homelessness and residential instability confer considerable risk for young children, interventions to support effective parenting are critical. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print en español La música ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...
Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó con niños en situación de calle en la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. Objetivo: comprender las experiencias y significados que tienen las situaciones de riesgo que viven en su cotidianeidad. Metodología: estudio cualitativo, enfoque etnográfico, se realizaron entrevistas, observaciones y diario de campo. Se garantizó la confidencialidad en la divulgación de los datos. Resultados: para los niños la calle significa un riesgo representado por circunstancias que favorecen la ocurrencia de una situación generadora de daño físico y emocional, está condicionado por los lugares en los que se encuentren, las instituciones a las que tienen acceso, las personas con quienes interactúan, las ocupaciones que realizan y el consumo de drogas. Conclusión: los niños consideran que el medio en el cual se mueven representa un riesgo, lo que los convierte en personas vulnerables que deben protegerse a sí mismos. -- This study was conducted with homeless children in Medellin, Colombia. Objective: to understand the experiences and meanings of the risky situations that homeless children experience every day. Methodology: a qualitative study with an ethnographic approach. Interviews, observations and field journals were used for data collection. Results: the streets are a risk for children because their circumstances favor the occurrence of physical and emotional damage. This damage depends on the places the children are in, the institutions to which they have access, the people with whom they interact, their occupations and the drugs they use. Conclusion: children believe that the environment in which they live is risk-filled, and this makes them vulnerable people who must protect themselves
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2015
Changing schools may greatly impede the academic achievement and social development of students experiencing homelessness. Students who transfer to a new school often experience educational discontinuity and, as a result, lose academic credits. Moreover, the mobility experienced by these students separates them from their social network and from…
Warke, Amy L.
Homelessness is a growing phenomenon, especially among women and children (Hulchanski, 2009). This study was conducted because of the increase in families experiencing homelessness registering in my school. In none of the current studies about homelessness have the researchers spoken to the families and children experiencing homelessness. This…
Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...
In this podcast, Dr. Marina Eremeeva discusses an article about Bartonella quintana in homeless populations in San Francisco. Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that is transmitted by human body lice. Findings by the articleâs authors suggest that Bartonella quintana may be transmitted by head lice. This could mean that populations other than homeless populations, such as school children, might be at increased risk for Bartonella quintana.
The felt—as both methodology and experiential terrain—remains under-explored and under-theorised in research on homelessness. This experimental piece traces the multi-sensory engagement of ethnographic and biographic fieldwork undertaken for separate projects with homeless people in two capital cities on Australia’s east coast. The epistemological contributions and emotional dimensions of seeing, tasting, touching, smelling and listening are explored. Throu...
Hart, Linda M.
Homelessness is an increasing epidemic afflicting the United States. Of the millions of homeless in the United States, over two million are children (National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2009; Slesnick, Dashora, Letcher, Erden, & Serocivh, 2009). It is reported that over 1.2 million of homeless students are enrolled in public schools…
Full Text Available The felt—as both methodology and experiential terrain—remains under-explored and under-theorised in research on homelessness. This experimental piece traces the multi-sensory engagement of ethnographic and biographic fieldwork undertaken for separate projects with homeless people in two capital cities on Australia’s east coast. The epistemological contributions and emotional dimensions of seeing, tasting, touching, smelling and listening are explored. Through a series of short ‘felt’ reflections, consideration of the critical role of corporeality in coming to know and inscribe the experiences of others is prompted. The feeling, researching body is posited as central to new, productive and holistic intertwinings with felt-experience and the mixed trajectories of grief, humour, violence and trauma that often characterise persistent homelessness are made vivid.
Full Text Available The felt—as both methodology and experiential terrain—remains under-explored and under-theorised in research on homelessness. This experimental piece traces the multi-sensory engagement of ethnographic and biographic fieldwork undertaken for separate projects with homeless people in two capital cities on Australia’s east coast. The epistemological contributions and emotional dimensions of seeing, tasting, touching, smelling and listening are explored. Through a series of short ‘felt’ reflections, consideration of the critical role of corporeality in coming to know and inscribe the experiences of others is prompted. The feeling, researching body is posited as central to new, productive and holistic intertwinings with felt-experience and the mixed trajectories of grief, humour, violence and trauma that often characterise persistent homelessness are made vivid.
... Issues Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Hurtful Emotions Understanding Self-Harm En español Send us your ... help you learn new ways to cope with emotion. See the Wise Choices box for tips on ...
Full Text Available Asthma remains poorly studied in homeless children. We sought to estimate the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms (ALS and to identify the factors associated with ALS and healthcare service utilisation.A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of sheltered homeless families was conducted by interviewing 801 parents of children (0-12 years in 17 languages. ALS were defined as wheezing or night cough without fever during the previous year. Poisson regression models with robust error variance were used to compute prevalence ratios (PR for factors associated with ALS and healthcare service utilisation for ALS.The prevalence of ALS among the children was 19.9%. Poor housing sanitation was significantly associated with ALS, as being born in the European Union. Most of the children with ALS had used healthcare services (85.4%. The main barriers to accessing such services were having lived in France for less than 49 months, having difficulties in French and living in poor housing conditions.ALS prevalence seemed lower than in the general child population, possibly because of the children's origins. Environmental factors associated with ALS point to the need to improve the indoor environment of family shelters. The relatively high rate of healthcare service utilisation should not overshadow existing barriers.
MacKenzie, David; Chamberlain, Chris
The third national census of homeless school students, conducted in 2006, found that the number of homeless students had decreased since 2001. There were 9,389 homeless students in 2006 compared with 12,227 in 2001. Three groups were over-represented in the homeless population: Indigenous students, young people from single parent and blended…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless...
Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.
Roughly 600,000 families are homeless today in America, while over 2.7 million children are in foster care or out-of-home placements. Few policymakers have examined these issues together, or understood that they are interrelated and must be addressed jointly to break the cycle of family disintegration, violence, and poverty. A recent survey by the…
Describes the experiences of several families who are homeless in New York City, looking at what it is like for the children in these families, how the parents cope with trying to find work and a place to live, and how these families are treated by the system as they wait for various kinds of assistance. (SM)
Ullán, Ana M; Belver, Manuel H; Fernández, Esperanza; Lorente, Felix; Badía, Marta; Fernández, Beatriz
Various nonpharmacological strategies to relieve hospitalized children's pain propose play as a central element. Play is considered an essential resource to improve the negative psychosocial effects of the disease and the hospitalization itself. However, the empirical research of play in health settings has not received much attention. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of a program to promote play in the hospital on postsurgical pain in pediatric patients. The research hypothesis was that children will manifest less pain if they are distracted through play during the postsurgical period. We carried out a randomized parallel trial with two groups, an experimental group and a control group. The control group did not receive any specific treatment, only the standard attention contemplated in the hospital. The parents of the children from the experimental group received instructions to play with their children in the postsurgical period and specific play material with which to play. The results obtained support the research hypothesis. On average, the children from the experimental group scored lower on a pain scale than the children from the control group. This occurred in the three postsurgical measurements of pain. It is concluded that the program to promote play can decrease children's perception of pain. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In this podcast, Dr. Marina Eremeeva discusses an article about Bartonella quintana in homeless populations in San Francisco. Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that is transmitted by human body lice. Findings by the articleâs authors suggest that Bartonella quintana may be transmitted by head lice. This could mean that populations other than homeless populations, such as school children, might be at increased risk for Bartonella quintana. Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 6/30/2009.
... Twitter Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons January 2013 Homelessness is a persistent problem—nearly 690,000 people ... will ultimately help address the tragic problem of homelessness too, as many homeless people cite drug or ...
Martijn, Claudine; Sharpe, Louise
Research documents high levels of psychopathology among homeless youth. Most research, however, has not distinguished between disorders that are present prior to homelessness and those that develop following homelessness. Hence whether psychological disorders are the cause or consequence of homelessness has not been established. The aim of this study is to investigate causal pathways to homelessness amongst currently homeless youth in Australia. The study uses a quasi-qualitative methodology to generate hypotheses for larger-scale research. High rates of psychological disorders were confirmed in the sample 35 homeless youth aged 14-25. The rates of psychological disorders at the point of homelessness were greater than in normative samples, but the rates of clinical disorder increased further once homeless. Further in-depth analyses were conducted to identify the temporal sequence for each individual with a view to establishing a set of causal pathways to homelessness and trajectories following homelessness that characterised the people in the sample. Five pathways to homelessness and five trajectories following homelessness were identified that accounted for the entire sample. Each pathway constituted a series of interactions between different factors similar to that described by Craig and Hodson (1998. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1379-1388) as "complex subsidiary pathways". The major findings were that (1) trauma is a common experience amongst homeless youth prior to homelessness and figured in the causal pathways to homelessness for over half of the sample; (2) once homeless, for the majority of youth there is an increase in the number of psychological diagnoses including drug and alcohol diagnoses; and (3) crime did not precede homelessness for all but one youth; however, following homelessness, involvement in criminal activity was common and became a distinguishing factor amongst youth. The implications of these findings for future research and service
Morris, Rita I.; Strong, Linda
Qualitative research using the symbolic interactionism framework and grounded theory methodology was employed to discover the perceived health problems and dangers that homeless families with children endure. Data were collected using semistructured interviews from 34 homeless volunteer participants with 87 children. An in-depth analysis of the…
Hall, Wyatte C
A long-standing belief is that sign language interferes with spoken language development in deaf children, despite a chronic lack of evidence supporting this belief. This deserves discussion as poor life outcomes continue to be seen in the deaf population. This commentary synthesizes research outcomes with signing and non-signing children and highlights fully accessible language as a protective factor for healthy development. Brain changes associated with language deprivation may be misrepresented as sign language interfering with spoken language outcomes of cochlear implants. This may lead to professionals and organizations advocating for preventing sign language exposure before implantation and spreading misinformation. The existence of one-time-sensitive-language acquisition window means a strong possibility of permanent brain changes when spoken language is not fully accessible to the deaf child and sign language exposure is delayed, as is often standard practice. There is no empirical evidence for the harm of sign language exposure but there is some evidence for its benefits, and there is growing evidence that lack of language access has negative implications. This includes cognitive delays, mental health difficulties, lower quality of life, higher trauma, and limited health literacy. Claims of cochlear implant- and spoken language-only approaches being more effective than sign language-inclusive approaches are not empirically supported. Cochlear implants are an unreliable standalone first-language intervention for deaf children. Priorities of deaf child development should focus on healthy growth of all developmental domains through a fully-accessible first language foundation such as sign language, rather than auditory deprivation and speech skills.
Rodriguez, Jacqueline; Applebaum, Jo; Stephenson-Hunter, Cara; Tinio, Andrea; Shapiro, Alan
We assessed the feasibility of a 15-week nutrition education, physical activity, and media literacy program for children living in urban family homeless shelters. We developed a qualitative monitoring tool to evaluate program process and impact at 2 shelter sites in the Bronx, New York, from 2009 to 2012. Facilitators recorded indications of participants' understanding of intended messages and demonstrations of changes in attitudes and behaviors. Comments, insights, and actions were recorded as they occurred. Facilitators also documented barriers to delivery of content and activities as intended. We used content analysis to examine data for patterns and identify themes. A total of 162 children participated at the 2 shelter sites. Analysis of qualitative data yielded 3 themes: (1) children's knowledge and understanding of content, (2) children's shift in attitudes or intentions, and (3) interpretations through children's life experience. Food insecurity as well as shelter food service and policies were important influences on children's choices, hunger, and sense of well-being. Children's experiences highlighted the need to advocate for shelter policies that adequately provide for children's nutritional and physical activity requirements and foster academic development.
Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Chen, Chin-Chih; Rouse, Heather L.; Culhane, Dennis P.
This study examined the unique and combined associations of homelessness and school mobility with educational well-being indicators, as well as the mediating effect of absenteeism, for an entire cohort of third-grade students in Philadelphia. Using integrated archival administrative data from the public school district and the municipal Office of…
Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.
We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747
.... The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) estimates that it has served approximately 300 returning veterans in its homeless programs and has identified over 1,000 more as being at risk of homelessness...
... People with Disabilities Share Ending Chronic Homelessness Among People with Disabilities Last updated on May 31, 2018 We can end homelessness for people with disabilities in our communities who experience recurring ...
Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide.
Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn
This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.
Schindler, Holly S.; Coley, Rebekah L.
The present qualitative research focuses on homeless fathers living with their children in family shelters. Data were collected through semistructured, face-to-face interviews with homeless fathers (n = 9) and shelter directors (n = 3). Findings suggest that how fathers made meaning of their experiences in a homeless shelter was related to…
Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.
In 1997, the Institute for Children and Poverty of Homes for the Homeless joined with more than 58 organizations from 10 cities across the country to develop a national snapshot of family homelessness in the United States. Nearly 800 families were surveyed. This report presents the results of this research. The typical homeless family in the…
Heflin, L. Juane
This digest, based on a larger document titled, "Homeless and in Need of Special Education," by L. Juane Heflin and Kathryn Rudy, focuses on educational aspects of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act. Briefly discussed are: the effects of homelessness on children (e.g., increased health problems); the educational implications…
Sullivan-Walker, Melissa E.; Rock, Marcia L.; Popp, Patricia A.
Homelessness is a complex and multifaceted condition that affects 2.5 million, or one in every 30, children annually. Based on these numbers, it is likely that at least one student has experienced or is experiencing homelessness in most public school classrooms. Sixteen percent of students experiencing homelessness also received services under…
Baumohl, Jim, Ed.
This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3)…
Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
We estimated the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum year, which is often an unexpected event, on subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness in a national sample of urban, mostly low-income mothers. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and both homelessness and risk of homelessness 2 to 3 years later, controlling for maternal and family history of depression, prenatal housing problems, and other covariates. Risk factors for homelessness included experiencing evictions or frequent moves and moving in with family or friends and not paying rent. We found robust associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness, even among mothers who had no history of mental illness, whose own mothers did not have a history of depressive symptoms, and who had no previous housing problems. This study provides robust evidence that maternal mental illness places families with young children at risk for homelessness, contributes to the scant literature elucidating directional and causal links between mental illness and homelessness, and contributes to a stagnant but important literature on family homelessness.
National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2011
This fact sheet was developed to help you understand the scope, causes, and impact of homelessness on children and families. You are encouraged to use it as well as the publications cited in its footnotes as tools more about homelessness. (Contains 78 endnotes.)
Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Goff, Peter; Miller, Peter M.
Background/Context: Students experiencing homelessness are also often living in poverty and may share many of the same characteristics and experiences with children in low-income housing. Scholars aim to understand the impacts of homelessness above and beyond the effects of poverty, but studies are mixed. Contextual factors--such as the localized…
Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.
This report describes family homelessness in New York City, which has risen sharply since 1980. Currently, the City's family shelter system is at capacity. Homeless children are typically raised by single mothers who receive no child support, are 27 years old, are unemployed and receiving welfare, and have had at least one public assistance…
However much the recession might be receding, the effects remain deep and cruel to families living in poverty. Many have fallen through their communities' social safety nets. Today, families with young children comprise 41% of the nation's homeless population. According to the Institute of Children and Poverty, more than 1.35 million kids in the…
Cutright, Melitta J.
Sex stereotyping (raising boys and girls to be different because of their sex) begins at birth. The article reviews studies detailing sex stereotyping practices and offers suggestions on what parents can do to avoid them. A list of suggestions for raising children in a nonsexist way is included. (SM)
John M. Quigley; Steven Raphael; Eugene Smolensky
It is generally believed that the increased incidence of homelessness in the United States has arisen from broad societal factors, such as changes in the institutionalization of the mentally ill, increases in drug addiction and alcohol usage, and so forth. This paper presents a comprehensive test of the alternate hypothesis that variations in homelessness arise from changed circumstances in the housing market and in the income distribution. We assemble essentially all the systematic informati...
Mercier, C; Picard, S
The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a team dedicated to homeless persons. (1) To describe the characteristics, history and current situation of these persons; and (2) to report within-group differences as a function of gender and current residential status. The data were collected from files using an anonymous chart summary. Descriptive statistics on the whole sample (n = 68) and inferential statistics on cross-tabulations by gender and residential status were performed. Persons with ID exhibited several related problems. Some of these persons, primarily women, experienced relatively short periods of homelessness and their situations stabilised once they were identified and followed up. Other persons with ID experienced chronic homelessness that appeared to parallel the number and severity of their other problems. When compared with a previous epidemiological study of the homeless in Montreal, the population of homeless persons with ID differed from the overall homeless population in a number of respects. The results suggest prevention and intervention targets. The need for epidemiological research appears particularly clear in light of the fact that below-average intellectual functioning has been identified as a risk factor for homelessness and a predisposing factor for vulnerability among street people. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Koch-Nielsen, Inger; Munk, Anders; Raun, Mette
This report has been produced for the Observatory on Homelessness, managed by FEANTSA: European Federation of National Organizations Working with the Homeless. The Observatory is supported financially by the Commission of the European Union. The paper is based on the guidelines set up by the Obse......This report has been produced for the Observatory on Homelessness, managed by FEANTSA: European Federation of National Organizations Working with the Homeless. The Observatory is supported financially by the Commission of the European Union. The paper is based on the guidelines set up...
Foster, Adriana; Gable, James; Buckley, John
The impact of mental illness, comorbid substance abuse, and medication nonadherence, coupled with disjointed psychiatric and social services, conspires to a disproportionately high rate of psychiatric disorders among people who are homeless in the United States. This article reviews the prevalence of homeless among the mentally ill as well as the prevalence of mental illness among the homeless and details barriers in access to care and the solutions that have been attempted. The need and solutions to introduce a new generation of physicians and allied health care workers to the unique health care needs of the homeless population are highlighted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Esen, Umo I
Women who are pregnant and homeless constitute a unique group at significant risk of adverse foetal and maternal outcomes. Despite this heightened risk profile, social housing support to this group of women is less than satisfactory. Concerted effort and more collaborative working is needed by all who provide social, and healthcare services to homeless pregnant women, to improve the lot of these women. Clear definitions and legislative provisions in respect of the homeless will go a long way in reducing ambiguity and close loopholes which currently act to deny the homeless pregnant woman social housing support at a time when it is most needed.
Masten, Ann S.; Fiat, Aria E.; Labella, Madelyn H.; Strack, Ryan A.
Homelessness among children in poverty continues to confront schools, educators, and policymakers with major challenges. This commentary summarizes findings from 2 decades of research on academic risk and resilience in children experiencing homelessness. Recent research corroborates the early conclusion that although children experiencing…
... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? (a) To improve the administration of the Runaway and Homeless...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What costs are supportable under a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless...
Koblinsky, S A; Morgan, K M; Anderson, E A
The child-rearing practices of homeless and low-income housed mothers of preschool children in Head Start were compared. Overall, homeless mothers provided less learning and academic stimulation, less variety in social and cultural experiences, less warmth and affection, and a less positive physical environment for their children than did housed mothers. Mothers in both living arrangements provided more language stimulation to daughters than to sons. Implications of the findings for working with homeless families are discussed.
Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery; Richards, Rickelle
The purpose of this study was to examine low-income mothers' perceptions of their children's height and weight in relation to actual measures, and perceptions of dietary quality and health status. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary quality/health status data were collected during a multi-phase nutrition research project with low-income Minnesotans, and a sub-set of non-pregnant mother-child dyads (mothers ages ≥ 18 years, children ages 9-13 years) were analyzed (n = 257). Participants were Caucasian, African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Asian, or Other/mixed race, and most were homeless. Relationships between maternal perceptions of their child's height and weight and the actual measures, and maternal perceptions of dietary quality and health status for the dyad, were examined using independent and paired samples t-tests, ANOVA, and paired samples correlations. Comparisons were also made by maternal and child body mass index (BMI) status and living situation. Mothers significantly underestimated their child's height and weight (-4.8 ± 13.9 cm, P = 0.000; -5.3 ± 8.5 kg, P = 0.000); greatest misperceptions of weight were among mothers of overweight/obese children (P = 0.000). Mothers not reporting estimates of their child's height and weight (n = 53) had higher BMIs (P = 0.029), and their children were younger (P = 0.000) and lighter (P = 0.021) compared to mothers who provided estimates. Inability to objectify children's weight status may contribute to the obesity epidemic affecting low-income minority populations. Underestimation of weight status may be influenced by cultural perceptions of body image and socioeconomic status.
... make it worse. That's why the health of homeless people in the United States is worse than that of the general population. Common health problems include Mental health problems Substance abuse ... and skin infections Many homeless women are victims of domestic or sexual abuse. ...
Dufeu, P; Podschus, J; Schmidt, L G
Against the background of the complex relationship of alcoholism and homelessness, we investigated the question of whether homeless alcoholics and those with homes differed regarding biographical and clinical variables. Therefore, 49 of 72 (68.1%) homeless male visitors to a city kitchen in the center of Berlin, who had fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for the alcohol-dependence syndrome, were compared with 141 outpatients of the addiction research unit of the Department of Psychiatry of the Free University of Berlin. It was found that homeless alcoholics had more psychosocial disadvantages than other alcoholics. They had been raised more frequently in families with an alcoholic father or mother and a higher number of children. The level of education and job qualification was lower in the homeless alcoholics. Early homelessness was predicted by a lack of sexual behavior (no partnership experienced) and a family history of alcoholism. In the interview, homeless alcoholics reported fewer symptoms of alcohol-dependence syndrome than other alcoholics; however, the first symptoms had been experienced earlier. Alcohol-related somatic and psychological consequences were reported more frequently in alcoholics with homes, whereas social problems were more common in the homeless subjects. The results are discussed in the light of methodological limitations and other reports on the topic.
Grant, Roy; Gracy, Delaney; Goldsmith, Grifin; Shapiro, Alan; Redlener, Irwin E
Family homelessness emerged as a major social and public health problem in the United States during the 1980s. We reviewed the literature, including journal articles, news stories, and government reports, that described conditions associated with family homelessness, the scope of the problem, and the health and mental health of homeless children and families. Much of this literature was published during the 1980s and 1990s. This raises questions about its continued applicability for the public health community. We concluded that descriptions of the economic conditions and public policies associated with family homelessness are still relevant; however, the homeless family population has changed over time. Family homelessness has become more prevalent and pervasive among poor and low-income families. We provide public health recommendations for these homeless families.
France, Joseph B.
This paper summarizes reports and research on the homeless in the United States, presents findings of a survey of Red Cross chapters on services to the homeless, and describes programs for the homeless of selected Red Cross chapters. Section 1 discusses definitions of homelessness and methodologies used to count homeless people. The homeless are…
Tutty, Leslie M; Ogden, Cindy; Giurgiu, Bianca; Weaver-Dunlop, Gillian
Violence from intimate partners is a serious reality for a number of women. For some abused women, leaving becomes a path to homelessness. In fact, when abused women and their children leave their homes because of partner abuse, they become homeless even if they subsequently seek residence in a shelter for woman abuse. This project interviewed 62 women from across Canada who had been abused by partners and were homeless at some point. The women were asked about their experiences with both partner abuse and homelessness and the effects on themselves and their children, which suggest important policy shifts.
People who are homeless belong to some of the most vulnerable, dispersed and disorganized groups in welfare societies. Yet in 2001, a national interest organization of homeless people was formed for the first time in Denmark. This article identifies the processes that facilitated the formation...... of the organization. It focuses on the importance of ideological and institutional conditions and changes, and it stresses the importance of alliances between progressive actors in the field and in the political-administrative system, in addition to the presence of dedicated activists among people who are or have...... been homeless. The analysis may thus serve as a case of inspiration for activists and professionals who want to improve homeless people's opportunities for participation in other national settings....
... Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma ... needs of homeless and vulnerable populations through disaster planning, response, and ... Development Subscribe to Email Updates Contact Us Connect ...
Retno Woro Kaeksi
The factors that cause them to he homeless are the economic factor 77.78%, lack of family attention (13.33% and the willingness to he independent (80.89%. Based on the result this research, we know that the poverty has made the children become homeless. The strategis to survive are: they are thrif (40%, add their time to work (13.13%, move to other place (11.11% and save their money (15.56%.
Børner Stax, Tobias
Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the existence of youth homelessness in Denmark. The chapter contains reflections upon the juridical measures directed towards youngsters living on the margin of the Danish society and presents two concrete project directed towards young people...... living rough. The chapter is taken form an anthology discussion youth homelessness in the different member states of the European Union....
Mario Hurtado Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Investigación realizada con niños en situación de calle en Medellín, Colombia. Objetivo: Conocer el significado y las prácticas en relación con la salud. Metodología: estudio cualitativo, etnográfico; se realizaron 34 entrevistas; la ética fue parte integral del proceso; el análisis se hizo con los participantes para garantizar el rigor. Resultados: el significado de salud está mediado por la posibilidad de sobrevivir. El dolor es el principal indicador de la pérdida de la salud y buscan contrarrestarlo. Las prácticas para conservar la salud se basan en el autocuidado, en prevenir enfermedades que se pueden visualizar y en consumir drogas. Conservan la salud, con hábitos saludables y prevención. Al perder la salud, recurren al autocuidado, a instituciones de apoyo y hospitales. Conclusión principal: el significado de salud depende de la forma de vida que los niños llevan. Cuando pierden la salud, pierden la libertad.It was made with homeless children in Medellin, Colombia. Objective: To know the meaning and practices according to their health. Methodology: Qualitative, ethnographic research; were made 34 interviews, ethics was an integral part of the process, the analysis was made with participants to ensure rigor. Results: The meaning of health is mediated by the possibility of survives. Pain is the main indicator of losing health and they try to counteract it. Habits focused to maintaining health are based in the self-care, prevent diseases that can be identified, and consuming drugs. To maintain health, they develop healthy habits and disease prevention. Losing health they resort to self-care, to support institutions and hospitals. Conclusions: The meaning of health depends on the way of life children have. When they lost the health, lost their freedom.
South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.
To study the number and status of homeless people in South Dakota, a questionnaire was mailed to approximately 701 persons who were likely to have knowledge of homeless people. Responses were received from 349 people. Estimated numbers of homeless people include those who live with others because they lack adequate resources to maintain a fixed,…
... Continues Support of National Campaign to End Veteran Homelessness Nov. 14, 2017 This Veterans Day, Harbor Freight ... support of the national campaign to end veteran homelessness through generous contributions to the National Coalition for ...
... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and non...
van Laere, Igor R.; de Wit, Matty A. S.; Klazinga, Niek S.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To improve homelessness prevention practice, we met with recently homeless adults, to explore their pathways into homelessness, problems and service use, before and after becoming homeless. METHODS: Recently homeless adults (last housing lost up to two years ago and legally
Families are one of the fastest-growing groups affected by homelessness in the U.S. Very young children are profoundly affected by the loss of a consistent living situation, most especially in the first 3 years when routine and familiarity confer a sense of safety and security. The stress of homelessness--and the multiple traumas that frequently…
This study investigated views about children experiencing homelessness held by preservice teachers in an early childhood education program. Thirteen early childhood preservice teachers were actively involved in class discussion, reading, doing class assignments, and visiting homeless shelters as community-based field experience. They were asked to…
Homelessness has become a visible part of Canada's urban landscape, infecting adult men and women, youths and families with children alike, and the issue becomes particularly serious as winter approaches. During a workshop in Toronto earlier this year, physicians, researchers and social workers examined the effects of homelessness on health, identifying many of the unique health needs of this vulnerable segment of society.
