WorldWideScience

Sample records for hunger poor nutrition

  1. [Scientific production in nutrition and the public perception of hunger and eating in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Marília; Lucatelli, Márcio

    2006-08-01

    There is a contradiction between the perceptions held by different sectors of the Establishment with regard to the questions of hunger and nutrition in Brazil. On the one hand, the flagship of the present Brazilian government's social policy is the "Fome Zero" program. This program is based on the notion that the condition of hunger is socially relevant in this country. On the other hand, the scientific community in the field of nutrition has, through epidemiological studies, highlighted obesity as one of the most serious public health problems in Brazil. The reason why the public perception is dissociated from the production of knowledge on this subject has old roots that are related to the difficulties in institutionalizing science in Brazil. This has been reflected in a relative lack of legitimacy for scientific discourse. The new factor in this situation is the attainment of greater international visibility by the scientific community in nutritional de epidemiology. The future of the practical application of the results from nutritional epidemiology research in Brazil depends on the dynamics of the political agenda regarding hunger and nutrition, and of the sectors associated with this. The objective of this study was to explore this situation by means of analyzing scientometric data on the scientific production, historical data and documents relating to discourse about hunger.

  2. The Role of Food and Nutrition System Approaches in Tackling Hidden Hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Frison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the World’s greatest challenges is to secure sufficient and healthy food for all, and to do so in an environmentally sustainable manner. This review explores the interrelationships of food, health, and environment, and their role in addressing chronic micronutrient deficiencies, also known as “hidden hunger”, affecting over two billion people worldwide. While the complexity and underlying determinants of undernutrition have been well-understood for decades, the scaling of food and nutrition system approaches that combine sustainable agriculture aimed at improved diet diversity and livelihoods have been limited in their development and implementation. However, an integrated system approach to reduce hidden hunger could potentially serve as a sustainable opportunity.

  3. Hunger, escaping excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, G; Halweil, B

    2000-01-01

    According to the WHO, in spite of decades of global food surpluses, half of humanity, in both rich and poor nations, is still malnourished. Malnutrition has become a significant impediment to development in rich and poor countries, alike. At the individual level, both hunger and poor eating habits reduce a person's physical fitness, increase susceptibility to illness, and shorten lifespan. In addition, children deprived of adequate nutrients during development can suffer from permanently reduced mental capacity. At the national level, poor eating hampers educational performance, curtails economic productivity, increases the burden on health care, and reduces well-being. Confronting this epidemic of poor eating will have widespread benefits, but the myths and misconceptions permeating humanity¿s understanding of malnutrition should be addressed first. It is noted that the major cause of hunger is poverty, not scarcity of food; it is the lack of access to the goods and services essential for a healthy life. On the other hand, for those who have access to plenty of food, dietary intake includes meat, dairy products, and highly processed items loaded with fat and sugar. This leads to the problem of obesity, a condition that increases susceptibility to disease and disability, reduces worker productivity, and shortens lifespan. In view of this, efforts to improve nutrition should focus on poverty eradication, health education, agricultural change, and policy change towards promotion of good nutrition.

  4. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  5. Antiretroviral Therapy and Nutrition in Southern Africa: Citizenship and the Grammar of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    How might we understand and respond to the new forms of hunger that arise with the massive rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV in southern Africa? Rather than 'merely' a technical problem of measurement, medicine or infrastructure, I suggest that a philosophical question arises concerning the relationship between the experience of hunger, the utterances that communicate that experience, and the bodily regimes of well-being and ill-being indexed by such utterances. Taking the gut as a particular kind of mediator of experience, I draw on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to open up a set of questions on acknowledgment and avoidance. The central question concerns the divergent concepts of 'grammar' that confront the relationship between hunger and ART.

  6. Climate change: A threat towards achieving ‘Sustainable Development Goal number two’ (end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingirai S. Mugambiwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2 as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and one in seven suffers from chronic hunger. Similarly, the developing world is adversely affected by poverty and hunger. In the sub-Saharan Africa, research has revealed a higher prevalence of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity. SDG 2 focuses more on eliminating hunger and promoting sustainable agriculture. The study employed an exploratory design and a qualitative method. Snowball sampling was used in selecting relevant sources which led the researchers to other research work on the same field through keywords and reference lists. The researchers employed discourse analysis to analyse data. The study discovered that there are numerous potential effects climate change could have on agriculture. It affects crop growth and quality and livestock health. Farming practices could also be affected as well as animals that could be raised in particular climatic areas. The impact of climate change as well as the susceptibility of poor communities is very immense. The article concludes that climate change reduces access to drinking water, negatively affects the health of people and poses a serious threat to food security.

  7. 78 FR 13443 - Child Nutrition Programs: Nondiscretionary Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ...), Public Law 111- 296, makes important improvements to the Child Nutrition Programs that serve the nation's...)-1, and be exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of that Code, 26 U.S.C. 1.501(a)-1. Section 441...) principles for safe food handling be applied to any facility, or part of a facility in which food for any...

  8. Food science and nutrition: the gulf between rich and poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, J H

    1982-06-18

    The people of economically developed countries benefit greatly from modern food science. They are protected from food contamination, have access to a great variety of food, and need spend little time preparing it. The poor in developing countries enjoy few of the benefits of food science. Their diets are often nutritionally deficient and they spend many hours each day processing their food and searching for wood with which to cook it. In most tropical countries food losses between harvest of slaughter and eventual consumption are inestimable. Efforts to improve post-harvest food systems in developing countries require the attention and ingenuity of many scientific disciplines and the support of all development agencies.

  9. Effect of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act on the Nutritional Quality of Meals Selected by Students and School Lunch Participation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Podrabsky, Mary; Rocha, Anita; Otten, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    Effective policies have potential to improve diet and reduce obesity. School food policies reach most children in the United States. To assess the nutritional quality of foods chosen by students and meal participation rates before and after the implementation of new school meal standards authorized through the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. This descriptive, longitudinal study examined changes in the nutritional quality of 1,741,630 school meals at 3 middle schools and 3 high schools in an urban school district in Washington state. Seventy two hundred students are enrolled in the district; 54% are eligible for free and reduced-price meals. Student food selection data were collected daily from January 2011 through January 2014 during the 16 months prior to and the 15 months after implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. Nutritional quality was assessed by calculating monthly mean adequacy ratio and energy density of the foods selected by students each day. Six nutrients were included in the mean adequacy ratio calculations: calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, iron, fiber, and protein. Monthly school meal participation was calculated as the mean number of daily meals served divided by student enrollment. Mean monthly values of mean adequacy ratio, energy density, and participation were compared before and after policy implementation. After implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act, change was associated with significant improvement in the nutritional quality of foods chosen by students, as measured by increased mean adequacy ratio from a mean of 58.7 (range, 49.6-63.1) prior to policy implementation to 75.6 (range, 68.7-81.8) after policy implementation and decreased energy density from a mean of 1.65 (range, 1.53-1.82) to 1.44 (range, 1.29-1.61), respectively. There was negligible difference in student meal participation following implementation of the new meal standards with 47% meal participation (range, 40

  10. New Mexico Campaigns Against Hunger and Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Shami

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nutritional needs of individuals in New Mexico, and the efforts of the Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine at Albuquerque to remove hunger and malnutrition. (DM)

  11. Hunger and Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet Hunger and Malnutrition KidsHealth > For Parents > Hunger and Malnutrition Print A ... to meet their needs. What Are Hunger and Malnutrition? Everyone feels hungry at times. Hunger is the ...

  12. Exploring the Potential of Indigenous Foods to Address Hidden Hunger: Nutritive Value of Indigenous Foods of Santhal Tribal Community of Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Magsumbol, Melina S; Kamboj, Preeti; Goldberg, Gail

    2016-10-01

    Traditional foods of indigenous communities can be explored as a sustainable means of addressing undernutrition. Our study aimed at identifying indigenous foods of the Santhal tribal community of Godda district of Jharkhand, India, assessing their nutritive value, and appraising their potential role in addressing hidden hunger. A cross-sectional survey using qualitative methods like focus group discussions with women of childbearing age (15-49 years), adult males, and elderly people was conducted for food identification. This was followed by taxonomic classification and quantitative estimate of nutritive value of the identified foods either in a certified laboratory or from secondary data. The community was well aware of the indigenous food resources in their environment. More than 100 different types of indigenous foods including a number of green leafy vegetables were identified. Taxonomic classification was available for 25 food items and an additional 26 food items were sent for taxonomic classification. Many indigenous foods (more than 50% of which were green leafy vegetables) were found to be rich sources of micronutrients like calcium, iron, vitamin A as beta carotene, and folate. Maximizing utilization of indigenous foods can be an important and sustainable dietary diversification strategy for addressing hidden hunger in this indigenous community.

  13. Poor nutritional habits are predictors of poor outcome in very old hospitalized patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kagansky, Nadya; Berner, Yitshal; Koren-Morag, Nira; Perelman, Luiza; Knobler, Hilla; Levy, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in elderly populations. Recommended methods of nutritional screening are often too complicated and time-consuming for routine application in frail, very old, hospitalized patients...

  14. Poor nutrition during pregnancy and lactation negatively affects neurodevelopment of the offspring: evidence from a translational primate model123

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Kate; Bartlett, Thad Q; Nijland, Mark; Rodriguez, Jesse S; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Zürcher, Nicole R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies of the effects of prenatal nutrition on neurodevelopment in humans are complicated because poor nutrition occurs in the context of psychosocial stressors and other risk factors associated with poor developmental outcomes.

  15. Confronting world hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, B

    1983-01-01

    In 1980, per capita food supplies were less than adequate in 53 developing countries. More than half of these were the predominantly rural, low income countries of South Asia, China, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Finding the proper balance between satisfying immediate human needs and building political and economic systems in which individuals can in the future acquire the means to satisfy their own requirements is the central issue facing those in the fight against world hunger. At the international level, developed countries have responded to world hunger by raising the minimum level of food aid provided when supplies are scarce and by creating a financing facility for cereal imports. The food and agriculture sector is receiving a highe priority than before in the allocation of international development assistance, and more attention is being given to the effects of both general food subsidies and targeted nutrition programs on future agricultural output. At the national level, over 40 developing countries have requested assistance from the World Food Council for the preparation of food sector strategies. Although such measures are important, they do not directly address local problems and individual needs. For example, dietary intake tends to be lower in urban than in rural households in Latin America at the same level of income. These urban groups require health and nutrition interventions that simultaneously address their immediate need for food, clean water, and health care and their more longterm need for employment. Longterm economic development that provides adequate income to all segments of the population is the best means to combat hunger, and income security also reduces incentives for large family size. The contribution of the international community should remain the transfer of resources and the provision of technical assistance. At the individual level, the need for targeted food distribution programs continues. Greater benefit can be obtained from

  16. Children-at-Risk for Poor Nutrition: Expanding the Approach of Future Professionals in Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how the subject of nutrition is being addressed in the work with children at risk of poor nutrition in educational institutions and what the barriers are which may hinder inclusion of this subject. Methods: A structured questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of this study and was implemented with 111 students in…

  17. Poor nutritional status on admission predicts poor outcomes after stroke: observational data from the FOOD trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that undernourished patients with acute stroke do badly. The data, however, are not robust. We aimed to reliably assess the importance of baseline nutritional status as an independent predictor of long-term outcome after stroke in a large prospective cohort enrolled in the Feed Or Ordinary Diet (FOOD) trial, a multicenter randomized trial evaluating various feeding policies. Patients admitted to hospital with a recent stroke were enrolled in the FOOD trial. Data on nutritional status and other clinical predictors of outcome were collected at trial entry. At 6 months, the coordinating center collected data on survival and functional status (modified Rankin Scale). Outcome assessment was done by researchers blinded to baseline assessments and treatment allocation. Between November 1996 and November 2001, 3012 patients were enrolled, and 2955 (98%) were followed up. Of the 275 undernourished patients, 102 (37%) were dead by final follow-up compared with only 445 (20%) of 2194 patients of normal nutritional status (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% CI, 1.78 to 3.02). After adjustment for age, prestroke functional state, and stroke severity, this relationship, although weakened, still held (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.47). Undernourished patients were more likely to develop pneumonia, other infections, and gastrointestinal bleeding during their hospital admission than other patients. These data provide reliable evidence that nutritional status early after stroke is independently associated with long-term outcome. It supports the rationale for the FOOD trial, which continues to recruit and aims to estimate the effect of different feeding regimes on outcome after stroke and thus determine whether the association observed in this study is likely to be causal.

  18. Nutritional quality of two cyanobacteria : How rich is 'poor' food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, K.; Jonasdottir, Sigrun

    1997-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have often been described to be nutritionally inadequate and to interfere with zooplankton feeding. In laboratory experiments we offered 2 cyanobacteria, a unicellular Microcystis aeruginosa strain and the filamentous Nodularia sprumigena, to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa...... as the sole diet and in food mixtures with the nutritious diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. Egg production was used as criterion of food quality. The use of cyanobacteria alone was an insufficient diet. However, with increasing additions of M. aeruginosa and N. spumigena to the diatom, different effects were...... observed. Large additions of cyanobacteria resulted in lower egg production and often in elevated mortality of the females, but small additions of M. aeruginosa caused an increase of about 25 % in egg production compared to a pure diatom diet. The influence of similar low concentrations of N. spumigena...

  19. Poor nutrition is a serious problem in children with cerebral palsy in Palawan, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socrates, C; Grantham-McGregor, S M; Harknett, S G; Seal, A J

    2000-09-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) in developed countries have poor nutritional status; however there is little data from developing countries. In Palawan, in the Philippines, the nutritional status of 31 children with CP was compared to that of their siblings (n = 20) and a control group of neighbourhood children (n = 64), matched for age and sex. The children's weights, heights and armspans were measured. The heights of children with CP could not be measured and were estimated from their armspans using an equation relating height to armspan in siblings and controls. Haemoglobin levels of the study cases and siblings were measured. Siblings and controls had similar nutritional status. The children with CP had extremely poor nutritional status, and had significantly smaller weights for height, heights for age and weights for age than siblings or controls. Haemoglobin levels were not significantly different between the children with CP and their siblings. The nutritional status of children with quadriplegic CP was much poorer than that of similar children in the USA. The severity of malnutrition in children with CP is likely to be detrimental to their development, and a nutritional component should be incorporated into rehabilitation programmes. Also, there is a need to examine the nutritional status of children with CP in other developing countries.

  20. 77 FR 37869 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-National Hunger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Request--National Hunger Clearinghouse Database Form AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA... collection is a revision of a currently approved collection for the National Hunger Clearinghouse. DATES... 703-305-2657. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Hunger Clearinghouse Database Form. Form:...

  1. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule and interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This rule adopts as final, with some modifications, the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations set forth in the interim final rule published in the Federal Register on June 28, 2013. The requirements addressed in this rule conform to the provisions in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 regarding nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Most provisions of this final rule were implemented on July 1, 2014, a full year subsequent to publication of the interim final rule. This was in compliance with section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, which required that State and local educational agencies have at least one full school year from the date of publication of the interim final rule to implement the competitive food provisions. Based on comments received on the interim final rule and implementation experience, this final rule makes a few modifications to the nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools implemented on July 1, 2014. In addition, this final rule codifies specific policy guidance issued after publication of the interim rule. Finally, this rule retains the provision related to the standard for total fat as interim and requests further comment on this single standard.

  2. Poor nutrition and bullying behaviors: A comparison of deviant and non-deviant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2017-06-01

    Research on the topic of bullying has revealed that a substantial number of youth are bullied each year. Even so, a complete understanding of the origins of bullying behaviors remains elusive. In the current study, we propose that poor nutrition may constitute an important modifiable risk factor for bullying behaviors during adolescence, and that behavioral sensitivity to nutrition may vary across deviant and non-deviant youth. We employ data from the US sample of youth (52% male) ages 10-17 from the 2009-2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study to examine our hypothesis (N = 8753). The results reveal that poor nutrition significantly increases the odds of persistent bullying among youth, and that this relationship is particularly pronounced for non-deviant youth. The findings suggest that efforts to improve the nutrition of non-deviant youth may have the added benefit of reducing their likelihood of engaging in persistent bullying behaviors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173. WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001 and vitamin A deficiency (p Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.

  4. Poor Growth and Pneumonia Seasonality in Infants in the Philippines: Cohort and Time Series Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Paynter; Ware, Robert S.; Lucero, Marilla G.; Veronica Tallo; Hanna Nohynek; Simões, Eric A. F.; Philip Weinstein; Peter D Sly; Gail Williams

    2013-01-01

    Children with poor nutrition are at increased risk of pneumonia. In many tropical settings seasonal pneumonia epidemics occur during the rainy season, which is often a period of poor nutrition. We have investigated whether seasonal hunger may be a driver of seasonal pneumonia epidemics in children in the tropical setting of the Philippines. In individual level cohort analysis, infant size and growth were both associated with increased pneumonia admissions, consistent with findings from previo...

  5. Cooperation in USDA studies and evaluations, and full use of federal funds in nutrition assistance programs nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, Public Law 111-296. Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    This final rule incorporates into the regulations governing the Programs authorized under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (NSLA) and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) two nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK Act). The HHFK Act requires State and local cooperation in Department of Agriculture studies and evaluations related to Programs authorized under the NSLA and the CNA. The HHFK Act also amends the NSLA to stipulate that Federal funds must not be subject to State budget restrictions or limitations, including hiring freezes, work furloughs, and travel restrictions. This final rule amends regulations for the National School Lunch Program; the Special Milk Program for Children; the School Breakfast Program; the Summer Food Service Program; the Child and Adult Care Food Program; State Administrative Expense Funds ; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; and the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. These provisions will strengthen program integrity by ensuring that sufficient data is made available for studies and evaluations. Additionally, exempting Federal funds from State budgetary restrictions or limitations is intended to increase the ability of State agencies to administer USDA's nutrition assistance programs effectively.

  6. Hunger and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Özenoğlu, Aliye; Ünal, Gökçe

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies and disturbances in metabolism of neurotransmitters and hormones, induced by nutrient deficiencies, affect the behavior of individuals. In this review, the effect of deficiencies that occur in the body as a result of hunger on the formation of aggression and violent behavior are intended to be explained by biological processes. Articles published between the years 1993-2014 using keywords hunger, lack of nutrients, aggression, violence were scanned on Pubmed database, ho...

  7. Poor preoperative nutritional status is an important predictor of the retardation of rehabilitation after cardiac surgery in elderly cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masato; Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Satomi-Kobayashi, Seimi; Kitamura, Aki; Ono, Rei; Sakai, Yoshitada; Okita, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    Preoperative nutritional status and physical function are important predictors of mortality and morbidity after cardiac surgery. However, the influence of nutritional status before cardiac surgery on physical function and the progress of postoperative rehabilitation requires clarification. To determine the effect of preoperative nutritional status on preoperative physical function and progress of rehabilitation after elective cardiac surgery. We enrolled 131 elderly patients with mean age of 73.7 ± 5.8 years undergoing cardiac surgery. We divided them into two groups by nutritional status as measured by the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI): high GNRI group (GNRI ≥ 92, n = 106) and low GNRI group (GNRI nutritional status as assessed by the GNRI could reflect perioperative physical function. Preoperative poor nutritional status may be an independent predictor of the retardation of postoperative rehabilitation in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery.

  8. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-07-01

    In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease.We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P disease (odds ratio: 4.16, P disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P disease, ileostomy, and remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm are risk factors affecting the poor nutritional status of patients with Crohn disease after small bowel resection.

  9. Benefits of genetically modified crops for the poor: household income, nutrition, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin

    2010-11-30

    The potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops on income, poverty and nutrition in developing countries continue to be the subject of public controversy. Here, a review of the evidence is given. As an example of a first-generation GM technology, the effects of insect-resistant Bt cotton are analysed. Bt cotton has already been adopted by millions of small-scale farmers, in India, China, and South Africa among others. On average, farmers benefit from insecticide savings, higher effective yields and sizeable income gains. Insights from India suggest that Bt cotton is employment generating and poverty reducing. As an example of a second-generation technology, the likely impacts of beta-carotene-rich Golden Rice are analysed from an ex ante perspective. Vitamin A deficiency is a serious nutritional problem, causing multiple adverse health outcomes. Simulations for India show that Golden Rice could reduce related health problems significantly, preventing up to 40,000 child deaths every year. These examples clearly demonstrate that GM crops can contribute to poverty reduction and food security in developing countries. To realise such social benefits on a larger scale requires more public support for research targeted to the poor, as well as more efficient regulatory and technology delivery systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition are viewed as a continuum, with food insecurity resulting in hunger and ultimately, if sufficiently severe and/or of sufficient duration, in undernutrition. Food insecurity indicates inadequate access to food for whatever reason, hunger is the immediate ph...

  11. Correlations between Poor Micronutrition in Family Members and Potential Risk Factors for Poor Diet in Children and Adolescents Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Ah Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we investigated correlations between micronutrients in the diet of family members and the possible risk factors for children and adolescents consuming an inadequate diet. We examined two-generation households with children aged 2–18 years. The quality of the family diet with regard to the following nine nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C was assessed based on the Index of Nutritional Quality. Correlations between quality of diet and selected variables were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software, and those between diet quality and potential risk factors for poor diet in offspring were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, calcium was the most commonly under-consumed micronutrient. More than half of sons and daughters showed insufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron intake, and both mothers and fathers showed insufficiency with respect to vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin C. The correlation between a poor diet in parents and that in offspring was 0.17 (p < 0.0001, and this correlation coefficient was higher between mothers and offspring than between fathers and offspring. Additionally, eating breakfast provided a significant protective effect against the risk of poor nutrition in offspring, even after adjusting for covariates. Our results add to evidence indicating that children should be encouraged to eat breakfast to improve the quality of their diet.

