WorldWideScience

Sample records for hurricane katrina hyperspectral

  1. Recovering from Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf Coast region suffered an unusually severe hurricane season in 2005: Hurricane Katrina (August 28-29, 2005) devastated much of southern Mississippi and Louisiana. Approximately 2,700 licensed early care and education facilities in those states and in Alabama were affected by Katrina, in addition to an unknown number of family child care…

  2. Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Ilan

    2007-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy.

  3. Hurricane Katrina Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked with FEMA and state and local agencies to respond to the emergencies throughout the Gulf.

  4. Hurricane Katrina Sediment Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked with FEMA and state and local agencies to respond to the emergencies throughout the Gulf.

  5. Hurricane Katrina Soil Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked with FEMA and state and local agencies to respond to the emergencies throughout the Gulf.

  6. Hurricane Katrina Water Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  7. Hurricane Katrina Soil Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  8. Hurricane Katrina Sediment Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  9. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  10. Hurricane Katrina Poster (August 28, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Katrina poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-18 shows a very large Hurricane Katrina as a category 5 hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico on August 28, 2005....

  11. Hurricane Katrina: A Teachable Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents suggestions for integrating the phenomenon of hurricanes into the teaching of high school fluid mechanics. Students come to understand core science concepts in the context of their impact upon both the environment and human populations. Suggestions for using information about hurricanes, particularly Hurricane Katrina, in a…

  12. Hurricane Katrina: A Teachable Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents suggestions for integrating the phenomenon of hurricanes into the teaching of high school fluid mechanics. Students come to understand core science concepts in the context of their impact upon both the environment and human populations. Suggestions for using information about hurricanes, particularly Hurricane Katrina, in a…

  13. Child mortality after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Robert K

    2010-03-01

    Age-specific pediatric health consequences of community disruption after Hurricane Katrina have not been analyzed. Post-Katrina vital statistics are unavailable. The objectives of this study were to validate an alternative method to estimate child mortality rates in the greater New Orleans area and compare pre-Katrina and post-Katrina mortality rates. Pre-Katrina 2004 child mortality was estimated from death reports in the local daily newspaper and validated by comparison with pre-Katrina data from the Louisiana Department of Health. Post-Katrina child mortality rates were analyzed as a measure of health consequences. Newspaper-derived estimates of mortality rates appear to be valid except for possible underreporting of neonatal rates. Pre-Katrina and post-Katrina mortality rates were similar for all age groups except infants. Post-Katrina, a 92% decline in mortality rate occurred for neonates (Katrina decline in infant mortality rate exceeds the pre-Katrina discrepancy between newspaper-derived and Department of Health-reported rates. A declining infant mortality rate raises questions about persistent displacement of high-risk infants out of the region. Otherwise, there is no evidence of long-lasting post-Katrina excess child mortality. Further investigation of demographic changes would be of interest to local decision makers and planners for recovery after public health emergencies in other regions.

  14. Hurricane Katrina impacts on Mississippi forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Christopher Oswalt; Jeffery Turner

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina triggered public interest and concern for forests in Mississippi that required rapid responses from the scientific community. A uniform systematic sample of 3,590 ground plots were established and measured in 687 days immediately after the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast. The hurricane damaged an estimated 521 million trees with more...

  15. Hurricane Katrina deaths, Louisiana, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Joan; Namulanda, Gonza; Ratard, Raoult

    2008-12-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck the US Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, causing unprecedented damage to numerous communities in Louisiana and Mississippi. Our objectives were to verify, document, and characterize Katrina-related mortality in Louisiana and help identify strategies to reduce mortality in future disasters. We assessed Hurricane Katrina mortality data sources received in 2007, including Louisiana and out-of-state death certificates for deaths occurring from August 27 to October 31, 2005, and the Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team's confirmed victims' database. We calculated age-, race-, and sex-specific mortality rates for Orleans, St Bernard, and Jefferson Parishes, where 95% of Katrina victims resided and conducted stratified analyses by parish of residence to compare differences between observed proportions of victim demographic characteristics and expected values based on 2000 US Census data, using Pearson chi square and Fisher exact tests. We identified 971 Katrina-related deaths in Louisiana and 15 deaths among Katrina evacuees in other states. Drowning (40%), injury and trauma (25%), and heart conditions (11%) were the major causes of death among Louisiana victims. Forty-nine percent of victims were people 75 years old and older. Fifty-three percent of victims were men; 51% were black; and 42% were white. In Orleans Parish, the mortality rate among blacks was 1.7 to 4 times higher than that among whites for all people 18 years old and older. People 75 years old and older were significantly more likely to be storm victims (P Hurricane Katrina was the deadliest hurricane to strike the US Gulf Coast since 1928. Drowning was the major cause of death and people 75 years old and older were the most affected population cohort. Future disaster preparedness efforts must focus on evacuating and caring for vulnerable populations, including those in hospitals, long-term care facilities, and personal residences. Improving mortality reporting timeliness will

  16. Hurricane Katrina and perinatal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    We review the literature on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on perinatal health, and providing data from our own research on pregnant and postpartum women. After Katrina, obstetric, prenatal, and neonatal care was compromised in the short term, but increases in adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, low birthweight, and maternal complications were mostly limited to highly exposed women. Both pregnant and postpartum women had rates of post-traumatic stress disorder similar to, or lower than, others exposed to Katrina, and rates of depression similar to other pregnant and postpartum populations. Health behaviors, such as smoking and breastfeeding, may have been somewhat negatively affected by the disaster, whereas effects on nutrition were likely associated with limited time, money, and food choices, and indicated by both weight gain and loss. We conclude that, with a few specific exceptions, postdisaster concerns and health outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women were similar to those of other people exposed to Hurricane Katrina. In such situations, disaster planners and researchers should focus on providing care and support for the normal concerns of the peripartum period, such as breastfeeding, depression, and smoking cessation. Contraception needs to be available for those who do not want to become pregnant. Although additional physical and mental health care needs to be provided for the most severely exposed women and their babies, many women are capable of surviving and thriving in postdisaster environments.

  17. Hurricane Katrina Wind Investigation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjarlais, A. O.

    2007-08-15

    This investigation of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind Investigation Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage investigation in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the investigations and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed investigations by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these investigations will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned investigative effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan investigations: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) Investigation teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous investigations and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures

  18. Hurricane Katrina Wind Investigation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjarlais, A. O.

    2007-08-15

    This investigation of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind Investigation Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage investigation in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the investigations and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed investigations by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these investigations will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned investigative effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan investigations: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) Investigation teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous investigations and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures

  19. Lessons Learnt From Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akundi, Murty

    2008-03-01

    Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans and its suburbs on Monday August 29^th, 2005. The previous Friday morning, August 26, the National Hurricane Center indicated that Katrina was a Category One Hurricane, which was expected to hit Florida. By Friday afternoon, it had changed its course, and neither the city nor Xavier University was prepared for this unexpected turn in the hurricane's path. The university had 6 to 7 ft of water in every building and Xavier was closed for four months. Students and university personnel that were unable to evacuate were trapped on campus and transportation out of the city became a logistical nightmare. Email and all electronic systems were unavailable for at least a month, and all cell phones with a 504 area code stopped working. For the Department, the most immediate problem was locating faculty and students. Xavier created a list of faculty and their new email addresses and began coordinating with faculty. Xavier created a web page with advice for students, and the chair of the department created a separate blog with contact information for students. The early lack of a clear method of communication made worse the confusion and dismay among the faculty on such issues as when the university would reopen, whether the faculty would be retained, whether they should seek temporary (or permanent) employment elsewhere, etc. With the vision and determination of President Dr. Francis, Xavier was able to reopen the university in January and ran a full academic year from January through August. Since Katrina, the university has asked every department and unit to prepare emergency preparedness plans. Each department has been asked to collect e-mail addresses (non-Xavier), cell phone numbers and out of town contact information. The University also established an emergency website to communicate. All faculty have been asked to prepare to teach classes electronically via Black board or the web. Questions remain about the longer term issues of

  20. Hurricane Katrina - Murphy Oil Spill Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  1. Hurricane Katrina - Murphy Oil Spill Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked with FEMA and state and local agencies to respond to the emergencies throughout the Gulf.

  2. Hurricane Katrina: addictive behavior trends and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2011-01-01

    Post-disaster trends in alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, as well as their predictors, were identified. Methods. Data from cross-sectional and panel surveys of African American adults in New Orleans, Louisiana, were used from before (2004: n = 1,867; 2005: n = 879) and after (2006a: n = 500; 2006b: n = 500) Hurricane Katrina. Alcohol consumption increased significantly from pre- to post-Hurricane Katrina, while cigarette smoking remained constant. In 2006, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with cigarette smoking, whereas "news attention" and "provided social support" were inversely associated with cigarette smoking. "News attention" was also inversely associated with cigarette smoking frequency, while "neighborliness" was associated with alcohol consumption. In addition, the effects of PTSD on alcohol consumption were moderated by "neighborliness." In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, there were complex predictive processes of addictive behaviors involving PTSD, news information, and social capital-related measures.

  3. Recovery from PTSD following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Berglund, Patricia; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2011-06-01

    We examined patterns and correlates of speed of recovery of estimated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people who developed PTSD in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. A probability sample of prehurricane residents of areas affected by Hurricane Katrina was administered a telephone survey 7-19 months following the hurricane and again 24-27 months posthurricane. The baseline survey assessed PTSD using a validated screening scale and assessed a number of hypothesized predictors of PTSD recovery that included sociodemographics, prehurricane history of psychopathology, hurricane-related stressors, social support, and social competence. Exposure to posthurricane stressors and course of estimated PTSD were assessed in a follow-up interview. An estimated 17.1% of respondents had a history of estimated hurricane-related PTSD at baseline and 29.2% by the follow-up survey. Of the respondents who developed estimated hurricane-related PTSD, 39.0% recovered by the time of the follow-up survey with a mean duration of 16.5 months. Predictors of slow recovery included exposure to a life-threatening situation, hurricane-related housing adversity, and high income. Other sociodemographics, history of psychopathology, social support, social competence, and posthurricane stressors were unrelated to recovery from estimated PTSD. The majority of adults who developed estimated PTSD after Hurricane Katrina did not recover within 18-27 months. Delayed onset was common. Findings document the importance of initial trauma exposure severity in predicting course of illness and suggest that pre- and posttrauma factors typically associated with course of estimated PTSD did not influence recovery following Hurricane Katrina. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The economics and ethics of Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Llewellyn H; Block, Walter E

    2010-01-01

    How might free enterprise have dealt with Hurricane Katrina and her aftermath. This article probes this question at increasing levels of radicalization, starting with the privatization of several government “services” and ending with the privatization of all of them.

  5. Retention of Displaced Students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Joshua Christian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies that university leaders implemented to improve retention of displaced students in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The universities that participated in this study admitted displaced students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This study utilized a qualitative…

  6. Complicated grief associated with hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, M Katherine; McLaughlin, Katie A; Ghesquiere, Angela; Gruber, Michael J; Sampson, Nancy A; Kessler, Ronald C

    2011-08-01

    Although losses are important consequences of disasters, few epidemiological studies of disasters have assessed complicated grief (CG) and none assessed CG associated with losses other than death of loved one. Data come from the baseline survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group, a representative sample of 3,088 residents of the areas directly affected by Hurricane Katrina. A brief screen for CG was included containing four items consistent with the proposed DSM-V criteria for a diagnosis of bereavement-related adjustment disorder. Fifty-eight and half percent of respondents reported a significant hurricane-related loss: Most-severe losses were 29.0% tangible, 9.5% interpersonal, 8.1% intangible, 4.2% work/financial, and 3.7% death of loved one. Twenty-six point one percent respondents with significant loss had possible CG and 7.0% moderate-to-severe CG. Death of loved one was associated with the highest conditional probability of moderate-to-severe CG (18.5%, compared to 1.1-10.5% conditional probabilities for other losses), but accounted for only 16.5% of moderate-to-severe CG due to its comparatively low prevalence. Most moderate-to-severe CG was due to tangible (52.9%) or interpersonal (24.0%) losses. Significant predictors of CG were mostly unique to either bereavement (racial-ethnic minority status, social support) or other losses (prehurricane history of psychopathology, social competence.). Nonbereavement losses accounted for the vast majority of hurricane-related possible CG despite risk of CG being much higher in response to bereavement than to other losses. This result argues for expansion of research on CG beyond bereavement and alerts clinicians to the need to address postdisaster grief associated with a wide range of losses. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Hurricane Katrina as a "teachable moment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, M. H.

    2008-04-01

    By American standards, New Orleans is a very old, very popular city in the southern part of the United States. It is located in Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi River, a river which drains about 40% of the Continental United States, making New Orleans a major port city. It is also located in an area of major oil reserves onshore, as well as offshore, in the Gulf of Mexico. Most people know New Orleans as a tourist hotspot; especially well-known is the Mardi Gras season at the beginning of Lent. People refer to the city as the "Big Easy". A recent biography of the city refers to it as the place where the emergence of modern tourism began. A multicultural city with a heavy French influence, it was part of the Louisiana Purchase from France in early 1803, when the United States bought it, doubling the size of the United States at that time. Today, in the year 2007, New Orleans is now known for the devastating impacts it withstood during the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina in late August 2005. Eighty percent of the city was submerged under flood waters. Almost two years have passed, and many individuals and government agencies are still coping with the hurricane's consequences. And insurance companies have been withdrawing their coverage for the region. The 2005 hurricane season set a record, in the sense that there were 28 named storms that calendar year. For the first time in hurricane forecast history, hurricane forecasters had to resort to the use of Greek letters to name tropical storms in the Atlantic and Gulf (Fig.~1). Hurricane Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane when it was in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico, after having passed across southern Florida. At landfall, Katrina's winds decreased in speed and it was relabeled as a Category 4. It devolved into a Category 3 hurricane as it passed inland when it did most of its damage. Large expanses of the city were inundated, many parts under water on the order of 20 feet or so. The Ninth Ward, heavily

  8. Hurricane Katrina as a "teachable moment"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Glantz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available By American standards, New Orleans is a very old, very popular city in the southern part of the United States. It is located in Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi River, a river which drains about 40% of the Continental United States, making New Orleans a major port city. It is also located in an area of major oil reserves onshore, as well as offshore, in the Gulf of Mexico. Most people know New Orleans as a tourist hotspot; especially well-known is the Mardi Gras season at the beginning of Lent. People refer to the city as the "Big Easy". A recent biography of the city refers to it as the place where the emergence of modern tourism began. A multicultural city with a heavy French influence, it was part of the Louisiana Purchase from France in early 1803, when the United States bought it, doubling the size of the United States at that time.

    Today, in the year 2007, New Orleans is now known for the devastating impacts it withstood during the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina in late August 2005. Eighty percent of the city was submerged under flood waters. Almost two years have passed, and many individuals and government agencies are still coping with the hurricane's consequences. And insurance companies have been withdrawing their coverage for the region.

    The 2005 hurricane season set a record, in the sense that there were 28 named storms that calendar year. For the first time in hurricane forecast history, hurricane forecasters had to resort to the use of Greek letters to name tropical storms in the Atlantic and Gulf (Fig.~1.

    Hurricane Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane when it was in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico, after having passed across southern Florida. At landfall, Katrina's winds decreased in speed and it was relabeled as a Category 4. It devolved into a Category 3 hurricane as it passed inland when it did most of its damage. Large expanses of the city were inundated, many parts under water on

  9. Increase in West Nile neuroinvasive disease after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Michaels, Sarah R; Xiong, Xu; Foppa, Ivo; Wesson, Dawn M

    2008-05-01

    After Hurricane Katrina, the number of reported cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) sharply increased in the hurricane-affected regions of Louisiana and Mississippi. In 2006, a >2-fold increase in WNND incidence was observed in the hurricane-affected areas than in previous years.

  10. Increase in West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease after Hurricane Katrina

    OpenAIRE

    Caillou?t, Kevin A.; Michaels, Sarah R.; Xiong, Xu; Foppa, Ivo; Wesson, Dawn M.

    2008-01-01

    After Hurricane Katrina, the number of reported cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) sharply increased in the hurricane-affected regions of Louisiana and Mississippi. In 2006, a >2-fold increase in WNND incidence was observed in the hurricane-affected areas than in previous years.

  11. Community College Re-Enrollment after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored predictors of community college re-enrollment after Hurricane Katrina among a sample of low-income women (N = 221). It was predicted that participants' pre-hurricane educational optimism would predict community college re-enrollment a year after the hurricane. The influence of various demographic and additional resources…

  12. Hospitalization rates among dialysis patients during Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian; Kutner, Nancy

    2012-08-01

    Dialysis centers struggled to maintain continuity of care for dialysis patients during and immediately following Hurricane Katrina's landfall on the US Gulf Coast in August 2005. However, the impact on patient health and service use is unclear. The impact of Hurricane Katrina on hospitalization rates among dialysis patients was estimated. Data from the United States Renal Data System were used to identify patients receiving dialysis from January 1, 2001 through August 29, 2005 at clinics that experienced service disruptions during Hurricane Katrina. A repeated events duration model was used with a time-varying Hurricane Katrina indicator to estimate trends in hospitalization rates. Trends were estimated separately by cause: surgical hospitalizations, medical, non-renal-related hospitalizations, and renal-related hospitalizations. The rate ratio for all-cause hospitalization associated with the time-varying Hurricane Katrina indicator was 1.16 (95% CI, 1.05-1.29; P = .004). The ratios for cause-specific hospitalization were: surgery, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68-1.04; P = .11); renal-related admissions, 2.53 (95% CI, 2.09-3.06); P Katrina was 140, representing approximately three percent of dialysis patients at the affected clinics. Hospitalization rates among dialysis patients increased in the month following the Hurricane Katrina landfall, suggesting that providers and patients were not adequately prepared for large-scale disasters.

  13. Hurricane Katrina Air Quality Sampling/Daily Monitoring (AQSDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked with FEMA and state and local agencies to respond to the emergencies throughout the Gulf.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes the environmental sampling completed by EPA in southeastern Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina caused major catastrophic damage. Presentation also describes EPA's Environmental Unit activities in Baton Rouge and New Orleans, LA, and Dallas, TX.

  15. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in damage and destruction to local water supplies in Mississippi and Louisiana affecting millions of people. Immediately following the devastation, a multidisciplinary team of 30 EPA emergency response, research, and water program personnel joined force...

  16. Hurricane Katrina Air Quality Sampling/Daily Monitoring (AQSDM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  17. Breakup of New Orleans Households after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and evidence on disaster-induced population displacement have focused on individual and population-subgroup characteristics. Less is known about impacts on households. I estimate excess incidence of household breakup resulting from Hurricane Katrina by comparing a probability sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans resident adult household heads…

  18. Resilience of Professional Counselors Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Simone F.; Lawson, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Professional counselors who provided services to those affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita completed the K6+ (screen for severe mental illness), the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale. Results indicated that participants who survived the hurricanes had higher levels of posttraumatic growth than…

  19. Resilience of Professional Counselors Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Simone F.; Lawson, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Professional counselors who provided services to those affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita completed the K6+ (screen for severe mental illness), the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale. Results indicated that participants who survived the hurricanes had higher levels of posttraumatic growth than…

  20. Experience of Hurricane Katrina and Reported Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Tesfai, Helen; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured…

  1. Experience of Hurricane Katrina and Reported Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Tesfai, Helen; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured…

  2. An Examination of Hurricane Emergency Preparedness Planning at Institutions of Higher Learning of the Gulf South Region Post Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Caterina Gulli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…

  3. An Examination of Hurricane Emergency Preparedness Planning at Institutions of Higher Learning of the Gulf South Region Post Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Caterina Gulli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…

  4. Hurricane Katrina: Impact on Cardiac Surgery Case Volume and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bakaeen, Faisal G.; Huh, Joseph; Chu, Danny; Coselli, Joseph S.; LeMaire, Scott A.; Mattox, Kenneth L.; Wall, Matthew J.; Wang, Xing Li; Shenaq, Salwa A.; Atluri, Prasad V.; Awad, Samir S.; Berger, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina produced a surge of patient referrals to our facility for cardiac surgery. We sought to determine the impact of this abrupt volume change on operative outcomes. Using our cardiac surgery database, which is part of the Department of Veterans Affairs' Continuous Improvement in Cardiac Surgery Program, we compared procedural outcomes for all cardiac operations that were performed in the year before the hurricane (Year A, 29 August 2004–28 August 2005) and the year after (Year B...

  5. SIMULATING LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN AND MISSISSIPPI RIVER OUTFLOW AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina was the direct cause of the flooding of New Orleans in September 2005. Between its passage and the pumping of flood waters back into Lake Pontchartrain and the Mississippi River, the flood waters acquired considerable amounts of contaminants, notably silver, but...

  6. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  7. Gone with the Wind? Integrity and Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Frances; Katz, Brit

    2011-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina slammed into 80 miles of Mississippi shoreline on August 29, 2005. It was the nation's worst natural disaster, a perfect storm. One hundred sixty miles-per-hour winds sent 55-foot-tall waves and a 30-foot wall of water across the shore and miles inland. It displaced 400,000 residents along the coast of the Mississippi, and…

  8. Stress and Support in Family Relationships after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Megan; Reczek, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors merge the study of support, strain, and ambivalence in family relationships with the study of stress to explore the ways family members provide support or contribute to strain in the disaster recovery process. The authors analyze interviews with 71 displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors, and identify three family…

  9. Socioecological disparities in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua A. Lewis; Wayne C. Zipperer; Henrik Ernstson; Brittany Bernik; Rebecca Hazen; Thomas Elmqvist; Michael J. Blum

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing interest in urban resilience, remarkably little is known about vegetation dynamics in the aftermath of disasters. In this study, we examined the composition and structure of plant communities across New Orleans (Louisiana, USA) following catastrophic flooding triggered by levee failures during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Focusing on eight...

  10. Increases in gonorrhea among high school students following hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsuami, M J; Taylor, S N; Smith, B S; Martin, D H

    2009-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a student population before hurricane Katrina and after their residential neighbourhoods were devastated in the wake of the hurricane. Students in a New Orleans public high school were offered urine screening for N gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis using nucleic acid amplification tests before (n = 346) and after (n = 333) hurricane Katrina. Based on studies showing gonorrhea clustering in physically deteriorated neighbourhoods, it was hypothesised that the post-Katrina gonorrhea prevalence would be higher among students whose neighbourhoods still showed signs of deterioration in the aftermath of the hurricane. Before and after hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of gonorrhea increased from 2.3% (8/346, 95% CI 1.3% to 4.6%) to 5.1% (17/333, 95% CI 3.1% to 8.2%), respectively (one-sided p = 0.027). In logistic regression of gonorrhea controlling for gender, age, chlamydia infection and exposure to hurricane-affected residential neighbourhood conditions, gonorrhea was significantly associated with female gender (odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 6.3; p = 0.04) and with chlamydia infection (OR 9.2, 95% CI 3.9 to 21.7; phurricane (OR 2.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 5.4; p = 0.09). The analysis indicates that the odds of testing positive for gonorrhea more than doubled among students after the hurricane, indicating that surveillance activities should be restored to monitor sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among at-risk populations. Redoubled efforts should be put into STI screening programmes as soon as possible following natural disasters to prevent resurgent STI incidence rates.

  11. Anomalous Gulf Heating and Hurricane Katrinas Rapid Intensification

    CERN Document Server

    Kafatos, M; Gautam, R; Sun, Z B D; Cervone, Guido; Gautam, Ritesh; Kafatos, Menas; Sun, Zafer Boybeyi & Donglian

    2005-01-01

    Global warming due to the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases has become a great concern and has been linked to increased hurricane activity associated with higher sea surface temperatures with conflicting views. Our observational results based on long term trends of sea surface temperatures reveal that the anomaly reached a record 0.8 C in the Gulf of Mexico in August 2005 as compared to previous years and may have been responsible for the intensification of the devastating Hurricane Katrina into a category 5 hurricane that hit the Southern coast of United States severely impacting the low lying city of New Orleans and the surrounding areas. In most intensifying storms, air-sea interaction is the major contributing factor and here we show how air-sea interactions might have affected Katrinas rapid intensification in the Gulf.

  12. Trends in Serious Emotional Disturbance among Youths Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fairbank, John A.; Gruber, Michael J.; Jones, Russell T.; Osofsky, Joy D.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns and predictors of trends in "DSM-IV" serious emotional disturbance (SED) among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Method: A probability sample of adult pre-hurricane residents of the areas affected by Katrina completed baseline and follow-up telephone surveys 18 to 27 months post-hurricane and 12 to 18…

  13. Diabetes Care Provided to Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Troy; Mortensen, Karoline

    2015-10-01

    Although previous studies have examined the impact of Hurricane Katrina on adults with diabetes, less is known about the effects on children with diabetes and on those displaced by the storm. We analyzed individual-level enrollment and utilization data of children with diabetes who were displaced from Louisiana and were enrolled in the Texas Medicaid Hurricane Katrina emergency waiver (TexKat). We compared the utilization and outcomes of children displaced from Louisiana with those of children who lived in areas less affected by Hurricane Katrina. Data from both before and after the storm were used to calculate difference-in-difference estimates of the effects of displacement on the children. We analyzed 4 diabetes management procedures (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1C] tests, eye exams, microalbumin tests, and thyroid tests) and a complication from poor diabetes management (diabetic ketoacidosis). Children enrolled in the waiver generally did not experience a decrease in care relative to the control group while the waiver program was in effect. After the waiver ended, however, we observed a drop in care and an increase in complications relative to the control group. Although the waiver appeared to have been largely successful immediately following Katrina, future waivers may be improved by ensuring that enrollees continue to receive care after the waivers expire.

  14. Shelf sediment transport during hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kehui; Mickey, Rangley C.; Chen, Qin; Harris, Courtney K.; Hetland, Robert D.; Hu, Kelin; Wang, Jiaze

    2016-05-01

    Hurricanes can greatly modify the sedimentary record, but our coastal scientific community has rather limited capability to predict hurricane-induced sediment deposition. A three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to study seabed erosion and deposition on the Louisiana shelf in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the year 2005. Sensitivity tests were performed on both erosional and depositional processes for a wide range of erosional rates and settling velocities, and uncertainty analysis was done on critical shear stresses using the polynomial chaos approximation method. A total of 22 model runs were performed in sensitivity and uncertainty tests. Estimated maximum erosional depths were sensitive to the inputs, but horizontal erosional patterns seemed to be controlled mainly by hurricane tracks, wave-current combined shear stresses, seabed grain sizes, and shelf bathymetry. During the passage of two hurricanes, local resuspension and deposition dominated the sediment transport mechanisms. Hurricane Katrina followed a shelf-perpendicular track before making landfall and its energy dissipated rapidly within about 48 h along the eastern Louisiana coast. In contrast, Hurricane Rita followed a more shelf-oblique track and disturbed the seabed extensively during its 84-h passage from the Alabama-Mississippi border to the Louisiana-Texas border. Conditions to either side of Hurricane Rita's storm track differed substantially, with the region to the east having stronger winds, taller waves and thus deeper erosions. This study indicated that major hurricanes can disturb the shelf at centimeter to meter levels. Each of these two hurricanes suspended seabed sediment mass that far exceeded the annual sediment inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, but the net transport from shelves to estuaries is yet to be determined. Future studies should focus on the modeling of sediment exchange between

  15. Analyzing after-action reports from Hurricanes Andrew and Katrina: repeated, modified, and newly created recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Claire Connolly

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen years after Hurricane Andrew struck Homestead, FL, Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, Alabama, and southeastern Louisiana. Along with all its destruction, the term "catastrophic" was redefined. This article extends the literature on these hurricanes by providing a macrolevel analysis of The Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee Final Report from Hurricane Andrew and three federal after-action reports from Hurricane Katrina, as well as a cursory review of relevant literature. Results provide evidence that previous lessons have not been learned or institutionalized with many recommendations being repeated or modified. This article concludes with a discussion of these lessons, as well as new issues arising during Hurricane Katrina.

  16. The effect of proximity to hurricanes Katrina and Rita on subsequent hurricane outlook and optimistic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Lueck, Michelle; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated how individuals living on the Gulf Coast perceived hurricane risk after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. It was hypothesized that hurricane outlook and optimistic bias for hurricane risk would be associated positively with distance from the Katrina-Rita landfall (more optimism at greater distance), controlling for historically based hurricane risk and county population density, demographics, individual hurricane experience, and dispositional optimism. Data were collected in January 2006 through a mail survey sent to 1,375 households in 41 counties on the coast (n = 824, 60% response). The analysis used hierarchal regression to test hypotheses. Hurricane history and population density had no effect on outlook; individuals who were male, older, and with higher household incomes were associated with lower risk perception; individual hurricane experience and personal impacts from Katrina and Rita predicted greater risk perception; greater dispositional optimism predicted more optimistic outlook; distance had a small effect but predicted less optimistic outlook at greater distance (model R(2) = 0.21). The model for optimistic bias had fewer effects: age and community tenure were significant; dispositional optimism had a positive effect on optimistic bias; distance variables were not significant (model R(2) = 0.05). The study shows that an existing measure of hurricane outlook has utility, hurricane outlook appears to be a unique concept from hurricane optimistic bias, and proximity has at most small effects. Future extension of this research will include improved conceptualization and measurement of hurricane risk perception and will bring to focus several concepts involving risk communication. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. The geography of mortality from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.; Mara, V.; Jayaprakash, S.; None

    2011-12-01

    Hurricane Katrina was one of the highest mortality disasters in US history. Typical hurricanes of the same strength take very few lives. Katrina's mortality is exceeded only by the so-called Galveston Flood (a hurricane) of 1900 that occurred at a time when forecasting was poor and evacuation was possible only by train or horse. The levee failures in New Orleans were a major contributing factor unique to Katrina. An examination of the characteristics of mortality may give insight into the cause of the great scope of the tragedy and the special vulnerability of those who died. We examine the spatial aspects of mortality. The locations of deceased victims were matched with victim information including age, race and gender for approximately 800 victims (data from Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals). From this we can analyze for spatial clustering of mortality. We know that Katrina took a particularly heavy toll on the elderly so we can analyze, for instance, whether the elderly were more likely to die in some locations than in others. Similarly, we analyze for gender and race against age (dividing age into five groups this gives 20 categories) as a factory in the geographic distribution of mortality as a way to recover measures of vulnerability. We can also correlate the spatial characteristics of mortality with underlying causes that might contribute to vulnerability. Data is available at a census block level on household income, poverty rates, education, home ownership, car ownership and a variety of other factors that can be correlated with the spatial mortality data. This allows for a multi-parameter estimation of factors that govern mortality in this unusually high mortality event.

  18. Just-in-Time Training: The Lessons of Hurricane Katrina, 10 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina reshaped college workforce development programs as thoroughly as it did the coastline--but in this case, the changes were for the good of students, employers and the community. This article discusses the effects and changes made by 4 community colleges who were effected by Hurricane Katrina: (1) Louisiana Community and Technical…

  19. Reactive Aggression and Posttraumatic Stress in Adolescents Affected by Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsee, Monica A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study tests a theoretical model illustrating a potential pathway to reactive aggression through exposure to a traumatic event (Hurricane Katrina) in 166 adolescents (61% female, 63% Caucasian) recruited from high schools on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. Results support an association between exposure to Hurricane Katrina and reactive…

  20. Mold exposure and health effects following hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Deborah N; Grimsley, L Faye; White, LuAnn E; El-Dahr, Jane M; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    The extensive flooding in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created conditions ideal for indoor mold growth, raising concerns about the possible adverse health effects associated with indoor mold exposure. Studies evaluating the levels of indoor and outdoor molds in the months following the hurricanes found high levels of mold growth. Homes with greater flood damage, especially those with >3 feet of indoor flooding, demonstrated higher levels of mold growth compared with homes with little or no flooding. Water intrusion due to roof damage was also associated with mold growth. However, no increase in the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has been observed in published reports to date. This article considers reasons why studies of mold exposure after the hurricane do not show a greater health impact.

  1. The Department of Defense and Homeland Security relationship: Hurricane Katrina through Hurricane Irene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    This research explored federal intervention with the particular emphasis on examining how a collaborative relationship between Department of Defense (DOD) and Homeland Security (DHS) led to greater effectiveness between these two federal departments and their subordinates (United States Northern Command and Federal Emergency Management Agency, respectively) during the preparation and response phases of the disaster cycle regarding US continental-based hurricanes. Through the application of a two-phased, sequential mixed methods approach, this study determined how their relationship has led to longitudinal improvements in the years following Hurricane Katrina, focusing on hurricanes as the primary unit of analysis.

  2. Religious Coping and Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment After Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters.

  3. Transformative experiences for Hurricanes Katrina and Rita disaster volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clukey, Lory

    2010-07-01

    The massive destruction caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 provided an opportunity for many volunteers to be involved with disaster relief work. Exposure to devastation and personal trauma can have long-lasting and sometimes detrimental effects on people providing help. This qualitative study explored the experience of volunteer relief workers who provided disaster relief services after the hurricanes. Three major themes emerged: emotional reactions that included feelings of shock, fatigue, anger and grief as well as sleep disturbances; frustration with leadership; and life-changing personal transformation. Stress reactions were noted but appeared to be mitigated by feelings of compassion for the victims and personal satisfaction in being able to provide assistance. Suggestions are provided for further research.

  4. Physically and sexually violent experiences of reproductive-aged women displaced by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Carla W; Burton, Shirley; Naponick, John

    2010-01-01

    Measure the frequency of physical and sexual abuse in a sample of reproductive aged women displaced by Hurricane Katrina, and compare those experiences to the year before Hurricane Katrina. Sixty-six English-speaking women aged 18-49 years residing in Louisiana Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) housing were screened for physical and sexual abuse seven to nine months after Hurricane Katrina, using modified 30x7 cluster sampling methodology. Twenty-three percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 14, 34%) of women reported being hit or verbally threatened since Hurricane Katrina. Abuse had increased for 33% (95% CI, 13, 63%) and decreased for 13% (95% CI, 4, 37%) of women. Twenty percent (95% CI, 6, 51%) of abused women were with a new partner, while 13% (95% CI, 4, 39%) reported new abuse with the same partner. Four women reported sexual abuse since Hurricane Katrina. Compared to before the storm, the frequency of sexual abuse was the same for two women, and one reported new abuse with the same partner. Physical abuse was not uncommon among displaced women following Hurricane Katrina. Increasing and new abuse were the most commonly reported experiences. Violence against women should not be overlooked as a continued, and perhaps escalating, occurrence requiring attention following displacement after disasters of such magnitude as Hurricane Katrina.

  5. The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the United States Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Tomić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present hurricane Katrina in all its stages, from the beginning to the end and to highlight the economic, environmental and social consequences that occurred in the hurricane aftermath with a focus on the tourism industry. This paper also briefly explains the basic mechanism of tropical cyclones and hurricanes and their occurrences through a detailed explanation of hurricane Katrina and its effects on the United States. Some attention is also given to the immense damage and aftermath which is the largest ever made by any hurricane.

  6. Controlling disasters: recognising latent goals after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    Classic sociological theory can be used to interpret the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall in the United States on 29 August 2005. The delayed and ineffective response to the storm and the subsequent failure of the levees become more understandable when one considers the latent goals of social control in disaster recovery. Constructing the survivors as suspect or criminal and conceptualising the impacts of the disaster as individual problems occurred in order to justify the emphasis on controlling the survivors of Katrina rather than on assisting them. Parallels are drawn here between the disaster response featuring social control efforts and a recent paradigmatic shift in criminal justice from justice to 'risk management'. Recognition of the implicit aims of the inadequate disaster response provides a more complete explanation of why post-Katrina efforts failed to achieve the manifest goals of response and recovery. The conclusion suggests ways to ensure more equitable and just disaster responses. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  7. Engineering education in the wake of hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marybeth

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Living through hurricane Katrina and its aftermath and reflecting on these experiences from technical and non-technical standpoints has led me to reconsider my thoughts and philosophy on engineering education. I present three ideas regarding engineering education pedagogy that I believe will prepare future engineers for problem-solving in an increasingly complex world. They are (1 we must practice radical (to the root engineering, (2 we must illustrate connections between engineering and public policy, and (3 we will join the charge to find sustainable solutions to problems. Ideas for bringing each of these concepts into engineering curricula through methods such as case study, practicing broad information gathering and data interpretation, and other methods inside and outside the classroom, are discussed. I believe that the consequences of not considering the root issues of problems to be solved, and of not including policy and sustainability considerations when problems to be solved are framed will lead our profession toward well meaning but insufficient utility. Hurricane Katrina convinced me that we must do better as educators to prepare our students for engineering for a sustainable world.

  8. Sediment Quality in Near Coastal Waters of the Gulf of Mexico: Influence of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results from this study represent a synoptic analysis of sediment quality in coastal waters of Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi Sound two months after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. Post-hurricane conditions were compared to pre-hurricane (2000-2004) conditions, for se...

  9. Serious Emotional Disturbance among Youths Exposed to Hurricane Katrina 2 Years Postdisaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fairbank, John A.; Gruber, Michael J.; Jones, Russell T.; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of serious emotional disturbance (SED) among children and adolescents exposed to Hurricane Katrina along with the associations of SED with hurricane-related stressors, sociodemographics, and family factors 18 to 27 months after the hurricane. Method: A probability sample of prehurricane residents of areas…

  10. Reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: a research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, R W; Colten, C E; Laska, S; Leatherman, S P

    2006-10-03

    Four propositions drawn from 60 years of natural hazard and reconstruction research provide a comparative and historical perspective on the reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Decisions taken over its 288-year history that have made New Orleans so vulnerable to Katrina reflect a long-term pattern of societal response to hazard events--reducing consequences to relatively frequent events, and increasing vulnerability to very large and rare events. Thus Katrina's consequences for New Orleans were truly catastrophic--accounting for most of the estimated 1,570 deaths of Louisiana residents and $40-50 billion in monetary losses. A comparative sequence and timing of recovery provides a calendar of historical experience against which to gauge progress in reconstruction. Using this calendar, the emergency post-disaster period appears to be longer in duration than that of any other studied disaster. The restoration period, the time taken to restore urban services for the smaller population, is in keeping with or ahead of historical experience. The effort to reconstruct the physical environment and urban infrastructure is likely to take 8-11 years. Conflicting policy goals for reconstruction of rapid recovery, safety, betterment, and equity are already evident. Actions taken demonstrate the rush to rebuild the familiar in contrast to planning efforts that emphasize betterment. Because disasters tend to accelerate existing economic, social, and political trends, the large losses in housing, population, and employment after Katrina are likely to persist and, at best, only partly recover. However, the possibility of breaking free of this gloomy trajectory is feasible and has some historical precedent.

  11. Mapping and Visualization of Storm-Surge Dynamics for Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2009-01-01

    The damages caused by the storm surges from Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita were significant and occurred over broad areas. Storm-surge maps are among the most useful geospatial datasets for hurricane recovery, impact assessments, and mitigation planning for future storms. Surveyed high-water marks were used to generate a maximum storm-surge surface for Hurricane Katrina extending from eastern Louisiana to Mobile Bay, Alabama. The interpolated surface was intersected with high-resolution lidar elevation data covering the study area to produce a highly detailed digital storm-surge inundation map. The storm-surge dataset and related data are available for display and query in a Web-based viewer application. A unique water-level dataset from a network of portable pressure sensors deployed in the days just prior to Hurricane Rita's landfall captured the hurricane's storm surge. The recorded sensor data provided water-level measurements with a very high temporal resolution at surveyed point locations. The resulting dataset was used to generate a time series of storm-surge surfaces that documents the surge dynamics in a new, spatially explicit way. The temporal information contained in the multiple storm-surge surfaces can be visualized in a number of ways to portray how the surge interacted with and was affected by land surface features. Spatially explicit storm-surge products can be useful for a variety of hurricane impact assessments, especially studies of wetland and land changes where knowledge of the extent and magnitude of storm-surge flooding is critical.

  12. Breton Island Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Pre/Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Pre/Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector transect data that were derived...

  13. Breton Island, Louisiana Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector transect data that was derived from...

  14. Breton Island Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Pre/Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Pre/Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector transect data that were derived...

  15. Breton Island, Louisiana Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Transects with Shoreline Change Rates (Post Hurricane Katrina) (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector transect data that was derived from...

  16. Surviving Hurricane Katrina: Winds of Change Transform a New Orleans Addiction Treatment Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriello, Paul J.; Pedersen-Wasson, Else; Crisham, Erin M.; Ellis, Robert; Morse, Patricia; Morse, Edward V.

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina's impact on the operations of the largest residential, addiction treatment organization in New Orleans is described. Pre- and post-Katrina experiences are discussed and augmented with organizational performance data. Suggestions for future research are provided. (Contains 4 figures.)

  17. Coastal-change impacts during hurricane katrina: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, Asbury; Wright, C. Wayne; Lillycrop, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    As part of an ongoing cooperative effort between USGS, NASA and USACE, the barrier islands within the right-front quadrant of Hurricane Katrina were surveyed with airborne lidar both before and after landfall. Dauphin Island, AL was located the farthest from landfall and wave runup intermittently overtopped its central and western sections. The Gulf-side of the island experienced severe erosion, leaving the first row of houses in the sea, while the bayside accreted. In contrast, the Chandeleur Islands, LA did not experience, this classic `rollover'. Rather, the island chain was completely stripped of sand, transforming a 40-km-long sandy island chain into a discontinuous series of muddy marsh islets. Models indicate that storm surge likely submerged the entire Chandeleur Island chain, at least during the latter part of the storm. The net result was destructive coastal change for the Chandeleur Islands, while Dauphin Island tended to maintain its form through landward migration.

  18. Predictors of Business Return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nina S. N.; Arenas, Helbert; Pace, Kelley; LeSage, James; Campanella, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster. PMID:23133530

  19. Predictors of business return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S N Lam

    Full Text Available We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster.

  20. Predictors of business return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nina S N; Arenas, Helbert; Pace, Kelley; LeSage, James; Campanella, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster.

  1. Adverse respiratory symptoms and environmental exposures among children and adolescents following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth A; Harris, Amy; Perrin, Keith; Bronfin, Daniel R; Ratard, Raoult; Vandyke, Russell; Goldshore, Matthew; Magnus, Manya

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable to environmental exposures and their respiratory effects. Following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, residents experienced multiple adverse environmental exposures. We characterized the association between upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) and environmental exposures among children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. We conducted a cross-sectional study following the return of the population to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina (October 2005 and February 2006) among a convenience sample of children and adolescents attending New Orleans health facilities. We used uni-, bi-, and multivariable analyses to describe participants, exposures, and associations with URS/LRS. Of 1,243 participants, 47% were Caucasian, 50% were male, and 72% were younger than 11 years of age. Multiple environmental exposures were identified during and after the storm and at current residences: roof/glass/storm damage (50%), outside mold (22%), dust (18%), and flood damage (15%). Self-reported URS and LRS (76% and 36%, respectively) were higher after the hurricane than before the hurricane (22% and 9%, respectively, pHurricane Katrina experienced environmental exposures associated with increased prevalence of reported URS and LRS. Additional research is needed to investigate the long-term health impacts of Hurricane Katrina.

  2. New Orleans After Hurricane Katrina: An Unnatural Disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Werner, B.; Kelso, A.

    2005-12-01

    Motivated by destruction in New Orleans following hurricane Katrina, we use a numerical model to explore how natural processes, economic development, hazard mitigation measures and policy decisions intertwine to produce long periods of quiescence punctuated by disasters of increasing magnitude. Physical, economic and policy dynamics are modeled on a grid representing the subsiding Mississippi Delta region surrounding New Orleans. Water flow and resulting sediment erosion and deposition are simulated in response to prescribed river floods and storms. Economic development operates on a limited number of commodities and services such as agricultural products, oil and chemical industries and port services, with investment and employment responding to both local conditions and global constraints. Development permitting, artificial levee construction and pumping are implemented by policy agents who weigh predicted economic benefits (tax revenue), mitigation costs and potential hazards. Economic risk is reduced by a combination of private insurance, federal flood insurance and disaster relief. With this model, we simulate the initiation and growth of New Orleans coupled with an increasing level of protection from a series of flooding events. Hazard mitigation filters out small magnitude events, but terrain and hydrological modifications amplify the impact of large events. In our model, "natural disasters" are the inevitable outcome of the mismatch between policy based on short-time-scale economic calculations and stochastic forcing by infrequent, high-magnitude flooding events. A comparison of the hazard mitigation response to river- and hurricane-induced flooding will be discussed. Supported by NSF Geology and Paleontology and the Andrew W Mellon Foundation.

  3. Serious emotional disturbance among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina 2 years postdisaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Fairbank, John A; Gruber, Michael J; Jones, Russell T; Lakoma, Matthew D; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sampson, Nancy A; Kessler, Ronald C

    2009-11-01

    To estimate the prevalence of serious emotional disturbance (SED) among children and adolescents exposed to Hurricane Katrina along with the associations of SED with hurricane-related stressors, sociodemographics, and family factors 18 to 27 months after the hurricane. A probability sample of prehurricane residents of areas affected by Hurricane Katrina was administered a telephone survey. Respondents provided information on up to two of their children (n = 797) aged 4 to 17 years. The survey assessed hurricane-related stressors and lifetime history of psychopathology in respondents, screened for 12-month SED in respondents' children using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and determined whether children's emotional and behavioral problems were attributable to Hurricane Katrina. The estimated prevalence of SED was 14.9%, and 9.3% of the youths were estimated to have SED that is directly attributable to Hurricane Katrina. Stress exposure was associated strongly with SED, and 20.3% of the youths with high stress exposure had hurricane-attributable SED. Death of a loved one had the strongest association with SED among prehurricane residents of New Orleans, whereas exposure to physical adversity had the strongest association in the remainder of the sample. Among children with stress exposure, parental psychopathology and poverty were associated with SED. The prevalence of SED among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina remains high 18 to 27 months after the storm, suggesting a substantial need for mental health treatment resources in the hurricane-affected areas. The youths who were exposed to hurricane-related stressors, have a family history of psychopathology, and have lower family incomes are at greatest risk for long-term psychiatric impairment.