Reviews the history and causes of homeless children in the United States from early 19th century to the present. Explores four characteristics necessary for positive developmental pathways that are compromised for children who live on the street: sense of industry and competency, feeling connected to others and society, sense of control of one's…
Arrington, Doris; Yorgin, Peter D.
Reports on medical evaluation processes and art-based assessments used in identifying psychosocial health of children in orphanages in Kiev, Ukraine. Because American health professionals, including an art therapist/psychologist, had actually come to treat orphans, they were invited to state shelters never before open to foreigners. Includes…
... Your Back Hurts Don’t Let Back Pain Knock You Flat En español Send us your comments ... Complementary Health Approaches Halt the Hurt! References The SPORT Value Compass: Do the Extra Costs of Undergoing ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of Cambodia has committed to supporting family care for vulnerable children, including homeless populations. Collecting baseline data on the numbers and characteristics of homeless adolescents was prioritized to illuminate the scope of the issue, mobilize resources and direct the response. Methods Administrative zones across seven cities were purposively selected to cover the main urban areas known to have homeless populations in Cambodia. A complete enumeration of homeless individuals between the ages of 13 and 17 was attempted in the selected areas. In addition, a second independent count was conducted to enable a statistical estimation of completeness based on overlap across counts. This technique is known as capture-recapture. Adolescents were also interviewed about their schooling, health and other circumstances. Results After adjustment by the capture-recapture corrective multipliers (range: 3.53 -27.08, the study yielded an estimate of 2,697 13–17 year old homeless adolescents across all seven cities. The total number of homeless boys counted was significantly greater than homeless girls, especially in older ages. Conclusions To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time capture-recapture methods have been applied to a homeless estimation of this scale in a resource-limited setting. Findings suggest the number of homeless adolescents in Cambodia is much greater than one would expect if relying on single count data alone and that this population faces many hardships.
"It Hurts a Latina When They Tell Us Anything About Our Children": Implications of Mexican-Origin Mothers' Maternal Identities, Aspirations, and Attitudes About Cultural Transmission for Childhood Obesity Prevention.
Davis, Rachel E; Cole, Suzanne M; Reyes, Ligia I; McKenney-Shubert, Shannon J; Peterson, Karen E
This qualitative study explored values, attitudes, and beliefs held by Mexican-origin mothers of preschool-aged children to enhance understanding of cultural influences on behaviors associated with childhood obesity risk. During face-to-face interviews, 39 Mexican-origin mothers of preschool-aged children discussed their hopes for their children, their image of the perfect mother, Mexican and American foods, why they taught their children about these foods, and their opinions about television (TV) viewing language. Participants wanted their children to become successful, "good" people, which necessitated doing well in school. Mothers also wanted their children to know them, which required understanding the mothers' Mexican backgrounds. Mothers wanted their children to maintain Mexican values and identities. Some mothers viewed American culture as harmful. Many participants prepared their child for going to Mexico by exposing them to Mexican culture and foods. Some mothers fed their children American foods to prepare them for school. Perceptions of American foods generally reflected stereotypical unhealthy foods. TV helped teach children Spanish and English. Being a good mother was core to participants' identities; thus, hearing about child overweight made some mothers feel like failures. Health promotion programs may be more salient to mothers if they: underscore how a healthy weight can help children in school; teach mothers to prepare healthy American foods that their children will encounter in kindergarten; assist mothers in teaching their children about Mexico; and present information about childhood obesity in ways that reinforce what mothers are doing well, enhance mothers' self-efficacy, and allay feelings of failure.
Nishio, Akihiro; Horita, Ryo; Sado, Tadahiro; Mizutani, Seiko; Watanabe, Takahiro; Uehara, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Mayumi
Many studies have reported that the prevalence of mental illness and cognitive disability is higher among homeless individuals compared to the general population, and the rates of mental illness among the homeless population have recently increased. This study: (i) compares causes of homelessness or barriers to escaping homelessness for people with/without mental illness/cognitive disability; (ii) reveals problems with the Japanese homeless policy; and (iii) proposes an effective and necessary support system. The participants were 114 homeless individuals. A psychiatric diagnostic interview and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, version III were used to measure participants' mental health and cognitive abilities. A questionnaire was administered comprising 17 items related to the causes of their homelessness and barriers to escaping from it. Participants were divided into four groups - with/without mental illness or cognitive disability - and Fisher's exact test was used to compare the questionnaire results. Individuals with cognitive disabilities considered bad relationships with their family members to be the cause of their homelessness. Conversely, normal individuals considered their homelessness to be the result of debt more so than did individuals with mental problems. Individuals with mental illness had more difficulties escaping homelessness than did either normal individuals or individuals with cognitive disability. This tendency was observed most strongly among individuals with both mental illness and cognitive disability. Most homeless individuals considered economic problems to be the cause of their homelessness; however, difficulties with human relationships were also important factors and were more difficult for participants to acknowledge. Furthermore, these difficulties were exacerbated among those individuals with mental problems. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Westergaard, Maria Ls; Steiner, Timothy J; Macgregor, E Anne
The HURT Questionnaire consists of eight questions which the patient answers as a measure of effectiveness of intervention against headache. This first assessment of clinical utility was conducted in headache specialist centres in three countries in order to demonstrate that HURT was responsive...... that the best possible outcome had been achieved in each patient. Questionnaires were also answered by 42 patients at initial and final visits to a centre in Italy. Internal consistency reliability was very good (α = 0.85) while test-retest reliability was fair to low (κ = 0.38-0.62 and r(s) = 0...
... 55455. The Effects of Housing and Service Interventions on Academic Achievement and School Factors for Children Experiencing Homelessness. $75,000.00. 4. Cloudburst Consulting Group, Inc., 8100 Corporate Drive...
... women veterans with or without the care of dependent children. 2. Funding Priority 2--VA is offering the... homeless veterans (i.e., veterans who are not incarcerated but are involved in the criminal justice system...
Madlock, Paul E.; Westerman, David
The current study sought to specifically examine the affect of teasing by way of technology (cyber-teasing) and the importance of the redressive component of a tease. A triangulated approach was used here to gain better insight into the concept of "hurtful" cyber-teasing between romantic partners. A pretheoretical model was developed…
Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Gemal, Carsten Høy
The article is based on the case of a group of homeless people who in the fall of 2013 occupied a central site in the Danish town of Aarhus. The authors argue that this specific case is an ideal object of investigation for casting light on a new situation in the field of public administration....... Public administration has recently moved from the paradigm of New Public Management to a new and still undetermined paradigm, which focuses on activating and engaging citizens, treating them as equal partners in the process of co-creating welfare services and the community itself as a brand. Using...... the case of the homeless, the authors argue that participatory citizenship should not only be viewed as “added value” to the field of public administration, but rather as emerging within a dynamic and conflict-ridden field between citizens and administration where new types of value are potentially created...
Robert L. Brawley
Full Text Available This article has located Jesus’ saying about homelessness in the context of the Roman Empire as it was experienced in Galilee. Homelessness is part of a broader picture that translates into loss of access to the resources of the land. The thesis is that in light of a theology of land resulting from the development of Abrahamic covenant traditions and the prophetic hope expressed especially in Isaiah, Ezekiel and Psalm 37, Jesus proclaimed God’s kingdom as God’s rule over heaven and earth, which implicates restoration of equitable access to the resources of the earth. The Lord’s Prayer, presumptions about the water of Jacob’s well in John 4 and the parable of the unjust steward in Luke 16 are used to demonstrate understandings of violations of equitable access according to Abrahamic covenant traditions and the hope for the restoration thereof.
An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…
This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…
Bingham, Richard D.; And Others
This book consists of 15 chapters on understanding and helping the homeless. The first seven chapters present the "new" homeless in historical context and describe this population and its situation. The remaining eight chapters discuss policy and program options of the government and other organizations in attempting to alleviate the problems of…
Chamberlain, Chris; MacKenzie, David
The issue of youth homelessness in Australia is examined in the context of relevant social and educational policies. The exploration is based on 8 years of research into the situation of homeless youth in Australia involving several studies, including a study of school students in 9 communities and field visits to 100 schools. In 1994, researchers…
Amy S Finn
Full Text Available Compared to children, adults are bad at learning language. This is counterintuitive; adults outperform children on most measures of cognition, especially those that involve effort (which continue to mature into early adulthood. The present study asks whether these mature effortful abilities interfere with language learning in adults and further, whether interference occurs equally for aspects of language that adults are good (word-segmentation versus bad (grammar at learning. Learners were exposed to an artificial language comprised of statistically defined words that belong to phonologically defined categories (grammar. Exposure occurred under passive or effortful conditions. Passive learners were told to listen while effortful learners were instructed to try to 1 learn the words, 2 learn the categories, or 3 learn the category-order. Effortful learners showed an advantage for learning words while passive learners showed an advantage for learning the categories. Effort can therefore hurt the learning of categories.
Finn, Amy S.; Lee, Taraz; Kraus, Allison; Hudson Kam, Carla L.
Compared to children, adults are bad at learning language. This is counterintuitive; adults outperform children on most measures of cognition, especially those that involve effort (which continue to mature into early adulthood). The present study asks whether these mature effortful abilities interfere with language learning in adults and further, whether interference occurs equally for aspects of language that adults are good (word-segmentation) versus bad (grammar) at learning. Learners were exposed to an artificial language comprised of statistically defined words that belong to phonologically defined categories (grammar). Exposure occurred under passive or effortful conditions. Passive learners were told to listen while effortful learners were instructed to try to 1) learn the words, 2) learn the categories, or 3) learn the category-order. Effortful learners showed an advantage for learning words while passive learners showed an advantage for learning the categories. Effort can therefore hurt the learning of categories. PMID:25047901
de Wit Matty A
Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve homelessness prevention practice, we met with recently homeless adults, to explore their pathways into homelessness, problems and service use, before and after becoming homeless. Methods Recently homeless adults (last housing lost up to two years ago and legally staying in the Netherlands were sampled in the streets, day centres and overnight shelters in Amsterdam. In April and May 2004, students conducted interviews and collected data on demographics, self reported pathways into homelessness, social and medical problems, and service use, before and after becoming homeless. Results among 120 recently homeless adults, (male 88%, Dutch 50%, average age 38 years, mean duration of homelessness 23 weeks, the main reported pathways into homelessness were evictions 38%, relationship problems 35%, prison 6% and other reasons 22%. Compared to the relationship group, the eviction group was slightly older (average age 39.6 versus 35.5 years; p = 0.08, belonged more often to a migrant group (p = 0.025, and reported more living single (p Conclusion the recently homeless fit the overall profile of the homeless population in Amsterdam: single (Dutch men, around 40 years, with a mix of financial debts, addiction, mental and/or physical health problems. Contacts with services were fragmented and did not prevent homelessness. For homelessness prevention, systematic and outreach social medical care before and during homelessness should be provided.
Gelberg, L; Linn, L S
Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting.
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and...
Bhunu, C. P.
Homelessness and drug-misuse are known to exist like siamese twins. We present a model to capture the dynamics in the growth in the number of homeless (street kids and street adults) and drug misusers. The reproduction numbers of the model are determined and analyzed. Results from this study suggests that adult peer pressure plays a more significant role in the growth of drug-misuse and the number of street kids. This result suggests that in resource constrained settings intervention strategies should be tailor made to target adults whose behaviour influence others to misuse drugs and abuse children. Furthermore, numerical simulations show that homelessness and drug-misuse positively enhances, the growth of each other. Thus, to effectively control these two social problems require strategies targeting both of them.
Saleem, Muniba; Barlett, Christopher P; Anderson, Craig A; Hawkins, Ian
The Tangram Help/Hurt Task is a laboratory-based measure designed to simultaneously assess helpful and hurtful behavior. Across five studies we provide evidence that further establishes the convergent and discriminant validity of the Tangram Help/Hurt Task. Cross-sectional and meta-analytic evidence finds consistently significant associations between helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Task and prosocial and aggressive personality traits. Experimental evidence reveals that situational primes known to induce aggressive and prosocial behavior significantly influence helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Help/Hurt Task. Additionally, motivation items in all studies indicate that tangram choices are indeed associated with intent of helping and hurting. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the Tangram Help/Hurt Task relative to established measures of helpful and hurtful behavior. Aggr. Behav. 43:133-146, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pleace, Nicholas; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Johnsen, Sarah; Quilgars, Deborah Jayne; Sanderson, Diana
The research involved a nationally representative survey, covering 2,000 adults in homeless families and 500 children aged eight and above within those families. Using a specially developed sampling methodology, the survey draws a representative sample of homeless families over the course of a six month 'time window'. The research also involved two further surveys. The first is a survey of 500 lone homeless 16-17 year-olds. The second is a survey of 500 families and lone 16-17 year-olds who h...
In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâs Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.
In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Womenâs Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable. Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 8/27/2008.
van Laere, Igor R; de Wit, Matty A; Klazinga, Niek S
To improve homelessness prevention practice, we met with recently homeless adults, to explore their pathways into homelessness, problems and service use, before and after becoming homeless. Recently homeless adults (last housing lost up to two years ago and legally staying in the Netherlands) were sampled in the streets, day centres and overnight shelters in Amsterdam. In April and May 2004, students conducted interviews and collected data on demographics, self reported pathways into homelessness, social and medical problems, and service use, before and after becoming homeless. among 120 recently homeless adults, (male 88%, Dutch 50%, average age 38 years, mean duration of homelessness 23 weeks), the main reported pathways into homelessness were evictions 38%, relationship problems 35%, prison 6% and other reasons 22%. Compared to the relationship group, the eviction group was slightly older (average age 39.6 versus 35.5 years; p = 0.08), belonged more often to a migrant group (p = 0.025), and reported more living single (p homelessness, in the total group, contacts with any social service were 38% and with any medical service 27%. Despite these contacts they did not keep their house. During homelessness only contacts with social work and benefit agencies increased, contacts with medical services remained low. the recently homeless fit the overall profile of the homeless population in Amsterdam: single (Dutch) men, around 40 years, with a mix of financial debts, addiction, mental and/or physical health problems. Contacts with services were fragmented and did not prevent homelessness. For homelessness prevention, systematic and outreach social medical care before and during homelessness should be provided.
Street Kids--Homeless and Runaway Youth. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
This hearing was the second in a series examining the impact of homelessness and dislocation on young people in America. This session focused on the problems of homeless and runaway adolescents. Witnesses described the need for multiple services for this population, for effective provision of services, and for greater coordination and planning.…
For people who are disenfranchised from society for other reasons, especially homelessness, a paranoid delusional system can create an additional obstacle in the therapeutic engagement and treatment of such individuals. In this article, we describe a composite case of a homeless woman with paranoid schizophrenia. Through this case example, we will explore various obstacles to treatment and discuss strategies to overcome these hurdles to treatment, initiate a therapeutic alliance, and further facilitate and maintain therapy. PMID:20526407
Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Le Méner, Erwan; Oppenchaim, Nicolas; Arnaud, Amandine; Jangal, Candy; Caum, Carme; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Roze, Mathilde; Le Strat, Yann; Guyavarch, Emmanuelle
The objectives were to estimate the size of homeless family population in Paris region, to describe their living conditions and health and to analyse the impact of homelessness on children's growth and development, which was never investigated in France. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of homeless sheltered families in 2013. Families were interviewed in 17 languages and a nurse took anthropometric measures, blood samples and collected health data from child health reports. The population size was estimated at 10 280 families. Half were single-parent female families and 94% were born outside France. Most families had experienced housing instability and 94% were living below the poverty line (828 euros/month). Malnutrition was a major problem: the prevalence of food insecurity was high (77% of parents and 69% of children), as well as anaemia (50% of mothers and 38% of children), overweight (38% of mothers and 22% of children) and obesity (32% of mothers and 4% of children). High rates of depressive disorders were found in 30% of homeless mothers and 20% of children had signs of possible mental health disorders. These first results highlight the important number of families among the homeless population in Paris region. Families differed from other homeless people regarding social characteristics such as birthplace, single-parent status and residential instability that are likely to influence schooling, social ties, health and access to care. These results demonstrate the need for urgent actions targeting homeless families, in terms of reducing housing instability and providing adequate care, especially for children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Mar, Marissa Y; Linden, Isabelle A; Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael
This study investigates 500 homeless adults and the associations between childhood maltreatment types and the age of first reported homelessness episode. Those first experiencing homelessness in youth (age 24 years or younger; 46%) were compared with those first experiencing homelessness at a later age (older than age 24 years). In individual models, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with first experiencing homelessness during youth (p homeless during youth (p homeless earlier in life and support the need for early interventions with at-risk families.
The purpose of this short paper is to review articles or data on homelessness to grasp what it is and its status quo in Australia, including various allied problems. In this short paper, the definitions of homelessness and the related notion of home are reviewed at first because it is important to find the meaning and difference for development in understanding of and gaining an insight into the homelessness. After that, the present situations or characteristics of homelessness and its proble...
North, Carol S.; Pollio, David E.
Background: Cocaine use is highly prevalent among homeless populations, yet little is known about how it is financed. This study examined associations of income sources with cocaine use and financing of drugs in a longitudinal evaluation of a homeless sample. Methods: A homeless sample was recruited systematically in St. Louis in 1999–2001 and longitudinally assessed annually over two years using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Homeless Supplement, with urine drug testing. Results: ...
Children's Action Alliance, Phoenix, AZ.
This report provides an Arizona perspective on the implications and effects of homelessness on children and youth, whether they live with their families or on their own. Statistics on homeless families are provided, and issues affecting homeless families are discussed. These issues involve shelters, child care, education, and health. Issues that…
Ropers, Richard H.
Contemporary homelessness is the result of increasing social and economic inequality faced by those in American society who are most vulnerable to individual, family, and economic instability. This case study of the homeless population of Los Angeles (California), based on two surveys conducted in 1984, views the homeless as a segment of the…
Seider, Scott C.
From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…
Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa
165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless.
Tantoco, F G
Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro
Christensen, Ivan; Koch-Nielsen, Inger
Due to an increased visibility in homelessness from the late 80s and onwards many political initiatives have been taken to reduce homelessness and to improve the situation for the homeless. The aim of this article is to try to describe the development in homelessness in Denmark since the late 80s...... in homelessness. The composition of the group has changed, as the proportion of young and elderly seems to have decreased and the proportion of the middle-aged to have increased. There is probably an increase in the proportion of ethnic minorities, whereas a change in the gender composition is difficult to verify...
Rebecca T Brown
Full Text Available Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years, young adulthood (ages 18-25, and middle adulthood (ages 26-49. We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs.
Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.
Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478
Brown, Rebecca T; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B
Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs.
...) Homeless needs. The plan must provide a concise summary of the nature and extent of homelessness (including rural homelessness and chronically homeless persons), addressing separately the need for facilities and...) who are currently housed but threatened with homelessness. The plan also must contain a brief...
Biederman, Donna J; Forlan, Nicole
Despite recent decreases, homelessness remains a substantial problem in the United States. Homelessness is associated with poor health, and homeless women experience earlier mortality than their housed counterparts. Understanding the aspirations of homeless women may offer service providers avenues for intervention to increase well-being among this vulnerable population. This study, a secondary analysis of transcribed interviews (n = 20), provides insight into the aspirations of homeless women. Opportunities for service providers to intervene on these aspirations within the context of homelessness are offered.
Law, Kate; John, William
The concepts of culture and homelessness are both complex and contested. This paper examines homelessness through the lens of transcultural nursing theory, increasing understanding of both homelessness and transcultural theory. We argue that homelessness can be usefully conceptualised as a culture and that the application of transcultural theory to caring for homeless people will add further to the utility of these theories. The application of transcultural theory can add to the repertoire of skills the nurse needs to care for not only homeless clients, but, for a diverse range of client groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stewart, Holly C; Stevenson, Terrell N; Bruce, Janine S; Greenberg, Brian; Chamberlain, Lisa J
The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70 %. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N = 33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind.
Mohan, Erica; Shields, Carolyn M.
In a given year, approximately 1.6 million children in the United States experience homelessness, and research shows that their living conditions generally place these children at risk for educational underperformance and failure at school (Hall, 2007; Love, 2009). Although lack of education or low levels of education on the part of a head of…
van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James
We compared the characteristics of chronically homeless and acutely homeless elderly veterans to better understand precipitants of homelessness. We conducted interviews with 33 chronically and 26 acutely homeless veterans aged 65 years and older receiving transitional housing services in Los Angeles, California, between 2003 and 2005. We asked questions regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and other social status measures. Other precipitants of homelessness were acquired via observation and open-ended and structured questions. Both veterans groups were more similar than different, with substantial levels of physical, psychiatric, and social impairment. They differed significantly in homelessness history, with chronically homeless veterans having more homelessness episodes and more total time homeless. They were also less educated and had smaller social networks. In response to open-ended questioning, elderly homeless veterans revealed how health and substance use issues interacted with loss of social support and eviction to exacerbate homelessness. Assessment of a range of factors is needed to address risk factors and events leading to homelessness. Further research with larger samples is needed to confirm the characteristics and needs of the elderly homeless veteran population.
...-P-01] Homeless Management Information Systems Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... for the establishment of regulations for Homeless Management Information Systems (HMIS), which are the... community development, Homeless, Information technology system, Management system, Nonprofit organizations...
Holtrop, Kendal; Holcomb, Jamila E
Intervention adaptation is a promising approach for extending the reach of evidence-based interventions to underserved families. One highly relevant population in need of services are homeless families. In particular, homeless families with children constitute more than one third of the total homeless population in the United States and face several unique challenges to parenting. The purpose of this study was to adapt and pilot test a parenting intervention for homeless families in transitional housing. An established adaptation model was used to guide this process. The systematic adaptation efforts included: (a) examining the theory of change in the original intervention, (b) identifying population differences relevant to homeless families in transitional housing, (c) adapting the content of the intervention, and (d) adapting the evaluation strategy. Next, a pilot test of the adapted intervention was conducted to examine implementation feasibility and acceptability. Feasibility data indicate an intervention spanning several weeks may be difficult to implement in the context of transitional housing. Yet, acceptability of the adapted intervention among participants was consistently high. The findings of this pilot work suggest several implications for informing continued parenting intervention research and practice with homeless families in transitional housing. © 2018 Family Process Institute.
Pavao, Joanne; Turchik, Jessica A; Hyun, Jenny K; Karpenko, Julie; Saweikis, Meghan; McCutcheon, Susan; Kane, Vincent; Kimerling, Rachel
Military sexual trauma (MST) is the Veteran Health Administration's (VHA) term for sexual assault and/or sexual harassment that occurs during military service. The experience of MST is associated with a variety of mental health conditions. Preliminary research suggests that MST may be associated with homelessness among female Veterans, although to date MST has not been examined in a national study of both female and male homeless Veterans. To estimate the prevalence of MST, examine the association between MST and mental health conditions, and describe mental health utilization among homeless women and men. National, cross-sectional study of 126,598 homeless Veterans who used VHA outpatient care in fiscal year 2010. All variables were obtained from VHA administrative databases, including MST screening status, ICD-9-CM codes to determine mental health diagnoses, and VHA utilization. Of homeless Veterans in VHA, 39.7 % of females and 3.3 % of males experienced MST. Homeless Veterans who experienced MST demonstrated a significantly higher likelihood of almost all mental health conditions examined as compared to other homeless women and men, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, bipolar disorders, personality disorders, suicide, and, among men only, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Nearly all homeless Veterans had at least one mental health visit and Veterans who experienced MST utilized significantly more mental health visits compared to Veterans who did not experience MST. A substantial proportion of homeless Veterans using VHA services have experienced MST, and those who experienced MST had increased odds of mental health diagnoses. Homeless Veterans who had experienced MST had higher intensity of mental health care utilization and high rates of MST-related mental health care. This study highlights the importance of trauma-informed care among homeless Veterans and the success of VHA homeless
Shinichiro Iwata; Koji Karato
This paper examines the location choices of homeless people in Osaka City, and finds them concentrated because of homeless networks. The paper also shows that different types of homeless networks operate in two different homeless groups: (1) peer networks that provide a social tie inside homeless communities are observed in groups that had not had work experience in the day labor market; (2) homed networks that provide a social tie outside homeless communities affect location choice in the ex...
Dirmyer, Victoria F
It is estimated that there are 1.7 million homeless individuals in the United States; 36% are families with children under the age of 18. Due to lack of resources, individuals who are homeless frequent emergency departments for immediate health care needs. The aim of this study was to examine a homeless population over a 3-year time period who were admitted to an Albuquerque area hospital at any time during the time period. A comparison of demographic characteristics as well as hospitalization characteristics between two populations was analyzed: individuals who were homeless and had a 30-day readmission compared to those that did not have a 30-day readmission. There were 850 unique homeless patients that were admitted to an Albuquerque area hospital during the 3-year time period. The mean age was 43.8 years with the majority of the population being male. The 3-year average 30-day readmission rate was 30.1%. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that homeless patients older than 19 years, individuals with more than 1 admission during the time period, and individuals who left against medical advice had increased odds of a 30-day readmission. Individuals who were homeless who were admitted for respiratory conditions or cardiovascular disease had decreased odds of a 30-day readmission compared to patients admitted for neuropsychiatric conditions. In New Mexico, patients who were homeless experienced a high 30-day readmission rate. These results suggest a need for further research into the healthcare needs of this population and how to improve discharge protocols to prevent future readmissions.
Trotter, Robert J.
Discusses the thesis that the administration of physical punishment to children may pre-dispose them to violence as adults. Child-rearing practices, physical punishment within the schools, modeling of violent behavior by adults, and the self-fulling prophecy, i.e., you are bad,'' are types of practices considered. (LK)
Kidd, Sean A.
Building upon previous exploratory qualitative research (Kidd S.A. (2003) "Child Adol. Social Work J." 20(4):235-261), this paper examines the mental health implications of social stigma as it is experienced by homeless youth. Surveys conducted with 208 youths on the streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto revealed…
The bank foreclosed on your home because your parents divorced and don't have enough money to pay the mortgage. You're locked out of your house. Where will the family sleep? Most families turn to friends and relatives at times like these. That's why about 75 percent of the 1,258,182 homeless students in the United States live…
Austen, Tyrone; Pauly, Bernie
Homelessness is a serious and growing issue. Evaluations of systemic-level changes are needed to determine progress in reducing or ending homelessness. The report card methodology is one means of systems-level assessment. Rather than solely establishing an enumeration, homelessness report cards can capture pertinent information about structural…
Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.
Claire W. Herbert
Full Text Available The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports.
Full Text Available Urban poverty continues to prove itself a concern in cities’ territorial planning as it disrupts the quality of life and the development process in some cities. Homelessness emerges sometimes as extreme urban poverty even in developed European Union countries. The study assesses Bucharest urban space to differentiate characteristics that influence the homeless to locate in certain places. The analysis included a three-level urban space categorization. Functional types of space were correlated to homelessness presence according to three space characteristics: property type, physical structure and state of use. The main findings argue that homeless people localization in Bucharest depends on urban space capacity to meet homelessness housing and living needs. Analysis’ conclusions evidence homeless location patterns to urban planners and authorities that may use the information to improve policies and actions to alleviate extreme poverty in Bucharest.