  12. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session. Part 3--Nutrition and Special Groups. Hearings Held Washington, D. C., June 19, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings began with an opening statement by Senator Mondale. Ronald Pollack, chairman, Panel on Nutrition and Special Groups, presented the report of the panel. This report was organized in four parts: Part 1, "Poverty, Inflation, and Hunger," included sections discussing the presence of undernutrition among the poor, and the effect of food…

  13. Uma abordagem fenomenológica da fome A phenomenological approach to hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Soares de FREITAS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo reúne alguns elementos para aprofundar a compreensão sobre os objetos da saúde e nutrição. Sua dimensão epistemológica refere-se à conjunção da hermenêutica descrita por Paul Ricoeur com a fenomenologia, e proporciona um caminho para a interpretação da fome, a qual é sentida e expressada por diferentes sujeitos em seus contextos sociais específicos. Trata-se de um estudo etnográfico da fome realizado em um bairro popular da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, cujo objetivo é a compreensão do fenômeno da fome, a partir do ponto de vista de atores sociais que vivem em condições de extrema pobreza.This study collects some elements to deepen the understanding of health and nutrition. Its epistemological dimension refers to the hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur and the phenomenology, and seeks to interpret the phenomenon of hunger, which is felt and expressed by different individuals in their specific social contexts. The approach is based on an ethnographical study of hunger carried out in a poor district in Salvador, state of Bahia; objectively, this work emphasizes an approach to the understanding of the phenomenon of hunger, from the point of view of social actors who live under conditions of extreme poverty.

  14. [Ghrelin: beyond hunger regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milke García, Maria del Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Man ingests food to mitigate hunger (mediated by physiological and biochemical signals), satisfy appetite (subjective sensation) and because of psychosocial reasons. Satiation biomarkers (stop feeding) are gastric distention and hormones (CCK, GLP-1) and satiety biomarkers (induce feeding) are food-induced thermogenesis, body temperature, glycaemia and also hormones (insulin, leptin and ghrelin). Oxidative metabolism/body composition, tryptophan/serotonin and proinflammatory cytokines are also implicated on hunger physiology. At the present time, ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic with potential on hunger/body weight regulation. It is a neuropeptide (endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue) recently isolated from the oxyntic mucosa and synthesized mainly in the stomach. Its blood concentration depends on diet, hyperglucemia and adiposity/leptin. It is secreted 1-2 hours preprandially and its concentration decreases drastically during the postprandium. Ghrelin acts on the lateral hypothalamus and theoretically inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and antagonizes leptin. Ghrelin physiologically increases food intake and stimulates adipogenesis, gastrointestinal motility and gastric acid secretion, and has other hormonal and cardiovascular functions. Ghrelin blood concentration is reduced in massive obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome, acromegaly, hypogonadism, ageing, short bowel syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis; and increased in primary or secondary anorexia, starvation, chronic liver disease and celiac disease. Cerebral and peritoneal ghrelin administration (rats) and systemic administration (rats and healthy volunteers, cancer patients or patients on peritoneal dialysis) promotes food consumption and increases adiposity, of utmost importance in the treatment of patients with anorexia.

  15. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Federal Food Programs--1973. Part 2--Hunger in 1973. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 4, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    The "Hunger-1973" committee report, details the continuing hunger problem in the country. The report shows that the administration and participation of the Food Stamp and Surplus Food Program vary widely across the country. It shows that the benefits available under both programs are being severely restricted by the current food cost crisis in the…

  16. Poor performance of mandatory nutritional screening of in-hospital patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Larsen, Sisse Marie Hørup; Stender, Steen

    2012-01-01

    , the most common error being underestimation of nutritional status. Forty-six percent of patients required a secondary nutritional risk screening and 30% were found to be nutritionally at risk. Conclusion: Only 8% of patients received the mandatory nutritional risk screening without procedural errors. We......Background & aims: Since 2006 it has been mandatory at Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 h of admittance. Audits conducted by department staff estimate that 70-80% of assessments are correctly executed, but the validity of this estimate...... is unknown. The aim of the present study was to discover the true proportion of hospitalized patients receiving nutritional risk screening within the stipulated time limit and to evaluate the validity of the screening by comparison with medical records. Methods: Retrospective examination of medical records...

  17. Food insecurity and hunger: A review of the effects on children’s health and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Janice; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth Lee

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity and hunger are significant problems in Canada, with millions of Canadians experiencing some level of food insecurity. The purpose of the present article is to review what is currently known about the effects of food insecurity and hunger on children. Longitudinal studies in Canada indicate that hunger is related to poor health outcomes, including a higher risk of depression and suicidal ideation in adolescents, and chronic conditions, particularly asthma. In addition, nutrient...

  18. Alliances in "The Hunger Games"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This lesson plan is based on "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins. Characters in "The Hunger Games" form alliances both inside and outside the arena. Katniss and Gale form alliances within District 12. Katniss, Peeta, and the other tributes form alliances for a variety of reasons during the Games. An alliance means that "someone's got your back"…

  19. Nutribusiness: an aspect of the political economy of persistent hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omawale

    1984-01-01

    The failure of nutrition programs to significantly impact on the prevalent hunger in underdeveloped countries is attributed to nutribusiness. This term conceptually links the activities of profit-motivated capitalist enterprises to the continuous generation of poverty and hunger. The actors are all part of a hierarchy dominated by multinational corporate interests and including bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, nutrition institutes, and nutrition professionals at various levels. Although many lower-level nutrition workers are unwittingly caught up in the system, most of the higher-level professionals are conscious of their roles, which they selfishly perform for personal advancement. The Philippine nutrition system is examined as an example of nutribusiness, albeit in a very obvious and extreme form. On the available evidence, the conclusion is drawn that in countries dominated by capitalist production, nutrition activities amount to nutribusiness. Consequently, the elimination and prevention of persistent hunger in underdeveloped countries must start with their disengagement from the world capitalist system and their pursuit of socialist transformation.

  20. Elder insecurities: poverty, hunger, and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, N S; Weddle, D O; Kranz, S; Brain, C T

    1997-10-01

    Between 8% and 16% (2.5 to 4.9 million) of the elder population have experienced food insecurity within a 6-month period. Federal programs to combat food insecurity reach only one-third of needy elders. While hunger and poverty are linked directly to malnutrition, the multifaceted nature of elderly malnutrition cuts across all economic, racial, and ethnic groups. Malnourished patients experience 2 to 20 times more complications, have up to 100% longer hospital stays, and compile hospital costs $2,000 to $10,000 higher per stay. Dietitians can advocate routine nutrition screening to target elders at highest risk and lobby for expansion of appropriate nutrition services in home, community, and institutional settings.

  1. Poor nutrition status and associated feeding practices among HIV-positive children in a food secure region in Tanzania: a call for tailored nutrition training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F Sunguya

    Full Text Available METHODS: We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs. RESULTS: HIV-positive children had high magnitudes of undernutrition. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were prevalent among 61.9%, 38.7%, 26.0%, and 21.1% of HIV-positive children, respectively. They also had poor feeding practices: 88.1% were fed at a frequency below the recommendations, and 62.3% had a low level of dietary diversity. Lower feeding frequency was associated with stunting (β = 0.11, p = 0.016; underweight (β = 0.12, p = 0.029; and thinness (β = 0.11, p = 0.026. Lower feeding frequency was associated with low wealth index (β = 0.06, p<0.001, food insecurity (β =  -0.05, p<0.001, and caregiver's education. In the FGDs, participants discussed the causal relationships among the key associations; undernutrition was mainly due to low feeding frequency and dietary diversity. Such poor feeding practices resulted from poor nutrition knowledge, food insecurity, low income, and poverty. CONCLUSION: Feeding practices and nutrition status were poor among HIV-positive children even in food rich areas. Improving feeding frequency may help to ameliorate undernutrition. To improve it, tailored interventions should target children of poor households, the food insecure, and caregivers who have received only a low level of education.

  2. The influence of Enteral Nutrition in postoperative patients with poor liver function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Gang Hu; Qi-Chang Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety, rationality and the practicality of enteral nutritional (EN) support in the postoperative patients with damaged liver function and the protective effect of EN on the gut barrier.METHODS: 135 patients with liver function of Child B or C grade were randomly allocated to enteral nutrition group (EN, 65 cases), total parenteral nutrition group (TPN, 40cases) and control group (CON, 30 cases). Nutritional parameters, hepatic and kidney function indexes were measured at the day before operation, 5th and 10th day after the operation respectively. Comparison was made to evaluate the efficacy of different nutritional support. Urinary concentrations of lactulose(L) and mannitol(M) were measured by pulsed electrochemical detection(HPLC-PED)and the L/M ratio calculated to evaluate their effectiveness on protection of gut barrier.RESULTS: No significant damages in hepatic and kidney function were observed in both EN and TPN groups between pre- and postoperatively. EN group was the earliest one reaching the positive nitrogen balance after operation and with the lowest loss of body weight and there was no change in L/M ratio after the operation (0.026±0.004) at the day 1before operation, 0.030±0.004 at the day 5 postoperative and 0.027±0.005 at the day 10 postoperative), but the change in TPN group was significant at the day 5postoperative (0.027±0.003 vs 0.038±0.009,P<0.01).CONCLUSION: EN is a rational and effective method in patients with hepatic dysfunction after operation and has significant protection effect on the gut barrier.

  3. Differential pathways to adult metabolic dysfunction following poor nutrition at two critical developmental periods in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten R Poore

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest early nutrition has long-term effects on susceptibility to obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Small and large animal models confirm the influence of different windows of sensitivity, from fetal to early postnatal life, on offspring phenotype. We showed previously that undernutrition in sheep either during the first month of gestation or immediately after weaning induces differential, sex-specific changes in adult metabolic and cardiovascular systems. The current study aims to determine metabolic and molecular changes that underlie differences in lipid and glucose metabolism induced by undernutrition during specific developmental periods in male and female sheep. Ewes received 100% (C or 50% nutritional requirements (U from 1-31 days gestation, and 100% thereafter. From weaning (12 weeks to 25 weeks, offspring were then fed either ad libitum (CC, UC or were undernourished (CU, UU to reduce body weight to 85% of their individual target. From 25 weeks, all offspring were fed ad libitum. A cohort of late gestation fetuses were studied after receiving either 40% nutritional requirements (1-31 days gestation or 50% nutritional requirements (104-127 days gestation. Post-weaning undernutrition increased in vivo insulin sensitivity, insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 expression in muscle, and lowered hepatic methylation at the delta-like homolog 1/maternally expressed gene 3 imprinted cluster in adult females, but not males. Early gestational undernutrition induced lower hepatic expression of gluconeogenic factors in fetuses and reduced in vivo adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in adulthood. In males, undernutrition in early gestation increased adipose tissue lipid handling mechanisms (lipoprotein lipase, glucocorticoid receptor expression and hepatic methylation within the imprinted control region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor in adulthood. Therefore, undernutrition during

  4. Hunger at Home: A Higher Education Service Learning Course of Appraisal and Action in Community Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Service learning and civic engagement are playing an increasingly larger role in higher education. Unity College's Hunger at Home course could serve as a model for service learning in disciplines such as nutrition, sociology, and food and agriculture. The class worked with local partners to get a better understanding of hunger in the area, recent…

  5. Poor nutritional status is associated with a higher risk of falling and fracture in elderly people living at home in France: the Three-City cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Féart, C; Samieri, C; Dorigny, B; Luiking, Y; Berr, C; Barberger-Gateau, P; Letenneur, L

    2015-08-01

    Falling and fractures are a public health problem in elderly people. The aim of our study was to investigate whether nutritional status is associated with the risk of falling or fracture in community-dwelling elderly. Poor nutritional status was significantly associated with a higher risk of both falling and fractures. Nutrition could play a role to prevent falls and fractures. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a poor nutritional status is associated with the risk of falling and of fracture in community dwelling elderly. Baseline nutritional status of participants was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). After a follow-up of 12 years, 6040 individuals with available data for falls and 6839 for fracture were included. People who presented the outcomes at baseline were excluded. Cox models were used to evaluate the associations between nutritional status and the risks of fall or fracture. The frequency of poor nutritional status (MNA ≤ 23.5), at baseline, was respectively 12.0% in the "fall study sample" and 12.8% in the "fracture study sample." Incident fall and fracture over 12 years were reported in 55.8 and 18.5% of the respective samples, respectively. In multivariate models controlled for sociodemographic data and several baseline health indicators, poor nutritional status was significantly associated with a higher risk of falling (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.66, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.35-2.04 in men and HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34 in women) and with a higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.49). Poor nutritional status was associated with a higher risk of both falling and fractures in French elderly community-dwellers. Early screening and management of the nutritional status may be useful to reduce the frequency of these events in older people.

  6. House ownership, frequency of illness, fathers' education: the most significant socio-demographic determinants of poor nutritional status in adolescent girls from low income households of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Fatima; Asim, Muhammad; Salim, Shafya; Humayun, Ayesha

    2017-07-11

    Socio demographic factors besides dietary factors play important role in determining the health status of an individual. Health and nutritional Intervention programs stand a greater chance of success if planned, keeping the socio demographic characteristics of a certain population in focus. The present study was conducted to identify those socio demographic determinants which have a significant association with poor nutritional status in adolescent girls belonging to economically deprived households of Lahore. A cross-sectional analytical study of 140 adolescent girls living in the peri urban communities of Lahore was conducted. Socioeconomic and demographic data of the participants was recorded through a pretested questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), a commonly used anthropometric measurement was taken as an indicator of nutritional status. Below normal (socio demographic variables were calculated and Fisher Exact test was used to find out the association of nutritional status with socio-demographic predictors. Stepwise backward logistic regression analysis was then run to identify the most significant determinants associated with poor nutritional status in the adolescents. P food insecure (AOR = 0.431; 95% CI = 0.164 to 1.133) had lesser odds of having poor nutritional status than those who lived in nuclear families and were food secure. Frequency of illness, house ownership and fathers' education are the determinants positively associated with poor nutritional status of adolescent girls. Food insecurity and joint family structure were negatively associated with poor nutritional status. The study will help in planning interventions for improving nutritional status of adolescent girls by targeting the significant socio demographic determinants of poor nutritional status among this group.

  7. The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive function on binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Zhang, Fengqing; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors.

  8. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.

  9. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-08-24

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states.

  10. Does Hunger Contribute to Socioeconomic Gradients in Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has uncovered many examples of socioeconomic gradients in behavior and psychological states. As yet there is no theoretical consensus on the nature of the causal processes that produce these gradients. Here, I present the hunger hypothesis, namely the claim that part of the reason that people of lower socioeconomic position behave and feel as they do is that they are relatively often hungry. The hunger hypothesis applies in particular to impulsivity-hyperactivity, irritability-aggression, anxiety, and persistent narcotic use, all of which have been found to show socioeconomic gradients. I review multiple lines of evidence showing that hunger produces strong increases in these outcomes. I also review the literatures on food insufficiency and food insecurity to show that, within affluent societies, the poor experience a substantial burden of hunger, despite obtaining sufficient or excess calories on average. This leads to the distinctive prediction that hunger is an important mediator of the relationships between socioeconomic variables and the behavioral/psychological outcomes. This approach has a number of far-reaching implications, not least that some behavioral and psychological differences between social groups, though persistent under current economic arrangements, are potentially highly reversible with changes to the distribution of financial resources and food. PMID:28344567

  11. [Josué de Castro and The Geography of Hunger in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this article is to reinterpret the classic work Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], first published in 1946. The article provides a summary of the five food area maps and the main nutritional deficiencies in Brazil, based on Josué de Castro's original conception. Currently, the nutritional epidemiological profile identified by Josué de Castro, characterized by nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, endemic goiter, iron deficiency anemia, etc.), overlap with chronic non-communicable diseases (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias, etc.). However, the complex and paradoxical issue of hunger is a persistently recurrent theme in Brazil. Given a series of current dilemmas, including the planet's ecological sustainability and the need to guarantee the human right to adequate, healthy nutrition, it is urgent to reawaken the struggle led by Josué de Castro for the adoption of a sustainable economic development model and a society free of poverty and hunger.

  12. Individual differences in the interoceptive states of hunger, fullness and thirst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Mahmut, Mehmet; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-12-01

    Interoception is the ability to perceive internal bodily states. This involves the detection and awareness of static and changing afferent signals from the viscera, motivational states, affective reactions, and associated cognitions. We examined whether there are individual differences in any or all of these aspects of ingestion-related interoception and their possible causes. Individual variation in almost all aspects of interoception was documented for hunger, fullness and thirst - including how participants use, prioritise and integrate visceral, motivational, affective and cognitive information. Individual differences may arise from multiple causes, including genetic influences, developmental changes hypothesised to result from child feeding practices, and from conditions such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders and certain subtypes of obesity. A nutritionally poor diet, and dietary restraint, may also affect ingestion-related interoception. Finally, certain forms of brain injury, notably to the medial temporal lobes are associated with impaired ingestion-related interoception. We conclude by examining the practical and theoretical consequences of these individual differences.

  13. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution mediate socioeconomic differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes in Cape Coast, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeladza K Amegah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiological evidence linking socioeconomic deprivation with adverse pregnancy outcomes has been conflicting mainly due to poor measurement of socioeconomic status (SES. Studies have also failed to evaluate the plausible pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage impacts on pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the importance of maternal SES as determinant of birth weight and gestational duration in an urban area and evaluated main causal pathways for the influence of SES. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 559 mothers accessing postnatal services at the four main health facilities in Cape Coast, Ghana in 2011. Information on socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers was collected in a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: In multivariate linear regression adjusting for maternal age, parity and gender of newborn, low SES resulted in 292 g (95% CI: 440-145 reduction in birth weight. Important SES-related determinants were neighborhood poverty (221 g; 95% CI: 355-87, low education (187 g; 95% CI: 355-20, studentship during pregnancy (291 g; 95% CI: 506-76 and low income (147 g; 95% CI: 277-17. In causal pathway analysis, malaria infection (6-20%, poor nutrition (2-51% and indoor air pollution (10-62% mediated substantial proportions of the observed effects of socioeconomic deprivation on birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders indicated a 218% (RR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.41-7.21 risk increase of LBW and 83% (RR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.31-2.56 of PTB among low income mothers. Low and middle SES was associated with 357% (RR: 4.57; 95% CI: 1.67-12.49 and 278% (RR: 3.78; 95% CI: 1.39-10.27 increased risk of LBW respectively. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution respectively mediated 10-21%, 16-44% and 31-52% of the observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on LBW risk. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence of the effects of socioeconomic deprivation

  14. Poor nutrition and alcohol consumption are related to high serum homocysteine level at post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Increased serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be related to the occurrence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. High serum Hcy levels are also related to the development of secondary stroke and all-cause mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high serum homocysteine level and relating factors, and the change over the 10 month period post-stroke. Consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center were enrolled. Ten months after the onset of stroke, an interview with a structured questionnaire was performed and blood samples were obtained for the biochemical parameters. Nutritional status was determined using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) score and dietary nutrient intakes were also obtained using a 24 hour recall method. Out of 203 patients, 84% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and 26% had high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke. Using logistic regression, the factors related with high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke included heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.020), low MNA scores (P = 0.026), low serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.021) and low serum folate levels (P = 0.003). Of the 156 patients who had normal homocysteine levels at admission, 36 patients developed hyperhomocysteinemia 10 months post-stroke, which was related to heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Persistent hyperhomocysteinemia, observed in 22 patients (11%), was related to male sex (P = 0.031), old age (P = 0.042), low vitamin B6 intake (P = 0.029), and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in post-stroke, and is related to malnutrition, heavy alcohol drinking and low serum level of folate and vitamin B12. Strategies to prevent or manage high homocysteine levels should consider these factors.

  15. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in Africa" was…

  16. Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with diabetes mellitus in resource-poor settings: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rheeder

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This review article highlights the key factors that need consideration in planning an effective nutrition education programme for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in resource-poor settings.

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing to epidemic levels globally. Low socio-economic status is associated with poorer health outcomes and a higher economic burden. Individuals with diabetes cite dietary adherence as the most difficult self-care area. Effective nutrition education achieves the desired goals and outcomes, which include appropriate change in dietary behaviour, improved glycaemic control, plasma lipid levels, blood pressure and body weight, as well as improved potential mediators (knowledge, skills and attitudes. Elements that contribute to a successful nutrition education programme include interventions tailored to the needs, abilities and socio-cultural context of the target group, the active involvement of the patient, a behaviour-focused approach based on appropriate theory, suitable delivery methods and individual/group approaches. Adequate contact time with an educator (> 10 hours, the educator’s competence, provision of social support and follow-up intervention are also crucial.

    Effectively educating diabetic individuals from resource-poor settings in nutrition is a challenging task. It needs innovative and skilled educators who are sensitive to the unique needs of the target group and who use appropriate approaches to address these needs.

    Opsomming

    Hierdie artikel beklemtoon die sleutelfaktore wat in oorweging geneem moet word wanneer 'n effektiewe voedingsopleiding- program vir volwassenes met tipe 2-diabetes uit hulpbron-arm agtergronde beplan word.

    Tipe 2-diabetes is besig om globaal tot epidemiese vlakke toe te neem. Lae sosio-ekonomiese status word geassosieer met swakker gesondheidsresultate en 'n hoër ekonomiese las. Dieetnakoming word deur persone met diabetes as die moeilikste

  17. Effect of nutrition on vitamin D status: studies on healthy and poorly nourished Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, E R; Jones, D A; Round, J M; Edwards, R H

    1984-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out of 412 healthy and 226 chronically malnourished children in Recife, Brazil. Anthropometric measurements, x-rays of hands and wrists, and biochemical data related to skeletal growth were obtained. Levels of plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D were measured in both groups of children and both showed higher concentrations than those reported for normal European children. The high levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D found in these two groups of Brazilian children are probably the result of the intense solar radiation in this part of Brazil and argue against the diet being an important source of vitamin D in poorly nourished children. Some bone abnormalities were seen in the underprivileged group of children but in view of our findings these were more likely to be a result of protein-energy malnutrition than rickets.