  4. Factors Influencing the Course of Posttraumatic Stress Following a Natural Disaster: Children's Reactions to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Andrew M.; Boxer, Paul; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined psychosocial and behavioral factors involved in the course of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in youth affected by Hurricane Katrina. Participants (N = 152; 54% female; 61% Caucasian; mean age = 11.5 years) self-reported on hurricane exposure, PTSD symptoms, fear reactivity, regulatory abilities, social…

  5. Predicting Mothers' Reports of Children's Mental Health Three Years after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Godoy, Leandra; Rhodes, Jean E.; Carter, Alice S.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored pathways through which hurricane-related stressors affected the psychological functioning of elementary school aged children who survived Hurricane Katrina. Participants included 184 mothers from the New Orleans area who completed assessments one year pre-disaster (Time 1), and one and three years post-disaster (Time 2 and Time…

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COASTAL WATERS FOLLOWING HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the morning of August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Biloxi, Mississippi, as a strong category three hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The massive winds and flooding had the potential for a tremendous environmental impac...

  7. Postpartum mental health after Hurricane Katrina: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harville Emily W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural disaster is often a cause of psychopathology, and women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. Depression is also common after a woman gives birth. However, no research has addressed postpartum women's mental health after natural disaster. Methods Interviews were conducted in 2006–2007 with women who had been pregnant during or shortly after Hurricane Katrina. 292 New Orleans and Baton Rouge women were interviewed at delivery and 2 months postpartum. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and PTSD using the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane with questions addressing threat, illness, loss, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-binomial/Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR. Results Black women and women with less education were more likely to have had a serious experience of the hurricane. 18% of the sample met the criteria for depression and 13% for PTSD at two months postpartum. Feeling that one's life was in danger was associated with depression and PTSD, as were injury to a family member and severe impact on property. Overall, two or more severe experiences of the storm was associated with an increased risk for both depression (relative risk (RR 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.08–2.89 and PTSD (RR 3.68, 95% CI 1.80–7.52. Conclusion Postpartum women who experience natural disaster severely are at increased risk for mental health problems, but overall rates of depression and PTSD do not seem to be higher than in studies of the general population.

  8. Health of Medicare Advantage plan enrollees at 1 year after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Lynda C; Skinner, Elizabeth A; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Lieberman, Richard; Leff, Bruce; Clark, Rebecca; Yu, Qilu; Lemke, Klaus W; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effects of Hurricane Katrina on mortality, morbidity, disease prevalence, and service utilization during 1 year in a cohort of 20,612 older adults who were living in New Orleans, Louisiana, before the disaster and who were enrolled in a managed care organization (MCO). Observational study comparing mortality, morbidity, and service use for 1 year before and after Hurricane Katrina, augmented by a stratified random sample of 303 enrollees who participated in a telephone survey after Hurricane Katrina. Sources of data for health and service use were MCO claims. Mortality was based on reports to the MCO from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; morbidity was measured using adjusted clinical groups case-mix methods derived from diagnoses in ambulatory and hospital claims data. Mortality in the year following Hurricane Katrina was not significantly elevated (4.3% before vs 4.9% after the hurricane). However, overall morbidity increased by 12.6% (P Hurricane Katrina on this vulnerable population. Although quick rebuilding of the provider network may have attenuated more severe health outcomes for this managed care population, new policies must be introduced to deal with the health consequences of a major disaster.

  9. Impacts of Hurricane Katrina on floodplain forests of the Pearl River: Chapter 6A in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Stephen; Barrow, Wylie; Couvillion, Brady R.; Conner, William; Randall, Lori; Baldwin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Floodplain forests are an important habitat for Neotropical migratory birds. Hurricane Katrina passed through the Pearl River flood plain shortly after making landfall. Field measurements on historical plots and remotely sensed data were used to assess the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the structure of floodplain forests of the Pearl River.

  10. Natural disasters and myocardial infarction: the six years after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Matthew N; Moscona, John C; Katz, Morgan J; Deandrade, Kevin B; Quevedo, Henry C; Tiwari, Sumit; Burchett, Andrew R; Turnage, Thomas A; Singh, Kanwar Y; Fomunung, Edmond N; Srivastav, Sudesh; Delafontaine, Patrice; Irimpen, Anand M

    2014-04-01

    To determine the prolonged effect of Hurricane Katrina on the incidence and timing of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the city of New Orleans. Our study population consisted of 1476 patients with AMI before (August 29, 1999, to August 28, 2005) and after (February 14, 2006, to February 13, 2012) Hurricane Katrina at Tulane University Health Sciences Center to determine post-Katrina alterations in the occurrence and timing of AMI. Compared with pre-Katrina values, there was a more than 3-fold increase in the percentage of admissions for AMI during the 6 years after Hurricane Katrina (PHurricane Katrina increased significantly on nights (PHurricane Katrina also had significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities (P=.01), smoking (P<.001), lack of health insurance (P<.05), and unemployment (P<.001). These results indicate that the effect of natural disasters on the occurrence of AMI may persist for at least a 6-year period and may be related to various factors including population shifts, alterations in the health care system, and the effects of chronic stress and associated behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Going Home after Hurricane Katrina: Determinants of Return Migration and Changes in Affected Areas. Working Paper 428

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Jeffrey A.; Polivka, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the decision of Hurricane Katrina evacuees to return to their pre- Katrina areas and documents how the composition of the Katrina-affected region changed over time. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we show that an evacuee's age and the severity of damage in an evacuee's county of origin are important determinants…

  12. SIMULATION OF FRESHWATER PLUME FROM LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN AND THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER IN THE WAKE OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the spirit of a post-Katrina response, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was set up and applied to the hurricane Katrina affected region of Mississippi River delta, Lake Pontchartran, and the Gulf of Mexico coastline near New Orleans. Following Katrina, there was concern ...

  13. Injuries after Hurricane Katrina among Gulf Coast Evacuees sheltered in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Mark; Weller, Nancy F; Jones, Julie A

    2011-09-01

    After Hurricane Katrina and a decline in the living conditions at a major temporary shelter in New Orleans, Louisiana, residents were offered transport to a Mega-Shelter in Houston, Texas. Approximately 200,000 Gulf Coast residents were transported to Houston's Astrodome/Reliant Center Complex for appropriate triage and transfer to other shelter facilities. The Katrina Clinic was quickly organized to treat evacuees with acute injuries and illnesses as well as chronic medical conditions. Clinic physicians documented 1130 hurricane-related injuries during Katrina Clinic's operational interval, September 1-22, 2005. This article documents the nature, extent, and location of injuries treated at that clinic. We compare the frequency of injury among Katrina evacuees who visited the clinic to that of injuries among clinic outpatient records recorded in a nationally representative database. Using the Barell Matrix system and codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, we classify Katrina injuries by body region and nature of injury; we also document the large number of hurricane-related immunizations distributed at the temporary outpatient clinic. The results show a 42% higher injury proportion among Katrina evacuees and that approximately half of all of the evacuees required immunizations. Lower leg extremity injuries were among the most frequent injuries. Future planning for hurricanes should take into account nonfatal injuries requiring medical treatment and other supportive care. Copyright © 2011 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Traumatic Loss and Natural Disaster: A Case Study of a School-Based Response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clettenberg, Stacey; Gentry, Judy; Held, Matthew; Mock, Lou Ann

    2011-01-01

    This article tracks the trajectory and impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the communities of Houston/Harris County, Texas, USA, the schools, children, and families; along with the community partnerships that addressed the trauma and upheaval. Following the influx of individuals and families who were displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita…

  15. Motivational Factors Underlying College Students' Decisions to Resume Their Educational Pursuits in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Theresa M.; Herlihy, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This study explored college student persistence at a historically Black university affected by Hurricane Katrina. Predictor variables including sex, residence status, Pell Grant status, campus housing status, college grade point average, attendance before Hurricane Katrina, and attendance at the university by parents or another close relative were…

  16. Traumatic Loss and Natural Disaster: A Case Study of a School-Based Response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clettenberg, Stacey; Gentry, Judy; Held, Matthew; Mock, Lou Ann

    2011-01-01

    This article tracks the trajectory and impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the communities of Houston/Harris County, Texas, USA, the schools, children, and families; along with the community partnerships that addressed the trauma and upheaval. Following the influx of individuals and families who were displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita…

  17. Disaster mythology and fact: Hurricane Katrina and social attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Binu; Mawson, Anthony R; Payton, Marinelle; Guignard, John C

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about disasters and their social and health consequences remain prevalent despite considerable research evidence to the contrary. Eight such myths and their factual counterparts were reviewed in a classic report on the public health impact of disasters by Claude de Ville de Goyet entitled, The Role of WHO in Disaster Management: Relief, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction (Geneva, World Health Organization, 1991), and two additional myths and facts were added by Pan American Health Organization. In this article, we reconsider these myths and facts in relation to Hurricane Katrina, with particular emphasis on psychosocial needs and behaviors, based on data gleaned from scientific sources as well as printed and electronic media reports. The review suggests that preparedness plans for disasters involving forced mass evacuation and resettlement should place a high priority on keeping families together--and even entire neighborhoods, where possible--so as to preserve the familiar and thereby minimize the adverse effects of separation and major dislocation on mental and physical health.

  18. A comparison of HWRF, ARW and NMM models in Hurricane Katrina (2005) simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodla, Venkata B; Desamsetti, Srinivas; Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu

    2011-06-01

    The life cycle of Hurricane Katrina (2005) was simulated using three different modeling systems of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. These are, HWRF (Hurricane WRF) designed specifically for hurricane studies and WRF model with two different dynamic cores as the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). The WRF model was developed and sourced from National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), incorporating the advances in atmospheric simulation system suitable for a broad range of applications. The HWRF modeling system was developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) based on the NMM dynamic core and the physical parameterization schemes specially designed for tropics. A case study of Hurricane Katrina was chosen as it is one of the intense hurricanes that caused severe destruction along the Gulf Coast from central Florida to Texas. ARW, NMM and HWRF models were designed to have two-way interactive nested domains with 27 and 9 km resolutions. The three different models used in this study were integrated for three days starting from 0000 UTC of 27 August 2005 to capture the landfall of hurricane Katrina on 29 August. The initial and time varying lateral boundary conditions were taken from NCEP global FNL (final analysis) data available at 1 degree resolution for ARW and NMM models and from NCEP GFS data at 0.5 degree resolution for HWRF model. The results show that the models simulated the intensification of Hurricane Katrina and the landfall on 29 August 2005 agreeing with the observations. Results from these experiments highlight the superior performance of HWRF model over ARW and NMM models in predicting the track and intensification of Hurricane Katrina.

  19. A Comparison of HWRF, ARW and NMM Models in Hurricane Katrina (2005 Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of Hurricane Katrina (2005 was simulated using three different modeling systems of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF mesoscale model. These are, HWRF (Hurricane WRF designed specifically for hurricane studies and WRF model with two different dynamic cores as the Advanced Research WRF (ARW model and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM. The WRF model was developed and sourced from National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR, incorporating the advances in atmospheric simulation system suitable for a broad range of applications. The HWRF modeling system was developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP based on the NMM dynamic core and the physical parameterization schemes specially designed for tropics. A case study of Hurricane Katrina was chosen as it is one of the intense hurricanes that caused severe destruction along the Gulf Coast from central Florida to Texas. ARW, NMM and HWRF models were designed to have two-way interactive nested domains with 27 and 9 km resolutions. The three different models used in this study were integrated for three days starting from 0000 UTC of 27 August 2005 to capture the landfall of hurricane Katrina on 29 August. The initial and time varying lateral boundary conditions were taken from NCEP global FNL (final analysis data available at 1 degree resolution for ARW and NMM models and from NCEP GFS data at 0.5 degree resolution for HWRF model. The results show that the models simulated the intensification of Hurricane Katrina and the landfall on 29 August 2005 agreeing with the observations. Results from these experiments highlight the superior performance of HWRF model over ARW and NMM models in predicting the track and intensification of Hurricane Katrina.

  20. Mediating the Morals of Disasters: Hurricane Katrina in Norwegian News Media

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    Kyrre Kverndokk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian media responses to Hurricane Katrina were structured around three well-established sets of motifs in a globalized late modern disaster discourse: 1 The collapse of civil society, 2 Social vulnerability 2 Extreme weather and global warming. These sets of motifs portray relationships or non-relationships between natural evil and moral evil. Starting with Voltaire’s description of Candide’s arrival in Lisbon after the earthquake I discuss how an 18th century disaster discourse is echoed in contemporary media narratives. This paper explores a folkloristic and narratological approach to writing nature. I use Hurricane Katrina as a case for studying Norwegian media disaster narratives. In these narratives I am concerned with how such narratives transform disasters from being acts of nature to become issues of morale. Modern disaster narratives have more complex historical roots then often claimed. This complexity is mirrored in the media representations of Hurricane Katrina.

  1. Disrupted by disaster: shared experiences of student registered nurse anesthetists affected by hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisz-Everson, Marjorie A; Bennett, Marsha J; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Biddle, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this focused ethnography was to describe the shared experiences of student registered nurse anesthetists (SRNAs) whose senior year of education and training was disrupted by Hurricane Katrina, as well as to determine the storm's psychosocial impact on them. A convenience sample of 10 former SRNAs participated in focus groups that were audiorecorded, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed. Three major themes emerged from the study: Seriousness of Urgency, Managing Uncertainty, and Stability Equaled Relief. The themes represented how the SRNAs appraised and coped with the stressful events surrounding Hurricane Katrina. The psychosocial impact of Hurricane Katrina on the SRNAs resulted mainly in temporary increased alcohol consumption and short-term anxiety. One person started smoking. The results of this study should serve as a guide to formulate policies regarding the education of SRNAs during and immediately after a disaster and to provide a framework for future disaster studies regarding SRNAs. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Mother and Child Reports of Hurricane Related Stressors: Data from a Sample of Families Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Betty S.; Beaulieu, Brooke; Ogokeh, Constance E.; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families exposed to disasters such as Hurricane Katrina are at risk for numerous adverse outcomes. While previous literature suggests that the degree of disaster exposure corresponds with experiencing negative outcomes, it is unclear if parents and children report similar levels of disaster exposure. Objective: The purpose of this…

  3. Mother and Child Reports of Hurricane Related Stressors: Data from a Sample of Families Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Betty S.; Beaulieu, Brooke; Ogokeh, Constance E.; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families exposed to disasters such as Hurricane Katrina are at risk for numerous adverse outcomes. While previous literature suggests that the degree of disaster exposure corresponds with experiencing negative outcomes, it is unclear if parents and children report similar levels of disaster exposure. Objective: The purpose of this…

  4. A comparison of the nursing home evacuation experience between hurricanes katrina (2005) and gustav (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Gary; Dosa, David

    2009-11-01

    One of the tragic legacies of Hurricane Katrina was the loss of life among Louisiana (LA) nursing home (NH) residents. Katrina revealed a staggering lack of emergency preparation and understanding of how to safely evacuate frail populations. Three years later, LA braced for Hurricane Gustav, a storm heralded to rival Katrina's power. Although its magnitude of destruction ultimately paled to Katrina, the warnings and predicted path preceding Gustav yielded a process of NH evacuations similar to Katrina. The goal of this article was to ascertain whether NH administrative directors (ADs) felt more prepared to evacuate before Gustav. In 2006, Dosa et al(5) (J Am Med Dir Assoc, 3/07), interviewed 20 NH ADs by qualitative telephone survey to evaluate their lessons learned from Katrina. Administrators at these 20 participating nursing homes were contacted and asked to participate in a follow-up survey to compare hurricane preparedness between 2005 and 2008. Specifically, ADs were asked if they evacuated before Gustav, their destination, and about logistical issues with evacuation (eg, transportation, injuries). ADs were asked to rate their confidence with state assistance, hurricane transportation, and evacuation preparedness on a 10-point scale (10=most confident) and compare their preparedness to Katrina. Sixteen of the 20 NHs that participated in 2006 agreed to be surveyed-11 of whom held the same position before Katrina. Unlike Katrina, when only 45% evacuated before the storm, all 16 NHs evacuated before Gustav (56% to another NH and 46% to a church, gym, college, or other facility). Overall, ADs rated their confidence in preparedness for Gustav as a mean of 8.3 (range 5 to 10) compared with a mean of 5.4 (range 3 to 8) for Katrina, a 54% improvement. Of the 11 ADs employed pre-Katrina, 73% reported improved collaboration with the state and 55% noted improved transportation. Nevertheless, 7 ADs noted significant logistical problems during evacuation (mostly

  5. A Comparison of the Nursing Home Evacuation Experience between Hurricanes Katrina (2005) and Gustav (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Gary; Dosa, David

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the tragic legacies of Hurricane Katrina was the loss of life among Louisiana (LA) nursing home (NH) residents. Katrina revealed a staggering lack of emergency preparation and understanding of how to safely evacuate frail populations. Three years later, LA braced for Hurricane Gustav, a storm heralded to rival Katrina's power. Though its magnitude of destruction ultimately paled to Katrina, the warnings and predicted path preceding Gustav yielded a process of NH evacuations similar to Katrina. The goal of this paper was to ascertain whether NH administrative directors (ADs) felt more prepared to evacuate before Gustav. Methods In 2006, Dosa, et. al. (JAMDA, 3/07), interviewed 20 NH ADs by qualitative telephone survey to evaluate their lessons learned from Katrina. Administrators at these 20 participating nursing homes were contacted and asked to participate in a follow-up survey to compare hurricane preparedness between 2005 and 2008. Specifically, ADs were asked if they evacuated prior to Gustav, their destination, and about logistical issues with evacuation (e.g., transportation, injuries). ADs were asked to rate their confidence with state assistance, hurricane transportation, and evacuation preparedness on a 10-point scale (10=most confident) and compare their preparedness to Katrina. Results Sixteen of the 20 NHs that participated in 2006 agreed to be surveyed – 11 of whom held the same position before Katrina. Unlike Katrina, when only 45% evacuated prior to the storm, all 16 NHs evacuated before Gustav. (56% to another NH and 46% to a church, gym, college, or other facility). Overall, ADs rated their confidence in preparedness for Gustav as a mean of 8.3 (range 5 to 10) – compared with a mean of 5.4 (range 3 to 8) for Katrina, a 54% improvement. Of the 11 ADs employed pre-Katrina, 73% reported improved collaboration with the state and 55% noted improved transportation. Nevertheless, seven ADs noted significant logistical problems during

  6. Hurricane Katrina-induced forest damage in relation to ecological factors at landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y Jun

    2009-09-01

    Forest stand stability to strong winds such as hurricanes has been found to be associated with a number of forest, soil and topography factors. In this study, through applying geographic information system (GIS) and logit regression, we assessed effects of forest characteristics and site conditions on pattern, severity and probability of Hurricane Katrina disturbance to forests in the Lower Pearl River Valley, USA. The factors included forest type, forest coverage, stand density, soil great group, elevation, slope, aspect, and stream buffer zone. Results showed that Hurricane Katrina damaged 60% of the total forested land in the region. The distribution and intensity of the hurricane disturbance varied across the landscape, with the bottomland hardwood forests on river floodplains most severely affected. All these factors had a variety of effects on vulnerability of the forests to the hurricane disturbance and thereby spatial patterns of the disturbance. Soil groups and stand factors including forest types, forest coverage and stand density contributed to 85% of accuracy in modeling the probability of the hurricane disturbance to forests in this region. Besides assessment of Katrina's damage, this study elucidates the great usefulness of remote sensing and GIS techniques combined with statistics modeling in assessment of large-scale risks of hurricane damage to coastal forests.

  7. Mosquito fauna and arbovirus surveillance in a coastal Mississippi community after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Evans, Christopher L; Wozniak, Arthur; Wills, William

    2007-06-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused massive destruction and flooding along the Gulf Coast in August 2005. We collected mosquitoes and tested them for arboviral infection in a severely hurricane-damaged community to determine species composition and to assess the risk of a mosquito-borne epidemic disease in that community about 6 wk after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. Light-trap collections yielded 8,215 mosquitoes representing 19 species, while limited gravid-trap collections were not productive. The most abundant mosquito species was Culex nigripalpus, which constituted 73.6% of all specimens. No arboviruses were detected in any of the mosquitoes collected in this survey, which did not support the assertion that human risk for arboviral infection was increased in the coastal community 6 wk after the hurricane.

  8. Metal concentrations in schoolyard soils from New Orleans, Louisiana before and after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Steven M; Abel, Michael T; Austin, Galen P; Rainwater, Thomas R; Brown, Ray W; McDaniel, Les N; Marsland, Eric J; Fornerette, Ashley M; Dillard, Melvin L; Rigdon, Richard W; Kendall, Ronald J; Cobb, George P

    2010-06-01

    The long-term environmental impact and potential human health hazards resulting from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita throughout much of the United States Gulf Coast, particularly in the New Orleans, Louisiana, USA area are still being assessed and realized after more than four years. Numerous government agencies and private entities have collected environmental samples from throughout New Orleans and found concentrations of contaminants exceeding human health screening values as established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for air, soil, and water. To further assess risks of exposure to toxic concentrations of soil contaminants for citizens, particularly children, returning to live in New Orleans following the storms, soils collected from schoolyards prior to Hurricane Katrina and after Hurricane Rita were screened for 26 metals. Concentrations exceeding USEPA Regional Screening Levels (USEPA-RSL), total exposure, non-cancer endpoints, for residential soils for arsenic (As), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) were detected in soil samples collected from schoolyards both prior to Hurricane Katrina and after Hurricane Rita. Approximately 43% (9/21) of schoolyard soils collected prior to Hurricane Katrina contained Pb concentrations greater than 400mgkg(-1), and samples from four schoolyards collected after Hurricane Rita contained detectable Pb concentrations, with two exceeding 1700mgkg(-1). Thallium concentrations exceeded USEPA-RSL in samples collected from five schoolyards after Hurricane Rita. Based upon these findings and the known increased susceptibility of children to the effects of Pb exposure, a more extensive assessment of the soils in schoolyards, public parks and other residential areas of New Orleans for metal contaminants is warranted. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rebuilding the park: the impact of Hurricane Katrina on a black middle-class neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafford, Farrah D

    2010-01-01

    The devastation of Hurricane Katrina unveiled the legacy of racial and class stratification in New Orleans, Louisiana. Much of the Katrina-related research has focused primarily on how poor Black neighborhoods were disproportionately affected by the disaster. While this body of research makes valid claims, there has been very little research that examines how Black middle-class residents in New Orleans were impacted by Hurricane Katrina. This study examines how residents in Pontchartrain Park, a Black middle-class neighborhood, are responding to the disaster. The author uses in-depth interviews, ethnographic observations, and archival data to examine the barriers that residents are facing in the recovery process. She argues that the experiences of the Black middle class also have implications for the connectedness of race and class. The challenges discussed within the article are linked to a history of racial stratification.

  10. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  11. The Children Hurricane Katrina Left Behind: Schooling Context, Professional Preparation, and Community Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sharon P., Ed.; Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Even before the 2005 "Disaster in the Delta"--as the devastation and loss wrought by the category-three hurricane known as Katrina came to be known--statistics emerged about the aggressive educational neglect of Louisiana's African American schoolchildren. The harrowing data about the inadequacies being as racialized as the distribution…

  12. Guess Who's Coming to Dinner: The Importance of Multiculturalism in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alicia L.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of multiculturalism in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina can be illustrated through a comparative view of the 1967 controversial, seminal, and Academy Award winning film, "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner". In the film, a multicultural cast starred in a groundbreaking tale of interracial marriage--then still illegal in some United…

  13. EAARL coastal topography—northwest Florida, post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Kranenburg, Christine; Doran, Kara

    2017-01-01

    These datasets, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, provide lidar-derived first-surface and bare-earth topography for a portion of northwest Florida. Elevation measurements were acquired by the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) in September 2005, immediately following Hurricane Katrina landfall.

  14. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was initiated in fall 2005 to assess potential effects on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama following Hurricane Katrina, which struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Bioloxi, Mississippi on August 29...

  15. Missed Opportunities: Examining the Literacy Experiences of African American Students Displaced by Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Tamica McClarty

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how five African American middle school students, who were displaced by Hurricane Katrina represent their literacy experiences before, during, and after their displacement. Specifically, the two research questions were: (a) What are the stories that these middle school students tell about their lives,…

  16. Resiliency and Recovery: Lessons from the Asian Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Delini M.; Hebert, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    Separated by continents and cultures, survivors of the Asian tsunami and Hurricane Katrina share a common bond in their extreme trauma and ensuing struggles. The authors discuss and illustrate core ideas based on the commonalities derived from the experiences of women survivors of these two disasters.

  17. Performance of two oak species and three planting stocks on lands damaged by hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Conrad III; Andrew W. Ezell; Emily B. Schultz; John D. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina had a devastating impact on bottomland hardwood forests in 2005. Artificial regeneration was considered the most appropriate method for reforesting these areas, but few studies have evaluated methods for artificially regenerating oaks on clear cut sites in the southern United States. First-year survival and growth of two oak species, live oak (Quercus...

  18. Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

    2010-01-01

    The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary…

  19. The Moderating Effects of Maternal Psychopathology on Children's Adjustment Post-Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, Annie W.; Kelley, Mary Lou; Wang, Jing; Self-Brown, Shannon; Davidson, Karen L.; Pellegrin, Angie; Palcic, Jeannette L.; Meyer, Kara; Paasch, Valerie; Baumeister, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the role of maternal psychopathology in predicting children's psychological distress in a disaster-exposed sample. Participants consisted of 260 children (ages 8-16) recruited from public schools and their mothers. These families were displaced from New Orleans because of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Assessment took place 3…

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography—Chandeleur Islands, Post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Christine; Long, Joseph W.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.

    2017-01-01

    These datasets, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, provide lidar-derived first-surface and bare-earth topography for the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. Elevation measurements were acquired by the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) during September 2005, immediately following Hurricane Katrina landfall.

  1. Catholic Schools in New Orleans in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Carol Ann; Fitzpatrick, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the education system following Hurricane Katrina have received considerable attention from scholars in recent years. However, the role of Catholic schools is often overlooked in such discussions of school reform, which most often concentrate on the dramatic changes in the public school sector. This oversight is significant given that…

  2. Archiving Disaster: A Comparative Study of September 11, 2001 and Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Courtney J.

    2012-01-01

    The first decade of the 21st Century in the United States witnessed two major events that have come to be understood as national disasters: September 11, 2001 and Hurricane Katrina. Numerous historical institutions quickly mobilized to collect material relating to the two events, prompting the creation of what is now referred to as "disaster…

  3. Correlates of Long-Term Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kathryn W.; Varela, R. Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the roles of loss and disruption, major life events, and social support in the relationship between exposure and PTSD symptoms in a group of children 33 months after Hurricane Katrina. One hundred fifty-six 4th, 5th, and 6th graders were surveyed in the New Orleans area. Results indicated that 46% of the children…

  4. Urban sprawl and body mass index among displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana; James, Peter; Rhodes, Jean E; Waters, Mary C; Subramanian, S V

    2014-08-01

    Existing research suggests that walkable environments are protective against weight gain, while sprawling neighborhoods may pose health risks. Using prospective data on displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors, we provide the first natural experimental data on sprawl and body mass index (BMI). The analysis uses prospectively collected pre- (2003-2005) and post-hurricane (2006-2007) data from the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina (RISK) project on 280 displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors who had little control over their neighborhood placement immediately after the disaster. The county sprawl index, a standardized measure of built environment, was used to predict BMI at follow-up, adjusted for baseline BMI and sprawl; hurricane-related trauma; and demographic and economic characteristics. Respondents from 8 New Orleans-area counties were dispersed to 76 counties post-Katrina. Sprawl increased by an average of 1.5 standard deviations (30 points) on the county sprawl index. Each one point increase in sprawl was associated with approximately .05kg/m(2) higher BMI in unadjusted models (95%CI: .01-.08), and the relationship was not attenuated after covariate adjustment. We find a robust association between residence in a sprawling county and higher BMI unlikely to be caused by self-selection into neighborhoods, suggesting that the built environment may foster changes in weight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Disaster Hits Home: A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget; Marlatt, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored individual and family adjustment processes among parents (n = 30) and children (n = 55) who were displaced to Colorado after Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 23 families, this article offers an inductive model of displaced family adjustment. Four stages of family adjustment are presented in the model: (a)…

  6. Negotiating the Practitioner-Faculty Dialectic: How Counselor Educators Responded to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybold, L. Earle; Konopasky, Abigail; Trepal, Heather; Haberstroh, Shane

    2015-01-01

    As Hurricane Katrina forced thousands of Gulf Coast residents to evacuate, U.S. communities established shelters for emergency intake. Faculty members across the country, especially those trained in counseling, volunteered immediately for crisis work. This study examined the experiences of a faculty response team from one counselor education…

  7. In the Wake of Hurricane Katrina: Delivering Crisis Mental Health Services to Host Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbley, Aretha Faye

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the country and especially in Texas, local communities opened their arms to hurricane Katrina evacuees. Like the federal government, emergency health and mental health entities were unprepared for the massive numbers of people needing assistance. Mental health professionals, though armed with a wealth of crisis intervention information,…

  8. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was initiated in fall 2005 to assess potential effects on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama following Hurricane Katrina, which struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Bioloxi, Mississippi on August 29...

  9. Law Enforcement Officers' Involvement Level in Hurricane Katrina and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavey, Sarah Cercone; Homish, Gregory G; Andrew, Michael E; McCanlies, Erin; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the relationship between alcohol use and level of involvement during Hurricane Katrina among law enforcement officers, and to investigate whether marital status or previous military training offer resilience against negative outcomes. Officers in the immediate New Orleans geographic area completed surveys that assessed their involvement in Hurricane Katrina and alcohol use (Alcohol Use and Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyze level of hazardous alcohol use; interactions were tested to examine protective influences of marriage and prior military training (controlling for age and gender). There was a significant association between heavy involvement in Hurricane Katrina and having a greater AUDIT score (exp(β)[EB]=1.81; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.17; p0.05). These results illustrate an association between law enforcement officers' heavy involvement during Hurricane Katrina and greater levels of hazardous alcohol use when compared to officers with low or moderate involvement. This has important treatment implications for those with high involvement in disasters as they may require targeted interventions to overcome the stress of such experiences.

  10. Combined effects of Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Gustav on the mental health of mothers of small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, E W; Xiong, X; Smith, B W; Pridjian, G; Elkind-Hirsch, K; Buekens, P

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have assessed the results of multiple exposures to disaster. Our objective was to examine the effect of experiencing Hurricane Gustav on mental health of women previously exposed to Hurricane Katrina. A total of 102 women from Southern Louisiana were interviewed by telephone. Experience of the hurricanes was assessed with questions about injury, danger and damage, while depression was assessed with the Edinburgh Depression Scale and post-traumatic stress disorder using the Post-Traumatic Checklist. Minor stressors, social support, trait resilience and perceived benefit had been measured previously. Mental health was examined with linear and log-linear models. Women who had a severe experience of both Gustav and Katrina scored higher on the mental health scales, but finding new ways to cope after Katrina or feeling more prepared was not protective. About half the population had better mental health scores after Gustav than at previous measures. Improvement was more likely among those who reported high social support or low levels of minor stressors, or were younger. Trait resilience mitigated the effect of hurricane exposure. Multiple disaster experiences are associated with worse mental health overall, although many women are resilient. Perceiving benefit after the first disaster was not protective. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  11. Combined effects of Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Gustav on the mental health of mothers of small children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Smith, Bruce W.; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen; Buekens, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Few studies assessed the results of multiple exposures to disaster. Our objective was to examine the effect of experiencing Hurricane Gustav on mental health of women previously exposed to Hurricane Katrina. 102 women from Southern Louisiana were interviewed by telephone. Experience of the hurricanes was assessed with questions about injury, danger, and damage, while depression was assessed with the Edinburgh Depression Scale and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the Post-traumatic Checklist. Minor stressors, social support, trait resilience, and perceived benefit had been measured previously. Mental health was examined with linear and log-linear models. Women who had a severe experience of both Gustav and Katrina scored higher on the mental health scales, but finding new ways to cope after Katrina or feeling more prepared was not protective. About half the population had better mental health scores after Gustav than at previous measures. Improvement was more likely among those who reported high social support or low levels of minor stressors, or were younger. Trait resilience mitigated the effect of hurricane exposure. Multiple disaster experiences are associated with worse mental health overall, though many women are resilient. Perceiving benefit after the first disaster was not protective. PMID:21418428

  12. The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Students’ Behavioral Disorder: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Liang Tian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on displaced students’ behavioral disorder. Methods: First, we determine displaced students’ likelihood of discipline infraction each year relative to non-evacuees using all K12 student records of the U.S. state of Louisiana during the period of 2000–2008. Second, we investigate the impact of hurricane on evacuee students’ in-school behavior in a difference-in-difference framework. The quasi-experimental nature of the hurricane makes this framework appropriate with the advantage that the problem of endogeneity is of least concern and the causal effect of interest can be reasonably identified. Results: Preliminary analysis demonstrates a sharp increase in displaced students’ relative likelihood of discipline infraction around 2005 when the hurricane occurred. Further, formal difference-in-difference analysis confirms the results. To be specific, post Katrina, displaced students’ relative likelihood of any discipline infraction has increased by 7.3% whereas the increase in the relative likelihood for status offense, offense against person, offense against property and serious crime is 4%, 1.5%, 3.8% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion: When disasters occur, as was the case with Hurricane Katrina, in addition to assistance for adult evacuees, governments, in cooperation with schools, should also provide aid and assistance to displaced children to support their mental health and in-school behavior.

  13. The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Students’ Behavioral Disorder: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xian-Liang; Guan, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on displaced students’ behavioral disorder. Methods: First, we determine displaced students’ likelihood of discipline infraction each year relative to non-evacuees using all K12 student records of the U.S. state of Louisiana during the period of 2000–2008. Second, we investigate the impact of hurricane on evacuee students’ in-school behavior in a difference-in-difference framework. The quasi-experimental nature of the hurricane makes this framework appropriate with the advantage that the problem of endogeneity is of least concern and the causal effect of interest can be reasonably identified. Results: Preliminary analysis demonstrates a sharp increase in displaced students’ relative likelihood of discipline infraction around 2005 when the hurricane occurred. Further, formal difference-in-difference analysis confirms the results. To be specific, post Katrina, displaced students’ relative likelihood of any discipline infraction has increased by 7.3% whereas the increase in the relative likelihood for status offense, offense against person, offense against property and serious crime is 4%, 1.5%, 3.8% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion: When disasters occur, as was the case with Hurricane Katrina, in addition to assistance for adult evacuees, governments, in cooperation with schools, should also provide aid and assistance to displaced children to support their mental health and in-school behavior. PMID:26006127

  14. The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Students' Behavioral Disorder: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xian-Liang; Guan, Xian

    2015-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on displaced students' behavioral disorder. First, we determine displaced students' likelihood of discipline infraction each year relative to non-evacuees using all K12 student records of the U.S. state of Louisiana during the period of 2000-2008. Second, we investigate the impact of hurricane on evacuee students' in-school behavior in a difference-in-difference framework. The quasi-experimental nature of the hurricane makes this framework appropriate with the advantage that the problem of endogeneity is of least concern and the causal effect of interest can be reasonably identified. Preliminary analysis demonstrates a sharp increase in displaced students' relative likelihood of discipline infraction around 2005 when the hurricane occurred. Further, formal difference-in-difference analysis confirms the results. To be specific, post Katrina, displaced students' relative likelihood of any discipline infraction has increased by 7.3% whereas the increase in the relative likelihood for status offense, offense against person, offense against property and serious crime is 4%, 1.5%, 3.8% and 2.1%, respectively. When disasters occur, as was the case with Hurricane Katrina, in addition to assistance for adult evacuees, governments, in cooperation with schools, should also provide aid and assistance to displaced children to support their mental health and in-school behavior.

  15. Hurricane Katrina Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama after Hurricane Katrina made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  16. Numerical simulation of a low-lying barrier island's morphological response to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemer, C.A.; Plant, N.G.; Puleo, J.A.; Thompson, D.M.; Wamsley, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical cyclones that enter or form in the Gulf of Mexico generate storm surge and large waves that impact low-lying coastlines along the Gulf Coast. The Chandeleur Islands, located 161. km east of New Orleans, Louisiana, have endured numerous hurricanes that have passed nearby. Hurricane Katrina (landfall near Waveland MS, 29 Aug 2005) caused dramatic changes to the island elevation and shape. In this paper the predictability of hurricane-induced barrier island erosion and accretion is evaluated using a coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model known as XBeach. Pre- and post-storm island topography was surveyed with an airborne lidar system. Numerical simulations utilized realistic surge and wave conditions determined from larger-scale hydrodynamic models. Simulations included model sensitivity tests with varying grid size and temporal resolutions. Model-predicted bathymetry/topography and post-storm survey data both showed similar patterns of island erosion, such as increased dissection by channels. However, the model under predicted the magnitude of erosion. Potential causes for under prediction include (1) errors in the initial conditions (the initial bathymetry/topography was measured three years prior to Katrina), (2) errors in the forcing conditions (a result of our omission of storms prior to Katrina and/or errors in Katrina storm conditions), and/or (3) physical processes that were omitted from the model (e.g., inclusion of sediment variations and bio-physical processes). ?? 2010.

  17. Integrating disparate lidar datasets for a regional storm tide inundation analysis of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, J.M.; Tyler, D.J.; Turnipseed, D.P.; Van Wilson, Jr.; Oimoen, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina was one of the largest natural disasters in U.S. history. Due to the sheer size of the affected areas, an unprecedented regional analysis at very high resolution and accuracy was needed to properly quantify and understand the effects of the hurricane and the storm tide. Many disparate sources of lidar data were acquired and processed for varying environmental reasons by pre- and post-Katrina projects. The datasets were in several formats and projections and were processed to varying phases of completion, and as a result the task of producing a seamless digital elevation dataset required a high level of coordination, research, and revision. To create a seamless digital elevation dataset, many technical issues had to be resolved before producing the desired 1/9-arc-second (3meter) grid needed as the map base for projecting the Katrina peak storm tide throughout the affected coastal region. This report presents the methodology that was developed to construct seamless digital elevation datasets from multipurpose, multi-use, and disparate lidar datasets, and describes an easily accessible Web application for viewing the maximum storm tide caused by Hurricane Katrina in southeastern Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

  18. DRUG MARKET RECONSTITUTION AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA: LESSONS FOR LOCAL DRUG ABUSE CONTROL INITIATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alex S.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina accomplished what no law enforcement initiative could ever achieve: It completely eradicated the New Orleans drug market. However, Katrina did little to eliminate the demand for drugs. This article documents the process of the drug market reconstitution that occurred 2005–2008 based on in-depth interviews and focus groups with predominately low-income drug users and sellers. Before Katrina, the drug market was largely characterized by socially-bonded participants involved with corporate style distribution. After Katrina, a violent freelance market emerged. The conclusion draws recommendations for law enforcement for dealing with drug markets after a major disaster. This article uses New Orleans as a case study to chart the process of drug market reconstitution following an extreme disaster, namely Hurricane Katrina. On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall and engulfed the New Orleans area, overwhelming levees and causing extensive flooding and destruction across the city. The storm generated 30- to 40-foot waves, which demolished many cities and small towns in Southern Mississippi and Alabama and caused considerable wind damage further inland. Although the hurricane eye missed central New Orleans by about 30 miles, the wave action in Lake Pontchartrain caused several levees to break and flood most of eastern New Orleans, which was under sea level. The storm had an impact on practically all New Orleans residents and almost destroyed New Orleans (Cooper & Block, 2006; Levitt & Whitaker, 2009; Lee, 2006). Our research focused on the impact of this storm on the drug markets in New Orleans. Katrina destroyed the physical environment and organizational structure that sustained the drug trade, yet drug use and sales did not disappear. During and soon after the storm, improvised sales and distribution organizations provided a wide range of illicit drugs to users (see Dunlap, Johnson, Kotarba, & Fackler, 2009; Dunlap & Golub, 2010; Dunlap

  19. DRUG MARKET RECONSTITUTION AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA: LESSONS FOR LOCAL DRUG ABUSE CONTROL INITIATIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alex S; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina accomplished what no law enforcement initiative could ever achieve: It completely eradicated the New Orleans drug market. However, Katrina did little to eliminate the demand for drugs. This article documents the process of the drug market reconstitution that occurred 2005-2008 based on in-depth interviews and focus groups with predominately low-income drug users and sellers. Before Katrina, the drug market was largely characterized by socially-bonded participants involved with corporate style distribution. After Katrina, a violent freelance market emerged. The conclusion draws recommendations for law enforcement for dealing with drug markets after a major disaster.This article uses New Orleans as a case study to chart the process of drug market reconstitution following an extreme disaster, namely Hurricane Katrina. On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall and engulfed the New Orleans area, overwhelming levees and causing extensive flooding and destruction across the city. The storm generated 30- to 40-foot waves, which demolished many cities and small towns in Southern Mississippi and Alabama and caused considerable wind damage further inland. Although the hurricane eye missed central New Orleans by about 30 miles, the wave action in Lake Pontchartrain caused several levees to break and flood most of eastern New Orleans, which was under sea level. The storm had an impact on practically all New Orleans residents and almost destroyed New Orleans (Cooper & Block, 2006; Levitt & Whitaker, 2009; Lee, 2006).Our research focused on the impact of this storm on the drug markets in New Orleans. Katrina destroyed the physical environment and organizational structure that sustained the drug trade, yet drug use and sales did not disappear. During and soon after the storm, improvised sales and distribution organizations provided a wide range of illicit drugs to users (see Dunlap, Johnson, Kotarba, & Fackler, 2009; Dunlap & Golub, 2010; Dunlap

  20. The Location of Displaced New Orleans Residents in the Year After Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Using individual data from the restricted version of the American Community Survey, we examined the displacement locations of pre–Hurricane Katrina adult residents of New Orleans in the year after the hurricane. More than one-half (53 %) of adults had returned to—or remained in—the New Orleans metropolitan area, with just under one-third of the total returning to the dwelling in which they resided prior to Hurricane Katrina. Among the remainder, Texas was the leading location of displaced residents, with almost 40 % of those living away from the metropolitan area (18 % of the total), followed by other locations in Louisiana (12 %), the South region of the United States other than Louisiana and Texas (12 %), and elsewhere in the United States (5 %). Black adults were considerably more likely than nonblack adults to be living elsewhere in Louisiana, in Texas, and elsewhere in the South. The observed race disparity was not accounted for by any of the demographic or socioeconomic covariates in the multinomial logistic regression models. Consistent with hypothesized effects, we found that following Hurricane Katrina, young adults (aged 25–39) were more likely to move further away from New Orleans and that adults born outside Louisiana were substantially more likely to have relocated away from the state. PMID:24599750

  1. The location of displaced New Orleans residents in the year after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2014-06-01

    Using individual data from the restricted version of the American Community Survey, we examined the displacement locations of pre-Hurricane Katrina adult residents of New Orleans in the year after the hurricane. More than one-half (53 %) of adults had returned to-or remained in-the New Orleans metropolitan area, with just under one-third of the total returning to the dwelling in which they resided prior to Hurricane Katrina. Among the remainder, Texas was the leading location of displaced residents, with almost 40 % of those living away from the metropolitan area (18 % of the total), followed by other locations in Louisiana (12 %), the South region of the United States other than Louisiana and Texas (12 %), and elsewhere in the United States (5 %). Black adults were considerably more likely than nonblack adults to be living elsewhere in Louisiana, in Texas, and elsewhere in the South. The observed race disparity was not accounted for by any of the demographic or socioeconomic covariates in the multinomial logistic regression models. Consistent with hypothesized effects, we found that following Hurricane Katrina, young adults (aged 25-39) were more likely to move further away from New Orleans and that adults born outside Louisiana were substantially more likely to have relocated away from the state.