This article analyses the risk of homelessness in the Danish adult population. The study is based on individual, administrative micro-data for about 4.15 million Danes who were 18 years or older on 1 January 2002. Homelessness is measured by shelter use from 2002 to 2011. Data also cover civil st...... that homelessness in Denmark is widely concentrated amongst individuals with complex support needs, rather than associated with wider poverty problems....
Hurt, Jakob, 1839-1907
Eessõna rmt. : Hurt, Jakob. Vana kannel. 1. kogu : täieline kogu vanu eesti rahvalaulusid = Alte Harfe : vollständige Sammlung alter estnischen Volkslieder. Tartu, 1875-1886. - (Eesti Kirjameeste Seltsi toimetised ; 3)
Holloway, John H.
Reviews studies on the plight and needs of homeless students. Includes reports on family mobility and school attendance, dysfunctional families, and school intervention strategies. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.
Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171
Fu, Yan-Nan; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Hou, Cai-Lan; Ng, Chee H; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Lin, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Lihui; Zheng, Xiaocong; Jia, Fu-Jun; Xiang, Yu-Tao
There are no published data on insight in homeless patients with psychiatric disorders in China. This study examined insight in homeless and non-homeless Chinese psychiatric inpatients in relation to demographic and clinical variables. A total of 278 homeless and 222 non-homeless inpatients matched in age and gender were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected based on a review of medical charts and a clinical interview with standardized instruments. Insight was evaluated with the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. Altogether 20.5% of homeless inpatients and 43.7% of the non-homeless controls had good insight. Compared with homeless inpatients with impaired insight, homeless inpatients with good insight had higher physical quality of life, longer duration of illness and less severe positive and negative symptoms. Impaired insight appeared more common in homeless psychiatric inpatients in China. Further studies should address the need for effective therapeutic interventions that promote homeless patients' insight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Joseph; Tobin, Kerri
In this article, the authors examine homelessness across time and examine, in an introductory way, homelessness today. The authors start by examining important themes that ribbon homelessness in America over the last 300 years. Next, they provide a period analysis of homelessness from the birth of the country through the late 1970s. In the last…
Homelessness is a significant social problem in the United States, with an estimated 2.5 million homeless people in this country today. While criminal activity may become a means for the homeless to obtain resources needed for basic survival, little is known about the level of criminal activity among the homeless or about the types of crimnal…
Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia
There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…
Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten
Background Children and adolescents from deprived backgrounds have high rates of psychiatric problems. Parental and social factors are crucial for children's healthy and positive development, but whether psychiatric morbidity is associated with parental social marginalisation is unknown. We aimed...... of homelessness, and 56 330 (5%) children and adolescents were diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder during the study period. The incidence of any psychiatric disorder was 15·1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 14·4–15·8) in offspring with at least one parent with a history of homelessness, compared with 6...... to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. Methods We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0...
Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Hjorthøj, Carsten
BACKGROUND:Children and adolescents from deprived backgrounds have high rates of psychiatric problems. Parental and social factors are crucial for children's healthy and positive development, but whether psychiatric morbidity is associated with parental social marginalisation is unknown. We aimed...... of homelessness, and 56 330 (5%) children and adolescents were diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder during the study period. The incidence of any psychiatric disorder was 15·1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 14·4-15·8) in offspring with at least one parent with a history of homelessness, compared with 6...... to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. METHODS:We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0...
Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten
to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. Methods We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0......–16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental...... information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival...
Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.
This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…
National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2012
The National Center on Family Homelessness is determined to end family homelessness. Sheltering families provides a temporary safe haven. Connecting families to permanent housing, essential services, and critical supports can change their lives forever. Through research the Center learns what families need to rebound from the housing, economic,…
Nunez, Ralph da Costa
This book discusses homeless families in the United States and advocates the efforts of residential educational and employment training centers--American Family Inns--which provide comprehensive services education, job training, and parenting and life skills to address the poverty-related conditions that contribute to homelessness. Chapters of the…
First, Richard J.; And Others
This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…
.... Funding Opportunity Description: Section 2021 of Title 38 of the United States Code (U.S.C.) reauthorizes the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP) through fiscal year (FY) 2012 and indicates: ``the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program AGENCY: Veterans' Employment and...
Full Text Available Reducing homelessness is an indisputable social good, and housing subsidies offer one way to do so. However, subsidies come in many different varieties and are intricately bound up with economic and social policies. This paper, written by one of North America’s leading urban economists, cuts through the tangle and argues that the simplest approach is the best. The ideal way to deter people from harmful acts is to reward them for abstaining. Thus, to combat homelessness, governments should offer housing allowances to people for every night they are not homeless. This optimal homelessness-reducing home allowance (OHRHA is open to adjustment to suit individual circumstances and the effects of homelessness on different demographics. It is meant to reduce homelessness by aligning individual and societal incentives, forcing people to bear the consequences or realize the benefits that their actions impose on others. The author explores methods for financing OHRHA, examines means for tailoring it to meet the diverse needs of the homeless and discusses the policy’s effect on urban housing markets, all while comparing and contrasting the proposal to existing homelessness-reduction measures in Alberta, Canada and the US.
This article has located Jesus' saying about homelessness in the context of the Roman Empire as it was experienced in Galilee. Homelessness is part of a broader picture that translates into loss of access to the resources of the land. The thesis is that in light of a theology of land resulting from the development of Abrahamic ...
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane; Jacobs, Robin
Human service students were surveyed ("N" = 207) to determine their perceptions about homeless elders and communal responsibility for their well-being. Using a backward regression analysis, a final model ("F" = 15.617, "df" = 7, "p" < 0.001) for Perceptions about Homeless Persons and Community…
Zayas, Luis H.
Aggressive immigration enforcement hurts the very youngest children. Refugee and U.S.-born children of undocumented immigrants experience many childhood adversities, compromising their development and health. Refugee children flee traumatizing violence in their home countries, face grueling migrations, and are harmed further by being held in…
... Non-Urban Homeless Female Veterans and Homeless Veterans With Families' Reintegration Into Employment... addresses complex problems facing Homeless Female Veterans and/or Veterans with Families eligible to... (including job readiness, literacy training, and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless...
Sosa, Sandra I.; Peek, Sarah; Muhammad, Sharien; Gonder, Ty; Cook, Janice; Bolton, Jessica; Parrish, Mark S.
Homeless youth in the United States is rapidly increasing with more children living in unstable or temporary environments. They may encounter difficulties meeting enrollment requirements, have poor attendance, low academic performance, and experience behavioral and emotional issues. The reauthorization of McKinney-Vento Act (MCKV) in 2002 was…
Koh, Katherine A.; Hoy, Jessica S.; O’Connell, James J.; Montgomery, Paul
Despite stereotypes of the homeless population as underweight, the literature lacks a rigorous analysis of weight status in homeless adults. The purpose of this study is to present the body mass index (BMI) distribution in a large adult homeless population and to compare this distribution to the non-homeless population in the United States. Demographic, BMI, and socioeconomic variables from patients seen in 2007–2008 were collected from the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP)....
Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen; Russell, Daniel W; Abraham, W Todd
This study examined the effects of experiential self-focus writing on changes in psychological outcomes (i.e., unforgiveness and negative affect) after an interpersonal hurt and the buffering effects of experiential self-focus writing on the association between anger rumination and these psychological outcomes. A sample of 182 college students who had experienced interpersonal hurt were randomly assigned to either the experiential self-focus writing condition, in which participants wrote about their feelings and experiences related to the hurt, or to a control writing condition in which they wrote about a recent neutral event. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that changes in unforgiveness over time did not differ between the experiential self-focus writing and the control writing conditions. However, relative to the control writing condition, negative affect decreased faster during writing and increased more slowly at follow-ups in the experiential self-focus writing condition. The results supported the hypothesis that negative affect resulting from an interpersonal hurt would significantly decrease over time among participants in the experiential self-focus writing group compared with the control group. Implications of experiential self-focus writing for interpersonal hurt and directions for future studies are discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Okamura, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Kae; Morikawa, Suimei; Awata, Shuichi
The purpose of this study is to investigate the frequency and correlates of suicidal behavior among homeless people in Japan. A face-to-face survey was conducted in two districts of Tokyo, Japan, with 423 subjects who resided on streets and riversides and in urban parks and stations (street homeless) or who were residents of shelters, cheap hotels, or welfare homes for homeless people (sheltered homeless). When questioned about suicidal ideation in the previous 2 weeks, 51 subjects (12.2% of valid responses) had a recurring wish to die, 29 (6.9%) had frequent thoughts of suicide, and 22 (5.3%) had made suicide plans. In addition, 11 (2.9%) subjects had attempted suicide in the previous 2 weeks and 74 (17.7%) reported that they had ever attempted suicide. In univariate logistic regression analyses, street homelessness, lack of perceived emotional social support, poor subjective health perception, visual impairment, pain, insomnia, poor mental well-being, and current depression were significantly associated with recurrent thoughts of suicide in the previous 2 weeks. Among these, current depression had the greatest significance. In multivariate logistic regression analyses after controlling for depression, street homelessness and lack of perceived emotional social support were significantly associated with recurrent thoughts of suicide in the previous 2 weeks. Comprehensive interventions including housing and social support as well as mental health services might be crucial as effective strategies for suicide prevention among homeless people.
Ensign, Josephine; Ammerman, Seth
This paper is a report of a study to document researcher, healthcare provider and programme administrators' experiences with ethical issues in research with homeless youths in North America. While there are legal and ethical guidelines for research with adolescents and with vulnerable populations in general, there are no specific guidelines for the ethical conduct of research with homeless youths. Using a web-based questionnaire, healthcare and social service providers, programme administrators and researchers working with homeless young people throughout the United States of America and Canada were surveyed in 2005. The survey group consisted of 120 individuals; a total of 72 individuals completed the survey. Survey questions included experiences with using incentives in research with homeless youths, consent and experiences with ethics review boards. Numerical data were analysed using frequencies and cross-tabulations. Text data were analysed qualitatively. Researchers doing mental health and/or substance use research tended to use money as a research incentive, whereas healthcare providers and programme administrators tended to use non-monetary incentives. The majority of respondents reported using written consent for research from homeless youths, including minors. Respondents reporting difficulties with ethics review boards were mainly involved with intervention research. Consensus is needed from a variety of stakeholders, including homeless youths and service providers, on use of various types of research incentives for different types of research, as well as use of consent for homeless youths who are minors.
McQuistion, Hunter L; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Hsu, Eustace; Caton, Carol L M
Alcohol and drug use are commonly associated with the experience of homelessness. In order to better understand this, we explored the prevalence of drug and alcohol use as it related to successful re-housing within a sample of first-time single homeless adults at municipal shelters. From within this sample, we compared the features of recurrent homelessness with those of chronic homelessness and of being stably housed. We interviewed 344 subjects upon shelter entry and followed each one every six months for 18 months using standardized social and mental health measures. We analyzed baseline assessments relative to housing experiences during follow-up using Chi square and multinomial logistic regression. Eighty-one percent (N = 278) obtained housing over 18 months, of which 23.7 % (N = 66) experienced homelessness again. Recurrent homelessness was more common among those with a high school education and if initially re-housed with family. Bivariate analysis resulted in the observation of the highest rate of alcohol and other drug use among this recurrent group and multinomial logistic regression supported this only with the coupling of arrest history and diagnosed antisocial personality disorder. With relatively high rates of recurrent homelessness, there were differences between subjects who experienced recurrent homelessness compared to those who were stably housed and with chronic homelessness. That alcohol and other substance use disorders were associated with recurrent homelessness only if they were linked to other risk factors highlights the complexity of causes for homelessness and a resultant need to organize them into constellations of causal risk factors. Consistent with this, there should be initiatives that span bureaucratic boundaries so as to flexibly meet multiple complex service needs, thus improving outcomes concerning episodes of recurrent homelessness.
A group of homeless people living in the streets is described with the purpose of gaining the knowledge necessary to prevent development of homelessness and establishing programmes for the homeless. Out-reach work in the streets and cooperation with private and religious organisations was conducted during a two-year period and 59 homeless persons were interviewed. Fifteen were women and 44 were men. Upbringing, social conditions, daily living, physical and mental health and contact with health services, social security and private organisations were highlighted in a structured and semistructured interview. Compared with the background population the homeless had much more frequently childhood experience of parents' divorce or death of one of the parents. The women were significantly older than the men and the majority of the women were suffering from schizophrenia and had very little contact with network and public services. The majority of the men were abusing alcohol or drugs, many had had a troublesome childhood with stays in institutions. Many had had many contacts with different social institutions and a criminal record. Among the homeless in the streets of Copenhagen, the prevalence of mental illness, especially schizophrenia, is high. It is recommended that homelessness among the mentally ill is prevented by a special effort directed towards the patient group at risk of becoming homeless and through establishing different housing facilities with varying degrees of professional support. Out-reach work towards the homeless mentally ill should be carried out with the purpose of establishing contact with psychiatric services and securing the possibility of compulsory admission.
Chen, Jinliang; Chen, Jindong; Li, Shuchun; Liu, Jun; Ouyang, Guohua; Luo, Wenxuan; Guo, Xiaofeng; Li, Ting; Li, Kaijie; Li, Zhenkuo; Wang, Gan
Homelessness is an increasingly important problem for individuals with serious mental illness in China. Identify the characteristics of families that are associated with homelessness among individuals with schizophrenia. Participants were 1856 homeless individuals with schizophrenia (defined as those who had no place of residence or involved caregivers for 7 consecutive days) and 1728 non-homeless individuals with schizophrenia from Xiangtan, Hunan. The self-completion Family Environment Scale-Chinese Version (FES-CV) was administered to these participants after their acute psychotic symptoms resolved. Compared to individuals in the non-homeless group, those in the homeless group were older and more likely to be non-locals (i.e., from outside of Xiangtan), be residents of rural (versus urban) communities, have temporary (versus permanent) jobs, be married, and have a low level of education. After controlling for demographic differences using multivariate logistic regression models, homelessness was independently associated higher scores in the FES-CV intellectual-cultural orientation, organization, achievement orientation, and control subscales and with lower scores in the FES-CV cohesion, moralreligious emphasis, independence, and active-recreational orientation subscales. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, certain aspects of the family environment areassociated with being homeless among patients with schizophrenia in China. Further work is needed to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of homelessness in high-risk individuals.
Full Text Available Charismatic Poe Dameron is the “best pilot in the Resistance,” and while his depiction in Star Wars: The Force Awakens (TFA presents audiences with a confident, dashing Han Solo-type, that is not the end of the characterization. Transmedia TFA paratexts paint Dameron as not only dashing but also reckless and so devoted to the cause he’s willing to plunge headlong into danger for it. Furthermore, the film and these paratexutal tie-ins present Dameron as constantly in danger or in pain. In some fan works based on the film, particularly those in the hurt/comfort (h/c genre, Poe Dameron just keeps getting hurt. While this might seem to be the kink of one particular fandom community, I argue that hurting Poe in fan works not only fills in missing information from the film, it also challenges Disney's characterization.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a detrimental impact on women and children's emotional, physical and social well-being and has been identified as one of the most common contributors to women's experiences of housing instabilities and homelessness. Women affected by IPV often experience a great level of uncertainty around housing solutions when trying to leave an abusive partner. This study explores women's responses to IPV and the related risk of homelessness through women's narratives (n = 22) in Queensland, Australia. Of particular interest are women's decisions and actions to minimise the impact of IPV as well as homelessness on their and their children's safety and well-being. Findings reveal that women's agency in relation to harm minimisation can take various forms, including the decision to stay with, leave or return to an abusive partner. The data offer insights into women's strategic attempts to manage IPV and the related risk of homeless while trying to minimise the harm associated with one and the other. Implications for understanding women's agency in managing IPV and the related risk of homelessness and providing adequate support mechanisms to improve women and children's social, emotional and physical well-being are discussed.
Feodor Nilsson, Sandra; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between homelessness and psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders, on one hand, and cause-specific and all-cause mortality on the other in a high-income country. Methods: A historical nationwide register-based cohort...... study of the Danish population from 15 years of age between 2000 and 2011 was conducted. The association between homelessness, psychiatric disorders, and mortality was analysed by Poisson Regression adjusting for important confounders. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for people...... with a history of homelessness compared with the general population using direct age-standardisation. Results: During 51,892,324 person-years of observation, 656,448 died. People with at least one homeless shelter contact accounted for 173,592 person-years with 4345 deaths. The excess mortality in the population...
Rolfe, Shawn M; Tewksbury, Richard; Schroeder, Ryan D
The primary focus of sex offender research has been on the efficacy and collateral consequences of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) and residence restrictions. Past scholarship has found these laws to cause numerous re-entry barriers for sex offenders. Such barriers have affected sex offenders' ability to find and maintain housing, employment, and social support. Moreover, registered sex offenders (RSOs) have become homeless due to such laws. Although previous scholarship has highlighted the collateral consequences of SORN, there is a lack of scholarship addressing homeless sex offenders. Specifically, the current study assesses policies regarding RSO access to homeless shelters in a four-state region, focusing on the effect of structural, procedural, and geographic factors, as well as a shelter's proximity to children. Drawing on the loose coupling organizational framework, the findings suggest that a small maximum occupancy, unwritten policies for RSOs, being in Kentucky or Tennessee, being located near a school, and being near a higher proportion of homes with children all decrease the odds that a homeless shelter allows RSOs. Furthermore, although unwilling to make exceptions to the policies regarding RSOs, shelters were generally willing to make exceptions to other policies governing shelter accessibility.
Herbert, CW; Morenoff, JD; Harding, DJ
The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on M...
Thomas, Yvonne; Gray, M.; McGinty, S.
This paper reports findings of a study that utilised an occupational perspective to explore how wellbeing was achieved and sustained by the occupations of people experiencing homelessness in Australia. Thirty three in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with homeless individuals in a regional city in Australia. Data from the interviews were thematically analysed to understand the relationship between wellbeing, as defined by the individual, and the occupations engaged in by people exp...
Full Text Available Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony. The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.
Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.
Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin’s life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childh...
Urban poverty continues to prove itself a concern in cities’ territorial planning as it disrupts the quality of life and the development process in some cities. Homelessness emerges sometimes as extreme urban poverty even in developed European Union countries. The study assesses Bucharest urban space to differentiate characteristics that influence the homeless to locate in certain places. The analysis included a three-level urban space categorization. Functional types of space were correlated...
Vázquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Zúñiga, Claudia
The study analyzes the differences in causal attributions of homelessness and attributions of responsibility among the members of 3 groups: homeless group, consisting of a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid, Spain (n = 188); domiciled service-users group, consisting of people at risk of homelessness (n = 164); and domiciled nonservice-users group, consisting of people at no imminent risk of homelessness (n = 180). The domiciled service-users group and domiciled nonservice-users group were matched to the homeless group or sex, age, and nationality. The article also analyzes homeless people's causal attributions as regards their own situation. The results show that compared with the domiciled nonservice-users group, a higher percentage of members of the homeless group and domiciled service-users group attributed homelessness to individualistic causes and they blamed homeless people for their situation to a greater extent. The results also show that there was no "actor-observer bias" in causal attributions for homelessness in Madrid. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — These raw data sets contain Point-in-Time (PIT) estimates and national PIT estimates of homelessness as well as national estimates of homelessness by state and...
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts health and what public health professionals can do about it.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts policy and what public health professionals can do about it.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts policy and what public health professionals can do about it.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts health and what public health professionals can do about it.
Leibler, Jessica H.; Nguyen, Daniel D.; Le?n, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M.; Perez, Debora
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston,...
This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in t...
Wagner, Julia; Diehl, Katharina; Mutsch, Livia; Löffler, Walter; Burkert, Nathalie; Freidl, Wolfgang
This case-control study describes the health situation, internal and external resources, and utilisation of healthcare facilities by a marginalised population consisting of homeless people in Vienna, Austria, compared with a non-homeless control population. Among the homeless group, participants lived in halfway houses (70%) or permanent housing (30%) in Vienna. Personal interviews were conducted in July 2010 with 66 homeless individuals, and their data were compared with data from non-homeless subjects from the Austrian Health Interview Survey using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the control group, homeless persons suffered more often from chronic diseases (P resources of homeless people, even though homeless people seek medical care at a higher rate than controls. Continuing health promotion projects for this high-risk group and the strengthening of social resources are recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chow, Kirby A.; Mistry, Rashmita S.; Melchor, Vanessa L.
This study examined elementary school teachers' experiences working with homeless students. Specifically, we focused on the psychosocial impacts of homelessness on students and their teachers. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 teachers who worked at designated public schools for family homeless shelters. A prominent…
Cumming, John M.; Gloeckner, Gene W.
After interviewing homeless high school students, the research team in a Colorado school district discovered that many students had not revealed their true living conditions (homelessness) to anyone in the school district. This research team developed an anonymous survey written around the homeless categories identified in the McKinney-Vento…
Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel
Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…
Axelson, Leland J.; Dail, Paula W.
Describes new form of homeless persons, a growing population of homeless individuals and families who are not mentally ill, not wanderers, and may be employed. Examines changing character of homelessness and makes recommendations for a public policy response to the problem. (Author/NB)
McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan C
Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the period from October 2011 to May 2013. Our data refer to 1325 individuals who were homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. We investigate dynamics in homelessness and substance use over the survey period. We find that the two are closely related: homeless individuals are more likely to be substance users and substance users are more likely to be homeless. These relationships, however, are predominantly driven by observed and unobserved individual characteristics which cause individuals to be both more likely to be homeless and to be substance users. Once we take these personal characteristics into account it seems that homelessness does not affect substance use, although we cannot rule out that alcohol use increases the probability that an individual becomes homeless. These overall relationships also hide some interesting heterogeneity by 'type' of homelessness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan
Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the
McKinney, Jennifer; Snedker, Karen A.
In response to increasing homelessness in our city, Seattle Pacific University invited a homeless encampment (Tent City) to reside on our university campus for three months. This provided an opportunity to engage students on issues of poverty and inequality. Building from a service-learning model, we devised course work around homelessness and…
We present simple mathematical models for modelling a homeless population and housing allocation. We look at a situation whereby the local authority makes temporary accommodation available for some of the homeless for a while and we examine how this affects the number of families homeless at any given time.
Koch-Nielsen, Inger; Børner Stax, Tobias
Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the concept of homelessness and related terms in a Danish context. We then presents different types of accommodations for the homeless that is currently used. The chapter is taken from an anthology which deals with understandings and measures...... directed towards the homeless people in different European countries....
Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel
Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.
Brown, Rebecca T.; Thomas, M. Lori; Cutler, Deborah F.; Hinderlie, Mark
The homeless population is aging faster than the general population in the United States. As this vulnerable population continues to age, addressing complex care and housing needs will become increasingly important. This article reviews the often-overlooked issue of homelessness among older adults, including their poor health status and unique care needs, the factors that contribute to homelessness in this population, and the costs of homelessness to the U.S. health care system. Permanent sup...
Shinn, Marybeth; Brown, Scott R; Gubits, Daniel
Family break-up is common in families experiencing homelessness. This paper examines the extent of separations of children from parents and of partners from each other and whether housing and service interventions reduced separations and their precursors among 1,857 families across 12 sites who participated in the Family Options Study. Families in shelters were randomized to offers of one of three interventions: permanent housing subsidies that reduce expenditures for rent to 30% of families' income, temporary rapid re-housing subsidies with some services directed at housing and employment, and transitional housing in supervised facilities with extensive psychosocial services. Each group was compared to usual care families who were eligible for that intervention but received no special offer. Twenty months later, permanent housing subsidies almost halved rates of child separation and more than halved rates of foster care placements; the other interventions did not affect separations significantly. Predictors of separation were primarily homelessness and drug abuse (all comparisons), and alcohol dependence (one comparison). Although housing subsidies reduced homelessness, alcohol dependence, intimate partner violence, and economic stressors, the last three variables had no association with child separations in the subsidy comparison; thus subsidies had indirect effects via reductions in homelessness. No intervention reduced partner separations. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
van der Laan, Jorien; van Straaten, Barbara; Boersma, Sandra N; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike; Wolf, Judith R L M
We explored whether changes in the perceived health of homeless people after entering the social relief system (SRS) in The Netherlands were predicted by housing, income, hours of work, social support, unmet care needs, arrests, physical and mental health, substance use, and experiences of autonomy, competence and relatedness, in addition to perceived health at baseline, demographics, suspected intellectual disability, the duration of homelessness and the company of children in the shelter facility. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to explore the significant predictors of the perceived health of 344 homeless persons 18 months after entering the social relief system. A decrease in psychological distress and an increase in hours of (paid/voluntary) work as well as competence predicted a better perceived health. Perceived health is not only influenced by objective circumstances related to work and mental health, but also self-determination, as shown by the influence of competence. Services should aim to reduce psychological distress of homeless people, support them in increasing their working hours and focus on strengthening their competence.
Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Hurst, Samantha; Pierce, John P
To examine attitudes toward smoke-free policies and perceptions of e-cigarette use among homeless adults. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted. Study setting comprised seven transitional homeless shelters with indoor smoke-free policies in San Diego County; facilities differed in outdoor restrictions on smoking. Sixty-six current or former smokers were the study participants. Participants completed a questionnaire on smoking behaviors, perceived antitobacco norms, and attitudes toward smoke-free policies, and attended a focus group interview that explored these topics. We used a directed content analysis approach to analyze the focus group transcripts. Clients in facilities with outdoor restrictions on smoking had stronger perceived antitobacco norms than those in facilities without such restrictions. We identified the following major themes: attitudes toward smoke-free policies, the use of e-cigarettes, the addictive potential of cigarettes, vulnerability to tobacco industry marketing, and interest in smoking cessation. The consensus was that smoke-free policies were important because they limited secondhand smoke exposure to nonsmokers and children. All were curious about e-cigarettes, particularly if they could be smoked in areas where smoking was prohibited and/or used as a cessation aid. In this study of homeless adults, there was strong support for indoor and outdoor smoke-free policies. However, misperceptions that e-cigarettes could be used indoors could threaten antitobacco norms, highlighting opportunities to educate about the potential risks of e-cigarette use among homeless individuals.