  18. End-of-life issues in advanced dementia: Part 2: management of poor nutritional intake, dehydration, and pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    To answer frequently asked questions about management of end-stage pneumonia, poor nutritional intake, and dehydration in advanced dementia. Ovid MEDLINE was searched for relevant articles published until February 2015. No level I studies were identified; most articles provided level III evidence. The symptom management suggestions are partially based on recent participation in a Delphi procedure to develop a guideline for optimal symptom relief for patients with pneumonia and dementia. Feeding tubes are not recommended for patients with end-stage dementia. Comfort feeding by hand is preferable. Use of parenteral hydration might be helpful but can also contribute to discomfort at the end of life. Withholding or withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration is generally not associated with manifestations of discomfort if mouth care is adequate. Because pneumonia usually causes considerable discomfort, clinicians should pay attention to symptom control. Sedation for agitation is often useful in patients with dementia in the terminal phase. Symptomatic care is an appropriate option for end-stage manifestations of advanced dementia. The proposed symptom management guidelines are based on a literature review and expert consensus. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  19. Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…

  20. Bioethics in the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…

  1. Neurophysiology of Hunger and Satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline M.; Ferguson, Alastair V.

    2008-01-01

    Hunger is defined as a strong desire or need for food while satiety is the condition of being full or gratified. The maintenance of energy homeostasis requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The regulation of food intake is a complex behavior. It requires discrete nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS) to detect…

  2. Mouse early extra-embryonic lineages activate compensatory endocytosis in response to poor maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congshan; Velazquez, Miguel A; Marfy-Smith, Stephanie; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Cox, Andy; Johnston, David A; Smyth, Neil; Fleming, Tom P

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian extra-embryonic lineages perform the crucial role of nutrient provision during gestation to support embryonic and fetal growth. These lineages derive from outer trophectoderm (TE) and internal primitive endoderm (PE) in the blastocyst and subsequently give rise to chorio-allantoic and visceral yolk sac placentae, respectively. We have shown maternal low protein diet exclusively during mouse preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to cause a compensatory increase in fetal and perinatal growth that correlates positively with increased adult-onset cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural disease. Here, to investigate early mechanisms of compensatory nutrient provision, we assessed the influence of maternal Emb-LPD on endocytosis within extra-embryonic lineages using quantitative imaging and expression of markers and proteins involved. Blastocysts collected from Emb-LPD mothers within standard culture medium displayed enhanced TE endocytosis compared with embryos from control mothers with respect to the number and collective volume per cell of vesicles with endocytosed ligand and fluid and lysosomes, plus protein expression of megalin (Lrp2) LDL-family receptor. Endocytosis was also stimulated using similar criteria in the outer PE-like lineage of embryoid bodies formed from embryonic stem cell lines generated from Emb-LPD blastocysts. Using an in vitro model replicating the depleted amino acid (AA) composition found within the Emb-LPD uterine luminal fluid, we show TE endocytosis response is activated through reduced branched-chain AAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine). Moreover, activation appears mediated through RhoA GTPase signalling. Our data indicate early embryos regulate and stabilise endocytosis as a mechanism to compensate for poor maternal nutrient provision.

  3. Hunger and Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the world is iron deficiency , which can lead to anemia. continue Who Is at Risk for Malnutrition? All ... and added iron can help prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Malnutrition ... illness, and other factors can lead to a poor appetite, so they may not ...

  4. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  5. Poor hunger versus agrofuel production another inequality with negative impact in Colombian population AGROCOMBUSTIBLES VS. HAMBRE: UNA ECUACIÓN ENERGÉTICA CON RESULTADO NEGATIVO PARA LA POBLACIÓN POBRE EN ECOLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Eloisa Del Castillo-Matamorros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has problems regarding the availability of food, as accepted by the Colombian Ministry of Agriculture itself. Increased food prices resulting from agrofuel production which is beginning to compete with the supply of food for human consumption is a situation which has even been recognised by World Bank spokespeople. This organisation once promoted agrofuel production as an alternative for rescuing the countryside from the oblivion to which Latin-American economies had been condemned during the last few decades. Abundant evidence has now shown that encouraging agrofuel production has promoted the spread of monocrops, in turn leading to soil deterioration, thereby producing greater difficulty in ensuring national food production which would guarantee availability as an essential component of food and nutritional safety. The corn needed to produce the ethanol required by a first-world car to cover 32,000 km/year could supply a normal person's daily calorie needs for 62 years. For example, most Colombian regions and departments forming part of current large agrofuel production megaprojects are well above the average national chronic malnutrition rate (12% for children aged under five and 12.6% for schoolchildren, according to 2005 Colombian Nutritional Survey results. Healthcare professionals must be aware of and analyse such policy putting the food safety of Colombia's most disadvantaged population at risk.En Colombia, como lo acepta el misterio del ramo, existen problemas de disponibilidad de alimentos. El incremento en los precios de los alimentos como consecuencia de la producción de agrocombustibles que entran a competir con el alimento de los seres humanos, es una situación reconocida hasta por los voceros del Banco Mundial, organización que otrora promovía la producción de agrocombustibles como alternativa para sacar al campo del olvido al que había estado condenado por las economías latinoamericanas en las últimas d

  6. The MDG on poverty and hunger : how reliable are the hunger estimates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Nubé, M.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two hunger-related indicators are used for tracking progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, with one of the targets being to halve the proportion of people suffering from hunger by 2015 as compared to 1990. The prevalence of people

  7. The MDG on poverty and hunger : how reliable are the hunger estimates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Nubé, M.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two hunger-related indicators are used for tracking progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, with one of the targets being to halve the proportion of people suffering from hunger by 2015 as compared to 1990. The prevalence of people

  8. Baculovirus-challenge and poor nutrition inflict within-generation fitness costs without triggering transgenerational immune priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Ikkei; Hua, Kevin Ngoc; Cory, Jenny S

    2016-05-01

    Invertebrate hosts that survive pathogen challenge can produce offspring that are more resistant to the same pathogen via immune priming, thereby improving the fitness of their offspring in the same pathogen environment. Most evidence for immune priming comes from exposure to bacteria and there are limited data on other groups of pathogens. Poor parental nutrition has also been shown to result in the transgenerational transfer of pathogen resistance and increased immunocompetence. Here, we combine exposure to an insect DNA virus with a change in the parental diet to examine both parental costs and transgenerational immune priming. We challenged the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, with a low dose of the baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and altered dietary protein to carbohydrate ratio (p:c ratio) after virus exposure. Insects fed a low protein diet had lower haemolymph protein concentrations, and exhibited costs of smaller pupae and slower development, while survivors of virus challenge developed more slowly, irrespective of p:c ratio, and those that were virus-challenged and fed on a low protein diet showed a reduction in haemocyte density. In addition, AcMNPV-challenged parents laid fewer eggs earlier in egg laying although egg size was the same as for unchallenged parents. There was no evidence for increased resistance to AcMNPV (immune priming) or changes in haemocyte number (as proxy for constitutive cellular immunity) in the offspring either as a result of parental AcMNPV-challenge or low dietary p:c ratio. Therefore, although pathogen-challenge and nutritional changes can affect host development and reproduction, this does not necessarily translate into transgenerational immune priming. Our findings contrast with an earlier study on another type of baculovirus, a granulovirus, where immune priming was suggested. This indicates that transgenerational immune priming is not universal in invertebrates and is likely to

  9. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased ... for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased ...

  10. Nutritional status in the era of target therapy: poor nutrition is a prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sehhoon; Park, Seongyeol; Lee, Se-Hoon; Suh, Beomseok; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kim, Young Whan; Heo, Dae Seog

    2016-11-01

    Pretreatment nutritional status is an important prognostic factor in patients treated with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the era of target therapies, its value is overlooked and has not been investigated. The aim of our study is to evaluate the value of nutritional status in targeted therapy. A total of 2012 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were reviewed and 630 patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) were enrolled for the final analysis. Anemia, body mass index (BMI), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were considered as nutritional factors. Hazard ratio (HR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for each group were calculated by Cox proportional analysis. In addition, scores were applied for each category and the sum of scores was used for survival analysis. In univariable analysis, anemia (HR, 1.29; p = 0.015), BMI lower than 18.5 (HR, 1.98; p = 0.002), and PNI lower than 45 (HR, 1.57; p nutritional status is a prognostic marker in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR TKI. Hence, baseline nutritional status should be more carefully evaluated and adequate nutrition should be supplied to these patients.

  11. Hunger Fighters See Biotech Hope for Poor Nations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julie; Ingwersen; 钱民徵

    2002-01-01

    基因,转基因,基因工程……与“基因”有关的这几个词,几乎成了上世纪末以来的热门词语。这似乎印证了“21世纪属于生物学世纪”这一著名预言。“genetically modified(GM)crops”也成了一个英语热门词汇。本文详细介绍了上世纪六、七十年代所谓绿色革命之父,诺贝尔奖获得者Norman Borlaug对(GM)crops这场新革命的观点。他的观点有两点值得我们关注: 1/为什么当今世界有人反对这场崭新意义的绿色革命?Borlaug的观点非常犀利: If we sit in Europe or North America and decide that because we don’t need that scientific approach for our food supply, therefore they can’t have it either, that is grossly (非常) unethical (不道德的). 2/凡是革命。那就必然会有风险:no agricultural advance is risk-free. Borlaug称,当年的绿色革命也同样遭受了人们的反对:Critics(批评家们)in the past accused the Green Revolution of popularizing (普及) chemical fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation that jeopardized (危害) the environment in developing countries.】

  12. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18640.001 PMID:27554486

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Addressing world hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struble, Marie Boyle; Aomari, Laurie Lindsay

    2003-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that access to adequate amounts of safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food at all times is a fundamental human right. Hunger continues to be a worldwide problem of staggering proportions. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat hunger and malnutrition, produce food security, promote self-sufficiency, and are environmentally and economically sustainable. The Association is aware that hunger exists in a world of plenty and that poverty, gender inequity, ethnocentrism, racism, and the lack of political will are key constraints to solving the problems of global hunger and malnutrition. Recognizing that simplistic approaches are inadequate, the ADA identifies sustainable development as the long-term strategy to ending world hunger and achieving food security. Sustainable development requires political, economic, and social changes that include empowering the disenfranchised, widening access to assets and other resources, narrowing the gap between rich and poor, and adjusting consumption patterns so as to foster good stewardship of nature. Additionally, because the health status of future generations is related to the well-being of their mothers, achieving food security will also require increased access for women to education, adequate health care and sanitation, and economic opportunities. This position paper reviews the complex issues of global food insecurity and discusses long-term solutions for achieving world food security. Achieving the end of world hunger has been and is now within our grasp. There is sufficient food to feed everyone, and solutions can be realized now that will benefit all of humanity. As noted in the paper, most people who examine the costs of ending versus not ending world hunger are bewildered by the question of why humanity did not solve the problem a long time ago. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat

  14. Obesity and hunger among Mexican-Indian migrant children on the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, A; Bacardí-Gascón, M; Spindler, A A

    2003-06-01

    Although Mexican-Indian migrant workers live under precarious conditions in both Mexico and the USA, they have more access to food than they did in their original communities. The nutritional status and food security among the children of these workers have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, undernutrition and hunger among migrant children in a city on the US-Mexico border. During 2001-2002, a total of 1767 children from six schools from the Tijuana Indian school system was measured to assess anthropometric status. Third and fifth grade children were also interviewed for their perception of hunger experience and dietary intake by 24-h recall method. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 38%. Abdominal obesity was found in 26% of subjects, while 43% had both obesity and abdominal obesity. The prevalence of undernutrition according to weight-for-age was 1.2%, and by height-for-age it was 4.8%. The prevalence of hunger was 2.5%, and at risk of hunger was 44%. Daily intake of food groups in servings was: 8.7 grains, 1.2 fruit, 1.0 vegetable, 2.1 milk and 2.6 meat. Only one child (0.07%) consumed The Apple of Health recommended portions. This study confirmed the coexistence of obesity, hunger, undernutrition and limited food group consumption among Indian children living in a prosperous and the largest US-Mexico border city.

  15. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  16. Food security: Fertilizing hidden hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Levermann, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 fertilization may go some way to compensating the negative impact of climatic changes on crop yields, but it comes at the expense of a deterioration of the current nutritional value of food.

  17. Nitrogen addition affects leaf nutrition and photosynthesis in sugar maple in a nutrient-poor northern Vermont forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Ellsworth

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple-dominated forest ecosystems in the northeastern U.S. have been receiving precipitation nitrogen (N) inputs of 15 -20 kg N ha1 year1 since at least the mid 1980s sustained chronic N inputs of this magnitude into nutrient-poor forest ecosystems may cause eutrophication and affect ecosystem functioning as well as...

  18. The health and nutrition of young indigenous women in north Queensland - intergenerational implications of poor food quality, obesity, diabetes, tobacco smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Robyn; Campbell, Sandra; Li, Ming; McCulloch, Brad

    2009-11-01

    To document nutritional status and health behaviours of young indigenous women of childbearing age in rural communities in north Queensland. Cross-sectional survey of 424 Aboriginal and 232 Torres Strait Islander (TSI) women aged 15-34 years, conducted in twenty-three rural and remote communities of far north Queensland in 1999-2000, with follow-up of a smaller cohort (n 132) in 2006-2007. Weight, waist circumference, intake of fruit and vegetables, smoking, alcohol intake, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, gamma-glutamyltransferase, red cell folate (RCF), interval weight and waist gain and incidence of diabetes. Forty-one per cent of Aboriginal and 69 % of TSI had central obesity, 62 % were smokers, 71 % drank alcohol regularly and of those, 60 % did so at harmful levels. One third of Aboriginal and 16 % of TSI women had very low RCF levels. In the group followed up, there was a mean annual waist gain of 1.6 cm in Aboriginal women and 1.2 cm in TSI, 0.5 kg/m2 in BMI and 1.5 kg in weight. Incidence of new type 2 diabetes mellitus in this cohort was 29.1 per 1000 person-years (py) (95 % CI 14.0, 52.8) in Aboriginal women and 13.9 per 1000 py (95 % CI 5.6, 28.5) among TSI. High prevalence and incidence of central obesity and diabetes, poor nutrition, high rates of alcohol use and tobacco smoking together with young maternal age, provide a poor intra-uterine environment for many indigenous Australian babies, and contribute to high perinatal morbidity and future disability. Community level interventions to improve pre-pregnancy nutrition and health behaviours in young women are urgent.

  19. Meeting the food and nutrition needs of the poor: the role of fish and the opportunities and challenges emerging from the rise of aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, M C M; Thilsted, S H; Phillips, M J; Metian, M; Troell, M; Hall, S J

    2013-10-01

    People who are food and nutrition insecure largely reside in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and for many, fish represents a rich source of protein, micronutrients and essential fatty acids. The contribution of fish to household food and nutrition security depends upon availability, access and cultural and personal preferences. Access is largely determined by location, seasonality and price but at the individual level it also depends upon a person's physiological and health status and how fish is prepared, cooked and shared among household members. The sustained and rapid expansion of aquaculture over the past 30 years has resulted in >40% of all fish now consumed being derived from farming. While aquaculture produce increasingly features in the diets of many Asians, it is much less apparent among those living in Sub-Saharan Africa. Here, per capita fish consumption has grown little and despite the apparently strong markets and adequate biophysical conditions, aquaculture has yet to develop. The contribution of aquaculture to food and nutrition security is not only just an issue of where aquaculture occurs but also of what is being produced and how and whether the produce is as accessible as that from capture fisheries. The range of fish species produced by an increasingly globalized aquaculture industry differs from that derived from capture fisheries. Farmed fishes are also different in terms of their nutrient content, a result of the species being grown and of rearing methods. Farmed fish price affects access by poor consumers while the size at which fish is harvested influences both access and use. This paper explores these issues with particular reference to Asia and Africa and the technical and policy innovations needed to ensure that fish farming is able to fulfil its potential to meet the global population's food and nutrition needs.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    major social problem. The design of ... victimization, involvement in physical fighting, social ... little to eat that hunger negatively affects their behavior and choices .... In what class .... hunger stricken areas, buying of soap for hand washing is.

  1. Factors associated with poor nutritional status among community dwelling Lebanese elderly subjects living in rural areas: results of the AMEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, C; Salameh, P; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status, measured by MNA, and its association with socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics of a representative sample of community dwelling elderly subjects. Cross-sectional study. Community dwelling elderly individuals living in rural communities in Lebanon. 1200 elderly individuals aged 65 years or more. Socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics were recorded during a standardized interview. Nutritional status was assessed through Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The 5-item GDS score and the WHO-5-A score were used to assess mood, whereas Mini Mental Status (MMS) was applied to evaluate cognitive status. The prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition was 8.0% respective 29.1% of the study sample. Malnutrition was significantly more frequent in elderly subjects aged more than 85 years, in females, widowed and illiterate people. Moreover, participants who reported lower financial status were more often malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Regarding health status, poor nutritional status was more common among those reporting more than three chronic diseases, taking more than three drugs daily, suffering from chronic pain and those who had worse oral health status. Also, depressive disorders and cognitive dysfunction were significantly related to malnutrition. After multivariate analysis following variables remained independently associated to malnutrition: living in the governorate of Nabatieh (ORa 2.30, 95% CI 1.35 -3.93), reporting higher income (ORa 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97), higher number of comorbidities (ORa 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.32), chronic pain (ORa 1.72, 95% CI 1.24-2.39), and depressive disorders (ORa 1.66, 95% CI 1.47-1.88). On the other hand, better cognitive functioning was strongly associated with decreased nutritional risk (ORa 0.27, 95%CI 0.17-0.43). Our results highlighted the close relationship between health status and malnutrition. The

  2. Professional ethics in extreme circumstances: responsibilities of attending physicians and healthcare providers in hunger strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Nurbay

    2015-08-01

    Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians' duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers' decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow the strikers' unpressured advance directives. When physicians encounter an unconscious striker, in the absence of reliable advance directives, the guidelines advise physicians to make a decision on the basis of the patient's values, previously expressed wishes, and best interests. I argue that if there are no advance directives and the striker has already lost his competence, the physician has the responsibility to resuscitate the striker. Once the striker regains his decision-making capacity, he should be asked about his decision. If he is determined to continue fasting and refuses treatment, the physician has a moral obligation to respect this decisions and follow his advance directives.

  3. The Geographical and Biophysical Correlates of Hunger and Infant Mortality: Lessons from CIESIN's Poverty Mapping Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Balk, D.; Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Storeygard, A.

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a collection of recent efforts to integrate global spatial datasets and survey microdata to investigate drivers of hunger and infant mortality. They were motivated by a desire on the part of the United Nations Millennium Project to understand the conditions under which the world's poor and hungry live, for the purpose of improving the diagnosing the causes of poverty and hunger, designing interventions, and understanding the interactions among different Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). First, at the global level, it reports on a number of explorations that were undertaken to characterize the large-scale distribution of the world's poor in terms of climatic, topographic, land cover, ecosystem, and hydrologic factors. Second, at the regional level, it reports on an analysis of the correlates of hunger in Africa. Third, it reports on work combining survey microdata with spatial data in a study of infant mortality in West Africa. Lastly, it discusses ongoing work to combine these two scales at the continental and global scale in the context of drivers of hunger.

  4. Still life with less: North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea show continued poor nutrition and physique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min; Joung, Hyojee

    2010-04-01

    North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake.

  5. Thiamine deficiency, oxidative metabolic pathways and ethanol-induced neurotoxicity: how poor nutrition contributes to the alcoholic syndrome, as Marchiafava-Bignami disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, L M P; Bezerra, F R; Monteiro, M C; Silva, M L; de Oliveira, F R; Lima, R R; Fontes-Júnior, E A; Maia, C S F

    2017-02-22

    Ethanol is an important risk factor for the occurrence of several brain disorders that depend on the amount, period and frequency of its consumption. Chronic use of ethanol often leads to the development of neurodegenerative syndromes, which cause morphological and functional impairments such as foetal alcohol syndrome in newborns exposed to ethanol during pregnancy, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome and, more rarely, Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). MBD is characterized by primary degeneration of the corpus callosum, without inflammation and is associated with oxidative stress and hypovitaminosis, as well as altered mental status, to mention dementia, seizures, depression and so on. This review discusses MBD and poor nutrition as a risk factor for the development of such alcoholic syndrome, with focus on diagnosis, pathogenic aspects, signs and symptoms, as well as therapeutic perspectives. On the basis of the inclusion/exclusion criteria adopted, the performed search in scientific databases (Pubmed, Scielo and Google Scholar) resulted in 100 studies that are being presented and discussed in the present work. Review, case-control and cohort studies on alcoholism-associated hypovitaminosis, oxidative stress, MBD and ethanol metabolism pathways were admitted as relevant. We highlight that MBD is a poorly described, diagnosed, insidious and progressive condition, for which evidence suggests a synergism between ethanol-induced neurotoxic effects and hypovitaminosis B. Present treatment consists of vitamin B1(thiamine) supplementation. Nonetheless, other strategies such as the inclusion of antidepressants or steroidal anti-inflammatories as add-on therapies have been employed as an attempt to improve the damage. Indeed, both the diagnosis and treatment are difficult, and death occurs within few years.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 22 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.267.

  6. Prevalence of Hunger Declines in Rural Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark; Winicki, F. Joshua

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of hunger in rural households declined slightly from 1995 to 1998, and food insecurity rates stayed constant. Food insecurity was almost three times as prevalent among rural Blacks as among rural Whites. For rural Hispanics, the rate was about twice that of Whites. Food insecurity was higher in single-parent families than in any…

  7. Hunger Games: What Are the Chances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity based on the popular book and movie "The Hunger Games." The activity was designed to engage middle school students in using the mathematics found in the book. This activity provides a meaningful way to connect probability to a work of adolescent literature that related to, was interesting to, and motivated…

  8. Hunger Games: What Are the Chances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity based on the popular book and movie "The Hunger Games." The activity was designed to engage middle school students in using the mathematics found in the book. This activity provides a meaningful way to connect probability to a work of adolescent literature that related to, was interesting to, and…

  9. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  10. Musical Hunger: A Philosophical Testimonial of Miseducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting upon Simone Weil's conception of beauty as food, this essay proposes musical hunger as a metaphoric way of understanding a particular species of "cultural miseducation" as conceived by Jane Roland Martin, that disadvantages children musically and perhaps therefore also spiritually. It examines such musical miseducation with regard to an…

  11. [Clinical manifestations of "Hunger Disease" among children in the ghettos during the Holocaust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercshlag-Elkayam, Orit; Even, Lea; Shasha, Shaul M

    2003-05-01

    The harsh life in the ghettos were characterized by overcrowding, shortage of supplies (e.g. money, sanitation, medications), poor personal hygiene, inclement weather and exhaustion. Under these conditions, morbidity was mainly due to infectious diseases, both endemic and epidemic outbreaks with a high mortality rate. The dominant feature was hunger. Daily caloric allowance was 300-800, and in extreme cases (i.e. Warsaw ghetto) it was only 200 calories. The food was lacking important nutrients (e.g. vitamins, trace elements) leading to protean clinical expression, starvation and death. The clinical manifestations of starvation were referred to as "the Hunger Disease", which became the subject of research by the medical doctors in the ghettos, mainly in the Warsaw ghetto in which a thorough documentation and research were performed. The first victims of hunger were children. First they failed to thrive physically and later mentally. Like their elders, they lost weight, but later growth stopped and their developmental milestones were lost with the loss of curiosity and motivation to play. The mortality rate among babies and infants was 100%, as was described by the ghetto doctors: "when the elder children got sick, the small ones were already dead...". In the last weeks of the ghettos there were no children seen in the streets. In this article the environmental conditions and daily life of children in the ghettos are reviewed, and the manifestations of "Hunger Disease" among them is scrutinized.