  2. The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Parents in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jean; Chan, Christian; Paxson, Christina; Rouse, Cecilia Elena; Waters, Mary; Fussell, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in mental and physical health among 392 low-income parents exposed to Hurricane Katrina and to explore how hurricane-related stressors and loss relate to post-Katrina well being. The prevalence of probable serious mental illness doubled, and nearly half of the respondents exhibited probable PTSD. Higher levels of hurricane-related loss and stressors were generally associated with worse health outcomes, controlling for baseline socio-demographic and health measures. Higher baseline resources predicted fewer hurricane-associated stressors, but the consequences of stressors and loss were similar regardless of baseline resources. Adverse health consequences of Hurricane Katrina persisted for a year or more, and were most severe for those experiencing the most stressors and loss. Long-term health and mental health services are needed for low-income disaster survivors, especially those who experience disaster-related stressors and loss. PMID:20553517

  3. The impact of hurricane Katrina on the mental and physical health of low-income parents in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jean; Chan, Christian; Paxson, Christina; Rouse, Cecilia Elena; Waters, Mary; Fussell, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in mental and physical health among 392 low-income parents exposed to Hurricane Katrina and to explore how hurricane-related stressors and loss relate to post-Katrina well-being. The prevalence of probable serious mental illness doubled, and nearly half of the respondents exhibited probable posttraumatic stress disorder. Higher levels of hurricane-related loss and stressors were generally associated with worse health outcomes, controlling for baseline sociodemographic and health measures. Higher baseline resources predicted fewer hurricane-associated stressors, but the consequences of stressors and loss were similar regardless of baseline resources. Adverse health consequences of Hurricane Katrina persisted for a year or more and were most severe for those experiencing the most stressors and loss. Long-term health and mental health services are needed for low-income disaster survivors, especially those who experience disaster-related stressors and loss.

  4. Transitions in climate and energy discourse between Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Emily M; Bagrow, James P; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Although climate change and energy are intricately linked, their explicit connection is not always prominent in public discourse and the media. Disruptive extreme weather events, including hurricanes, focus public attention in new and different ways, offering a unique window of opportunity to analyze how a focusing event influences public opinion. Simultaneously shaping and reflecting public discourse, media coverage of extreme weather events reflects public opinion of climate issues. Here we analyze climate and energy media coverage of Hurricanes Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) using topic models, mathematical techniques used to discover abstract topics within a set of documents. Our results demonstrate that post-Katrina media coverage does not contain a climate change topic, and the energy topic is limited to discussion of energy prices, markets, and the economy with almost no explicit linkages made between energy and climate change. In contrast, post-Sandy media coverage does contain a prominent climate ch...

  5. Working through disaster: re-establishing mental health care after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Natalie D; Feldman, Martha S; Lowerson, Victoria

    2013-06-01

    Our research explored how mental health care providers continued to work during and after Hurricane Katrina. We interviewed 32 practitioners working in the New Orleans mental health care community during and after Hurricane Katrina. Through qualitative data analysis, we developed three temporal periods of disruption: the evacuation period, the surreal period, and the new normal period. We analyzed the actions informants took during these time periods. The mental health care providers adapted to disruption by displaying two forms of flexibility: doing different tasks and doing tasks differently. How much and how they engaged in these forms of flexibility varied during the three periods. Informants' actions helped to create system resilience by adjusting the extent to which they were doing different tasks and the ways in which they were doing tasks differently during the three time periods. Their flexibility allowed them to provide basic care and adapt to changed circumstances. Their flexibility also contributed to maintaining a skilled workforce in the affected region.

  6. The Economic Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Its Victims: Evidence from Individual Tax Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryugina, T.; Kawano, L.; Levitt, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane Katrina destroyed more than 200,000 homes and led to massive economic and physical dislocation. Using a panel of tax return data, we provide one of the first comprehensive analyses of the hurricane's long-term economic impact on its victims. We find small and mostly transitory impacts of the disaster on wages, employment, and total income, even among the worst affected. Remarkably, within a few years, Katrina victims have higher incomes than controls from similar cities that were unaffected by the storm. Withdrawals from retirement accounts offset some of the temporary fall in wages. Finally, there is a short-run spike in marriage and little impact on either divorce or child bearing. These findings suggest that, at least in developed countries like the United States, dislocation is unlikely to be an important component of the social or economic costs of dramatic negative events, such as natural disasters or climate change.

  7. Changes in microbial community structure in the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Rocca, Jennifer D; Lamontagne, Michael G; Dennett, Mark R; Gast, Rebecca J

    2008-12-15

    Hurricanes have the potential to alter the structures of coastal ecosystems and generate pathogen-laden floodwaters thatthreaten public health. To examine the impact of hurricanes on urban systems, we compared microbial community structures in samples collected after Hurricane Katrina and before and after Hurricane Rita. We extracted environmental DNA and sequenced small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries to survey microbial communities in floodwater, water, and sediment samples collected from Lake Charles, Lake Pontchartrain, the 17th Street and Industrial Canals in New Orleans, and raw sewage. Correspondence analysis showed that microbial communities associated with sediments formed one cluster while communities associated with lake and Industrial Canal water formed a second. Communities associated with water from the 17th Street Canal and floodwaters collected in New Orleans showed similarity to communities in raw sewage and contained a number of sequences associated with possible pathogenic microbes. This suggests that a distinct microbial community developed in floodwaters following Hurricane Katrina and that microbial community structures as a whole might be sensitive indicators of ecosystem health and serve as "sentinels" of water quality in the environment.

  8. Posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth among low-income mothers who survived Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Manove, Emily E; Rhodes, Jean E

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) after Hurricane Katrina, and the role of demographics, predisaster psychological distress, hurricane-related stressors, and psychological resources (optimism and purpose) in predicting each. Participants were 334 low-income mothers (82.0% non-Hispanic Black) living in the New Orleans area prior to Hurricane Katrina, who completed surveys in the year prior to the hurricane (T1 [Time 1]) and 1 and 3 years thereafter (T2 and T3). Higher T2 and T3 PTS full-scale and symptom cluster subscales (Intrusion, Avoidance, and Hyperarousal) were significantly associated with higher T3 PTG, and participants who surpassed the clinical cutoff for probable posttraumatic stress disorder at both T2 and T3 had significantly higher PTG than those who never surpassed the clinical cutoff. Older and non-Hispanic Black participants, as well as those who experienced a greater number of hurricane-related stressors and bereavement, reported significantly greater T3 PTS and PTG. Participants with lower T2 optimism reported significantly greater T3 intrusive symptoms, whereas those with higher T1 and T2 purpose reported significantly greater T3 PTG. Based on the results, we suggest practices and policies with which to identify disaster survivors at greater risk for PTS, as well as longitudinal investigations of reciprocal and mediational relationships between psychological resources, PTS, and PTG. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The Potential for PTSD, Substance Use, and HIV Risk Behavior among Adolescents Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Karla D.; BRIEF, DEBORAH J.; VIELHAUER, MELANIE J.; SUSSMAN, STEVE; Keane, Terence M.; Malow, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Adverse psychosocial outcomes can be anticipated among youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of this natural disaster and may suffer lasting consequences in the form of psychological morbidity and the development of negative health behaviors due to their exposure. We review existing literature on the effects of exposure to natural disasters and similar traumas on youth and, where data on youth are unavailable, on adults. The effect of ...

  10. Effects of Hurricane Katrina on nursing facility resident mortality, hospitalization, and functional decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosa, David; Feng, Zhanlian; Hyer, Kathy; Brown, Lisa M; Thomas, Kali; Mor, Vincent

    2010-09-01

    The study was designed to examine the 30- and 90-day mortality and hospitalization rates among nursing facility (NF) residents in the affected areas of Louisiana and Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina and to assess the rate of significant posthurricane functional decline. A secondary data analysis was conducted using Medicare claims merged with NF resident data from the Minimum Data Set. Thirty- and 90-day mortality and hospitalization rates for long-stay (>90 days) residents residing in 141 at-risk NFs during Hurricane Katrina were compared to rates for residents residing at the same facilities during the same time period in prior nonhurricane years (2003 and 2004). Functional decline was assessed as a 4+ drop in function using a 28-point Minimum Data Set Activities of Daily Living Scale. There were statistically significant differences (all P Hurricane Katrina. At 30 days, the mortality rate was 3.88% among the exposed cohort compared with 2.10% and 2.28% for residents in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The 90-day mortality rate was 9.27% compared with 6.71% and 6.31%, respectively. These mortality differences translated into an additional 148 deaths at 30 days and 230 deaths at 90 days. The 30-day hospitalization rate was 9.87% compared with 7.21% and 7.53%, respectively. The 90-day hospitalization rate was 20.39% compared with 18.61% and 17.82%, respectively. Finally, the rate of significant functional decline among survivors was 6.77% compared with 5.81% in 2003 and 5.10% in 2004. NF residents experienced a significant increase in mortality, hospitalization, and functional decline during Hurricane Katrina.

  11. Mediating the Morals of Disasters: Hurricane Katrina in Norwegian News Media

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrre Kverndokk

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian media responses to Hurricane Katrina were structured around three well-established sets of motifs in a globalized late modern disaster discourse: 1) The collapse of civil society, 2) Social vulnerability 2) Extreme weather and global warming. These sets of motifs portray relationships or non-relationships between natural evil and moral evil. Starting with Voltaire’s description of Candide’s arrival in Lisbon after the earthquake I discuss how an 18th century disaster discourse i...

  12. The Impact of Child-Related Stressors on the Psychological Functioning of Lower-Income Mothers after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a…

  13. The Impact of Child-Related Stressors on the Psychological Functioning of Lower-Income Mothers after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a…

  14. Counseling in New Orleans 10 Years after Hurricane Katrina: A Commentary on the Aftermath, Recovery and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Ten years after Hurricane Katrina, the counseling profession in New Orleans has changed. The author, along with a group of counseling and other mental health professionals who were providing services at the time of the hurricane and still working in the city 10 years later, provided their impressions of counseling in New Orleans a decade after the…

  15. Shared experiences of CRNAs who were on duty in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisz-Everson, Marjorie A; Dodd-McCue, Dianne; Bennett, Marsha

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this focused ethnography was to describe the shared experiences of certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) who were on duty in New Orleans, Louisiana, during Hurricane Katrina as well as to elucidate the psychosocial impact the storm had on them. Ten CRNAs participated in 1 of 3 focus groups that were audio recorded. The audio recordings were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative data analysis computer software (NVivo 8, QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). Six major themes emerged from the study: caught off guard; sense of duty; uncertainty/powerlessness/frustration; group identity and cohesiveness; anger; and life-changing event. The themes represented how the CRNAs appraised and coped with the stressful events surrounding Hurricane Katrina. The psychosocial impact of Hurricane Katrina on the CRNAs resulted mainly in short-term sleep disturbances and increased drinking. Only 2 CRNAs expressed long-term psychosocial effects from the storm. The results of this study should be used to guide policies regarding disaster activation of CRNAs, to educate CRNAs on preparing for disaster duty, and to provide a framework for future disaster studies regarding CRNAs.

  16. The effect of long-term relocation on child and adolescent survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Tonya C; Osofsky, Joy D; Osofsky, Howard J; Friedrich, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    The current study is designed to increase knowledge of the effects of relocation and its association with longer-term psychological symptoms following disaster. Following clinical observations and in discussions held with school officials expressing concerns about relocated students, it was hypothesized that students who relocated to a different city following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 would have more symptoms of posttraumatic stress compared to students who returned to New Orleans. The effect of Hurricane Katrina relocation was assessed on a sample of child and adolescent survivors in 5th through 12th grades (N = 795). Students with Orleans Parish zip codes prior to Hurricane Katrina were categorized into relocation groupings: (a) relocated to Baton Rouge, (b) returned to prior zip code, and (c) moved to a different zip code within Orleans Parish. Overall results revealed more trauma symptoms for relocated students. Results also revealed that younger relocated students had fewer symptoms compared to older students. The opposite was found for students who returned to their same zip code, with older students having fewer symptoms. This study supports the need for school-based services not only in disaster areas, but also in schools where survivors tend to migrate. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. Mechanisms for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones: A Case Study of Hurricane Katrina (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rivera, J. M.; Lin, Y.

    2013-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is used to simulate the last eyewall replacement cycle (ERC) of Hurricane Katrina (2005) just before it's landfall in the Louisiana coastline. In this study, we pursue a complete understanding of the physics behind the secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in tropical cyclones. The simulation results show the occurrence of the early stages of an ERC in the simulated storm just before landfall. This confirms that with the appropriate set of physics parameterization schemes, grid spacing and initial conditions, the numerical model is able to reproduce ERCs on certain tropical cyclones with no data assimilation or extra data inputs. Strong updrafts are observed to converge in a ring outside the primary eyewall of Hurricane Katrina (2005) suggesting SEF during that period. The increase of divergence outside the primary eyewall with an outer-ring of convergence forming above the boundary layer can be part of the mechanisms that lead to SEF. Also, potential vorticity (PV) field is analyzed for its possible relationship with the development of the secondary eyewall. This detailed study of the pre-ERC events in the inner-core of Hurricane Katrina can build the foundations for testing some of the existing hypotheses for the development of secondary eyewalls leading to new ideas behind their formation.

  18. Going home after Hurricane Katrina: Determinants of return migration and changes in affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Jeffrey A; Polivka, Anne E

    2010-11-01

    This article examines the decision of Hurricane Katrina evacuees to return to their pre-Katrina areas and documents how the composition of the Katrina-affected region changed over time. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we show that an evacuee's age, family income, and the severity of damage in an evacuee's county of origin are important determinants of whether an evacuee returned during the first year after the storm. Blacks were less likely to return than whites, but this difference is primarily related to the geographical pattern of storm damage rather than to race per se. The difference between the composition of evacuees who returned and the composition of evacuees who did not return is the primary force behind changes in the composition of the affected areas in the first two years after the storm. Katrina is associated with substantial shifts in the racial composition of the affected areas (namely, a decrease in the percentage of residents who are black) and an increasing presence of Hispanics. Katrina is also associated with an increase in the percentage of older residents, a decrease in the percentage of residents with low income/education, and an increase in the percentage of residents with high income/education.

  19. Changes in CD4 count among persons living with HIV/AIDS following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, William T; Wendell, Deborah; Gruber, DeAnn

    2011-07-01

    To examine the effects of Hurricane Katrina on the disease progression of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH/A), CD4 counts during the 18 months immediately prior and subsequent to Katrina were obtained from the Louisiana Office of Public Health. PLWH/A were determined to be either non-residents of the New Orleans area, returning evacuees or evacuees who had returned to the area within 18 months. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA showed significant effects for race, sex, age, year of diagnosis, and mode of exposure. A significant main effect for residence was found, as well as an interaction of residence by time of CD4 count (pre-Katrina vs. post-Katrina), indicating that, while non-returning evacuees had lower overall CD4 counts, the change in CD4 counts of non-returning evacuees dropped more sharply than those of the returning PLWH/A or non-residents. While these results point to a potential need for the population of PLWH/A who continue to be affected by Katrina, they also provide important data on the effect that large-scale disasters and stressful life events may have on individuals with chronic disease.

  20. Hazardous substances releases associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F; Lanier, Kenneth; Koehler, Allison

    2008-11-15

    The scientific literature concerning the public health response to the unprecedented hurricanes striking the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005 has focused mainly on assessing health-related needs and surveillance of injuries, infectious diseases, and other illnesses. However, the hurricanes also resulted in unintended hazardous substances releases in the affected states. Data from two states (Louisiana and Texas) participating in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were analyzed to describe the characteristics of hazardous substances releases in industrial settings associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. HSEES is an active multi-state Web-based surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In 2005, 166 hurricane-related hazardous substances events in industrial settings in Louisiana and Texas were reported. Most (72.3%) releases were due to emergency shut downs in preparation for the hurricanes and start-ups after the hurricanes. Emphasis is given to the contributing causal factors, hazardous substances released, and event scenarios. Recommendations are made to prevent or minimize acute releases of hazardous substances during future hurricanes, including installing backup power generation, securing equipment and piping to withstand high winds, establishing procedures to shutdown process operations safely, following established and up-to-date start-up procedures and checklists, and carefully performing pre-start-up safety reviews.

  1. Happily Ever After? Pre-and-Post Disaster Determinants of Happiness Among Survivors of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Rocío; Arcaya, Mariana; Baum, Christopher F.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Waters, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated pre- to post-disaster changes in happiness of 491 women affected by Hurricane Katrina, and identified factors that were associated with the survivors’ happiness after the storm. Participants completed surveys approximately 1 year before and 1 and 4 years after the storm. The surveys collected information on the women’s happiness, social support, household characteristics, and hurricane exposure. We found that happiness significantly decreased from pre-disaster to 1 year post-disaster but there were no significant differences in happiness between the pre-disaster and 4 years post-disaster assessments. An exception were 38 women who continued to have lower levels of happiness 4 years post-disaster than at pre-disaster. These women were more likely to be living on their own after the storm and reported consistently lower levels of perceived social support from the community both before and after the storm than the other women of the sample. Factors associated with the survivor’s happiness after the storm included exposure to hurricane stressors and losing a loved one to the hurricane. These were predictive of lower happiness 1 year post-disaster. Four years after the hurricane only exposure to hurricane stressors was predictive of lower levels of happiness. In contrast, pre-disaster happiness and post-disaster social support were protective against the negative effect of the hurricane on survivors’ happiness. PMID:26078701

  2. Hurricane Katrina sediment slowed elevation loss in subsiding brackish marshes of the Mississippi River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cherry, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Although hurricanes can damage or destroy coastal wetlands, they may play a beneficial role in reinvigorating marshes by delivering sediments that raise soil elevations and stimulate organic matter production. Hurricane Katrina altered elevation dynamics of two subsiding brackish marshes in the Mississippi River deltaic plain by adding 3 to 8 cm of sediment to the soil surface in August 2005. Soil elevations at both sites subsequently declined due to continued subsidence, but net elevation gain was still positive at both Pearl River (+1.7 cm) and Big Branch (+0.7 cm) marshes two years after the hurricane. At Big Branch where storm sediments had higher organic matter and water contents, post-storm elevation loss was more rapid due to initial compaction of the storm layer in combination with root-zone collapse. In contrast, elevation loss was slower at Pearl River where the storm deposit (high sand content) did not compact and the root zone did not collapse. Vegetation at both sites fully recovered within one year, and accumulation of root matter at Big Branch increased 10-fold from 2005 to 2006, suggesting that the hurricane stimulated belowground productivity. Results of this study imply that hurricane sediment may benefit subsiding marshes by slowing elevation loss. However, long-term effects of hurricane sediment on elevation dynamics will depend not only on the amount of sediment deposited, but on sediment texture and resistance to compaction as well as on changes in organic matter accumulation in the years following the hurricane.

  3. Five years later: recovery from post traumatic stress and psychological distress among low-income mothers affected by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Christina; Fussell, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Jean; Waters, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina, which struck the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005, exposed area residents to trauma and extensive property loss. However, little is known about the long-run effects of the hurricane on the mental health of those who were exposed. This study documents long-run changes in mental health among a particularly vulnerable group-low income mothers-from before to after the hurricane, and identifies factors that are associated with different recovery trajectories. Longitudinal surveys of 532 low-income mothers from New Orleans were conducted approximately one year before, 7-19 months after, and 43-54 months after Hurricane Katrina. The surveys collected information on mental health, social support, earnings and hurricane experiences. We document changes in post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), as measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and symptoms of psychological distress (PD), as measured by the K6 scale. We find that although PTSS has declined over time after the hurricane, it remained high 43-54 months later. PD also declined, but did not return to pre-hurricane levels. At both time periods, psychological distress before the hurricane, hurricane-related home damage, and exposure to traumatic events were associated with PTSS that co-occurred with PD. Hurricane-related home damage and traumatic events were associated with PTSS without PD. Home damage was an especially important predictor of chronic PTSS, with and without PD. Most hurricane stressors did not have strong associations with PD alone over the short or long run. Over the long run, higher earnings were protective against PD, and greater social support was protective against PTSS. These results indicate that mental health problems, particularly PTSS alone or in co-occurrence with PD, among Hurricane Katrina survivors remain a concern, especially for those who experienced hurricane-related trauma and had poor mental health or low socioeconomic status before the hurricane

  4. A prospective study of religiousness and psychological distress among female survivors of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christian S; Rhodes, Jean E; Pérez, John E

    2012-03-01

    This prospective study examined the pathways by which religious involvement affected the post-disaster psychological functioning of women who survived Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The participants were 386 low-income, predominantly Black, single mothers. The women were enrolled in the study before the hurricane, providing a rare opportunity to document changes in mental health from before to after the storm, and to assess the protective role of religious involvement over time. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that, controlling for level of exposure to the hurricanes, pre-disaster physical health, age, and number of children, pre-disaster religiousness predicted higher levels of post-disaster (1) social resources and (2) optimism and sense of purpose. The latter, but not the former, was associated with better post-disaster psychological outcome. Mediation analysis confirmed the mediating role of optimism and sense of purpose.

  5. Employment and Self-Employment in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZISSIMOPOULOS, JULIE; KAROLY, LYNN A.

    2010-01-01

    We use data from the monthly Current Population Survey to examine the short- and longer-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on the labor market outcomes of prime-age individuals in the most affected states—Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi—and for evacuees in any state. We focus on rates of labor force participation, employment, and unemployment, and we extend prior research by also examining rates of self-employment. With the exception of Mississippi, employment and unemployment one year after the hurricane were at similar rates as the end of 2003. This aggregate pattern of labor market shock and recovery has been observed for other disasters but masks important differences among subgroups. Those evacuated from their residences, even temporarily, were a harder-hit group, and evacuees who had yet to return to their pre-Katrina state up to one year later were hit especially hard; these findings hold even after controlling for differences in observable characteristics. We also find evidence of an important role for self-employment as part of post-disaster labor market recovery, especially for evacuees who did not return. This may result from poor job prospects in the wage and salary sector or new opportunities for starting businesses in the wake of Katrina. PMID:20608101

  6. A Tsunami Ball Approach to Storm Surge and Inundation: Application to Hurricane Katrina, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven N. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most analyses of storm surge and inundation solve equations of continuity and momentum on fixed finite-difference/finite-element meshes. I develop a completely new approach that uses a momentum equation to accelerate bits or balls of water over variable depth topography. The thickness of the water column at any point equals the volume density of balls there. In addition to being more intuitive than traditional methods, the tsunami ball approach has several advantages. (a By tracking water balls of fixed volume, the continuity equation is satisfied automatically and the advection term in the momentum equation becomes unnecessary. (b The procedure is meshless in the finite-difference/finite-element sense. (c Tsunami balls care little if they find themselves in the ocean or inundating land. (d Tsunami ball calculations of storm surge can be done on a laptop computer. I demonstrate and calibrate the method by simulating storm surge and inundation around New Orleans, Louisiana caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and by comparing model predictions with field observations. To illustrate the flexibility of the tsunami ball technique, I run two “What If” hurricane scenarios—Katrina over Savannah, Georgia and Katrina over Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

  7. Incidence of cleft pathology in Greater New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenjian, Haig A; Chiu, Ernest S; Alexander, Mary Ellen; St Hilaire, Hugo; Moses, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Reports after the 2005 Hurricane Katrina have documented an increase in stress reactions and environmental teratogens (arsenic, mold, alcohol). To assess the incidence of cleft pathology before and after the hurricane, and the distribution of cleft cases by gender and race. Retrospective chart review of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP) cases registered with the Cleft and Craniofacial Team at Children's Hospital of New Orleans, the surgical center that treated cleft cases in Greater New Orleans between 2004 and 2007. Live birth data were obtained from the Louisiana State Center for Health Statistics. The incidence of cleft cases, beginning 9 months after the hurricane (i.e., June 1, 2006) was significantly higher compared with the period before the hurricane (0.80 versus 1.42; p = .008). Within racial group comparisons showed a higher incidence among African Americans versus whites (0.42 versus 1.22; p = .01). The distribution of CL/P and CP cases by gender was significant (p = .05). The increase in the incidence of cleft cases after the hurricane may be attributable to increased stress and teratogenic factors associated with the hurricane. The increase among African Americans may have been due to comparatively higher exposure to environmental risk factors. These findings warrant further investigation to replicate the results elsewhere in the Gulf to determine whether there is a causal relationship between environmental risk factors and increased cleft pathology.

  8. Unique and related predictors of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and their comorbidity after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillni, Yael I; Nosen, Elizabeth; Williams, Patrick A; Tracy, Melissa; Coffey, Scott F; Galea, Sandro

    2013-10-01

    The current study examined demographic and psychosocial factors that predict major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid MDD/posttraumatic stress disorder (MDD/PTSD) diagnostic status after Hurricane Katrina, one of the deadliest and costliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. This study expanded on the findings published in the article by Galea, Tracy, Norris, and Coffey (J Trauma Stress 21:357-368, 2008), which examined the same predictors for PTSD, to better understand related and unique predictors of MDD, PTSD, and MDD/PTSD comorbidity. A total of 810 individuals representative of adult residents living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi before Hurricane Katrina were interviewed. Ongoing hurricane-related stressors, low social support, and hurricane-related financial loss were common predictors of MDD, PTSD, and MDD/PTSD, whereas educational and marital status emerged as unique predictors of MDD. Implications for postdisaster relief efforts that address the risk for both MDD and PTSD are discussed.

  9. Factors affecting access to head and neck cancer care after a natural disaster: a post-Hurricane Katrina survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehn, Bridget; Pou, Anna M; Nuss, Daniel W; Tenney, Justin; McWhorter, Andrew; DiLeo, Michael; Kakade, Anagha C; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to survey the factors affecting access to cancer care in patients with head and neck cancer after Hurricane Katrina. In this cross-sectional survey, 207 patients with head and neck cancer were identified post-Hurricane Katrina, but only 83 patients completed the questionnaires and were analyzed. Clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic data were recorded. Chi-square test and t test were used for comparisons. Patients who felt that there was a lack of access to cancer care would have sought treatment earlier had they had better access to cancer care (chi-square[1] = 32; p Hurricane Katrina would have sought treatment earlier with better access to cancer care. These patients also reported difficulty obtaining cancer treatment. Availability of transportation affected access to cancer care in patients with early-stage cancers. Clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic factors did not influence access to cancer care. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  10. The Repopulation of New Orleans After Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Stryker, “Economic Impacts of the Loma Prieta Earthquake: A Focus on Small Business,” Berkeley Planning Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1990, pp. 39 58...M. Dahlhamer, “Predicting Long-Term Business Recovery from Disaster: A Comparison of the Loma Prieta Earthquake and Hurricane Andrew,” Newark, Del...analysis and effective solutions that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors around the world. Visit RAND at www.rand.org Explore

  11. Chemical contamination assessment of Gulf of Mexico oysters in response to hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W E; Kimbrough, K L; Lauenstein, G G; Christensen, J

    2009-03-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall on August 29, 2005 and caused widespread devastation along the central Gulf Coast states. Less than a month later Hurricane Rita followed a similar track slightly west of Katrina's. A coordinated multi-agency response followed to collect water, sediment and tissue samples for a variety of chemical, biological and toxicological indicators. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends Program (NS&T) participated in this effort by measuring chemical contamination in sediment and oyster tissue as part of the Mussel Watch Program, a long-term monitoring program to assess spatial and temporal trends in a wide range of coastal pollutants. This paper describes results for contaminants measured in oyster tissue collected between September 29 and October 10, 2005 and discusses the results in the context of Mussel Watch and its 20-year record of chemical contamination in the region and the nation. In general, levels of metals in oyster tissue were higher then pre- hurricane levels while organic contaminants were at or near record lows. No contaminant reported here exceeded the FDA action level for food safety.

  12. Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

    2013-02-01

    To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster.

  13. Why not the University of New Orleans? Social disorganization and sexual violence among internally displaced women of Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Jennifer L; Sorensen, William; Anderson, Peter B

    2011-10-01

    Researchers have reported that natural disasters lead to an increase in sexual violence against women and this is echoed by the current situation in Haiti. This is a social pattern throughout the world during periods of war, as well as natural disasters such as tsunamis, famine, and hurricanes. This article examines the prevalence of sexual violence experienced by women students at the University of New Orleans (UNO) before and after Hurricane Katrina using the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey. Two hundred and thirty seven women participated in the pre-Katrina study and 215 women participated in the post-Katrina study. We hypothesized that, due to the trauma of this disaster, there would be a higher prevalence of sexual aggression against women after Katrina than there was before Katrina. Our analyses yielded no significant differences in any of the measures of sexual violence toward women (nine CORE survey items) pre to post Katrina, so our hypothesis was not supported. We suggest that social organization and cultural attenuation--often indicators of sexual assault in FEMA Greenfield communities--were mitigated by social cohesion found on the UNO campus post-Katrina.

  14. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on the incidence of acute coronary syndrome at a primary angioplasty center in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sandeep; Menachem, Jonathan; Srivastav, Sudesh K; Delafontaine, Patrice; Irimpen, Anand

    2009-10-01

    In August 2005, New Orleans was hit by Hurricane Katrina, the costliest natural disaster in US history. Previous studies have shown an increase in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the immediate hours to weeks after natural disasters. The goals of our study were to detect any long-term increase in the incidence of AMI after Katrina and to investigate any pertinent contributing factors. This was a single-center retrospective cohort observational study. Patients admitted with AMI to Tulane Health Sciences Center hospital in the 2 years before Katrina and in the 2 years after the hospital reopened (5 months after Katrina) were identified from hospital records. The 2 groups (pre- and post-Katrina) were compared for prespecified demographic and clinical data. In the post-Katrina group, there were 246 admissions for AMI, out of a total census of 11,282 patients (2.18%), as compared with 150 AMI admissions out of a total of 21,229 patients (0.71%) in the pre-Katrina group (P Katrina group had a significantly higher prevalence of unemployment (P = 0.0003), lack of medical insurance (P Katrina was associated with prolonged loss of employment and insurance, decreased access to preventive health services, and an increased incidence of AMI. In addition, it appears that chronic stress after a natural disaster can be associated with tobacco abuse and medication and therapeutic noncompliance. We found a 3-fold increased incidence of AMI more than 2 years after Hurricane Katrina. Even allowing for the loss of some local hospitals after the disaster, this represents a significant change in overall health of the study population and supports the need for further study into the health effects of chronic stress.

  15. Lessons learned from the deadly sisters: drug and alcohol treatment disruption, and consequences from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Podus, Deborah; Walsh, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on drug and alcohol treatment in Texas in 2005-2006. Findings are based on a secondary analysis of administrative data on 567 hurricane-related admissions and on interview data from a sample of 20 staff in 11 treatment programs. Katrina evacuees differed from Rita clients in terms of demographics and primary problem substances and treatment needs, while the experiences of program staff and needed changes to improve disaster readiness were more similar. Additional systematic research is needed to document the intermediate and long-term impacts of the storms in these and other affected areas.

  16. Earth Observations to Assess Impact of Hurricane Katrina on John C. Stennis Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, William D.; Ross, Kenton W.

    2007-01-01

    The peril from hurricanes to Space Operations Centers is real and is forecast to continue; Katrina, Rita, and Wilma of 2005 and Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne of 2004 are sufficient motivation for NASA to develop a multi-Center plan for preparedness and response. As was demonstrated at SSC (Stennis Space Center) in response to Hurricane Katrina, NASA Centers are efficiently activated as local command centers, playing host to Federal and State agencies and first responders to coordinate and provide evacuation, relocation, response, and recovery activities. Remote sensing decision support provides critical insight for managing NASA infrastructure and for assisting Center decision makers. Managers require geospatial information to manage the federal city. Immediately following Katrina, SSC s power and network connections were disabled, hardware was inoperative, technical staff was displaced and/or out of contact, and graphical decision support tools were non-existent or less than fully effective. Despite this circumstance, SSC EOC (Emergency Operations Center) implemented response operations to assess damage and to activate recovery plans. To assist Center Managers, the NASA ASP (Applied Sciences Program) made its archive of high-resolution data over the site available. In the weeks and months after the immediate crisis, NASA supplemented this data with high-resolution, post-Katrina imagery over SSC and much of the affected coastal areas. Much of the high-resolution imagery was made available through the Department of Defense Clear View contract and was distributed through U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science "Hurricane Katrina Disaster Response" Web site. By integrating multiple image data types with other information sources, ASP applied an all-source solutions approach to develop decision support tools that enabled managers to respond to critical issues, such as expedient access to infrastructure and deployment of resources

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder in an emergency department population one year after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lisa D; Mills, Trevor J; Macht, Marlow; Levitan, Rachel; De Wulf, Annelies; Afonso, Natasha S

    2012-07-01

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in a significant amount of injury, death, and destruction. To determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an emergency department (ED) population, 1 year after hurricane Katrina. Survey data including the Primary Care PTSD (PC-PTSD) screening instrument, demographic data, and questions regarding health care needs and personal loss were collected and analyzed. Seven hundred forty-seven subjects completed the survey. The PC-PTSD screen was positive in 38%. In the single variate analysis, there was a correlation with a positive PC-PTSD screen and the following: staying in New Orleans during the storm (odds ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.34), having material losses (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.03-2.60), experiencing the death of a loved one (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.35-1.87), needing health care during the storm (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.48-2.73), and not having health care needs met during the storm (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.26-3.18) or after returning to New Orleans (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.40-3.73). In the multivariate analysis, the death of a loved one (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.26-2.78), being in New Orleans during the storm (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.33), and seeking health care during the storm (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.35) were associated with positive PC-PTSD screens. There was a high prevalence of PTSD in this ED population surveyed 1 year after hurricane Katrina. By targeting high-risk patients, disaster relief teams may be able to reduce the impact of PTSD in similar populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Large-scale Vertical Motions, Intensity Change and Precipitation Associated with Land falling Hurricane Katrina over the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. R.; Kwembe, T.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the possible relationship between the large- scale heat fluxes and intensity change associated with the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. After reaching the category 5 intensity on August 28th , 2005 over the central Gulf of Mexico, Katrina weekend to category 3 before making landfall (August 29th , 2005) on the Louisiana coast with the maximum sustained winds of over 110 knots. We also examined the vertical motions associated with the intensity change of the hurricane. The data for Convective Available Potential Energy for water vapor (CAPE), sea level pressure and wind speed were obtained from the Atmospheric Soundings, and NOAA National Hurricane Center (NHC), respectively for the period August 24 to September 3, 2005. We also computed vertical motions using CAPE values. The study showed that the large-scale heat fluxes reached maximum (7960W/m2) with the central pressure 905mb. The Convective Available Potential Energy and the vertical motions peaked 3-5 days before landfall. The large atmospheric vertical motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorm, tornadoes, storm surge and floods Numerical model (WRF/ARW) with data assimilations have been used for this research to investigate the model's performances on hurricane tracks and intensities associated with the hurricane Katrina, which began to strengthen until reaching Category 5 on 28 August 2005. The model was run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 hr periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model output was compared with the observations and is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track associated with hurricane Katrina.

  19. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  20. Trace element concentrations in surface estuarine and marine sediments along the Mississippi Gulf Coast following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Crystal; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S; Weston, James; Willett, Kristine L

    2012-01-01

    Hurricanes are relatively frequent ecological disturbances that may cause potentially long-term impacts to the coastal environment. Hurricane Katrina hit the Mississippi Gulf Coast in August 2005, and caused a storm surge with the potential to change the trace element content of coastal surface sediments. In this study, surface estuarine and marine sediments were collected monthly following the storm from ten sites along the Mississippi Gulf Coast (Mobile Bay, Grand Bay Bayous Heron and Cumbest, Pascagoula, Ocean Springs, Biloxi Gulf, Back Biloxi Bay, Gulfport Gulf, Gulfport Courthouse Rd, and Gulfport Marina). Concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to evaluate their temporal and spatial variations in the year following Hurricane Katrina. Sediments were characterized by pH, particle size distribution and total carbon and nitrogen content. Trace element contents of the sediments were determined in both Hurricane Katrina would not cause an adverse impact on resident organisms. Instead, the concentrations of trace elements were site-dependent, with specific contaminants relating to the use of the area prior to Hurricane Katrina.

  1. Through Hell and High Water: A Librarian’s Autoethnography of Community Resilience after Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Patin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This autoethnographic essay presents a critical reflection on personal experiences of the process of rebuilding and working in a library in the Lower Ninth Ward in New Orleans, Louisiana following Hurricane Katrina. I examine meaningful moments during this process in the context of information science and community resiliency. The framework of community resilience is used to help structure the reflection and analysis in a systematic way. I share examples of the adaptive capacities of the school library as evidence of how the community adjusted to demonstrate resiliency.

  2. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on incidence of acute myocardial infarction in New Orleans three years after the storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhen; Kakoulides, Socrates V; Moscona, John; Whittier, Jabar; Srivastav, Sudesh; Delafontaine, Patrice; Irimpen, Anand

    2012-02-15

    To detect a long-term increase in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after Hurricane Katrina and to investigate the pertinent contributing factors, we conducted a single-center retrospective cohort observational study. The patients admitted with AMI to Tulane University Hospital in the 2 years before Katrina and the 3 years after the hospital reopened were identified from the hospital medical records. The pre- and post-Katrina groups were compared for prespecified demographic and clinical data. In the 3-year post-Katrina group, 418 admissions (2.0%) for AMI occurred of a total census of 21,092 patients compared to 150 (0.7%) of a census of 21,079 in the 2-year pre-Katrina group (p Katrina group had a greater prevalence of unemployment (p Katrina to 59 years after Katrina (p <0.05), and a significantly greater percentage of patients were men (p <0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of race, substance abuse, and a history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Our data suggest that chronic stress after natural disasters may significantly affect cardiovascular risk factors such as tobacco abuse and increase medical noncompliance. In conclusion, our data is consistent with a significant change in the overall health of the population and support the need for additional study into the health effects of chronic stress after natural disasters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hurricane Katrina experience and the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily W; Mattison, Donald R; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen; Pridjian, Gabriella; Buekens, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of disaster exposure and intensity on the development of mental disorders among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exposure to Hurricane Katrina on mental health in pregnant women. Prospective cohort epidemiological study. Tertiary hospitals in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, U.S.A. Women who were pregnant during Hurricane Katrina or became pregnant immediately after the hurricane. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The frequency of PTSD was higher in women with high hurricane exposure (13.8 percent) than women without high hurricane exposure (1.3 percent), with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 16.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-106.6) after adjustment for maternal race, age, education, smoking and alcohol use, family income, parity, and other confounders. The frequency of depression was higher in women with high hurricane exposure (32.3 percent) than women without high hurricane exposure (12.3 percent), with an aOR of 3.3 (1.6-7.1). Moreover, the risk of PTSD and depression increased with an increasing number of severe experiences of the hurricane. Pregnant women who had severe hurricane experiences were at a significantly increased risk for PTSD and depression. This information should be useful for screening pregnant women who are at higher risk of developing mental disorders after a disaster.

  4. Potential consequences of saltwater intrusion associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Chapter 6C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Gregory D.; Perez, Brian C.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Suir, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita pushed salt water from the Gulf of Mexico well inland into freshwater marsh communities in coastal Louisiana. This paper describes the spatial extent of saltwater intrusion and provides an initial assessment of impacts (salt stress) to coastal marsh vegetation communities.

  5. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on chronobiology at onset of acute myocardial infarction during the subsequent three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Matthew N; Katz, Morgan J; Moscona, John C; Alkadri, Mohi E; Khazi Syed, Rashad H; Turnage, Thomas A; Nijjar, Vikram S; Bisharat, Mohannad B; Delafontaine, Patrice; Irimpen, Anand M

    2013-03-15

    The onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been shown to occur in a nonrandom pattern, with peaks in midmorning and on weekdays (especially Monday). The incidence of AMI has been shown to increase locally after natural disasters, but the effect of catastrophic events on AMI biorhythms is largely unknown. To assess the differences in the chronobiology of AMI in residents of New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina, the onset of AMI in patients at Tulane University Health Sciences Center in the 6 years before and the 3 years after Hurricane Katrina was retrospectively examined. Compared to the pre-Katrina group, the post-Katrina cohort demonstrated significant decreases in the onset of AMI during mornings (p = 0.002), Mondays (p <0.0001), and weekdays (p <0.0001) and significant increases in onset during weekends (p <0.0001) and nights (p <0.0001). These changes persisted during all 3 years after the storm. In conclusion, the normal pattern of AMI onset was altered after Hurricane Katrina, and expected morning, weekday, and Monday peaks were eliminated.

  6. A comparative evaluation of semen parameters in pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Caner; Hellstrom, Wayne J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2015-01-01

    A natural disaster leading to accumulation of environmental contaminants may have substantial effects on the male reproductive system. Our aim was to compare and assess semen parameters in a normospermic population residing in the Southern Louisiana, USA area pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina. We retrospectively evaluated semen analyses data (n = 3452) of 1855 patients who attended the Tulane University Andrology/Fertility Clinic between 1999 and 2013. The study inclusion criteria were men whose semen analyses showed ≥ 1.5 ml volume; ≥15 million ml -1 sperm concentration; ≥39 million total sperm count; ≥40% motility; >30% morphology, with an abstinence interval of 2-7 days. After the inclusion criteria applied to the population, 367 normospermic patients were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and group-based analyses were performed to interpret the differences between the pre-Katrina (Group 1, 1999-2005) and the post-Katrina (Group 2, 2006-2013) populations. There were significant differences in motility, morphology, number of white blood cell, immature germ cell count, pH and presence of sperm agglutination, but surprisingly there were no significant differences in sperm count between the two populations. This long-term comparative analysis further documents that a major natural disaster with its accompanied environmental issues can influence certain semen parameters (e.g., motility and morphology) and, by extension, fertility potential of the population of such areas.

  7. Hurricane Katrina-linked environmental injustice: race, class, and place differentials in attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Francis O; Picou, J Steven

    2017-04-01

    Claims of environmental injustice, human neglect, and racism dominated the popular and academic literature after Hurricane Katrina struck the United States in August 2005. A systematic analysis of environmental injustice from the perspective of the survivors remains scanty or nonexistent. This paper presents, therefore, a systematic empirical analysis of the key determinants of Katrina-induced environmental injustice attitudes among survivors in severely affected parishes (counties) in Louisiana and Mississippi three years into the recovery process. Statistical models based on a random sample of survivors were estimated, with the results revealing significant predictors such as age, children in household under 18, education, homeownership, and race. The results further indicate that African-Americans were more likely to perceive environmental injustice following Katrina than their white counterparts. Indeed, the investigation reveals that there are substantial racial gaps in measures of environmental injustice. The theoretical, methodological, and applied policy implications of these findings are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  8. A comparative evaluation of semen parameters in pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Baran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A natural disaster leading to accumulation of environmental contaminants may have substantial effects on the male reproductive system. Our aim was to compare and assess semen parameters in a normospermic population residing in the Southern Louisiana, USA area pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina. We retrospectively evaluated semen analyses data (n = 3452 of 1855 patients who attended the Tulane University Andrology/Fertility Clinic between 1999 and 2013. The study inclusion criteria were men whose semen analyses showed ≥ 1.5 ml volume; ≥15 million ml -1 sperm concentration; ≥39 million total sperm count; ≥40% motility; >30% morphology, with an abstinence interval of 2-7 days. After the inclusion criteria applied to the population, 367 normospermic patients were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and group-based analyses were performed to interpret the differences between the pre-Katrina (Group 1, 1999-2005 and the post-Katrina (Group 2, 2006-2013 populations. There were significant differences in motility, morphology, number of white blood cell, immature germ cell count, pH and presence of sperm agglutination, but surprisingly there were no significant differences in sperm count between the two populations. This long-term comparative analysis further documents that a major natural disaster with its accompanied environmental issues can influence certain semen parameters (e.g., motility and morphology and, by extension, fertility potential of the population of such areas.

  9. Improving Post-Hurricane Katrina Forest Management with MODIS Time Series Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark David; Spruce, Joseph; Evans, David; Anderson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane damage to forests can be severe, causing millions of dollars of timber damage and loss. To help mitigate loss, state agencies require information on location, intensity, and extent of damaged forests. NASA's MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data products offers a potential means for state agencies to monitor hurricane-induced forest damage and recovery across a broad region. In response, a project was conducted to produce and assess 250 meter forest disturbance and recovery maps for areas in southern Mississippi impacted by Hurricane Katrina. The products and capabilities from the project were compiled to aid work of the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory (MIFI). A series of NDVI change detection products were computed to assess hurricane induced damage and recovery. Hurricane-induced forest damage maps were derived by computing percent change between MODIS MOD13 16-day composited NDVI pre-hurricane "baseline" products (2003 and 2004) and post-hurricane NDVI products (2005). Recovery products were then computed in which post storm 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 NDVI data was each singularly compared to the historical baseline NDVI. All percent NDVI change considered the 16-day composite period of August 29 to September 13 for each year in the study. This provided percent change in the maximum NDVI for the 2 week period just after the hurricane event and for each subsequent anniversary through 2009, resulting in forest disturbance products for 2005 and recovery products for the following 4 years. These disturbance and recovery products were produced for the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory's (MIFI) Southeast Inventory District and also for the entire hurricane impact zone. MIFI forest inventory products were used as ground truth information for the project. Each NDVI percent change product was classified into 6 categories of forest disturbance intensity. Stand age

  10. Measuring Exposure in Hurricane Katrina: A Meta-Analysis and an Integrative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    To date there is no consensus on the operationalization of exposure severity in the study of the impact of natural disasters. This is problematic because incomplete and inconsistent measurement of exposure limits the internal and external validity of disaster studies. The current paper examined the predictive validity of severity measures in two interrelated studies of Hurricane Katrina survivors. First, in a meta-analysis of eight studies that measured both exposure severity and posttraumatic stress, the effect size was estimated to be r = .266. The moderating effects of sample and study characteristics were examined and we found that minority status and number of stressors assessed were significant moderators. Second, in an integrative data analysis of five independent samples of Hurricane Katrina survivors, the impact of specific disaster-related stressors on mental health was compared. Threat to physical integrity of self and others were found to have the strongest association with posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general psychological distress (GPD). The lack of basic necessities, such as food, water, and medical care, and loss of pet were also found to be strongly associated with both PTS and GPD. The results from the two studies are integrated and their implication for disaster research and relief are discussed. PMID:24713851

  11. Measuring exposure in Hurricane Katrina: a meta-analysis and an integrative data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian S Chan

    Full Text Available To date there is no consensus on the operationalization of exposure severity in the study of the impact of natural disasters. This is problematic because incomplete and inconsistent measurement of exposure limits the internal and external validity of disaster studies. The current paper examined the predictive validity of severity measures in two interrelated studies of Hurricane Katrina survivors. First, in a meta-analysis of eight studies that measured both exposure severity and posttraumatic stress, the effect size was estimated to be r = .266. The moderating effects of sample and study characteristics were examined and we found that minority status and number of stressors assessed were significant moderators. Second, in an integrative data analysis of five independent samples of Hurricane Katrina survivors, the impact of specific disaster-related stressors on mental health was compared. Threat to physical integrity of self and others were found to have the strongest association with posttraumatic stress (PTS and general psychological distress (GPD. The lack of basic necessities, such as food, water, and medical care, and loss of pet were also found to be strongly associated with both PTS and GPD. The results from the two studies are integrated and their implication for disaster research and relief are discussed.