Cosgrove, Kim; Norris-Shortle, Carole
The development of babies whose families are homeless can easily be affected by their uncertain living arrangements. The PACT Therapeutic Nursery's attachment-based, trauma-informed, mindfully focused family interventions help these children and families move beyond the trauma of shelter living. In the past year, Nursery clinicians have infused…
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010
The National Center for Homeless Education and the Legal Center for Foster Care and Education present this brief to help educators and child welfare advocates work together to support the academic success of children and youth in out-of-home care. The brief offers practical, proven strategies for implementing two federal laws collaboratively: The…
Hamilton, Alison B; Poza, Ines; Washington, Donna L
Veterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans' pathways into homelessness. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. Five predominant "roots" (precipitating experiences) initiated pathways toward homelessness: 1) childhood adversity, 2) trauma and/or substance abuse during military service, 3) post-military abuse, adversity, and/or relationship termination, 4) post-military mental health, substance abuse, and/or medical problems, and 5) unemployment. Contextual factors, which promoted development of homelessness in the setting of primary roots, included women veterans' "survivor instinct," lack of social support and resources, sense of isolation, pronounced sense of independence, and barriers to care. These contextual factors also reinforced persistence of the roots of post-military adversity and mental health and substance abuse problems, serving to maintain cycles of chronic homelessness. Collectively, these multiple, interacting roots and contextual factors form a "web of vulnerability" that is a target for action. Multiple points along the pathways to homelessness represent critical junctures for VA and community-based organizations to engage in prevention or intervention efforts on behalf of women veterans. Considering the multiple, interconnected challenges that these women veterans described, solutions to homelessness should address multiple risk factors, include trauma-informed care that acknowledges women veterans' traumatic experiences, and incorporate holistic responses that can contribute to healing and recovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The objective of this study was to examine the reasons for the most recent loss of housing and for continued homelessness as perceived by homeless persons with mental illness. A total of 2,974 currently homeless participants in the 1996 National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) were asked about the reasons for their most recent loss of housing and continued homelessness. The responses of participants who had mental illness, defined both broadly and narrowly, were compared with responses of those who were not mentally ill. The broad definition of mental illness was based on a set of criteria proposed by NSHAPC investigators. The narrow definition included past psychiatric hospitalization in addition to the NSHAPC criteria. A total of 1,620 participants (56 percent) met the broad definition of mental illness, and 639 (22 percent) met the narrow definition; 1,345 participants (44 percent) did not meet any of these criteria and were categorized as not having a mental illness. Few differences in reasons for the most recent loss of housing were noted between the participants with and without mental illness. Both groups attributed their continued homelessness mostly to insufficient income, unemployment, and lack of suitable housing. Homeless persons with mental illness mostly report the same reasons for loss of housing and continued homelessness as those who do not have a mental illness. This finding supports the view that structural solutions, such as wider availability of low-cost housing and income support, would reduce the risk of homelessness among persons with mental illness, as among other vulnerable social groups.
Carol S. North
Full Text Available Background: Cocaine use is highly prevalent among homeless populations, yet little is known about how it is financed. This study examined associations of income sources with cocaine use and financing of drugs in a longitudinal evaluation of a homeless sample. Methods: A homeless sample was recruited systematically in St. Louis in 1999–2001 and longitudinally assessed annually over two years using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Homeless Supplement, with urine drug testing. Results: More than half (55% of participants with complete follow-up data (N = 255/400 had current year cocaine use. Current users spent nearly $400 (half their income in the last month on drugs at baseline. Benefits, welfare, and disability were negatively associated and employment and income from family/friends, panhandling, and other illegal activities were positively associated with cocaine use and monetary expenditures for cocaine. Conclusions: Findings suggest that illegal and informal income-generating activities are primary sources for immediate gratification with cocaine use and public entitlements do not appear to be primary funding sources used by homeless populations. Policy linking drug testing to benefits is likely to have little utility, and public expenditures on measures to unlink drug use and income might be more effectively used to fund employment and treatment programs.
Monn, Amy R; Narayan, Angela J; Kalstabakken, Amanda W; Schubert, Erin C; Masten, Ann S
There is mounting evidence that maternal executive function (EF) plays a critical role in parenting behavior. However, the majority of the research on this topic has been conducted in low-risk samples. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether individual differences in maternal EF are associated with parenting behavior in the high-risk, high adversity context of family homelessness. The study included 94 mothers and their children, ages 4 to 6 years, living in emergency homeless shelters. Mothers completed a battery of "hot" and "cool" EF tasks as well as a self-report questionnaire of perceived stress. Parenting measures were based on observed parent-child interactions that were later coded for harsh and positive parenting practices. Results indicated that hot EF in mothers was related to positive parenting. The relation between maternal planning ability, assessed by a cool EF task, and harsh parenting was also significant, but only for mothers reporting higher levels of stress. These findings add to a growing body of research suggesting that the influence of EF and other forms of cognitive control on parenting need to be interpreted within the context of environmental stress and adversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Jun, Jung Sim; Kim, Yi Jin; Roh, Soonhee; Moon, Sung Seek; Bukonda, Ngoyi; Hines, Lisa
This study explored the role of mental health and substance abuse problems on the suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of 156 homeless adults. The logistic regression results indicated that homeless adults with anxiety were significantly more likely than those without anxiety to have both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Also, homeless adults with drug abuse were significantly more likely than those without drug abuse to have suicidal ideation. The study suggests that to reduce the suicide of the homeless, case managers need to screen mental health and substance abuse issues and to provide appropriate treatment services at homeless shelters.
This toolkit serves as a comprehensive resource on the issue of higher education access and success for homeless students, including information on understanding homeless students, assisting homeless students in choosing a school, helping homeless students pay for application-related expenses, assisting homeless students in finding financial aid…
Bearsley-Smith, Cate A; Bond, Lyndal M; Littlefield, Lyn; Thomas, Lyndal R
To contrast the psychosocial profile of adolescents with risk factors for homelessness, identified using Chamberlain and MacKenzie's self-report scale, compared to the profiles of homeless adolescents. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted contrasting profiles for (a) 137 homeless adolescents, (b) 766 secondary students reporting risk factors for homelessness, and (c) 4,844 students not reporting risks for homelessness. Fourteen percent of a representative population of at-school adolescents, from Victoria, Australia, showed elevated risk of homelessness. These adolescents showed depressive symptoms at least equivalent to homeless adolescents (RR 6.0, 95% CI: 4.9, 7.3, and RR 3.5, 95% CI: 2.1, 5.8, respectively). In multivariate analyses, homeless and at risk adolescents reported equivalent levels of family conflict, early problem behaviour and low opportunities and rewards for family involvement. Compared to adolescents not at risk, at risk adolescents were more likely to be female and to show poorer social skills/assertiveness and depressive symptoms. Compared to at risk adolescents, homeless adolescents showed additional family, school, peer and individual risks, but lower depressive symptomatology. The findings highlight the potential we have to quickly and simply detect adolescents showing significant risk of homelessness. This sizable minority of adolescents report risks often equivalent to homeless adolescents. It is hoped that stakeholders working with young people will utilise this screening potential to identify and intervene effectively with this significant subpopulation of youth, and their families, while they are still at home and school.
Full Text Available This article describes a blog written by four men who were homeless in a western Canadian city in 2010. The blog was an attempt to promote communication between homeless people and the domiciled public, to assert the agency of homeless people, and to promote social integration through their participation in public discourse about homelessness. The bloggers explicitly set out to engage in civic action. In doing this they positioned themselves as advocates and therefore citizens—people with the right and responsibility to describe the “realities” of homelessness, critique existing social structures, take part in public dialogue about homelessness, advocate for change, and stand up for homeless people. This was a subject position that was not previously available to them. The blog project is an example of “lived citizenship,” citizenship as active participatory practice, and a way to achieve what Nancy Fraser calls a politics of recognition.
Stephanus F. de Beer
Full Text Available This article is reading ubuntu in the light of homelessness in the cities and towns of South Africa. It suggests that ubuntu itself is homeless and displaced as a way of being human together. Instead of the mediation of dignity and justice through an ubuntu-solidarity, street homeless people and others living vulnerably and in precarious circumstances are violated and excluded through a displacement of ubuntu-values. It also suggests a growing disconnect between the philosophy of ubuntu and its actual embodiment in the local urban political economy, local faith communities and local universities. Acknowledging the aspirational edge of ubuntu, the article then concludes to envision going beyond mere abstractions in the said spheres � the political economy, faith communities and local universities � in order to seek for concrete expressions of ubuntu-solidarity, asserting and mediating respect, dignity and justice.
Weinrich, Sally; Hardin, Sally; Glaser, Dale; Barger, Mary; Bormann, Jill; Lizarraga, Cabiria; Terry, Micheal; Criscenzo, Jeeni; Allard, Carolyn B
Almost 1 out of every 3 homeless women (32%) in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia has experienced childhood sexual trauma. We assessed lifetime sexual trauma histories among 29 homeless women from three Southern California community sites: one residential safe house and two safe parking areas. More than half of the women (54%) reported a history of sexual trauma. That rate was higher (86%) among women living at the safe home than among women staying at the safe parking sites (only 42%). All four of the women who had served in the military reported having experienced military sexual trauma. The high percentages of sexual trauma found in homeless women highlight the need for effective interventions for sexual trauma.
Haddad, Maryam B.; Wilson, Todd W.; Ijaz, Kashef; Marks, Suzanne M.; Moore, Marisa
Context Tuberculosis (TB) rates among US homeless persons cannot be calculated because they are not included in the US Census. However, homelessness is often associated with TB. Objectives To describe homeless persons with TB and to compare risk factors and disease characteristics between homeless and nonhomeless persons with TB. Design and Setting Cross-sectional analysis of all verified TB cases reported into the National TB Surveillance System from the 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1994 through 2003. Main Outcome Measures Number and proportion of TB cases associated with homelessness, demographic characteristics, risk factors, disease characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Results Of 185 870 cases of TB disease reported between 1994 and 2003, 11 369 were among persons classified as homeless during the 12 months before diagnosis. The annual proportion of cases associated with homelessness was stable (6.1%–6.7%). Regional differences occurred with a higher proportion of TB cases associated with homelessness in western and some southern states. Most homeless persons with TB were male (87%) and aged 30 to 59 years. Black individuals represented the highest proportion of TB cases among the homeless and nonhomeless. The proportion of homeless persons with TB who were born outside the United States (18%) was lower than that for non-homeless persons with TB (44%). At the time of TB diagnosis, 9% of homeless persons were incarcerated, usually in a local jail; 3% of nonhomeless persons with TB were incarcerated. Compared with nonhomeless persons, homeless persons with TB had a higher prevalence of substance use (54% alcohol abuse, 29.5% noninjected drug use, and 14% injected drug use), and 34% of those tested had coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus. Compared with nonhomeless persons, TB disease in homeless persons was more likely to be infectious but not more likely to be drug resistant. Health departments managed 81% of TB cases in homeless
Full Text Available There exists little scientific production on autolytic behaviour in homeless people, despite the fact that it is one of the groups that is more at risk. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of previous attempted suicide and suicide risk and its connection with the main risk factors. In order to do so, central tendency and dispersion measures, correlations, contingence tables, and average comparison tables according to type of variable and normality were used. The Plutchik suicide-risk test was used in order to determine the risk of suicide, and specific tests for the main risk factors analysed. The main results show a 24.7% suicide rate and 45.2% (n = 66 displayed suicide risk. The main predictive factor of the risk of suicide was the daily consumption of alcohol (OR = 1.011, p less than .001, followed by being a woman (OR = 1.381, p = .021. It is necessary to design and apply suicide prevention strategies for this population.
Nozari, Nazbanou; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.
Paying selective attention to a word in a multi-word utterance results in a decreased probability of error on that word (benefit), but an increased probability of error on the other words (cost). We ask whether excitation of the prefrontal cortex helps or hurts this cost. One hypothesis (the resource hypothesis) predicts a decrease in the cost due to the deployment of more attentional resources, while another (the focus hypothesis) predicts even greater costs due to further fine-tuning of sel...
Haddad, Maryam B; Wilson, Todd W; Ijaz, Kashef; Marks, Suzanne M; Moore, Marisa
Tuberculosis (TB) rates among US homeless persons cannot be calculated because they are not included in the US Census. However, homelessness is often associated with TB. To describe homeless persons with TB and to compare risk factors and disease characteristics between homeless and nonhomeless persons with TB. Cross-sectional analysis of all verified TB cases reported into the National TB Surveillance System from the 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1994 through 2003. Number and proportion of TB cases associated with homelessness, demographic characteristics, risk factors, disease characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Of 185,870 cases of TB disease reported between 1994 and 2003, 11,369 were among persons classified as homeless during the 12 months before diagnosis. The annual proportion of cases associated with homelessness was stable (6.1%-6.7%). Regional differences occurred with a higher proportion of TB cases associated with homelessness in western and some southern states. Most homeless persons with TB were male (87%) and aged 30 to 59 years. Black individuals represented the highest proportion of TB cases among the homeless and nonhomeless. The proportion of homeless persons with TB who were born outside the United States (18%) was lower than that for nonhomeless persons with TB (44%). At the time of TB diagnosis, 9% of homeless persons were incarcerated, usually in a local jail; 3% of nonhomeless persons with TB were incarcerated. Compared with nonhomeless persons, homeless persons with TB had a higher prevalence of substance use (54% alcohol abuse, 29.5% noninjected drug use, and 14% injected drug use), and 34% of those tested had coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus. Compared with nonhomeless persons, TB disease in homeless persons was more likely to be infectious but not more likely to be drug resistant. Health departments managed 81% of TB cases in homeless persons. Directly observed therapy, used for 86% of homeless patients
Bamrah, S.; Yelk Woodruff, R. S.; Powell, K.; Ghosh, S.; Kammerer, J. S.; Haddad, M. B.
SUMMARY OBJECTIVES 1) To describe homeless persons diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) during the period 1994–2010, and 2) to estimate a TB incidence rate among homeless persons in the United States. METHODS TB cases reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System were analyzed by origin of birth. Incidence rates were calculated using the US Department of Housing and Urban Development homeless population estimates. Analysis of genotyping results identified clustering as a marker for transmission among homeless TB patients. RESULTS Of 270 948 reported TB cases, 16 527 (6%) were homeless. The TB incidence rate among homeless persons ranged from 36 to 47 cases per 100 000 population in 2006–2010. Homeless TB patients had over twice the odds of not completing treatment and of belonging to a genotype cluster. US- and foreign-born homeless TB patients had respectively 8 and 12 times the odds of substance abuse. CONCLUSIONS Compared to the general population, homeless persons had an approximately 10-fold increase in TB incidence, were less likely to complete treatment and more likely to abuse substances. Public health outreach should target homeless populations to reduce the excess burden of TB in this population. PMID:24125444
Bamrah, S; Yelk Woodruff, R S; Powell, K; Ghosh, S; Kammerer, J S; Haddad, M B
1) To describe homeless persons diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) during the period 1994-2010, and 2) to estimate a TB incidence rate among homeless persons in the United States. TB cases reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System were analyzed by origin of birth. Incidence rates were calculated using the US Department of Housing and Urban Development homeless population estimates. Analysis of genotyping results identified clustering as a marker for transmission among homeless TB patients. Of 270,948 reported TB cases, 16,527 (6%) were homeless. The TB incidence rate among homeless persons ranged from 36 to 47 cases per 100,000 population in 2006-2010. Homeless TB patients had over twice the odds of not completing treatment and of belonging to a genotype cluster. US- and foreign-born homeless TB patients had respectively 8 and 12 times the odds of substance abuse. Compared to the general population, homeless persons had an approximately 10-fold increase in TB incidence, were less likely to complete treatment and more likely to abuse substances. Public health outreach should target homeless populations to reduce the excess burden of TB in this population.
Tornero Patricio, Sebastián; Fernández Ajuria, Alberto; Charris Castro, Liliana
The aim was to determine the characteristics of hospital admissions of homeless persons in Seville, Spain. Observational study of 103,802 hospital admissions of 71,756 patients admitted in the Hospitals "Virgen del Rocío" and "Virgen Macarena" (Seville), in 2013 and 2014. Bivariate analysis were performed using χ2 and t-Student tests and multivariate analysis using binomial logistic regression model. 0.16% (n=163) of admissions were homeless persons and 99.84% (n=103,639) were not. The mean age at admission in homeless patients was 48 years and 76.5% of them were men. Hospital deaths of homeless patients occurred being 23 years younger. 92% of hospital admissions came from emergency departments and 10.0% of their discharges were against medical advice. The average length of stay was 4.8 days longer in homeless persons and the most frequent diagnoses on admission were mental (27.0%), infectious (19.6%) and respiratory diseases (18.4%). Mental disorders were present on 83.7% of homeless patients as secondary diagnose and 77.6% referred drugs consumption. Hospital admissions characteristics of homeless persons were particularly different. Homeless patients were hospitalized and died at a younger age than non-homeless patients. The morbidity and mortality of homeless persons reflect their vulnerable health condition.
Amanda Stafford; Lisa Wood
Background: Homelessness is associated with enormous health inequalities, including shorter life expectancy, higher morbidity and greater usage of acute hospital services. Viewed through the lens of social determinants, homelessness is a key driver of poor health, but homelessness itself results from accumulated adverse social and economic conditions. Indeed, in people who are homeless, the social determinants of homelessness and health inequities are often intertwined, and long term homeless...
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2012
Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…
Cleverley, Kristin; Kidd, Sean A.
Homeless and street-involved youth are considered an extremely high risk group, with many studies highlighting trajectories characterized by abusive, neglectful, and unstable family histories, victimization and criminal involvement while on the streets, high rates of physical and mental illness, and extremely high rates of mortality. While there…
Polzer, Christopher M.
Recreation leaders recommend reaching out to homeless individuals and providing programs that may help improve their health, bring them some fun and happiness, and boost their quality of life. The paper describes how one North Carolina county addressed the issue through recreation programs and other activities. (SM)
Watson, J; Crawley, J; Kane, D
Homelessness and poverty are extreme forms of social exclusion which extend beyond the lack of physical or material needs. The purpose of this study was to explore and expand the concept of social exclusion within the social determinants of health perspective - to understand how the social environment, health behaviours and health status are associated with material and social deprivation. Fundamental qualitative description with tones of focused ethnography. Participants who identified as hidden homeless described their everyday living conditions and how these everyday conditions were impacted and influenced by their social environments, coping/health behaviours and current health status. Research Ethics Board approval was granted and informed consents were obtained from 21 participants prior to the completion of individual interviews. Qualitative content analysis examined the descriptions of men and women experiencing hidden homelessness. Participants described the 'lack of quality social interactions and supports' and their 'daily struggles of street life'. They also shared the 'pain of addiction' and how coping strategies influenced health. Participants were hopeful that their insights would 'better the health of homeless people' by helping shape public policy and funding of community resources that would reduce barriers and improve overall health. Health professionals who understand health behaviours as coping mechanisms for poor quality social environments can provide more comprehensive and holistic care. The findings of this study can be used to support the importance of housing as a key factor in the health and well-being of people experiencing poverty, homelessness and social exclusion; and consequently, reinforces the need for a national housing strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gültekin, Laura; Brush, Barbara L; Baiardi, Janet M; Kirk, Keri; VanMaldeghem, Kelley
Homelessness threatens the health and well-being of thousands of families in the United States, yet little is known about their specific needs and how current services address them. To fill this knowledge gap, we explored the experiences of homelessness families in Detroit, Michigan. We targeted homeless mothers and their caseworkers for study to see if the perceptions of needs and services were in alignment. Using focus groups and content analysis, we identified four overarching themes that illustrate homeless mothers' experience with homelessness. We then analyzed data from caseworkers to look specifically for similarities and differences in their perceptions. Key findings included reports of family histories of violence, poverty, social isolation, and a lack of informal support as contributing to homelessness. The differing perspectives of mothers and their caseworkers regarding how best to move forward highlight how current programs and services may not be meeting the needs of this growing and vulnerable cohort. © The Author(s) 2014.
Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Los, Férenc J.
Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340
More than one million children are homeless in the United States, and more than half of those are age 6 or younger. As the recession continues, even more families are finding themselves homeless. Studies have shown that children of all ages thrive when they have a safe space in which to explore the world around them, filled with spaces for play…
Parker, R David; Dykema, Shana
Homeless persons are perceived as a highly mobile population, and have high rates of co-morbid conditions, including mental health and substance use issues. This study sought to determine the characteristics of the mobility and reported health conditions of homeless persons. The sample for this cross sectional study (n = 674) accounted for 88 % of the homeless population in a medium sized southern city in the United States. Participants were recruited from a homeless shelter operating during the winter season. Homeless persons were less mobile than the general state population (46.11 % were born in-state vs. 40.7 % of the general population) and less transient than the general state population (78 % reported an in-state zip code for the last permanent residence). 31.9 % reported a disabling condition of a serious and long term nature. These findings challenge the concept that homeless persons are primarily a mobile population. Furthermore, homeless persons in this sample were more likely to remain in the state where they lived after becoming homeless. Thus, provider perceptions that homeless persons would not benefit from referral to a regular source of outpatient care may be misinformed. As homeless persons often seek care in emergency departments for conditions that could be addressed through outpatient care, if a medical care system implemented standard practices specifically for homeless patients, this could decrease recidivism. Such interventions represent significant opportunities to reduce costs, conserve resources, and improve care through policy modification that ensures a focus on a successful, active linkage to outpatient care and programs specific to the homeless population.
Quigley, John M.; Raphael, Steven
It is generally believed that the increased incidence of homelessness in the US has arisen from broad societal factors â€“ changes in the institutionalization of the mentally ill, increases in drug addiction and alcohol usage, etc. This paper reports on a comprehensive test of the alternate hypothesis that variations in homelessness arise from changed circumstances in the housing market and in the income distribution. We utilize essentially all the systematic information available on homeless...
Malinauskas, Gedas; Blažytė, Vilma
Using the data of a pilot study, this article deals with unsuccessful cases of Lithuanian immigration, i.e., lifestyle peculiarities of Lithuanians who became homeless in the capital of Great Britain. While analyzing the phenomenon in a descriptive manner, the authors sought an answer the question of why Lithuanian emigrants who had family and work in their homeland became homeless after they had come to search for a better life. The issues of homeless Lithuanians‘ daily life and life princip...
Jones, Marian Moser
POLICY POINTS: A retrospective analysis of federally funded homeless research in the 1980s serves as a case study of how politics can influence social and behavioral science research agendas today in the United States. These studies of homeless populations, the first funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, demonstrated that only about a third of the homeless population was mentally ill and that a diverse group of people experienced homelessness. This groundbreaking research program set the mold for a generation of research and policy characterizing homelessness as primarily an individual-level problem rather than a problem with the social safety net. A decade after the nation's Skid Rows were razed, homelessness reemerged in the early 1980s as a health policy issue in the United States. While activists advocated for government-funded programs to address homelessness, officials of the Reagan administration questioned the need for a federal response to the problem. In this climate, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) launched a seminal program to investigate mental illness and substance abuse among homeless individuals. This program serves as a key case study of the social and behavioral sciences' role in the policy response to homelessness and how politics has shaped the federal research agenda. Drawing on interviews with former government officials, researchers, social activists, and others, along with archival material, news reports, scientific literature, and government publications, this article examines the emergence and impact of social and behavioral science research on homelessness. Research sponsored by the NIMH and other federal research bodies during the 1980s produced a rough picture of mental illness and substance abuse prevalence among the US homeless population, and private foundations supported projects that looked at this group's health care needs. The Reagan administration's opposition to funding "social research," together
Bower, Marlee; Conroy, Elizabeth; Perz, Janette
Both loneliness and a lack of social integration are associated with serious physical and psychological health issues. One population highly susceptible to social isolation and loneliness are individuals who are homeless, who also experience high rates of mental disorder and relationship breakdown. Despite this, little research has explored how social networks, isolation and loneliness are experienced for those with a history of homelessness. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to get a nuanced understanding of how social networks and isolation are experienced and understood by individuals experiencing homelessness. Sixteen participants who were either homeless (n = 11) or previously homeless (n = 5) in Sydney, Australia, completed one-off interviews that were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants constructed their social networks as being both constrained and enabled by marginalisation. They experienced rejection from the non-homeless: the loss of critical network members, including rejection from family and a lack of companionship, and low quality and precarious relationships within the homeless community. These accounts were best conceptualised through loneliness theory. Participant's accounts signal that the homeless will likely continue feeling isolated if mainstream attitudes towards homelessness remain stigmatising and discriminatory. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rota-Bartelink, Alice; Lipmann, Bryan
A comparative study of the causes of new episodes of homelessness among people aged 50 years and over has been undertaken in Australia, the United States and England. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information on the circumstances and problems that contributed to homelessness. This paper presents the findings from Australia, where information was obtained from 125 older homeless people (aged 50+ years) and their key workers in Melbourne. All three participating nations followed identical research methodologies. The factors most frequently reported by respondents as contributing to their homelessness were problems with people with whom they lived, followed by physical and mental ill-health and problems associated with the housing itself. The most frequently reported factors by case workers were problems with alcohol, followed by physical and mental health factors. This study demonstrates a significant under-utilisation of housing and support services among recently homeless older people and provides evidence that people who had previously been homeless appear to be more resigned to their homelessness than do those who had not experienced homelessness before. Significant issues relating to depression and gambling were also noted. The findings support the need for more targeted, specialised services to be developed or improved such that older homeless people can readily gain access to them and for improved collaboration or information exchange among housing providers and welfare agencies.
Full Text Available This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in the scope of the discussed phenomenon.
Orla M Smith
Full Text Available Little is known about homeless patients in intensive care units (ICUs.To compare clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of homeless to non-homeless patients admitted to four ICUs in a large inner-city academic hospital.63 randomly-selected homeless compared to 63 age-, sex-, and admitting-ICU-matched non-homeless patients.Compared to matched non-homeless, homeless patients (average age 48±12 years, 90% male, 87% admitted by ambulance, 56% mechanically ventilated, average APACHE II 17 had similar comorbidities and illness severity except for increased alcohol (70% vs 17%,p<0.001 and illicit drug(46% vs 8%,p<0.001 use and less documented hypertension (16% vs 40%,p = 0.005 or prescription medications (48% vs 67%,p<0.05. Intensity of ICU interventions was similar except for higher thiamine (71% vs 21%,p<0.0001 and nicotine (38% vs 14%,p = 0.004 prescriptions. Homeless patients exhibited significantly lower Glasgow Coma Scores and significantly more bacterial respiratory cultures. Longer durations of antibiotics, vasopressors/inotropes, ventilation, ICU and hospital lengths of stay were not statistically different, but homeless patients had higher hospital mortality (29% vs 8%,p = 0.005. Review of all deaths disclosed that withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy occurred in similar clinical circumstances and proportions in both groups, regardless of family involvement. Using multivariable logistic regression, homelessness did not appear to be an independent predictor of hospital mortality.Homeless patients, admitted to ICU matched to non-homeless patients by age and sex (characteristics most commonly used by clinicians, have higher hospital mortality despite similar comorbidities and illness severity. Trends to longer durations of life supports may have contributed to the higher mortality. Additional research is required to validate this higher mortality and develop strategies to improve outcomes in this vulnerable population.
Johnson, Guy; Pleace, Nicholas
The Homelessness Outcomes Star (HOS) is probably the most widespread form of outcome measurement employed by homelessness service providers. Developed in the UK, the HOS is now being used by homelessness services in other European countries and Australia, while being promoted internationally as a validated set of key performance indicators. This paper examines the ideological framework that underpins the HOS, as well as the theoretical and methodological approaches that inform its operation. ...