  12. Poor Knowledge and Practices Related to Iodine Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation in Australian Women: Pre- and Post-Iodine Fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Houweling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A before-after review was undertaken to assess whether knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition, supplementation and fortification has improved in Australian women since the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification in 2009. Surveys of pregnant (n = 139 and non-pregnant (n = 75 women in 2007–2008 are compared with surveys of pregnant (n = 147 and lactating women (n = 60 one to two years post-fortification in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed and dietary intake of iodine was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. A generally poor knowledge about the role and sources of iodine in the diet remained after fortification. Post-fortification, iodine-containing supplements were being taken by 60% (up from 20% pre-fortification and 45% of pregnant and lactating women, respectively. Dairy foods were the highest contributors to dietary iodine intake (57%–62%. A low intake of fish and seafood resulted in this food group contributing only 3%–8% of total intake. A low level of public awareness regarding the role of iodine in health supports the need for public health strategies in addition to fortification, such as an accompanying consumer education campaign, increased uptake of supplementation, and on-going monitoring.

  13. Poor knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition during pregnancy and lactation in Australian women: pre- and post-iodine fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen; Yeatman, Heather; Lucas, Catherine; Axford, Samantha; Gemming, Luke; Houweling, Fiona; Goodfellow, Alison; Ma, Gary

    2012-09-01

    A before-after review was undertaken to assess whether knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition, supplementation and fortification has improved in Australian women since the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification in 2009. Surveys of pregnant (n = 139) and non-pregnant (n = 75) women in 2007-2008 are compared with surveys of pregnant (n = 147) and lactating women (n = 60) one to two years post-fortification in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed and dietary intake of iodine was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. A generally poor knowledge about the role and sources of iodine in the diet remained after fortification. Post-fortification, iodine-containing supplements were being taken by 60% (up from 20% pre-fortification) and 45% of pregnant and lactating women, respectively. Dairy foods were the highest contributors to dietary iodine intake (57%-62%). A low intake of fish and seafood resulted in this food group contributing only 3%-8% of total intake. A low level of public awareness regarding the role of iodine in health supports the need for public health strategies in addition to fortification, such as an accompanying consumer education campaign, increased uptake of supplementation, and on-going monitoring.

  14. A Practical Problem Approach to World Hunger: Universities Fighting World Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the profession's history, family and consumer sciences professionals have worked to consider what should be done about various social issues affecting individuals, families, and communities across the world. Hunger is a global issue pertaining to the right to life, human survival, sustainable communities, and promotion of healthy…

  15. Everybody Eats: Using Hunger Banquets to Teach about Issues of Global Hunger and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Deborah A.; Harris, Whitney M.; Fondren, Kristi M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiential and active learning exercises can benefit students in sociology courses, particularly, courses in which issues of inequality are central. In this paper, we describe using hunger banquets-an active learning exercise where participants are randomly stratified into three global classes and receive food based upon their class position-to…

  16. The Faces of Hunger: The Educational Impact of Hunger on Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Tracy G.; Morgan, Joseph John; Matsuura, Miki

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between students' living in poverty and academic underachievement challenges schools across the nation. Poverty is particularly prevalent among children with disabilities. One detrimental condition of poverty that directly affects student development and academic achievement is food insecurity and hunger. With the increasing…

  17. Hunger in the Midst of Affluence: Task Force Combats Hunger in Contra Costa County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mary Lavender

    1994-01-01

    Research conducted by the Hunger Task Force in Contra Costa County (California) revealed a significant increase in the number of families, especially with young children, who live in poverty and who are going hungry. A food stamp outreach program, a countywide school breakfast program, and food distribution programs have been initiated. (LP)

  18. "Hunger Games"Feminist Narrative Resolve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hui

    2016-01-01

    "The Hunger Games"is a personal heroine to type"I"perspective to expand public narrative fiction. Female Charac-ters in"see"in establishing their dominant position, while the male marginalization, and construction of the female conscious-ness. Personal type disclosed in the narrative voice has justifiably authority, but the female narrator in the narrative process will encounter all kinds of repression, the author let people keep their own voice, using the first-person narrative voice group spokes-men style, interior monologue strategy digestion Men authority, breaking the traditional patriarchal narrative traditions under the order issued roundabout way hidden female voice, access to authoritative narrative.

  19. Poor knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition during pregnancy and lactation in Australian women: pre- and post-iodine fortification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charlton, Karen; Yeatman, Heather; Lucas, Catherine; Axford, Samantha; Gemming, Luke; Houweling, Fiona; Goodfellow, Alison; Ma, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A before-after review was undertaken to assess whether knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition, supplementation and fortification has improved in Australian women since the introduction...

  20. Hunger can be taught: Hunger Recognition regulates eating and improves energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ciampolini,1 David Lovell-Smith,2 Timothy Kenealy,3 Riccardo Bianchi4 1Unit of Preventive Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Department of General Practice, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA Abstract: A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH, has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG. These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition. Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern. IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity. Keywords: energy intake, hunger, energy balance, food intake regulation, prevention, insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, risks

  1. Parameters for quantification of hunger in broiler breeders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Voorst, van A.S.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The commercial restricted feeding programme of broiler breeders has a major negative effect on welfare, as the birds are continuously hungry. Objective parameters of hunger are needed to evaluate new management or feeding systems that may alleviate hunger and thus improve broiler breeder welfare. Th

  2. World Hunger Crisis Kit. Hope for the Hungry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This booklet introduces the problem of world hunger and provides information, facts, and perspectives about the crisis. Section one presents the reader with the basic facts of the hunger crisis through a self-survey, a statistical study of the developed Oil Producing Export Countries (OPEC), and a one-page indication of what one would have to give…

  3. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance.

  4. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiet

  5. Paradox of Our Times: Hunger in a Strong Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Sandra H.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Seavey, Dorie

    America today is haunted by the paradox of hunger and food insecurity amidst unprecedented prosperity. Despite a record economic expansion, millions of American households struggle to find sufficient resources to feed family members. Focusing on families with children, this report presents current evidence on hunger and food insecurity, identifies…

  6. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Chen, Jian Hua; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’) in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging) as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb) and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb) in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1) in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria), and increased xanthine oxidase (XO), p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB). Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  7. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. Tarry-Adkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’ in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1 in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria, and increased xanthine oxidase (XO, p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB. Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1, all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  8. Aberrant Cerebral Blood Flow in Response to Hunger and Satiety in Women Remitted from Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Wierenga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of pathological eating in anorexia nervosa (AN remains poorly understood. Cerebral blood flow (CBF is an indirect marker of neuronal function. In healthy adults, fasting increases CBF, reflecting increased delivery of oxygen and glucose to support brain metabolism. This study investigated whether women remitted from restricting-type AN (RAN have altered CBF in response to hunger that may indicate homeostatic dysregulation contributing to their ability to restrict food. We compared resting CBF measured with pulsed arterial spin labeling in 21 RAN and 16 healthy comparison women (CW when hungry (after a 16-h fast and after a meal. Only remitted subjects were examined to avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition on brain function. Compared to CW, RAN demonstrated a reduced difference in the Hungry − Fed CBF contrast in the right ventral striatum, right subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (pcorr < 0.05 and left posterior insula (punc < 0.05; RAN had decreased CBF when hungry versus fed, whereas CW had increased CBF when hungry versus fed. Moreover, decreased CBF when hungry in the left insula was associated with greater hunger ratings on the fasted day for RAN. This represents the first study to show that women remitted from AN have aberrant resting neurovascular function in homeostatic neural circuitry in response to hunger. Regions involved in homeostatic regulation showed group differences in the Hungry − Fed contrast, suggesting altered cellular energy metabolism in this circuitry that may reduce motivation to eat.

  9. Aberrant Cerebral Blood Flow in Response to Hunger and Satiety in Women Remitted from Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Rasmusson, Grace; Bailer, Ursula F; Berner, Laura A; Liu, Thomas T; Kaye, Walter H

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of pathological eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly understood. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an indirect marker of neuronal function. In healthy adults, fasting increases CBF, reflecting increased delivery of oxygen and glucose to support brain metabolism. This study investigated whether women remitted from restricting-type AN (RAN) have altered CBF in response to hunger that may indicate homeostatic dysregulation contributing to their ability to restrict food. We compared resting CBF measured with pulsed arterial spin labeling in 21 RAN and 16 healthy comparison women (CW) when hungry (after a 16-h fast) and after a meal. Only remitted subjects were examined to avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition on brain function. Compared to CW, RAN demonstrated a reduced difference in the Hungry - Fed CBF contrast in the right ventral striatum, right subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (pcorr < 0.05) and left posterior insula (punc < 0.05); RAN had decreased CBF when hungry versus fed, whereas CW had increased CBF when hungry versus fed. Moreover, decreased CBF when hungry in the left insula was associated with greater hunger ratings on the fasted day for RAN. This represents the first study to show that women remitted from AN have aberrant resting neurovascular function in homeostatic neural circuitry in response to hunger. Regions involved in homeostatic regulation showed group differences in the Hungry - Fed contrast, suggesting altered cellular energy metabolism in this circuitry that may reduce motivation to eat.

  10. FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENYIMPANGAN POSITIF (POSITIVE DEVIANCE STATUS GIZI BALITA PADA KELUARGA MISKIN DI KABUPATEN GIZI-KURANG RENDAH DAN TINGGI DI PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN (FACTORS OF POSITIVE DEVIANCE IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVES AMONG POOR FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Luciasari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The amount of poor population in Jeneponto & Selayar districts, South Sulawesi, were relatively similar and higher than the national average. However, Janeponto had high prevalence in malnutrition among children under five (28%, whereas Selayar had low prevalence in malnutrition among children under five (11,31%. Objective: This research aims to measure positive deviance which affects nutrition status in two different districts with relative-similar poverty level as well as different nutrition deficiency prevalence. Method: This research is an advance analysis of Riskesdas 2007 data which targeted poor family with under-five-children as sample. As the first step, data verification is conducted to make sure data completeness. Analysis is done by using statistical description, whereas Chi square test is used to analyzing nutrition-status-factors difference between two districts. Result: Under-five-children nutrition status is highly affected by family socio-economy status which covers education level of parents, income, total of family member, access to clean water, environment hygiene and sanitation, and family morbidity. Conclusion: Positive deviation factor of less malnutrition nutritional status than high malnutrition in poor areas was the high parental education, the small number of household members, and ease of access to water.   Keywords: positive deviance, nutritional status, under-fives, poor family   ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Penduduk miskin di Kabupaten Jeneponto dan Selayar, Sulawesi Selatan, jumlahnya relatif sama dan lebih tinggi dari angka nasional. Namun, Jeneponto memiliki prevalensi balita gizi-kurang yang tinggi (28%, sedangkan Selayar memiliki prevalensi balita gizi-kurang yang rendah (11,3%. Tujuan: Menentukan faktor-faktor penyimpangan positif yang memengaruhi status gizi di dua kabupaten dengan tingkat kemiskinan relatif sama tetapi berprevalensi gizi kurang berbeda. Metode: Analisis lanjut data

  11. Hunger strike among detainees: guidance for good medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gétaz, Laurent; Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Eytan, Ariel; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2012-09-17

    Hunger strike is a regularly reported problem in prison. Although clinical situations are rarely severe, hospitalisation is often considered. In consequence, it is not only physicians working in prisons, but also hospital medical teams who face challenges related to hunger strike, involving somatic, psychological, legal and human rights aspects. Furthermore, deontological rules must be strictly respected when delivering care, particularly in prison setting. Starvation involves metabolic changes and can cause severe, and sometimes even irreversible or fatal complications. Moreover, the phase of re-alimentation should not be trivialised, as re-feeding syndrome is a potentially fatal phenomenon. This article provides guidance for monitoring and management of patients on hunger strike.

  12. How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in sub-Saharan Africa? The views of African researchers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Van Royen

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research.

  13. Accumulation of geriatric conditions is associated with poor nutritional status in dependent older people living in the community and in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Takahisa; Hasegawa, Jun; Izawa, Sachiko; Enoki, Hiromi; Suzuki, Yuske; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the association between nutritional status and the prevalence of geriatric conditions in dependent older adults. A cross-sectional observational study of dependent older adults aged 65years or older who were living either in the community (n = 511, mean age 81.2years) or in nursing homes (n = 587, mean age 85.2years) was carried out. Data included the participants' demographic characteristics, basic activities of daily living, Charlson Comorbidity Index and the prevalence of eight geriatric conditions (visual impairment, hearing impairment, falls, bladder control problems, cognitive impairment, impaired mobility, swallowing disturbance and loss of appetite). Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-SF). Of 1098 participants, 21.4% (n = 235) were categorized as "malnourished", according to the MNA-SF classification. Participants in the "malnourished" group had a greater number of geriatric conditions than those in the other two groups. A higher prevalence of all the geriatric conditions except for falls was detected in the group with poorer nutritional status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that malnutrition was associated with the number of geriatric conditions, but not with that of comorbidities, even after controlling for confounders. Malnutrition was confirmed to have significant associations with geriatric conditions in dependent older adults. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Poor nutritional status is associated with other geriatric domain impairments and adverse postoperative outcomes in onco-geriatric surgical patients - A multicentre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M G; Veronese, G; Audisio, R A; Ugolini, G; Montroni, I; de Bock, G H; van Leeuwen, B L

    BACKGROUND: Nutritional status (NS), though frequently affected in onco-geriatric patients, is no standard part of a geriatric assessment. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between a preoperatively impaired NS and geriatric domain impairments and adverse postoperative outcomes in

  15. 62 NUTRITION IN HIV: A REVIEW *L. M. Houtzager *Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... nutritional status, treatment, food and nutrition interventions continues ... infection and poor nutritional status are interlinked. .... ART has on growth among infants and children ..... RN, Body composition studies in patients with ...

  16. Poor growth and pneumonia seasonality in infants in the Philippines: cohort and time series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Stuart; Ware, Robert S; Lucero, Marilla G; Tallo, Veronica; Nohynek, Hanna; Simões, Eric A F; Weinstein, Philip; Sly, Peter D; Williams, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Children with poor nutrition are at increased risk of pneumonia. In many tropical settings seasonal pneumonia epidemics occur during the rainy season, which is often a period of poor nutrition. We have investigated whether seasonal hunger may be a driver of seasonal pneumonia epidemics in children in the tropical setting of the Philippines. In individual level cohort analysis, infant size and growth were both associated with increased pneumonia admissions, consistent with findings from previous studies. A low weight for age z-score in early infancy was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia admission over the following 12 months (RR for infants in the lowest quartile of weight for age z-scores 1.28 [95% CI 1.08 to 1.51]). Poor growth in smaller than average infants was also associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (RR for those in the lowest quartile of growth in early infancy 1.31 [95%CI 1.02 to 1.68]). At a population level, we found that seasonal undernutrition preceded the seasonal increase in pneumonia and respiratory syncytial virus admissions by approximately 10 weeks (pairwise correlation at this lag was -0.41 [95%CI -0.53 to -0.27] for pneumonia admissions, and -0.63 [95%CI -0.72 to -0.51] for respiratory syncytial virus admissions). This lag appears biologically plausible. These results suggest that in addition to being an individual level risk factor for pneumonia, poor nutrition may act as a population level driver of seasonal pneumonia epidemics in the tropics. Further investigation of the seasonal level association, in particular the estimation of the expected lag between seasonal undernutrition and increased pneumonia incidence, is recommended.

  17. Poor growth and pneumonia seasonality in infants in the Philippines: cohort and time series studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Paynter

    Full Text Available Children with poor nutrition are at increased risk of pneumonia. In many tropical settings seasonal pneumonia epidemics occur during the rainy season, which is often a period of poor nutrition. We have investigated whether seasonal hunger may be a driver of seasonal pneumonia epidemics in children in the tropical setting of the Philippines. In individual level cohort analysis, infant size and growth were both associated with increased pneumonia admissions, consistent with findings from previous studies. A low weight for age z-score in early infancy was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia admission over the following 12 months (RR for infants in the lowest quartile of weight for age z-scores 1.28 [95% CI 1.08 to 1.51]. Poor growth in smaller than average infants was also associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (RR for those in the lowest quartile of growth in early infancy 1.31 [95%CI 1.02 to 1.68]. At a population level, we found that seasonal undernutrition preceded the seasonal increase in pneumonia and respiratory syncytial virus admissions by approximately 10 weeks (pairwise correlation at this lag was -0.41 [95%CI -0.53 to -0.27] for pneumonia admissions, and -0.63 [95%CI -0.72 to -0.51] for respiratory syncytial virus admissions. This lag appears biologically plausible. These results suggest that in addition to being an individual level risk factor for pneumonia, poor nutrition may act as a population level driver of seasonal pneumonia epidemics in the tropics. Further investigation of the seasonal level association, in particular the estimation of the expected lag between seasonal undernutrition and increased pneumonia incidence, is recommended.

  18. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 [FNS-2011-0019] RIN 0584-AE09 National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the...: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of...

  19. Norwegian PUQE (Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and nausea identifies patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and poor nutritional intake: a prospective cohort validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Birkeland

    Full Text Available The English questionnaire Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and nausea (PUQE identifies women with severe Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Our aim was to investigate whether scores from the translated Norwegian version; SUKK (SvangerskapsUtløst Kvalme Kvantifisering was associated with severity of hyperemesis and nutritional intake.A prospective cohort validation study.Hospital cohort of Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG patients from western Norway and healthy pregnant women from Bergen, Norway.38 women hospitalized due to HG and 31 healthy pregnant controls attending routine antenatal check-up at health centers.Data were collected May 2013-January 2014. The study participants answered the Norwegian PUQE-questionnaire (scores ranging from 3 to 15 and registered prospectively 24-hours nutritional intake by a food list form.Differences of PUQE-scores, QOL-score and nutritional intake between hyperemesis patients and controls.Hyperemesis patients had shorter gestational age compared to controls (median 9.7 weeks; 95% CI 8.6-10.6 versus 11.9; 95% CI 10.1-12.9, p=0.004, and larger weight-change from pre-pregnant weight (loss of median 3 kg; 95% CI 3-4 versus gain of 2 kg; 95% CI 0.5-2, p<0.001 otherwise groups were similar regarding pre-pregnant BMI, age, gravidity, and inclusion weight. Compared to controls, hyperemesis patients had significant higher PUQE-score (median 13; 95% CI 11-14 vs. 7; 95% CI 4-8, lower QOL (median score 3; 95% CI 2-4 vs. 6; 95% CI 4.5-8 and lower nutritional intake (energy intake median 990 kcal/24 hours; 95% CI 709-1233 vs. 1652; 95% CI 1558-1880 all p<0.001. PUQE-score was inversely correlated to nutritional intake (-0.5, p<0.001. At discharge PUQE-score had fallen to median 6 (95% CI 5-8 and QOL score risen to 7 (95% CI 6-8 in the HG group, (both p<0.001 compared to admission values.PUQE-scoring has been validated as a robust indicator of severe hyperemesis gravidarum and insufficient nutritional intake in a Norwegian setting.

  20. Maternal and child nutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Anna

    2008-02-01

    Women of child-bearing age (especially pregnant and lactating women), infants and young children are in the most nutritionally-vulnerable stages of the life cycle. Maternal malnutrition is a major predisposing factor for morbidity and mortality among African women. The causes include inadequate food intake, poor nutritional quality of diets, frequent infections and short inter-pregnancy intervals. Evidence for maternal malnutrition is provided by the fact that between 5 and 20% of African women have a low BMI as a result of chronic hunger. Across the continent the prevalence of anaemia ranges from 21 to 80%, with similarly high values for both vitamin A and Zn deficiency levels. Another challenge is the high rates of HIV infection, which compromise maternal nutritional status. The consequences of poor maternal nutritional status are reflected in low pregnancy weight gain and high infant and maternal morbidity and mortality. Suboptimal infant feeding practices, poor quality of complementary foods, frequent infections and micronutrient deficiencies have largely contributed to the high mortality among infants and young children in the region. Feeding children whose mothers are infected with HIV continues to remain an issue requiring urgent attention. There are successful interventions to improve the nutrition of mothers, infants and young children, which will be addressed. Interventions to improve the nutrition of infants and young children, particularly in relation to the improvement of micronutrient intakes of young children, will be discussed. The recent release by WHO of new international growth standards for assessing the growth and nutritional status of children provides the tool for early detection of growth faltering and for appropriate intervention.

  1. Hunger state affects both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Deniz; Altun, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    Chemical senses such as odor, taste and appearance are directly related with appetite. Understanding the relation between appetite and flavor is getting more important due to increasing number of obese patients worldwide. The literature on the studies investigating the change in olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity mostly performed using food-related odors and tastes rather than standardized tests were developed to study olfaction and gustation. Therefore, results are inconsistent and the relationship between olfactory and gustatory sensitivity with respect to the actual state of human satiety is still not completely understood. Here, for the first time in literature, we investigated the change in both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity in hunger and in satiety using 123 subjects (37 men, 86 women; mean age 31.4 years, age range 21-41 years). The standardized Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test and Taste Strips were used for olfactory testing and gustatory sensitivity, respectively. TDI score (range 1-48) was calculated as the collective scores of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D) and odor identification (I). The evaluation was performed in two successive days where the hunger state of test subjects was confirmed by blood glucose test strips (mean blood glucose level 90.0 ± 5.6 mg/dl in hunger and 131.4 ± 8.1 mg/dl in satiety). The results indicated statistically significant decrease in olfaction in satiety compared to hunger (mean TDI 39.3 ± 1.1 in hunger, 37.4 ± 1.1 in satiety, p hunger (p satiety (p hunger state.