  12. Measuring exposure in Hurricane Katrina: a meta-analysis and an integrative data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christian S; Rhodes, Jean E

    2014-01-01

    To date there is no consensus on the operationalization of exposure severity in the study of the impact of natural disasters. This is problematic because incomplete and inconsistent measurement of exposure limits the internal and external validity of disaster studies. The current paper examined the predictive validity of severity measures in two interrelated studies of Hurricane Katrina survivors. First, in a meta-analysis of eight studies that measured both exposure severity and posttraumatic stress, the effect size was estimated to be r = .266. The moderating effects of sample and study characteristics were examined and we found that minority status and number of stressors assessed were significant moderators. Second, in an integrative data analysis of five independent samples of Hurricane Katrina survivors, the impact of specific disaster-related stressors on mental health was compared. Threat to physical integrity of self and others were found to have the strongest association with posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general psychological distress (GPD). The lack of basic necessities, such as food, water, and medical care, and loss of pet were also found to be strongly associated with both PTS and GPD. The results from the two studies are integrated and their implication for disaster research and relief are discussed.

  13. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Public Management Networks (PMNs): Evidence from the Case of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Girte Leah

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the performance outcomes of public management networks (PMNs) in the disaster management context. The effectiveness of three disaster response sub-networks in the area of evacuation were examined and compared using the case of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans, Louisiana in August 2005: Citizen Protection:…

  14. Longitudinal Impact of Attachment-Related Risk and Exposure to Trauma among Young Children after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy; Kronenberg, Mindy; Bocknek, Erika; Hansel, Tonya Cross

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that young childhood is a dynamic developmental phase during which risks to attachment figures as well as traumatic events may be particularly important. The loss and disruption associated with Hurricane Katrina highlighted the vulnerabilities and special needs of young children exposed to natural disaster. Objective:…

  15. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Adaptive Coping among Social Work Students in the Aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Catherine M.; Plummer, Carol A.; Richardson, Roslyn; Simon, Cassandra E.; Ai, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined mental health symptomology, substance use, and adaptive coping among 416 social work students following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Among participants, 47% scored at or above the clinical level for depression, with 6% of students showing clinical PTSD-like symptoms, and 16.9% reporting substance use. Two thirds (66.9%)…

  16. Effect of a School-Based Test Anxiety Intervention in Ethnic Minority Youth Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Costa, Natalie M.; Marks, Allison B.; Romano, Dawn M.; Verrett, Shannon L.; Brown, Darlene M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a school-based test anxiety intervention among ethnic minority youth. The study used a prospective intervention design with a sample of (N = 94) ninth graders from New Orleans exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath. Thirty youth with elevated test anxiety completed a primarily behavioral (e.g., relaxation…

  17. Positive Traits versus Previous Trauma: Racially Different Correlates with PTSD Symptoms among Hurricane Katrina-Rita Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Plummer, Carol; Kanno, Hanae; Heo, Grace; Appel, Hoa B.; Simon, Cassandra E.; Spigner, Clarence

    2011-01-01

    This study compared risks and protective factors for acquiring symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) between African-American (n = 299) and European-American (n = 206) student volunteers 3 months after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (H-KR). Respondents retrospectively provided information on peritraumatic emotional reactions and previous…

  18. Longitudinal Impact of Attachment-Related Risk and Exposure to Trauma among Young Children after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy; Kronenberg, Mindy; Bocknek, Erika; Hansel, Tonya Cross

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that young childhood is a dynamic developmental phase during which risks to attachment figures as well as traumatic events may be particularly important. The loss and disruption associated with Hurricane Katrina highlighted the vulnerabilities and special needs of young children exposed to natural disaster. Objective:…

  19. Changes in Children's Peer Interactions Following a Natural Disaster: How Predisaster Bullying and Victimization Rates Changed Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Andrew M.; Boxer, Paul; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    Youth exposed to disasters experience stress and adjustment difficulties, which likely influence their interactions with peers. In this study, we examined changes in bullying and peer victimization in two cohorts of children. Youth from an area affected by Hurricane Katrina were assessed pre- and postdisaster (n = 96, mean [M] = 10.9 years old,…

  20. The Tempering Effect of Schools on Students Experiencing a Life-Changing Event: Teenagers and the Hurricane Katrina Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Edith J.; Ausbrooks, Carrie Y. Barron; Martinez-Cosio, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Focusing specifically on adolescents forced to relocate after Hurricane Katrina, the study looks closely at the role of schools in helping adolescents adapt after a natural disaster. Data collected from 46 middle and high school students across a 6-month period demonstrate that those who showed the greatest improvements in their well-being were…

  1. The Impact of Parental Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Trajectories on the Long-Term Outcomes of Youth Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Lai, Betty; Harbin, Shannon; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in impoverished mothers impacted by Hurricane Katrina, as well as how predictive the maternal trajectories were for youth posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 years post-Katrina. Method 360 mother participants displaced by Hurricane Katrina completed self-report measures across 4 time-points related to Hurricane exposure, trauma history, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Additionally, the youth offspring completed a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results Latent Class Growth Analysis demonstrated three primary trajectories emerged among females impacted by Katrina, namely, 1) Chronic (4%), 2) Recovering (30%), and 3) Resilient (66%), respectively. These trajectories were significantly impacted by prior trauma history, but not hurricane exposure. Additionally, data indicated that children whose parents fell into the Chronic PTS trajectory also reported high levels of PTS symptoms. Conclusions This study identified 3 main trajectories typical of female PTS symptoms following disaster and was the first known study to document associations between PTS outcomes among adults and their offspring impacted by a large natural disaster. Future research is warranted and should explore additional risk and protective factors that impact both the parental and child outcomes. PMID:25255912

  2. Toward Transformative Learning: An Inquiry into the Work and Subsequent Learning Experiences of Individuals Who Assisted Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficks, David B., II.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this multi-case study was to examine in depth the personal and learning experiences of helping professionals and volunteer helpers when challenged to assist adult Hurricane Katrina evacuees and victims in the aftermath of the disaster. The study contributes theoretically, practically and substantively to the adult education field.…

  3. First-year growth for two oak species and three planting stocks planted on areas disturbed by Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Dowdy; Andrew W. Ezell; Emily B. Schultz; John D. Hodges; Andrew B. Self

    2014-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests were damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 when it made landfall along the Gulf Coast. Regenerating these areas, which can be difficult without planning and artificial regeneration, has often been problematic when using 1-0 bare-root seedlings because of inconsistencies with the seedling quality. Some growers have begun producing...

  4. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Public Management Networks (PMNs): Evidence from the Case of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Girte Leah

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the performance outcomes of public management networks (PMNs) in the disaster management context. The effectiveness of three disaster response sub-networks in the area of evacuation were examined and compared using the case of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans, Louisiana in August 2005: Citizen Protection:…

  5. Social Support, Discrimination, and Coping as Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Youth Survivors of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Armando A.; Villalta, Ian K.; Ortiz, Claudio D.; Gottschall, Amanda C.; Costa, Natalie M.; Weems, Carl F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of aspects of the post-Hurricane Katrina recovery environment (i.e., discrimination, social support) and coping behaviors on children's posttraumatic stress reactions (symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety, and depression). Data corresponding to 46 youth (M = 11.43 years; 39% girls; 33% African…

  6. Post Traumatic Stress, Context, and the Lingering Effects of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster among Ethnic Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Marino, Reshelle C.; Romano, Dawn M.; Scott, Brandon G.; Perry, Andre M.; Triplett, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the stability of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a predominantly ethnic minority sample of youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Youth (n = 191 grades 4th thru 8th) were screened for exposure to traumatic experiences and PTSD symptoms at 24 months (Time 1) and then again at 30 months (Time 2) post-disaster. PTSD…

  7. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tees, Michael T; Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-07-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n = 288) in 2006-2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother's experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, 2 months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and "difficult temperament" was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with three or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15-2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at 1 year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22-8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81-5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother's mental health.

  8. Respiratory Health Effects Associated with Restoration Work in Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy J. Rando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examines prevalence of respiratory conditions in New Orleans-area restoration workers after Hurricane Katrina. Methods. Between 2007 and 2010, spirometry and respiratory health and occupational questionnaire were administered to 791 New Orleans-area adults who mostly worked in the building construction and maintenance trades or custodial services. The associations between restoration work hours and lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms were examined by multiple linear regression, , or multiple logistic regression. Results. 74% of participants performed post-Katrina restoration work (median time: 620 hours. Symptoms reported include episodes of transient fever/cough (29%, sinus symptoms (48%, pneumonia (3.7%, and new onset asthma (4.5%. Prevalence rate ratios for post-Katrina sinus symptoms (PRR = 1.3; CI: 1.1, 1.7 and fever and cough (PRR = 1.7; CI: 1.3, 2.4 were significantly elevated overall for those who did restoration work and prevalence increased with restoration work hours. Prevalence rate ratios with restoration work were also elevated for new onset asthma (PRR = 2.2; CI: 0.8, 6.2 and pneumonia (PRR = 1.3; CI: 0.5, 3.2 but were not statistically significant. Overall, lung function was slightly depressed but was not significantly different between those with and without restoration work exposure. Conclusions. Post-Katrina restoration work is associated with moderate adverse effects on respiratory health, including sinusitis and toxic pneumonitis.

  9. Examining the aftereffects of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans: a qualitative study of faculty and staff perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J; Hooper, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have reported how Hurricane Katrina has affected teachers who work with Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12), yet little is known about how the natural disaster has affected other important K-12 faculty and staff (e.g., coaches, librarians, school counselors, and cafeteria workers). Missing from the literature is the impact that this natural disaster has had on these formal (school counselors) and informal (coaches, librarians) helpers of K-12 students. Using a focus group methodology, the authors examined the aftereffects of Hurricane Katrina on 12 school employees in New Orleans, Louisiana, 18 months after the hurricane. Informed by qualitative content analysis, three emergent themes were identified: emotion-focused aftereffects, positive coping, and worry and fear. The implications for future research and promoting hope in mental health counseling are discussed.

  10. Examining the Aftereffects of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans: A Qualitative Study of Faculty and Staff Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy J. Burnham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have reported how Hurricane Katrina has affected teachers who work with Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12, yet little is known about how the natural disaster has affected other important K-12 faculty and staff (e.g., coaches, librarians, school counselors, and cafeteria workers. Missing from the literature is the impact that this natural disaster has had on these formal (school counselors and informal (coaches, librarians helpers of K-12 students. Using a focus group methodology, the authors examined the aftereffects of Hurricane Katrina on 12 school employees in New Orleans, Louisiana, 18 months after the hurricane. Informed by qualitative content analysis, three emergent themes were identified: emotion-focused aftereffects, positive coping, and worry and fear. The implications for future research and promoting hope in mental health counseling are discussed.

  11. Impact of coping styles on post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among pregnant women exposed to Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Olurinde; Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Experiencing natural disasters such as hurricanes is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We examined the role played by perceived stress and coping styles in explaining and modifying this association among pregnant women exposed to Hurricane Katrina. The study comprised 192 women (133 from New Orleans and 59 from Baton Rouge) who were pregnant during Hurricane Katrina or became pregnant immediately after the hurricane. Women were interviewed regarding their hurricane experience, perceived stress, and mental health outcomes. Coping styles was assessed using the Brief COPE, PTSD symptoms using the Post-Traumatic Checklist, and depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Multivariable regression models were run to determine the effects of coping styles on mental health and the interactions among coping styles, hurricane experience, and perceived stress on mental health. Apart from the positive reframing and humor coping styles, all coping styles correlated positively with PTSD or depression (p hurricane experience. Coping styles are potential moderators of the effects of stress on mental health of pregnant women.

  12. Nephrologic Impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in Areas Not Directly Affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossabhoy, Neville R; Qadri, Mashood; Beal, Lauren M

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita resulted in enormous loss of life and disrupted the delivery of health care in areas affected by them. In causing mass movements of patients, natural disasters can overwhelm the resources of nephrology communities in areas not suffering direct damage. The following largely personal account evaluates the impact these hurricanes had upon the nephrology community, patients and health care providers alike, in areas not directly affected by the storms. Mass evacuation of hundreds of dialysis patients to surrounding areas overwhelmed the capacity of local hemodialysis centers. Non-availability of medical records in patients arriving without a supply of their routine medications led to confusion and sub-optimal treatment of conditions such as hypertension and congestive heart failure. Availability of cadaveric organs for transplantation was reduced in the surrounding areas, as the usual lines of communication and transportation were severed for several weeks. All of these issues led to prolong waiting times for patients on the transplant list. The hurricanes severely disrupted usual supply lines of medications to hospitals; certain rare conditions may be seen in higher numbers as a result of the shortages induced. We present the interesting surge in cases of acute kidney injury secondary to use of intravenous immune globulin.

  13. Relationships among stress coping styles and pregnancy complications among women exposed to Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Olurinde; Harville, Emily; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between maternal stress exposure, stress coping styles, and pregnancy complications. Quantitative, cross-sectional, and prospective study. Tulane-Lakeside Hospital, New Orleans, LA and Women's Hospital, Baton Rouge, LA. The study included 146 women (122 from New Orleans and 24 from Baton Rouge), who were pregnant during or immediately after Hurricane Katrina. Participants were interviewed regarding their hurricane experiences and perceived stress, and coping styles were assessed using the Brief COPE. Medical charts were also reviewed to obtain information about pregnancy outcomes. Logistic regression was performed to determine possible associations. Hurricane exposure was significantly associated with induction of labor (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03, 1.86], P = .03) and current perceived stress (aOR = 1.50, CI [1.34, 1.99], P Stress perception significantly predisposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (aOR = 1.16, CI [1.05, 1.30], P pregnancy complications (P stress may complicate pregnancy, whereas some coping styles may mitigate its effects. Further research should explore how coping styles may mitigate or exacerbate the effect of major stressors and how positive coping styles can be encouraged or augmented. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  14. Trajectories of psychological distress among low-income, female survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate trajectories of psychological distress among low-income, primarily unmarried and African American women who survived Hurricane Katrina (N = 386). Data were collected in the year prior to the hurricane as well as approximately 1 and 3 years thereafter. Using Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA), we detected 6 distinct trajectory groups. Over half of the participants fit into a trajectory consistent with resilience; that is, they maintained low levels of psychological distress over the course of the study, but experienced an elevation in symptoms at the first predisaster time point followed by a return to predisaster levels. The other trajectories reflected a range of psychological responses to disasters and indicated that predisaster functioning had a major influence on postdisaster psychological outcomes. Degree of exposure to hurricane-related stressors, experiences of human and pet bereavement, perceived social support, and socioeconomic status were significant predictors of trajectory group membership. Implications for research and policy are discussed. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  15. Numerical simulation of the rapid intensification of Hurricane Katrina (2005): Sensitivity to boundary layer parameterization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Feimin; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2017-04-01

    Accurate forecasting of the intensity changes of hurricanes is an important yet challenging problem in numerical weather prediction. The rapid intensification of Hurricane Katrina (2005) before its landfall in the southern US is studied with the Advanced Research version of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model. The sensitivity of numerical simulations to two popular planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes, the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and the Yonsei University (YSU) schemes, is investigated. It is found that, compared with the YSU simulation, the simulation with the MYJ scheme produces better track and intensity evolution, better vortex structure, and more accurate landfall time and location. Large discrepancies (e.g., over 10 hPa in simulated minimum sea level pressure) are found between the two simulations during the rapid intensification period. Further diagnosis indicates that stronger surface fluxes and vertical mixing in the PBL from the simulation with the MYJ scheme lead to enhanced air-sea interaction, which helps generate more realistic simulations of the rapid intensification process. Overall, the results from this study suggest that improved representation of surface fluxes and vertical mixing in the PBL is essential for accurate prediction of hurricane intensity changes.

  16. Classroom-Community Consultation (C [superscript 3]) 10 Years after Hurricane Katrina: A Retrospective Look at a Collaborative, School-Based Referral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Madeline Y.; Danna, Laura; Walker, Douglas W.

    2017-01-01

    The long-term nature of mental health needs after disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina, continues to require attention. Research that emerged during the anniversaries of the storm has shown Katrina and its aftermath to be associated with posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, disruptive behavior, and somatic complaints in children and…

  17. Geomorphic and ecological effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on coastal Louisiana marsh communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Sarai C.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari F.; Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Holm, Guerry O.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Evers, D. Elaine; Meriwether, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in 2005, subjecting the coastal marsh communities of Louisiana to various degrees of exposure. We collected data after the storms at 30 sites within fresh (12), brackish/intermediate (12), and saline (6) marshes to document the effects of saltwater storm surge and sedimentation on marsh community dynamics. The 30 sites were comprised of 15 pairs. Most pairs contained one site where data collection occurred historically (that is, prestorms) and one Coastwide Reference Monitoring System site. Data were collected from spring 2006 to fall 2007 on vegetative species composition, percentage of vegetation cover, aboveground and belowground biomass, and canopy reflectance, along with discrete porewater salinity, hourly surface-water salinity, and water level. Where available, historical data acquired before Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were used to compare conditions and changes in ecological trajectories before and after the hurricanes. Sites experiencing direct and indirect hurricane influences (referred to in this report as levels of influence) were also identified, and the effects of hurricane influence were tested on vegetation and porewater data. Within fresh marshes, porewater salinity was greater in directly impacted areas, and this heightened salinity was reflected in decreased aboveground and belowground biomass and increased cover of disturbance species in the directly impacted sites. At the brackish/intermediate marsh sites, vegetation variables and porewater salinity were similar in directly and indirectly impacted areas, but porewater salinity was higher than expected throughout the study. Interestingly, directly impacted saline marsh sites had lower porewater salinity than indirectly impacted sites, but aboveground biomass was greater at the directly impacted sites. Because of the variable and site-specific nature of hurricane influences, we present case studies to help define postdisturbance baseline conditions in

  18. The nontraditional role of pharmacists after hurricane Katrina: process description and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Hogue, Heather B; Lander, Roger D; Avent, Kirk; Fleenor, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the week before Hurricane Katrina's landfall in August 2005, emergency management officials in Jefferson County (Birmingham), Alabama, began to make plans for the potential influx of evacuees from the Gulf Coast. No pharmacy component to the plan was in place at that time. The Jefferson County Department of Health (JCDH) discovered that local pharmacies and hospital emergency departments were dealing with significant requests for medication refills. JCDH, in cooperation with a local school of pharmacy, developed a plan for addressing the unforeseen need for routine prescription refills by evacuees. This article discusses this novel pharmacy plan and lessons learned from the event, and may serve as a model for other municipalities and/or states interested in preparing a pharmacy response to future natural disasters.

  19. Why did they "choose" to stay? Perspectives of Hurricane Katrina observers and survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, Maryam G; Markus, Hazel Rose; Bergsieker, Hilary B; Eloul, Liyam

    2009-07-01

    Models of agency--powerful implicit assumptions about what constitutes normatively "good" action--shaped how observers and survivors made meaning after Hurricane Katrina. In Study 1, we analyzed how 461 observers perceived survivors who evacuated (leavers) or stayed (stayers) in New Orleans. Observers described leavers positively (as agentic, independent, and in control) and stayers negatively (as passive and lacking agency). Observers' perceptions reflected the disjoint model of agency, which is prevalent in middle-class White contexts and defines "good" actions as those that emanate from within the individual and proactively influence the environment. In Study 2, we examined interviews with 79 survivors and found that leavers and stayers relied on divergent models of agency. Leavers emphasized independence, choice, and control, whereas stayers emphasized interdependence, strength, and faith. Although both leavers and stayers exercised agency, observers failed to recognize stayers' agency and derogated them because observers assumed that being independent and in control was the only way to be agentic.

  20. Association of PTSD symptoms with asthma attacks among hurricane Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E; Waters, Mary C; Subramanian, S V

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and asthma in the wake of natural disasters is poorly understood. Using pre- and postdisaster data (N = 405) from the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina (RISK) project, we examined associations between PTSD symptoms, measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and self-reported postdisaster asthma attacks. A 1-point increase in the IES-R avoidance score, which corresponded to one standard deviation change in this sample, was associated with double the odds of reporting an asthma attack or episode since the hurricane, 95% CI Revise spacing among characters: [1.22, 4.16]. Association with hyperarousal and intrusion symptoms was null. Further research using objective measures of asthma morbidity is needed; nevertheless, these findings may help inform postdisaster health services delivery and predisaster mitigation planning. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Bacteriological water quality in the Lake Pontchartrain basin Louisiana following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, September 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Donald M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Demcheck, Dennis K.; Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Bertke, Erin E.; Mailot, Brian E.; Mize, Scott V.; Fendick, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, monitored bacteriological quality of water at 22 sites in and around Lake Pontchartrain, La., for three consecutive weeks beginning September 13, 2005, following hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the associated flooding. Samples were collected and analyzed by USGS personnel from the USGS Louisiana Water Science Center and the USGS Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory. Fecal-indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, enterococci, and fecal coliform) concentrations ranged from the detection limit to 36,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Data are presented in tabular form and as plots of data in the context of available historical data and water-quality standards and criteria for each site sampled. Quality-control data were reviewed to ensure that methods performed as expected in a mobile laboratory setting.

  2. Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; Sastry, Narayan; Vanlandingham, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans on the 29th of August 2005 and displaced virtually the entire population of the city. Soon after, observers predicted the city would become whiter and wealthier as a result of selective return migration, although challenges related to sampling and data collection in a post-disaster environment have hampered evaluation of these hypotheses. In this article, we investigate return to the city by displaced residents over a period of approximately 14 months following the storm, describing overall return rates and examining differences in return rates by race and socioeconomic status. We use unique data from a representative sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans residents collected in the Displaced New Orleans Residents Pilot Survey. We find that black residents returned to the city at a much slower pace than white residents even after controlling for socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics. However, the racial disparity disappears after controlling for housing damage. We conclude that blacks tended to live in areas that experienced greater flooding and hence suffered more severe housing damage which, in turn, led to their delayed return to the city. The full-scale survey of displaced residents being fielded in 2009-2010 will show whether the repopulation of the city was selective over a longer period.

  3. The effect of Hurricane Katrina: births in the U.S. Gulf Coast region, before and after the storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Sutton, Paul D; Mathews, T J; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2009-08-28

    This report presents birth data for the region affected by Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall along the Gulf Coast of the United States on August 29, 2005, comparing the 12-month periods before and after the storm according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; medical care utilization by pregnant women (prenatal care and method of delivery); and infant characteristics or birth outcomes (period of gestation and birthweight). Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of residents of the 91 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-designated counties and parishes of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi are presented for the 12-month periods before and after Hurricane Katrina struck, from August 29, 2004, through August 28, 2006. Detailed data are shown separately for 14 selected, FEMA-designated coastal counties and parishes within a 100-mile radius of the Hurricane Katrina storm path, the area hit very hard by the storm and subsequent flooding. These 14 selected coastal counties and parishes are a subset of the 91 FEMA-designated counties and parishes. The total number of births in the 14 selected FEMA-designated counties and parishes decreased 19 percent in the 12 months after Hurricane Katrina compared with the 12 months before, with births declining in the selected counties and parishes of Louisiana and Mississippi and rising in the counties of Alabama. The number of births to non-Hispanic black women in the selected parishes of Louisiana fell substantially after Hurricane Katrina; births declined for non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian or Pacific Islander women in these selected parishes as well. The percentage of births to women under age 20 years for the selected counties and parishes after the storm was essentially unchanged in Alabama and Mississippi, but decreased in Louisiana. The

  4. 10 Years Later: Changes in Food Access Disparities in New Orleans since Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorf, Adrienne R; Willits-Smith, Amelia; Rose, Donald

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate access to healthy food is a problem in many urban neighborhoods, particularly for racial-ethnic minorities and low-income groups who are more likely to reside in food deserts. Although substantial research throughout the country has documented the existence of these disparities, few studies have focused on how this access changes over time or is affected by environmental shocks. This study examined citywide supermarket access in New Orleans as well as racial-ethnic disparities in this access, prior to Hurricane Katrina and at three times afterwards. On-the-ground verification of supermarket locations was conducted in 2004-2005, 2007, 2009, and 2014 and was mapped with secondary demographic data. Census tracts were defined as predominantly African-American neighborhoods if 80 % or more of the population identified as such. HLM Poisson regression analyses were conducted in 2014 to identify the difference in likelihood of finding supermarkets in a neighborhood by race-ethnicity and across all years of interest. Racial-ethnic disparities existed before the storm and worsened after it (IRR = 0.35; 95 % CI = 0.21, 0.60). Improvements in disparities to pre-storm levels were not seen until 2009, 4 years after the storm. By 2014, supermarket access, on average, was not significantly different in African-American neighborhoods than in others (IRR = 0.90; 95 % CI = 0.65, 1.26). The slow recovery of New Orleans' retail food infrastructure after Hurricane Katrina highlights the need for an increased focus on long-term planning to address disparities, especially those that may be exaggerated by shocks.

  5. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tees, Michael T.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n=288) in 2006–2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother’s experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, two months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and “difficult temperament” was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with 3 or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15–2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at one year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61–5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22–8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81–5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother’s mental health. PMID:19554438

  6. Measurement equivalence of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth between black and white adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Alison M; Tran, Thanh V

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the equivalence or comparability of the measurement properties of seven selected items measuring posttraumatic growth among self-identified Black (n = 270) and White (n = 707) adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina, using data from the Baseline Survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group Study. Internal consistency reliability was equally good for both groups (Cronbach's alphas = .79), as were correlations between individual scale items and their respective overall scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of a congeneric measurement model of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth showed adequate measures of fit for both groups. The results showed only small variation in magnitude of factor loadings and measurement errors between the two samples. Tests of measurement invariance showed mixed results, but overall indicated that factor loading, error variance, and factor variance were similar between the two samples. These seven selected items can be useful for future large-scale surveys of posttraumatic growth.

  7. Recovery Migration After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J; Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of the Gulf of Mexico coastline counties affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of "climate refugees," but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests that most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-stricken places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007-2009) with the pre-disaster period (1999-2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows, we find that recovery migration was strong: the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated, while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places.

  8. Recovery Migration after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of Hurricane Katrina- and Rita-affected Gulf of Mexico coastline counties provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of “climate refugees,” but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-struck places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007–2009) to the pre-disaster period (1999–2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows we find that recovery migration was strong, as the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  9. Health problems among low-income parents in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Willis, Margaret; Rhodes, Jean E

    2014-08-01

    Although the mental health consequences of disasters have been well documented, relatively less is known about their effects on survivors' physical health. Disaster studies have also generally lacked predisaster data, limiting researchers' ability to determine whether postdisaster physical health problems were influenced by disaster exposure, or whether they would have emerged even if the disaster had not occurred. The current study aimed to fill this gap. Participants were low-income, primarily non-Hispanic Black mothers (N = 334) who survived Hurricane Katrina and completed 4 survey assessments, 2 predisaster and 2 postdisaster. In each assessment, participants reported on whether they had experienced 3 common health problems (frequent headaches or migraines, back problems, and digestive problems) and completed 2 mental health measure (the K6 scale, the Perceived Stress Scale). The descriptive results suggested that the hurricane led to at least short-term increases in the 3 health outcomes. Fixed effects modeling was conducted to explore how changes in various predictor variables related to changes in each health condition over the study. Bereavement and increases in psychological distress were significant predictors of increases in health problems. Based on these results, further research that explores the processes through which disasters lead to both physical and mental health problems, postdisaster screenings for common health conditions and psychological distress, and interventions that boost survivors' stress management skills are suggested.

  10. New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. IV: Orleans East Bank (Metro) protected basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, R.B.; Bea, R.G.; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A.; Boutwell, G.P.; Bray, J.D.; Cheung, C.; Cobos-Roa, D.; Cohen-Waeber, J.; Collins, B.D.; Harder, L.F.; Kayen, R.E.; Pestana, J.M.; Riemer, M.F.; Rogers, J.D.; Storesund, R.; Vera-Grunauer, X.; Wartman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to the main Orleans East Bank protected basin. This basin represented the heart of New Orleans, and contained the main downtown area, the historic French Quarter, the Garden District, and the sprawling Lakefront and Canal Districts. Nearly half of the loss of life during this hurricane, and a similar fraction of the overall damages, occurred in this heavily populated basin. There are a number of important geotechnical lessons, as well as geo-forensic lessons, associated with the flooding of this basin. These include the difficulties associated with the creation and operation of regional-scale flood protection systems requiring federal and local cooperation and funding over prolonged periods of time. There are also a number of engineering and policy lessons regarding (1) the accuracy and reliability of current analytical methods; (2) the shortcomings and potential dangers involved in decisions that reduced short-term capital outlays in exchange for increased risk of potential system failures; (3) the difficulties associated with integrating local issues with a flood risk reduction project; and (4) the need to design and maintain levees as systems; with each of the many individual project elements being required to mesh seamlessly. These lessons are of interest and importance for similar flood protection systems throughout numerous other regions of the United States and the world. ?? 2008 ACSE.

  11. Disaster prevention design criteria for the estuarine cities:New Orleans and Shanghai The lesson from Hurricane Katrina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Defu; SHI Hongda; PANG Liang

    2006-01-01

    The accurate prediction of the typhoon (hurricane) induced extreme sea environments is very important for the coastal structure design in areas influenced by typhoon (hurricane). In 2005 Hurricane Katrina brought a severe catastrophe in New Orleans by combined effects of hurricane induced extreme sea environments and upper flood of the Mississippi River. Like the New Orleans City, Shanghai is located at the estuarine area of the Changjiang River and the combined effect of typhoon induced extreme sea environments, flood peak runoff from the Changjiang River coupled with the spring tide is the dominate factor for disaster prevention design criteria. The Poisson-nested logistic trivariate compound extreme value distribution (PNLTCEVD) is a new type of joint probability model which is proposed by compounding a discrete distribution (typhoon occurring frequency) into a continuous multivariate joint distribution (typhoon induced extreme events). The new model gives more reasonable predicted results for New Orleans and Shanghai disaster prevention design criteria.

  12. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on nekton communities in the tidal freshwater marshes of Breton Sound, Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Bryan P.; La Peyre, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes are climatically-induced resource pulses that affect community structure through the combination of physical and chemical habitat change. Estuaries are susceptible to hurricane pulses and are thought to be resilient to habitat change, because biotic communities often return quickly to pre-hurricane conditions. Although several examples provide evidence of quick recovery of estuarine nekton communities following a hurricane, few studies take place in tidal freshwater habitat where physical habitat effects can be extensive and may not be readily mitigated. We examined nekton communities (density, biomass, ?? and ?? diversity, % occurrence by residence status) in tidal freshwater marshes in Breton Sound, Louisiana, before and after a direct hit by Hurricane Katrina (2005). Vegetative marsh loss in the study area was extensive, and elevated salinity persisted for almost 6 months. Post-Katrina nekton density and biomass increased significantly, and the nekton community shifted from one of tidal freshwater/resident species to one containing brackish/migrant species, many of which are characterized by pelagic and benthic life history strategies. By spring 2007, the nekton community had shifted back to tidal freshwater/resident species, despite the enduring loss of vegetated marsh habitat. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Surveillance for illness and injury after hurricane Katrina--New Orleans, Louisiana, September 8-25, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-14

    Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, resulting in extensive structural damage and severe flooding from breached levees in and around New Orleans, Louisiana. The public health infrastructure of the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (LDHH) was damaged extensively, limiting surveillance for illnesses, injuries, and toxic exposures. On September 9, 2005, LDHH, CDC, and functioning emergency treatment resources (i.e., hospitals, disaster medical assistance teams, and military aid stations) established an active surveillance system to detect outbreaks of disease and characterize post-hurricane injuries and illnesses. As of September 25, the system had monitored 7,508 reports of health-related events at participating facilities. Trends observed in the data prompted investigations of respiratory and rash illnesses, but no major outbreaks of disease or hazardous environmental exposures were detected. These data also were used to identify post-hurricane injury patterns and to guide prevention messages to residents and relief workers. A natural disaster of the magnitude of Hurricane Katrina requires a sustained response and a detailed plan for return to pre-hurricane surveillance activities.

  14. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on nekton communities in the tidal freshwater marshes of Breton Sound, Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Bryan P.; La Peyre, Megan K.

    2009-06-01

    Hurricanes are climatically-induced resource pulses that affect community structure through the combination of physical and chemical habitat change. Estuaries are susceptible to hurricane pulses and are thought to be resilient to habitat change, because biotic communities often return quickly to pre-hurricane conditions. Although several examples provide evidence of quick recovery of estuarine nekton communities following a hurricane, few studies take place in tidal freshwater habitat where physical habitat effects can be extensive and may not be readily mitigated. We examined nekton communities (density, biomass, α and β diversity, % occurrence by residence status) in tidal freshwater marshes in Breton Sound, Louisiana, before and after a direct hit by Hurricane Katrina (2005). Vegetative marsh loss in the study area was extensive, and elevated salinity persisted for almost 6 months. Post-Katrina nekton density and biomass increased significantly, and the nekton community shifted from one of tidal freshwater/resident species to one containing brackish/migrant species, many of which are characterized by pelagic and benthic life history strategies. By spring 2007, the nekton community had shifted back to tidal freshwater/resident species, despite the enduring loss of vegetated marsh habitat.

  15. What Can Multiwave Studies Teach Us About Disaster Research: An Analysis of Low-Income Hurricane Katrina Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social ...

  16. Survival and growth performance of two oak species and three planting stocks on lands disturbed by Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Dowdy; Andrew E. Ezell; Emily B. Schultz; John D. Hodges; Andrew B. Self

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of oaks is a priority for most landowners in the south given their inherent wildlife benefits, economic return, ascetics, and providing habitat for endangered species. In the case of natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina artificial regeneration of these stands may be the only viable option to reestablish an overall oak component in a future stands...

  17. Relationship between Stress Coping Styles and Pregnancy Complications among Women Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Olurinde; Harville, Emily; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal stress exposure, stress coping styles, and pregnancy complications. Design Quantitative, cross-sectional, and prospective study. Setting Tulane-Lakeside Hospital, New Orleans, LA and Women's Hospital, Baton Rouge, LA. Participants The study included 146 women (122 from New Orleans and 24 from Baton Rouge), who were pregnant during or immediately after Hurricane Katrina. Methods Participants were interviewed regarding their hurricane experiences and perceived stress, and coping styles were assessed using the Brief COPE. Medical charts were also reviewed to obtain information about pregnancy outcomes. Logistic regression was performed to determine possible associations. Results Hurricane exposure was significantly associated with induction of labor (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.03, 1.86; P=0.03) and current perceived stress (aOR=1.50; CI=1.34, 1.99; P<0.01). Stress perception significantly predisposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (aOR=1.16; CI=1.05, 1.30; P<0.01) and gestational diabetes (aOR=1.13; CI=1.02, 1.25; P=0.03). Use of planning, acceptance, humor, instrumental support, and venting coping styles were associated with a significantly reduced occurrence of pregnancy complications (P<0.05). Higher rates for gestational diabetes was found among women using the denial coping style (aOR=2.25; CI=1.14, 4.45; P=0.02). Conclusion Exposure to disaster-related stress may complicate pregnancy, while some coping styles may mitigate its effects. Further research should explore how coping styles may mitigate or exacerbate the effect of major stressors and how positive coping styles can be encouraged or augmented. PMID:25712783

  18. Regeneration of coastal marsh vegetation impacted by hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of plant regeneration via seed and vegetative spread in coastal wetlands dictate the nature of community reassembly that takes place after hurricanes or sea level rise. The objectives of my project were to evaluate the potential effects of saltwater intrusion and flooding of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on seedling regeneration in coastal wetlands of the Gulf Coast. Specifically I tested hypotheses to determine for species in fresh, brackish and salt marshes of the Gulf Coast if 1) the pattern of seed germination and seedling recruitment differed with distance from the shoreline, and 2) seed germination and seedling recruitment for various species were reduced in higher levels of water depth and salinity. Regarding Hypothesis 1, seedling densities increased with distance from the shoreline in fresh and brackish water marshes while decreasing with distance from the shoreline in salt marshes. Also to test Hypothesis 1, I used a greenhouse seed bank assay to examine seed germination from seed banks collected at distances from the shoreline in response to various water depths and salinity levels using a nested factorial design. For all marsh types, the influence of water level and salinity on seed germination shifted with distance from the shoreline (i.e., three way interaction of the main effects of distance nested within site, water depth, and salinity). Data from the seed bank assay were also used to test Hypothesis 2. The regeneration of species from fresh, brackish, and salt marshes were reduced in conditions of high salinity and/or water, so that following hurricanes or sea level rise, seedling regeneration could be reduced. Among the species of these coastal marshes, there was some flexibility of response, so that at least some species were able to germinate in either high or low salinity. Salt marshes had a few fresher marsh species in the seed bank that would not germinate without a period of fresh water input (e.g., Sagittaria lancifolia) as well

  19. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children Following Hurricane Katrina: A Prospective Analysis of the Effect of Parental Distress and Parenting Practices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Mary Lou; Self-Brown, Shannon; Le, Brenda; Bosson, Julia Vigna; Hernandez, Brittany C.; Gordon, Arlene T.

    2014-01-01

    Research exhibits a robust relation between child hurricane exposure, parent distress, and child posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study explored parenting practices that could further explicate this association. Participants were 381 mothers and their children exposed to Hurricane Katrina. It was hypothesized that 3–7 months (T1) and 14–17 months (T2) post-Katrina: (a) hurricane exposure would predict child PTSD symptoms after controlling for history of violence exposure and (b) hurricane exposure would predict parent distress and negative parenting practices, which, in turn, would predict increased child PTSD symptoms. Hypotheses were partially supported. Hurricane exposure directly predicted child PTSD at T1 and indirectly at T2. Additionally, several significant paths emerged from hurricane exposure to parent distress and parenting practices, which were predictive of child PTSD. PMID:20925099

  20. Vulnerability and social resilience: comparison of two neighborhoods in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 29th of 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the gulf coast of the United States leading to one of the most powerful disasters in history. Damage costs reached more than 100 billion dollars, as well as 150,000 flooded houses and 1,330 deaths. 10 years later, the damage remains visible in the city of New Orleans, and the rate of recovery is highly varied throughout different neighborhoods in the city. A popular idea is to associate this to the neighborhood social class, i.e. the poorer an area is, the more difficult the recovery process is. However the reality is more complex. This study looks at two economically similar and highly damaged neighborhoods, with two deeply different recoveries. The Lower 9th Ward, an isolated, and poor neighborhood surrounded by water with the Mississippi River and the industrial canal, has experienced an extremely slow recovery. However, in the isolated and relatively poor neighborhood known as Village de l’Est, located on former marshes at the edge of the city between Lake Pontchartrain and the Bayou Bienvenue, the Vietnamese community ties and cohesion have brought the neighborhood back to fruition faster than anyone would have expected. Despite many common features weakening their technical resilience, such as relatively modern and fast urbanization on former natural and low lands protected mostly by levees, their radically different reaction following Katrina points out the key role of social resilience. This communication will aim to present decisive social aspects of resilience aside from geophysical and physical features such as risk awareness, social link and community culture.

  1. Effects of Hurricane Katrina on the forest structure of taxodium distichum swamps of the Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina pushed mixed Taxodium distichum forests toward a dominance of Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) because these species had lower levels of susceptibility to wind damage than other woody species. This study documents the volume of dead versus live material of woody trees and shrubs of T. distichum swamps following Hurricane Katrina along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and Louisiana. Pearl River Wildlife Management Area near Canton, Mississippi had the highest winds of the study areas, and these forests were located in the northeast quadrant of Hurricane Katrina (sustained wind 151 kph (94 mph)). Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve south of New Orleans had medium to high winds (sustained winds 111 kph (69 mph) at the New Orleans lakefront). Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge had a lower level of winds and was positioned on the western edge of the storm. The forests at Pearl River and to a lesser extent at Jean Lafitte had the highest amount of structural damage in the study. For Cat Island, Jean Lafitte, and Pearl River, the total volume of dead material (debris) was 50, 80, and 370 m3 ha-1, respectively. The ratio of dead to live volume was 0.010, 0.082, and 0.039, respectively. For both of the dominant species, T. distichum and N. aquatica, the percentage of dead to live volume was less than 1. Subdominant species including Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus lyrata, and Quercus nigra were more damaged by the storm at both Pearl River and Jean Lafitte. Only branches were damaged by Hurricane Katrina at Cat Island. Shrubs such as Morella cerifera, Euonymous sp., and Vaccinium sp. were often killed by the storm, while other species such as Cephalanthus occidentalis, Forestiera acuminata, and Cornus florida were not killed. Despite the fact that Hurricane Katrina was a Category 3 storm and struck Pearl River and Jean Lafitte fairly directly, dominant species of the T. distichum swamps were

  2. Hurricane Katrina: Influence on the Male-to-Female Birth Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Scherb, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether or not Hurricane Katrina and related factors (i.e. the amount of rainfall) influenced the male-to-female birth ratio (M/F). Monthly births by gender for the affected states (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi) for January 2003 to December 2012 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Wonder, Atlanta, Ga., USA). Precipitation data was obtained from the US National Weather Service. Ordinary linear logistic regression was used for trend analysis. A p value ≤0.05 was taken to represent a statistically significant result. Of the total of 3,903,660 live births, 1,996,966 (51.16%) were male and 1,906,694 (48.84%) were female. Significant seasonal variation was noted (the maximum M/F in May was 1.055, the minimum M/F in September was 1.041, p = 0.0073). There was also a separate and significant rise in M/F 8-10 months after the storm (April to June 2006, peak M/F 1.078, p = 0.0074), which translated to an approximate deficit of 800 girls compared to 46,072 girls born in that period if the M/F increase was theoretically only due to a girls' deficit in the denominator of the ratio. This spike was only present in Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi, all of which received heavy rainfall. Florida did not receive heavy rainfall and experienced no such M/F spike. In this study there was a dose-response relation between the amount of rainfall after Hurricane Katrina and the monthly sex ratio of live births in the US states of Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi 8-10 months later. The well-known yet unexplained distinct sex ratio seasonality may be due to natural or man-made radiation contained in the rain. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Silver linings: a personal memoir about Hurricane Katrina and fungal volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan W. Bennett

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the levees protecting New Orleans, Louisiana failed. Because approximately 80% of the city was under sea level, widespread flooding ensued. As a resident of New Orleans who had evacuated before the storm, and a life-long researcher on filamentous fungi, I had known what to expect. After the hurricane I traveled home with a suitcase full of Petri dishes and sampling equipment so as to study the fungi that were eating my house. Not only were surfaces covered with fungal growth, the air itself was full of concentrated mold odor, a smell that was orders of magnitude more funky than any damp, musty basement I had ever encountered. The smell made me feel bad and I had to take regular breaks as I sampled. Being a mycotoxin expert, I knew a fair amount about sick building syndrome but believed that it was difficult to get enough respiratory exposure to toxins to cause the array of symptoms associated with the syndrome. So why was I feeling sick? Some Scandinavian experts had hypothesized that mold volatile organic compounds (VOCs might be the fungal metabolites to blame for sick building syndrome and the time in my smelly, mold infested home made me think they might be right. After securing a new job and establishing a new laboratory, I endeavored to test the hypothesis that some volatile mold metabolites might be toxic. My laboratory at Rutgers University has interrogated the role of VOCs in possible interkingdom toxicity by developing controlled microcosms for exposing simple genetic model organisms to the vapor phase of growing fungi. Both Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster exhibit a range of toxic symptoms that vary with the species of fungus, the duration of exposure, and other experimental parameters. Moreover, low concentrations of chemical standards of individual fungal VOCs such as 1-octen-3-ol also exhibit varying toxicity and cause neurotoxicity in a Drosophila model.