Nutritional status of children, inmates of a small institution for homeless children in the capital of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil Estado nutritional de crianças internadas em um pequeno orfanato particular na capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil
Full Text Available Nutritional surveys (food consumption, clinical and biochemichal were conducted in a small institution for homeless children. Results showed that only 30% of the children presented adequate calorie intake. Most of the children presented adequate protein intake, but almost half consumed less than 2/3 of the calcium RDA considered necessary. Food handling, processing, and distribution also proved inadequate and wastage, high. Skinfold measurement showed up one case of obesity. Furthermore, most of the children presented clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency, mostly skin lesions; while about half presented clinical signs of riboflavin deficiency. Biochemical data showed that 63.6% had deficient plasma levels of vitamin A, none showed abnormal results for riboflavin excretion, four showed packed blood cell volume below normal, and all had normal hemoglobin levels. Stool examinations revealed a high rate of pathogenic protozoa (Hymenolepis nana, in fact, one of the highest in Brazilian literature.Foram realizados, em um pequeno orfanato, inquéritos nutricionais (alimentar, clínico e bioquímico cujos resultados mostraram que 30% das crianças tinham ingestão inadequada de calorias, metade ingestão inadequada de cálcio e todas ingestão adequada de proteínas. A manipulação, o processamento e a distribuição dos alimentos eram inadequados e o desperdício era alto. Mais da metade das crianças apresentaram peso abaixo dos padrões, mas a maioria estava acima de 90% para altura, segundo idade. A medida da prega cutânea revelou apenas uma criança obesa. Com relação à vitamina A, a maioria das crianças revelou sinais clínicos atribuíveis à hipovitaminose A, predominantemente sinais cutâneos. Cerca de metade dos examinados revelou sinais de arriboflavinose. Foi baixo o número de crianças que apresentaram sinais clínicos de carência de proteína, ferro e ácido ascórbico. Os dados bioquímicos revelaram que 63,6% das crian
Terui, Sachiko; Hsieh, Elaine
The meanings of homelessness are fluid and socially constructed, providing resources and limitations for individuals to negotiate their identities and relationships in everyday life. In this study, we examine the strategies and corresponding resources utilized by people who are homeless to cope with the labeling of a homeless identity and to redefine their identities. We used constant comparative analysis to examine in-depth interviews with 16 participants (male = 11, female = 5) who access a local homeless shelter in the southwest United States for resources. We identified three strategies that homeless people adopt to cope with the labeling of homeless identity: (a) differentiating oneself from others who are homeless, (b) prioritizing certain aspects of life, and (c) embracing the status of homelessness. Although these strategies have been identified in previous literature, the authors extend this line of research by identifying the common resources people who are homeless utilize when adopting these strategies, which entail important implications for theory development and practical implications.
Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Thorup, Anne; Nordentoft, Merete
Children and adolescents from deprived backgrounds have high rates of psychiatric problems. Parental and social factors are crucial for children's healthy and positive development, but whether psychiatric morbidity is associated with parental social marginalisation is unknown. We aimed to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0-16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival analysis using Poisson regression and incidence rate ratios (IRRs), adjusted for year and offspring characteristics, and additionally adjusted for parental factors (age at offspring's birth and parental psychiatric disorders). 17 238 (2%) offspring had either one or two parents with a history of homelessness, and 56 330 (5%) children and adolescents were diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder during the study period. The incidence of any psychiatric disorder was 15·1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 14·4-15·8) in offspring with at least one parent with a history of homelessness, compared with 6·0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 6·0-6·1) in those whose parents had no such history (IRR 2·5 [95% CI 2·3-2·7] for mother homeless, 2·3 [2·2-2·5] for father homeless, and 2·8 [2·4-3·2
Sandra Feodor Nilsson, MSc
Full Text Available Summary: Background: Children and adolescents from deprived backgrounds have high rates of psychiatric problems. Parental and social factors are crucial for children's healthy and positive development, but whether psychiatric morbidity is associated with parental social marginalisation is unknown. We aimed to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. Methods: We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1â072â882 children and adolescents aged 0â16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival analysis using Poisson regression and incidence rate ratios (IRRs, adjusted for year and offspring characteristics, and additionally adjusted for parental factors (age at offspring's birth and parental psychiatric disorders. Findings: 17â238 (2% offspring had either one or two parents with a history of homelessness, and 56â330 (5% children and adolescents were diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder during the study period. The incidence of any psychiatric disorder was 15Â·1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 14Â·4â15Â·8 in offspring with at least one parent with a history of homelessness, compared with 6Â·0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 6Â·0â6Â·1 in those whose parents had no such history (IRR 2Â·5 [95
Benjaminsen, Lars; Birkelund, Jesper Fels
AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set...... includes administrative micro-data for 4,068,926 Danes who were 23 years or older on 1 January 2007. Nationwide data on shelter use identified 14,730 individuals as shelter users from 2002 to 2006. Somatic diseases were measured from 2007 to 2011 through diagnosis data from hospital discharges. The risk...... of somatic diseases amongst shelter users was analysed through a multivariate model that decomposed the total effect into a direct effect and indirect effects mediated by other risk factors. RESULTS: The excess morbidity associated with shelter use is substantially lower than in studies that did not include...
Around ten homeless people were invited to take part in a programme of physical activities to improve their health status. Only motricity and walking pathways were followed assiduously for eight weeks. The assessment of the physical condition and quality of life showed an improvement in these areas, in particular for one of the participants. However, the lack of motivation and assiduity remains an obstacle to regular activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…
Swick, Kevin J.
Family homelessness has emerged as a serious global problem (Stronge, 2000). Over the past 25 years in the United States, the makeup of the homeless population has changed significantly. As De Angelis (1994) reports: The landscape of homelessness has changed since the early 1980s, when nearly all homeless people were men. Today,…
Miller, Peter; Schreiber, James
This mixed methods investigation of homeless education in a major urban region identified a number of significant developments and dilemmas amid the larger homeless crisis in the United States. We found that the wider community demographics of homelessness have shifted in recent years, resulting in a higher number of homeless families--many of…
Miller, Peter M.
Background/Context: This study contributes to the literature on the schooling of homeless and highly mobile students. Although previous work has detailed the demographics of homelessness, the effects of homelessness on academic progress, and particular legal issues in homeless education, this research focused on how individual and institutional…
Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D
Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin's life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childhood, contributed to men's depression above and beyond current (or proximal) stressors, such as substance abuse and health problems, and social resources. The sample consisted of 309 homeless men who had entered a federally funded emergency shelter. Using the Burns Depression Checklist, the authors found that one out of three men met the threshold for moderate to severe depression during the past week. The logistic regression showed that past exposure to parent problems was related to depression after accounting for current stressors and social resources (number of close adult relationships and whether their emotional support needs were met). Past victimization was not related to depression. To address men's depression, workers should concurrently provide services that meet men's basic needs (for example, housing) and address their relationship needs, including their need for emotional support.
This paper explores the democratic potential for participatory filmmaking with homeless youth, as well as the constraints and dilemmas associated with this visual method. Theorizing democracy through the work of Hannah Arendt and Pierre Bourdieu, the paper approaches democracy not as an end, but rather as a process that seeks to lessen social injustice. Bourdieu's work helps us appreciate, however, that this process is constrained by structures of inequality that shape access to the political dispositions that enable such engagement. Consistent with other research on low-income and marginalized young people, this study found that homeless youth engage with democracy through forms of community participation and mutual support, and are disinclined to orient toward liberal democratic structures such as voting and political parties, which they see as harmful or problematic. With a focus on one particular dilemma faced by the research team-namely, the question of how to make sense of and represent the issue of legalizing marijuana, which had been signaled by the youth participants as of primary political importance to them-the paper uses Arendt and Bourdieu to discuss how participatory filmmaking can help to expand the space of appearances available to homeless youth in Canadian society, and create a space at a shared table of understanding with middle class power brokers. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.
Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin
This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…
Objective: The unprecedented incidence of armed robberies and the involvement of young people in these crimes necessitated — as part of a comprehensive study on homelessness and criminal behaviour in Nigeria — an assessmet and comparison of homeless youths incarcerated in prisons with a control group of ...
Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…
Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.
Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…
Miller, Peter M.
Since the onset of the economic recession, rates of student homelessness have increased rapidly in urban, suburban, and rural school districts throughout the United States. Despite the widespread urgency of the issue, there is a lack of general coherence in the research about how diverse conditions of homelessness affect students and how schools…
Guzewicz, Tony D.; Takooshian, Harold
Compares attitudes toward the homeless in Japan and the United States through a survey of 268 Japanese and 254 U.S. adults and adolescents interviewed in public places. In Japan, homelessness is seldom discussed, and poverty, which may be as widespread as in the United States, is often not recognized. (SLD)
Niedergang, Mark; McCoy, Martha, Ed.
This program guide provides a forum for discussing the different beliefs that influence public policy about homelessness as well as policy goals. The central question is addressed in two parts: (1) what society ought to do for homeless people; and (2) laying out a range of possible answers for part 1. Four possible answers are discussed: help only…
Miller, Peter M.
Purpose: This study sought deeper understanding of how sheltered families accessed and mobilized educationally related relationships and resources during periods of homelessness. Such work is posited to be especially relevant considering that there is a growing crisis of family homelessness in the United States and school- and community-based…
National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.
A 1989 national survey of the dimensions of homelessness found that at least three million Americans are homeless and that the shortage of affordable housing was cited as the chief cause. Information was gathered from a telephone survey of emergency shelter providers, housing advocacy organizations, and local governments in 26 communities, ranging…
Gregg, Melanie J.; Bedard, Andrea
Purpose: A pilot study was conducted to describe the physical activity experiences and perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity participation for patrons of a homeless shelter. The resulting pilot data may be used to inform the creation of and support for physical activity and sport programs for those experiencing homelessness.…
Juchniewicz, Melissa M.
Despite calls for increased awareness of and sensitivity to diverse students and their in- and out-of-school literacies, the "invisible homeless"--those who often decline to self-identify--receive inadequate scholarly attention. They are often individuals who fear the stigma associated with homelessness as they navigate workplace, academic, and…
Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Keys, Deborah
Young people who experience homelessness, in Australia and in other western contexts (US, Canada, England), are widely perceived to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. The available research indicates that homeless young people use all drug types, whether injected or otherwise, more frequently than their home-based peers. Debate exists in the…
Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson
Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…
Johnson, K.D.; Whitbeck, L.B.; Hoyt, D.R.
Recent research on the social support networks of homeless and runaway youth suggest the social networks of runaway youth are made up largely of transient deviant peer relationships. This paper examined social network characteristics of 428 homeless and runaway adolescents from small-to moderate-sized cities in four Midwestern states. We…
Tierney, William G.
In this commentary, the author reflects on a special issue that explores how educational institutions serve homeless and highly mobile students as well as their families. The number of homeless youth continues to rise, leading the author to question why structural constraints have not been removed. In addition to reflecting on the articles, he…
M.S. Richter (Solina); K. Kovacs Burns (Kathy); Y. Mao (Yuping); J. Chaw-Kant (Jean); M. Calder (Moira); S. Mogale (Shirley); L. Goin (Lyla); K. Schnell (Kerry)
textabstractThis article describes how the Canadian printed news media depicted the homeless and their situations between 1987 and 2007. Our study used a descriptive, cross-sectional design and a content analysis was conducted on selected newspaper articles on homelessness issues. The main themes
city homeless and marginally housed individuals in South Africa. Methods. We recruited 136 adults from a Johannesburg inner-city homeless clinic; mean age was 32.4 years, 129 (95%) were male, and 90 (66%) were of South African ...
Homelessness is a complex policy issue that all local governments face. But, at the same time, local authorities often have very little influence on the causes of homelessness, such as de-institutionalization, drug addiction, and release from detention or evictions. Seen in a European context,
Braun, Lisa Nelson
Describes experiences in using art with the homeless in an open studio approach. Discusses how offering open studio time with a range of materials showed that the homeless, each with a unique style and personal interests, were eager to create art objects and present them to the public. (RJM)
Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L
Homeless men are frequently unsheltered and isolated, disconnected from supportive organizations and individuals. However, little research has investigated these men's social networks. We investigate the structure and composition of homeless men's social networks, vis-a-vis short- and long-term homelessness with a sample of men drawn randomly from meal lines on Skid Row in Los Angeles. Men continuously homeless for the past six months display networks composed of riskier members when compared to men intermittently homeless during that time. Men who report chronic, long-term homelessness display greater social network fragmentation when compared to non-chronically homeless men. While intermittent homelessness affects network composition in ways that may be addressable with existing interventions, chronic homelessness fragments networks, which may be more difficult to address with those interventions. These findings have implications for access to social support from network members which, in turn, impacts the resources homeless men require from other sources such as the government or NGOs.
Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca
In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…
Paradis, E K
This paper presents a feminist and community psychology analysis of ethical concerns that can arise throughout the process of doing research with women who are homeless. The unique contexts of the lives of women who are homeless demand that researchers redefine traditional ethical constructs such as consent, privacy, harm, and bias. Research that fails to do this may perpetuate the stereotyping, marginalization, stigmatization, and victimization homeless women face. Feminist and community research ethics must go beyond the avoidance of harm to an active investment in the well-being of marginalized individuals and communities. Using feminist and community psychology ethics, this paper addresses some common problems in research with women who are homeless, and argues for the transformation of research from a tool for the advancement of science into a strategy for the empowerment of homeless women and their communities.
Rice, Alexander; Kim, Ji Youn Cindy; Nguyen, Christopher; Liu, William Ming; Fall, Kevin; Galligan, Patrick
This study explored the perceptions of fatherhood held by 11 men living in a homeless shelter. Using consensual qualitative research methodology (CQR; Hill, 2012), we investigated perceptions of masculinity and fatherhood among fathers experiencing homelessness. Participants described (a) their perceptions of masculinity and fatherhood and changes resulting from homelessness, (b) physical and psychological challenges of being a father experiencing homelessness, and (c) expectations of homeless fathers. The fathers generally expressed feelings of low self-esteem related to their perceived difficulty fulfilling the role of providers for their family; however, they also adapted their view of fatherhood to include roles suited to their situation, such as that of guide, teacher, and role model. Suggestions are made for clinicians in helping fathers navigate and develop these roles, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Martens, W H
To review the physical and mental status in homeless people. A MEDLINE database search covering 5 decades was supplemented by tracing back through references from existing review work. Over 200 articles were extracted, and 106 were selected for review. Homeless persons suffer frequently from physical health problems like tuberculosis, asthma, bronchitis, HIV infection, and as a consequence, they run an increased risk for premature mortality. The prevalence of mental disorders among homeless individuals varies from 80-95% in the USA, Australia, Canada, Norway, and Germany to 25-33% in Ireland and Spain. The most prominent mental disorders among the homeless, which vary from country to country, are depression, affective disorders, substance abuse, psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. Homelessness is a major public health problem that should have our special interest.
Roy, Laurence; Vallée, Catherine; Kirsh, Bonnie H; Marshall, Carrie Anne; Marval, Rebecca; Low, Alissa
Persons experiencing or at risk of homelessness have occupational needs that are seldom addressed in the Canadian system of care. The lack of documented evidence on occupational therapy practices in this field hinders the development of the profession. This article identifies current and potential practices that aim to enable or support the occupations of persons experiencing or at risk of homelessness. A scoping review was conducted, including evidence from both occupational therapy and non-occupational therapy sources. One hundred and seventy-eight papers were selected in the areas of occupational performance skills training, enrichment of occupational repertoire, employment/education, physical rehabilitation services, child/family services, community building, occupational transition from homeless to housed, literacy, and disaster relief. Occupational therapists can build environments and create opportunities that facilitate occupational engagement of individuals experiencing homelessness. Gaps in knowledge include the evaluation of occupational therapy practices, the Canadian context of family homelessness, and the cultural safety of occupational therapy interventions.
Feodor Nilsson, Sandra; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Erlangsen, Annette
BACKGROUND: Homeless people have elevated mortality, especially due to external causes. We aimed to examine suicide and unintentional injury mortality levels and identify predictors in the homeless population. METHODS: A nationwide, register-based cohort study of homeless people aged 16 years...... and older was carried out using the Danish Homeless Register, 1999-2008. RESULTS: In all, 32 010 homeless people (70.5% men) were observed. For men, the mortality rate was 174.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 150.6-198.1] per 100 000 person-years for suicide and 463.3 (95% CI = 424.......6-502.0) for unintentional injury. For women, the corresponding rates were 111.4 (95% CI = 81.7-141.1) for suicide and 241.4 (95% CI = 197.6-285.1) for unintentional injury. Schizophrenia spectrum, affective, personality and substance use disorders were strongly associated with increased risk of suicide; the highest risk...
-two per cent of them had been foster children. Within the past year, 59 per cent had slept rough, 31 per cent had spent time in detox, 23 per cent had served jail time and 31 per cent had been in hospital. Eighty-two per cent regularly used alcohol, with 32 per cent using it daily and 70 per cent using drugs other than alcohol. Yet, the help that is available for the chronically homeless population is at best scattershot. More than 50 per cent of those surveyed who had received help for mental health and addiction issues said they didn’t get enough assistance. A quarter of those who didn’t receive treatment said they’d asked for help and hadn’t received it, while a third said long waitlists prevented them from accessing help. Many were in and out of a patchwork of programs with little to show for it. Solutions are not out of reach. Funding should target housing and case management programs designed to address the psychiatric issues resulting from childhood trauma. And Calgary’s network of community-based health care, housing and support programs should be expanded to help people suffering from multiple disorders. Currently, homeless shelters are serving as ad hoc institutions of mental health care for far too many people. With adequate funding and supports, long-term shelter users can be prioritized for psychiatric care, and shelters can return to their original mandate of being places where people who are temporarily homeless and in transition can get the help they need.
Clemens, Elysia; Hess, Robyn S.; Strear, Molly M.; Rue, Lisa; Rizzolo, Sonja; Henninger, Janessa
This Consensual Qualitative Research study explored experiences of youth, families, and homeless liaisons to better understand how educational environments can foster resilience among youth experiencing homelessness. The purpose of the study was to provide educational stakeholders with guidance on how to actualize the McKinney-Vento Homeless…
Trudy Laura Norman
Full Text Available Participation of people with experiences of homelessness is critical to the development of meaningful strategies to end homelessness. The purpose of this study was to gain insights from people who have been homeless in a mid-sized Canadian city, as to strategies that facilitate meaningful participation in solutions to end homelessness. Within an overarching framework of collaborative research, we collected data through seven focus groups and employed interpretive description as our approach to data analysis. In our analysis, we identified both exclusionary and inclusionary forces that impact participation. Exclusionary forces included being ‘caught in the homelessness industry’, ‘homelessness is a full time job’ and facing stigma/discrimination that make participation a ‘leap of faith’. Inclusionary forces included earning respect and building trust to address unequal power relations, and restoring often ‘taken for granted’ social relations. Specific strategies to enhance participation include listening, valuing skills and stories, and supporting advocacy efforts. The study findings illuminate ways in which power imbalances are lived out in the daily lives of people who experience homelessness, as well as mitigating forces that provide direction as to strategies for addressing power inequities that seek to make participation and social inclusion meaningful. Keywords: homelessness, social policy, social exclusion, social inclusion, advocacy
Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth
A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, phomeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Montreal is Canada's second-largest city, where mean annual tuberculosis (TB) incidence from 1996 to 2007 was 8.9/100,000. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology of TB among homeless persons in Montreal and assess patterns of transmission and sharing of key locations. Methods We reviewed demographic, clinical, and microbiologic data for all active TB cases reported in Montreal from 1996 to 2007 and identified persons who were homeless in the year prior to TB diagnosis. We genotyped all available Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) and spoligotyping, and used a geographic information system to identify potential locations for transmission between persons with matching isolates. Results There were 20 cases of TB in homeless persons, out of 1823 total reported from 1996-2007. 17/20 were Canadian-born, including 5 Aboriginals. Homeless persons were more likely than non-homeless persons to have pulmonary TB (20/20), smear-positive disease (17/20, odds ratio (OR) = 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-20), HIV co-infection (12/20, OR = 14, 95%CI: 4.8-40), and a history of substance use. The median duration from symptom onset to diagnosis was 61 days for homeless persons vs. 28 days for non-homeless persons (P = 0.022). Eleven homeless persons with TB belonged to genotype-defined clusters (OR = 5.4, 95%CI: 2.2-13), and ten potential locations for transmission were identified, including health care facilities, homeless shelters/drop-in centres, and an Aboriginal community centre. Conclusions TB cases among homeless persons in Montreal raise concerns about delayed diagnosis and ongoing local transmission. PMID:22034944
Agans Robert P.
Full Text Available To receive federal homeless funds, communities are required to produce statistically reliable, unduplicated counts or estimates of homeless persons in sheltered and unsheltered locations during a one-night period (within the last ten days of January called a point-in-time (PIT count. In Los Angeles, a general population telephone survey was implemented to estimate the number of unsheltered homeless adults who are hidden from view during the PIT count. Two estimation approaches were investigated: i the number of homeless persons identified as living on private property, which employed a conventional household weight for the estimated total (Horvitz-Thompson approach; and ii the number of homeless persons identified as living on a neighbor’s property, which employed an additional adjustment derived from the size of the neighborhood network to estimate the total (multiplicity-based approach. This article compares the results of these two methods and discusses the implications therein.
Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Kuś, Jan; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Siemion-Szcześniak, Izabela
The fall in rates of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries has been accompanied by the concentration of cases in the social risk groups including homeless persons. Comparison of TB features in homeless persons and in non-homeless patients. TB cases reported to National TB Register in Poland in whom information about the social status was available (the data about the social status were collected obligatorily in the years 2004-2013 only) were analysed. The results of DSTs were obtained from laboratory records and were available for the cases reported since 2010. Treatment outcome after 12 months was analysed for the cases registered between 2004-2012. The significance (Si) of the differences in proportions was assessed with chi-square test. Phomeless persons (HP) and 72,989 other patients (OP) with TB were included. In the group of HP, there was a greater proportion of males in comparison with OP (90.5% vs. 66.3%) (Si). The mean age of HP was 49.8 years (SD±10.9); of OP-52.9 years (SD±17.5) (Si). 16.6% of HP and 10.4% of OP were previously treated for TB (Si). The previous treatment was adequate in 62.2% of HP and in 85.8% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was in 98.0%, extrapulmonary TB in 2.0% of HP and, respectively, in 92.5% and 7.5% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was confirmed by culture in 76.3% of HP and in 64.5% of OP (Si). Sputum smears were positive in 70.7% of HP and in 62.5% of OP (Si). Caseous pneumonia occurred in 2.7% of homeless subjects and in 1.1% of OP (Si); infiltrative TB in 95.5% of HP and in 97.5% of OP (Si). Resistance to isoniazid was observed in 2.9% of HP and in 3.1% of OP; to rifampicin in 0.0% of HP and in 0.2% of OP; to isoniazid and rifampicin in 0.4% of HP and in 0.8% of OP. These differences were not Si. Treatment success rate among HP was 44.1%; default rate 24.8%; 4.0% of HP died from tuberculosis; 3.2% died from other causes; 5.2% were transferred and their outcomes were unknown; 0.4% were still on treatment; 0.4% had treatment failure; in 17
Several jurisdictions in the United States (e.g., Florida and Washington) have recently incorporated the status of "homeless" under the protection of hate crime legislation. This was largely promoted by new data and reports by the National Coalition for the Homeless urging added protection for the homeless. The issue of whether the homeless belong under hate crime provisions raises the following question: What criteria must a group meet to be eligible for its inclusion? What similarities do the homeless have with other protected groups? Finally, what implications does the recognition of economic status have on other economic groups, particularity the top wealthy 1%? In this article, I explore some of the issues raised by including the homeless as a protected group. I survey several rationales offered for the selection of protected characteristics. I argue that the rationales currently offered suffer from descriptive inadequacy by either being under- or over-inclusive. I turn instead to the political conception of "disadvantage" for an identity marker that better explains the link between the various protected groups and identities under hate crime legislation. Moreover, the use of disadvantage allows for the inclusion of the homeless without the need for incorporating other socio-economic identities. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gasior, Sara; Forchuk, Cheryl; Regan, Sandra
Background Homeless youth are the fastest growing sub-group within the homeless population. They face impaired access to health services and are often left unsupported. They lack social and family support or relationships with service providers. Unsupported homeless youth often become homeless adults. Purpose To test a model based on Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations, examining the influence of a network of service providers, perceptions of social supports, and family relations on a homeless youth's perceptions of recovery. Methods This study is a secondary analysis and used a sample (n = 187) of data collected as part of the original Youth Matters in London study. A cross-sectional design was used to analyze the relationship between variables. Participants were interviewed at 6-month intervals over a 2.5-year period. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used. Results Network of service providers, perceived social supports, and perceived family relations explained 21.8% of the variance in homeless youth perceptions of recovery. Perceived social support and family relations were significantly, positively correlated to perceptions of recovery. Network of service providers was not significantly correlated to perceptions of recovery. Conclusions The findings suggest that stronger social supports and family relations may contribute to increased perceptions of recovery among homeless youth.
Ennis, Naomi; Roy, Sylvain; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane
Cognitive impairment may interfere with an individual's ability to function independently in the community and may increase the risk of becoming and remaining homeless. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on memory deficits among people who are homeless in order to gain a better understanding of its nature, causes and prevalence. Studies that measured memory functioning as an outcome among a sample of homeless persons were included. Data on sampling, outcome measures, facet of memory explored and prevalence of memory impairment were extracted from all selected research studies. Included studies were evaluated using a critical appraisal process targetted for reviewing prevalence studies. Eleven studies were included in the review. Verbal memory was the most commonly studied facet of memory. Potential contributing factors to memory deficits among persons who are homeless were explored in seven studies. Memory deficits were common among the samples of homeless persons studied. However, there was a great deal of variation in the methodology and quality of the included studies. Conceptualisations of "homelessness" also differed across studies. There is a need for more controlled research using validated neuropsychological tools to evaluate memory impairment among people who are homeless.
professionals including a psychiatrist, a nurse, an addiction councilor, and social workers with administrative authority from the social office and the job center. In the international research literature ACT has been shown in randomized controlled trials to be a very effective method in bringing individuals...... out of homelessness and into a stable housing situation. The study is based on quantitative outcome measurement on about 80 citizens who have been assigned to the programme and who have received both a housing solution and support from the ACT-team. The study is not a randomized controlled trial...
Full Text Available The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected. Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid.
Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Vandentorren, Stéphanie
The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France) has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid. PMID:29495563
Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Chauvin, Pierre; Vandentorren, Stéphanie
The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France) has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid.
Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta
Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.
Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta
Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders. PMID:27348556
Montgomery, Ann E; Dichter, Melissa E; Thomasson, Arwin M; Roberts, Christopher B
The Veterans Health Administration seeks to reduce homelessness among Veterans by identifying, and providing prevention and supportive services to, patients with housing concerns. The objectives of this study were to assess the proportion of Veterans Health Administration patients who received homeless or social work services within 6 months of a positive screen for homelessness or risk in the Veterans Health Administration and the demographic and clinical characteristics that predicted services utilization. Data were from a cohort of 27,403 Veteran outpatients who screened positive for homelessness or risk between November 1, 2012 and January 31, 2013. During 2013, AORs were calculated using a mixed-effects logistic regression to estimate the likelihood of patients' receipt of VHA homeless or social work services based on demographic and clinical characteristics. The majority of patients received services within 6 months post-screening; predictors of services utilization varied by gender. Among women, diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis predicted receipt of services, being unmarried increased the odds of using services among those screening positive for homelessness, and a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder increased the odds of receiving services for at-risk women. Among men, being younger, unmarried, not service-connected/Medicaid-eligible, and having a medical or behavioral health condition predicted receipt of services. Receipt of housing support services among Veterans post-homelessness screening differs by patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Future research should investigate the role that primary and secondary prevention interventions play in Veterans' resolution of risk for homelessness and experience of homelessness. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Castellow, Jennifer; Kloos, Bret; Townley, Greg
This paper argues that the experience of homelessness is inherently traumatic and thus has the potential to affect the manifestation of mental illness. The experiences related to being homeless might act as specific and unique sources of vulnerability. This study included 424 people diagnosed with serious mental illnesses living in supported housing programs in South Carolina. Three hierarchical regression analyses measuring the impact of homelessness on three types of outcomes revealed the following: (1) ever experiencing homelessness as well as the amount of time spent homeless were related to higher levels of psychiatric distress, (2) ever experiencing homelessness was related to higher levels of reported alcohol use, and (3) total amount of time spent homeless was related to lower perceived recovery from mental illness. These findings suggest that experiencing homelessness might contribute to psychosocial vulnerability to negative mental health outcomes. Future investigations examining this concept of risk and vulnerability as a result of homelessness are in order.
Rahman, Mai Abdul; Turner, J. Fidel; Elbedour, Salman
Background: The drastic surge in the number of homeless families in the United States (U.S.) has resulted in an increase in the number of homeless students attending U.S. public schools. Meanwhile, the U.S. public school system is struggling to meet the educational needs of their homeless students. Objective: This study examined the historical…
Boyce, Daniel E C; Tice, Alan D; Ona, Fernando V; Akinaka, Kenneth T; Lusk, Heather
It is estimated that as many as 21,000 people in the state of Hawai'i may be infected with HCV Most of those infected with viral hepatitis are unaware they are infected. Complications from viral hepatitis include liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hawai'i has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. In 2003 there were over 6000 homeless and over 155,000 people at-risk of becoming homeless living in the state of Hawai'i. Risk factors for hepatitis, such as drug use, tattoos, sexual contact, and sharing of personal hygiene equipment are more prevalent in the homeless population. To determine the incidence of hepatitis B and C among a population of homeless individuals, a health fair was held at a Honolulu area homeless shelter with approximately 200 residents. The incidence of hepatitis B and C was determined by anti-HCV and HBsAg blood tests. A survey was also conducted regarding risk factors and basic demographics. Fifty-nine homeless adults volunteered for testing and took the survey. Thirty-one (52%) volunteers were born in Micronesia, twenty-four (41%) were born in the United States, two (3%) were born in Samoa, one (2%) was born in the Philippines, and one (2%) was born in the Marshall Islands. Forty adults were tested for Hepatitis C antibody, three of which tested positive. The primary risk factor among this group was jail time (100%), followed by illegal drug injection (67%), tattoos (67%), ear/body piercing (67%), snorting drugs (33%), blood transfusions (33%), and a sex partner with hepatitis (33%). Forty adults were also tested for HBsAg, One of which tested positive. This was a recent immigrant from Micronesia. Homeless people in Hawai'i are more likely to have hepatitis B or C because risk factors are common among this population. Additionally a large proportion of Hawai'i's homeless people come from the Pacific Islands, where the prevalence of hepatitis B is one of the highest in the world. In addition there
PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.
TERRY, Marisa J; BEDI, Gurpreet; PATEL, Neil
Approximately 1.6 - 2.8 million youth at any given time in the United States are considered homeless and at high risk for poor social and health outcomes. It is estimated that in the United States homelessness overall is expected to rise 10 -20 percent in the next year. While governmental and private programs exist to address the tribulations faced by homeless persons, youth continue to be underserved. The 2009, $787 billion economic stimulus package includes $1.5 billion to address issues...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of and amount of persons who are homeless as part of HUD's Point-in-Time (PIT) Count. This...
Full Text Available Research utilizing the individual case study method examined the complex issues related to pathways into and out of home-lessness for an Aboriginal man from a First Nation community on the western James Bay in Canada. This instrumental case study focused on an individual's story, rather than on a site or a group of individuals, an incident or a series of incidents, or a program  . First, as a research tool, it provides insight into the issue of homelessness and some of its causes from the perspective of an Aboriginal person. Second, the in-depth data gathered allowed us to understand some of the factors that work and those that do not work in facilitating transitions out of homelessness. Third, as an educational tool, it allows people from the outside to have a better understanding of how systemic disadvantages contribute to individuals falling into homelessness.
Attempts to demonstrate the value of conjunctural interpretive analysis (which is multilevel, multimodal, and explicitly theoretical and political) through an interpretation of the culture of homelessness in the United States. Addresses differences between positivist epistemologies. (SR)
... and skills training) to expedite the reintegration of homeless Veterans into the labor force.'' HVRP... of Labor/VETS. Applications submitted through http://www.grants.gov or hard copy will be accepted. If...
JHON J. SANABRIA
Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.
... visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2011-0087] Supplemental Security Income and Homeless Individuals AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice; Request for Comments. SUMMARY...
Nath, Veena; Hallett, Ronald E.
Stereotypical notions of who experiences homelessness frame how educational institutions approach policy and program development. This life history of a teacher challenges assumptions by providing an in-depth look at a mother's struggle to find stability.
Homeless treatment programs have focused on physical solutions rather than attending to all aspects of well-being. Support services that address overall well-being have demonstrated effectiveness. Previous research suggests that overall well-being is defined as satisfaction within all life spheres. Objective life indices have been the primary evidence of success among various programs, which include food, housing, income, leisure, health, access to psychiatric and medical services, and maintenance of positive support networks. This does not account for other important subjective components, such as psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. This study was designed to assess quality of life and psychiatric symptoms among the people who were chronically and formerly chronically homeless. The people who were formerly chronically homeless are defined as individuals who were chronically homeless in the past but have successfully remained in housing for 6 months or more and have access to intensive case management services. People who are chronically homeless are homeless individuals who have lacked a residence for a year or more or have had four or more episodes in three years, are single, and have a persistent disability. Participants completed the Oxford Happiness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, and a brief questionnaire. All participants were disabled in accordance with the definition of chronic homelessness adopted by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. This researcher hypothesized that high quality-of-life scores, low frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and greater access to basic life indices indicate happiness overall. Additionally, it was hypothesized that people who are chronically homeless have a higher foster care rate than the general population.
Tweed, Roger G.; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Lehman, Darrin R.
This study examined self-perceived strengths among 116 people who were homeless. Those who had experienced a longer period of current homelessness tended to report fewer personal strengths (r = −0.23). Nonetheless, in spite of their marginalized position in society, the vast majority of participants (114 out of 116) perceived personal strengths. A prior diagnosis with mental illness was not associated with the number of strengths reported, but self-perception of strengths was associated with ...
Morton, Matthew H.; Dworsky, Amy; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Curry, Susanna R.; Schlueter, David; Chávez, Raúl; Farrell, Anne F.
Purpose Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps. Methods Using a nationally representative phone-based survey (N = 26,161), we solicited household and individual reports on different types of youth homelessness. We collected household reports on adolescents aged 13–17 and young adults aged 18–25, as well as self-reports from young adults aged 18–25. Follow-up interviews with a subsample (n = 150) provided additional information on youth experiences and enabled adjustment for inclusion errors. Results Over a 12-month period, approximately 3.0% of households with 13- to 17-year-olds reported explicit youth homelessness (including running away or being asked to leave) and 1.3% reported experiences that solely involved couch surfing, resulting in an overall 4.3% household prevalence of any homelessness, broadly defined. For 18- to 25-year-olds, household prevalence estimates were 5.9% for explicitly reported homelessness, 6.6% for couch surfing only, and 12.5% overall. The 12-month population prevalence estimates, available only for 18- to 25-year-olds, were 5.2%, 4.5%, and 9.7%, respectively. Incidence rates were about half as high as prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were similar across rural and nonrural counties. Higher risk of homelessness was observed among young parents; black, Hispanic, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth; and those who did not complete high school. Conclusions The prevalence and incidence of youth homelessness reveal a significant need for prevention and youth-centric systems and services, as well as strategies to address disproportionate risks of certain subpopulations. PMID:29153445
Morton, Matthew H; Dworsky, Amy; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Curry, Susanna R; Schlueter, David; Chávez, Raúl; Farrell, Anne F
Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps. Using a nationally representative phone-based survey (N = 26,161), we solicited household and individual reports on different types of youth homelessness. We collected household reports on adolescents aged 13-17 and young adults aged 18-25, as well as self-reports from young adults aged 18-25. Follow-up interviews with a subsample (n = 150) provided additional information on youth experiences and enabled adjustment for inclusion errors. Over a 12-month period, approximately 3.0% of households with 13- to 17-year-olds reported explicit youth homelessness (including running away or being asked to leave) and 1.3% reported experiences that solely involved couch surfing, resulting in an overall 4.3% household prevalence of any homelessness, broadly defined. For 18- to 25-year-olds, household prevalence estimates were 5.9% for explicitly reported homelessness, 6.6% for couch surfing only, and 12.5% overall. The 12-month population prevalence estimates, available only for 18- to 25-year-olds, were 5.2%, 4.5%, and 9.7%, respectively. Incidence rates were about half as high as prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were similar across rural and nonrural counties. Higher risk of homelessness was observed among young parents; black, Hispanic, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth; and those who did not complete high school. The prevalence and incidence of youth homelessness reveal a significant need for prevention and youth-centric systems and services, as well as strategies to address disproportionate risks of certain subpopulations. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts health and what public health professionals can do about it. Created: 11/19/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) and National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 11/19/2010.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts policy and what public health professionals can do about it. Created: 11/19/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) and National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 11/19/2010.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts policy and what public health professionals can do about it. Created: 11/19/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) and National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 11/19/2010.
Homelessness in the 21st century is an ongoing problem, increasing due to the country's recent economic downturn, especially in urban areas. This podcast discusses how homelessness impacts health and what public health professionals can do about it. Created: 11/19/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP) and National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 11/19/2010.
Morrison, David S
Homelessness is associated with increased risks of mortality but it has not previously been possible to distinguish whether this is typical of other socio-economically deprived populations, the result of a higher prevalence of morbidity or an independent risk of homelessness itself. The aim of this study was to describe mortality among a cohort of homeless adults and adjust for the effects of morbidity and socio-economic deprivation. Retrospective 5-year study of two fixed cohorts, homeless adults and an age- and sex-matched random sample of the local non-homeless population in Greater Glasgow National Health Service Board area for comparison. Over 5 years of observation, 1.7% (209/12 451) of the general population and 7.2% (457/6323) of the homeless cohort died. The hazard ratio of all-cause mortality in homeless compared with non-homeless cohorts was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.8-5.2). After adjustment for age, sex and previous hospitalization, homelessness was associated with an all-cause mortality hazard ratio of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9). Homelessness had differential effects on cause-specific mortality. Among patients who had been hospitalized for drug-related conditions, the homeless cohort experienced a 7-fold increase in risk of death from drugs compared with the general population. Homelessness is an independent risk factor for deaths from specific causes. Preventive programmes might be most effectively targeted at the homeless with these conditions.
Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea
There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Leibler, Jessica H; Nguyen, Daniel D; León, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M; Perez, Debora
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA ( n = 194) to identify hygiene-related self-care practices and risk factors for reduced hygiene in this population. Most participants (72%) reported taking a daily shower. More than 60% reported hand washing with soap five or more times each day, and use of hand sanitizer was widespread (89% reported using sanitizer in the last week). A majority (86%) used a laundromat or laundry machine to wash clothing, while 14% reported washing clothing in the sink. Heavy drinking, injection drug use, and sleeping outdoors were identified as significant risk factors for reduced hygiene practices. People experiencing homelessness who also engage in these activities may be among the most difficult to reach for intervention, yet targeted efforts may decrease illness risk associated with reduced hygiene. Housed friends and family play a critical role in assisting homeless individuals maintain hygiene by providing showers and laundry facilities.
Kermode, M; Crofts, N; Speed, B; Miller, P; Streeton, J
To describe tuberculosis infection among persons experiencing homelessness in inner Melbourne, Australia. Homeless people were surveyed during late 1995 and early 1996. In stage one of the study 284 homeless people from crisis and long-term accommodation sites were recruited by means of stratified, systematic, random sampling. In stage two a convenience sample of 100 homeless people from squats and the streets were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire and Mantoux testing was performed. A past history of tuberculosis was reported by 3%. Thirty-seven per cent had a Mantoux > or =10 mm; 21% > or =15 mm; and 11% > or =20 mm. A Mantoux > or =15 mm was independently associated with being aged > or =40 years, coming from the accommodated sample, overseas birth, and a past history of tuberculosis. Using logistic regression modelling, a Mantoux > or =15 mm was predicted by being aged > or =40 years, overseas birth, and past history of tuberculosis. Mantoux test results suggest that this group of homeless people had a high prevalence of infection with the tubercle bacillus. Many aspects of the physical and social circumstances of homeless people predispose to reactivation and have the potential to enhance rapid spread should latent infection become active disease.
Miao, Yinghui; Mitchell, Susan L.; Bharel, Monica; Patel, Mitkumar; Ard, Kevin L.; Grande, Laura J.; Blazey-Martin, Deborah; Floru, Daniella; Steinman, Michael A.
Objectives. We determined the impact of obtaining housing on geriatric conditions and acute care utilization among older homeless adults. Methods. We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study of 250 older homeless adults recruited from shelters in Boston, Massachusetts, between January and June 2010. We determined housing status at follow-up, determined number of emergency department visits and hospitalizations over 12 months, and examined 4 measures of geriatric conditions at baseline and 12 months. Using multivariable regression models, we evaluated the association between obtaining housing and our outcomes of interest. Results. At 12-month follow-up, 41% of participants had obtained housing. Compared with participants who remained homeless, those with housing had fewer depressive symptoms. Other measures of health status did not differ by housing status. Participants who obtained housing had a lower rate of acute care use, with an adjusted annualized rate of acute care visits of 2.5 per year among participants who obtained housing and 5.3 per year among participants who remained homeless. Conclusions. Older homeless adults who obtained housing experienced improved depressive symptoms and reduced acute care utilization compared with those who remained homeless. PMID:25973822
Full Text Available Carlos Salavera,1 José M Tricás,2 Orosia Lucha21Faculty of Education, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Physiotherapy Research Unit, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: The homeless drop out of treatment relatively frequently. Also, prevalence rates of personality disorders are much higher in the homeless group than in the general population. We hypothesize that when both variables coexist – homelessness and personality disorders – the possibility of treatment drop out grows. The aim of this study was to analyze the hypotheses, that is, to study how the existence of personality disorders affects the evolution of and permanence in treatment. One sample of homeless people in a therapeutic community (N = 89 was studied. The structured clinical interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR was administered and participants were asked to complete the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic avoided permanence in the treatment process while cluster C disorders, as dependent, favored adhesion to the treatment and improved the prognosis. Knowledge of these personality characteristics should be used to advocate for better services to support homeless people and prevent their dropping out before completing treatment.Keywords: MCMI-II, abandonment, personality disorder, homeless
Curry, Susanna R; Morton, Matthew; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Dworsky, Amy; Samuels, Gina M; Schlueter, David
Youth homelessness is a problem characterized by high levels of vulnerability. The extent to which couch surfing - moving from one temporary housing arrangement to another - is part of youth homelessness is not well understood. Chapin Hall's Voices of Youth Count, a national research initiative, involves a multicomponent approach to studying youth homelessness. This study reports emerging findings regarding couch surfing and homelessness primarily from a national survey of 13,113 adults with youth ages 13-25 in their households or who are themselves ages 18-25. Findings suggest that couch surfing is relatively common, particularly among the older age group. Among households with 13- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 25-year-olds, 4.0% and 20.5%, respectively, reported that any of them had couch surfed in the last 12 months. There are notable social, economic, and educational differences, on average, between youth reporting homelessness and those reporting only couch surfing. However, most youth who report experiencing homelessness also report couch surfing, and these youth who experience both circumstances present high levels of socioeconomic vulnerability. Couch surfing encompasses a range of experiences, some of which likely include need for services. Interviews currently in the field, and expanded analysis of data, will contribute more nuanced policy insights. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Full Text Available The demographics of the homeless population in many countries are currently shifting, and this cannot be explained by the different welfare systems to be found in these countries. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the homelessness policies of some countries are converging, and we observe a combination of decentralisation, housing first, and a taylor-made, individualised approach. However, what is interesting is the question as to what extent these policies are based on a punitive dimension or on a justice dimension. This aspect is little discussed in the Netherlands where policies to combat homelessness are intended to put an end to public nuisance and to get the homeless off the street. Research into evicted families demonstrates that combining elements of (mild coercion with efforts to solve homelessness leads to problems in at least three domains: the motivation of homeless families to accept help and support, the quality of life in the individualised approach, and the matter of registration. These problems need investigating, also from an international perspective.
Dever, Martha Taylor; Sorenson, Brooke; Broderick, Julie
Most teachers and administrators have witnessed children using a derogatory reference to a group of people as a put down. Put downs usually reference non-mainstream groups who are different in ethnicity, gender, religion, ability, sexual orientation, class, or appearance. Hurtful name calling is but one example of how children express prejudiced…
Noting that many teachers and parents are baffled by the repetitiveness of young children's conflict and by their own reaction to it, this book describes how adults can help children find alternatives to hurtful words and fighting by settling differences through a six-step mediation process based on several basic adult-child interaction…
White, Brandi M; Jones, Walter J; Moran, William P; Simpson, Kit N
Primary care access (PCA) for the homeless can prove challenging, especially during periods of economic distress. In the United States, the most recent recession may have presented additional barriers to accessing care. Limited safety-net resources traditionally used by the homeless may have also been used by the non-homeless, resulting in delays in seeking treatment for the homeless. Using hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitivity (ACS) conditions as a proxy measure for PCA, this study investigated the recession's impact on PCA for the homeless and non-homeless in four states. The State Inpatient Databases were used to identify ACS admissions. Findings from this study indicate the recession was a barrier to PCA for homeless people who were uninsured. Ensuring that economically-disadvantaged populations have the ability to obtain insurance coverage is crucial to facilitating PCA. With targeted outreach efforts, the Affordable Care Act provides an opportunity for expanding coverage to the homeless.
Abbas Ostad Taghi Zadeh
Conclusions: This study supports the idea that injection drug use is contributing to the increased spread of HIV among Iranian homeless. Harm reduction programs should be expanded, particularly among homeless injection drug users.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Homelessness is a critical social issue, both a product of, and contributing to, poor mental and physical health. Over 150,000 young Canadians live on the streets. Homeless youth experience a high incidence of infectious diseases, many of which are vaccine preventable. Early departure from school and limited access to public health services makes them a particularly vulnerable high-risk group. This study explores challenges to obtaining essential vaccines experienced by homeless youth. Methods A qualitative research study to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences surrounding immunization of hard-to-reach homeless youth was designed. Participants were recruited for focus groups from Phoenix House and Shelter, a non-profit, community-based organization assisting homeless youth in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. An experienced facilitator guided the recorded discussions. Transcripts of audiotapes were analyzed using a constant comparative method until data revealed a set of exemplars and themes that best captured participants’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences surrounding immunization and infectious diseases. Results Important themes emerged from our analysis. Considerable variability in knowledge about immunization and vaccine preventable diseases was found. The homeless youth in the study had limited awareness of meningitis in contrast to a greater knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and influenza, gained during the H1N1/09 public health campaign. They recognized their poverty as a risk for contracting infectious diseases, along with their inability to always employ known strategies to prevent infectious diseases, due to circumstances. They showed considerable insight into the detrimental effects of poor hygiene, sleeping locations and risk behaviour. Interviewed homeless youth regarded themselves as good compliers of health professional advice and offered valuable suggestions to improve
Abstract This article gives voice to refugee young people experiencing homelessness. It is based on a project that conducted interviews with refugee young people and consultations with service providers. The research reveals that the profoundly under-recognised phenomenon of homelessness experienced by young people of refugee background is often hidden and does not match commonly held beliefs about homeless young people. The article examines the nexus between migration and homelessness in...
Mellgren, Caroline; Andersson, Mika; Ivert, Anna-Karin
Hate crimes have been found to have more severe consequences than other parallel crimes that were not motivated by the offenders' hostility toward someone because of their real or perceived difference. Many countries today have hate crime laws that make it possible to increase the penalties for such crimes. The main critique against hate crime laws is that they punish thoughts. Instead, proponents of hate crime laws argue that sentence enhancement is justified because hate crimes cause greater harm. This study compares consequences of victimization across groups of victims to test for whom hate crimes hurt more. We analyzed data that were collected through questionnaires distributed to almost 3,000 students at Malmö University, Sweden, during 2013. The survey focused on students' exposure to, and experiences of, hate crime. A series of separate logistic regression analyses were performed, which analyzed the likelihood for reporting consequences following a crime depending on crime type, perceived motive, repeat victimization, gender, and age. Analyzed as one victim group, victims of hate crime more often reported any of the consequences following a crime compared with victims of parallel non-hate-motivated crimes. And, overall victims of threat more often reported consequences compared with victims of sexual harassment and minor assault. However, all hate crime victim groups did not report more consequences than the non-hate crime victim group. The results provide grounds for questioning that hate crimes hurt the individual victim more. It seems that hate crimes do not hurt all more but hate crimes hurt some victims of some crimes more in some ways.
Wilkins, Brittany Taylor; Mullins, Mary H.; Mahan, Amber; Canfield, James P.
The federal government enacted the McKinney--Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) to equip schools with services to help alleviate the many barriers students experiencing homelessness face in pursuit of educational opportunities. Educational agencies use federally mandated liaisons to uphold the provisions of the MVA. Despite the homeless liaisons'…
Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda
Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…
Although the topic of homelessness receives a great deal of attention in journalism and throughout popular culture, the discourse of homelessness remains largely unexamined and unquestioned. This discourse creates stereotypes and perpetuates homelessness by portraying it as an inevitability rather than a contingency. Rhetoric and composition…
Edidin, Jennifer P.; Ganim, Zoe; Hunter, Scott J.; Karnik, Niranjan S.
Youth homelessness is a growing concern in the United States. Despite difficulties studying this population due to inconsistent definitions of what it means to be a youth and homeless, the current body of research indicates that abuse, family breakdown, and disruptive family relationships are common contributing factors to youth homelessness.…
Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.
This survey assesses the status of homelessness among families in cities. The data were collected from city officials during April 1987. The findings include the following: (1) the number of homeless families increased by 31 percent during the last two years; (2) families represented one-third of the homeless and a single parent headed two-thirds…
Ausikaitis, Ashley Etzel; Wynne, Martha Ellen; Persaud, Schevita; Pitt, Rachel; Hosek, Aaron; Reker, Kayse; Turner, Carina; Flores, Sandy; Flores, Sofia
The increasing number of homeless youth in the United States presents many social justice concerns, including issues of educational access, stigma, and self-advocacy. These problems become even more apparent when homelessness and educational attainment intersect. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 was enacted to address these…
Seider, Scott C.
This past winter, the third student-run homeless shelter in the United States came into being. Two recent Harvard graduates, Sam Greenberg and Sarah Rosenkrantz, who had volunteered at the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter as college students, saw a need within the Boston and Cambridge communities for a homeless shelter serving young adults. Drawing…
... United States post office. In no event will a claim or payment of benefits be denied because the claimant... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Homeless claimants...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Homeless Claimants § 1.710 Homeless claimants...
van Laere, Igor; de Wit, Matty; Klazinga, Niek
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate support for homeless populations includes shelter and care to recuperate from illness and/or injury. This is a descriptive analysis of diagnoses and use of shelter-based convalescence in a cohort of homeless adults in Amsterdam. METHODS: Demographics of ill homeless
Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge
Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…
Foyer Foundation, London (England).
Homelessness in the United Kingdom has very wide ramifications. Young homeless people face a difficult transition into adult life as poverty, low self-esteem, lack of family support, and lack of qualifications reinforce each others' effects. Homeless young people start behind their peers in educational achievement. Government policies put up…
"No Place to Call Home: Child and Youth Homelessness in the United States," prepared by intern Neil Damron and released in May 2015, presents the statistics on child and youth homelessness and recent trends in Wisconsin and the United States. It explores the major challenges faced by homeless minors, and, drawing from recent research by…
Macdonald, Stephen J.; Deacon, Lesley; Merchant, Jacqueline
This study investigated the relationship between dyslexia, homelessness, and drug use and dependency based on data from the Multiple Exclusion Homelessness Across the United Kingdom Survey, a national survey of 443 respondents who had experienced some form of homelessness in the U.K. Of particular interest was a comparison of the various…
Tierney, William G.; Ward, James Dean
Each year, it is estimated between 320,000 and 400,000 LGBT youth encounter homelessness. They are at increased risk of victimization and abuse and face stigmatization for being both homeless and a sexual or gender minority. These youth are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to become homeless after being forced out of their homes.…
... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Homelessness Prevention Study AGENCY: Office of Policy Development... Homelessness Prevention Study. The proposed information collection was approved under emergency review (OMB...) has submitted to OMB a request to extend approval for information collection for the Homelessness...
... Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study Site Visits AGENCY: Office of the Chief.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Homelessness Prevention Study Site... of the Paperwork Reduction Act requirements associated with HUD's Homelessness Prevention Study Site...
... Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Rural Housing Stability Assistance Program and Revisions to the Definition of ``Chronically Homeless'' Extension of Public Comment Only for Rural... proposed revisions to the definition of ``chronically homeless.'' This document announces that HUD is...