  2. Homestead food production model contributes to improved household food security and nutrition status of young children and women in poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talukder

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient malnutrition is a serious public health problem among women and children in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and the Philippines. Helen Keller International has been implementing homestead food production (HFP programs (coupled with nutrition education in these countries to increase and ensure year-round availability and intake of micronutrient-rich foods in poor households, particularly among women and children.  Between 2003 and 2007, the HFP program was implemented among ~30,000 households in these four countries. Data collected from representative samples taken for evaluations of HFP programs in these countries illustrated the benefit of the program for households. Data were collected through interviews with households in villages that had the HFP program and from control households in non-HFP program villages. Blood samples collected from ~1000 children aged 6-59 months and ~1200 non-pregnant women before and after program implementation were analyzed for hemoglobin. The review showed that the HFP program significantly improved dietary diversification. The combined data from all four countries showed improved animal food consumption among program households, with liver consumption increasing from 24% at baseline to 46% at endline and the median number of eggs consumed by families per week increasing from 2 to 5.  The sale of HFP products also improved household income. Anemia prevalence among children in program households decreased in all the countries; however, the decrease was only significant in Bangladesh and the Philippines.  Although anemia prevalence also decreased among control households in three countries, the magnitude of change was higher in program households compared with control households.Les carences en micronutriments représentent un grave problème de santé publique chez les femmes et les enfants au Bangladesh, au Cambodge, au Népal et aux Philippines. Helen Keller International met en œuvre dans ces pays

  3. Do hunger and exposure to food affect scores on a measure of hedonic hunger? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Ashley A; Raggio, Greer A; Butryn, Meghan L; Lowe, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of these manipulations on self-reported external eating and disinhibition. Participants (N=67) ate a standardized meal followed by a 4-h fast. Participants were randomized to one of four groups (Fasted/Food Absence, Fasted/Food Exposure, Fed/Food Absence, or Fed/Food Exposure). In Phase I of the experiment (Hunger Manipulation), participants randomized to the "Fed" group drank a protein shake, while those in the "Fasted" group did not receive a shake. In Phase II (Palatable Food Exposure), participants in the "Food Exposure" group were visually exposed to palatable food items, while "Food Absence" participants were not. All participants completed the PFS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire External Eating subscale, and the Disinhibition subscale from the Eating Inventory during Phase II. Results showed no significant main or interactive effects of Hunger condition or Food Exposure condition on PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scores (all p'setas squared ⩽.015). Manipulation checks confirmed that the intended hunger and exposure interventions were successful. Results suggest that relatively short fasting periods (e.g., 4h) analogous to typical breaks between meals are not associated with changes in scores on the PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scales. Hedonic hunger, at least as measured by the PFS, may represent a relatively stable construct that is not substantially affected by daily variations in hunger. In addition, individual differences in exposure to food in the immediate environment are unlikely to confound research using these measures.

  4. Moving Beyond the Debate Over Restricting Sugary Drinks in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B

    2017-02-01

    To address the dual problem of food insecurity and poor nutrition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has recently revised the nutrition standards for nearly all of its federal food programs to align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. One notable exception is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Policy proposals to restrict SNAP benefits based on nutrition quality (e.g., excluding sugary drinks) have generated controversy and have polarized previous research and advocacy allies. This essay presents many of the issues that have emerged, which include challenges about the feasibility, justification, and effectiveness of restricting benefits; the risk of a slippery slope; concerns about participant dignity; and finally, distrust about the motives behind promoting and opposing a policy change. The purpose of this review is to increase mutual understanding and respect of different perspectives. The conclusion is that the rationales behind both support and opposition to updating the policies regulating SNAP benefits based on nutrition are fundamentally the same-the belief that a fair and just society cares for and protects vulnerable citizens, which in this case are low-income Americans who need assistance affording healthy food. Recommendations include activities to restore trust between the public health and anti-hunger communities, authentic engagement of SNAP participants in the conversation, and an optional SNAP program that includes both incentives and restrictions.

  5. HUNGER STRIKES AND FORCE-FEEDING IN PRISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Florin GEAMĂNU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study will try to give an overview and assess the international and European standards regarding the management of hunger strikes. We will analyse the international and European standards regarding the force-feeding a prisoner on a hunger strike. The paper will focus on the study of the ECtHR judgements regarding the force-feeding of hunger strikers. Also, we will address the U.S. case and the force-feeding of prisoners which is considered to be, in certain cases, an act of torture based on the international human rights standards. To close with, the study will attempt to go through the recent developments in the Romanian legislation, analysing the legislation and its conformity with the European principles and recommendations, bearing in mind the prohibition, in absolute terms, of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

  6. Revisiting Dystopia: the Reality Show Biopolitics of "The Hunger Games"

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    Fani Cettl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dystopian imaginaries of the recent popular novel trilogy The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins and its film adaptations. Having put the narrative into a genealogy of dystopian fiction concerned with the historical nation-state totalitarianisms, I ask what is specifically contemporary about The Hunger Games. I explore this by focusing on the functioning of the reality show format in the narrative, which I link to G. Agamben’s understanding of the spectacle, as part of his wider biopolitical theories. I apply an Agambenian biopolitical reading to the narrative, seeing it as a production of bare life through the camp of the reality show arena. I suggest that The Hunger Games offer a critique of contemporary liberal democracies by calling attention to their production of underclassed and expendable life, which is imagined as an eruption of the nation-state right to kill, similarly as in Agamben’s theories.

  7. Food insecurity with hunger is associated with obesity among HIV-infected and at risk women in Bronx, NY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Sirotin

    Full Text Available Food insecurity, insufficient quality and quantity of nutritionally adequate food, affects millions of people in the United States (US yearly, with over 18 million Americans reporting hunger. Food insecurity is associated with obesity in the general population. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected women, we sought to determine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in this cohort of urban, HIV-infected and -uninfected but at risk women.Using a cross-sectional design, we collected data on food insecurity, body mass index and demographic and clinical data from 231 HIV-infected and 119 HIV-negative women enrolled in Bronx site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with obesity.Food insecurity was highly prevalent, with almost one third of women (110/350, 31% reporting food insecurity over the previous six months and over 13% of women reported food insecurity with hunger. Over half the women were obese with a Body Mass Index (BMI of ≥ 30. In multivariate analyses, women who were food insecure with hunger had higher odds of obesity (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =  2.56, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]  =  1.27, 5.20 after adjusting for HIV status, age, race, household status, income, drug and alcohol use.Food insecurity with hunger was associated with obesity in this population of HIV-infected and -uninfected, urban women. Both food insecurity and obesity are independent markers for increased mortality; further research is needed to understand this relationship and their role in adverse health outcomes.

  8. How to Achieve Transparency in Public-Private Partnerships Engaged in Hunger and Malnutrition Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Bird, Julia K

    2016-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships are important facilitators of improving nutrition in developing countries to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Often, the role of industry is challenged and questions are raised as to the ethics of involving for-profit companies in humanitarian projects. The Second International Conference on Nutrition placed great emphasis on the role of the private sector, including industry, in multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce hunger and malnutrition. Governments have to establish regulatory frameworks and institutions to guarantee fair competition and invest in infrastructure that makes investments for private companies attractive, eventually leading to economic growth. Civil society organizations can contribute by delivering nutrition interventions and behavioral change-related communication to consumers, providing capacity, and holding governments and private sector organizations accountable. Industry provides technical support, innovation, and access to markets and the supply chain. The greatest progress and impact can be achieved if all stakeholders cooperate in multi-stakeholder partnerships aimed at improving nutrition, thereby strengthening local economies and reducing poverty and inequality. Successful examples of public-private partnerships exist, as well as examples in which these partnerships did not achieve mutually agreed objectives. The key requirements for productive alliances between industry and civil society organizations are the establishment of rules of engagement, transparency and mutual accountability. The Global Social Observatory performed a consultation on conflicts of interest related to the Scaling Up Nutrition movement and provided recommendations to prevent, identify, manage and monitor potential conflicts of interest. Multi-stakeholder partnerships can be successful models in improving nutrition if they meet societal demand with transparent decision-making and execution. Solutions to

  9. BASELINE SURVEY ON NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH STATUS OF UNDERFIVE CHILDREN AT POOR COMMUNITIES IN DKI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, AND BOGOR YEAR 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Anhari Achadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of anemia and vitamin A deficiency among underfive children is related to their food intake and health status. The situation appeared worst after multiple crisis hit Indonesia in 1997/1998. To obtain factors affecting the nutritional status of children aged 1-5 years, a baseline study was conducted in DKI Jakarta, Bogor, and Tangerang in collaboration with UN-WFP. The sample size was 1337 underfive children consisting of 666 boys and 666 girls. The study showed that malnutrition among underfive children was still high which indicated the high prevalence ofunderweight and stunting, especially in Bogor District and Tangerang District. The micronutrient intake of vitamin A, iron, and zinc among underfive children were certainly below the Indonesian RDA. The level of poverty and the education of woman as well as husbands were two conditions that were obvious from all areas, mainly TangerangDistrict.

  10. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.

  11. M. Paryz on Gavin Jones’s American Hungers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Gavin Jones. American Hungers. The Problem of Poverty in U.S. Literature, 1840-1945. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008. 20/21 Series. ISBN: 978-0-691-12753-8.American Hungers. The Problem of Poverty in U.S. Literature, 1840-1945 by Gavin Jones is an insightful study of the ways of representing poverty in selected works by Herman Melville, Edith Wharton, Theodore Dreiser, James Agee, and Richard Wright.  The choice of authors for discussion perhaps suggests a limited scope...

  12. Effects Of Poor Quality Desert Grass And Subsequent Refeeding On A High Plane Of Nutrition On Growth And Body Composition Of Sudan Desert Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgoub, O.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty two, 21 males and 21 females, weaned Sudan Desert lambs were divided according to sex and live weight into three equal groups (3 x 14. Each group was randomly fed ad libitum for 11 weeks on one of three diets : humra Aristida funiculata Trin. & Rupr., humra plus limited amound of cotton seed cake, and a balanced ration. After those 11 weeks of differential feeding, each group was fed ad libitum on the balanced ration for 12 weeks. Six lambs (3 males and 3 females, 2 from each group, were randomly slaughtered at the start of the differential feeding period. Half of the remaining lambs (3 x 6 in each treatment group (3 x 12 were slaughtered at the end of the differential feeding period and the other half (3 x 6 at the end of the experiment. Live-weight growth of lambs fed humra, with or without supplemental cottonseed cake, was restricted compared to lambs fed the balanced ration. Upon refeeding, previously restricted growing lambs expressed compensatory growth. The pattern of relative increase in weight of body components was not affected by nutritional history but was influenced by body weight. Following refeeding, animals fed earlier humra with or without cottonseed cake, recovered in body conformation and composition. It was concluded that, supplementation of range lambs with a source of protein during the season of graze scarcity and afterwards feeding them on high energy yielding rations shortly before slaughter is recommended under the conditions of the Sudan.

  13. Real and metaphorical hunger: the case of The Divergent Trilogy

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    Cristina Paravano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13. Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social characteristics. The life of each faction seems to be based on a form of metaphorical hunger: those who pursue selflessness and altruism belong to Abnegation, peace and harmony to Amity, honesty and truth to Candor, danger and adventure to Dauntless, and knowledge and power to Erudite. Those people who are excluded become factionless: they are outcasts who live their life in extreme poverty and experience real physical hunger. On the other hand, I will show how the numerous references to food and eating pervading the novels help to map the characters’ personalities and identities as single individuals and as groups.

  14. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van I.; Graaf, de C.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three

  15. Hospitalized hunger-striking prisoners: the role of ethics consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caenazzo, Luciana; Tozzo, Pamela; Rodriguez, Daniele

    2016-12-01

    We refer to hospitalized convicted hunger strikers in Padua Hospital who decided to fast for specific reasons, often demanding, to be heard by the judge, to complain about the existing custodial situation or to claim unjust treatment. The medical ethics of hunger strikers are debated because the use of force feeding by physicians is widely condemned as unethical, but courts, in Italy, sometimes order to transfer the convicted person to hospital and oblige healthcare practitioners to perform forcible feeding. This can engender a profound insecurity for the physicians taking action on the one hand, while preventing patients from fully availing themselves of this principle of self-determination on the other. Physicians are mainly concerned about how to manage this situation and they may request ethical consultation. When it comes to managing hospitalized hunger strikers, the ethics consultant may be able to facilitate the relationship between physicians and hunger strikers, enhance the latter's trust in the former, ensuring that strikers are aware of the risks associated with their fasting, and helping them to arrive of their own free will at the right decision concerning their behavior and their demands.

  16. Did the Gamemakers Fix the Lottery in the Hunger Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Kyle; Daniels, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The Hunger Games is an annual event in the fictional country of Panem. Each year, 24 children (tributes) are chosen by lottery from 12 districts to fight to the death in the arena for the entertainment of the Capitol citizens. Using statistical analysis and computer simulations, we will explore the possibility that the Gamemakers, those in charge…

  17. Did the Gamemakers Fix the Lottery in the Hunger Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Kyle; Daniels, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The Hunger Games is an annual event in the fictional country of Panem. Each year, 24 children (tributes) are chosen by lottery from 12 districts to fight to the death in the arena for the entertainment of the Capitol citizens. Using statistical analysis and computer simulations, we will explore the possibility that the Gamemakers, those in charge…

  18. "The Hunger Games" and Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Horizons, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Mary Mobley teaches English and Michael Chambers teaches world history at Manor New Technology High School, a STEM school, in Manor, Texas. In this article, they talk about how they used "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins to teach their students about forms of government between World War I and World War II, and "Edutopia"…

  19. "The Hunger Games": Literature, Literacy, and Online Affinity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article examines adolescent literacy practices related to "The Hunger Games," a young adult novel and the first of a trilogy. By focusing on the interaction of social identities, discourses, and media paratexts within an online affinity space, this ethnographic study offers insight into how young adults engage with contemporary…

  20. The Year of the Rat ends: time to fight hunger!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Singleton, G.R.; Leirs, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of ecologically based rodent management in the light of the current food crisis, and the potential effects of this approach on the position of the undernourished. Hunger and food prices are on the rise owing to shortages that can be traced to reasons such as cl

  1. Concern About Hunger May Increase Receptivity to GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches.

  2. Visceral States Call for Visceral Measures: Verbal Overshadowing of Hunger Ratings Across Assessment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Schooler, Jonathan W; Wright, Aidan G C; Pacilio, Laura E

    2016-04-27

    We introduce a nonverbal "visceral" measure of hunger (i.e., squeezing a handheld dynamometer) and provide the first evidence of verbal overshadowing effects in this visceral domain. We presented 106 participants with popcorn and recorded their hunger levels in one of three conditions: (1) first report hunger using a traditional self-report rating scale (i.e., verbal measure) and then indicate hunger by squeezing a dynamometer (i.e., nonverbal measure), (2) first indicate hunger verbally and then indicate hunger nonverbally, or (3) indicate hunger only nonverbally. As hypothesized, nonverbal measures of hunger predicted subsequent eating behavior when they were uncontaminated by verbal measures-either because they preceded verbal measures of hunger or because they were the sole measure of hunger. Moreover, nonverbal measures of hunger were a better predictor of eating behavior than verbal measures. Implications of the study for communicating embodied experiences in a way that escapes the confines of symbolic representations are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Smoking, poor nutrition, and sexually transmitted infections associated with pelvic inflammatory disease in remote North Queensland Indigenous communities, 1998-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; McDermott, Robyn

    2015-04-01

    Indigenous women in remote North Queensland have a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and associated health conditions such as sexual transmitted infections (STI). The association of severe pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with these factors has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to associate the factors with severe PID, as indicated by hospitalization in a high risk population in North Queensland Indigenous communities. A cross-sectional association of 1445 Indigenous women using linked hospital separation and survey data during 1998-2005. The mean age of participating women was 37.4 years, 60% were of Aboriginal and 40% were Torres Strait Island (TSI) people. More than half of them (52.5%) were smokers, 9.3% had chlamydia and 2.6% had gonorrhoea with the overall prevalence of STI among those less than 25 years of age being 23.9%. Among the 47 participants diagnosed with PID in the study period, 42.5% were under 25 years and 95.7% (45 cases) were under 55 years (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-4.1 among women younger than 25 compared to those 25 years and over). PID was strongly associated with smoking (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-9.2) independent of age, ethnicity, STI and folate status. Low red cell folate increased PID hospitalization by 4 times (95% CI 1.5-13.2 of lowest quartile compared to the highest quartile) regardless of age. Having a STI significantly increased the likelihood of severe PID by 2.2 times (95% CI: 1.03-4.5) in Indigenous women younger than 45 years, independent of smoking and folate level. The risk of PID hospitalization was higher for gonorrheal infections (OR 3.2, 955 CI 1.1-9.6) compared to chlamydial infections (OR 1.5 95% CI 0.7-3.5). Young Indigenous women in North Queensland communities are at very high risk for STI and PID. Smoking, low folate, and STI are clustered, and are associated with PID hospitalizations. Much of this can be prevented with improved nutrition and access to preventive services, especially tobacco

  4. Hunger and memory; CRTC coordinates long-term memory with the physiological state, hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yukinori; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-09-01

    Animals form and store memory, which advantageously adjusts their behavior later on. Although the growing body of evidences suggests the basic mechanisms of memory, it is not clear whether and in which physiological state memory functions can be altered. Here we discuss our recent study that mild fasting facilitates long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila.(1) Canonical LTM in flies is induced by multiple training with rest intervals, and is mediated by a transcription factor, CREB and its binding protein, CBP. However, fasting allows LTM formation (fLTM) only by single-cycle training, in a manner dependent on another CREB binding protein, CRTC. Although it has been controversial, we are convinced that gene expression in a specific neural structure, called mushroom body (MB), is required for LTMs. We also showed data suggesting that reduced insulin signaling during fasting activates CRTC, thereby inducing fLTM formation. These data provides the conceptual advance that flies adapt their mechanisms for LTM formation according to their internal condition, hunger state. Due to limited food resources in the wild, fLTM could be one of the major form of LTM in natural environment. Furthermore, our data also indicate a novel conception that improvement of memory deficit might be achieved by activation of CRTC.

  5. 广西云南贫困县小学生饮食相关影响因素分析%Dietary nutritional related influencing factors of primary school students in poor moutain area of Guangxi and Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈秀华; 唐文静; 毛绚霞; 黄婧妍; 蔡威

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dietary conditions of primary school students in poor mountain area in order to provide baseline data for the nutrition related aids.Methods Nine primary schools in the representative poor counties in Guangxi and Yunnan provinces were selected,1 868 students and their parents were separately investigated by a questionnaire.Results About 83.81% of the family considered that basically the problem of food and clothing was solved.Every family spent 263.37 yuan on food monthly,the Engel coefficient was 0.51±0.24.About 79.40% of families had only two meals every day.All the schools had dining room and provide the students with lunch and dinner,every meal cost about 1.2-3.0 yuan.Only 10.61% of the students pass the nutrition knowledge exam,far less than the children of the same age in Shanghai City.About 81.8% of the students "never eat eggs" or "seldom eat eggs",92.9% of the students had pocket money with 26.91±34.83 yuan per month.About 24.25% of the students eat snacks every day.Conclusion Basically the problem of food and clothing is solved in Chinese poor counties.It is time to provide nutrition education for the students to develop a good eating habit,which is also necessary to make the government's nutrition plan more beneficial.%目的 了解贫困地区小学生饮食营养相关影响因素现状,为进一步加强营养相关援助提供基线资料.方法 在广西和云南各选取1个国家级贫困县,对9所小学全体学生共1 868名及其家长进行问卷调查.结果 83.81%的家庭认为已经或基本解决温饱问题.家庭每月用于购买食物的费用为263.37元,恩格尔系数为0.51±0.24.79.40%的家庭每天只吃两餐.学校均设有食堂为学生提供午餐和晚餐,每餐一般控制在1.2 ~3.0元.受调查地区小学生的营养知识及格率仅为10.61%,81.8%的学生“从来不吃”或“很少吃”鸡蛋.92.9%的学生平均每月零花钱有(26.91±34.83)元.24.25

  6. Partnering with School Nutrition Professionals to Promote Fruit and Vegetable Intake through Taste-Testing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.; Hughes, Luanne J.; Wu-Jung, Corey J.; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra; Savoca, LeeAnne

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010 sets new nutrition standards for schools, requiring them to serve a greater variety and quantity of fruits and vegetables. Extension educators in New Jersey partnered with school nutrition professionals to implement a school wellness initiative that included taste-testing activities to support…

  7. Genetics- and genomics-based interventions for nutritional enhancement of grain legume crops: status and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Abhishek; Sahrawat, Kanwar L; Kumar, Shiv; Joshi, Rohit; Parihar, Ashok K; Singh, Ummed; Singh, Deepak; Singh, Narendra P

    2015-05-01

    Meeting the food demands and ensuring nutritional security of the ever increasing global population in the face of degrading natural resource base and impending climate change is the biggest challenge of the twenty first century. The consequences of mineral/micronutrient deficiencies or the hidden hunger in the developing world are indeed alarming and need urgent attention. In addressing the problems associated with mineral/micronutrient deficiency, grain legumes as an integral component of the farming systems in the developing world have to play a crucial role. For resource-poor populations, a strategy based on selecting and/or developing grain legume cultivars with grains denser in micronutrients, by biofortification, seems the most appropriate and attractive approach to address the problem. This is evident from the on-going global research efforts on biofortification to provide nutrient-dense grains for use by the poorest of the poor in the developing countries. Towards this end, rapidly growing genomics technologies hold promise to hasten the progress of breeding nutritious legume crops. In conjunction with the myriad of expansions in genomics, advances in other 'omics' technologies particularly plant ionomics or ionome profiling open up novel opportunities to comprehensively examine the elemental composition and mineral networks of an organism in a rapid and cost-effective manner. These emerging technologies would effectively guide the scientific community to enrich the edible parts of grain legumes with bio-available minerals and enhancers/promoters. We believe that the application of these new-generation tools in turn would provide crop-based solutions to hidden hunger worldwide for achieving global nutritional security.