  4. Role of health in predicting moves to poor neighborhoods among Hurricane Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Subramanian, S V; Rhodes, Jean E; Waters, Mary C

    2014-11-18

    In contrast to a large literature investigating neighborhood effects on health, few studies have examined health as a determinant of neighborhood attainment. However, the sorting of individuals into neighborhoods by health status is a substantively important process for multiple policy sectors. We use prospectively collected data on 569 poor, predominantly African American Hurricane Katrina survivors to examine the extent to which health problems predicted subsequent neighborhood poverty. Our outcome of interest was participants' 2009-2010 census tract poverty rate. Participants were coded as having a health problem at baseline (2003-2004) if they self-reported a diagnosis of asthma, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, heart problems, or any other physical health problems not listed, or complained of back pain, migraines, or digestive problems at baseline. Although health problems were not associated with neighborhood poverty at baseline, those with baseline health problems ended up living in higher poverty areas by 2009-2010. Differences persisted after adjustment for personal characteristics, baseline neighborhood poverty, hurricane exposure, and residence in the New Orleans metropolitan area, with baseline health problems predicting a 3.4 percentage point higher neighborhood poverty rate (95% confidence interval: 1.41, 5.47). Results suggest that better health was protective against later neighborhood deprivation in a highly mobile, socially vulnerable population. Researchers should consider reciprocal associations between health and neighborhoods when estimating and interpreting neighborhood effects on health. Understanding whether and how poor health impedes poverty deconcentration efforts may help inform programs and policies designed to help low-income families move to--and stay in--higher opportunity neighborhoods.

  5. Promoting mental health recovery after hurricanes Katrina and Rita: what can be done at what cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Michael; Butler, Brittany; Kataoka, Sheryl; Norquist, Grayson; Springgate, Benjamin; Sullivan, Greer; Duan, Naihua; Kessler, Ronald C; Wells, Kenneth

    2009-08-01

    Concerns about mental health recovery persist after the 2005 Gulf storms. We propose a recovery model and estimate costs and outcomes. To estimate the costs and outcomes of enhanced mental health response to large-scale disasters using the 2005 Gulf storms as a case study. Decision analysis using state-transition Markov models for 6-month periods from 7 to 30 months after disasters. Simulated movements between health states were based on probabilities drawn from the clinical literature and expert input. A total of 117 counties/parishes across Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Texas that the Federal Emergency Management Agency designated as eligible for individual relief following hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Hypothetical cohort, based on the size and characteristics of the population affected by the Gulf storms. Intervention Enhanced mental health care consisting of evidence-based screening, assessment, treatment, and care coordination. Morbidity in 6-month episodes of mild/moderate or severe mental health problems through 30 months after the disasters; units of service (eg, office visits, prescriptions, hospital nights); intervention costs; and use of human resources. Full implementation would cost $1133 per capita, or more than $12.5 billion for the affected population, and yield 94.8% to 96.1% recovered by 30 months, but exceed available provider capacity. Partial implementation would lower costs and recovery proportionately. Evidence-based mental health response is feasible, but requires targeted resources, increased provider capacity, and advanced planning.

  6. Somatic experiencing treatment with social service workers following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, M Laurie; Vanslyke, Jan; Allen, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    In a disaster, social service workers are often survivors themselves.This study examines whether somatic intervention using a brief (one to two session) stabilization model now called the Trauma Resiliency Model (TRM), which uses the skills of Somatic Experiencing (SE), can reduce the postdisaster symptoms of social service workers involved in postdisaster service delivery.The study was implemented with a nonrandom sample of 142 social service workers who were survivors of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, two to three months after the disasters. Ninety-one participants received SE/TRM and were compared with a matched comparison group of 51 participants through the use of propensity score matching. All participants first received group psychoeducation. Results support the benefits of the brief intervention inspired by SE. The treatment group showed statistically significant gains in resiliency indicators and decreases in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Although psychological symptoms increased in both groups at the three to four month follow-up, the treatment group's psychological symptoms were statistically lower than those of the comparison group.

  7. Lead distributions and risks in New Orleans following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Michael T; Cobb, George P; Presley, Steven M; Ray, Gary L; Rainwater, Thomas R; Austin, Galen P; Cox, Stephen B; Anderson, Todd A; Leftwich, Blair D; Kendall, Ronald J; Suedel, Burton C

    2010-07-01

    During the last four years, significant effort has been devoted to understanding the effects that Hurricanes Katrina and Rita had on contaminant distribution and redistribution in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, and the surrounding Gulf Coast area. Elevated concentrations were found for inorganic contaminants (including As, Fe, Pb, and V), several organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and volatiles) and high concentration of bioaerosols, particularly Aeromonas and Vibrio. Data from different research groups confirm that some contaminant concentrations are elevated, that existing concentrations are similar to historical data, and that contaminants such as Pb and As may pose human health risks. Two data sets have been compiled in this article to serve as the foundation for preliminary risk assessments within greater New Orleans. Research from the present study suggests that children in highly contaminated areas of New Orleans may experience Pb exposure from soil ranging from 1.37 microg/d to 102 microg/d. These data are critical in the evaluation of children's health. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  8. Positive psychological factors are associated with lower PTSD symptoms among police officers: post Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanlies, Erin C; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M

    2014-12-01

    Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist--Civilian (PCL-C). Potential associations were measured using linear regression and analysis of variance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and alcohol. Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.5 ± 14.5 for females and 27.8 ± 12.1 for males. Adjusted mean levels of PCL-C symptoms significantly decreased as quartiles of resilience (p < .001), satisfaction with life (p < .001), and gratitude (p < .001) increased. In contrast, PCL-C symptoms were not associated with posttraumatic growth in this sample. These results indicate that positive factors such as resilience, satisfaction with life, and gratitude may help mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. To further explore these relationships, longitudinal follow-up in a larger population would be of interest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. HURRICANE CHANGES: EXAMINING ENHANCED MOTIVATION TO CHANGE DRUG USING BEHAVIORS AMONG KATRINA EVACUEES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Twiggs, Robert; Dunlap, Eloise E.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use disorders are credited with greater amounts of death and illness than all other preventable health problems. Billions of dollars are spent on efforts to control drug supplies and fund various treatment approaches, but relatively little resources have been directed towards investigating how environmental conditions can contribute to or detract from substance user’s individual motivation to change behavior. Hurricane Katrina caused untold property damage and upheaval, in addition to the vast numbers of people whose lives it drastically affected. This article examines how surviving this ordeal, subsequent evacuation, and eventual resettlement in New Orleans or re-location to a different city (in this case, Houston) impacted individuals’ motivation to change their substance use patterns and behaviors. This article’s approach is grounded in the values of the social work profession and examines: 1) the role of life events in motivating change of substance using behaviors in the absence of formal treatment interventions; and 2) participant resilience in overcoming the adversities inherent to this disaster. PMID:21852981

  10. Soil Lead and Children's Blood Lead Disparities in Pre- and Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Christopher R; Powell, Eric T

    2017-04-12

    This study appraises New Orleans soil lead and children's lead exposure before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina flooded the city. Introduction: Early childhood exposure to lead is associated with lifelong and multiple health, learning, and behavioral disorders. Lead exposure is an important factor hindering the long-term resilience and sustainability of communities. Lead exposure disproportionately affects low socioeconomic status of communities. No safe lead exposure is known and the common intervention is not effective. An essential responsibility of health practitioners is to develop an effective primary intervention. Methods: Pre- and post-Hurricane soil lead and children's blood lead data were matched by census tract communities. Soil lead and blood lead data were described, mapped, blood lead graphed as a function of soil lead, and Multi-Response Permutation Procedures statistics established disparities. Results: Simultaneous decreases occurred in soil lead accompanied by an especially large decline in children's blood lead 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. Exposure disparities still exist between children living in the interior and outer areas of the city. Conclusions: At the scale of a city, this study demonstrates that decreasing soil lead effectively reduces children's blood lead. Primary prevention of lead exposure can be accomplished by reducing soil lead in the urban environment.

  11. After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: gender differences in health and religiosity in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer Silva; Cherry, Katie E; Marks, Loren D; Jackson, Erin M; Volaufova, Julia; Lefante, Christina; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2010-11-01

    We examined health-related quality of life in adults in the Louisiana Health Aging Study (LHAS) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HK/R) that made landfall on the U.S. Gulf Coast region in 2005. Analyses of pre- and post-disaster SF-36 scores yielded changes in physical function and bodily pain. Mental health scores were lower for women than men. Gender differences were observed in religious beliefs and religious coping, favoring women. Religious beliefs and religious coping were negatively correlated with physical function, implying that stronger reliance on religiosity as a coping mechanism may be more likely among those who are less physically capable.

  12. Professional responsibilities versus familial responsibilities: an examination of role conflict among first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Terri; Turner, Mila

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a human-caused or natural disaster, the police are essential front-line first responders. The ability of police departments to provide adequate services is contingent upon critical response personnel working and functioning in an efficient manner. Currently, it is assumed that first responders will continue to work in the event of a disaster, even if they are personally impacted by the disaster to which they are expected to respond. This study examines role conflict among police officers who served as first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

  13. Baylor College of Medicine's support of Tulane University School of Medicine following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Nancy S

    2007-08-01

    The authors describe how Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), with three other Texas medical schools, "adopted" virtually all the 620 medical students and 526 house officers of Tulane University School of Medicine and continued their education for eight months after most of New Orleans, including Tulane, was flooded on August 29, 2005, after Hurricane Katrina. Soon after, BCM's president asked all senior staff to take whatever actions were necessary to sustain Tulane, and on September 7, leaders from BCM and three other Texas medical schools met to plan the relocation of Tulane's students and programs. The authors explain how problems were overcome (e.g., locating the scattered Tulane students and staff, finding them lodging, obtaining their records, and providing financial aid and counseling), and how high-quality educational experiences were maintained for both Tulane's and BCM's students and residents while assisting Tulane's faculty in numerous ways, helping Tulane plan the enrollment of its following year's students, and undergoing Liaison Committee for Medical Education and Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education site visits to BCM. After the BCM-Tulane experience, BCM developed a disaster-management plan (available online) that could help other schools as they plan for disasters. The authors also offer lessons learned in the areas of communication, cooperation, curriculum, collaboration, contact with accrediting bodies, and compassion. They close by stating that when BCM faculty are asked "how could you take Tulane's medical school in?" their response is, "how could we not?" They continue: "In medical education, a frequent discussion is how to teach humanism and professionalism; we teach it best by modeling it."

  14. Implications of Classification of Methodological Decisions in Flooding Analysis from Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khatami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent climatic patterns indicate that extreme weather events will increase in frequency and magnitude. Remote sensing offers unique advantages for large-scale monitoring. In this research, Landsat 5 remotely sensed imagery was used to assess flooding caused by Hurricane Katrina, one of the worst natural disasters in the US over the past decades. The objective of our work is to assess whether decisions associated with the classification process, such as location of reference data and algorithm choice, affected flooding results and subsequent analysis using census data. Maximum Likelihood (ML and Back Propagation Neural Network (NN were the tested algorithms, the former reflecting a simple and popular classifier, and the latter an advanced but complex method. Flooding estimations were almost identical within the reference sample area, 124.4 km2 for the ML classifier and 123.7 km2 for the NN classifier. However, large discrepancies were found outside the reference sample area with the ML predicting 462.5 km2 and the NN identifying 797.2 km2 as flooded, almost twice the amount. Further investigation took place to evaluate the influence of the classification method to a social study, namely the racial characteristics of flooded areas. Using Census 2000 data, our study area was segmented in census tracts. Results indicated a strong positive correlation between concentration of African Americans and proportional residential flooding. Pairwise T-Tests also verified that flooding among different African American concentrations was statistically different. There were no significant differences between the ML and NN methods in the results interpretation, which is mostly attributed to the significant geographic overlap between reference sample area and the examined census tracts. This study suggests that emergency responders should exercise significant caution in their decision making when using classification products from undersampled geographic areas in

  15. Spatial confidentiality and GIS: re-engineering mortality locations from published maps about Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitner Michael

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic Information Systems (GIS can provide valuable insight into patterns of human activity. Online spatial display applications, such as Google Earth, can democratise this information by disseminating it to the general public. Although this is a generally positive advance for society, there is a legitimate concern involving the disclosure of confidential information through spatial display. Although guidelines exist for aggregated data, little has been written concerning the display of point level information. The concern is that a map containing points representing cases of cancer or an infectious disease, could be re-engineered back to identify an actual residence. This risk is investigated using point mortality locations from Hurricane Katrina re-engineered from a map published in the Baton Rouge Advocate newspaper, and a field team validating these residences using search and rescue building markings. Results We show that the residence of an individual, visualized as a generalized point covering approximately one and half city blocks on a map, can be re-engineered back to identify the actual house location, or at least a close neighbour, even if the map contains little spatial reference information. The degree of re-engineering success is also shown to depend on the urban characteristic of the neighborhood. Conclusion The results in this paper suggest a need to re-evaluate current guidelines for the display of point (address level data. Examples of other point maps displaying health data extracted from the academic literature are presented where a similar re-engineering approach might cause concern with respect to violating confidentiality. More research is also needed into the role urban structure plays in the accuracy of re-engineering. We suggest that health and spatial scientists should be proactive and suggest a series of point level spatial confidentiality guidelines before governmental decisions are made

  16. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrenz, Steven E.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Xiaogang; Tuel, Merritt

    2008-01-01

    The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS Aqua true color imagery revealed high turbidity levels in shelf waters immediately following the storms indicative of intense resuspension. However, imagery following the landfall of Katrina showed relatively rapid return of shelf water mass properties to pre-storm conditions. Indeed, MODIS Aqua-derived estimates of diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K_490) and chlorophyll (chlor_a) from mid-August prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina were comparable to those observed in mid-September following the storm. Regions of elevated K_490 and chlor_a were evident in offshore waters and appeared to be associated with cyclonic circulation (cold-core eddies) identified on the basis of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA). Imagery acquired shortly after Hurricane Rita made landfall showed increased water column turbidity extending over a large area of the shelf off Louisiana and Texas, consistent with intense resuspension and sediment disturbance. An interannual comparison of satellite-derived estimates of K_490 for late September and early October revealed relatively lower levels in 2005, compared to the mean for the prior three years, in the vicinity of the Mississippi River birdfoot delta. In contrast, levels above the previous three year mean were observed off Texas and Louisiana 7-10 d after the passage of Rita. The lower values of K_490 near the delta could be attributed to relatively low river discharge during the preceding months of the 2005 season. The elevated levels off Texas and

  17. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt Tuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS Aqua true color imagery revealed high turbidity levels in shelf waters immediately following the storms indicative of intense resuspension. However, imagery following the landfall of Katrina showed relatively rapid return of shelf water mass properties to pre-storm conditions. Indeed, MODIS Aqua-derived estimates of diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K_490 and chlorophyll (chlor_a from mid-August prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina were comparable to those observed in mid-September following the storm. Regions of elevated K_490 and chlor_a were evident in offshore waters and appeared to be associated with cyclonic circulation (cold-core eddies identified on the basis of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA. Imagery acquired shortly after Hurricane Rita made landfall showed increased water column turbidity extending over a large area of the shelf off Louisiana and Texas, consistent with intense resuspension and sediment disturbance. An interannual comparison of satellite-derived estimates of K_490 for late September and early October revealed relatively lower levels in 2005, compared to the mean for the prior three years, in the vicinity of the Mississippi River birdfoot delta. In contrast, levels above the previous three year mean were observed off Texas and Louisiana 7-10 d after the passage of Rita. The lower values of K_490 near the delta could be attributed to relatively low river discharge during the preceding months of the 2005 season. The elevated levels

  18. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: Differences by age, race, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre-and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. PMID:23321678

  19. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: differences by age, race, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impact of Teacher Qualifications on Student Achievement: An Examination of Schools in New Orleans Pre- and Post-Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer Michelle

    2012-01-01

    One important outcome of the restructuring of the New Orleans school system post-Hurricane Katrina, and the subsequent performance of students, was an awareness that some fundamental premises in No Child Left Behind (NCLB) should be revisited. An examination of student performance in the restructured school system, for example, raised questions…

  1. Influence of planting stocks on the survival and growth of Nuttall and cherrybark oak planted on lands damaged by Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek K. Alkire; James C. Rainer; Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Andrew J. Londo; Emily B. Schultz

    2013-01-01

    Bare-root, container, and root production method (RPMTM) seedlings of Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley) and cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda Ell.) were planted on lands damaged by Hurricane Katrina in southern Mississippi to compare the height growth, groundline diameter (GLD) growth, and survival of the...

  2. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Temporary Emergency Impact Aid Provided Education Support for Displaced Students. Report to the Congressional Requesters. GAO-11-839

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, George A.

    2011-01-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated large portions of the U.S. Gulf Coast, resulting in nearly 2,000 deaths and severe damage to 305,000 houses and apartments. Thousands of families relocated to communities throughout the United States and enrolled their children in local public or private schools. Some families…

  3. Extreme changes to barrier islands along the central Gulf of Mexico coast during Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 5C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, Asbury; Wright, Wayne; Lillycrop, Jeff; Howd, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary; Guy, Kristy K.; Morgan, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused extreme changes to the barrier islands of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Dauphin Island, Ala., migrated landward and stranded the remains of its oceanfront row homes in the sea. Chandeleur Islands, La., were completely stripped of their sand, leaving only marshy outcrops in the storm's wake.

  4. Family and individual factors associated with substance involvement and PTS symptoms among adolescents in greater New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Cynthia L; La Greca, Annette M; Alexandersson, Anders

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the influence of hurricane impact as well as family and individual risk factors on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance involvement among clinically referred adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. A total of 80 adolescents (87% male; 13-17 years old; mean age = 15.6 years; 38% minorities) and their parents were interviewed at the adolescent's intake into substance abuse treatment, 16 to 46 months postdisaster. Independent measures included hurricane impact variables (initial loss/disruption and perceived life threat); demographic and predisaster variables (family income, gender, predisaster adolescent substance use, predisaster trauma exposure, and parental substance abuse); postdisaster family factors (parental psychopathology, family cohesion, and parental monitoring); and postdisaster adolescent delinquency. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that adolescent substance involvement was associated with higher family income, lower parental monitoring (adolescent report), and more adolescent delinquency. Adolescent-reported PTS symptoms were associated with greater hurricane-related initial loss/disruption, lower family cohesion (adolescent report), and more adolescent delinquency, whereas parent-reported adolescent PTS symptoms were associated with greater parental psychopathology, lower parental monitoring (adolescent report), and lower family cohesion (parent report). The results suggest that hurricane impact was related only to adolescent-reported PTS. However, certain postdisaster family and individual risk factors (low family cohesion and parental monitoring, more adolescent delinquency) were associated both with adolescent substance involvement and with PTS symptoms. Identification of these factors suggests directions for future research as well as potential target areas for screening and intervention with substance-abusing adolescents after disasters. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on seabed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Lalicata, Joseph J; Allison, Mead A; Dellapenna, Timothy M

    2009-06-01

    To assess the extent to which Hurricanes Katrina and Rita affected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), sediment cores were analyzed in late 2005 from: a shallow shelf, a deeper shelf, and a marsh station. Sediment geochronology, fabric, and geochemistry show that the 2005 storms deposited approximately 10cm of sediment to the surface of a core at 5-12A. Bulk carbon geochemistry and PAH isomers in this top layer suggest that the source of sediment to the top portion of core 5-12A was from a relatively more marine area. Particulate PAHs in the marsh core (04M) appeared unaffected by the storms while sediments in the core from Station 5-1B (deeper shelf) were affected minimally (some possible storm-derived deposition). Substantial amounts of PAH-laden particles may have been displaced from the seabed in shallow areas of the water column in the GOM by these 2005 storms.

  6. Religious coping, posttraumatic stress, psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth among female survivors four years after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christian S; Rhodes, Jean E

    2013-04-01

    Positive and negative religious coping strategies and their relation with posttraumatic stress (PTS), psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) were examined in the context of Hurricane Katrina. Positive religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTG, whereas negative religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTS and psychological distress. Low-income mothers (N = 386, mean age = 25.4 years, SD = 4.43) were surveyed before, and 1 and 4 years after the storm. Results from structural regression modeling indicated that negative religious coping was associated with psychological distress, but not PTS. Positive religious coping was associated with PTG. Further analysis indicated significant indirect effects of pre- and postdisaster religiousness on postdisaster PTG through positive religious coping. Findings underscore the positive and negative effect of religious variables in the context of a natural disaster. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  7. Houston's medical disaster response to Hurricane Katrina: part 1: the initial medical response from Trauma Service Area Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas R; Gavagan, Thomas F; Smart, Kieran T; Upton, Lori A; Havron, Douglas A; Weller, Nancy F; Shah, Umair A; Fishkind, Avrim; Persse, David; Shank, Paul; Mattox, Kenneth

    2009-04-01

    After Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, thousands of ill and injured evacuees were transported to Houston, TX. Houston's regional disaster plan was quickly implemented, leading to the activation of the Regional Hospital Preparedness Council's Catastrophic Medical Operations Center and the rapid construction of a 65-examination-room medical facility within the Reliant Center. A plan for triage of arriving evacuees was quickly developed and the Astrodome/Reliant Center Complex mega-shelter was created. Herein, we discuss major elements of the regional disaster response, including regional coordination, triage and emergency medical service transfers into the region's medical centers, medical care in population shelters, and community health challenges.

  8. Houston's medical disaster response to Hurricane Katrina: part 2: transitioning from emergency evacuee care to community health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas R; Gavagan, Thomas; Smart, Kieran; Weller, Nancy; Upton, Lori A; Havron, Douglas A; Fishkind, Avrim; Persse, David; Shank, Paul; Shah, Umair A; Mattox, Kenneth

    2009-04-01

    After Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, thousands of ill and injured evacuees were transported to Houston, TX. Houston's regional disaster plan was quickly implemented, leading to the activation of the Regional Hospital Preparedness Council's Catastrophic Medical Operations Center and the rapid construction of a 65-examination-room medical facility within the Reliant Center. A plan for triage of arriving evacuees was quickly developed and the Astrodome/Reliant Center Complex mega-shelter was created. Herein, we discuss major elements of the regional disaster response, including regional coordination, triage and emergency medical service transfers into the region's medical centers, medical care in population shelters, and community health challenges.

  9. "Natural" disasters as (neo-liberal opportunity? Discussing post-hurricane Katrina urban regeneration in New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Scoppetta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By providing a wide literature review, post-hurricane Katrina uneven urban regeneration in New Orleans is presented here by framing it within a historical perspective in order to underline how environmental threats too often seem to be not so much “natural” but rather man-made as well as to highlight both the reasons and the ways in which, in post-disaster reconstruction, competitive growth has been valued over equity, by directly benefiting those who were already the most advantaged. The aim is to highlight how environmental disasters can be considered as socially constructed phenomena, as they cannot be seen as a single event but rather as a process made by a series of progressive steps occurring within different spheres, which do not necessarily concern the environment only.

  10. "Keeping it Real -High School Science Curriculum"- Hurricane Katrina and BP Oil Spill inspire creative curriculum by Dave Jungblut, Oakcrest High School Science Teacher, Mays Landing, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, D.

    2011-12-01

    After Hurricane Katrina devastated Gulf Coast homes in 2005, Oakcrest High School science teacher and geologist, Dave Jungblut, traveled from Gulfport to Ocean Springs, Mississippi and conducted research to determine whether property damage was caused by wind or water. Jungblut wrote several studies, " Katrina Straight- Line Wind Field Study", "Applying Research to Practical Use for Hurricane Katrina Homeowners", and "Hurricane Katrina Wind Study" proving wind damage. Jungblut's research, done pro bono, helped thousands of homeowner's in the Mississippi area be reimbursed by insurance companies for wind damage caused by Hurricane Katrina http://www.hurricanekatrinastudy.com/ Jungblut incorporated his extensive data, in a high school curriculum that is now part of the science program he teaches each year. In January 2010, Jungblut presented "Hurricane Forensics" curriculum at the Rutgers Center for Mathematics, Science and Computer January 2009 Workshop http://www.dimacs.rutgers.edu/wst/. Through labs and creative hands-on activities, Jungblut challenged his students to analyze the photographic evidence, and data he collected, for themselves. Jungblut taught his students how to use geologic and forensic inquiry techniques to discover the difference between straight-line winds from microburst activity. The students applied the concept of the Geological Principle of Relative Dating, to determine the sequence of events that happened during Hurricane Katrina. They built model structures, which were subjected to wind and water forces to better understand the effects of these phenomena, Finally, the students evaluated local and worldwide environmental issues, such as land use risks and benefits, in the face of global warming, In the spring of 2010 when the BP Oil Spill occurred, Jungblut realized, another opportunity to bring real world issues into the classroom. After exploring scientific concepts relating to this environmental crisis, Jungblut challenged his students to

  11. From healthy start to hurricane Katrina: using GIS to eliminate disparities in perinatal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew

    2008-09-10

    This paper provides a summary of the invited talk at the 2007 CDC & ATSDR 11th Biennial Symposium on Statistical Methods conference in which a university-non-profit collaboration targeted the elimination of racial disparities in perinatal health with the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS). This program will be described in four temporal stages; the pre-program early years (1999--2001) where the health burden is defined, leading to the Healthy Start years (2001--2005), in which spatial analyses, methods to effectively disseminate GIS results, the creation of the Baton Rouge Healthy Start database, and a move toward a conceptual goal of creating a holistic neighborhood GIS-health model are all described. The Katrina years (September 2005--early 2006) portrays the impact of the disaster and how the collaboration changed as resources from both were directed toward both response and recovery. The final section of the paper, the Post-Katrina years (early 2006 and ongoing) describes how the health landscape of Louisiana, including Baton Rouge as well as New Orleans, has worsened after the storms. An argument is made that the relationships and GIS structure developed during the collaboration's pre-Katrina years, even though stretched, provide the flexibility to analyze and cope with a Katrina-type shock to the system.

  12. The contribution of pre- and postdisaster social support to short- and long-term mental health after Hurricanes Katrina: A longitudinal study of low-income survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christian S; Lowe, Sarah R; Weber, Elyssa; Rhodes, Jean E

    2015-08-01

    A previous study of Hurricane Katrina survivors found that higher levels of predisaster social support were associated with lower psychological distress one year after the storm, and that this pathway was mediated by lower exposure to hurricane-related stressors. As a follow-up, we examined the impact of pre- and postdisaster social support on longer-term of mental health-both psychological distress and posttraumatic stress. In this three-wave longitudinal study, 492 residents in the region affected by Hurricane Katrina reported levels of perceived social support and symptoms of psychological distress prior to the storm (Wave 1). Subsequently, one year after Hurricane Katrina (Wave 2), they reported levels of exposure, perceived social support, and symptoms of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress. The latter three variables were assessed again four years after the hurricane (Wave 3). Results of mediation analysis indicated that levels of exposure to hurricane-related stressors mediated the relationship between Wave 1 perceived social support and Wave 3 psychological distress as well as postdisaster posttraumatic stress. Results of regression analyses indicated that, controlling for Wave 1 psychological distress and disaster exposure, Wave 2 perceived social support was associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 psychological distress but not posttraumatic stress. Our results confirmed the social causation processes of social support and suggest that posttraumatic stress might not stem directly from the lack of social support. Rather, preexisting deficits in social resources might indirectly affect longer-term posttraumatic stress and general psychological distress by increasing risk for disaster-related stressors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The psychosocial impact of Hurricane Katrina on persons with disabilities and independent living center staff living on the American Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael H; White, Glen W; Rooney, Catherine; Cahill, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    To determine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the psychosocial health of people with disabilities and on the ability of people with disabilities in the affected area to live independently. Transcribed conversations were analyzed for 56 survivors of Hurricane Katrina on the American Gulf Coast, all of whom were persons with disabilities or persons working with them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either individually or in focus groups with participants. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using hermeneutic techniques. Six major themes emerged: faith, incredulousness, blaming others or oneself, family adaptation and resiliency, and work and professional responsibility. The resiliency of persons with disabilities to adapt to disasters can be better understood through factors such as these, providing an effective barometer of social capital that can help societies prepare for future disasters among those most vulnerable.

  14. The impact of housing displacement on the mental health of low-income parents after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; Lowe, Sarah R

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies in the aftermath of natural disasters have demonstrated relationships between four dimensions of displacement - geographic distance from the predisaster community, type of postdisaster housing, number of postdisaster moves, and time spent in temporary housing - and adverse psychological outcomes. However, to date no study has explored how these dimensions operate in tandem. The literature is further limited by a reliance on postdisaster data. We addressed these limitations in a study of low-income parents, predominantly non-Hispanic Black single mothers, who survived Hurricane Katrina and who completed pre and postdisaster assessments (N = 392). Using latent profile analysis, we demonstrated three profiles of displacement experiences within the sample: (1) returned, characterized by return to a predisaster community; (2) relocated, characterized by relocation to a new community, and (3) unstably housed, characterized by long periods in temporary housing and multiple moves. Using regression analyses, we assessed the relationship between displacement profiles and three mental health outcomes (general psychological distress, posttraumatic stress, and perceived stress), controlling for predisaster characteristics and mental health indices and hurricane-related experiences. Relative to participants in the returned profile, those in the relocated profile had significantly higher general psychological distress and perceived stress, and those in the unstably housed profile had significantly higher perceived stress. Based on these results, we suggest interventions and policies that reduce postdisaster housing instability and prioritize mental health services in communities receiving evacuees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the Department of Veterans Affairs: a conceptual model for understanding the evacuation of nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobalian, Aram; Claver, Maria; Fickel, Jacqueline J

    2010-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita exposed significant flaws in US preparedness for catastrophic events and the nation's capacity to respond to them. These flaws were especially evident in the affected disaster areas' nursing homes, which house a particularly vulnerable population of frail older adults. Although evacuation of a healthcare facility is a key preparedness activity, there is limited research on factors that lead to effective evacuation. Our review of the literature on evacuation is focused on developing a conceptual framework to study future evacuations rather than as a comprehensive assessment of prior work. This paper summarizes what is known thus far about disaster response activities of nursing homes following natural and human-caused disasters, describes a conceptual model to guide future inquiry regarding this topic, and suggests future areas of research to further understand the decision-making process of nursing home facilitators regarding evacuating nursing home residents. To demonstrate the utility of the conceptual model and to provide guidance about effective practices and procedures, this paper focuses on the responses of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes to the 2 hurricanes. Quarantelli's conceptual framework, as modified by Perry and Mushkatel, is useful in guiding the development of central hypotheses related to the decision-making that occurred in VA nursing homes and other healthcare facilities following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. However, we define evacuation somewhat differently to account for the fact that evacuation may, in some instances, be permanent. Thus, we propose modifying this framework to improve its applicability beyond preventive evacuation. We need to better understand how disaster plans can be adapted to meet the needs of frail elders and other residents in nursing homes. Moreover, we must address identified gaps in the scientific literature with respect to health outcomes by tracking outcomes over time

  16. Eye of the storm: analysis of shelter treatment records of evacuees to Acadiana from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouet, L Philip; Paul, P Joseph; Sabatier, Steven M; Caillouet, Kevin A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain insight into the medical needs of disaster evacuees, through a review of experiential data collected in evacuation shelters in the days and weeks following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, to better prepare for similar events in the future. Armed with the information and insights provided herein, it is hoped that meaningful precautions and decisive actions can be taken by individuals, families, institutions, communities, and officials should the Louisiana Gulf Coast-or any other area with well-known vulnerabilities-be faced with a future emergency. Demographic and clinical data that were recorded on paper documents during triage and treatment in evacuation shelters were later transcribed into a computerized database management system, with cooperation of the Department of Health Information Management at The University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Analysis of those contemporaneously collected data was undertaken later by the Louisiana Center for Health Informatics. Evacuation shelters, Parish Health Units, and other locations including churches and community centers were the venue for ad hoc clinics in the Acadiana region of Louisiana. The evacuee-patients-3,329 of them-whose information is reflected in the subject dataset were among two geographically distinct but similarly distressed groups: 1) evacuees from Hurricane Katrina that devastated New Orleans and other locales near Louisiana and neighboring states in late August 2005 and 2) evacuees from Hurricane Rita that devastated Southwest Louisiana and neighboring areas of Texas in September 2005. Patient data were collected by physicians, nurses, and other volunteers associated with the Operation Minnesota Lifeline (OML) deployment during the weeks following the events. Volunteer clinicians from OML provided triage and treatment services and documented those services as paper medical records. As the focus of the OML "mission of mercy" was entirely on direct individually

  17. PRESCHOOL TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SELF-EFFICACY IN TERMS OF MEETING THE NEEDS OF STUDENTS FOLLOWING A CRITICAL INCIDENT (The Example of Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Rolison HARWELL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Katrina highlighted teacher needs when serving students who have experienced a critical incident. The purpose of this single case study was to describe the perceptions of preschool teachers’ self-efficacy in terms of meeting the needs of students following a critical incident. These teachers had received into their classroom one or more students displaced by a critical incident, Hurricane Katrina. Specifically, using a survey with independent samples t test analysis, this study examined differences, by grade level, years of experience, and education level, in teacher perception of their addressing needs of displaced students. For the survey, a random sample was drawn from a single district population of K-5 teachers who had in class at least one student displaced by Hurricane Katrina. Results of the study indicated teachers with low self-efficacy were found to blame outside factors when things did not go as well as desired and no differences based on grade level taught or teacher educational level. However, teachers with fewer than five years of experience showed significantly less teacher self-efficacy. The findings contain implications for social change in that they demonstrated need for a plan to assist teachers in meeting the needs of critical incident students and a need to provide teachers with appropriate professional development.

  18. Spatial Analysis of Post-Hurricane Katrina Thermal Pattern and Intensity in Greater New Orleans: Implications for Urban Heat Island Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lief, Aram Parrish

    In 2005, Hurricane Katrina's diverse impacts on the Greater New Orleans area included damaged and destroyed trees, and other despoiled vegetation, which also increased the exposure of artificial and bare surfaces, known factors that contribute to the climatic phenomenon known as the urban heat island (UHI). This is an investigation of UHI in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, which entails the analysis of pre and post-hurricane Katrina thermal imagery of the study area, including changes to surface heat patterns and vegetative cover. Imagery from Landsat TM was used to show changes to the pattern and intensity of the UHI effect, caused by an extreme weather event. Using remote sensing visualization methods, in situ data, and local knowledge, the author found there was a measurable change in the pattern and intensity of the New Orleans UHI effect, as well as concomitant changes to vegetative land cover. This finding may be relevant for urban planners and citizens, especially in the context of recovery from a large-scale disaster of a coastal city, regarding future weather events, and other natural and human impacts.

  19. 2005 United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Post-Hurricane Katrina Levee Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These topographic data were collected for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by a helicopter-mounted LiDAR sensor over the New Orleans Hurricane Protection Levee...

  20. Past, Present, and Future Sea Level Change Assessments of Storm Surge: A Case Study Using Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Medeiros, S. C.; Hagen, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Major Gulf hurricanes have a high probability of impacting the northern Gulf of Mexico, especially coastal Mississippi (Resio, 2007). Due to the wide and flat continental shelf, this area provides near-perfect geometry for high water levels under tropical cyclonic conditions. Further, it is generally agreed that global sea levels due to climate change will rise anywhere from 18 to 100 cm by the year 2100 (Donoghue, 2011, IPCC, 2007) with some projecting even higher. Further, it is recognized that coastal Mississippi is highly susceptible to a retreating shoreline from sea level rise coupled with predictions for less frequent, more intense tropical storms from an increase in sea surface temperature (SST) (Trenberth, 2005, Webster, et al., 2005). A fully-validated, state-of-the-art ADCIRC+UnSWAN hydrodynamic model of coastal Mississippi was utilized to simulate Hurricane Katrina with present day sea level conditions. Using present day as a base scenario, past and future sea level changes were simulated. A regression was performed at local tide gauges to estimate past and project future sea levels. Also, surface roughness (i.e. Manning's n and wind reduction factors) was adjusted to reflect past landcover conditions as well as estimate future landcover change. Here, past, present and future sea level scenarios are modeled using a dynamic approach, along with Hurricane Katrina, and compared to present dynamic responses to sea level rise. The dynamic results will be compared and contrasted with a simpler bathtub model (static) approach. It will be demonstrated that water levels do not change linearly with modeled sea level cases (i.e. a 50 cm rise in sea level will not result in an additional 50 cm of water level at a given location) and are highly variable to changes in local conditions (e.g. topography, bathymetry, and surface roughness). Further, nearshore wind-wave conditions are affected by changes in local sea level due to the changes in momentum transfer from the

  1. Children as bellwethers of recovery: dysfunctional systems and the effects of parents, households, and neighborhoods on serious emotional disturbance in children after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David M; Park, Yoon Soo; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Redlener, Irwin

    2010-09-01

    Over 160,000 children were displaced from their homes after Hurricane Katrina. Tens of thousands of these children experienced the ongoing chaos and uncertainty of displacement and transiency, as well as significant social disruptions in their lives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the long-term mental health effects of such exposure among children, and to elucidate the systemic pathways through which the disaster effect operates. The prevalence of serious emotional disturbance was assessed among 283 school-aged children in Louisiana and Mississippi. These children are part of the Gulf Coast Child & Family Health Study, involving a longitudinal cohort of 1079 randomly sampled households in the two states, encompassing a total of 427 children, who have been interviewed in 4 annual waves of data collection since January 2006. The majority of data for this analysis was drawn from the fourth round of data. Although access to medical care for children has expanded considerably since 2005 in the region affected by Hurricane Katrina, more than 37% of children have received a clinical mental health diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or behavior disorder, according to parent reports. Children exposed to Hurricane Katrina were nearly 5 times as likely as a pre-Katrina cohort to exhibit serious emotional disturbance. Path analyses confirm the roles played by neighborhood social disorder, household stressors, and parental limitations on children's emotional and behavioral functioning. Children and youth are particularly vulnerable to the effects of disasters. They have limited capacity to independently mobilize resources to help them adapt to stressful postdisaster circumstances, and are instead dependent upon others to make choices that will influence their household, neighborhood, school, and larger social environment. Children's mental health recovery in a postdisaster setting can serve as a bellwether indicator of successful recovery or as a lagging indicator

  2. Adolescent Survivors of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Study of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis constitutes an important biological component of the stress response commonly studied through the measurement of cortisol. Limited research has examined HPA axis dysregulation in youth exposed to disasters. Objective: This study examined HPA axis activation in adolescent Hurricane Katrina…

  3. 23S rRNA gene-based enterococci community signatures in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA, following urban runoff inputs after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hee-Sung; Hou, Aixin

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the impacts of fecal polluted urban runoff inputs on the structure of enterococci communities in estuarine waters. This study employed a 23S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with newly designed genus-specific primers, Ent127F-Ent907R, to determine the possible impacts of Hurricane Katrina floodwaters via the 17th Street Canal discharge on the community structure of enterococci in Lake Pontchartrain. A total of 94 phylotypes were identified through the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) screening of 494 clones while only 8 phylotypes occurred among 88 cultivated isolates. Sequence analyses of representative phylotypes and their temporal and spatial distribution in the lake and the canal indicated the Katrina floodwater input introduced a large portion of Enterococcus flavescens, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and Enterococcus dispar into the lake; typical fecal groups Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, and Enterococcus mundtii were detected primarily in the floodwater-impacted waters. This study provides a global picture of enterococci in estuarine waters impacted by Hurricane Katrina-derived urban runoff. It also demonstrates the culture-independent PCR approach using 23S rRNA gene as a molecular marker could be a good alternative in ecological studies of enterococci in natural environments to overcome the limitation of conventional cultivation methods.

  4. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  5. Natural disaster, unnatural deaths: the killings on the life care floors at Tenet's Memorial Medical Center after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, Charles I

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the meaning of the killing of four patients with disabilities on the Life Care ward of Tenet's Memorial Medical Center in New Orleans in anticipation of hurricane Katrina. None were terminally ill. None were in pain. None knew their lives were about to end. None were evacuated. The victims had one thing in common: they all had chosen to be designated as Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) patients. All were killed with overdoses of medications that had not been prescribed for them. Dr. Daniel Nuss of the Louisiana State University School of Medicine and Dr. Floyd Burras, President of the Louisiana Medical Society defend the doctor's actions as involuntary euthanasia or mercy killing. Was this euthanasia, or homicide? At Memorial, the term DNR took on a new meaning--Do Not Rescue. In this new Memorial model, patient autonomy to control and choose one's medical treatment, yields to the physician's unilateral power to arbitrarily decide who lives and who dies. The author concludes that doctors and hospitals must observe the rule of law, even in times of natural disaster.

  6. What Can Multiwave Studies Teach Us About Disaster Research: An Analysis of Low-Income Hurricane Katrina Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and −0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and −0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (β = −.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (β = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support. PMID:22684676

  7. Satellite optical and radar data used to track wetland forest impact and short-term recovery from Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, A.; Middleton, B.; Lu, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Satellite Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and RADARSAT-1 (radar) satellite image data collected before and after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area on the Louisiana-Mississippi border, USA, were applied to the study of forested wetland impact and recovery. We documented the overall similarity in the radar and optical satellite mapping of impact and recovery patterns and highlighted some unique differences that could be used to provide consistent and relevant ecological monitoring. Satellite optical data transformed to a canopy foliage index (CFI) indicated a dramatic decrease in canopy cover immediately after the storm, which then recovered rapidly in the Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) forest. Although CFI levels in early October indicated rapid foliage recovery, the abnormally high radar responses associated with the cypress forest suggested a persistent poststorm difference in canopy structure. Impact and recovery mapping results showed that even though cypress forests experienced very high wind speeds, damage was largely limited to foliage loss. Bottomland hardwoods, experiencing progressively lower wind speeds further inland, suffered impacts ranging from increased occurrences of downed trees in the south to partial foliage loss in the north. In addition, bottomland hardwood impact and recovery patterns suggested that impact severity was associated with a difference in stand structure possibly related to environmental conditions that were not revealed in the prehurricane 25-m optical and radar image analyses. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  8. What can multiwave studies teach us about disaster research: an analysis of low-income Hurricane Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E

    2012-06-01

    Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and -0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and -0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (β = -.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (β = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Mapping knowledge investments in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: a new approach for assessing regulatory agency responses to environmental disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frickel, Scott [Department of Sociology, 213 Wilson Hall, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4020 (United States)], E-mail: frickel@wsu.edu; Campanella, Richard [Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Alcee Fortier Hall, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Vincent, M. Bess [Department of Sociology, 220 Newcomb Hall, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    In the aftermath of large-scale disasters, the public's dependency on federal and state agencies for information about public safety and environmental risk is acute. While formal rules and procedures are in place to guide policy decisions in environmental risk assessment of spatially concentrated hazards such as regulated waste sites or vacant city lots, standard procedures for risk assessment seem potentially less well-suited for urban-scale disaster zones where environmental hazards may be widely dispersed and widely varying. In this paper we offer a new approach for the social assessment of regulatory science in response to large-scale disaster, illustrating our methodology through a socio-spatial analysis of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hazard assessment in New Orleans, Louisiana, following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. We find that the agency's commitment of epistemic resources or 'knowledge investments' varied considerably across the flood-impacted portion of the city, concentrating in poorer and disproportionately African American neighborhoods previously known to be heavily contaminated. We address some of the study's social and policy implications, noting the multidimensionality and interactive nature of knowledge investments and the prospects for deepening and extending this approach through comparative research.

  10. Measuring the impact of Hurricane Katrina on access to a personal healthcare provider: the use of the National Survey of Children's Health for an external comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Sury, Jonathan J; Abramson, David

    2012-04-01

    This paper examined the effect of Hurricane Katrina on children's access to personal healthcare providers and evaluated the use of propensity score methods to compare a nationally representative sample of children, as a proxy for an unexposed group, with a smaller exposed sample. 2007 data from the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health (G-CAFH) Study, a longitudinal cohort of households displaced or greatly impacted by Hurricane Katrina, were matched with 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) data using propensity score techniques. Propensity scores were created using poverty level, household educational attainment, and race/ethnicity, with and without the addition of child age and gender. The outcome was defined as having a personal healthcare provider. Additional confounders (household structure, neighborhood safety, health and insurance status) were also examined. All covariates except gender differed significantly between the exposed (G-CAFH) and unexposed (NSCH) samples. Fewer G-CAFH children had a personal healthcare provider (65 %) compared to those from NSCH (90 %). Adjusting for all covariates, the propensity score analysis showed exposed children were 20 % less likely to have a personal healthcare provider compared to unexposed children in the US (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.76, 0.84), whereas the logistic regression analysis estimated a stronger effect (OR = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.21, 0.39). Two years after Hurricane Katrina, children exposed to the storm had significantly lower odds of having a personal health care provider compared to unexposed children. Propensity score matching techniques may be useful for combining separate data samples when no clear unexposed group exists.

  11. Hurricane Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; JETT

    2008-01-01

    Three years after Katrina,the United States isdetermined not to repeatits mistakes This year has seen an unusually activeand deadly hurricane season, asstorms line up in the Atlantic Oceanto pummel the Caribbean and UnitedStates coastline.