Álvaro Giraldo Pineda
Full Text Available Estudio realizado con niños en situación de calle en Medellín, Colombia. Objetivo: Comprender desde la mirada de los participantes, el significado de las instituciones que les brindan apoyo. Metodología: Cualitativa-etnográfica. Se realizaron 39 entrevistas, observación y diario de campo. La ética fue parte integral del proceso. El análisis se hizo con los participantes para garantizar el rigor. Resultados: Los niños ingresan a las instituciones buscando apoyo, motivados por éstas, por sí mismos o por otras personas. Según los niños, las instituciones pretenden cambiarles la personalidad, el pensamiento y el comportamiento, vinculándolos a un proceso. Para que éste se cumpla, se establecen normas que son aplicadas y sancionadas por los educadores o por los líderes. Los niños abandonan las instituciones cuando reciben castigos humillantes, por "caciqueo", aburrimiento y temores. Conclusión: La institución por ella misma no logra estos cambios, ellos se consiguen solamente por la interacción con sus amigos y "parceros".The research was made with Medellin´s street children, Colombia. Objective: Understand under the participant´s view, the meaning of support institutions. Method: Qualitative, ethnographic research. 39 Interviews, observation and field diary were realized. Ethic was fundamental piece of the process. Analysis was made with participant to guarantee the rigor. Results: Children go to these institutions looking for support, motivated by themselves, other people or the institutions. These pretend to change children´s personality, thought and behavior joining them to a process. To accomplish this, some rules has to be applied and penalized by teachers or leaders. Children leave these institutions when they received humiliating punishment, submissiveness ("caciqueo", boredom and fear. Conclusion: Institution by itself does not accomplish these changes, they are only achieved by the interaction with their friends and
Stringfellow, Erin J; Kim, Theresa W; Gordon, Adam J; Pollio, David E; Grucza, Richard A; Austin, Erika L; Johnson, N Kay; Kertesz, Stefan G
Community survey data suggest high prevalence of substance use disorders among currently homeless individuals. There are less data regarding illicit drug and alcohol use problems of homeless-experienced persons engaged in primary care. They may have less severe use and require different care responses from primary care teams. The authors surveyed currently and formerly homeless, i.e., homeless-experienced, persons engaged in primary care at five federally funded programs in the United States, administering the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). The ASSIST definitions of lower, moderate, and high risk were used to assess a spectrum of lifetime and recent substance use, from any use to likely dependence, and to identify sociodemographic and health status characteristics associated with severity of use. Almost one half of the sample (N = 601) had recently (within the past three months) used alcohol, and one third had recently used an illicit drug. The most commonly used illicit drugs in the past three months were cannabis (19%), cocaine (16%), and opioids (7.5%). Over one half (59%) of respondents had ASSIST-defined moderate- or high-risk substance use. A significant proportion (31%) of those identified as at moderate risk had no recent substance use, but did report past problematic use. Ten percent of the lower-risk group had past problematic use of alcohol. Severity of use was associated with worse health status, but not with housing status or type of homelessness experienced. Less severe (moderate-risk) use and past problematic use, potentially indicative of remitted substance use disorders, were more common than high-risk use in this primary care, homeless-experienced sample. These findings highlight the urgency of identifying effective ways to reduce risky substance use and prevent relapse in homeless-experienced persons.
To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin
Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and
To, Matthew J; Brothers, Thomas D; Van Zoost, Colin
Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and addressing social factors that lead to increased risk
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010
Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…
... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18 What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to...
Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J
This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baggett, Travis P; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Rigotti, Nancy A
We determined whether or not homelessness is associated with cigarette smoking independent of other socio-economic measures and behavioral health factors, and whether homeless smokers differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit. We analyzed data from 2678 adult respondents to the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of homeless and non-homeless individuals using US federally funded community health centers. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between homelessness and (i) current cigarette smoking among all adults, and (ii) past-year desire to quit among current smokers, adjusting for demographic, socio-economic and behavioral health characteristics. Adults with any history of homelessness were more likely than never homeless respondents to be current smokers (57 versus 27%, P homelessness was associated independently with current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-2.93], even after adjusting for age, sex, race, veteran status, insurance, education, employment, income, mental illness and alcohol and drug abuse. Housing status was not associated significantly with past-year desire to stop smoking in unadjusted (P = 0.26) or adjusted (P = 0.60) analyses; 84% of currently homeless, 89% of formerly homeless and 82% of never homeless smokers reported wanting to quit. Among patients of US health centers, a history of homelessness doubles the odds of being a current smoker independent of other socio-economic factors and behavioral health conditions. However, homeless smokers do not differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit and should be offered effective interventions. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen
Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ian M Lyons
Full Text Available Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs, math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula. Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.
Lyons, Ian M.; Beilock, Sian L.
Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs’ feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation – such as pain – about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one’s math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths. PMID:23118929
Mehrdad, Neda; Hossein Abbasi, Nahid; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza
Excess weight is one of the increasing problems of the present society and one of the threatening health conditions around the world. Despite many efforts for prevention and treatment or even surgery, the process of excess weight is not decreased in the world. While most of the studies conducted on excess weight concentrated on the issues why people get excess weight or how the prevention and treatment of excess weight must be performed, there is lake of knowledge about what excessive weight people really experience in their daily life. Understanding the lived experience of excess weight in women is linked with their health and society's health while it indirectly develops the nursing knowledge to improve the quality and access to holistic health care in excessive weight women. The aim of study was to describe with a deeper understanding, the lived experience of excess weight in women. Using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach and a van-manen analysis methods, in depth semi- structured interviews were conducted with twelve women who had lived experience of excess weight. The hurt of Judgment was the main theme that emerged in the process of data analysis. This theme was derived from three sub-themes including social judgment, being different and being seen. These findings can prove helpful in promoting the nursing knowledge concerning a holistic approach in communicating to excessive weight people.
Nozari, Nazbanou; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L
Paying selective attention to a word in a multi-word utterance results in a decreased probability of error on that word (benefit), but an increased probability of error on the other words (cost). We ask whether excitation of the prefrontal cortex helps or hurts this cost. One hypothesis (the resource hypothesis) predicts a decrease in the cost due to the deployment of more attentional resources, while another (the focus hypothesis) predicts even greater costs due to further fine-tuning of selective attention. Our results are more consistent with the focus hypothesis: prefrontal stimulation caused a reliable increase in the benefit and a marginal increase in the cost of selective attention. To ensure that the effects are due to changes to the prefrontal cortex, we provide two checks: We show that the pattern of results is quite different if, instead, the primary motor cortex is stimulated. We also show that the stimulation-related benefits in the verbal task correlate with the stimulation-related benefits in an N-back task, which is known to tap into a prefrontal function. Our results shed light on how selective attention affects language production, and more generally, on how selective attention affects production of a sequence over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L
Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.
Lui, Kelvin F H; Wong, Alan C-N
Heavy media multitaskers have been found to perform poorly in certain cognitive tasks involving task switching, selective attention, and working memory. An account for this is that with a breadth-biased style of cognitive control, multitaskers tend to pay attention to various information available in the environment, without sufficient focus on the information most relevant to the task at hand. This cognitive style, however, may not cause a general deficit in all kinds of tasks. We tested the hypothesis that heavy media multitaskers would perform better in a multisensory integration task than would others, due to their extensive experience in integrating information from different modalities. Sixty-three participants filled out a questionnaire about their media usage and completed a visual search task with and without synchronous tones (pip-and-pop paradigm). It was found that a higher degree of media multitasking was correlated with better multisensory integration. The fact that heavy media multitaskers are not deficient in all kinds of cognitive tasks suggests that media multitasking does not always hurt.
Full Text Available Introduction: Homeless and beggar are social problem in our society. The reason of people who becomes homeless and beggar can be influenced by internal factors such as lazy to work, mental and physical illness. Meanwhile, it also can be influenced by external factors, such as economy, geography, social, education, pshycology, culture and religion. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of peer group support to perception about the homeless and beggar. Method: A quasy experimental two group pre-post test purposive sampling design was used in this study. The subjects were homeless and beggar which stay at Lingkungan Pondok Sosial (Liponsos Keputih-Surabaya for at least three day. There were 16 respondent who met to the inclusion criteria which divided into two group (controlled and treatment. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that controlled group has significance level p=0.109 and treatment group has significance level p=0.017, statistically by using Mann Whitney U Test showed p=0.021. Discussion: It can be concluded that peer group support can change the perception about the homeless and beggar who stayed at Liponsos Surabaya. Peer group support can used continuously as social activity at Liponsos.
Moore, Gaye; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie Frances
Homeless people face many challenges in accessing and utilising health services to obtain psychosocial supports offered in hospital and community settings. The complex nature of health issues is compounded by lack of accessibility to services and lack of appropriate and safe housing. To examine the perceptions and experiences of homeless people in relation to their health service needs as well as those of service providers involved with their care. A purposive sampling approach was undertaken with a thematic framework analysis of semi-structured interviews. Participants. Interviews were undertaken with 20 homeless people who accessed the emergency department in an acute hospital in Melbourne, Australia and 27 service providers involved in hospital and community care. Six key themes were identified from interviews: complexity of care needs, respect for homeless people and co-workers, engagement as a key strategy in continued care, lack of after-hour services, lack of appropriate accommodation and complexity of services. Findings revealed the complex and diverse nature of health concerns in homeless people. The demand on hospital services continues to increase and unless government policies take into consideration the psychosocial demands of the communities most vulnerable people efforts to divert hospital demand will continue to fail.
Full Text Available Background: Earlier, the scholars of family studies have primarily focused on the problems and weaknesses of the families. However, during these days, there is a shift from problems to strength-based perspective. Methodology: Search of literature was carried out through internet-based Google Scholar search engine. Of the 112 titles obtained 21 titles fit the criteria of the study objectives, of which 9 full-text articles were finally selected for the purpose of this review. Results: In this review, nine full-text articles were reviewed. Nine of these researches investigated different facets of strengths perspective among the homeless adolescents. Chronologically, nine of these reviewed studies delineated the following thematic facets of strengths perspective among the homeless adolescents. These include personal strength and informal resources, personal strength in high-risk environment, strengths perspective during the transition of adolescence to adulthood, personal and social strengths that refrained the homeless adolescents form intravenous drug use, resilience and self-esteem, religion as an important strength, “hope” as a way of living among the homeless adolescents, coping strategies of street-involved youth, and usage of internet and social media as an important strength among homeless adolescents. Conclusion: Strengths perspective helps the youth to become a master of their own lives and helps to deal with all the adversities in life.
Full Text Available Poor financial literacy may lead to poor life choices. These life choices can create or contribute to financial stress with adverse consequences - not the least of which may be homelessness. These issues are relatively well understood, but there is limited research on the link between financial stress, financial literacy and counselling, and homelessness. Specifically, there has been little research on how improved financial literacy and appropriate financial counselling might help to prevent homelessness. This paper synthesises existing literature on this topic and considers these issues using the ABCX family stress model of Hill (1958 using data from an Australian program aimed at alleviating family homelessness, the Home Advice Program. We provide evidence that suggests that case management and support which incorporates financial counselling and financial literacy can assist in moderating the impact of financial stress and help those at risk of homelessness. The findings have implications for public policy in the areas of financial education, consumer finance, and social services provision.
Carla J. Thompson
Full Text Available The need for counseling and career/educational services for homeless veterans has captured political and economic venues for more than 25 years. Veterans are three times more likely to become homeless than the general population if veterans live in poverty or are minority veterans. This mixed methods study emphasized a life-span perspective approach for exploring factors influencing normative aging and life-quality of 39 homeless veterans in Alabama and Florida. Seven descriptive quantitative and qualitative research questions framed the investigation. Study participants completed a quantitative survey reflecting their preferences and needs with a subset of the sample (N=12 also participating in individual qualitative interview sessions. Thirty-two service providers and stakeholders completed quantitative surveys. Empirical and qualitative data with appropriate triangulation procedures provided interpretive information relative to a life-span development perspective. Study findings provide evidence of the need for future research efforts to address strategies that focus on the health and economic challenges of veterans before they are threatened with the possibility of homelessness. Implications of the study findings provide important information associated with the premise that human development occurs throughout life with specific characteristics influencing the individual’s passage. Implications for aging/homelessness research are grounded in late-life transitioning and human development intervention considerations.
Full Text Available Psychocentrism is a governing neoliberal rationality that pathologizes human problems and frames individuals as responsible for socially structured inequalities. The homeless community provides an important case study to examine the ways psychocentrism manifests among an excluded population. This paper explores the paradox whereby homeless individuals are simultaneously pathologized and responsibilized through psychocentric discourses in which their status as economically poor becomes individualized as a symptom of mental illness and/or addiction. Although medicalized understandings of mental and emotional distress pervade the homeless industry, the obligations of freedom in the neoliberal era mean that individuals alone are held responsible for their failures. The paper examines the ways individuals experiencing homelessness are compelled to embark on an entrepreneurial project of the self that requires them to accept blame for their social precariousness. Further, it deconstructs the narratives that regard social explanations as an excuse and a failure of individual accountability. I argue that the “shamed poor” adopt empowerment discourses touted by the homeless industry, which paradoxically encourage individuals to find strength in their personal failures and to work toward self-governance, devoid of historical, social, and cultural context.
Full Text Available Some young people who have been homeless during their secondary schooling manage to obtain a university place. These young people, and others who become homeless during their university courses, have the opportunity to build a sustainable exit from homelessness through education and support. Very little is known about how many young Australians are in this situation, or what can be done to assist them to complete their degrees. This article reports on research that aimed to document the experiences of 11 university students who had experienced homelessness. The research focussed on the difficulties that these young people faced, and the types of environments and service responses that can make a difference for them. The students were part of a larger study of a foyer-type service. The research found that these young people took longer than the standard duration to complete their degrees. Their study was facilitated by provision of stable, safe accommodation and support when they were acutely homeless, relief from other pressures such as family conflict, protection while maturing, time for overseas born including refugee young people to develop language, skills, and resources, support to heal from past damaging experiences and improve their health, assistance to gain entry to preferred university courses, and pathways into stable housing for the duration of their study.
Bauer, Leah K; Baggett, Travis P; Stern, Theodore A; O'Connell, Jim J; Shtasel, Derri
The care of homeless persons with serious mental illness remains a common and challenging problem in general hospital settings. This article aims to review data on homelessness and its psychiatric comorbidities, and to expand the skills of providers who encounter homeless individuals in general hospital settings. Literature review reveals patient, provider, and systems factors that contribute to suboptimal health outcomes in homeless individuals. Diagnostic rigor, integrated medical and psychiatric care, trauma-informed interventions, special considerations in capacity evaluations, and health care reform initiatives can improve the treatment of homeless persons with serious mental illness. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ronald D. Kneebone
Full Text Available Recent research has confirmed that only a minority of people who use emergency shelter beds are long-term users. Most shelter clients stay for short periods and do so relatively infrequently. These people use shelters as a temporary solution to problems that stem from poverty as opposed to problems arising from addiction or mental health problems. The implication is that addressing poverty may be an effective way of shrinking the need for emergency shelter beds. Our study uses information describing demographic characteristics and a measure of housing affordability in 51 Canadian cities to identify to what extent efforts at poverty reduction may enable the closing of emergency shelter beds. Across Canada in 2011, 15,493 permanent beds were available in 408 emergency shelters. The provision of emergency shelter beds varies widely across cities. Calgary, for example, provides more than twice as many beds per 100,000 people than does Vancouver or Toronto and more than four times the number provided in Montreal. The number of emergency beds provided is an indication not only of the number of homeless people but it is also a measure of the local response to the issue. We show that an effective strategy for shrinking the need for shelter beds is to provide improved income support to the very poor. Accounting for differences in climate, housing affordability, and demographics that may be associated with discrimination in housing markets, we show how a relatively modest increase in the incomes of those with very low incomes can shrink the need for emergency beds by nearly 20%. We also show that a modest increase in rent subsidies would have a similar impact. Still other policies that can prove effective are those that reduce the cost of building housing that can be profitably rented at prices those with low incomes can afford. These may involve tax incentives to builders and may call into question efforts at urban densification which makes low
Background: Homelessness is associated with enormous health inequalities, including shorter life expectancy, higher morbidity and greater usage of acute hospital services. Viewed through the lens of social determinants, homelessness is a key driver of poor health, but homelessness itself results from accumulated adverse social and economic conditions. Indeed, in people who are homeless, the social determinants of homelessness and health inequities are often intertwined, and long term homelessness further exacerbates poor health. Aggregated health service data can mask this, and case histories thus provide important insights. Methods: This paper presents three case histories of homeless patients seen at an inner city public hospital in Perth, Western Australia. The case histories draw on several data sources: hospital data, information collected from rough sleepers and clinical observations. Estimates of the cost to the health system of the observed hospital usage by the three patients are included. Findings: The case histories illustrate the interplay of social determinants of health in homelessness that help explain the high level of hospital usage by rough sleepers. The cumulative healthcare costs for the three individuals over a 33 months period were substantial. Hospital attendance plummeted even in the short term when housing needs were addressed. Conclusions: Treating homelessness as a combined health and social issue is critical to improving the abysmal health outcomes of people experiencing homelessness. In addition, the enormous economic costs of hospital care for people who are homeless can be reduced when housing and other social determinants are taken into account. PMID:29292758
Full Text Available Background: Homelessness is associated with enormous health inequalities, including shorter life expectancy, higher morbidity and greater usage of acute hospital services. Viewed through the lens of social determinants, homelessness is a key driver of poor health, but homelessness itself results from accumulated adverse social and economic conditions. Indeed, in people who are homeless, the social determinants of homelessness and health inequities are often intertwined, and long term homelessness further exacerbates poor health. Aggregated health service data can mask this, and case histories thus provide important insights. Methods: This paper presents three case histories of homeless patients seen at an inner city public hospital in Perth, Western Australia. The case histories draw on several data sources: hospital data, information collected from rough sleepers and clinical observations. Estimates of the cost to the health system of the observed hospital usage by the three patients are included. Findings: The case histories illustrate the interplay of social determinants of health in homelessness that help explain the high level of hospital usage by rough sleepers. The cumulative healthcare costs for the three individuals over a 33 months period were substantial. Hospital attendance plummeted even in the short term when housing needs were addressed. Conclusions: Treating homelessness as a combined health and social issue is critical to improving the abysmal health outcomes of people experiencing homelessness. In addition, the enormous economic costs of hospital care for people who are homeless can be reduced when housing and other social determinants are taken into account.
Ecker, John; Aubry, Tim; Sylvestre, John
Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) adults who experience homelessness. The current review critically analyzes the scant literature on LGBTQ adults who experience homelessness, with a particular focus on: (1) pathways into homelessness; (2) support needs; (3) targeted programming; and (4) exits out of homelessness. A total of 143 articles were identified, and 16 articles met the criteria of appropriate age range, article quality, and relevance of topic. Results from this review demonstrate that homeless LGBTQ adults have unique physical and mental health challenges, largely concerning HIV and substance use. Transgender and gender non-conforming adults who experience homelessness encounter several challenges in the homelessness system, particularly in regard to safety and gender-affirming supports. Recommendations focus on practical implications for support and suggestions for future research.
Rhoades, Harmony; Rusow, Joshua A; Bond, David; Lanteigne, Amy; Fulginiti, Anthony; Goldbach, Jeremy T
LGBTQ youth experience increased risks of homelessness, mental health disorder symptoms, and suicidality. Utilizing data from LGBTQ youth contacting a suicide crisis services organization, this study examined: (a) rates of homelessness among crisis services users, (b) the relationship between disclosure of LGBTQ identity to parents and parental rejection and homelessness, and (c) the relationship between homelessness and mental health disorder outcomes and suicidality. A nationwide sample of LGBTQ youth was recruited for a confidential online survey from an LGBTQ-focused crisis services hotline. Overall, nearly one-third of youth contacting the crisis services hotline had experienced lifetime homelessness, and those who had disclosed their LGBTQ identity to parents or experienced parental rejection because of LGBTQ status experienced higher rates of homelessness. Youth with homelessness experiences reported more symptoms of several mental health disorders and higher rates of suicidality. Suggestions for service providers are discussed.
Grenier, Amanda; Sussman, Tamara; Barken, Rachel; Bourgeois-Guérin, Valerie; Rothwell, David
Homelessness among older people in Canada is both a growing concern, and an emerging field of study. This article reports thematic results of qualitative interviews with 40 people aged 46 to 75, carried out as part of a mixed-methods study of older people who are homeless in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Our participants included people with histories of homelessness (n = 14) and persons new to homelessness in later life (n = 26). Interviews focused on experiences at the intersections of aging and homelessness including social relationships, the challenges of living on the streets and in shelters in later life, and the future. This article outlines the 5 main themes that capture the experience of homelessness for our participants: age exacerbates worries; exclusion and isolation; managing significant challenges; shifting needs and realities; and resilience, strength, and hope. Together, these findings underscore the need for specific programs geared to the unique needs of older people who are homeless.
Allan, Julaine; Kemp, Michael
This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of homelessness episodes in Australian substance misuse treatment. A dataset containing all closed substance treatment episodes in NSW, Australia from July 2006 to June 2011 was used. Statistical analysis was used to determine any relationships between demographic and treatment variables and homelessness. Of the 213, 129 treatment episodes in the dataset 12.8% have some form of homelessness. Non-government and residential services have the highest prevalence of homelessness. Sex, age, and drug type have weak relationships with homelessness. Leaving against the advice of the treatment provider is more common in episodes where homelessness is a factor. Homelessness is a problem experienced by a significant proportion of the substance treatment population and treatment providers have an opportunity and an obligation to address it in their treatment delivery.
Tsai, Jack; O'Toole, Thomas; Kearney, Lisa K
Homelessness is a major public health problem that has received considerable attention from clinicians, researchers, administrators, and policymakers in recent years. In 2016, 550,000 individuals were homeless in the United States (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2016) with 4.2% of individuals in the United States experiencing homelessness for over 1 month sometime in their lives and 1.5% experiencing homelessness in the last year (Tsai, 2017). Homelessness remains a recalcitrant problem and a ripe area for study, particularly in addressing needs of individuals at high risk for homelessness and those from understudied populations. New and innovative measurement approaches, interventions, and study methodologies are presented in this special issue to shed light on how psychology can help benefit and improve homeless services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This paper describes findings of a research inquiry into the lived experience of homelessness in Peel, a suburban region located in the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. It is based on the data from a collaborative project undertaken by members of the Faculties of Health and Education of York University with two local community organizations. The dominant theme of the narratives was that suburban homelessness is similar to being engulfed in a grotto of poverty, isolated from the rest of the community and invisible to it. Once entrapped in the grotto, it is almost impossible to escape from it. There were four sub-themes: (a falling into the grotto, (b living/struggling in the grotto, (c envisioning escape routes from the grotto, and (d beauty, community and hope in the grotto. Following a discussion of the findings, researchers describe strategies to address homelessness through promotion of social justice for all.
Hauff, Alicia J; Secor-Turner, Molly
The effects of homelessness on health are well documented, although less is known about the challenges of health care delivery from the perspective of service providers. Using data from a larger health needs assessment, the purpose of this study was to describe homeless health care needs and barriers to access utilizing qualitative data collected from shelter staff (n = 10) and health service staff (n = 14). Shelter staff members described many unmet health needs and barriers to health care access, and discussed needs for other supportive services in the area. Health service providers also described multiple health and service needs, and the need for a recuperative care setting for this population. Although a variety of resources are currently available for homeless health service delivery, barriers to access and gaps in care still exist. Recommendations for program planning are discussed and examined in the context of contributing factors and health care reform.
Tweed, Roger G; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Lehman, Darrin R
This study examined self-perceived strengths among 116 people who were homeless. Those who had experienced a longer period of current homelessness tended to report fewer personal strengths (r = -0.23). Nonetheless, in spite of their marginalized position in society, the vast majority of participants (114 out of 116) perceived personal strengths. A prior diagnosis with mental illness was not associated with the number of strengths reported, but self-perception of strengths was associated with altruistic orientation. The Values in Action (VIA) taxonomy of character strengths captured many of the responses generated by this population. The most frequently mentioned character categories included social intelligence, kindness, persistence, authenticity and humour. The most frequently mentioned other strengths included personal skills (e.g. music, sports), job skills, intelligence and education. The results have relevance for efforts to build self-perceptions that facilitate escape from homelessness.
Milburn, Norweeta G; Batterham, Philip; Ayala, George; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa; Desmond, Kate; Lord, Lynwood; Iribarren, Javier; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
We examined the associations among perceived discrimination, racial/ethnic identification, and emotional distress in newly homeless adolescents. We assessed a sample of newly homeless adolescents (n=254) in Los Angeles, California, with measures of perceived discrimination and racial/ethnic identification. We assessed emotional distress using the Brief Symptom Inventory and used multivariate linear regression modeling to gauge the impact of discrimination and racial identity on emotional distress. Controlling for race and immigration status, gender, and age, young people with a greater sense of ethnic identification experienced less emotional distress. Young people with a history of racial/ethnic discrimination experienced more emotional distress. Intervention programs that contextualize discrimination and enhance racial/ethnic identification and pride among homeless young people are needed.
Patterson, Michelle L; Currie, Lauren; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Somers, Julian M
This study examines key themes from narrative interviews conducted with 43 homeless adults with mental disorders 18 months after random assignment to Housing First with intensive supports or to treatment as usual (no housing or supports through the study). Coding and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews was based on 2 research questions from participants' perspectives: (a) What changes were perceived over time? (b) What factors facilitated or hindered change? The majority of participants assigned to Housing First reported positive change across multiple domains as a result of stable housing; whereas the majority of treatment as usual participants reported negative or neutral change. Key themes included feelings of security and pride; adjusting to living alone; housing as a learning process; and developing meaningful activity. The sense of security associated with stable housing was the most influential factor that supported change. Factors that helped or hindered change clustered into 4 key themes: the type and quality of services; the cumulative effects of trauma; social ties; and concurrent substance use. Our findings provide important context to the emerging body of quantitative research on Housing First and recovery from homelessness. Participants' experiences of recovery, particularly as it relates to housing and supports, shifts in identity, and meaningful activity must be acknowledged and incorporated into the design and evaluation of public services, and policy and service reforms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Harms, Thelma, Ed.; Ray, Adele Richardson, Ed.; Rolandelli, Pam, Ed.
This book provides useful "how-to" information to help shelters create a safe, healthful, and supportive environment for their youngest residents. The chapters of the book are: (1) "The Effects of Homelessness on Children and Families" (Janice Molnar); (2) "Children and Domestic Violence: Recognizing Effects and Building…
Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R
Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sundareswaran, Madura; Ghazzawi, Andrea; O'Sullivan, Tracey L
The unique context of day-to-day living for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity puts them at high risk during community disasters. The impacts of extreme events, such as flooding, storms, riots, and other sources of community disruption, underscore the importance of preparedness efforts and fostering community resilience. This study is part of larger initiative focused on enhancing resilience and preparedness among high risk populations. The purpose of this study was to explore critical issues and strategies to promote resilience and disaster preparedness among people who are homeless in Canada. A sample of interviews (n=21) from key informants across Canada was analyzed to explore existing programs and supports for homeless populations. The data was selected from a larger sample of (n=43) interviews focused on programs and supports for people who are at heightened risk for negative impacts during disasters. Qualitative content analysis was used to extract emergent themes and develop a model of multi-level collaboration to support disaster resilience among people who are homeless. The results indicate there is a need for more upstream continuity planning, collaboration and communication between the emergency management sector and community service organizations that support people who are homeless. Prioritization and investment in the social determinants of health and community supports is necessary to promote resilience among this high-risk population. The findings from this study highlight the importance of acknowledging community support organizations as assets in disaster preparedness. Day-to-day resilience is an ongoing theme for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity. Upstream investment to build adaptive capacity and collaborate with community organizations is an important strategy to enhance community resilience.