  8. GODAN Local Farming Challenge 2017 - Encourage Geo-Innovation Solutions for Zero Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suchith; Hogan, Patrick; Brovelli, Maria; Schaap, Ben; Musker, Ruthie; Laperrière, André

    2017-04-01

    The initial ideas for Open Geospatial Science [1] were presented nearly a decade ago. They build upon the proposition of Open science which argues that scientific knowledge develops more rapidly and productively if openly shared (as early as is practical in the discovery process). The key ingredients that make Open Geospatial Science possible are enshrined in Open Principles, i.e.: open source geospatial software, open data, open standards, open educational resources, and open access to research publications. OpenCitySmart[2] is an initiative of Geo for All [3] that aims to develop a suite of tools for city-related infrastructure management (utilities, traffic, services, etc.). Its purpose will be to continually refine and add functionality that not only streamlines operational efficiency but also considers the need for sustainability and quality of urban life. OpenCitySmart employs Open solutions to build richer tools that empower organisations and individuals to utilizespatial and non-spatial data alike. This will create opportunities for innovation both globally and locally. As the population of cities grow, the concern of food security will shift from rural to urban areas. Currently, nearly 800 million people struggle with debilitating hunger and malnutrition and can be found in every corner of the globe. That's one in every nine people, with the majority being women and children. The Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition (GODAN) [4] supports the proactive sharing of open data to make information about agriculture and nutrition available, accessible and usable to deal with the urgent challenge of ensuring world food security. A core principle behind GODAN is that a solution to Zero Hunger lies within existing, but often unavailable, agriculture and nutrition data. Through an online survey, GODAN found that the most needed data type across its 430+ partner network was geospatial data. Through the GODAN Europa Challenge we want to bring together

  9. Exploring Pulses through Math, Science, and Nutrition Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane K.; Mandal, Bidisha; Wallace, Michael L.; Riddle, Lee Anne; Kerr, Susan; Atterberry, Kelly Ann; Miles, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 includes pulses as a required component of the school lunch menu standard. Pulses are nutritionally important staple food crops, and include dry beans, dry peas, garbanzo beans, and lentils. This current study examined the short-term effectiveness of a Science, Technology, Engineering,…

  10. Exploring Pulses through Math, Science, and Nutrition Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane K.; Mandal, Bidisha; Wallace, Michael L.; Riddle, Lee Anne; Kerr, Susan; Atterberry, Kelly Ann; Miles, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 includes pulses as a required component of the school lunch menu standard. Pulses are nutritionally important staple food crops, and include dry beans, dry peas, garbanzo beans, and lentils. This current study examined the short-term effectiveness of a Science, Technology, Engineering,…

  11. Hunger, U.S.A.: A Report by the Citizens' Board of Inquiry into Hunger and Malnutrition in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968

    The findings of the Citizen's Board of Inquiry are that: (1) hunger and malnutrition affect millions of Americans and are increasing in severity each year; (2) infant deaths, organic brain damage, retarded growth and learning rates, increased vulnerability to disease, withdrawal, apathy, alienation, frustration, and violence result from hunger and…

  12. Food & nutrition security: challenges in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2013-09-01

    The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR) and under five mortality rate (U5 MR). India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI) for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security.

  13. Food & nutrition security: Challenges in the new millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Ramachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR and under five mortality rate (U5 MR. India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security.

  14. Analysis on the nutritional status of children under 5 years in poor rural area of Linxia county%临夏县贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹永文; 丁国武

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of children under 5 years in poor rural area of Linxia county, provide a basis for improving the nutritional status of the children. Methods: Cluster sampling method wag used to survey the families with children under 5 years from 10 administrative villages of 5 towns in rural area of Linxia county by a questionnaire, the body height and body weight of children were used as the evaluation indicators of nutritional status in children. Results; The incidences of emaciation, growth retardation and low body weight of children under 5 years in the area were 2. 3% , 21. 4% and 8. 1% , respectively. The incidence of growth retardation in boys (24. 0% ) was significantly higher than that in girls (18. 1 % ) (P < 0. 05 ) ; the feeding rate of colostrum in children under 2 years was 63. 1%. Conclusion; The nutritional status of children under 5 years in poor rural area of Linxia county is lower than WHO child growth standards. The feeding method should be improved, colostrum feeding should be promoted, it is recommended to continue pure breastfeeding until 6 months after birth, continue breastfeeding until 2 years or more, the complementary feed should be added reasonably.%目的:评价临夏县贫困农村5岁以下儿童的营养状况,为改善该地区儿童营养状况提供依据.方法:采用整群抽样方法于2010年对临夏县贫困农村5个乡镇10个行政村所有5岁以下儿童的家庭进行问卷调查,以儿童身高和体重作为儿童营养状况的评价指标.结果:该地区5岁以下儿童消瘦、生长迟缓和低体重的患病率分别为2.3%、21.4%和8.1%,男童生长迟缓率(24.0%)高于女童(18.1%)(P<0.05);2岁以下儿童初乳喂养率63.1%.结论:临夏县贫困农村5岁以下儿童营养状况低于世界卫生组织儿童生长标准.应改进喂养方法,促进初乳喂养,建议纯母乳喂养至6个月,继续母乳喂养至2岁或更长时间,同时合理添加辅食.

  15. Sociocultural pressures and adolescent eating in the absence of hunger

    OpenAIRE

    Reina, Samantha A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Mooreville, Mira; Courville, Amber B.; Brady, Sheila M.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Parental feeding practices and sociocultural pressures theoretically influence eating behavior. Yet, whether these factors relate to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is unknown. We assessed if sociocultural pressures were associated with EAH among 90 adolescents (Mage = 15.27, SD = 1.39; 48% female). Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Adolescents completed the Perceived Sociocultural Pressures Scale, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, and Multidim...

  16. [Acute renal failure in a prisoner after hunger strike].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsane, Imène; Zouaghi, Karim; Goucha, Rim; El Younsi, Fethi; Hedri, Hafedh; Barbouch, Samia; Ben Abdallah, Taïeb; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Kheder, Adel

    2007-03-01

    Acute renal failure may occur in varied circumstances. It is potentially reversible spontaneously or after specific treatment. It is rare after hunger strike and fewer cases were reported in the literature. The physiopathological mechanisms are varied and remain incompletely known. We report the case of a prisoner having presented an acute renal failure after a hunger strike wich was completely reversible. He's a 29 year old man, without a past medical facts, in July 2004 he was incarcereted in prison. In October 2004 he undertake a hunger strike during one month. In November 2004 he was hospitalized for global dehydration and shock. His physical examination showed blood pressure 60/40 mmHg, weight 59 Kg with a loss of weight about 10 Kg, diuresis 800 cc/day. His biological findings showed urea 100 mmol/l, creatinemia 679 (mo/l, natremia 179 mmol/l, kaliemia 5 mmol/l, glycemia 5.2 mmol/l, albuminemia 35 g/l, calcemia 2.35 mmol/l and biological marques of rhabdomyolysis: CPK at 11 times the normal and LDH two times the normal. His treatment consisted on rehydratation, parenteral then enteral refeeding and psychiatric talks. The evolution was favourable, re-establishment of good hydration state with a gain weight of 7 Kg, normalization of renal function, his creatininemia reached 85 (mol/l in three weeks and normalization of muscles enzymes in one month. Hunger strike continue to pose a problem because of it's frequency in penitentiary structures and its organic disorders which can lead to death. A good psychiatric cares may be undertaked in order to prevent a such bad manifestations.

  17. Ambiguity, Ambivalence and Extravagance in The Hunger Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.

  18. Food insecurity, health and nutritional status among sample of palm-plantation households in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadpour, M; Sharif, Z Mohd; Keysami, M Avakh

    2012-09-01

    Food insecurity is a worldwide problem and has been shown to contribute to poor health and nutritional outcomes. In Malaysia, poor dietary intake, overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia have been reported to be more prevalent in females compared to males and in Indians compared to other ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and health and nutritional status among 169 Indian women (19-49 years old, non-pregnant, and non-lactating) from randomly-selected palm-plantation households in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Subjects were interviewed for socioeconomic and demographic data, and information on household food security and dietary intake. They were examined for weight, height, waist-circumference, blood pressure and lipids, and plasma glucose levels. For analysis of data, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used. Majority (85.2%) of the households showed food insecurity as assessed using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument. The food-secure women had significantly higher mean years of education and lower mean number of children than food-insecure groups (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in the mean household income and income per capita as food insecurity worsened (p<0.05). Women who reported food security had significantly higher mean diet diversity score (11.60±4.13) than child hunger (9.23±3.36). The group of subjects with higher intake of meat/fish/poultry/legumes (crude odds ratio [OR]=0.53, confidence interval [CI]=0.29-0.95) and higher diet diversity score (crude OR=0.87, CI=0.78-0.97) was more likely to have < 3 health risks. Diet diversity score remained a significant protective factor against heath risks even after adjusting for other variables. The present study showed that food insecurity is indirectly associated with poor health and nutritional status. Therefore, appropriate community

  19. Urban poor program launched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  20. Feeding Dichotomies:Hunger |and| Politics in the Middle East and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Farnum, Becca

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “food security” has a complex and sometimes contradictory relationship with issues of hunger and politics. Some believe the concept helps draw attention to the connection between hunger and politics, creating focused discussion around the idea of “hunger politics.” Other voices worry that “food security” results in food becoming yet another topic in the long list of critical issues to be securitised, depoliticising issues of food and hunger by relegating them to military intere...

  1. Avaliação de políticas públicas de segurança alimentar e combate à fome no período 1995-2002: 2 - Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador Evaluation of Brazilian public policies to promote food security and fight hunger, 1995-2002: 2 - the Workers' Nutrition Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Maria Pacheco Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo avaliou o Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador (PAT entre 1995 e 2002, sob a ótica da estrutura-processo-resultado. A metodologia consistiu em pesquisa documental e estudo de caso em 45 municípios na Bahia, resultando em 2.389 questionários domiciliares. Em termos de estrutura analisou-se a evolução normativa do programa até 2002. Quanto ao atendimento das necessidades nutricionais dos trabalhadores, o programa passou de uma insuficiente adequação calórica nos anos 80 para uma associação positiva entre sobrepeso e trabalho em empresa com PAT. Na Bahia a cobertura foi insuficiente entre os 5.120 adultos maiores de 20 anos investigados. Houve diferença significativa no acesso a benefícios alimentares entre trabalhadores do interior (26,1% e da capital (6,1%. Contudo, a focalização foi adequada: todos os beneficiados no interior e 92,4% na capital tinham renda menor que cinco salários mínimos. Faz-se necessária uma maior divulgação do PAT junto à população alvo, de forma a conscientizar os trabalhadores sobre os seus direitos e as ações desenvolvidas pelo Programa.This study evaluated the Workers' Nutrition Program in Brazil from 1995 to 2002, from a structure-process-results perspective. The methodology involved documental research and a case study in 45 municipalities in the State of Bahia, resulting in 2,389 household interviews. In relation to structure, we analyzed the program's normative evolution until 2002. As for nutritional recommendations, the program shifted from insufficient calorie supply in the 1980s to a positive association between overweight and employment in companies adopting the Workers' Nutrition Program. In Bahia, overall program coverage was insufficient among the 5,120 adults 20 years or older who were interviewed. A significant difference was observed in access to food benefits among workers in the interior of the State (6.1% as compared to the State capital, Salvador (26.1%. However

  2. Maternal and young child nutrition adversely affected by external shocks such as increasing global food prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Cogill, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Rising food prices, resulting from the ongoing global economic crisis, fuel price volatility, and climate change, have an adverse impact upon the poor, especially those in food-importing, resource-limited countries. The conventional approach by large organizations has been to advocate for increased staple crop yields of mainly cereals. High food prices are predicted to continue to at least 2015. Past shocks and their known impacts upon nutrition were reviewed. Price instability and increases have long been an existing global problem, which has been exacerbated by recent macroeconomic shocks such as acute emergencies due to war and civil strife, acute climatic events, increase in food prices, fuel price volatility, dysfunction of the global financial systems, long-term climate change, and the emergence of failed states. The FAO estimated that there were 815 million "hungry" people in 2006, with a now additional 75-135 million with increased vulnerability, and currently it is estimated that there are one billion people at risk of food insecurity. The shocks initially compromise maternal and child nutrition, mainly through a reduction in dietary quality and an increase in micronutrient deficiencies and concomitant increases in infectious disease morbidity and mortality. A further reduction in the quantity of diet may follow with greater underweight and wasting. Recent macroeconomic shocks have greatly increased the number of people who are vulnerable to hunger in developing countries. Nutritional surveillance systems need to be strengthened and expanded to inform policy decisions.

  3. [Withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration in severe stroke: medical, legal and ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannier, C; Crozier, S; Zuber, M; Constantinides, Y; Delezie, E; Gisquet, E; Grignoli, N; Lamy, C; Louvet, F; Pinel, J-F

    2015-02-01

    In the majority of cases, severe stroke is accompanied by difficulty in swallowing and an altered state of consciousness requiring artificial nutrition and hydration. Because of their artificial nature, nutrition and hydration are considered by law as treatment rather basic care. Withdrawal of these treatments is dictated by the refusal of unreasonable obstinacy enshrined in law and is justified by the risk of severe disability and very poor quality of life. It is usually the last among other withholding and withdrawal decisions which have already been made during the long course of the disease. Reaching a collegial consensus on a controversial decision such as artificial nutrition and hydration withdrawal is a difficult and complex process. The reluctance for such decisions is mainly due to the symbolic value of food and hydration, to the fear of "dying badly" while suffering from hunger and thirst, and to the difficult distinction between this medical act and euthanasia. The only way to overcome such reluctance is to ensure flawless accompaniment, associating sedation and appropriate comfort care with a clear explanation (with relatives but also caregivers) of the rationale and implications of this type of decision. All teams dealing with this type of situation must have thoroughly thought through the medical, legal and ethical considerations involved in making this difficult decision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The corporate shaping of GM crops as a technology for the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM, transgenic) crops are often invoked in debates about poverty, hunger, and agricultural development. The framing of GM crops as a 'pro-poor' and environmentally sustainable technology was partly a creation of the biotechnology industry, but cannot be explained as merely a cy

  5. The corporate shaping of GM crops as a technology for the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM, transgenic) crops are often invoked in debates about poverty, hunger, and agricultural development. The framing of GM crops as a 'pro-poor' and environmentally sustainable technology was partly a creation of the biotechnology industry, but cannot be explained as merely a

  6. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Hunger Games: Interactive Ultrasound Imaging for Learning Gastrointestinal Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafer, Ilana; Rennie, William; Noor, Ali; Pellerito, John S

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound is playing an increasingly important role in medical student education. Although most uses of ultrasound have focused on learning purely anatomic relationships or augmentation of the physical examination, there is little documentation of the value of ultrasound as a learning tool regarding physiology alone or in association with anatomy. We devised an interactive learning session for first-year medical students using ultrasound to combine both anatomic and physiologic principles as an integration of gastrointestinal and vascular function. The incorporation of our activity, The Hunger Games, provides the foundation for a powerful integration tool for medical student education. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Long-run effects of gestation during the Dutch Hunger Winter famine on labor market and hospitalization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Robert S; van den Berg, Gerard J; Lindeboom, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Hunger Winter (1944/45) is the most-studied famine in the literature on long-run effects of malnutrition in utero. Its temporal and spatial demarcations are clear, it was severe, it was not anticipated, and nutritional conditions in society were favorable and stable before and after the famine. This is the first study to analyze effects of in utero exposure on labor market outcomes and hospitalization late in life, and the first to use register data covering the full Dutch population to examine long-run effects of this famine. We provide results of famine exposure by sub-interval of gestation. We find a significantly negative effect of exposure during the first trimester of gestation on employment outcomes 53 or more years after birth. Hospitalization rates in the years before retirement are higher after middle or late gestational exposure.

  9. Food variety, dietary diversity and perceived hunger among lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breastfeeding has profound benefits for the child and has always been the gold ... Therefore, it is important to determine the nutritional status of lactating ... that can be used in nutrition intervention programs for optimising breast feeding.

  10. Nutrition and Educational Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Ernesto

    1984-01-01

    Research studies concerning how nutrition affects educational performance are examined. From a developmental perspective it seems likely that the earlier the onset and the longer the duration of the nutritional deficiency the higher the probabilities of a cognitive deficit and poor school achievement in childhood and adolescence. (RM)

  11. Hunger and Food Insecurity in the Fifty States: 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ashley F.; Choi, Eunyoung

    Noting that the persistence of hunger and food insecurity in the United States is an issue of pressing social and public health concern, this study examined the magnitude and severity of hunger and food insecurity in U.S. households in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data were obtained from the August 1998, April 1999, and…

  12. [The Geography of Hunger: clinical interpretation of landscapes or critical epidemiology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Filho, Djalma Agripino de

    2008-11-01

    This article provides a new interpretation of Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], by Josué de Castro, focusing on the convergence of three fields of knowledge: geography, clinical science, and epidemiology. Although there is a certain commonality in the methodological procedures, the book offers multiple configurations of objects and a cross-disciplinary theoretical framework for explaining the phenomenon of hunger.

  13. Military Famine, Human Rights, and Child Hunger: A Cross-National Analysis, 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Craig; Scanlan, Stephen J.; Peterson, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Discussions of world hunger have focused on economic growth and international food aid, assuming that food supply is the critical issue. The authors show that food access rooted in social stratification and military power is the central problem. Synthesizing the entitlement and military famine approaches to hunger, the authors examine the effects…

  14. Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge…

  15. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  16. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  17. The Work of Hunger: Security, Development and Food-for-Work in Post-crisis Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamey Essex

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Food-for-work programs distribute food aid to recipients in exchange for labor, and are an important mode of aid delivery for both public and private aid providers. While debate continues as to whether food-for-work programs are socially just and economically sensible, governments, international institutions, and NGOs continue to tout them as a flexible and cost-effective way to deliver targeted aid and promote community development. This paper critiques the underlying logic of food-for-work, focusing on how this approach to food aid and food security promote labor force participation by leveraging hunger against poverty, and how the ideological and practical assumptions of food-for-work become enmeshed within discourses of geopolitical security. I rely on a case study examination of US-funded food-for-work programs implemented in Jakarta, Indonesia following the 1997 financial crisis. The crisis produced acute food insecurity and poverty in Indonesia, provoking fears of mob violence by the hungry poor and the spread of radical Islamism in the post-crisis political vacuum. Food-for-work programs were, in this context, meant to resolve the problems of both food insecurity and geopolitical insecurity by providing food to targeted populations, employment to those otherwise thrown out of work, and resituating the hungry poor in relation to broader scales of local, national, and global power.

  18. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  19. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  20. 77 FR 30294 - Award of a Single Source Cooperative Agreement Grant to the Congressional Hunger Center in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Grant to the Congressional Hunger Center in Washington, DC AGENCY: Office of Policy, Research and... single source cooperative agreement to the Congressional Hunger Center in Washington, DC to support a Bill Emerson National Hunger Fellow. C.F.D.A. Number: 93.647. Statutory Authority: The award...

  1. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.

  2. How to feed environmental studies with soil information to address SDG 'Zero hunger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Chantal; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Claessens, Lieven

    2017-04-01

    As pledged by UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2, there should be zero hunger, food security, improved food nutrition and sustainable agriculture by 2030. Environmental studies are essential to reach SDG 2. Soils play a crucial role, especially in addressing 'Zero hunger'. This study aims to discuss the connection between the supply and demand of soil data for environmental studies and how this connection can be improved illustrating different methods. As many studies are resource constrained, the options to collect new soil data are limited. Therefore, it is essential to use existing soil information, auxiliary data and collected field data efficiently. Existing soil data are criticised in literature as i) being dominantly qualitative, ii) being often outdated, iii) being not spatially exhaustive, iv) being only available at general scales, v) being inconsistent, and vi) lacking quality assessments. Additional field data can help to overcome some of these problems. Outdated maps can, for example, be improved by collecting additional soil data in areas where changes in soil properties are expected. Existing soil data can also provide insight in the expected soil variability and, as such, these data can be used for the design of sampling schemes. Existing soil data are also crucial input for studies on digital soil mapping because they give information on parent material and the relative age of soils. Digital soil mapping is commonly applied as an efficient method to quantitatively predict the spatial variation of soil properties. However, the efficiency of digital soil mapping may increase if we look at functional soil properties (e.g. nutrient availability, available water capacity) for the soil profile that vary in a two-dimensional space rather than at basic soil properties of individual soil layers (e.g. texture, organic matter content, nitrogen content) that vary in a three-dimensional space. Digital soil mapping techniques are based on statistical

  3. Avaliação de políticas públicas de segurança alimentar e combate à fome no período 1995-2002: 4 - Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar Evaluation of food security and anti-hunger public policies in Brazil, 1995-2002: 4 - National School Nutrition Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Maria Pacheco Santos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE, na perspectiva de estrutura-processo-resultado. A metodologia envolveu pesquisa documental e estudo de caso em 45 municípios no Estado da Bahia, Brasil; com entrevistas a getores, visita a 73 escolas e inquérito domiciliar envolvendo 3.367 crianças de 7-14 anos. Quanto à estrutura, foi analisada a evolução normativa do PNAE e alguns aspectos da infra-estrutura. Gestores referiram instalações e equipamentos inadequados para preparar e distribuir refeições em 28% dos municípios. A municipalização estava presente em 93% dos casos, havendo 20% já em processo de escolarização; porém, em quase 70% das escolas havia repasse de gêneros alimentícios. A aceitabilidade da alimentação oferecida foi boa, resultado esperado frente à situação de pobreza da população estudada. Ainda que Conselhos de Alimentação Escolar estivessem constituídos, sua composição nem sempre representou um efetivo exercício democrático. Quanto a resultados, a cobertura foi expressiva - 95%, contudo 77% dos entrevistados do interior e 39% da capital relataram não receber alimentação todo dia. A irregularidade observada na oferta diária comprometeu a aspiração do programa efetivar-se como política social universal e um direito da criança.This study evaluated the Brazilian National School Nutrition Program from a structure-process-results perspective. The methodology involved document research and a case study in 45 counties and 73 schools in the State of Bahia, including program manager interviews and household questionnaires involving 3,367 children (7-14 years of age. Relating to program structure, the study analyzed the evolution of normative instruments and some infrastructure aspects. Managers reported problems with the installations for preparing and distributing meals in 28% of the counties. Decentralization to the county (municipal level was present in 93% of cases and to the

  4. [Nutritional management in geriatric traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.