  12. Hospitalizations for Substance Abuse Disorders Before and After Hurricane Katrina: Spatial Clustering and Area-Level Predictors, New Orleans, 2004 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Imelda K; Ruiz, Marilyn O

    2016-10-13

    Identifying at-risk groups is a challenge in post-disaster psychosocial response. Geospatial techniques can support the design and deployment of targeted and tailored interventions. This study compared spatial patterns in the distribution of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders and associated area-level predictors before and after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana. We used hospital data from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals for 2004 (pre-Katrina) and 2008 (post-Katrina). Data were assessed by using descriptive statistics, multivariable Poisson regression, and geospatial analysis. We assessed hospitalizations by US Census block group in relation to the presence of blighted properties (ie, buildings declared an imminent health threat, in danger of collapse, or a public nuisance), race of residents (white or nonwhite), presence of nondisplaced residents (measured by the number of households receiving mail in 2008), and depth of water levels. The hospitalization rate for substance abuse disorders was 7.13 per 1,000 population for 2004 and 9.65 per 1,000 for 2008. The concentration of hospitalizations shifted geographically from block groups exposed to floods (levee breaches) in 2004 to the center of the city in 2008. Post Katrina, predictors for hospitalizations were presence of blighted properties, nonwhite populations, and presence of nondisplaced residents. Distance from flooded areas (high water depth) and levee breaches was negatively associated with hospitalizations. Men were more likely than women to be hospitalized during both periods (78%, 2004; 63%, 2008), and the percentage of the hospitalized white population increased from 2004 (28.8%) to 2008 (44.9%). Geographic patterns of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders shifted in post-Katrina New Orleans from flood-exposed areas to less exposed areas in the center of the city; however, poverty was a main predictor for hospitalizations during both periods. Approaches

  13. A Case History Study of the Recycling Efforts from the United States Army Corps of Engineers Hurricane Katrina Debris Removal Mission in Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Leroy Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In support of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE managed the removal of Hurricane Katrina storm debris in several states. This paper focuses on the debris removal practices in 16 southern Mississippi counties and the recycling efforts. Debris was removed from public and private property. The debris included vegetation, construction material, electronic waste, vehicles, and vessels. The scope of the USACE mission was expanded several times. The scope within the respective counties varied from vegetation only to the removal of every eligible form of debris. The recommendations proposed should enhance recycling efforts during future debris removal missions.

  14. Assessment and control of an invasive aquaculture species: An update on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in coastal Mississippi after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Slack, W. Todd; Peterson, Mark S.; Gregoire, Denise R.

    2007-01-01

    We provide information about the effects of Hurricane Katrina on populations of an invasive fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in southern Mississippi. By resampling areas surveyed before the storm, we attempted to determine whether the species expanded its range by moving with storm-related floods. Additionally, we used rotenone to eradicate individuals of this species at a hurricane-damaged aquaculture facility on the Mississippi coast. Although our survey was limited geographically, we did not find the species to occur beyond the aquaculture facility, other than in an adjacent bayou. Our rotenone treatment of the facility appeared effective with only a single O. niloticus being collected six weeks after the treatment. To reduce the spread of O. niloticus in the southeastern U.S., it is important to continue to control feral populations, work to eliminate vectors for dispersal, and continue monitoring their distribution.

  15. Research Methods in Child Disaster Studies: A Review of Studies Generated by the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Scott, Brandon G.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Varma, Vandana; Chakraburtty, Amarsha

    2013-01-01

    Background A comprehensive review of the design principles and methodological approaches that have been used to make inferences from the research on disasters in children is needed. Objective To identify the methodological approaches used to study children’s reactions to three recent major disasters—the September 11, 2001, attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina. Methods This review was guided by a systematic literature search. Results A total of 165 unduplicated empirical reports were generated by the search and examined for this review. This included 83 references on September 11, 29 on the 2004 Tsunami, and 53 on Hurricane Katrina. Conclusions A diversity of methods has been brought to bear in understanding children’s reactions to disasters. While cross-sectional studies predominate, pre-event data for some investigations emerged from archival data and data from studies examining non-disaster topics. The nature and extent of the influence of risk and protective variables beyond disaster exposure are not fully understood due, in part, to limitations in the study designs used in the extant research. Advancing an understanding of the roles of exposure and various individual, family, and social factors depends upon the extent to which measures and assessment techniques are valid and reliable, as well as on data sources and data collection designs. Comprehensive assessments that extend beyond questionnaires and checklists to include interviews and cognitive and biological measures to elucidate the negative and positive effects of disasters on children also may improve the knowledge base. PMID:24443635

  16. Politique sociale et religion aux Etats-Unis : du « conservatisme compatissant » à l’ouragan Katrina Social Policy and Religion in the United States: From Compassionate Conservatism to Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Djebali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Breaking with the traditional conservatism championed by Ronald Reagan, George W. Bush wanted his social policy to move away from monetary considerations to embrace a religious and spiritual method in healing social ills. The Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives, located in the White House, was inaugurated a few days after Bush was sworn in. However, the Office was immediately plagued by internal strife, lack of funding and absence of political commitment. Hurricane Katrina (2005 dealt a serious political blow to the Republican President. But paradoxically, it reinforced the ideological hegemony of faith-based organizations. Indeed, following the relief efforts, faith-based organizations, rather than government, were hailed as effective instruments in the fight against poverty, distress, and deviance. This article will argue that contrary to this perception, faith-based organizations have a limited effect on poverty and that the Bush administration exploited them for political purposes.

  17. Change in distribution and composition of vegetated habitats on Horn Island, Mississippi, northern Gulf of Mexico, in the initial five years following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, K. L.; Carter, G. A.

    2013-10-01

    In the northern Gulf of Mexico, sudden alterations to barrier islands occur relatively often as a result of hurricanes. Barrier island vegetation is affected by storm impacts, such as burial under sand overwash and direct removal by erosion, and also by wind-driven salt spray and flooding by saltwater tidal surge. This study utilized field surveys in conjunction with remotely-sensed data to evaluate changes in the composition and distribution of vegetation on Horn Island, Mississippi, U.S.A., in the initial five years after Hurricane Katrina. The majority of habitat change occurred closer to the shoreline and in areas of overwash. Habitat change was most often associated with an adjustment to higher-elevation plant communities at the expense of wetlands. In addition, substantial tree and shrub mortality as a result of wind, storm surge, salt-spray, and saltwater flooding reduced maritime forest and stable dune habitat, decreasing habitat stability and ecosystem maturity. The lag time in vegetation establishment and foredune development following the storm allowed for sediment transport into back-barrier habitats. Thus, postponing restoration efforts, such as dune plantings or fencing, until at least one full growing season has elapsed following a hurricane may provide back-barrier habitats with the sediment deposition needed to offset sea-level rise and subsidence.

  18. Predicting posttraumatic growth among Hurricane Katrina survivors living with HIV: the role of self-efficacy, social support, and PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Roman; Benight, Charles; Schmidt, Norine; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Curtin, Erin; Clark, Rebecca A; Kissinger, Patricia

    2009-07-01

    The study tested the model of adaptation after trauma by Benight and Bandura (2004) indicating that posttraumatic recovery may be predicted directly by coping self-efficacy (CSE) and indirectly by social support. These relations were investigated in the context of posttraumatic growth (PTG) among Hurricane Katrina survivors living with HIV. Additionally, it was hypothesized that among individuals with more intensive Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, those with strong CSE would experience the strongest PTG. Cross-sectional data were collected among 90 patients with HIV who reinitiated care at the HIV outpatient clinic. Questionnaires were administered approximately 14 months after the hurricane. Higher CSE was related to higher PTG among the survivors who suffered from more intensive PTSD symptoms. Received social support was directly related to only one index of PTG, relating to others. Furthermore, although there was a significant relationship between social support and CSE, the indirect conditional effect of received social support on PTG was not confirmed. Similar results were obtained across the indices of PTG, controlling for the level of exposure to hurricane-related trauma. Cross-sectional design and convenience character of the sample warrants replications.

  19. Cognitive and Psychosocial Consequences of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Among Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E; Su, L Joseph; Welsh, David A; Galea, Sandro; Jazwinski, S Michal; Silva, Jennifer L; Erwin, Marla J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on cognitive and psychosocial functioning among middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-89 years) and oldest-old adults (90 years and over) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Analyses of pre- and post-disaster cognitive data showed storm-related decrements in working memory for the middle-aged and older adults, but not for the oldest-old adults. Regression analyses confirmed that measures of social engagement and storm-related disruption significantly predicted pre- to post-disaster differences in short-term and working memory performance for the middle-aged and older adults only. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions. Implications for current views of disaster reactions are discussed.

  20. Post-Hurricane Katrina coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, August 31, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; DeWitt, Nancy T.

    2017-04-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On August 31, 2005, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet and approximately 1,000 feet offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Katrina data, which can be used to assess incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  1. Disaster-related exposures and health effects among US Coast Guard responders to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Thomas, Dana L; Chen, Ligong; Funk, Renée; McKibben, Jodi; Dayton, Melburn R

    2014-08-01

    Disaster responders work among poorly characterized physical and psychological hazards with little understood regarding health consequences of their work. A survey administered to 2834 US Coast Guard responders to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provided data on exposures and health effects. Prevalence odds ratios (PORs) evaluated associations between baseline characteristics, missions, exposures, and health effects. Most frequent exposures were animal/insect vector (n = 1309; 46%) and floodwater (n = 817; 29%). Most frequent health effects were sunburn (n = 1119; 39%) and heat stress (n = 810; 30%). Significant positive associations were for mold exposure and sinus infection (POR = 10.39); carbon monoxide and confusion (POR = 6.27); lack of sleep and slips, trips, falls (POR = 3.34) and depression (POR = 3.01); being a Gulf-state responder and depression (POR = 3.22). Increasing protection for disaster responders requires provisions for adequate sleep, personal protective equipment, and access to medical and psychological support.

  2. Interaction between genetic variants and exposure to Hurricane Katrina on post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth: a prospective analysis of low income adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Solovieff, Nadia; Lowe, Sarah R; Gallagher, Patience J; Chaponis, Jonathan; Rosand, Jonathan; Koenen, Karestan C; Waters, Mary C; Rhodes, Jean E; Smoller, Jordan W

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable variation in psychological reactions to natural disasters, with responses ranging from relatively mild and transitory symptoms to severe and persistent posttraumatic stress (PTS). Some survivors also report post-traumatic growth (PTG), or positive psychological changes due to the experience and processing of the disaster and its aftermath. Gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies could offer new insight into the factors underlying variability in post-disaster psychological responses. However, few studies have explored GxE in a disaster context. We examined whether ten common variants in seven genes (BDNF, CACNA1C, CRHR1, FKBP5, OXTR, RGS2, SLC6A4) modified associations between Hurricane Katrina exposure and PTS and PTG. Data were from a prospective study of 205 low-income non-Hispanic Black parents residing in New Orleans prior to and following Hurricane Katrina. We found a significant association (after correction) between RGS2 (rs4606; p=0.0044) and PTG, which was mainly driven by a cross-over GxE (p=0.006), rather than a main genetic effect (p=0.071). The G (minor allele) was associated with lower PTG scores for low levels of Hurricane exposure and higher PTG scores for moderate and high levels of exposure. We also found a nominally significant association between variation in FKBP5 (rs1306780, p=0.0113) and PTG, though this result did not survive correction for multiple testing. Although the inclusion of low-income non-Hispanic Black parents allowed us to examine GxE among a highly vulnerable group, our findings may not generalize to other populations or groups experiencing other natural disasters. Moreover, not all participants invited to participate in the genetic study provided saliva. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify GxE in the context of post-traumatic growth. Future studies are needed to clarify the role of GxE in PTS and PTG and post-disaster psychological responses, especially among vulnerable populations

  3. Contingency Contracting in Support of Conus Disasters: A Case Study of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, 2005 Hurricane Katrina and 2012 Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    vendors working on Katrina relief with the government. The DHS IG assigned 60 auditors , investigators, and inspectors and planned to hire thirty...frequent rotation of officials in and out of the areas, and other acquisition officials being “borrowed” from other agencies. All too often, there was no...overlap in the rotation , allowing valuable institutional memory and scenario-specific information to be lost. As a result of inadequate

  4. Bacteriological water quality in and around Lake Pontchartrain following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Chapter 7H in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demcheck, Dennis K.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Blehert, David S.; Hippe, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Following the Louisiana landfalls of Katrina on August 29 and Rita on September 24, 2005, the local population and the American public were concerned about the effects the hurricanes might have on water quality in Lake Pontchartrain. The lake is a major recreational resource for the region and an important fishery. Contamination carried by the storm surge—along with runoff and water pumped from flooded areas of New Orleans—was considered a serious threat to the water body. The USGS, in collaboration with the LDEQ, monitored the sanitary quality of water at 22 sites in and around Lake Pontchartrain, La., for 3 consecutive weeks from September 13 to 29, 2005 (fig. 1). A subsequent multipleagency survey of 30 sites within Lake Pontchartrain was undertaken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the USGS, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during the week of October 11–14, 2005, to evaluate the effects of the hurricanes and overall levels of fecal contamination on the water quality of the lake (see Heitmuller and Perez, this volume). In addition, the EPA monitored fecal-indicator concentrations at a variety of sites in New Orleans, surrounding areas, and the Mississippi River between September 3 and October 22, 2005 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006). This article describes fecal-indicator bacteria concentration results collected by USGS in the context of other existing data.

  5. Vegetation cover and relationships of habitat-type with elevation on the Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands in the initial six years after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, W.; Carter, G. A.; Anderson, C. P.; Jeter, G. W., Jr.; Otvos, E. G.; Lucas, K. L.; Hopper, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying change in vegetation and geomorphic features which occur during and after storm impact is necessary toward understanding barrier island habitat resiliency under continued climate warming and sea level rise. In August, 2005, the Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands, including, from west-to-east, Cat, West Ship, East Ship, Horn, Petit Bois and Dauphin islands, were completely inundated by the tidal surge of Hurricane Katrina. Overwash, scouring, burial under sand, and mechanical damage combined with saltwater flooding and post-storm drought resulted in immediate and long-term vegetation loss. Remotely-sensed data acquired before (2004-2005) and after (2005-2011) Katrina were compared via image classification to determine immediate storm impacts and assess natural re-growth of land area and vegetation. By 2008, merely three years after the storm, total land area of Cat, West Ship, East Ship, Horn, Petit Bois and West Dauphin had recovered to 92, 90, 33, 99, 93 and 91 percent, and total vegetated land area to 85, 101, 85, 94, 83 and 102 percent of pre-Katrina values, respectively. Habitat-type maps developed from field survey, SPOT-5 and radar data were compared with LIDAR-derived elevation models to assess 2010 habitat-type distribution with respect to ground elevation. Although median MSL elevations associated with habitat classes ranged only from 0.5 m to 1.4 m, habitat-type changed distinctively with decimeter-scale changes in elevation. Low marsh, high marsh, estuarine shrubland, slash pine woodland, beach dune, bare sand and beach dune herbland were associated with median elevations of 0.5, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 m ± 0.1 m, respectively. The anticipated increases in sea level and tropical storm energy under a continually warming climate will likely inhibit the reformation of higher-elevation habitat-types, such as shrublands and woodlands, in the 21st century.

  6. Environmental chemical data for perishable sediments and soils collected in New Orleans, Louisiana, and along the Louisiana Delta following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.; Shi, Honglan; Karstensen, Krista A.; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig D.

    2008-01-01

    In October 2005, nearly one month after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Missouri University of Science and Technology deployed to southern Louisiana to collect perishable environmental data resulting from the impacts of these storms. Perishable samples collected for this investigation are subject to destruction or ruin by removal, mixing, or natural decay; therefore, collection is time-critical following the depositional event. A total of 238 samples of sediment, soil, and vegetation were collected to characterize chemical quality. For this analysis, 157 of the 238 samples were used to characterize trace element, iron, total organic carbon, pesticide, and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of deposited sediment and associated shallow soils. In decreasing order, the largest variability in trace element concentration was detected for lead, vanadium, chromium, copper, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. Lead was determined to be the trace element of most concern because of the large concentrations present in the samples ranging from 4.50 to 551 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Sequential extraction analysis of lead indicate that 39.1 percent of the total lead concentration in post-hurricane sediment is associated with the iron-manganese oxide fraction. This fraction is considered extremely mobile under reducing environmental conditions, thereby making lead a potential health hazard. The presence of lead in post-hurricane sediments likely is from redistribution of pre-hurricane contaminated soils and sediments from Lake Pontchartrain and the flood control canals of New Orleans. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.84 to 49.1 mg/kg. Although Arsenic concentrations generally were small and consistent with other research results, all samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Level of 0.39 mg/kg. Mercury concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 1.30 mg

  7. Academic Development of First-Year Living-Learning Program Students before and after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohli, Robert V.; Keppler, Kurt J.; Winkler, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the far-reaching impacts of hurricanes include the academic performance of students. In an examination of such impacts, we found a trend toward self-perceived decline in some performance indicators relative to students at peer universities. However, few longitudinal impacts were found, perhaps because of the sense…

  8. Spatial and temporal evaluation of metal concentrations in soils and sediments from New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, following hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Michael T; Presley, Steven M; Rainwater, Thomas R; Austin, Galen P; Cox, Stephen B; McDaniel, Les N; Marsland, Eric J; Leftwich, Blair D; Anderson, Todd A; Kendall, Ronald J; Cobb, George P

    2007-10-01

    During January 2006, soil and sediment samples from 75 sites in the New Orleans (LA, USA) area were collected and tested for 26 inorganic elements. The study design was intended to provide a spatial pattern of metal concentrations within the city following hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The sampling design included four transects that traversed the city in a north-south direction and three transects that traversed the city in an east-west direction. Contaminant concentrations were determined at multiple sites within each transect and compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency soil screening criteria pertaining to human health. Concentrations of Pb and As exceeded the criteria indiscriminately throughout the city. Of the 75 sites, 14 (19%) exceeded the soil screening criteria for Pb, and 73 (97%) exceeded the criteria for As. Forty-three of the 75 sites coincided with a previous sampling event in October 2005. Metal concentrations were evaluated for temporal comparisons using a pair sampled t test. Arsenic concentrations differed significantly over time, but Pb concentrations did not.

  9. New Orleans before and after Hurricanes Katrina/Rita: a quasi-experiment of the association between soil lead and children's blood lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Christopher R; Powell, Eric T; Weiler, Stephan

    2010-06-15

    Prior to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HKR), significant associations were noted between soil lead (SL) and blood lead (BL) in New Orleans. Engineering failure of New Orleans levees and canal walls after HKR set the stage for a quasi-experiment to evaluate BL responses by 13 306 children to reductions in SL. High density soil surveying conducted in 46 census tracts before HKR was repeated after the flood. Paired t test results show that SL decreased from 328.54 to 203.33 mg/kg post-HKR (t = 3.296, p or =50% decrease in SL. Also individual BL in children was predicted as a function of SL, adjusting for age, year of observation, and depth of flood waters. At the individual scale, BL decreased significantly in post-HKR as a function of SL, with BL decreases ranging from b = -1.20 to -1.65 microg/dL, depending on the decline of SL and whether children were born in the post-HKR period. Our results support policy to improve soil conditions for children.

  10. Sex and drug risk behavior pre- and post-emigration among Latino migrant men in post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jennifer; Burton, Nicole; Schmidt, Norine; Salinas, Oscar; Hembling, John; Aran, Alberto; Shedlin, Michele; Kissinger, Patricia

    2013-06-01

    High rates of sex and drug risk behaviors have been documented among Latino migrant men in the US. Whether these behaviors were established in the migrants' home countries or were adopted in the US has not been described and has implications for prevention strategies. Quarterly surveys were conducted to gather information on selected sex and drug risk practices of Latino migrant men who arrived in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina seeking work. Both kappa scores and McNemar's tests were performed to determine if practice of these behaviors in home country was similar to practice post-emigration to the US. Female sex worker (FSW) patronage, same sex encounters (MSM), and crack cocaine use was more likely to occur post- rather than pre-emigration. Of those who ever engaged in these selected behaviors, most adopted the behavior in the US (i.e., 75.8% of FSW patrons, 72.7% of MSM participants, and 85.7% of crack cocaine users), with the exception of binge drinking (26.8%). Men who were living with a family member were less likely to adopt FSW patronage OR = 0.27, CI = 0.10-0.76, whereas men who earned >$465 per week were more likely to adopt crack cocaine use OR = 6.29 CI = 1.29, 30.57. Interventions that facilitate the maintenance of family cohesion and provide strategies for financial management may be useful for reducing sex and drug risk among newly arrived migrants.

  11. Community Resilience, Psychological Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms: An Examination of the Mississippi Gulf Coast 10 Years After Hurricane Katrina and 5 Years After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Blackmon, Bret J; Cochran, David M; Kar, Bandana; Rehner, Timothy A; Gunnell, Mauri Stubbs

    2017-08-30

    This study examined the role of community resilience and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in areas on the Mississippi Gulf Coast that have experienced multiple disasters. Survey administration took place in the spring of 2015 to a spatially stratified, random sample of households. This analysis included a total of 294 subjects who lived in 1 of the 3 counties of the Mississippi Gulf Coast at the time of both Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The survey included the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) scale, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). There was a significant inverse relationship between psychological resilience and depressive symptoms and a significant positive relationship between community resilience and psychological resilience. The results also revealed that community resilience was indirectly related to depressive symptoms through the mediating variable of psychological resilience. These findings highlight the importance of psychological resilience in long-term disaster recovery and imply that long-term recovery efforts should address factors associated with both psychological and community resilience to improve mental health outcomes. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 8).

  12. Modeling Hurricane Katrina's merchantable timber and wood damage in south Mississippi using remotely sensed and field-measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis Andrew

    Ordinary and weighted least squares multiple linear regression techniques were used to derive 720 models predicting Katrina-induced storm damage in cubic foot volume (outside bark) and green weight tons (outside bark). The large number of models was dictated by the use of three damage classes, three product types, and four forest type model strata. These 36 models were then fit and reported across 10 variable sets and variable set combinations for volume and ton units. Along with large model counts, potential independent variables were created using power transforms and interactions. The basis of these variables was field measured plot data, satellite (Landsat TM and ETM+) imagery, and NOAA HWIND wind data variable types. As part of the modeling process, lone variable types as well as two-type and three-type combinations were examined. By deriving models with these varying inputs, model utility is flexible as all independent variable data are not needed in future applications. The large number of potential variables led to the use of forward, sequential, and exhaustive independent variable selection techniques. After variable selection, weighted least squares techniques were often employed using weights of one over the square root of the pre-storm volume or weight of interest. This was generally successful in improving residual variance homogeneity. Finished model fits, as represented by coefficient of determination (R2), surpassed 0.5 in numerous models with values over 0.6 noted in a few cases. Given these models, an analyst is provided with a toolset to aid in risk assessment and disaster recovery should Katrina-like weather events reoccur.

  13. Engage the Media: The Coast Guard’s Public Affairs Posture during the Response to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Management Agency FOSC Federal On-Scene Coordinator HURCON Hurricane Condition ICS Incident Command System IMAT Incident Management Assistance Team IMT ...the unit will strive to have the rescue swimmer or pilot interviewed by a reporter, instead of the PAO.46 Personnel are encouraged to speak on the...of swimming Cuban refugees. This was a very compelling visual and it appeared the CG personnel were using excessive force against unarmed swimmers

  14. Toxic trace element assessment for soils/sediments deposited during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita from southern Louisiana, USA: a sequential extraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Honglan; Witt, Emitt C; Shu, Shi; Su, Tingzhi; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of soil/sediment samples collected in the southern Louisiana, USA, region three weeks after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed was performed using sequential extraction procedures to determine the origin, mode of occurrence, biological availability, mobilization, and transport of trace elements in the environment. Five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron (Fe)-manganese (Mn) oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual, were subsequently extracted. The toxic trace elements Pb, As, V, Cr, Cu, and Cd were analyzed in each fraction, together with Fe in 51 soil/sediment samples. Results indicated that Pb and As were at relatively high concentrations in many of the soil/sediment samples. Because the forms in which Pb and As are present tend to be highly mobile under naturally occurring environmental conditions, these two compounds pose an increased health concern.Vanadium and Cr were mostly associated with the crystal line nonmobile residual fraction. A large portion of the Cu was associated with organic matter and residual fraction. Cadmium concentrations were low in all soil/sediment samples analyzed and most of this element tended to be associated with the mobile fractions. An average of 21% of the Fe was found in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, indicating that a substantial part of the Fe was in an oxidized form. The significance of the overall finding of the present study indicated that the high concentrations and high availabilities of the potentially toxic trace elements As and Pb may impact the environment and human health in southern Louisiana and, in particular, the New Orleans area. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  15. Mississippi front-line recovery work after Hurricane Katrina: an analysis of the intersections of gender, race, and class in advocacy, power relations, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lynn; Hilfinger Messias, Deanne K

    2012-06-01

    By disrupting the routine practices and social structures that support social hierarchy, disasters provide a unique opportunity to observe how gender, race, and class power relations are enacted and reconstituted to shape health inequities. Using a feminist intersectional framework, we examine the dynamic relationships among a government/corporate alliance, front-line disaster recovery workers, and disadvantaged residents in Mississippi Gulf Coast communities in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, which struck in August, 2005. Data were collected between January 2007 and October 2008 through field observations, public document analysis, and in-depth interviews with 32 front-line workers representing 27 non-governmental, nonprofit community-based organizations. Our analysis reveals how power relationships among these groups operated at the macro-level of the political economy as well as in individual lives, increasing health risks among both the disadvantaged and the front-line workers serving and advocating on their behalf. Socially situated as outsiders-within, front-line recovery workers operated in the middle ground between the disadvantaged populations they served and the powerful alliance that controlled access to essential resources. From this location, they both observed and were subject to the processes guiding the allocation of resources and their unequal outcomes. Following a brief period of hope for progressive change, recovery workers became increasingly stressed and fatigued, particularly from lack of communication and coordination, limited resources, insufficient capacity to meet overwhelming demands, and gendered and racialized mechanisms of marginalization and exclusion. The personal and collective health burdens borne by these front-line recovery workers--predominantly women and people of color - exemplify the ways in which the social relations of power and control contribute to health and social inequities.

  16. Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, A.; Jonkman, S.N.; Van Ledden, M.

    2014-01-01

    After the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina in the year 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New

  17. Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, A.; Jonkman, S.N.; Van Ledden, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans.

  18. Rapid mapping of hurricane damage to forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik M. Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    The prospects for producing rapid, accurate delineations of the spatial extent of forest wind damage were evaluated using Hurricane Katrina as a test case. A damage map covering the full spatial extent of Katrina?s impact was produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery using higher resolution training data. Forest damage...

  19. Hurricane Katrina: Barriers to Mental Health Services for Children Persist in Greater New Orleans, Although Federal Grants Are Helping to Address Them. Testimony before the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Disaster Recovery, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. GAO-09-935T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascetta, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    The greater New Orleans area has yet to fully recover from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005. One issue of concern in the recovery is the availability of mental health services for children. It is estimated that in 2008 about 187,000 children were living in the greater New Orleans area. Many children in the…

  20. Educators Reach out to Katrina Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The emotional trauma of recent events may never go away. A million people were uprooted by Hurricane Katrina, including an estimated 372,000 children of school age. Three weeks later, Hurricane Rita slammed into the Texas-Louisiana coastline, forcing thousands more to evacuate. Acute symptoms of trauma range from confusion, nightmares, and…

  1. Orkaan Katrina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    28. augustil 2005. a. New Orleansi tabanud orkaanist Katrina, selle põhjustatud kahjudest ja päästetööde organiseerimisest. Vt. samas: Katrina taustal. Eesti päästemeeskonna juht Alo Tammsalu selgitab, miks Eesti päästjatel jäi Ameerikasse appi minemata

  2. Out of New Orleans: Race, Class, and Researching the Katrina Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jerome E.

    2008-01-01

    The torrential rains from Hurricane Katrina, the breaking of the levees, and the subsequent flooding of New Orleans resulted in another Black Diaspora. This article focuses on Black children and families who were displaced by Hurricane Katrina but now reside in cities, towns, and suburbs outside of the Crescent City. Informed by the author's…

  3. Cleansing the Superdome: The Paradox of Purity and Post-Katrina Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grano, Daniel A.; Zagacki, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    The reopening of the New Orleans Superdome after Hurricane Katrina on Monday Night Football dramatized problematic rhetorical, visual, and spatial norms of purification rituals bound up in what Burke calls the paradox of purity. Hurricane Katrina was significant as a visually traumatic event in large part because it signified the ghetto as a…

  4. 2005 Hurricane Katrina Response Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a single image tile from a collection of GeoTIFF format natural color image tiles that cover regions of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi that were...

  5. Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Katrina Inspired Disaster Screenings (KIDS): Psychometric Testing of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Hurricane Assessment and Referral Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D.; Osofsky, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Post disaster psychosocial surveillance procedures are important for guiding effective and efficient recovery. The Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Katrina Inspired Disaster Screenings (KIDS) is a model designed with the goal of assisting recovering communities in understanding the needs of and targeting services…

  6. The Situational Small World of a Post-Disaster Community: Insights into Information Behaviors after the Devastation of Hurricane Katrina in Slidell, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Tisha Anne

    2010-01-01

    Catastrophes like Katrina destroy a community's critical infrastructure--a situation that instigates several dilemmas. Immediately, the community experiences information disruption within the community, as well as between the community and the outside world. The inability to communicate because of physical or virtual barriers to information…

  7. Final Gulf Coast Hurricanes Situation Report #46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-01-26

    According to Entergy New Orleans, electricity has been restored to the vast majority of residents and businesses in the city, except in a few isolated areas that sustained severe devastation from Hurricane Katrina.

  8. Katrina Effect on Mathematics Achievement in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, John; Lewis, Mark; Gross, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused severe physical damage to the Gulf Coast states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Homes and businesses were destroyed. Natural habitats were annihilated, and many Americans were displaced for days, weeks, and even years. This study investigated the within-subject effects and contrasts of poverty, rurality, and…

  9. Public Talks and Science Listens: A Community-Based Participatory Approach to Characterizing Environmental Health Risk Perceptions and Assessing Recovery needs in the Wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the human health threats stemming from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, inter-disciplinary working groups representing P30-funded Centers of the National Institute Environmental Health Sciences were created to assess threats posed by mold, harmful alga blooms, chemical toxicants, and various infectious agents at selected sites throughout the hurricane impact zone. Because of proximity to impacted areas, UTMB NIEHS Center in Environmental Toxicology was charged with coordinating direct community outreach efforts, primarily in south Louisiana. In early October 2005, UTMB/NIEHS Center Community Outreach and Education Core, in collaboration with outreach counterparts at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center @ Smithville TX/Center for Research in Environmental Disease sent two groups into southern Louisiana. One group used Lafourche Parish as a base to deliver humanitarian aid and assess local needs for additional supplies during local recovery/reclamation. A second group, ranging through New Iberia, New Orleans, Chalmette, rural Terrebonne, Lafourche and Jefferson Parishes and Baton Rouge met with community environmental leaders, emergency personnel and local citizens to 1 sample public risk perceptions, 2 evaluate the scope and reach of ongoing risk communication efforts, and 3 determine how the NIEHS could best collaborate with local groups in environmental health research and local capacity building efforts. This scoping survey identified specific information gaps limiting efficacy of risk communication, produced a community “wish list” of potential collaborative research projects. The project provided useful heuristics for disaster response and management planning and a platform for future collaborative efforts in environmental health assessment and risk communication with local advocacy groups in south Terrebonne-Lafourche parishes.

  10. Understanding Resilience and Other Trajectories of Psychological Distress: a Mixed-Methods Study of Low-Income Mothers Who Survived Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E; Waters, Mary C

    2015-09-01

    Recent longitudinal studies in the aftermath of natural disasters have shown that resilience, defined as a trajectory of consistently low symptoms, is the modal experience, although other trajectories representing adverse responses, including chronic or delayed symptom elevations, occur in a substantial minority of survivors. Although these studies have provided insight into the prototypical patterns of postdisaster mental health, the factors that account for these patterns remain unclear. In the current analysis, we aimed to fill this gap through a mixed-methods study of female participants in the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina (RISK) study. Latent class growth analysis identified six trajectories of psychological distress in the quantitative sample (n=386). Qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 54 participants identified predisaster, disaster-related and postdisaster experiences that could account for the trends in the quantitative data. In particular, preexisting and gains in psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation, religiosity) and positive postdisaster impacts (e.g., greater neighborhood satisfaction, improved employment opportunities) were found to underlie resilience and other positive mental health outcomes. Conversely, experiences of childhood trauma, and pre and postdisaster stressors (e.g., difficulties in intimate partner relationships) were common among participants in trajectories representing adverse psychological responses. Illustrative case studies that exemplify each trajectory are presented. The results demonstrate the utility of mixed-methods analysis to provide a richer picture of processes underlying postdisaster mental health.

  11. The influence of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the inflammatory cytokine response and protein expression in A549 cells exposed to PM2.5 collected in the Baton Rouge-Port Allen industrial corridor of Southeastern Louisiana in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Brian; Owens, John Wesley

    2014-03-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita hit the coast of Louisiana in 2005 and killed more than 2000 people. The two storms resulted in a significant spike in particulate matter (PM2.5) levels across the state of Louisiana. This report focuses on PM2.5 samples collected in 2005 from two monitoring sites in the neighboring cities of Baton Rouge and Port Allen, Louisiana. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) revealed the presence of PM2.5-adsorbed representative and Fenton-active transition metals. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed the presence of 23 PAH compounds. Endotoxins were also detected. Metals and endotoxins were extracted with water. PAH were extracted with dichloromethane. In order to assess cytotoxicity, aqueous PM2.5 extracts were introduced to A549 Human Epithelial Lung Carcinoma Cells. Results indicated decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, with an LC50 of 235 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml, respectively, for the two sites featured here. Endotoxins alone were not cytotoxic. The concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and released LDH activity increased following exposure of A549 cells to aqueous PM2.5 extracts. Fluorescence microscopy revealed apoptotic and necrotic cell death mechanisms. ELISA revealed increased secretion of primary pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Global PCR gene expression revealed up-regulation of proteins associated with the cytokine storm; e.g. interleukins, chemokines, and TNF-α. Global antibody microarray was consistent with an inflammatory response, with up-regulation of cytokines involved in the down-field activation of the caspase cascade and kinase pathways. The up-regulation of metal-redox sensitive transcription factors, NF-κβ and AP-1, is consistent with a cell death mechanism initiated by Fenton-active transition metal redox catalysis.

  12. A National Children's Resiliency Response Initiative: 2006-2007 Plan to Help Katrina's Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Alice Mae

    2006-01-01

    The 2006 National Resiliency Response Initiative for Katrina's Kids is a systematic approach to providing resiliency support to the over 200,000 children victimized by one of the worst natural disasters in American history. From the Gulf States region, children suffered trauma during and after Hurricane Katrina as they became displaced young…

  13. Reflecting on "Project Katrina" and Developmentally Appropriate Practices: A Graduate Student's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhaas, Andree; Burts, Diane C.; Aghayan, Carol

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the independent study project of a student who was a graduate assistant in a child development laboratory preschool when Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the Gulf Coast area. Through her experiences with "Project Katrina" she deepens her understanding of developmentally appropriate practices as she learns firsthand about…

  14. Service characteristics and counseling outcomes: lessons from a cross-site evaluation of crisis counseling after Hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Wilma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Fran H; Hamblen, Jessica L; Rosen, Craig S

    2009-05-01

    The 2005 hurricane season was the worst on record, resulting in disaster declarations and the implementation of federally-funded crisis counseling programs in five states. As part of a larger cross-site evaluation of these programs, data from 2,850 participant surveys, 805 provider surveys, and 132,733 encounter logs (submitted from 3 weeks before to 3 weeks after the participant surveys) were aggregated to the county level (N = 50) and used to test hypotheses regarding factors that influence program performance. County-level outcomes (aggregate ratings of participants' perceived benefits) improved as service intensity, service intimacy, and frequency of psychological referrals increased and as provider job stress decreased. The percent of providers with advanced degrees was indirectly related to participants' perceived benefits by increasing service intensity and referral frequency. The results yielded recommendations for achieving excellence in disaster mental health programs.

  15. Children of Katrina: Lessons Learned about Postdisaster Symptoms and Recovery Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Mindy E.; Hansel, Tonya Cross; Brennan, Adrianne M.; Osofsky, Howard J.; Osofsky, Joy D.; Lawrason, Beverly

    2010-01-01

    Trauma symptoms, recovery patterns, and life stressors of children between the ages of 9 and 18 (n = 387) following Hurricane Katrina were assessed using an adapted version of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Hurricane Assessment and Referral Tool for Children and Adolescents (National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2005). Based on…

  16. Risk to life due to flooding in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, A.; Jonkman, S.N.; Van Ledden, M.

    2012-01-01

    After the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina in the year 2005, the city’s hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against storms with at least a 100 year return period. The aim of this article is to investigate the risk to life in the

  17. Katrina Kids! Helping Kids Exposed to Population-Wide Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, William N.; Sims, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Although schools have implemented school safety plans as a result of the violence witnessed on rare occasions in schools today, schools are less likely to be prepared for emergencies such as Katrina or 9/11; this is true even for schools in locations prone to hurricanes, tornadoes, or earthquakes. Whereas disaster plans typically involve school…

  18. Tocqueville in New Orleans: Before and After Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Tiryakian

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tocqueville is famous for his observations about American culture in 1832, the year he visited New Orleans for one full day before moving on to finish his book Democracy in America. A great deal can be learned in one day, a feat replicated by the author in studying the flood damage to New Orleans following the 2005 hurricane Katrina.

  19. Hurricane-driven alteration in plankton community size structure in the Gulf of Mexico: A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, Michelle M.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Samuelsen, Annette; Ueyoshi, Kyozo

    2009-04-01

    This was the first study to analyze phytoplankton and zooplankton community size structure during hurricane passage. A three-dimensional biophysical model was used to assess ecosystem dynamics, plankton biomass, and plankton distribution in the Gulf of Mexico during Hurricane Katrina (2005). Model simulations revealed that large phytoplankton were most responsive to hurricane-induced turbulent mixing and nutrient injection, with increases in biomass along the hurricane track. Small phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton biomass primarily shifted in location and increased in spatial extent as a result of Hurricane Katrina. Hurricane passage disrupted the distribution of plankton biomass associated with mesoscale eddies. Biomass minimums and maximums that resided in the center of warm- and cold-core eddies and along eddy peripheries prior to hurricane passage were displaced during Hurricane Katrina.

  20. The Business of Intimacy: Hurricanes and Howling Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Vivian

    2006-01-01

    The date is September 9, 2005. This article is set in a rural Wisconsin community, a thousand miles north of New Orleans, where Hurricane Katrina is about to make landfall. The four- and five- year- olds in Mrs. Olson's classroom have never experienced a hurricane or seen flood waters rise to cover the farms and houses they know, but they cannot…

  1. Hurricane Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Hurricane Safety Checklist - Arabic Hurricane Safety Checklist - Chinese Hurricane Safety Checklist - French Hurricane Safety Checklist - Haitian ... Cross serves in the US, its territories and military installations around the world. Please try again. Your ...

  2. Wading in the waters: spirituality and older black Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Erma Jean; Thomas, Cecelia

    2007-05-01

    Hurricane Katrina has drawn increased interest in coping strategies, spirituality, and mental health among low-income Blacks. Given the paucity of information available regarding the role of spirituality in surviving Hurricane Katrina, this qualitative study explores active coping strategies of older Blacks. Older respondents who were evacuated to a Texas retirement apartment complex participated in a series of three in-depth interviews (starting approximately three weeks after their arrival in the host state and continuing weekly). Without exception, the findings indicate that this population coped with Katrina and its aftermath through reliance on a Higher Power. The relationship to a Higher Power did not necessarily translate into church membership. The conclusions of the respondents' spiritual coping mechanisms revealed the following themes: 1) regular communication with a supernatural power; 2) miracles of faith through this source of guidance and protection; 3) daily reading of the Bible and various spiritual and devotional materials; and 4) helping others as a consequence of faith and devotion to a supreme being. This study indicates that spirituality promotes emotional resilience in the aftermath of traumatic events such as Hurricane Katrina. These findings also point to the need for researchers to reconsider expressions of spirituality based solely on church membership/attendance and prayer, and to consider redefining spiritual coping as a form of cultural capital.

  3. Army Support during the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    authority, Funston deployed some 1,700 soldiers to guard the US Treasury and US Mint buildings, patrol the streets to prevent looting, and help with...contractors clean up the island during two recovery missions, GARDEN SWEEP and GARDEN SWEEP II. During these two missions, Active component and National...Mart store on Tchoupitoulas Street near the Garden District. One of his first actions was to establish relations with a wide range of civil officials

  4. Evaluating post-Katrina recovery in Mississippi using repeat photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher; Mitchell, Jerry T; Cutter, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Hurricane Katrina of August 2005 had extensive consequences for the state of Mississippi in the United States. Widespread infrastructure and property damage, massive social dislocation, and ecological loss remain among the many challenges faced by communities as they work towards 'normalcy'. This study employs repeat photography to understand differential recovery from Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi. Revealing change with conventional landscape photography, a process known as repeat photography, is common in the natural sciences. Simply stated, repeat photography is the practice of re-photographing the same scene as it appears in an earlier photograph. Photographs were taken at 131 sites every six months over a three-year period. Each photograph was assigned a recovery score and a spatially interpolated recovery surface was generated for each time period. The mapped and graphed results show disparities in the progression of recovery: some communities quickly entered the rebuilding process whereas others have lagged far behind.

  5. Finding holism in disaster: a story of Katrina's aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn

    2007-03-01

    How do we find holism in the aftermath of disasters? This is the author's personal account of being deployed as a psychiatric clinical nurse specialist by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and meeting two survivors in the Lower 9th Ward of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. This article tells how she learned from survivors' stories and music about healing and holism in the aftermath of disaster.

  6. Public Libraries Can Play an Important Role in the Aftermath of a Natural Disaster. A Review of: Welsh, T. S. & Higgins, S. E. (2009. Public libraries post-Hurricane Katrina: A pilot study. Library Review, 58(9, 652-659.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Wilson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper analyzes Hurricane Katrina-related narratives to document the challenges faced by public libraries after the disaster and the disaster-relief services these libraries provided.Design – A qualitative thematic analysis of narratives obtained by convenience sampling.Setting – Narratives were collected and analyzed in 2005 and 2006 across the Gulf Coast area of the United States.Subjects – Seventy-two library and information science students enrolled in the University of Southern Mississippi’s School of Library and Information Science. Many worked in local libraries.Methods – In this pilot study, studentsvolunteered to participate in a confidential process that involved telling their stories of their post-Hurricane Katrina experiences. Data was collected in a natural setting (the libraries in which the students worked, and inductive reasoning was used to build themes based on these research questions: What post-disaster problems related to public libraries were noted in the students’ narratives? What post-disaster public library services were noted in the narratives?NVivo7 qualitative analysis software was used to analyze and code the narratives. Passages related to public libraries were coded by library location and student. These passages were analyzed for themes related to post-disaster challenges and disaster-recovery services pertaining to public libraries. Main Results – Ten of the 72 narratives contained passages related to public libraries. The libraries included four in Alabama, one in Louisiana, and five in Mississippi. Results related to the first research question (What post-disaster problems related to public libraries were noted in the students’ narrative? were physical damage to the building, from light damage to total destruction (reported in 8 or 80% of the students’ narratives, and inundation by refugees, evacuees, and relief workers (reported in 8 or 80% of the narratives. Results

  7. Disaster preparedness of dialysis patients for Hurricanes Gustav and Ike 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita resulted in massive devastation of the Gulf Coast at Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas during 2005. Because of those disasters, dialysis providers, nephrologists, and dialysis patients used disaster planning activities to work to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with the 2005 hurricane season for future events affecting dialysis patients. As Hurricane Gustav approached, anniversary events for Hurricane Katrina were postponed because of evacuation orders for nearly the entire Louisiana Gulf Coast. As part of the hurricane preparation, dialysis units reviewed the disaster plans of patients, and patients made preparation for evacuation. Upon evacuation, many patients returned to the dialysis units that had provided services during their exile from Hurricane Katrina; other patients went to other locations as part of their evacuation plan. Patients uniformly reported positive experiences with dialysis providers in their temporary evacuation communities, provided that those communities did not experience the effects of Hurricane Gustav. With the exception of evacuees to Baton Rouge, patients continued to receive their treatments uninterrupted. Because of extensive damage in the Baton Rouge area, resulting in widespread power losses and delayed restoration of power to hospitals and other health care facilities, some patients missed one treatment. However, as a result of compliance with disaster fluid and dietary recommendations, no adverse outcomes occurred. In most instances, patients were able to return to their home dialysis unit or a nearby unit to continue dialysis treatments within 4 - 5 days of Hurricane Gustav. Hurricane Ike struck the Texas Gulf Coast near Galveston, resulting in devastation of that area similar to the devastation seen in New Orleans after Katrina. The storm surge along the Louisiana Gulf Coast resulted in flooding that temporarily closed coastal dialysis units. Patients were prepared and experienced

  8. Floating Foundations: "Kairos," Community, and a Composition Program in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. R.; Letter, Joe; Livingston, Judith Kemerait

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe their individual and collective experiences reconstructing their New Orleans-based university composition program in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. They emphasize how the concept of "floating foundations" helps account for changes in their students' interests, and they suggest that this idea is applicable to the…

  9. School Choice, Student Mobility, and School Quality: Evidence from Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.; Duque, Matthew; McEachin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, school choice policies predicated on student mobility have gained prominence as urban districts address chronically low-performing schools. However, scholars have highlighted equity concerns related to choice policies. The case of post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans provides an opportunity to examine student mobility patterns in…

  10. Enrollment Management Issue Analysis: Operating in a Post-Katrina Higher Education Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline; Das, Nabakrishna; Huggins, Desiree'; McNeely, Stanton, III

    2008-01-01

    A definition and brief history of enrollment management are presented. The challenges represented by Hurricane Katrina for enrollment management at one community technical college and a private 4-year college are identified along with three cases that illuminate the challenges. The need for rapid response planning is articulated. (Contains 1…

  11. School Choice, Student Mobility, and School Quality: Evidence from Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.; Duque, Matthew; McEachin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, school choice policies predicated on student mobility have gained prominence as urban districts address chronically low-performing schools. However, scholars have highlighted equity concerns related to choice policies. The case of post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans provides an opportunity to examine student mobility patterns in…

  12. A lesson from Katrina: pastoral care from an Asian theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jacob Hee Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Situating pastoral caregivers in the dramatic catastrophe caused by hurricane "Katrina" in New Orleans, this article attempts to address some appropriate pastoral responses toward the disaster from an Asian theological perspective. The article highlights the significance of remembrance and connection rather than repression and forgetfulness in order to bring justice to all victims of Katrina. It builds on Jacoby's "social amnesia," calls for redefining the meaning of community, and attempts to address the human predicaments on the surface of Katrina through an Asian perspective. In order to address pastoral responses, the article builds upon Martin Luther King, Jr.'s concept of interrelatedness and shared destiny. It critically examines Jung Young Lee's theology of marginality, and draws the pastoral implications of this theology of marginality with respect to Katrina.