Tobey, Matthew; Manasson, Julia; Decarlo, Kristen; Ciraldo-Maryniuk, Katrina; Gaeta, Jessie M; Wilson, Erica
Over a million individuals in the United States experience homelessness annually and homeless individuals die at a higher rate than domiciled peers. Homeless individuals often have unique experiences at the end of life (EOL). This study examined the symptoms experienced by homeless individuals nearing the EOL and explored social background, attitudes, and experiences. Investigators conducted surveys of homeless individuals approaching the EOL at a medical respite home. Eligibility required a serious medical condition and for the patient's medical provider to answer "no" to the question "Would you be surprised if this patient were not alive in one year?" Interviews explored symptoms using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Survey. Symptoms were compared with those of relevant comparator groups in other studies. Participants (n = 20) were young to face the EOL (median age = 58) and suffered high rates of substance use disorders (n = 18; 90%) and psychiatric diagnoses (n = 16; 80%). Symptom frequency was high, especially as regarded pain and psychological symptoms. Previous experience with death among family and peers was universal (n = 20; 100%). Mistrust of others' decisions about the EOL was common, as was concern about receiving too little (n = 11; 55%) or too much (n = 8; 40%) care at the EOL. The frequency of symptoms was higher than in three comparator studies and those studies' subgroups (P Homeless individuals may experience a high frequency of pain and other symptoms as they approach the EOL. Care for such individuals may require a tailored approach. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric
Research shows runaway and homeless youth are reluctant to seek help from traditional health providers. The Internet can be useful in engaging this population and meeting their needs for sexual health information, including information about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using a sample of homeless youth living in Los Angeles, California in June 2009, this study assesses the frequency with which runaway and homeless youth seek sexual health information via the Internet, and assesses which youth are more likely to engage in seeking health information from online sources. Drawing from Andersen's (1968) health behavior model and Pescosolido's (1992) network episode model, we develop and refine a model for seeking online sexual health information among homeless youth. Rather than testing the predicative strength of a given model, our aim is to identify and explore conceptually driven correlates that may shed light on the characteristics associated with these help seeking behaviors among homeless youth. Analyses using multivariate logistic regression models reveal that among the sample of youth, females and gay males most frequently seek sexual health information online. We demonstrate the structure of social network ties (e.g., connection with parents) and the content of interactions (e.g., e-mail forwards of health information) across ties are critical correlates of online sexual health information seeking. Results show a continued connection with parents via the Internet is significantly associated with youth seeking HIV or STI information. Similarly for content of interactions, more youth who were sent health information online also reported seeking HIV information and HIV-testing information. We discuss implications for intervention and practice, focusing on how the Internet may be used for dissemination of sexual health information and as a resource for social workers to link transient, runaway, and homeless youth to care.
Podymow, Tiina; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Coyle, Doug
The homeless have high rates of mortality, but live in environments not conducive to terminal care. Traditional palliative care hospitals may be reluctant to accept such patients, due to behavior or lifestyle concerns. The Ottawa Inner City Health Project (OICHP) is a pilot study to improve health care delivery to homeless adults. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of terminally ill homeless individuals and the effectiveness of shelter-based palliative care. As proof of principle, a cost comparison was performed. 28 consecutive homeless terminally ill patients were admitted and died at a shelter-based palliative care hospice. Demographics, diagnoses at admission and course were recorded. Burden of illness was assessed by medical and psychiatric diagnoses, addictions, Karnofsky scale and symptom management. An expert panel was convened to identify alternate care locations. Using standard costing scales, direct versus alternate care costs were compared. 28 patients had a mean age 49 years; average length of stay 120 days. DIAGNOSES: liver disease 43%, HIV/AIDS 25%, malignancy 25% and other 8%. Addiction to drugs or alcohol and mental illness in 82% of patients. Karnofsky performance score mean 40 +/- 16.8. Pain management with continuous opiates in 71%. The majority reunited with family. Compared to alternate care locations, the hospice projected 1.39 million dollars savings for the patients described. The homeless terminally ill have a heavy burden of disease including physical illness, psychiatric conditions and addictions. Shelter-based palliative care can provide effective end-of-life care to terminally ill homeless individuals at potentially substantial cost savings.
Parker, R David; Albrecht, Helmut A
In 2010, more than 600,000 people in the United States experienced homelessness. Efficient and cost-effective housing methods that reduce homelessness need to be implemented. Housing Ready programs are the standard method that often has set requirements including earned income and sobriety, among others. These programs enable a subset of the homeless to become housed. However, chronically homeless persons, who use the most resources, are often not successful at enrollment or maintaining enrollment. Housing First (H1) is a method focusing on chronically homeless persons. Housing First places a client in housing and provides services after stabilization. This article assessed differences between chronically homeless persons in a H1 program and chronically homeless persons who are not in H1. A case-control study imbedded within a homeless service program collected sociodemographic and service variables, including access and barriers to care. Although the sample was 100% native English speaking, 22% of homeless persons reported that their providers do not speak their same language. All (100%) of participants had a disabling condition under HUD guidelines, but only 17.78% of homeless controls reported having a disabling condition. There were no differences on housing status based on income, gender, race, or age. The lack of differences between these groups indicates that a H1 program can be a clear derivation from the more common Housing Ready programs that have specific requirements for participation. Provider communication may negatively impact an individual's ability to transition from homelessness. Furthermore, chronically homeless persons not in intensive case management are less likely to understand the eligibility requirements for housing and, therefore, self-disqualify because of this lack of knowledge. Intentional communication and education for chronically homeless persons are 2 examples where case managers could improve the ability of the chronically homeless
Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot
Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after
Taylor, Kathryn M; Sharpe, Louise
International studies indicate high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder within homeless populations. In Australia, studies indicate high rates of trauma among homeless adults, yet post-traumatic stress disorder has not been investigated in homeless Australian adults. The primary aim of this project was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney. Further, another aim of the study was to determine whether the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the first episode of homelessness or was a consequence of homelessness. The sample consisted of 70 homeless men and women aged 18-73 years, who were randomly sampled through eight homeless services. A computer-assisted face-to-face structured clinical interview was conducted with each participant. Lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was determined via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The majority of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (98%). Indeed, the mean number of traumas per person was six. The 12 month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was higher among homeless adults in Sydney in comparison to the Australian general population (41% vs 1.5%). But 79% of the sample had a lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress. In 59% of cases, the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the age of the first reported homeless episode. Homeless adults in Sydney frequently experience trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. The study found that trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder more often precede homelessness, but re-victimization is common. These findings highlight the high mental health needs among homeless people and have implications for services for homeless people.
Baggett, Travis P.; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A.; Rigotti, Nancy A.
Aims We determined whether homelessness is associated with cigarette smoking independent of other socioeconomic measures and behavioral health factors, and whether homeless smokers differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed data from 2,678 adult respondents to the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of homeless and non-homeless individuals using U.S. federally-funded community health centers. Measurements We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between homelessness and (1) current cigarette smoking among all adults, and (2) past-year desire to quit among current smokers, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral health characteristics. Findings Adults with any history of homelessness were more likely than never homeless respondents to be current smokers (57% vs. 27%, phomelessness was independently associated with current smoking (AOR 2.09; 95% CI 1.49-2.93), even after adjusting for age, sex, race, veteran status, insurance, education, employment, income, mental illness, and alcohol and drug abuse. Housing status was not significantly associated with past-year desire to stop smoking in unadjusted (p=0.26) or adjusted (p=0.60) analyses; 84% of currently homeless, 89% of formerly homeless, and 82% of never homeless smokers reported wanting to quit. Conclusions Among patients of U.S. health centers, a history of homelessness doubles the odds of being a current smoker independent of other socioeconomic factors and behavioral health conditions. However, homeless smokers do not differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit and should be offered effective interventions. PMID:23834157
persons emerges in these years. The second part of the paper provides a more detailed description of the organisation, its aims, strategies and organisational structure. Some of the dilemmas and difficulties of the user organisation are finally mentioned at the end of the paper.......This paper provides an overview of the history of the user organisation of homeless persons in Denmark. The first part of the paper seeks to identify some of the processes and actors who facilitated the formation of the organisation, and it seeks to discuss why a user organisation of homeless...
Full Text Available Introduction. A nurse in her profession meets different kind of people from all society levels. Not once she stands in front of a homeless patient and the dillemma about the sense of helping, which indeed is often “wasted”. Nonetheless the mission of this profession demands the need of seeing a human being in every patient who needs help. Homelessness is marked with a number of stereotypes and marginalisation which is very hard to overcome by oneself and provide the services on the highest level.
Full Text Available The homeless constitute a subpopulation particularly exposed to atmospheric conditions, which, in the temperate climate zone, can result in both cold and heat stress leading to the increased mortality hazard. Environmental conditions have become a significant independent risk factor for mortality from specific causes, including circulatory or respiratory diseases. It is known that this group is particularly prone to some addictions, has a shorter life span, its members often die of different causes than those of the general population and may be especially vulnerable to the influence of weather conditions.The retrospective analysis is based on data concerning 615 homeless people, out of which 176 died in the analyzed period (2010-2016. Data for the study was collected in the city of Olsztyn, located in north-east Poland, temperate climatic zone of transitional type. To characterize weather conditions, meteorological data including daily minimum and maximum temperatures and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI were used.The average life span of a homeless person was shorter by about 17.5 years than that recorded for the general population. The average age at death of a homeless male was 56.27 years old (SD 10.38, and 52.00 years old (SD 9.85 of a homeless female. The most frequent causes of death were circulatory system diseases (33.80%. A large number of deaths were attributable to smoking (47.18%, whereas a small number was caused by infectious diseases, while a relatively large proportion of deaths were due to tuberculosis (2.15%. Most deaths occurred in the conditions of cold stress (of different intensity. Deaths caused by hypothermia were thirteen-fold more frequently recorded among the homeless than for the general population. A relative risk of death for a homeless person even in moderate cold stress conditions is higher (RR = 1.84 than in thermoneutral conditions.Our results indicate excessive mortality among the homeless as well as
Fleisch, Sheryl B; Nash, Robertson
Homeless persons die significantly younger than their housed counterparts. In many cases, relatively straightforward primary care issues escalate into life-threatening, expensive emergencies. Poor health outcomes driven by negative interactions between comorbid symptoms meet the definition of a health syndemic in this population. Successful primary care of patients struggling with homelessness may result in long-term lifesaving measures along with decreased expenditure to hospital systems. This primary prevention requires patience, creativity, and acknowledgment that the source of many confounders may lay outside the control of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Embleton, Lonnie; Lee, Hana; Gunn, Jayleen; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula
A systematic compilation of children and youth's reported reasons for street involvement is lacking. Without empirical data on these reasons, the policies developed or implemented to mitigate street involvement are not responsive to the needs of these children and youth. To systematically analyze the self-reported reasons why children and youth around the world become street-involved and to analyze the available data by level of human development, geographic region, and sex. Electronic searches of Scopus, PsychINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, PubMed, ERIC, and the Social Sciences Citation Index were conducted from January 1, 1990, to the third week of July 2013. We searched the peer-reviewed literature for studies that reported quantitative reasons for street involvement. The following broad search strategy was used to search the databases: "street children" OR "street youth" OR "homeless youth" OR "homeless children" OR "runaway children" OR "runaway youth" or "homeless persons." Studies were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1) participants were 24 years of age or younger, (2) participants met our definition of street-connected children and youth, and (3) the quantitative reasons for street involvement were reported. We reviewed 318 full texts and identified 49 eligible studies. Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. We fit logistic mixed-effects models to estimate the pooled prevalence of each reason and to estimate subgroup pooled prevalence by development level or geographic region. The meta-analysis was conducted from February to August 2015. We created the following categories based on the reported reasons in the literature: poverty, abuse, family conflict, delinquency, psychosocial health, and other. In total, there were 13 559 participants from 24 countries, of which 21 represented developing countries. The most commonly reported reason for street involvement was poverty, with a pooled-prevalence estimate of 39% (95% CI, 29
Chen, Joyce H; Rosenheck, Robert A; Greenberg, Greg A; Seibyl, Catherine
Public support payments may facilitate exit from homelessness for persons with mental illness. We examined data from 10,641 homeless veterans contacted from October 1, 1995 to September 30, 2002 in a collaborative outreach program designed to facilitate access to Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Those who were awarded benefits (22% of contacted veterans) were more likely to report disability, poor to fair self-rated health, and were more likely to have used VA services in the past. Thus, this program achieved only modest success and was most successful with veterans who were already receiving VA services and who might have received benefits even without the outreach effort.
Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Lee, Susanne; Morrell, Nicole; August, Gerald
This article reports 2-year outcomes from a cluster randomized, controlled trial of the Early Risers (ER) program implemented as a selective preventive intervention in supportive housing settings for homeless families. Based on the goals of this comprehensive prevention program, we predicted that intervention participants receiving ER services would show improvement in parenting and child outcomes relative to families in treatment-as-usual sites. The sample included 270 children in 161 families, residing in 15 supportive housing sites; multimethod, multi-informant assessments conducted at baseline and yearly thereafter included parent and teacher report of child adjustment, parent report of parenting self-efficacy, and parent-child observations that yielded scores of effective parenting practices. Data were modeled in HLM7 (4-level model accounting for nesting of children within families and families within housing sites). Two years' postbaseline, intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses indicated that parents in the ER group showed significantly improved parenting self-efficacy, and parent report indicated significant reductions in ER group children's depression. No main effects of ITT were shown for observed parenting effectiveness. However, over time, average levels of parenting self-efficacy predicted observed effective parenting practices, and observed effective parenting practices predicted improvements in both teacher- and parent-report of child adjustment. This is the first study to our knowledge to demonstrate prevention effects of a program for homeless families residing in family supportive housing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Homelessness in Canada is a large and growing problem affecting more than 235,000 men, women, youth, and families per year, in urban, suburban, rural and Northern communities. Though it is produced by economic and policy drivers including colonization, income insecurity, and state withdrawal from housing provision, policies on homelessness tend to focus on service provision rather than addressing root causes. This article reviews activist, advocacy, service and policy responses to homelessness in Canada, and in particular, homeless sector conferences. Taking as its starting-point a demonstration at a 2014 national conference on homelessness, it examines these conferences as important sites of governance in which service organizations collaborate in the development and delivery of policy. Conferences’ normative culture, and their discursive construction of homelessness as a technical problem, tend to leave unchallenged the prevailing economic, social, political and institutional arrangements that produce homelessness. Recent interventions by people facing homelessness and their allies, though, have claimed discursive space at national homelessness conferences for outsider perspectives and demands. These interventions open possibilities for new alliances, analyses, and tactics that are necessary for ending homelessness.
Fargo, Jamison D.; Munley, Ellen A.; Byrne, Thomas H.; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P.
Objectives. We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. Methods. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Results. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Conclusions. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations. PMID:24148057
Fargo, Jamison D; Munley, Ellen A; Byrne, Thomas H; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P
We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations.
Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Dichter, Melissa E; Thomasson, Arwin M; Fu, Xiaoying; Roberts, Christopher B
This study explored demographic influences on veterans' reports of homelessness or imminent risk of homelessness with a particular focus on gender. We analyzed data for a cohort of veterans who responded to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Veterans Health Administration (VHA) universal screener for homelessness and risk during a 3-month period. Multinomial mixed effects models-stratified by gender-predicted veterans' reports of homelessness or risk based on age, race, marital status, and receipt of VA compensation. The proportion of positive screens-homelessness or risk-was 2.7% for females and 1.7% for males. Women more likely to report being at risk of homelessness were aged 35 to 54 years, Black, and unmarried; those more likely to experience homelessness were Black and unmarried. Among male veterans, the greatest predictors of both homelessness and risk were Black race and unmarried status. Among both genders, receiving VA disability compensation was associated with lesser odds of being homeless or at risk. The findings describe the current population of veterans using VHA health care services who may benefit from homelessness prevention or intervention services, identify racial differences in housing stability, and distinguish subpopulations who may be in particular need of intervention. Interventions to address these needs are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cusack, Lynette; van Loon, Antonia; Kralik, Debbie; Arbon, Paul; Gilbert, Sandy
To identify the extreme weather-related health needs of homeless people and the response by homeless service providers in Adelaide, South Australia, a five-phased qualitative interpretive study was undertaken. (1) Literature review, followed by semi-structured interviews with 25 homeless people to ascertain health needs during extreme weather events. (2) Identification of homeless services. (3) Semi-structured interviews with 16 homeless service providers regarding their response to the health needs of homeless people at times of extreme weather. (4) Gap analysis. (5) Suggestions for policy and planning. People experiencing homelessness describe adverse health impacts more from extreme cold, than extreme hot weather. They considered their health suffered more, because of wet bedding, clothes and shoes. They felt more depressed and less able to keep themselves well during cold, wet winters. However, homeless service providers were more focussed on planning for extra service responses during times of extreme heat rather than extreme cold. Even though a city may be considered to have a temperate climate with a history of very hot summers, primary homeless populations have health needs during winter months. The experiences and needs of homeless people should be considered in extreme weather policy and when planning responses.
Paul, Sayani; Corneau, Simon; Boozary, Tanya; Stergiopoulos, Vicky
The multiple challenges that ethnoracial homeless individuals experiencing mental illness face are well documented. However, little is known about how this homeless subpopulation copes with the compounding stressors of racial discrimination, homelessness and mental illness. This study is an in-depth investigation of the personal perceived strengths, attitudes and coping behaviors of homeless adults of diverse ethnoracial backgrounds experiencing homelessness and mental illness in Toronto, Canada. Using qualitative methods, 36 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to capture the perspectives of ethnoracial homeless participants with mental illness on coping and resilience. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Similar to prior findings in the general homeless population, study participants recognized personal strengths and attitudes as great sources of coping and resilience, describing hope and optimism, self-esteem and confidence, insight into their challenges and spirituality as instrumental to overcoming current challenges. In addition, participants described several coping strategies, including seeking support from family, friends and professionals; socializing with peers; engaging in meaningful activities; distancing from overwhelming challenges; and finding an anchor. Findings suggest that homeless adults with mental illness from ethnoracial groups use similar coping strategies and sources of resilience with the general homeless population and highlight the need for existing services to foster hope, recognize and support individual coping strategies and sources of resilience of homeless individuals experiencing complex challenges.
Gabrielian, Sonya; Chen, Jennifer C; Minhaj, Beena P; Manchanda, Rishi; Altman, Lisa; Koosis, Ella; Gelberg, Lillian
Homeless adults have low primary care engagement and high emergency department (ED) utilization. Homeless-tailored, patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) decrease this population's acute care use. We studied the feasibility (focused on patient recruitment) and acceptability (conceptualized as clinicians' attitudes/beliefs) of a pilot initiative to colocate a homeless-tailored PCMH with an ED. After ED triage, low-acuity patients appropriate for outpatient care were screened for homelessness; homeless patients chose between a colocated PCMH or ED visit. To study feasibility, we captured (from May to September 2012) the number of patients screened for homelessness, positive screens, unique patients seen, and primary care visits. We focused on acceptability to ED clinicians (physicians, nurses, social workers); we sent a 32-item survey to ED clinicians (n = 57) who worked during clinic hours. Questions derived from an instrument measuring clinician attitudes toward homeless persons; acceptability of homelessness screening and the clinic itself were also explored. Over the 5 months of interest, 281 patients were screened; 172 (61.2%) screened positive for homelessness; 112 (65.1%) of these positive screens were seen over 215 visits. Acceptability data were obtained from 56% (n = 32) of surveyed clinicians. Attitudes toward homeless patients were similar to prior studies of primary care physicians. Most (54.6%) clinicians agreed with the homelessness screening procedures. Nearly all (90.3%) clinicians supported expansion of the homeless-tailored clinic; a minority (42.0%) agreed that ED colocation worked well. Our data suggest the feasibility of recruiting patients to a homeless-tailored primary care clinic colocated with the ED; however, the clinic's acceptability was mixed. Future quality improvement work should focus on tailoring the clinic to increase its acceptability among ED clinicians, while assessing its impact on health, housing, and costs.
Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige
Recently, the number of homeless persons in Japan has steadily decreased. However, it is not certain whether unexpected death of the homeless have actually decreased in proportion to decrease in total number of cases. The documentation of medicolegal deaths among homeless persons handled in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office during 1999-2010 were reviewed, and we compared the number and manner/cause of death between cases occurring before 2004 and those occurring after 2004. In addition, we compared manner/cause of death between homeless and non-homeless persons. The number of medicolegal deaths of homeless persons remained almost the same during the study period in spite of a marked decrease in the total number of homeless persons after 2004. Age distribution shifted to older after 2004, and a higher proportion of the deceased had longer postmortem periods after 2004. Comparison between the manners/causes of death of the cases occurring before 2004 and those occurring after 2004 showed little difference. Disease constituted about 70% of all cases, and causes of death from disease were more various than those of non-homeless persons. Certain specific patterns included a higher proportion of death from circulatory disease in elderly homeless persons and a higher proportion of death from alcohol-related digestive disease and tuberculosis among younger homeless persons. Regarding accidental death, hypothermia was a leading cause of death irrespective of age group. Aging and isolation among homeless persons might contribute to an unchanged number of medicolegal death of them. In addition to measures to address frequent causes of death in each age group, better intervention for isolated homeless persons might be a key factor to prevent unexpected deaths of homeless persons in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sinatra, Richard; Lanctot, Melissa Kim
A university partnered with the New York City Department of Homeless Services (NYC DHS) to provide cohorts of adults a 60-credit Associate Degree Program in Business Administration over a 2-year period. Results of two cohorts of 30 Advantage Academy Program graduates revealed significant improvement in College Board AccuPlacer (ACPL) Arithmetic…
Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F.; Pollio, David
Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults. PMID:18703266
Beck, Susan Kessler; Trutko, John W.; Isbell, Kellie; Rothstein, Frances; Barnow, Burt S.
This document is a how-to guide to help employment and training agencies tailor their delivery systems to be more effective in training, placing, and retaining homeless individuals in gainful employment. The guide is written from the perspective of an employment and training agency and based largely on the experiences of 63 organizations from…
National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010
Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…
Miller, Peter M.; Pavlakis, Alexandra; Samartino, Lea; Bourgeois, Alexis
This qualitative study in a Midwestern US city examines how school and community-based organizations support homeless students' connections to education-related resources and relationships. Drawing from organizational brokerage theory, which delineates how individuals' chances to thrive are shaped by the organizations in which they participate,…
Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.
Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…
West Contra Costa Unified School District, CA.
The documents in this collection relate to the Homeless Education Project conducted in the elementary and secondary schools of the West Contra Costa Unified School District (California). The first document is a chart describing the project and its main goals: (1) an accelerated curriculum in reading and mathematics; (2) effective procedures for…
Thakarar, Kinna; Morgan, Jake R; Gaeta, Jessie M; Hohl, Carole; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn
Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER) visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use. A retrospective analysis was performed on 412 patients enrolled in a Boston-based health care for the homeless program (HCH). This study population was selected as a 2:1 HIV seronegative versus HIV seropositive match based on age, sex, and housing status. A subgroup analysis was performed on 287 patients with history of illicit drug use. Chart data were analyzed to compare demographics, health characteristics, and health service utilization. Results were stratified by housing status. Logistic models using generalized estimating equations were used to predict frequent ER visits. In homeless patients, hepatitis C was the only predictor of frequent ER visits (OR 4.49, phomeless patients. HIV seropositivity did not predict frequent ER visits, likely because HIV seropositive HCH patients are engaged in care. In patients with history of illicit drug use, hepatitis C and mental health disorders predicted frequent ER visits. Supportive housing for patients with mental health disorders and hepatitis C may help prevent unnecessary ER visits in this population.
Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F; Pollio, David
Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults.
Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.
Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…
Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Myers, Paul; Milburn, Norweeta; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
In a study exploring the relationship between typology and risk, we investigated the daily routines of a heterogeneous sample of young men and women from two sites who had been homeless for varying periods (N=1289). Cluster analysis yielded four groups--"Partnered", "Socially engaged", "Service connected-harm avoidant", and "Transgressive"--based…
Ethical consideration and trustworthiness were ensured. Data revealed that the nature of problems experienced by the homeless street-dwellers are primarily related to the wider structural, social-economic and political contexts of violence in South Africa. Inability to obtain social security benefits, lack of affordable housing, ...
Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.
Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…
David, B; Snijders, TAB
In this study we try to estimate the size of the homeless population in Budapest by using two - non-standard - sampling methods: snowball sampling and capture-recapture method. Using two methods and three different data sets we are able to compare the methods as well as the results, and we also
Rice, Eric; Petering, Robin; Rhoades, Harmony; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Winetrobe, Hailey; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy
Background: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) high school students experience higher rates of homelessness than their heterosexual peers. Moreover, LGBQ high school students are more likely to stay in riskier locations (eg, with a stranger) and less likely to stay in a shelter. This study tested whether these trends also apply to…
Miller, Peter; Pavlakis, Alexandra; Bourgeois, Alexis
This case was developed for use in a variety of leadership courses from contemporary issues to policy analysis or school-community relations. A narrative is presented about a superintendent, Kenny, who is faced with two new cases of student homelessness in his affluent suburban community. Students must consider the federal policy context (the…
Elbogen, Eric B; Sullivan, Connor P; Wolfe, James; Wagner, Henry Ryan; Beckham, Jean C
We examined the empirical link between money mismanagement and subsequent homelessness among veterans. We used a random sample of Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans from the National Post-Deployment Adjustment Survey in 2009-2011. Veterans were randomly selected from a roster of all US military service members in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom who were separated from active duty or in the Reserves/National Guard. Veterans (n = 1090) from 50 states and all military branches completed 2 waves of data collection 1 year apart (79% retention rate). Thirty percent reported money mismanagement (e.g., bouncing or forging a check, going over one's credit limit, falling victim to a money scam in the past year). Multivariate analysis revealed money mismanagement (odds ratio [OR] = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.87, 8.94) was associated with homelessness in the next year, as were arrest history (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.29), mental health diagnosis (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.26, 5.33), and income (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.71). Money mismanagement, reported by a substantial number of veterans, was related to a higher rate of subsequent homelessness. The findings have implications for policymakers and clinicians, suggesting that financial education programs offered by the US Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs may be targeted to effectively address veteran homelessness.
Asmoredjo, Jolanda; Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D.; Wolf, Judith R. L. M.
Purpose: To gain insight into client experiences with shelter or community care services for homeless people, homeless youth, and abused women and identify priority improvement areas. Methods: Seven hundred and forty-four clients rated their experiences and 116 clients rated the services' importance. Results: Clients had most positive experiences…
Diane Santa Maria
Full Text Available While HIV disproportionately impacts homeless individuals, little is known about the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors in the southwest and how age factors and HIV risk perceptions influence sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a secondary data analysis (n = 460 on sexually active homeless adults from a cross-sectional study of participants (n = 610 recruited from homeless service locations, such as shelters and drop-in centers, in an understudied region of the southwest. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of age at homelessness onset, current age, age at first sex, and HIV risk perceptions on having condomless sex, new sexual partner(s, and multiple sexual partners (≥4 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Individuals who first experienced homelessness by age 24 were significantly more likely to report condomless sex and multiple sexual partners in the past year than those who had a later onset of their first episode of homelessness. Individuals who were currently 24 years or younger were more likely to have had condomless sex, new sexual partners, and multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months than those who were 25 years or older. Those who had low perceived HIV risk had lower odds of all three sexual risk behaviors. Social service and healthcare providers should consider a younger age at homelessness onset when targeting HIV prevention services to youth experiencing homelessness.