  5. "Geografia da Fome": da lógica regional à universalidade "The Geography of Hunger": from regional logic to universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldo Kruse Grande de Arruda

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Geografia da Fome revela a associação harmoniosa da capacidade de argumentar com a segurança científica, um novo modo de pensar e de agir frente à realidade alimentar e nutricional e também uma abordagem pioneira no dimensionamento da fome coletiva como um fenômeno geograficamente universal. Admitiu, com base nas especificidades regionais, que as contribuições parciais poderiam compor um mapeamento caracterizador da universalidade do problema, permitindo construir uma imagem diferente do Brasil e do mundo, possibilitando a estruturação de um plano universal de combate à fome, abrindo novos caminhos para aqueles que buscam a correção de desequilíbrios regionais e a eliminação do subdesenvolvimento. Nesse livro-manifesto, Josué de Castro reinterpretou o papel da geografia clássica, incorporando uma das dimensões explicativas mais importantes, que é a da análise política, para desvendar a significação e conseqüências do desenvolvimento espacial desigual. A releitura de Geografia da Fome mostra que seus delineamentos conceituais e propositivos continuam vivos e constituem instrumentos indispensáveis para repensar criticamente a realidade brasileira e, em particular, a nordestina. Geografia da Fome, no seu cinqüentenário, torna-se um livro atual pela sua mensagem estimuladora e perturbadora.The Geography of Hunger, now the target of reflective reading 50 years after it was first published, shows the author' elegant combination of argumentative skill and scientific confidence. Josué de Castro's provocative focus is both a new way of thinking and acting towards the food and nutritional situation in Brazil and a pioneering approach to the issue of collective hunger as a geographically universal phenomenon. Based on regional specificities, the book admits that partial contributions may help establish a characteristic map of the problem's universal nature, thus helping build a different image of Brazil and the world and

  6. Death House Desiderata: A Hunger for Justice, Unsated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The death penalty lives on in America, with some 1350 prisoners put to death since 1976, when the modern American death penalty was reborn. Most prisoners get a last meal of their choice, though that choice is constrained by cost and, often, the stock in the prison kitchen. Last meals can be thought of as brief moments of autonomy in a relentlessly dehumanizing execution process. They also entail a distinctive cruelty. At their lowest point, prisoners seek comfort food but are never comforted. This meal is no entre to a relationship, but instead a recipe for abandonment. Dignity is nowhere to be found on the death house menu. Yet hope lingers, even here; human beings, it seems, cannot live or die without hope. Justice, the most profound human hunger, goes unsated by design.

  7. Eating with our eyes: From visual hunger to digital satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Charles; Okajima, Katsunori; Cheok, Adrian David; Petit, Olivia; Michel, Charles

    2016-12-01

    One of the brain's key roles is to facilitate foraging and feeding. It is presumably no coincidence, then, that the mouth is situated close to the brain in most animal species. However, the environments in which our brains evolved were far less plentiful in terms of the availability of food resources (i.e., nutriments) than is the case for those of us living in the Western world today. The growing obesity crisis is but one of the signs that humankind is not doing such a great job in terms of optimizing the contemporary food landscape. While the blame here is often put at the doors of the global food companies - offering addictive foods, designed to hit 'the bliss point' in terms of the pleasurable ingredients (sugar, salt, fat, etc.), and the ease of access to calorie-rich foods - we wonder whether there aren't other implicit cues in our environments that might be triggering hunger more often than is perhaps good for us. Here, we take a closer look at the potential role of vision; Specifically, we question the impact that our increasing exposure to images of desirable foods (what is often labelled 'food porn', or 'gastroporn') via digital interfaces might be having, and ask whether it might not inadvertently be exacerbating our desire for food (what we call 'visual hunger'). We review the growing body of cognitive neuroscience research demonstrating the profound effect that viewing such images can have on neural activity, physiological and psychological responses, and visual attention, especially in the 'hungry' brain.

  8. "There is hunger in my community": a qualitative study of food security as a cyclical force in sex work in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Mnisi, Zandile; Adams, Darrin; Baral, Stefan; Kennedy, Caitlin

    2014-01-25

    Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world - 32% of adults are currently living with HIV - and many Swazis are chronically food insecure - in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants' lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access "healthy" foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for 'healthy foods' and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways through which food insecurity generates vulnerability

  9. Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

    Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

  10. Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

    Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

  11. [Nutrition and liver failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plauth, M

    2013-06-01

    In the critically ill liver patient, nutrition support is not very different from that given for other illnesses. In hyperacute liver failure, nutrition support is of less importance than in the other subtypes of acute liver failure that take a more protracted course. Nasoenteral tube feeding using a polymeric standard formula should be the first-line approach, while parenteral nutrition giving glucose, fat, amino acids, vitamins, and trace elements is initiated when enteral nutrition is insufficient or impracticable. In chronic liver disease, notably cirrhosis, there is frequently protein malnutrition indicating a poor prognosis and requiring immediate initiation of nutrition support. Enteral nutrition ensuring an adequate provision of energy and protein should be preferred. Particular care should be taken to avoid refeeding syndrome and to treat vitamin and trace element deficiency.

  12. [Policy networks combating hunger and poverty: the Solidarity Community strategy in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlandy, Luciene; Labra, Maria Eliana

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes a strategy deployed by the Brazilian Government for combating hunger and poverty: the Solidarity Community (1995-2003), particularly institutional mechanisms used to fine-tune targeting processes and allocate resources to the Food Stocks Distribution Program (PRODEA) and the Undernourished Child and High-Risk Pregnancy Program (PCDMI). Primary data were obtained through interviews with policy network players, including segments of government and society: nine Federal; six State and 82 from eight Municipalities in Rio de Janeiro state. Moving towards its goal of converging programs for the poorest municipalities, the Solidarity Community made them more visible to executive civil servants. The introduction of different sectors into the Solidarity Community network varied, according to the political clout and institutional capacity of each sector. The Solidarity Community strategy was: to negotiate criteria with Ministries for setting priorities and provide technical support and information for local governments, improving their skills for obtaining federal funding. The role of the Solidarity Community was thus limited at the local level, due to poor intersectoral networking and difficulties in monitoring program implementation and beneficiary selection processes, blunting its advantages for more vulnerable groups.

  13. “In hunger for bread, not in thirst for revenge”: Belly, bellum and rebellion in Coriolanus and The Hunger Games trilogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soncini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A play saturated with images of food, eating and being eaten, Coriolanus provides the most thoroughgoing exploration of the hunger paradigm within the Shakespearean corpus. From the very early moments of the tragedy, Shakespeare’s emphasis on hunger as a literal, material condition is paralleled by a probing investigation of the rhetorical and metaphorical dimension of alimentary imagery and its problematic applicability, and actual application, in the political sphere – most notably, in Menenius Agrippa’s fable of the belly, a rhetorical attempt at naturalizing social inequality which however fails to appease the plebeians’ threatened uprising against the Roman aristocracy.Shakespeare’s politicization of hunger has played a crucial role in securing and shaping Coriolanus’s afterlife. This essay deals with a very recent take on Coriolanus by investigating the Shakespearean palimpsest within Suzanne Collins’s highly popular The Hunger Games trilogy (2008-2010. While unacknowledged by the author and so far unregistered in critical studies of the novels, Collins’s extensive borrowing from Coriolanus across the three instalments of her science fiction adventure amounts to a consistent and comprehensive reframing of Shakespeare’s hunger paradigm, here remoulded into cautionary dystopia about the social and political order of the global era.

  14. Quantitative Evaluation of HHFKA Nutrition Standards for School Lunch Servings and Patterns of Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echon, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to provide baseline data and characteristics of food served and consumed prior to the recently mandated nutrition standards as authorized by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA). Methods: Over 600,000 school lunch menus with associated food production records from 61 elementary schools…

  15. At the crossroads: new paradigms of food security, public health nutrition and school food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Leah M; Sonnino, Roberta

    2013-06-01

    Public health nutrition sits at the nexus of a global crisis in food, environmental and health systems that has generated - along with numerous other problems - an urgent and changing problem of food insecurity. The 'new' food insecurity, however, is different from the old: it is bimodal, encompassing issues of both under- and over-consumption, hunger and obesity, quantity and quality; it has assumed a decidedly urban dimension; and it implicates rich and poor countries alike. The complexity of the expressions of this challenge requires new approaches to public health nutrition and food policy that privilege systemic, structural and environmental factors over individual and mechanistic ones. In this context, the current paper argues that school food systems rise with buoyant potential as promising intervention sites: they are poised to address both modes of the food security crisis; integrate systemic, structural and environmental with behavioural approaches; and comprise far-reaching, system-wide efforts that influence the wider functioning of the food system. Based on a discussion of Bogotá and other pioneering policies that explicitly aim to create a broader food system with long-term foundations for good public health and food security, the paper suggests a new research and action agenda that gives special attention to school food in urban contexts.

  16. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal Clinical Nutrition is published by the South African ... a cross sectional survey using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) screening tool ... Poor complementary feeding practices among young children in Cameroon ...

  17. Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment.

  18. Climate change and nutrition: creating a climate for nutrition security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, M C; Crahay, P; Mahy, L; Zanev, C; Neira, M; Msangi, S; Brown, R; Scaramella, C; Costa Coitinho, D; Müller, A

    2013-12-01

    Climate change further exacerbates the enormous existing burden of undernutrition. It affects food and nutrition security and undermines current efforts to reduce hunger and promote nutrition. Undernutrition in turn undermines climate resilience and the coping strategies of vulnerable populations. The objectives of this paper are to identify and undertake a cross-sectoral analysis of the impacts of climate change on nutrition security and the existing mechanisms, strategies, and policies to address them. A cross-sectoral analysis of the impacts of climate change on nutrition security and the mechanisms and policies to address them was guided by an analytical framework focused on the three 'underlying causes' of undernutrition: 1) household food access, 2) maternal and child care and feeding practices, 3) environmental health and health access. The analytical framework includes the interactions of the three underlying causes of undernutrition with climate change,vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation. Within broad efforts on climate change mitigation and adaptation and climate-resilient development, a combination of nutrition-sensitive adaptation and mitigation measures, climate-resilient and nutrition-sensitive agricultural development, social protection, improved maternal and child care and health, nutrition-sensitive risk reduction and management, community development measures, nutrition-smart investments, increased policy coherence, and institutional and cross-sectoral collaboration are proposed as a means to address the impacts of climate change to food and nutrition security. This paper proposes policy directions to address nutrition in the climate change agenda and recommendations for consideration by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Nutrition and health stakeholders need to be engaged in key climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives, including science-based assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC

  19. The food multimix concept: new innovative approach to meeting nutritional challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotor, F B; Amuna, P

    2008-02-01

    Food insecurity, chronic hunger, starvation and malnutrition continue to affect millions of individuals throughout the developing world, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Various initiatives by African governments and International Agencies such as the UN, the industrial nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the World Trade Organisation to boost economic development, have failed to provide the much-needed solution to these challenges. The impact of these economic shifts and the failures of structural adjustment programmes on the nutritional well-being and health of the most vulnerable members of poor communities cannot be over-emphasised. The use of ad hoc measures as an adjunct to community-based rural integrated projects have provided little success and will be unsustainable unless they are linked to harnessing available local resources. The present paper therefore focuses on exploring alternative ways of harnessing the scant agricultural resources by employing a scientific approach to food-related problem-solving. The food multimix (FMM) concept offers a scientific contribution alongside other attempts currently in use by the World Food Programme, WHO and FAO to meet the food insecurity challenges that confront most of the developing world in the twenty-first century. It is an innovative approach that makes better use of traditional food sources as a tool for meeting community nutritional needs. The FMM concept employs a food-based approach using traditional methods of food preparation and locally-available, cheap and affordable staples (fruits, pulses, vegetables and legumes) in the formulation of nutrient-enriched multimixes. Developed recipes can provide > or =40% of the daily nutritional requirements of vulnerable groups, including patients with HIV/AIDS and children undergoing nutrition rehabilitation. The FMM approach can also be used as a medium- to long-term adjunct to community-based rural integration projects aimed at health

  20. The role of underutilized fruits in nutritional and economic security of tribals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandal, Urvashi; Bhardwaj, Raju Lal

    2014-01-01

    The tribal people of Rajasthan are severely malnourished along with multiple nutrient-deficiency disorders due to ignorance about importance of fruits and vegetables in their diets. The tribal areas are full of biodiversity having natural vegetation which is not harnessed fully. Due to which a wide gap is formed between health and optimal use of natural sources of nutrients, i.e., underutilized crops. The crops, which are neither grown commercially on large scale nor traded widely, may be termed as underutilized horticultural crops. These crops are cultivated, traded, and consumed locally. These crops have many advantages like easier to grow and hardy in nature, producing a crop even under adverse soil and climatic conditions. So, exploitation of underutilized horticultural crops can become a solution to the social problem of health and nutrition insecurity, poverty, and unemployment. The consumption of underutilized fruit crops can provide nutrition to the poor and needy tribals by meeting the nutrient requirements of vulnerable groups. As underutilized fruits, nuts, and vegetables are a rich of source of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, energy, vitamins-A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, C, folic acid, and minerals-Ca, P, Fe, and dietary fiber. Thus, they have the nutritional capacity to prevent and cure various diseases like kwashiorkor, marasmus, night blindness, anemia, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, and hidden hunger. It is also established fact that seasonal, locally available, and cheap fruits and vegetables can also keep the population healthy and nutritionally secure rather than costly off-season ones. Also, the underutilized crops have the potential to give economic security to tribals by giving employment and by fetching good returns from their sale in raw form as well as value-added products.

  1. Stress and Nutritional Status of Individuals in Uttarakhand, Northern India: Differential Effect of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallari T. Kukreti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uttarakhand, Northern India is facing challenges in the issues concerning public health. Hence, researches identifying the stressors and nutritional factors influencing health are encouraged. This study attempts to assess the stress levels and nutritional status. Gender differences are also measured in the same. Methods: Stress and nutritional status related information was gathered (Nov, 2012-June, 2013 from 118 individuals residing in Uttarakhand state. Stress level was assessed using Personal Stress Score Inventory. Anthropometric details and dietary intake (3 day food recall method were collected. Nutrient intake were calculated and compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA for Indians. T-test and Chi-square (χ² were performed to measure the gender difference in studied variables. Results: 66.6% of females and 85.4% of males reported moderate stress (31-79. Males were seen to be more stressed then females, though no significant difference was seen. A significant difference in BMI (Body mass Index was seen between males (24.1 kg/m2 and females (21.5 kg/m2. The study sample was found to be deficient in iron and zinc when compared with RDA. Females suffering from various level of stress had significantly lower levels of energy, protein, zinc than males. Conclusion: Majority of subjects were suffering from moderate level of stress. The anthropometric status of subjects was good, though females showed significantly lower intake of nutrients compared to men. Poor intake of iron and zinc points towards a possibility of hidden hunger. Hence, psychological and nutritional counseling may be required.

  2. Insulin-like peptide response to nutritional input in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Kate E; Baker, Nicholas A; Amdam, Gro V

    2014-10-01

    The rise in metabolic disorders in the past decades has heightened focus on achieving a healthy dietary balance in humans. This is also an increasingly important issue in the management of honey bees (Apis mellifera) where poor nutrition has negative effects on health and productivity in agriculture, and nutrition is suggested as a contributing factor in the recent global declines in honey bee populations. As in other organisms, the insulin/insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway is likely involved in maintaining nutrient homeostasis in honey bees. Honey bees have two insulin-like peptides (Ilps) with differing spatial expression patterns in the fat body suggesting that AmIlp1 potentially functions in lipid metabolism while AmIlp2 is a more general indicator of nutritional status. We fed caged worker bees artificial diets high in carbohydrates, proteins or lipids and measured expression of AmIlp1, AmIlp2, and the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) to test their responses to dietary macronutrients. We also measured lifespan, worker weight and gustatory sensitivity to sugar as measures of individual physical condition. We found that expression of AmIlp1 was affected by diet composition and was highest on a diet high in protein. Expression of AmIlp2 and AmIRS were not affected by diet. Workers lived longest on a diet high in carbohydrates and low in protein and lipids. However, bees fed this diet weighed less than those that received a diet high in protein and low in carbohydrates and lipids. Bees fed the high carbohydrates diet were also more responsive to sugar, potentially indicating greater levels of hunger. These results support a role for AmIlp1 in nutritional homeostasis and provide new insight into how unbalanced diets impact individual honey bee health.

  3. Paradox and Alienation in Kafka’s short story -A Hunger Artist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雅芬; 熊美玲

    2014-01-01

    A Hunger Artist, one of Franz Kafka’s favorite works, arouses critics’ great attention.Paradox permeates the entire story and is vividly displayed in it.Alienation is the major theme of the story.On the other hand, the short story traces out a tragedy of the hunger artist’s struggle, which is also an actual portraiture of author’s life.

  4. Going Global Activity Guide: A Project To Educate and Involve American Students in Global Hunger Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gene; Balakshin, Maria

    Global hunger is one of the most urgent health and social problems the world faces at the beginning of the new millennium. In a world that produces enough food to feed every human being on the planet, there are still some 830 million people who do not get enough food on a daily basis. About 24,000 people die each day from the effects of hunger;…

  5. Paradox and Alienation in Kafka’s short story—A Hunger Artist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雅芬; 熊美玲

    2014-01-01

    A Hunger Artist, one of Franz Kafka’s favorite works, arouses critics’ great attention.Paradox permeates the entire story and is vividly displayed in it.Alienation is the major theme of the story.On the other hand, the short story traces out a tragedy of the hunger artist’s struggle, which is also an actual portraiture of author’s life.

  6. Josué de Castro e a Geografia da Fome no Brasil Josué de Castro and The Geography of Hunger in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é realizar uma releitura do clássico Geografia da Fome, publicado pela primeira vez em 1946. Realiza-se uma síntese dos mapas das cinco áreas alimentares e das principais carências nutricionais existentes no Brasil, de acordo com o delineamento realizado por Josué de Castro. Nos dias atuais, ao perfil epidemiológico nutricional desenhado por Josué de Castro, caracterizado pelas carências nutricionais (desnutrição, hipovitaminoses, bócio endêmico, anemia ferropriva etc., sobrepuseram-se as doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis (obesidade, diabetes, dislipidemias etc.. Entretanto, a questão da complexa e paradoxal problemática da fome permanece como uma temática recorrente no Brasil. Diante de alguns dilemas da atualidade, tais como aqueles que dizem respeito à sustentabilidade ecológica do planeta e à garantia do direito humano à alimentação, torna-se imperante reacender a luta defendida por Josué de Castro pela adoção de um modelo de desenvolvimento econômico sustentável e uma sociedade sem miséria e sem fome.The aim of this article is to reinterpret the classic work Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], first published in 1946. The article provides a summary of the five food area maps and the main nutritional deficiencies in Brazil, based on Josué de Castro's original conception. Currently, the nutritional epidemiological profile identified by Josué de Castro, characterized by nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, endemic goiter, iron deficiency anemia, etc., overlap with chronic non-communicable diseases (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias, etc.. However, the complex and paradoxical issue of hunger is a persistently recurrent theme in Brazil. Given a series of current dilemmas, including the planet's ecological sustainability and the need to guarantee the human right to adequate, healthy nutrition, it is urgent to reawaken the struggle led by Josué de Castro

  7. State of nutrition support teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  8. Nutrition in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Childhood is the stage in a human’s life associated with growth and development. Growth proceeds rapidly in early life, slows down in middle childhood and accelerates at puberty before linear growth ceases. With increasing age there is also physical and psychomotor maturation, which influences activity, body composition, feeding skills and food choices (Geissler, 2011). Adequate nutrition is essential for growth, health and development of children. Poor nutrition in...

  9. Food and nutrition security: challenges of post-harvest handling in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiywe, J

    2015-11-01

    Presently, close to 1 billion people suffer from hunger and food insecurity. Statistics in Kenya indicates that over 10 million people suffer from chronic food insecurity and poor nutrition, 2-4 million people require emergency food assistance at any given time with nearly 30 % of Kenya's children being undernourished, 35 % stunted while micro-nutrient deficiency is wide spread. Key among the challenges contributing to inadequate foods include lack of certified seeds, seasonal production (rain-fed), high post-harvest losses and wastages, poor transportation, low value additions which reduce their market competitiveness. The present paper examines some of the underlying causes for high food wastage experience in Kenya and the associated challenges in addressing these problems. The paper also provides an overview of some of the basic solutions that have been recommended by various stakeholders. However, in spite of the recent efforts made to mitigate food wastage, there is still an urgent need to address these gaps through participatory, innovative community based interventions that will create resilience to climate change and enhance livelihoods of smallholder farmers in diverse ecosystems.

  10. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS – A SOLUTION TO WORLD HUNGER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, GM crops were grown on 160 million hectares spread over 29 countries, on all continents, marking a 94-fold increase in the area since their first commercialization in 1996, and making it the fastest adopted crop technology in recent history. Main reasons for this expansion are, by the proponents of GM food, its safety, potential to revolutionize agriculture and benefit the farmers and consumers alike. On the other hand, there are indications that GMOs are harmful to the biodiversity and become eco-contaminants, and can, especially in the long terms, negatively affect the human health. Authors think that patenting of living organisms by the multinational companies is unacceptable and unfair from the bioethical perspective, not only because they tend to hold monopolies in production and trade of GM plants, but also because of their efforts to gain domination over the very life. Finally, analyses made by many scientists show that the thesis that "Gene Revolution" will resolve the problem of hunger in the world was not justified in the previous decade.