  13. 2005 Mississippi Merged LiDAR Data (2005 LiDAR data merged with 2005 Post-Katrina LiDAR data to create a bare-earth product for flood plain mapping in coastal Mississippi).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pre- and post-hurricane Katrina LiDAR datasets of Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties, MS, were merged into a seamless coverage by URS. The pre-Katrina LiDAR...

  14. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  15. Forecasting hurricane impact on coastal topography: Hurricane Ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Turco, Michael J.; East, Jeffery W.; Taylor, Arthur A.; Shaffer, Wilson A.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme storms can have a profound impact on coastal topography and thus on ecosystems and human-built structures within coastal regions. For instance, landfalls of several recent major hurricanes have caused significant changes to the U.S. coastline, particularly along the Gulf of Mexico. Some of these hurricanes (e.g., Ivan in 2004, Katrina and Rita in 2005, and Gustav and Ike in 2008) led to shoreline position changes of about 100 meters. Sand dunes, which protect the coast from waves and surge, eroded, losing several meters of elevation in the course of a single storm. Observations during these events raise the question of how storm-related changes affect the future vulnerability of a coast.

  16. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Grimsley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4–12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL observational study. Dust (indoor and air (indoor and outdoor samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat. Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold, sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions.

  17. Environmental Modeling, Technology, and Communication for Land Falling Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tchounwou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Katrina (a tropical cyclone/hurricane began to strengthen reaching a Category 5 storm on 28th August, 2005 and its winds reached peak intensity of 175 mph and pressure levels as low as 902 mb. Katrina eventually weakened to a category 3 storm and made a landfall in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, south of Buras on 29th August 2005. We investigate the time series intensity change of the hurricane Katrina using environmental modeling and technology tools to develop an early and advanced warning and prediction system. Environmental Mesoscale Model (Weather Research Forecast, WRF simulations are used for prediction of intensity change and track of the hurricane Katrina. The model is run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 h periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model results are in good agreement with the observations suggesting that the model is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track and precipitation associated with hurricane Katrina. We computed the maximum vertical velocities (Wmax using Convective Available Kinetic Energy (CAPE obtained at the equilibrium level (EL, from atmospheric soundings over the Gulf Coast stations during the hurricane land falling for the period August 21–30, 2005. The large vertical atmospheric motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorms and tornadoes 2–3 days before landfall. The environmental modeling simulations in combination with sounding data show that the tools may be used as an advanced prediction and communication system (APCS for land falling tropical cyclones/hurricanes.

  18. Environmental modeling, technology, and communication for land falling tropical cyclone/hurricane prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluri, Francis; Reddy, R Suseela; Anjaneyulu, Y; Colonias, John; Tchounwou, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Katrina (a tropical cyclone/hurricane) began to strengthen reaching a Category 5 storm on 28th August, 2005 and its winds reached peak intensity of 175 mph and pressure levels as low as 902 mb. Katrina eventually weakened to a category 3 storm and made a landfall in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, south of Buras on 29th August 2005. We investigate the time series intensity change of the hurricane Katrina using environmental modeling and technology tools to develop an early and advanced warning and prediction system. Environmental Mesoscale Model (Weather Research Forecast, WRF) simulations are used for prediction of intensity change and track of the hurricane Katrina. The model is run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 h periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model results are in good agreement with the observations suggesting that the model is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track and precipitation associated with hurricane Katrina. We computed the maximum vertical velocities (W(max)) using Convective Available Kinetic Energy (CAPE) obtained at the equilibrium level (EL), from atmospheric soundings over the Gulf Coast stations during the hurricane land falling for the period August 21-30, 2005. The large vertical atmospheric motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorms and tornadoes 2-3 days before landfall. The environmental modeling simulations in combination with sounding data show that the tools may be used as an advanced prediction and communication system (APCS) for land falling tropical cyclones/hurricanes.

  19. After Katrina, Dismay and Recovery: Libraries Report the Extent of Damage as Library Community Continues to Mobilize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman; Rogers, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The New Orleans Public Library (NOPL) is coming back from Hurricane Katrina--thanks to the State Library of Louisiana, NOPL in mid-September set up a temporary web site (nutrias.org). Unfortunately like many libraries in the Gulf region, it sustained significant damage and retained hope for renewal. This article reports the extent of damage…

  20. A School-Based Assessment of Secondary Stressors and Adolescent Mental Health 18 Months Post-Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Stacy; Salloum, Alison; Badour, Christal

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine the prevalence of secondary stressors related to Hurricane Katrina and to determine their impact on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among a sample of high school students. In addition, the moderating role of problem substance use was examined to determine whether it increased the risk of…

  1. Children's Reactions to Katrina and Rita: A Ph.D. Student's Reflection after Observing His Own Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, R. Sean

    2007-01-01

    A graduate student in early childhood education discusses observations of his children during and after Hurricanes Rita and Katrina struck the Gulf Coast. He relates his use of responsive parenting and provides examples of his children's learning and play that emerged after the storms. He reflects upon how aspects of developmentally appropriate…

  2. A School-Based Assessment of Secondary Stressors and Adolescent Mental Health 18 Months Post-Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Stacy; Salloum, Alison; Badour, Christal

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine the prevalence of secondary stressors related to Hurricane Katrina and to determine their impact on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among a sample of high school students. In addition, the moderating role of problem substance use was examined to determine whether it increased the risk of…

  3. Using remotely sensed data and elementary analytical techniques in post-katrina mississippi to examine storm damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis A. Collins; David L. Evans; Keith L. Belli; Patrick A. Glass

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina’s passage through south Mississippi on August 29, 2005, which damaged or destroyed thousands of hectares of forest land, was followed by massive salvage, cleanup, and assessment efforts. An initial assessment by the Mississippi Forestry Commission estimated that over $1 billion in raw wood material was downed by the storm, with county-level damage...

  4. The Future of Public Education in New Orleans. After Katrina: Rebuilding Opportunity and Equity into the "New" New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul; Hannaway, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Long before the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina or the chaos of evacuation, New Orleans' social infrastructure was failing. News coverage of the overcrowded Superdome and the city's flooded streets exposed the poverty and vulnerability of many residents, especially African Americans. As New Orleans begins to rebuild, can the city avoid the mistakes…

  5. Campaign contributions, lobbying and post-Katrina contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael J; Long, Michael A; Stretesky, Paul B

    2010-07-01

    This research explores the relationship between political campaign contributions, lobbying and post-Hurricane Katrina cleanup and reconstruction contracts. Specifically, a case-control study design is used to determine whether campaign contributions to national candidates in the 2000-04 election cycles and/or the employment of lobbyists and lobbying firms increased a company's probability of receiving a post-hurricane contract. Results indicate that both a campaign contribution dichotomous variable and the dollar amount of contributions are significantly related to whether a company received a contract, but that lobbying activity was not. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research on the politics of natural disasters, government contracting and governmental and corporate deviance.

  6. Watered by Tempests: Hurricanes in the Cultural Fabric of the United Houma Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oney, J. Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita affected hundreds of thousands in southern Louisiana. To say that they touched people of every stripe and color dramatically is a gross understatement. Aside from the loss of life and property damage, families were uprooted, traditions disrupted, and one of the largest migrations in American history forced on a state…

  7. Rediscovering community--reflections after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Hoboken, New Jersey, is a town of 50,000 residents located across the Hudson River from New York City. Most of Hoboken's infrastructure was compromised during Hurricane Sandy as a result of flooding and power outages that rendered many businesses inoperable, including all of the pharmacies in town. Despite a focus on emergency preparedness since Hurricane Katrina and 9/11, there were no contingencies in place to facilitate and assess the medication needs of the community in the event of a natural disaster. This essay describes how the author rediscovered the meaning of community, and through working with colleagues in other health care disciplines and non-health care volunteers, provided care to patients in suboptimal circumstances.

  8. Female hurricanes are deadlier than male hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kiju; Shavitt, Sharon; Viswanathan, Madhu; Hilbe, Joseph M

    2014-06-17

    Do people judge hurricane risks in the context of gender-based expectations? We use more than six decades of death rates from US hurricanes to show that feminine-named hurricanes cause significantly more deaths than do masculine-named hurricanes. Laboratory experiments indicate that this is because hurricane names lead to gender-based expectations about severity and this, in turn, guides respondents' preparedness to take protective action. This finding indicates an unfortunate and unintended consequence of the gendered naming of hurricanes, with important implications for policymakers, media practitioners, and the general public concerning hurricane communication and preparedness.

  9. Crisis leadership of the Bush Presidency : advisory capacity and presidential performance in the acute stages of the 9/11 and Katrina Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t Hart, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072685387; Tindall, K.; Brown, Christer

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the operation of the presidential advisory system during the 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina crises in order to explain the marked differences in presidential crisis leadership performance during the acute phase of both crises. It first presents a conceptual framework for the

  10. Who Dat Say (We) "Too Depraved to Be Saved"?: Re-Membering Katrina/Haiti (and beyond): Critical Studyin' for Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joyce E.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Joyce King attempts to interrupt the calculus of human (un)worthiness and to repair the collective cultural amnesia that are legacies of slavery and that make it easy--hegemonically and dysconsciously--for the public to accept myths and media reports, such as those about the depravity of survivors of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans…

  11. Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf oil spill: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Howard J; Osofsky, Joy D

    2013-09-01

    Education and training about immediate responses are important for all mental health providers of immediate and continuing services to assist children, adolescents, adults, and families in the aftermath of disasters. To sensitively help with evacuations and return to normalcy, responders must also be trained to understand the culture and traditions of affected communities. It is important to provide knowledge about available resources and to emphasize the need for routines and self-care for both victims and responders in an environment that, with recovery, will reflect a new normal.

  12. Hurricane Resource Reel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Reel Includes the Following Sections TRT 50:10 Hurricane Overviews 1:02; Hurricane Arthur 15:07; Cyclone Pam 19:48; Typhoon Hagupit 21:27; Hurricane Bertha...

  13. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  14. Hurricane Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Hurricanes provide beautiful examples of many of the key physical processes important in geophysical systems. They are rare natural examples of nearly perfect Carnot heat engines with an interesting wrinkle: They recycle much of their waste heat into the front end of the engine, thereby achieving greater wind speeds than would otherwise be possible. They are driven by surface enthalpy fluxes made possible by the thermodynamic disequilibrium between the earth's surface and atmosphere, a characteristic of radiative equilibrium in the presence of greenhouse gases. Their evolution, structure, and intensity all depend on turbulence near the ocean surface and in the outflow layer of the storm, high up in the atmosphere. In the course of this banquet, I will briefly describe these and other interesting aspects of hurricane physics, and also describe the role these storms have played in human history.

  15. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  16. Cloud Spirals and Outflow in Tropical Storm Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    On Tuesday, August 30, 2005, NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer retrieved cloud-top heights and cloud-tracked wind velocities for Tropical Storm Katrina, as the center of the storm was situated over the Tennessee valley. At this time Katrina was weakening and no longer classified as a hurricane, and would soon become an extratropical depression. Measurements such as these can help atmospheric scientists compare results of computer-generated hurricane simulations with observed conditions, ultimately allowing them to better represent and understand physical processes occurring in hurricanes. Because air currents are influenced by the Coriolis force (caused by the rotation of the Earth), Northern Hemisphere hurricanes are characterized by an inward counterclockwise (cyclonic) rotation towards the center. It is less widely known that, at high altitudes, outward-spreading bands of cloud rotate in a clockwise (anticyclonic) direction. The image on the left shows the retrieved cloud-tracked winds as red arrows superimposed across the natural color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera. Both the counter-clockwise motion for the lower-level storm clouds and the clockwise motion for the upper clouds are apparent in these images. The speeds for the clockwise upper level winds have typical values between 40 and 45 m/s (144-162 km/hr). The low level counterclockwise winds have typical values between 7 and 24 m/s (25-86 km/hr), weakening with distance from the storm center. The image on the right displays the cloud-top height retrievals. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray. Both the wind velocity vectors and the cloud-top height field were produced by automated computer recognition of displacements in spatial features within successive MISR images acquired at different view angles and at slightly different times. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously, viewing the entire globe

  17. The impact of pet loss on the perceived social support and psychological distress of hurricane survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E; Zwiebach, Liza; Chan, Christian S

    2009-06-01

    Associations between pet loss and posthurricane perceived social support and psychological distress were explored. Participants (N = 365) were primarily low-income African American single mothers who were initially part of an educational intervention study. All participants were exposed to Hurricane Katrina, and 47% experienced Hurricane Rita. Three waves of survey data, two from before the hurricanes, were included. Sixty-three participants (17.3%) reported losing a pet due to the hurricanes and their aftermath. Pet loss significantly predicted postdisaster distress, above and beyond demographic variables, pre- and postdisaster perceived social support, predisaster distress, hurricane-related stressors, and human bereavement, an association that was stronger for younger participants. Pet loss was not a significant predictor of postdisaster perceived social support, but the impact of pet loss on perceived social support was significantly greater for participants with low levels of predisaster support.

  18. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Rohrbaugh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006 which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  19. Science and the storms: The USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, G. S.; Smith, G.J.; Crane, M.P.; Demas, C.R.; Robbins, L.L.; Lavoie, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    This report is designed to give a view of the immediate response of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to four major hurricanes of 2005: Dennis, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. Some of this response took place days after the hurricanes; other responses included fieldwork and analysis through the spring. While hurricane science continues within the USGS, this overview of work following these hurricanes reveals how a Department of the Interior bureau quickly brought together a diverse array of its scientists and technologies to assess and analyze many hurricane effects. Topics vary from flooding and water quality to landscape and ecosystem impacts, from geotechnical reconnaissance to analyzing the collapse of bridges and estimating the volume of debris. Thus, the purpose of this report is to inform the American people of the USGS science that is available and ongoing in regard to hurricanes. It is the hope that such science will help inform the decisions of those citizens and officials tasked with coastal restoration and planning for future hurricanes. Chapter 1 is an essay establishing the need for science in building a resilient coast. The second chapter includes some hurricane facts that provide hurricane terminology, history, and maps of the four hurricanes’ paths. Chapters that follow give the scientific response of USGS to the storms. Both English and metric measurements are used in the articles in anticipation of both general and scientific audiences in the United States and elsewhere. Chapter 8 is a compilation of relevant ongoing and future hurricane work. The epilogue marks the 2-year anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. An index of authors follows the report to aid in finding articles that are cross-referenced within the report. In addition to performing the science needed to understand the effects of hurricanes, USGS employees helped in the rescue of citizens by boat and through technology by “geoaddressing” 911 calls after Katrina and Rita so that other

  20. Pre-Hurricane Perceived Social Support Protects against Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Analysis of Low-Income Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8%) was African American; 10.4%…

  1. Pre-Hurricane Perceived Social Support Protects against Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Analysis of Low-Income Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8%) was African American; 10.4%…

  2. Gulf Coast Hurricanes: Lessons Learned for Protecting and Educating Children. Briefing for Congressional Staff. GAO-06-680R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Accountability Office, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused devastating damage to states along the Gulf Coast. In the aftermath of the storms, many questions were raised about the status of the thousands of children living in the affected areas. The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) prepared this preliminary information under the…

  3. Simulation of hurricane response to suppression of warm rain by sub-micron aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rosenfeld

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of hurricane modification was investigated for hurricane Katrina using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF. The possible impact of seeding of clouds with submicron cloud condensation nuclei (CCN on hurricane structure and intensity as measured by nearly halving of the area covered by hurricane force winds was simulated by "turning–off" warm rain formation in the clouds at Katrina's periphery (where wind speeds were less than 22 m s−1. This simplification of the simulation of aerosol effects is aimed at evaluating the largest possible response. This resulted in the weakening of the hurricane surface winds compared to the "non-seeded" simulated storm during the first 24 h within the entire tropical cyclone (TC area compared to a control simulation without warm rain suppression. Later, the seeding-induced evaporative cooling at the TC periphery led to a shrinking of the eye and hence to some increase in the wind within the small central area of the TC. Yet, the overall strength of the hurricane, as defined by the area covered by hurricane force winds, decreased in response to the suppressed warm rain at the periphery, as measured by a 25% reduction in the radius of hurricane force winds. In a simulation with warm rain suppression throughout the hurricane, the radius of the hurricane force winds was reduced by more than 42%, and although the diameter of the eye shrunk even further the maximum winds weakened. This shows that the main mechanism by which suppressing warm rain weakens the TC is the low level evaporative cooling of the un-precipitated cloud drops and the added cooling due to melting of precipitation that falls from above.

  4. Monitoring poison control center data to detect health hazards during hurricane season--Florida, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-21

    Eight hurricanes made landfall in Florida from August 13, 2004, through October 24, 2005. Each hurricane caused flooding and widespread power outages. In the fall of 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) began retrospectively reviewing data collected by the Florida Poison Information Center Network (FPICN) during the 2004 hurricane season. During the 2005 hurricane season, FDOH, in consultation with FPICN, initiated daily monitoring of FPICN records of exposures that might reflect storm-related health hazards. Analysis of these data determined that 28 carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were reported to FPICN in the 2 days after Hurricane Katrina made its August 25, 2005, landfall in Florida, en route to a second landfall on the Gulf Coast. Data on CO and other exposures were used to develop and distribute public health prevention messages to Florida communities affected by hurricanes.

  5. Once Upon a Storm: Katrina and Nutrition Support or the Lack Thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrocas, Albert; Bickham, Paulette-Moten; Tonini, Jeff; Beck-McCollough, Carol

    2014-08-22

    Nutrition support teams face many challenges to establish, fund, maintain, and justify their existence. Some of the challenges can be resolved over time. However, the challenge of providing nutrition in general and nutrition support in specific during a natural disaster is void of the luxury of time experienced with the previously delineated challenges. The experience of Methodist Hospital in New Orleans, Louisiana, during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 in providing nutrition and nutrition support is summarized in this invited article. The recollections of various represented disciplines are bolstered by tables and figures that outline the 7 days before and after Katrina. Transdisciplinarity was exhibited through the performance of nontraditional functions or tasks by a variety of professionals who lived 5 days or longer in the "Methodist Island." Lessons learned and considerations for disaster preparedness as it relates to nutrition and nutrition support as well as general considerations are provided. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. ‘New Ways to Frame the Mammoth Horror’: Media First Responders and the Katrina Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Knox

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the state of emergency following Hurrican Katrina or ‘the Katrina Event’ with reference to the role of media first responders. Throughout the ensuing disaster the performance of the media (including celebrity advocates like Oprah Winfrey, Geraldo Rivera and Kanye West worked as a mechanism for technical remastery in the face of systemic breakdown. This re-mediation of panic and of the state of emergency shifted attention from the local (that is, from the acts of witness by Katrina’s victims to national reactions (as figured by advocates of the cause of the neglected poor of New Orleans. In this way even as voice was given to the failure of the nation to rise to the needs of its most vulnerable citizens, the figure of the nation as carer was re-instantiated in the televised outrage and frustration of talk show hosts, news anchors, and charity fund-raising celebrities.

  7. Potential of MODIS EVI in Identifying Hurricane Disturbance to Coastal Vegetation in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugui Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequent hurricane landfalls along the northern Gulf of Mexico, in addition to causing immediate damage to vegetation, also have long term effects on coastal ecosystem structure and function. This study investigated the utility of using time series enhanced vegetation index (EVI imagery composited in MODIS product MOD13Q1 for assessing hurricane damage to vegetation and its recovery. Vegetation in four US coastal states disturbed by five hurricanes between 2002 and 2008 were explored by change imagery derived from pre- and post-hurricane EVI data. Interpretation of the EVI changes within months and between years distinguished a clear disturbance pattern caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, and a recovering trend of the vegetation between 2005 and 2008, particularly within the 100 km coastal zone. However, for Hurricanes Gustav, Ike, and Lili, the disturbance pattern which varied by the change imagery were not noticeable in some images due to lighter vegetation damage. The EVI pre- and post-hurricane differences between two adjacent years and around one month after hurricane disturbance provided the most likely damage area and patterns. The study also revealed that as hurricanes damaged vegetation in some coastal areas, strong precipitation associated with these storms may benefit growth of vegetation in other areas. Overall, the study illustrated that the MODIS product could be employed to detect severe hurricane damage to vegetation, monitor vegetation recovery dynamics, and assess benefits of hurricanes to vegetation.

  8. NO RASTRO DO KATRINA: A CONSTRUÇÃO DE UM DISCURSO DE VERDADE 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Carlos Renato Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a set of texts consisting of messages exchanged among members of an online discusison list on urban legends, in which they comment the passage of the hurricane Katrina on the East Coast of the United States in 2005. The analysis focuses on the way rumors and facts are intertwined in a regime of truth which takes historically constructed utterances on issues such as fear and racism and re-signifies them in response to the event in question.

  9. Post-Katrina juvenile competency determinations: a tale of two systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2008-01-01

    Natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina have resulted in the displacement of families to locations throughout the nation. Juvenile courts have been affected by this mass migration of youths. Post-disaster recovery has been slow. Consequently, a cohort of youths has aged out of the juvenile justice system before their juvenile competency hearings could be held. Some of these young adults now face charges as adults in criminal courts. The author explores what happens when youths awaiting juvenile competency determinations age out of the system and face charges as adults. The evolution of the problem, the current situation, case examples, and possible solutions are reviewed.

  10. Investigating the sensitivity of hurricane intensity and trajectory to sea surface temperatures using the regional model WRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Kilic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sea surface temperature (SST anomalies on the hurricane characteristics are investigated in a set of sensitivity experiments employing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The idealised experiments are performed for the case of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The first set of sensitivity experiments with basin-wide changes of the SST magnitude shows that the intensity goes along with changes in the SST, i.e., an increase in SST leads to an intensification of Katrina. Additionally, the trajectory is shifted to the west (east, with increasing (decreasing SSTs. The main reason is a strengthening of the background flow. The second set of experiments investigates the influence of Loop Current eddies idealised by localised SST anomalies. The intensity of Hurricane Katrina is enhanced with increasing SSTs close to the core of a tropical cyclone. Negative nearby SST anomalies reduce the intensity. The trajectory only changes if positive SST anomalies are located west or north of the hurricane centre. In this case the hurricane is attracted by the SST anomaly which causes an additional moisture source and increased vertical winds.

  11. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  12. Hurricane Gustav Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Gustav poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Gustav having made landfall along the Louisiana coastline. Poster size is 36"x27"

  13. Hurricane Ike Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Ike poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-15 shows Hurricane Ike in the Gulf of Mexico heading toward Galveston Island, Texas. Poster size is 36"x27".

  14. 2004 Landfalling Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2004 U.S. Landfalling Hurricanes poster is a special edition poster which contains two sets of images of Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne, created...

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications that builds on the principles of material spectroscopy, radiative transfer, imaging spectrometry, and hyperspectral data processing. This book provides a holistic treatment that captures its multidisciplinary nature, emphasizing the physical principles of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  16. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  17. Contribution of recent hurricanes to wetland sedimentation in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kam-biu; Bianchette, Thomas; Zou, Lei; Qiang, Yi; Lam, Nina

    2017-04-01

    Hurricanes are important agents of sediment deposition in the wetlands of coastal Louisiana. Since Hurricanes Katrina and Rita of 2005, coastal Louisiana has been impacted by Hurricanes Gustav (2008), Ike (2008), and Isaac (2012). By employing the principles and methods of paleotempestology we have identified the storm deposits attributed to the three most recent hurricanes in several coastal lakes and swamps in Louisiana. However, the spatial distribution and volume of these storm depositions cannot be easily inferred from stratigraphic data derived from a few locations. Here we report on results from a GIS study to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of storm deposition based on data extracted from the voluminous CRMS (Coastal Reference Monitoring System) database, which contains vertical accretion rate measurements obtained from 390 wetland sites over various time intervals during the past decade. Wetland accretion rates averaged about 2.89 cm/yr from stations sampled before Hurricane Isaac, 4.04 cm/yr during the 7-month period encompassing Isaac, and 2.38 cm/yr from sites established and sampled after Isaac. Generally, the wetland accretion rates attributable to the Isaac effects were 40% and 70% greater than before and after the event, respectively. Accretion rates associated with Isaac were highest at wetland sites along the Mississippi River and its tributaries instead of along the path of the hurricane, suggesting that freshwater flooding from fluvial channels, enhanced by the storm surge from the sea, is the main mechanism responsible for increased accretion in the wetlands. Our GIS work has recently been expanded to include other recent hurricanes. Preliminary results indicate that, for non-storm periods, the average wetland accretion rates between Katrina/Rita and Gustav/Ike was 2.58 cm/yr; that between Gustav/Ike and Isaac was 1.95 cm/yr; and that after Isaac was 2.37 cm/yr. In contrast, the accretion rates attributable to the effects of Gustav

  18. Impacts of cloud flare-ups on hurricane intensity resulting from departures from balance laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Krishnamurti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud flare-ups along the inner eye wall of a hurricane lead to enhancement of cloud scale divergence, which in turn leads to a large local enhancement of the departure from balance laws and can lead to local supergradient winds. This scenario is tested using the results from a mesoscale microphysical model at horizontal resolution of 1.33 km for the simulation of hurricane Katrina. Rainwater mixing ratio tags growing cloud elements. The departure from balance laws includes terms such as the local, horizontal and vertical advections of divergence, divergence square and a term invoking the gradient of vertical velocity. It is noted that these terms collectively contribute to a substantial local enhancement of the departure from balance laws. Departures from balance laws are related to the radial gradient wind imbalances in a storm-centred coordinate. In this study, several examples, from the hurricane Katrina simulations, that display this scenario of rapid intensification are illustrated. Organisation of convection in the azimuthal direction seems important for the hurricane scale; cloud flare-ups away from such regions of azimuthal organisation fail to contribute to this scenario for the overall intensification of the hurricane.

  19. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-10-26

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.

  20. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-11-10

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges.

  1. Hurricane Sandy and earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    MAVASHEV BORIS; MAVASHEV IGOR

    2013-01-01

    Submit for consideration the connection between formation of a hurricane Sandy and earthquakes. As a rule, weather anomalies precede and accompany earthquakes. The hurricane Sandy emerged 2 days prior to strong earthquakes that occurred in the area. And the trajectory of the hurricane Sandy matched the epicenter of the earthquakes. Possibility of early prediction of natural disasters will minimize the moral and material damage.

  2. Simulation of hurricane response to suppression of warm rain by sub-micron aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rosenfeld

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of hurricane modification was investigated for hurricane Katrina using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF. The possible impact of seeding of clouds with submicron cloud condensation nuclei (CCN on hurricane structure and intensity as measured by nearly halving of the area covered by hurricane force winds was simulated by "turning–off" warm rain formation in the clouds at Katrina's periphery (where wind speeds were less than 22 m s−1. This simplification of the simulation of aerosol effects is aimed at evaluating the largest possible response. This resulted in the weakening of the hurricane surface winds compared to the "non-seeded" simulated storm during the first 24 h within the entire tropical cyclone (TC area compared to a control simulation without warm rain suppression. Later, the seeding-induced evaporative cooling at the TC periphery led to a shrinking of the eye and hence to some increase in the wind within the small central area of the TC. Yet, the overall strength of the hurricane decreased in response to the suppressed warm rain at the periphery, as measured by a 25% reduction in the radius of hurricane force winds. In a simulation with warm rain suppression throughout the hurricane, the relative weakening compared to the control continued throughout the simulations and the eye shrunk even further. This shows that the main mechanism by which suppressing warm rain weakens the TC is the low level evaporative cooling of the un-precipitated cloud drops and the added cooling due to melting of precipitation that falls from above.

  3. The Relationship between Mold Exposure and Allergic Response in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia A. Rabito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The study's objective was to examine the relation between mold/dampness exposure and mold sensitization among residents of Greater New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. Methods. Patients were recruited from the Allergy Clinic of a major medical facility. Any patient receiving a skin prick test for one of 24 molds between December 1, 2005 and December 31, 2008 was eligible for the study. Exposure was assessed using standardized questionnaires. Positive mold reactivity was defined as a wheal diameter >3 mm to any mold genera. Results. Approximately 57% of participants tested positive to any indoor allergen, 10% to any mold. Over half of respondents had significant home damage, 34% reported dampness/mold in their home, half engaged in renovation, and one-third lived in a home undergoing renovation. Despite extensive exposure, and multiple measures of exposure, we found no relationship between mold/dampness exposure and sensitivity to mold allergens. Conclusions. These results along with results of earlier research indicate no excess risk of adverse respiratory effects for residents living in New Orleans after the devastation of Hurricane Katrina.

  4. Hurricane Influences on Vegetation Community Change in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Snedden, Gregg A.; Sapkota, Sijan

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on wetland vegetation were investigated in Louisiana coastal marshes. Vegetation cover, pore-water salinity, and nutrients data from 100 marsh sites covering the entire Louisiana coast were sampled for two consecutive growing seasons after the storms. A mixed-model nested ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test for post-ANOVA multiple comparisons was used to analyze the data. Significantly (p<0.05) lower vegetation cover was observed within brackish and fresh marshes in the west as compared to the east and central regions throughout 2006, but considerable increase in vegetation cover was noticed in fall 2007 data. Marshes in the west were stressed by prolonged saltwater logging and increased sulfide content. High salinity levels persisted throughout the study period for all marsh types, especially in the west. The marshes of coastal Louisiana are still recovering after the hurricanes; however, changes in the species composition have increased in these marshes.

  5. The major hurricanes of 2005: A few facts: Chapter 2B in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Gaye S.

    2007-01-01

    The following is a compilation of storm terminology, categories, and names as well as the meteorological history, damage, and paths of Hurricanes Dennis, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. This information is taken, except where noted, from the Web site and archives of the National Hurricane Center (NHC), a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NWS). Greater details are available at www.nhc.noaa.gov. These facts are presented here to provide the reader background for the articles in this volume describing the storm science of the U.S. Geological Survey, which works with the NWS during hurricanes by providing real-time river stage data used by NWS to forecast river floods.

  6. Airborne Laser Scanning Quantification of Disturbances from Hurricanes and Lightning Strikes to Mangrove Forests in Everglades National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Whelan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR measurements derived before and after Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma (2005 were used to quantify the impact of hurricanes and lightning strikes on the mangrove forest at two sites in Everglades National Park (ENP. Analysis of LIDAR measurements covering 61 and 68 ha areas of mangrove forest at the Shark River and Broad River sites showed that the proportion of high tree canopy detected by the LIDAR after the 2005 hurricane season decreased significantly due to defoliation and breakage of branches and trunks, while the proportion of low canopy and the ground increased drastically. Tall mangrove forests distant from tidal creeks suffered more damage than lower mangrove forests adjacent to the tidal creeks. The hurricanes created numerous canopy gaps, and the number of gaps per square kilometer increased from about 400~500 to 4000 after Katrina and Wilma. The total area of gaps in the forest increased from about 1~2% of the total forest area to 12%. The relative contribution of hurricanes to mangrove forest disturbance in ENP is at least 2 times more than that from lightning strikes. However, hurricanes and lightning strikes disturb the mangrove forest in a related way. Most seedlings in lightning gaps survived the hurricane impact due to the protection of trees surrounding the gaps, and therefore provide an important resource for forest recovery after the hurricane. This research demonstrated that LIDAR is an effective remote sensing tool to quantify the effects of disturbances such as hurricanes and lightning strikes in the mangrove forest.

  7. Mental health outcomes at the Jersey Shore after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations.

  8. Planen ohne Risiko: New Orleans und der Wiederaufbau nach Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dölemeyer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with ‘planning’ and ‘prevention’ as two logics or rationalities of recovery planning.A brief case study on recovery planning in New Orleans in the aftermath of hurricane Katrina hasshown how, in a situation of destruction, disorientation and uncertainty, recovery planning was intendedto create the impression of a reliable framing for individual decision making on return andreconstruction. Here, planning appeared as pro-active design, with flood prevention as a necessaryand centrally assessable element. However, in the course of time and within a number of successiveplanning processes, it was precisely the attempt to model New Orleans’ future on a centralized, expertise-driven approach of reconstruction that provoked strong criticism. Consequently, dynamicsshifted from expertise-centered recovery planning to a more de-centralized mode that stressed citizenparticipation, ‘lay knowledge’ and inclusion, re-defined what New Orleans should look like in the future,as well as the role and the meaning of ‘(flood prevention’.

  9. Hurricane Effects on Mangrove Canopies Observed from MODIS and SPOT Imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Parenti, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The effects of four hurricanes on protected mangroves in southwest Florida (Katrina and Wilma) and the Yucatan Peninsula (Emily and Dean) were assessed using paired sets of 20m multispectral SPOT and 16-day 500m MODIS images. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) were used to assess possible damage to and recovery of mangrove canopies associated with each storm event. The results revealed decreases in the NDVI and EVI of mangrove canopies consistent with storm effects, although the effects in South Florida and Sian Ka'an were highly variable. Hurricane Wilma produced a large decrease in NDVI and EVI although values recovered within a year, suggesting resilience to this storm. Rainfall associated with Hurricane Emily apparently increased mangrove photosynthetic activity owing to the location of landfall outside the study area, the small size of the wind field and the apparent lack of storm surge. MODIS NDVI time series revealed pronounced seasonality in mangrove ...

  10. Business closure and relocation: a comparative analysis of the Loma Prieta earthquake and Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasileski, Gabriela; Rodríguez, Havidán; Diaz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of a number of large-scale disasters or catastrophes in recent years, including the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), the Kashmir earthquake (2005), Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), have raised our awareness regarding the devastating effects of disasters on human populations and the importance of developing mitigation and preparedness strategies to limit the consequences of such events. However, there is still a dearth of social science research focusing on the socio-economic impact of disasters on businesses in the United States. This paper contributes to this research literature by focusing on the impact of disasters on business closure and relocation through the use of multivariate logistic regression models, specifically focusing on the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) and Hurricane Andrew (1992). Using a multivariate model, we examine how physical damage to the infrastructure, lifeline disruption and business characteristics, among others, impact business closure and relocation following major disasters.

  11. Risk Perceptions on Hurricanes: Evidence from the U.S. Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria-Domínguez, José Manuel; Paneque, Pilar; Gil-Hurtado, María

    2017-06-05

    This article examines the market reaction of the main Property and Casualty (P & C) insurance companies listed in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) to seven most recent hurricanes that hit the East Coast of the United States from 2005 to 2012. For this purpose, we run a standard short horizon event study in order to test the existence of abnormal returns around the landfalls. P & C companies are one of the most affected sectors by such events because of the huge losses to rebuild, help and compensate the inhabitants of the affected areas. From the financial investors' perception, this kind of events implies severe losses, which could influence the expected returns. Our research highlights the existence of significant cumulative abnormal returns around the landfall event window in most of the hurricanes analyzed, except for the Katrina and Sandy Hurricanes.

  12. Geologic effects of hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Nicholas K.

    1994-08-01

    Hurricanes are intense low pressure systems of tropical origin. Hurricane damage results from storm surge, wind, and inland flooding from heavy rainfall. Field observations and remote sensing of recent major hurricanes such as Hugo (1989), Andrew (1992) and Iniki (1992) are providing new insights into the mechanisms producing damage in these major storms. Velocities associated with hurricanes include the counterclockwise vortex winds flowing around the eye and the much slower regional winds that steer hurricane and move it forward. Vectorial addition of theseof these two winds on the higher effective wind speed than on the left side. Coast-parallel hurricane tracks keep the weaker left side of the storm against the coast, whereas coast-normal tracks produce a wide swath of destruction as the more powerful right side of the storm cuts a swath of destruction hundreds of kilometers inland. Storm surge is a function of the wind speed, central pressure, shelf slope, shoreline configuration, and anthropogenic alterations to the shoreline. Maximum surge heights are not under the eye of the hurricane, where the pressure is lowest, but on the right side of the eye at the radius of maximum winds, where the winds are strongest. Flood surge occurs as the hurricane approaches land and drives coastal waters, and superimposed waves, across the shore. Ebb surge occurs when impounded surface water flows seaward as the storm moves inland. Flood and ebb surge damage have been greatly increased in recent hurricanes as a result of anthropogenic changes along the shoreline. Hurricane wind damage occurs on three scales — megascale, mesoscale and microscale. Local wind damage is a function of wind speed, exposure and structural resistance to velocity pressure, wind drag and flying debris. Localized extreme damage is caused by gusts that can locally exceed sustained winds by a factor of two in areas where there is strong convective activity. Geologic changes occuring in hurricanes

  13. Denoising Of Hyperspectral Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashumati Dhuppe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The amount of noise included in a Hyperspectral images limits its application and has a negative impact on Hyperspectral image classification, unmixing, target detection, so on. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI systems can acquire both spectral and spatial information of ground surface simultaneously and have been used in a variety of applications such as object detection, material identification, land cover classification etc. In Hyperspectral images, because the noise intensity in different bands is different, to better suppress the noise in the high noise intensity bands & preserve the detailed information in the low noise intensity bands, the denoising strength should be adaptively adjusted with noise intensity in different bands. We propose a Hyperspectral image denoising algorithms employing a spectral spatial adaptive total variation (TV model, in which the spectral noise difference & spatial information differences are both considered in the process of noise reduction.

  14. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Biswas, Sayak K.; James, Mark W.; Roberts, J. Brent; Jones, W. Linwood; Johnson, James; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem; Ruf, Christopher S.; Morris, Mary; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a synthetic thinned array passive microwave radiometer designed to allow retrieval of surface wind speed in hurricanes, up through category five intensity. The retrieval technology follows the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which measures surface wind speed in hurricanes along a narrow strip beneath the aircraft. HIRAD maps wind speeds in a swath below the aircraft, about 50-60 km wide when flown in the lower stratosphere. HIRAD has flown in the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in 2010 on a WB-57 aircraft, and on a Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in 2012 and 2013 as part of NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) program. The GRIP program included flights over Hurricanes Earl and Karl (2010). The 2012 HS3 deployment did not include any hurricane flights for the UAS carrying HIRAD. The 2013 HS3 flights included one flight over the predecessor to TS Gabrielle, and one flight over Hurricane Ingrid. This presentation will describe the HIRAD instrument, its results from the 2010 and 2013 flights, and potential future developments.

  15. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  16. Business Return in New Orleans: Decision Making Amid Post-Katrina Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nina S. N.; Pace, Kelley; Campanella, Richard; LeSage, James; Arenas, Helbert

    2009-01-01

    Background Empirical observations on how businesses respond after a major catastrophe are rare, especially for a catastrophe as great as Hurricane Katrina, which hit New Orleans, Louisiana on August 29, 2005. We analyzed repeated telephone surveys of New Orleans businesses conducted in December 2005, June 2006, and October 2007 to understand factors that influenced decisions to re-open amid post-disaster uncertainty. Methodology/Principal Findings Businesses in the group of professional, scientific, and technical services reopened the fastest in the near term, but differences in the rate of reopening for businesses stratified by type became indistinguishable in the longer term (around two years later). A reopening rate of 65% was found for all businesses by October 2007. Discriminant analysis showed significant differences in responses reflecting their attitudes about important factors between businesses that reopened and those that did not. Businesses that remained closed at the time of our third survey (two years after Katrina) ranked levee protection as the top concern immediately after Katrina, but damage to their premises and financing became major concerns in subsequent months reflected in the later surveys. For businesses that had opened (at the time of our third survey), infrastructure protection including levee, utility, and communications were the main concerns mentioned in surveys up to the third survey, when the issue of crime became their top concern. Conclusions/Significance These findings underscore the need to have public policy and emergency plans in place prior to the actual disaster, such as infrastructure protection, so that the policy can be applied in a timely manner before business decisions to return or close are made. Our survey results, which include responses from both open and closed businesses, overcome the “survivorship bias” problem and provide empirical observations that should be useful to improve micro-level spatial economic

  17. Business return in New Orleans: decision making amid post-Katrina uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S N Lam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical observations on how businesses respond after a major catastrophe are rare, especially for a catastrophe as great as Hurricane Katrina, which hit New Orleans, Louisiana on August 29, 2005. We analyzed repeated telephone surveys of New Orleans businesses conducted in December 2005, June 2006, and October 2007 to understand factors that influenced decisions to re-open amid post-disaster uncertainty. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Businesses in the group of professional, scientific, and technical services reopened the fastest in the near term, but differences in the rate of reopening for businesses stratified by type became indistinguishable in the longer term (around two years later. A reopening rate of 65% was found for all businesses by October 2007. Discriminant analysis showed significant differences in responses reflecting their attitudes about important factors between businesses that reopened and those that did not. Businesses that remained closed at the time of our third survey (two years after Katrina ranked levee protection as the top concern immediately after Katrina, but damage to their premises and financing became major concerns in subsequent months reflected in the later surveys. For businesses that had opened (at the time of our third survey, infrastructure protection including levee, utility, and communications were the main concerns mentioned in surveys up to the third survey, when the issue of crime became their top concern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings underscore the need to have public policy and emergency plans in place prior to the actual disaster, such as infrastructure protection, so that the policy can be applied in a timely manner before business decisions to return or close are made. Our survey results, which include responses from both open and closed businesses, overcome the "survivorship bias" problem and provide empirical observations that should be useful to improve micro

  18. Exploring community resilience in workforce communities of first responders serving Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyche, Karen Fraser; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Norris, Fran H; Wisnieski, Deborah; Younger, Hayden

    2011-01-01

    Community resilience activities were assessed in workplace teams that became first responders for Hurricane Katrina survivors. Community resilience was assessed by a survey, focus groups, and key informant interviews. On the survey, 90 first responders ranked their team's disaster response performance as high on community resilience activities. The same participants, interviewed in 11 focus groups and 3 key informant interviews, discussed how their teams engaged in community resilience activities to strengthen their ability to deliver services. Specifically, their resilient behaviors were characterized by: shared organizational identity, purpose, and values; mutual support and trust; role flexibility; active problem solving; self-reflection; shared leadership; and skill building. The implications for research, policy, practice, and education of professionals are discussed. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  19. Katrina and the Thai Tsunami - Water Quality and Public Health Aspects Mitigation and Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Englande

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The South East Asian Tsunami in Thailand and Hurricane Katrina in the United States were natural disasters of different origin but of similar destruction and response. Both disasters exhibited synonymous health outcomes and similar structural damage from large surges of water, waves, and flooding. A systematic discussion and comparison of the disasters in Thailand and the Gulf Coast considers both calamities to be similar types of disaster in different coastal locations. Thus valuable comparisons can be made for improvements in response, preparedness and mitigation. Research needs are discussed and recommendations made regarding potential methologies. Recommendations are made to: (1 improve disaster response time in terms of needs assessments for public health and environmental data collection; (2 develop an access-oriented data sharing policy; and (3 prioritize natural geomorphic structures such as barrier islands, mangroves, and wetlands to help reduce the scale of future natural disasters. Based on the experiences gained opportunities to enhance disaster preparedness through research are presented.

  20. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  1. Analyzing Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Angelyn; Meyer, Stephan; Edwards, Becca

    2015-03-01

    Post-tropical Storm Sandy underwent extratropical transition shortly before making landfall in southern New Jersey October 29 2012. Data from this system was compared with data from Hurricane Ike (2008) which represents a classic hurricane with a clear eye wall and symmetry after landfall. Storm Sandy collided with a low pressure system coming in from the north as the hurricane made landfall on the US East coast. This contributed to Storm Sandy acting as a non-typical hurricane when it made landfall. Time histories of wind speed and wind direction were generated from data provided by Texas Tech's StickNet probes for both storms. The NOAA Weather and Climate program were used to generate radar loops of reflectivity during the landfall for both storms; these loops were compared with time histories for both Ike and Sandy to identify a relationship between time series data and storm-scale features identified on radar.

  2. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  3. Hurricane Matthew overwash extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara; Long, Joseph W.; Birchler, Justin; Range, Ginger

    2017-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project exists to understand and predict storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This data defines the alongshore extent of overwash deposits attributed to coastal processes during Hurricane Matthew.

  4. Hyperspectral pansharpening: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Loncan, Laetitia; Bioucas-Dias, José M; Briottet, Xavier; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Dobigeon, Nicolas; Fabre, Sophie; Liao, Wenzhi; Licciardi, Giorgio A; Simões, Miguel; Tourneret, Jean-Yves; Veganzones, Miguel A; Vivone, Gemine; Wei, Qi; Yokoya, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Pansharpening aims at fusing a panchromatic image with a multispectral one, to generate an image with the high spatial resolution of the former and the high spectral resolution of the latter. In the last decade, many algorithms have been presented in the literature for pansharpening using multispectral data. With the increasing availability of hyperspectral systems, these methods are now being adapted to hyperspectral images. In this work, we compare new pansharpening techniques designed for hyperspectral data with some of the state of the art methods for multispectral pansharpening, which have been adapted for hyperspectral data. Eleven methods from different classes (component substitution, multiresolution analysis, hybrid, Bayesian and matrix factorization) are analyzed. These methods are applied to three datasets and their effectiveness and robustness are evaluated with widely used performance indicators. In addition, all the pansharpening techniques considered in this paper have been implemented in a MAT...

  5. Retrieved Products from Simulated Hyperspectral Observations of a Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena; Blaisdell, John

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrate via Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) the potential utility of flying high spatial resolution AIRS class IR sounders on future LEO and GEO missions.The study simulates and analyzes radiances for 3 sounders with AIRS spectral and radiometric properties on different orbits with different spatial resolutions: 1) Control run 13 kilometers AIRS spatial resolution at nadir on LEO in Aqua orbit; 2) 2 kilometer spatial resolution LEO sounder at nadir ARIES; 3) 5 kilometers spatial resolution sounder on a GEO orbit, radiances simulated every 72 minutes.

  6. Linkage of Rainfall-Runoff and Hurricane Storm Surge in Galveston Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitz, R.; Christian, J.; Wright, G.; Fang, N.; Bedient, P.

    2012-12-01

    In conjunction with the SSPEED Center, large rainfall events in the upper Gulf of Mexico are being studied in an effort to help design a surge gate to protect the Houston Ship Channel during hurricane events. The ship channel is the world's second largest petrochemical complex and the Coast Guard estimates that a one-month closure would have a $60 billion dollar impact on the national economy. In this effort, statistical design storms, such as the 24-hour PMP, as well as historical storms, like Hurricane Ike, Hurricane Katrina, and Hurricane Rita, are being simulated in a hydrologic/hydraulic model using radar and rain gauge data. VfloTM, a distributed hydrologic model, is being used to quantify the effect that storm size, intensity, and location has on timing and peak flows in the in the upper drainage area. These hydrographs were input to a hydraulic model with various storm surges from Galveston Bay. Results indicate that there is a double peak phenomenon with flows from the west draining days earlier than flows from the north. With storm surge typically lasting 36-48 hours, this indicates the flows from the west are interacting with the storm surge, whereas flows from the north would arrive once the storm surge is receding. Gate operations were optimized in the model to account for the relative timing of upland runoff and hurricane surge, and to quantify the capability of the gate structure to protect the Ship Channel industry.

  7. Loss of Resources and Hurricane Experience as Predictors of Postpartum Depression Among Women in Southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Matthew; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background After a natural disaster, mental disorders often become a long-term public health concern. Previous studies under smaller-scale natural disaster conditions suggest loss of psychosocial resources is associated with psychological distress. Methods We examined the occurrence of depression 6 and 12 months postpartum among 208 women residing in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, who were pregnant during or immediately after Hurricane Katrina's landfall. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of both tangible/financial and nontangible (psychosocial) loss of resources (LOR) on the outcome of depression, measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). We also investigated the influence on depression of individuals' hurricane experience through a Hurricane Experience Score (HES) that includes such factors as witnessing death, contact with flood waters, and injury to self or family members. Results Both tangible and nontangible LOR were associated with depression cross-sectionally and prospectively. Severe hurricane exposure (high HES) was also associated with depression. Regression analysis showed LOR-associated depression was explained almost entirely by nontangible rather than tangible factors. Consistent with COR theory, however, nontangible LOR explained some of the association between severe hurricane exposure and depression in our models. A similar result was seen prospectively for depression at 12 months, even controlling for depression symptoms at 6 months. Conclusions These results suggest the need for preventive measures aimed at preserving psychosocial resources to reduce the long-term effects of disasters. PMID:20438305

  8. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  9. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma

  10. Providing Housing, Food and Medical Support for 25,000 Katrina Evacuees with 12 Hours Notice: The Harris County Medical Support of the Superdome Evacuees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Smart, Kieran; Gavagan, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina was responsible for trapping 25,000 people in the New Orleans Superdome and isolating many others throughout Louisiana and Mississippi. The transport of these evacuees to the Reliant Park (Houston, Texas) used 500 buses each containing about 55 people. Processing the arriving evacuees included addressing their health status and medical needs as follows: an initial triage at disembarkation, a secondary triage in the Reliant Astrodome and Center, and definitive clinical care in the Reliant Arena "Katrina" Clinic. Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) physicians boarded buses and identified the sickest for emergency transport to Harris County Hospital District (HCHD) hospitals. BCM departments represented included pediatrics, family and community medicine, internal medicine, radiology, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, surgery, and psychiatry. Astrodome and Center triage was managed by BCM physicians and staffed by HCHD Nurses and volunteers from Texas and beyond. The Reliant Astrodome, Center and Arena reached peak headcounts of 15,000,4500, and 2500, respectively Most evacuees visiting the triage sites in the Astrodome and Center were treated using "over-the-counter" medications with the remaining being transported to the "Katrina" clinic. The clinic was equipped with a lab, pharmacy, digital X-ray, and ultrasound machines in addition to electronic patient records created using 80 computer terminals. The Katrina clinic saw more than 15,000 patients during 15 days of operations (2,000 on the first full day), administered 10,000 tetanus shots, and filled thousands of prescriptions. At the peak of operations, the clinic saw 150 patients/hour with 25 physicians scheduled for each 12-hour shift. Approximately 900 people were transported to hospital emergency rooms. Within 3 weeks of arriving at the Reliant Park facilities, more than 90% of the families found permanent housing, enrolled children in schools, and found work. Using data obtained from

  11. Factors predicting crisis counselor referrals to other crisis counseling, disaster relief, and psychological services: a cross-site analysis of post-Katrina programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Craig S; Matthieu, Monica M; Norris, Fran H

    2009-05-01

    An important aspect of crisis counseling is linking survivors with services for their unmet needs. We examined determinants of referrals for disaster relief, additional crisis counseling, and psychological services in 703,000 crisis counseling encounters 3-18 months after Hurricane Katrina. Referrals for disaster relief were predicted by clients' losses, age (adults rather than children), and urbanicity. Referrals for additional counseling and psychological services were predicted by urbanicity, losses and trauma exposure, prior trauma, and preexisting mental health problems. Counseling and psychological referrals declined over time despite continuing mental health needs. Results confirm large urban-rural disparities in access to services.

  12. An assessment of change in risk perception and optimistic bias for hurricanes among Gulf Coast residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Meyer, Michelle A; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on levels of concern for hurricanes among individuals living along the Gulf Coast during the quiescent two-year period following the exceptionally destructive 2005 hurricane season. A small study of risk perception and optimistic bias was conducted immediately following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Two years later, a follow-up was done in which respondents were recontacted. This provided an opportunity to examine changes, and potential causal ordering, in risk perception and optimistic bias. The analysis uses 201 panel respondents who were matched across the two mail surveys. Measures included hurricane risk perception, optimistic bias for hurricane evacuation, past hurricane experience, and a small set of demographic variables (age, sex, income, and education). Paired t-tests were used to compare scores across time. Hurricane risk perception declined and optimistic bias increased. Cross-lagged correlations were used to test the potential causal ordering between risk perception and optimistic bias, with a weak effect suggesting the former affects the latter. Additional cross-lagged analysis using structural equation modeling was used to look more closely at the components of optimistic bias (risk to self vs. risk to others). A significant and stronger potentially causal effect from risk perception to optimistic bias was found. Analysis of the experience and demographic variables' effects on risk perception and optimistic bias, and their change, provided mixed results. The lessening of risk perception and increase in optimistic bias over the period of quiescence suggest that risk communicators and emergency managers should direct attention toward reversing these trends to increase disaster preparedness. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. The influence of an extended Atlantic hurricane season on inland flooding potential in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Monica H.; Cohen, Sagy

    2017-03-01

    Recent tropical cyclones, like Hurricane Katrina, have been some of the worst the United States has experienced. Tropical cyclones are expected to intensify, bringing about 20 % more precipitation, in the near future in response to global climate warming. Further, global climate warming may extend the hurricane season. This study focuses on four major river basins (Neches, Pearl, Mobile, and Roanoke) in the southeastern United States that are frequently impacted by tropical cyclones. An analysis of the timing of tropical cyclones that impact these river basins found that most occur during the low-discharge season and thus rarely produce riverine flooding conditions. However, an extension of the current hurricane season of June-November could encroach upon the high-discharge seasons in these basins, increasing the susceptibility for riverine hurricane-induced flooding. Our results indicate that 28-180 % more days would be at risk of flooding from an average tropical cyclone with an extension of the hurricane season to May-December (just 2 months longer). Future research should aim to extend this analysis to all river basins in the United States that are impacted by tropical cyclones in order to provide a bigger picture of which areas are likely to experience the worst increases in flooding risk due to a probable extension of the hurricane season with expected global climate change in the near future.

  14. Hyperspectral image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liguo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the authors’ research, this book introduces the main processing techniques in hyperspectral imaging. In this context, SVM-based classification, distance comparison-based endmember extraction, SVM-based spectral unmixing, spatial attraction model-based sub-pixel mapping, and MAP/POCS-based super-resolution reconstruction are discussed in depth. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of these cutting-edge hyperspectral imaging techniques. Researchers and graduate students in fields such as remote sensing, surveying and mapping, geosciences and information systems will benefit from this valuable resource.

  15. Learnable hyperspectral measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral measures are used to capture the degree of similarity between two spectra. Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM is an example of such measures. SAM similarity values range from 0 to 1. These values do not indicate whether the two spectra are similar or not. A static similarity threshold is imposed to recognize similar and dissimilar spectra. Adjusting such threshold is a troublesome process. To overcome this problem, the proposed approach aims to develop learnable hyperspectral measures. This is done through using hyperspectral measures values as similarity patterns and employing a classifier. The classifier acts as an adaptive similarity threshold. The derived similarity patterns are flexible as they are able to capture the specific notion of similarity that is appropriate for each spectral region. Two similarity patterns are proposed. The first pattern is the cosine similarity vector for the second spectral derivative pair. The second pattern is a composite vector of different similarity measures values. The proposed approach is applied on full hyperspectral space and subspaces. Experiments were conducted on a challenging benchmark dataset. Experimental results showed that, classifications based on second patterns were far better than first patterns. This is because first patterns were concerned only with the geometrical features of the spectral signatures, while second patterns combined various discriminatory features such as: orthogonal projections information, correlation coefficients, and probability distributions produced by the spectral signatures. The proposed approach results are statistically significant. This implies that using simple learnable measures overcomes complex and manually tuned techniques used in classification tasks.

  16. HYBASE : HYperspectral BAnd SElection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Seijen, H.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Band selection is essential in the design of multispectral sensor systems. This paper describes the TNO hyperspectral band selection tool HYBASE. It calculates the optimum band positions given the number of bands and the width of the spectral bands. HYBASE is used to assess the minimum number of spe

  17. Hyperspectral data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Motta, Giovanni; Storer, James A

    2006-01-01

    Provides a survey of results in the field of compression of remote sensed 3D data, with a particular interest in hyperspectral imagery. This work covers topics such as compression architecture, lossless compression, lossy techniques, and more. It also describes a lossless algorithm based on vector quantization.

  18. Hyperspectral holographic Fourier-microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalenkov, G S [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kalenkov, S G [Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shtan' ko, A E [Moscow State University of Technology ' Stankin' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    A detailed theory of the method of holographic recording of hyperspectral wave fields is developed. New experimentally obtained hyperspectral holographic images of microscopic objects are presented. The possibilities of the method are demonstrated experimentally using the examples of urgent microscopy problems: speckle noise suppression, obtaining hyperspectral image of a microscopic object, as well as synthesis of a colour image and obtaining an optical profile of a phase object. (holography)

  19. Hurricane Rita Poster (September 22, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Rita poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-16 shows Hurricane Rita as a category-4 hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico on September 22, 2005. Poster size is...

  20. A survey of the occurrence of Bacillus anthracis in North American soils over two long-range transects and within post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Petrosky, Terry; Morman, Suzette A.; Luna, Vicki A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected along a north-south transect extending from Manitoba, Canada, to the US-Mexico border near El Paso, Texas in 2004 (104 samples), a group of sites within New Orleans, Louisiana following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (19 samples), and a Gulf Coast transect extending from Sulphur, Louisiana, to DeFuniak Springs, Florida, in 2007 (38 samples). Samples were collected from the top 40 cm of soil and were screened for the presence of total Bacillus species and Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), specifically using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using an assay with a sensitivity of ~170 equivalent colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 field moist soil, the prevalence rate of Bacillus sp./B. anthracis in the north-south transect and the 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina sample set were 20/5% and 26/26%, respectively. Prevalence in the 2007 Gulf Coast sample set using an assay with a sensitivity of ~4 CFU g-1 of soil was 63/0%. Individual transect-set data indicate a positive relation between occurrences of species and soil moisture or soil constituents (i.e., Zn and Cu content). The 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina data indicated that B. anthracis is readily detectable in Gulf Coast soils following flood events. The data also indicated that occurrence, as it relates to soil chemistry, may be confounded by flood-induced dissemination of germinated cells and the mixing of soil constituents for short temporal periods following an event.

  1. Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies could enable lower-cost analysis for planetary science including atmospheric studies, mineralogical investigations, and...

  2. Rapid Response Measurements of Hurricane Waves and Storm Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravois, U.

    2010-12-01

    Andrew (1992), Katrina (2005), and Ike (2008) are recent examples of extensive damage that resulted from direct hurricane landfall. Some of the worst damages from these hurricanes are caused by wind driven waves and storm surge flooding. The potential for more hurricane disasters like these continues to increase as a result of population growth and real estate development in low elevation coastal regions. Observational measurements of hurricane waves and storm surge play an important role in future mitigation efforts, yet permanent wave buoy moorings and tide stations are more sparse than desired. This research has developed a rapid response method using helicopters to install temporary wave and surge gauges ahead of hurricane landfall. These temporary installations, with target depths from 10-15 m and 1-7 km offshore depending on the local shelf slope, increase the density of measurement points where the worst conditions are expected. The method has progressed to an operational state and has successfully responded to storms Ernesto (2006), Noel (2007), Fay (2008), Gustav (2008), Hanna (2008) and Ike (2008). The temporary gauges are pressure data loggers that measure at 1 Hz continuously for 12 days and are post-processed to extract surge and wave information. For the six storms studied, 45 out of 49 sensors were recovered by boat led scuba diver search teams, with 43 providing useful data for an 88 percent success rate. As part of the 20 sensor Hurricane Gustav response, sensors were also deployed in lakes and bays inLouisiana, east of the Mississippi river delta. Gustav was the largest deployment to date. Generally efforts were scaled back for storms that were not anticipated to be highly destructive. For example, the cumulative total of sensors deployed for Ernesto, Noel, Fay and Hanna was only 20. Measurement locations for Gustav spanned over 800 km of exposed coastline from Louisiana to Florida with sensors in close proximity to landfall near Cocodrie

  3. Physical attributes of hurricane surges and their role in surge warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    et al. 2011, Geophys. Res. Lett.). In the second application, this physical scaling enables interpretation of a given hurricane's surge potential based solely on the hurricane's central pressure and size and the continental shelf width at its landfall location. This surge scale has been shown to appropriately order historical surge events; for example, New Orlean's Hurricanes Betsy (1965; surge = 4.1-4.8 m), Camille (1969; 6.4-6.9 m), and Katrina (2005; 7.5-8.5 m) receive progressively larger surge scale values (Irish and Resio 2010, Ocean Eng.). The R2 between the surge scale and maximum observed surge heights is R2 = 0.72, representing a significant improvement when compared to the R2 = 0.07 for the Saffir-Simpson scale. This surge scale may be used to re-educate the public on surge hazard by showing the projected severity of impending hurricane events as they relate to historical events. In summary, physical attributes of hurricane surge can be quantified using forecasted and measured hurricane track information, and this information may be used to more rapidly and accurately convey surge hazard to decision makers and the public in advance of a hurricane strike.

  4. Renovating Charity Hospital or building a new hospital in post-Katrina New Orleans: economic rationale versus political will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleu, Hervé; Moises, James; Valdmanis, Vivian Grace

    2013-02-01

    Since September 2005, Charity Hospital of New Orleans has been closed due to Hurricane Katrina. A debate following the closing arose about whether this public hospital should be renovated or a new medical center affiliated with the Louisiana State University should be built. Using academic literature, government statistics, and popular press reports, we describe the economic implications that support the view that Charity Hospital should have been renovated. We also address why this policy was not pursued by demonstrating the influence politics and individual stakeholders (specifically, Louisiana State University) had on the eventual policy pursued. In this commentary we also note the political identity movement away from public-sector provision of services to private-sector interests.

  5. Public spaces in New Orleans post­Katrina. Plans and projects as instruments for urban and social revitalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Branciaroli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article, that represents the outcome of an integration among a study of recent literature and an on­site enquiry realized at the end of the 2010 at the University of New Orleans and at the TulaneUniversity, reviews the plans and actions for the reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. The aim is to demonstrate that, though the natural disaster has inflicted tension to city fabric, these projects, analyzing the economic and social contexts, have constituted an opportunity to provide a spread of urban quality and community aggregation, both eliminating present inequities and strengthening the cultural identity and the relationships with the public spaces of everyday life.

  6. Disaster Doctor From 9/11 to Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: The Investigator Disaster Doctor From 9/11 to Katrina Past Issues / ... Sherry National Library of Medicine Scientist Helps Identify Disaster Victims, Eases Grieving Dr. Stephen Sherry will never ...

  7. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  8. Automatic urban debris zone extraction from post-hurricane very high-resolution satellite and aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Automated remote sensing methods have not gained widespread usage for damage assessment after hurricane events, especially for low-rise buildings, such as individual houses and small businesses. Hurricane wind, storm surge with waves, and inland flooding have unique damage signatures, further complicating the development of robust automated assessment methodologies. As a step toward realizing automated damage assessment for multi-hazard hurricane events, this paper presents a mono-temporal image classification methodology that quickly and accurately differentiates urban debris from non-debris areas using post-event images. Three classification approaches are presented: spectral, textural, and combined spectral–textural. The methodology is demonstrated for Gulfport, Mississippi, using IKONOS panchromatic satellite and NOAA aerial colour imagery collected after 2005 Hurricane Katrina. The results show that multivariate texture information significantly improves debris class detection performance by decreasing the confusion between debris and other land cover types, and the extracted debris zone accurately captures debris distribution. Additionally, the extracted debris boundary is approximately equivalent regardless of imagery type, demonstrating the flexibility and robustness of the debris mapping methodology. While the test case presents results for hurricane hazards, the proposed methodology is generally developed and expected to be effective in delineating debris zones for other natural hazards, including tsunamis, tornadoes, and earthquakes.

  9. Hyperspectral confocal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B; Haaland, David M; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Jones, Howland D T

    2006-08-20

    We have developed a new, high performance, hyperspectral microscope for biological and other applications. For each voxel within a three-dimensional specimen, the microscope simultaneously records the emission spectrum from 500 nm to 800 nm, with better than 3 nm spectral resolution. The microscope features a fully confocal design to ensure high spatial resolution and high quality optical sectioning. Optical throughput and detection efficiency are maximized through the use of a custom prism spectrometer and a backside thinned electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) array. A custom readout mode and synchronization scheme enable 512-point spectra to be recorded at a rate of 8300 spectra per second. In addition, the EMCCD readout mode eliminates curvature and keystone artifacts that often plague spectral imaging systems. The architecture of the new microscope is described in detail, and hyperspectral images from several specimens are presented.

  10. How Hurricanes Get Their Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅荐

    2000-01-01

    The first people who gave names to hurricanes were those who knew them best the people of Puerto Rico. The small island of Puerto Rico is in the West Indies, off the coast of Florida. This is where all the hurricanes begin that strike the east coast of the United States.

  11. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...-2010-0288] Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and applicants with... hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed...

  12. Environmental Assessment: Hurricane Katrina Recovery and Installation Development at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    ly Sweeney Jef fe rso n D avi s Ze ro M a u villa Foulois Fe che t Cabell Esposito Percy Thunderbolt James Ar nol d Pine Lawn Monroe W all Bilm arsan... Jackson counties in Mississippi. These three counties encompass 1,785 square miles of land area and comprise the entire coastline of Mississippi along the...24.2% Hancock County 46,711 11.6% 15.7% 23.4% Harrison County 193,810 29.8% 16.5% 25.7% Jackson County 135,940 27.6% 15.0% 25.8% Biloxi MSA 376,461

  13. Crisis Planning: Survey Results from Hurricane Katrina and Implications for Performance Improvement Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Holly M.; Annulis, Heather; Gaudet, Cyndi

    2008-01-01

    Modern organizations constantly face unparalleled changes and uncertainty in the competitive world, thus requiring strategic planning to mitigate crisis conditions. Underscoring crisis plans are performance interventions that prepare employees, technological systems, and the organizational culture to effectively respond to a crisis event. However,…

  14. Emergency Preparedness and Professional Competency Among Health Care Providers During Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-09

    Hematology Hospice Internal Medicine Informatics Medical Genetics Long-Term Care Neonatology Medical/ Surgical Nephrology Neonatal...Internal Medicine Informatics Medical Genetics Long-Term Care Neonatology Medical/ Surgical Nephrology Neonatal Neurology Neurology...Hematology Hospice Internal Medicine Informatics Medical Genetics Long-Term Care Neonatology Medical/ Surgical Nephrology Neonatal

  15. EAARL Coastal Topography--Dauphin Island, Alabama, Post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Elevation...

  16. EAARL Coastal Topography--Dauphin Island, Alabama, Post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Elevation...

  17. Before the Next Hurricane Katrina: A Strategic Approach to Enhancing Military Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    agrees to cover all unit operational costs and pay and health care benefits are standardized for all deploying Guard members. In essence under...the military to civil authorities can be traced to the precedent of the 1794 Whisky Rebellion during which President Washington federalized and

  18. A Pilot Study of Post-Hurricane Katrina Floodwater Pumping on Marsh Infauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    to habitat and other biological resources. This report presents preliminary data concerning the effects of pumping of floodwaters on assemblages...with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...all sites and were also most abundant at pumped sites. Cyclopoid copepods and nemerteans were abundant only at pumped sites, while the polychaete

  19. FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and Other International Activities; Additional Katrina Hurricane Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-14

    supplemental2_2_16_06. pdf ]; (Hereafter cited as OMB, FY2006 Supplemental War Request.) DOD, FY2006 Supplemental Request - war. the major elements of the...fy2007/ pdf /appendix/mil.pdf]. CRS compared appropriated levels to those reported in DFAS reports and those reported in the FY2007 budget to identify a...Crisis. The crisis in Darfur began in February 2003, when two rebel groups emerged to challenge the National Islamic Front ( NIF ) government in Darfur

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography–Northwest Florida, Post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Elevation...

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography--Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, Post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)....

  2. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000),…

  3. EAARL Coastal Topography--Dauphin Island, Alabama, Post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Elevation...

  4. EAARL Coastal Topography–Northwest Florida, Post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Elevation...

  5. Leadership Style, Crisis Response and Blame Management: The case of Hurricane Katrina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/161938876; t Hart, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072685387; McConnell, A.; Preston, T

    2010-01-01

    Crisis management research has largely ignored one of the most pressing challenges political leaders are confronted with in the wake of a large-scale extreme event: how to cope with what is commonly called the blame game. In this article, we provide a heuristic to help understand political leader

  6. 2005 Post-Hurricane Katrina EAARL Lidar-Derived Dune Crest, Toe and Shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards component of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project focuses on understanding the magnitude and...

  7. Teaching across the Divide: Physical and Human Geographies of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Kurt; Neave, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This article critically reflects on our effort to "teach across the divide", by integrating physical and human geography in a new first-year course. We achieved this integration by structuring our course around a series of key events, in order to draw out the interaction of "natural" and "social" forces. After setting…

  8. EAARL Coastal Topography--Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, Post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)....

  9. EAARL Coastal Topography--Dauphin Island, Alabama, Post-Hurricane Katrina, 2005: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Elevation...

  10. Mississippi 2005 Post Hurricane Katrina Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Gulf of Mexico coastline of MS in 2005 after...

  11. Louisiana 2005 Post Hurricane Katrina Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Gulf of Mexico in the summer of 2005. The data...

  12. Flood safety in the Netherlands: the Dutch political response to hurricane Katrina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss why the Dutch culture, although highly technological, remains vulnerable to flooding, with no apparent choice except to continue with its historically developed system for flood risk management. I show that this vulnerability is socially constructed. It has arisen as a

  13. Editorial: Hurricane Katrina rekindles thoughts about fallacies of a so-called “natural” disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Glantz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to disasters, people have to be careful about making sweeping generalizations, because they will not necessarily be evaluated for their validity. Myths of all kinds, like unfounded rumors, are very misleading and can have dangerous long-lasting consequences for societies, as well as for the victims of natural hazard-related disasters in the distant, as well as near-term, future.

  14. Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Cooper, Moogega; Adler, John; Jacobson, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a hyperspectral imaging instrument package designed to be carried aboard a helicopter. It was developed to map the depths of Greenland's supraglacial lakes. The instrument is capable of telescoping to twice its original length, allowing it to be retracted with the door closed during takeoff and landing, and manually extended in mid-flight. While extended, the instrument platform provides the attached hyperspectral imager a nadir-centered and unobstructed view of the ground. Before flight, the instrument mount is retracted and securely strapped down to existing anchor points on the floor of the helicopter. When the helicopter reaches the destination lake, the door is opened and the instrument mount is manually extended. Power to the instrument package is turned on, and the data acquisition computer is commanded via a serial cable from an onboard user-operated laptop to begin data collection. After data collection is complete, the instrument package is powered down and the mount retracted, allowing the door to be closed in preparation for landing. The present design for the instrument mount consists of a three-segment telescoping cantilever to allow for a sufficient extended length to see around the landing struts and provide a nadir-centered and unobstructed field of view for the hyperspectral imager. This instrument works on the premise that water preferentially absorbs light with longer wavelengths on the red side of the visible spectrum. This property can be exploited in order to remotely determine the depths of bodies of pure freshwater. An imager flying over such a lake receives light scattered from the surface, the bulk of the water column, and from the lake bottom. The strength of absorption of longer-wavelength light depends on the depth of the water column. Through calibration with in situ measurements of the water depths, a depth-determining algorithm may be developed to determine lake depth from these spectral properties of the

  15. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted A.G. Steemers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms.

  16. Multipurpose Hyperspectral Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye; Smith, David; Lanoue, Mark A.; Poole, Gavin H.; Heitschmidt, Jerry; Martinez, Luis; Windham, William A.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon

    2005-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system of high spectral and spatial resolution that incorporates several innovative features has been developed to incorporate a focal plane scanner (U.S. Patent 6,166,373). This feature enables the system to be used for both airborne/spaceborne and laboratory hyperspectral imaging with or without relative movement of the imaging system, and it can be used to scan a target of any size as long as the target can be imaged at the focal plane; for example, automated inspection of food items and identification of single-celled organisms. The spectral resolution of this system is greater than that of prior terrestrial multispectral imaging systems. Moreover, unlike prior high-spectral resolution airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral imaging systems, this system does not rely on relative movement of the target and the imaging system to sweep an imaging line across a scene. This compact system (see figure) consists of a front objective mounted at a translation stage with a motorized actuator, and a line-slit imaging spectrograph mounted within a rotary assembly with a rear adaptor to a charged-coupled-device (CCD) camera. Push-broom scanning is carried out by the motorized actuator which can be controlled either manually by an operator or automatically by a computer to drive the line-slit across an image at a focal plane of the front objective. To reduce the cost, the system has been designed to integrate as many as possible off-the-shelf components including the CCD camera and spectrograph. The system has achieved high spectral and spatial resolutions by using a high-quality CCD camera, spectrograph, and front objective lens. Fixtures for attachment of the system to a microscope (U.S. Patent 6,495,818 B1) make it possible to acquire multispectral images of single cells and other microscopic objects.

  17. A Look Inside Hurricane Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane season in the eastern Pacific started off with a whimper late last month as Alma, a Category 2 hurricane, slowly made its way up the coast of Baja California, packing sustained winds of 110 miles per hour and gusts of 135 miles per hour. The above image of the hurricane was acquired on May 29, 2002, and displays the rainfall rates occurring within the storm. Click the image above to see an animated data visualization (3.8 MB) of the interior of Hurricane Alma. The images of the clouds seen at the beginning of the movie were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association's (NOAA's) Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite (GOES) network. As the movie continues, the clouds are peeled away to reveal an image of rainfall levels in the hurricane. The rainfall data were obtained by the Precipitation Radar aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The Precipitation Radar bounces radio waves off of clouds to retrieve a reading of the number of large, rain-sized droplets within the clouds. Using these data, scientists can tell how much precipitation is occurring within and beneath a hurricane. In the movie, yellow denotes areas where 0.5 inches of rain is falling per hour, green denotes 1 inch per hour, and red denotes over 2 inches per hour. (Please note that high resolution still images of Hurricane Alma are available in the NASA Visible Earth in TIFF format.) Image and animation courtesy Lori Perkins, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  18. Data Assimilation within the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Modeling Framework for Hurricane Storm Surge Forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Butler, T.

    2012-07-01

    Accurate, real-time forecasting of coastal inundation due to hurricanes and tropical storms is a challenging computational problem requiring high-fidelity forward models of currents and water levels driven by hurricane-force winds. Despite best efforts in computational modeling there will always be uncertainty in storm surge forecasts. In recent years, there has been significant instrumentation located along the coastal United States for the purpose of collecting data—specifically wind, water levels, and wave heights—during these extreme events. This type of data, if available in real time, could be used in a data assimilation framework to improve hurricane storm surge forecasts. In this paper a data assimilation methodology for storm surge forecasting based on the use of ensemble Kalman filters and the advanced circulation (ADCIRC) storm surge model is described. The singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter has been shown to be effective at producing accurate results for ocean models using small ensemble sizes initialized by an empirical orthogonal function analysis. The SEIK filter is applied to the ADCIRC model to improve storm surge forecasting, particularly in capturing maximum water levels (high water marks) and the timing of the surge. Two test cases of data obtained from hindcast studies of Hurricanes Ike and Katrina are presented. It is shown that a modified SEIK filter with an inflation factor improves the accuracy of coarse-resolution forecasts of storm surge resulting from hurricanes. Furthermore, the SEIK filter requires only modest computational resources to obtain more accurate forecasts of storm surge in a constrained time window where forecasters must interact with emergency responders.

  19. Hyperspectral optical diffraction tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, JaeHwang; Yoon, Jonghee; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a novel microscopic technique for measuring wavelength-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of the refractive indices (RIs) of microscopic samples in the visible wavelengths. Employing 3-D quantitative phase microscopy techniques with a wavelength-swept source, 3-D RI tomograms were obtained in the range of 450 - 700 nm with a spectral resolution of a few nanometers. The capability of the technique was demonstrated by measuring the hyperspectral 3-D RI tomograms of polystyrene beads, human red blood cells, and hepatocytes. The results demonstrate the potential for label-free molecular specific 3-D tomography of biological samples.

  20. Hyperspectral Systems Increase Imaging Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In 1983, NASA started developing hyperspectral systems to image in the ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. In 2001, the first on-orbit hyperspectral imager, Hyperion, was launched aboard the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft. Based on the hyperspectral imaging sensors used in Earth observation satellites, Stennis Space Center engineers and Institute for Technology Development researchers collaborated on a new design that was smaller and used an improved scanner. Featured in Spinoff 2007, the technology is now exclusively licensed by Themis Vision Systems LLC, of Richmond, Virginia, and is widely used in medical and life sciences, defense and security, forensics, and microscopy.

  1. The melding of drug markets in Houston after Katrina: dealer and user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-07-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the majority of routine activities in New Orleans were disrupted, including the illegal drug market. The large-scale relocation of New Orleans evacuees (NOEs), including many illegal drug users and sellers, to host cities led to a need for new sources of illegal drugs. This need was quickly satisfied by two initially distinct drug markets (1) drug dealers from New Orleans who were themselves evacuees and (2) established drug dealers in the host cities. To be expected, the two markets did not operate indefinitely in parallel fashion. This paper describes the evolving, operational relationship between these two drug markets over time, with a focus on Houston. We analyze the reciprocal evolution of these two markets at two significant points in time: at the beginning of the relocation (2005) and two years later (2007). The overall trend is towards a melding of the two drug markets, as evidenced primarily by decreases in drug-related violence and the cross-fertilization of drug tastes. We describe the process by which the two drug markets are melded over time, in order to seek a better understanding of the social processes by which drug markets in general evolve.

  2. The value of wetlands in protecting southeast louisiana from hurricane storm surges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B Barbier

    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 have spurred global interest in the role of coastal wetlands and vegetation in reducing storm surge and flood damages. Evidence that coastal wetlands reduce storm surge and attenuate waves is often cited in support of restoring Gulf Coast wetlands to protect coastal communities and property from hurricane damage. Yet interdisciplinary studies combining hydrodynamic and economic analysis to explore this relationship for temperate marshes in the Gulf are lacking. By combining hydrodynamic analysis of simulated hurricane storm surges and economic valuation of expected property damages, we show that the presence of coastal marshes and their vegetation has a demonstrable effect on reducing storm surge levels, thus generating significant values in terms of protecting property in southeast Louisiana. Simulations for four storms along a sea to land transect show that surge levels decline with wetland continuity and vegetation roughness. Regressions confirm that wetland continuity and vegetation along the transect are effective in reducing storm surge levels. A 0.1 increase in wetland continuity per meter reduces property damages for the average affected area analyzed in southeast Louisiana, which includes New Orleans, by $99-$133, and a 0.001 increase in vegetation roughness decreases damages by $24-$43. These reduced damages are equivalent to saving 3 to 5 and 1 to 2 properties per storm for the average area, respectively.

  3. Hyperspectral image analysis. A tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Babamoradi, Hamid; Elcoroaristizabal Martin, Saioa

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial aims at providing guidelines and practical tools to assist with the analysis of hyperspectral images. Topics like hyperspectral image acquisition, image pre-processing, multivariate exploratory analysis, hyperspectral image resolution, classification and final digital image processi...... to differentiate between several types of plastics by using Near infrared hyperspectral imaging and Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis. Thus, the reader is guided through every single step and oriented in order to adapt those strategies to the user's case....... will be exposed, and some guidelines given and discussed. Due to the broad character of current applications and the vast number of multivariate methods available, this paper has focused on an industrial chemical framework to explain, in a step-wise manner, how to develop a classification methodology...

  4. Approximate Sparse Regularized Hyperspectral Unmixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparse regression based unmixing has been recently proposed to estimate the abundance of materials present in hyperspectral image pixel. In this paper, a novel sparse unmixing optimization model based on approximate sparsity, namely, approximate sparse unmixing (ASU, is firstly proposed to perform the unmixing task for hyperspectral remote sensing imagery. And then, a variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian algorithm is introduced to tackle the optimization problem. In ASU, approximate sparsity is used as a regularizer for sparse unmixing, which is sparser than l1 regularizer and much easier to be solved than l0 regularizer. Three simulated and one real hyperspectral images were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to l1 regularizer. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is more effective and accurate for hyperspectral unmixing than state-of-the-art l1 regularizer.

  5. Sparse Representations of Hyperspectral Images

    KAUST Repository

    Swanson, Robin J.

    2015-11-23

    Hyperspectral image data has long been an important tool for many areas of sci- ence. The addition of spectral data yields significant improvements in areas such as object and image classification, chemical and mineral composition detection, and astronomy. Traditional capture methods for hyperspectral data often require each wavelength to be captured individually, or by sacrificing spatial resolution. Recently there have been significant improvements in snapshot hyperspectral captures using, in particular, compressed sensing methods. As we move to a compressed sensing image formation model the need for strong image priors to shape our reconstruction, as well as sparse basis become more important. Here we compare several several methods for representing hyperspectral images including learned three dimensional dictionaries, sparse convolutional coding, and decomposable nonlocal tensor dictionaries. Addi- tionally, we further explore their parameter space to identify which parameters provide the most faithful and sparse representations.

  6. Climate change: Unattributed hurricane damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, hurricanes have been causing more and more economic damage. A reanalysis of the disaster database using a statistical method that accounts for improvements in resilience opens the possibility that climate change has played a role.

  7. The Hurricane and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burpee, Robert W.

    Recent population increases in coastal regions of the tropics and subtropics have greatly enhanced man's vulnerability to tropical cyclones. Thus, this book on hurricanes by Robert H. Simpson and Herbert Riehl, two of the leading contributors to hurricane research during the last 35 years, comes along when people of differing backgrounds want to learn more about hurricanes. In the 20 years since Dunn and Miller published Atlantic Hurricanes, technical advances in weather satellites, computer modeling and data processing, and research aircraft have substantially increased the tropical meteorologist's understanding of hurricane structure and dynamics. During this same time, field experiments have led to detailed knowledge of the atmospheric environment within which tropical cyclones are initiated. The authors have attempted to describe many aspects of hurricanes for readers that range from students of meteorology to those concerned with planning for natural hazards in the coastal zone. Because Simpson and Riehl have addressed such a wide audience, many readers with a knowledge of atmospheric science will find that the book is overly descriptive, while readers without some background in physics will find it is too technical.

  8. Hyperspectral image analysis. A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, José Manuel, E-mail: jmar@food.ku.dk [Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Group, Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, Frederiksberg C DK–1958 (Denmark); Babamoradi, Hamid [Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Group, Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, Frederiksberg C DK–1958 (Denmark); Elcoroaristizabal, Saioa [Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Group, Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, Frederiksberg C DK–1958 (Denmark); Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-10-08

    This tutorial aims at providing guidelines and practical tools to assist with the analysis of hyperspectral images. Topics like hyperspectral image acquisition, image pre-processing, multivariate exploratory analysis, hyperspectral image resolution, classification and final digital image processing will be exposed, and some guidelines given and discussed. Due to the broad character of current applications and the vast number of multivariate methods available, this paper has focused on an industrial chemical framework to explain, in a step-wise manner, how to develop a classification methodology to differentiate between several types of plastics by using Near infrared hyperspectral imaging and Partial Least Squares – Discriminant Analysis. Thus, the reader is guided through every single step and oriented in order to adapt those strategies to the user's case. - Highlights: • Comprehensive tutorial of Hyperspectral Image analysis. • Hierarchical discrimination of six classes of plastics containing flame retardant. • Step by step guidelines to perform class-modeling on hyperspectral images. • Fusion of multivariate data analysis and digital image processing methods. • Promising methodology for real-time detection of plastics containing flame retardant.

  9. Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurok, Llya

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker (HIT) is a technique for visualization and tracking of low-contrast, fast-moving objects. The HIT architecture is based on an innovative and only recently developed concept in imaging optics. This innovative architecture will give the Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI) HIT the possibility of simultaneously collecting the spectral band images (hyperspectral cube), IR images, and to operate with high-light-gathering power and high magnification for multiple fast- moving objects. Adaptive Spectral Filtering algorithms will efficiently increase the contrast of low-contrast scenes. The most hazardous parts of a space mission are the first stage of a launch and the last 10 kilometers of the landing trajectory. In general, a close watch on spacecraft operation is required at distances up to 70 km. Tracking at such distances is usually associated with the use of radar, but its milliradian angular resolution translates to 100- m spatial resolution at 70-km distance. With sufficient power, radar can track a spacecraft as a whole object, but will not provide detail in the case of an accident, particularly for small debris in the onemeter range, which can only be achieved optically. It will be important to track the debris, which could disintegrate further into more debris, all the way to the ground. Such fragmentation could cause ballistic predictions, based on observations using high-resolution but narrow-field optics for only the first few seconds of the event, to be inaccurate. No optical imager architecture exists to satisfy NASA requirements. The HIT was developed for space vehicle tracking, in-flight inspection, and in the case of an accident, a detailed recording of the event. The system is a combination of five subsystems: (1) a roving fovea telescope with a wide 30 field of regard; (2) narrow, high-resolution fovea field optics; (3) a Coude optics system for telescope output beam stabilization; (4) a hyperspectral

  10. Data and numerical analysis of astronomic tides, wind-waves, and hurricane storm surge along the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Cox, A. T.; Salisbury, M.; Coggin, D.

    2016-05-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) is a unique geophysical setting for complex tropical storm-induced hydrodynamic processes that occur across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Each hurricane includes its own distinctive characteristics and can cause unique and devastating storm surge when it strikes within the intricate geometric setting of the NGOM. While a number of studies have explored hurricane storm surge in the NGOM, few have attempted to describe storm surge and coastal inundation using observed data in conjunction with a single large-domain high-resolution numerical model. To better understand the oceanic and nearshore response to these tropical cyclones, we provide a detailed assessment, based on field measurements and numerical simulation, of the evolution of wind waves, water levels, and currents for Hurricanes Ivan (2004), Dennis (2005), Katrina (2005), and Isaac (2012), with focus on Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle coasts. The developed NGOM3 computational model describes the hydraulic connectivity among the various inlet and bay systems, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, coastal rivers and adjacent marsh, and built infrastructure along the coastal floodplain. The outcome is a better understanding of the storm surge generating mechanisms and interactions among hurricane characteristics and the NGOM's geophysical configuration. The numerical analysis and observed data explain the ˜2 m/s hurricane-induced geostrophic currents across the continental shelf, a 6 m/s outflow current during Ivan, the hurricane-induced coastal Kelvin wave along the shelf, and for the first time a wealth of measured data and a detailed numerical simulation was performed and was presented for Isaac.

  11. Detection of Honey Adulteration using Hyperspectral Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Minaei, Saeid; Moghadam-charkari, Nasrolah; Ruth, Van Saskia; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of hyperspectral imaging system and data mining based classifiers for honey adulteration detection. Hyperspectral images from pure and adulterated samples were captured in using a VIS-NIR hyperspectral camera (400 – 1000 nm). After preprocessing the images, fi

  12. Contextual Detection of Anomalies within Hyperspectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI), Unsupervised Target Detection, Target Identification, Contextual Anomaly Detection 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...processing. Hyperspectral imaging has a wide range of applications within remote sensing, not limited to terrain classification , environmental monitoring...Johnson, R. J. (2008). Improved feature extraction, feature selection, and identification techniques that create a fast unsupervised hyperspectral

  13. Detection of Honey Adulteration using Hyperspectral Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Minaei, Saeid; Moghadam-charkari, Nasrolah; Ruth, Van Saskia; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of hyperspectral imaging system and data mining based classifiers for honey adulteration detection. Hyperspectral images from pure and adulterated samples were captured in using a VIS-NIR hyperspectral camera (400 – 1000 nm). After preprocessing the images,

  14. Hurricane Data Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    In order to facilitate Earth science data access, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) has developed a web prototype, the Hurricane Data Analysis Tool (HDAT; URL: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/HDAT), to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of several remote sensing and model datasets for educational activities and studies of tropical cyclones and other weather phenomena. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access to terabytes of data and generate 2-D or time-series plots and animation without downloading any software and data. HDAT includes data from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the NASA Quick Scatterometer(QuikSCAT) and NECP Reanalysis, and the NCEP/CPC half-hourly, 4-km Global (60 N - 60 S) IR Dataset. The GES DISC archives TRMM data. The daily global rainfall product derived from the 3-hourly multi-satellite precipitation product (3B42 V6) is available in HDAT. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) sea surface temperature from the Remote Sensing Systems is in HDAT as well. The NASA QuikSCAT ocean surface wind and the NCEP Reanalysis provide ocean surface and atmospheric conditions, respectively. The global merged IR product, also known as, the NCEP/CPC half-hourly, 4-km Global (60 N -60 S) IR Dataset, is one of TRMM ancillary datasets. They are globally-merged pixel-resolution IR brightness temperature data (equivalent blackbody temperatures), merged from all available geostationary satellites (GOES-8/10, METEOSAT-7/5 & GMS). The GES DISC has collected over 10 years of the data beginning from February of 2000. This high temporal resolution (every 30 minutes) dataset not only provides additional background information to TRMM and other satellite missions, but also allows observing a wide range of meteorological phenomena from space, such as, hurricanes, typhoons, tropical cyclones, mesoscale convection system, etc. Basic functions include selection of area of

  15. Hurricane Wilma Poster (October 24, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Wilma poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-18 shows Hurricane Wilma exiting Florida off the east Florida coast on October 24, 2005. Poster size is 34"x30".

  16. Hurricane Hugo Poster (September 21, 1989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Hugo poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-11 captures Hurricane Hugo slamming into South Carolina coast on September 21, 1989. Poster size is 36"x36".

  17. Hurricane Sandy Poster (October 29, 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Sandy poster. Multi-spectral image from Suomi-NPP shows Hurricane Sandy approaching the New Jersey Coast on October 29, 2012. Poster size is approximately...

  18. Hurricane Jeanne Poster (September 25, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Jeanne poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-16 shows Hurricane Jeanne near Grand Bahama Island on September 25, 2004. Poster size is 34"x30".

  19. Hurricane Charley Poster (August 13, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Charley poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows a small but powerful hurricane heading toward southern Florida on August 13, 2004. Poster dimension...

  20. Hurricane Isabel Poster (September 18, 2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Isabel poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Isabel making landfall on the North Carolina Outer Banks on September 18, 2003. Poster...