  11. Psychological predictors of opportunistic snacking in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Stephanie H; White, Melanie J; Finlayson, Graham; King, Neil A

    2015-08-01

    Increased frequency of eating in the absence of homeostatic need, notably through snacking, is an important contributor to overconsumption and may be facilitated by increased availability of palatable food in the obesogenic environment. Opportunistic initiation of snacking is likely to be subject to individual differences, although these are infrequently studied in laboratory-based research paradigms. This study examined psychological factors associated with opportunistic initiation of snacking, and predictors of intake in the absence of homeostatic need. Fifty adults (mean age 34.5years, mean BMI 23.9kg/m(2), 56% female) participated in a snack taste test in which they ate a chocolate snack to satiation, after which they were offered an unanticipated opportunity to initiate a second eating episode. Trait and behavioural measures of self control, sensitivity to reward, dietary restraint and disinhibited eating were taken. Results showed that, contrary to expectations, those who initiated snacking were better at inhibitory control compared with those who did not initiate. However, amongst participants who initiated snacking, intake (kcal) was predicted by higher food reward sensitivity, impulsivity and BMI. These findings suggest that snacking initiation in the absence of hunger is an important contributor to overconsumption. Consideration of the individual differences promoting initiation of eating may aid in reducing elevated eating frequency in at-risk individuals.

  12. Sociocultural pressures and adolescent eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Samantha A; Shomaker, Lauren B; Mooreville, Mira; Courville, Amber B; Brady, Sheila M; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2013-03-01

    Parental feeding practices and sociocultural pressures theoretically influence eating behavior. Yet, whether these factors relate to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is unknown. We assessed if sociocultural pressures were associated with EAH among 90 adolescents (Mage=15.27, SD=1.39; 48% female). Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Adolescents completed the Perceived Sociocultural Pressures Scale, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, and Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales. On two occasions, EAH was assessed as snack food intake after adolescents ate to satiety. Controlling for body composition and demographics, parental restriction and family pressure to be thin were associated with greater EAH. Media pressure was related to more EAH in girls. Appearance orientation and preoccupation with becoming overweight mediated links between sociocultural pressures and EAH. Findings support the notion that sociocultural pressures and their links to body image may contribute to the course of disinhibited eating behaviors during adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food price volatility and hunger alleviation – can Cannes work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajkowicz Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have seen global food prices rise and become more volatile. Price surges in 2008 and 2011 held devastating consequences for hundreds of millions of people and negatively impacted many more. Today one billion people are hungry. The issue is a high priority for many international agencies and national governments. At the Cannes Summit in November 2011, the G20 leaders agreed to implement five objectives aiming to mitigate food price volatility and protect vulnerable persons. To succeed, the global community must now translate these high level policy objectives into practical actions. In this paper, we describe challenges and unresolved dilemmas before the global community in implementing these five objectives. The paper describes recent food price volatility trends and an evaluation of possible causes. Special attention is given to climate change and water scarcity, which have the potential to impact food prices to a much greater extent in coming decades. We conclude the world needs an improved knowledge base and new analytical capabilities, developed in parallel with the implementation of practical policy actions, to manage food price volatility and reduce hunger and malnutrition. This requires major innovations and paradigm shifts by the global community.

  14. The changing nutrition scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ′Green Revolution fatigue′. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  15. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  16. Nutrition Quality of US School Snack Foods: A First Look at 2011-2014 Bid Records in 8 School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Claire; Hsiao, Amber; Chamberlin, Peter; Largay, McKenzie; Archibald, Abbie; Malone, Andrew; Stevelos, JoAnn

    2017-01-01

    Background:As part of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, snacks, and desserts sold in K-12 schools as of the 2014-2015 school year are required to meet the "Smart Snacks" nutritional guidelines. Although studies exist in tracking progress in local and national efforts, the proportion of snack food procured by school districts compliant…

  17. Nutrition Quality of US School Snack Foods: A First Look at 2011-2014 Bid Records in 8 School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Claire; Hsiao, Amber; Chamberlin, Peter; Largay, McKenzie; Archibald, Abbie; Malone, Andrew; Stevelos, JoAnn

    2017-01-01

    Background:As part of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, snacks, and desserts sold in K-12 schools as of the 2014-2015 school year are required to meet the "Smart Snacks" nutritional guidelines. Although studies exist in tracking progress in local and national efforts, the proportion of snack food procured by school districts compliant…

  18. Exploring culture in the world of international nutrition and nutrition sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrone Stefani, Monique; Humphries, Debbie L

    2013-09-01

    This symposium was organized to bring insights from the social sciences into the awareness of nutrition scientists committed to developing and implementing effective nutrition interventions internationally. The symposium explored three different areas in the field where a more precise analysis of culture could enhance the effectiveness of nutrition science: 1) in the implementation of nutrition science research in the field; 2) in the collaboration of multiple stakeholders working to enhance nutrition in a national setting; and 3) in the language and discussions used to frame proposed changes in large scale food and nutrition security policy transnationally. Three social scientists, Monique Centrone Stefani, Lucy Jarosz, and David Pelletier were invited to share insights from their respective disciplines and respondents from within the field of nutrition provided initial reflections to better understand such perspectives. The symposium's interdisciplinary nature was designed to illustrate the challenge of multiple perspectives and methodologies and to advance understanding that could derive from such an exchange for those in the field of international nutrition seeking to decrease global hunger and malnutrition.

  19. Dementia, depression, and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D

    1994-03-01

    Dementia, depression, and Parkinson's disease are in themselves challenging problems in old age. Recognition and diagnosis are often suboptimal. In dementia, many contributing factors must be considered, including nutrition, but in all these conditions the effects of the cognitive, attitudinal, and motor changes can produce permanent and severe nutritional compromise. Yet many simple steps can be taken to prevent poor nutrition in these diseases, and the primary care practitioner is central to this process of recognition and intervention.

  20. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  1. Impulsivity and overeating in children in the absence and presence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Dassen, Fania C M; Franken, Loes; Resch, Christine; Houben, Katrijn

    2015-10-01

    Overweight children appear to be more responsive to environmental, hedonic cues and easily overeat in the current obesogenic environment. They are also found to overeat in the absence of hunger, and this overeating seems related to impulsivity: impulsive participants are more prone to external eating. However, some studies showed that impulsive adults are also more prone to hunger cues: impulsive participants overate especially when feeling hungry. This would mean impulsive people are more reactive to both external and internal cues. The overeating was limited to palatable high energy-dense foods: hunger made them fancy a snack. In the current study, we wanted to test the interaction between impulsivity, hunger and consumption of food type in children. Impulsivity was measured in 88 children between the ages of 7 and 9. Next, half of the participants performed a taste test before their own regular lunch and half of the participants immediately after their lunch. During the taste test, low, medium and high energy-dense food items were presented. Results showed that impulsive children ate more high energy-dense foods than low impulsive children, both before and after their lunch. No differences were found on low or medium energy-dense foods. Impulsive children therefore showed normal sensitivity for internal hunger and satiety cues, but abnormal response to high energy-dense foods. This might render them vulnerable to tasty temptation in the environment and to weight gain in their future.

  2. Nutrition support in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Korang, Steven Kwasi

    2017-01-01

    for one-third of all included participants. The included participants were heterogenous with regard to disease (20 different medical specialties). The experimental interventions were parenteral nutrition (86 trials); enteral nutrition (tube-feeding) (80 trials); oral nutrition support (55 trials); mixed...... with different diseases. We could find no beneficial effect of oral nutrition support or parenteral nutrition support on all-cause mortality and serious adverse events in any subgroup.Only 16 trials assessed health-related quality of life. We performed a meta-analysis of two trials reporting EuroQoL utility......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in Western European hospitals is estimated to be about 30%. There is no consensus whether poor nutritional status causes poorer clinical outcome or if it is merely associated with it. The intention with all forms of nutrition support...

  3. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  4. Feast your eyes: hunger and trait reward drive predict attentional bias for food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Katy; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2010-12-01

    Appraisal theories of emotion predict that the relevance of a stimulus to a person's needs and goals influences attentional allocation. We used a modified visual probe task to examine the influence of hunger and trait reward drive on food-related attentional bias. Both hunger and trait reward drive predicted degree of attentional "disengagement" from food images at short (100 ms), but not long (500, 2,000 ms) stimulus durations. Effects of hunger were found for both bland and appetizing foods, while effects of reward drive were restricted to appetizing foods. Our findings extend previous research showing delayed "disengagement" from threat-related stimuli, suggesting that both organismic- and goal-relevance are key biasing factors in attentional competition.

  5. Training to estimate blood glucose and to form associations with initial hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Riccardo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The will to eat is a decision associated with conditioned responses and with unconditioned body sensations that reflect changes in metabolic biomarkers. Here, we investigate whether this decision can be delayed until blood glucose is allowed to fall to low levels, when presumably feeding behavior is mostly unconditioned. Following such an eating pattern might avoid some of the metabolic risk factors that are associated with high glycemia. Results In this 7-week study, patients were trained to estimate their blood glucose at meal times by associating feelings of hunger with glycemic levels determined by standard blood glucose monitors and to eat only when glycemia was Conclusion Subjects could be trained to accurately estimate their blood glucose and to recognize their sensations of initial hunger at low glucose concentrations. These results suggest that it is possible to make a behavioral distinction between unconditioned and conditioned hunger, and to achieve a cognitive will to eat by training.

  6. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health.

  7. Public Health Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hillger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970 has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Of those that are considered to be basic physiological needs hunger, thirst as well as bodily comforts are considered to be the most important. Physiological needs are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived on all needs it is these physiological needs that would take the highest priority. As food is characterized as a basic need, we should have a special view on our daily food and our handling of it. Most people do not act careful with their daily intake of food. In the last decades, the increases of nutrition-associated diseases such as overweight and obesity and on the other hand underweight have been recorded. From a life-span approach, the problem has its offset point in the early age of development, namely in children and adolescents. Malnutrition, overweight and obesity limit children’s personal quality of life in terms of unhappiness with their own body, opposition or even rejection in peer group communication and general difficulties in day-to-day social interaction. A close connection between physical stature and the development of a negative self-concept and a low self-esteem is postulated.

  8. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion.Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers.Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake.Results: Women (n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus (P = 0.005) than men (n = 26). In women (n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum (P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings (P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men (n = 10). In women (n = 12), motilin (P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger (P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings (P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women.Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759926.

  9. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Janet; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger.

  10. Short-term hunger intensity changes following ingestion of a meal replacement bar for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Dana Q; Watemberg, Salo

    2004-05-01

    Meal replacement products for weight loss are popular and safe for most unsupervised consumers desiring to lose weight. Previously we reported that the thickness of meal replacement diet shakes had a direct and significant effect on hunger intensity during the first 2 h and that hunger intensity scores for liquid meal replacements were significantly below baseline for 3 h following consumption (Mattes & Rothacker, 2001) This study uses the same protocol to investigate meal replacement bars designed for overweight consumers. Subjects were prescreened to include only those that normally ate breakfast and liked chocolate. The bar used in this study contained 250 calories (about 30 more than most liquid diet shakes), 4 g dietary fiber, 14 g protein and 8 g fat. Subjects were instructed to consume the entire bar with a glass of water following an overnight fast when they would normally consume their first meal of the day and to assess their hunger on a 1 (not hungry at all) to 9 (as hungry as I have ever felt) scale before consumption, immediately after and hourly for 6 h (only on typical weekdays). Similar assessments were made for the perception of stomach fullness (1=empty, 9=extremely full), strength of the desire to eat (1=no desire, 9=extremely strong) and thirst (1=not at all thirsty, 9=extremely thirsty). One-hundred and eight subjects (23 male and 85 female) completed the study. No gender satiety differences were found. Hunger ratings and desire to eat remained significantly below baseline for 5 h following consumption. Stomach fullness scores were significantly above baseline for 5 h. Thirst scores were significantly below baseline for 3 h. In conclusion, although the meal replacement diet bars contained only 30 additional calories than liquids, they provided an additional 2 h of hunger suppression from baseline that may have an impact on overall weightloss success. These results support superior short-term hunger control with solid meal replacements.

  11. Hunger does not motivate reward in women remitted from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Melrose, A James; Irvine, Zoe; Torres, Laura; Bailer, Ursula F; Simmons, Alan; Fudge, Julie L; McClure, Samuel M; Ely, Alice; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-04-01

    Hunger enhances sensitivity to reward, yet individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not motivated to eat when starved. This study investigated brain response to rewards during hunger and satiated states to examine whether diminished response to reward could underlie food restriction in AN. Using a delay discounting monetary decision task known to discriminate brain regions contributing to processing of immediate rewards and cognitive control important for decision making regarding future rewards, we compared 23 women remitted from AN (RAN group; to reduce the confounding effects of starvation) with 17 healthy comparison women (CW group). Monetary rewards were used because the rewarding value of food may be confounded by anxiety in AN. Interactions of Group (RAN, CW) × Visit (hunger, satiety) revealed that, for the CW group, hunger significantly increased activation in reward salience circuitry (ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, anterior cingulate cortex) during processing of immediate reward, whereas satiety increased activation in cognitive control circuitry (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula) during decision making. In contrast, brain response in reward and cognitive neurocircuitry did not differ during hunger and satiety in the RAN group. A main effect of group revealed elevated response in the middle frontal gyrus for the RAN group compared with the CW group. Women remitted from AN failed to increase activation of reward valuation circuitry when hungry and showed elevated response in cognitive control circuitry independent of metabolic state. Decreased sensitivity to the motivational drive of hunger may explain the ability of individuals with AN to restrict food when emaciated. Difficulties in valuating emotional salience may contribute to inabilities to appreciate the risks inherent in this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, G W

    1994-03-01

    The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders.

  13. Hunger and negative alliesthesia to aspartame and sucrose in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Y; Chatton, A; Claeys, F; Ribordy, F; Khan, R; Zullino, D

    2009-12-01

    The present study explores sweet stimuli effects on hunger and negative alliesthesia in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls. Those phenomena were examined in relation to previous weight gain, eating and weight-related cognitions and type of sweet stimuli: aspartame or sucrose. Alliesthesia is delayed in participants who gained weight regardless of cross group differences. A similar reduction of hunger was observed after the intake of two kinds of sweet stimuli (aspartame or sucrose) whereas alliesthesia measures were not affected. Whereas atypical antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain is linked to delayed satiety, the phenomenon is similar in magnitude in non-psychiatric controls who gained weight.

  14. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    levels. The present results show that only a rather high reduction in tube diameter led to reduced drinking rate. Neither reduced nor increased hunger levels led to changes in drinking rate, but calves showed reduced nonnutritive sucking and butting when they were less hungry and increased nonnutritive...... sucking and butting when hunger was increased. The results suggest that nonnutritive sucking is a more sensitive indicator than drinking rate of changes in feeding motivation. Consequently, reduction in nonnutritive sucking might be a new candidate in the search for behavioral indicators of disease...

  15. Effects of Increased Meal Frequency on Fat Oxidation and Perceived Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Melanson, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consuming smaller, more frequent meals is often advocated as a means of controlling body weight, but studies demonstrating a mechanistic effect of this practice on factors associated with body weight regulation are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of consuming three (3M) vs. six meals (6M) per day on 24-h fat oxidation and subjective ratings of hunger. Design and Methods Lean (body mass index meal frequency from three to six per day has no significant effect on 24-h fat oxidation, but may increase hunger and the desire to eat. PMID:23404961

  16. 营养不良的保健指导方法及健康教育的应用研究%Poor Nutrition Health Guidance Method and the Application of Health Ed-ucation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰林

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis to study the infantile malnutrition health guidance method and the application effect of health education. Methods Select our hospital malnourished children with 80 cases as the research object, treated time in February 2013 to February 2014, using a digital lottery method it is divided into experimental group and control group 80 cases, 40 cases in each group have children, the control group given conventional food intervention guide, the experimental group to guide targeted care combined with health education family nutritional guidance, and at the end of the two groups of children with family after health education, compared to the ratings of body mass index (bmi), health knowledge, health be-havior score and nutrition success rate. Results The experimental group of body mass index (bmi), health knowledge score, health behavior score were higher than control group(P<0.05), statistically significant difference; The experimental group of children nutrition success rate was 95.00%, far higher than the control group 70.00%(P<0.05), the difference is statistically significant. Conclusion To give health guidance to malnutrition children science and health education has significant clini-cal value, can effectively improve the patient's physical condition, improve the patient's health knowledge grading and health behavior scale, improve the patient's nutrition success rate, is worth in the clinical practice in the process of applica-tion and popularization.%目的 分析探讨小儿营养不良的保健指导方法及健康教育的应用效果.方法 选择该院收治的营养不良患儿80例作为研究对象,使用数字抽签法将这80例患儿分成实验组和对照组,每组各有患儿40例,对照组给予常规食物干预指导,实验组给予针对性保健指导结合健康教育家庭营养指导,并在两组患儿结束家庭健康教育后,对比其体质量指数、健康知识评分、健康行为评分及营养达标率. 结果

  17. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L; Plenty, Albert H J; Luwedde, Flavia A; Natamba, Barnabas K; Natureeba, Paul; Achan, Jane; Mwesigwa, Julia; Ruel, Theodore D; Ades, Veronica; Osterbauer, Beth; Clark, Tamara D; Dorsey, Grant; Charlebois, Edwin D; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Cohan, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    Household food insecurity (HHFI) may be a barrier to both optimal maternal nutritional status and infant feeding practices, but few studies have tested this relationship quantitatively, and never among HIV-infected individuals. We therefore described the prevalence of HHFI and explored if it was associated with poorer maternal nutritional status, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and fewer animal-source complementary foods. We assessed these outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses among 178 HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding (BF) women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in the PROMOTE trial (NCT00993031), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. HHFI was common; the prevalence of severe, moderate, and little to no household hunger was 7.3, 39.9, and 52.8 %, respectively. Poor maternal nutritional status was common and women in households experiencing moderate to severe household hunger (MSHH) had statistically significantly lower body mass index (BMIs) at enrollment (21.3 vs. 22.5, p < 0.01) and prior to delivery (22.6 vs. 23.8, p < 0.01). BMI across time during pregnancy, but not gestational weight gain, was significantly lower for MSHH [adjusted beta (95 % CI) -0.79 (-1.56, -0.02), p = 0.04; -2.06 (-4.31, 0.19), p = 0.07], respectively. The prevalence (95 % CI) of EBF at 6 months was 67.2 % (59.7-73.5 %), and the proportion of women BF at 12 months was 80.4 % (73.3-85.7 %). MSHH was not associated with prevalence of EBF at 6 months or BF at 12 months. However, among those women still EBF at 4 months (81.4 % of population), those experiencing MSHH were significantly more likely to cease EBF between 4 and 6 months (aHR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.02-5.58). The prevalence of HHFI, maternal malnutrition, and suboptimal infant feeding practices are high and the causal relationships among these phenomena must be further explored.

  18. Women's strategies to alleviate nutritional stress in a rural African society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, G R; Aunger, R; Harrigan, A M; Jenike, M; Bailey, R C; Ellison, P T

    1999-01-01

    Many agricultural populations are subject to chronic or seasonal undernutrition, reproductive women and children often being most vulnerable. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data on food consumption, food distribution practices, food taboos, garden sizes and work effort to show how Lese horticulturalist women living in the Ituri Forest of northeast Democratic Republic of Congo attempt to alleviate nutritional stress. The Lese experience an annual hunger season when approximately one quarter of the population suffer from energy deficiency. Nutritional intake is also compromised by a complex system of food taboos against meat from wild forest animals. Anthropometric data collected over several years suggest that Lese women suffer from nutritional stress more than men during the hunger season. They also have more food taboos particularly during pregnancy and lactation. Their low fertility is compounded by nutritional stress. Despite these inequities, Lese women use several strategies to improve their food intake. Since they are responsible for all household cooking, they manipulate food portions. During the hunger season, they snack frequently, and increase their consumption of palliative foods. Women with more food taboos plant larger gardens to supplement their diet with vegetable foods. Although this results in their consumption of more daily protein, they work harder compared to women with smaller gardens. Women cheat in their adherence to specific food taboos by actively discounting them, or by eating prophylactic plants that supposedly prevent the consequences (usually illness) of eating tabooed foods. In addition, women resort to subterfuge to access desirable resources. Lese women do not reduce work effort during the hunger season, but adapt physiologically by reducing resting metabolic rates during periods of weight loss. These results point to the ability of Lese women to minimize the ecological and cultural constraints on their nutrition

  19. Nurses' positive attitudes to nutritional management but limited knowledge of nutritional assessment in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Choue, R

    2009-09-01

    Nurses' involvement in nutritional management has received greater emphasis as an accountable factor for the nutritional status of patients. Studies have shown that there are deficiencies in awareness of the importance of nutritional assessment and limited nutritional knowledge in nurses. The purpose of this study was to investigate nutritional attitudes and knowledge of nurses working in the hospital environment. A questionnaire survey was conducted. It is focused on nutritional management with regard to assessment of nutritional status and implementation of nutritional care. Nurses were recruited from the university hospital in Seoul, Korea. A majority of nurses had positive attitudes towards patients' nutritional status and had a high desire to receive nutritional information. However, they had limited knowledge of nutrition, especially nutritional assessment criteria which are basic to the evaluation of patient's nutritional status. Nurses did not perform the nutritional assessment appropriately in practice. These findings suggest that nurses have limited nutritional knowledge and they use nutritional assessment criteria poorly in clinical settings. This study provides a framework for developing nutritional management programmes and a standardized protocol for nutritional assessment.

  20. Responsible Grammar Rebels: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Teach the Intentional Sentence Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    Building off of students' interest in popular apocalyptic/dystopian literature, this article explores how passages from Suzanne Collins's "The Hunger Games" trilogy aided in teaching students how to successfully rebel against traditional grammar rules, looking at fragments as intentional stylistic choices. Employing the values of…

  1. A larval hunger signal in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Duchateau, Marie-Jose

    2006-01-01

    Larvae of Bombus terrestris, a pollen-storing bumblebee, are dependent on progressive provisioning by workers. We test the hypothesis that larval cuticular chemicals can act as a hunger signal. We first show with a new classical conditioning experiment, using a Y-shaped tube, that workers can...

  2. Legal and ethical implications of medically enforced feeding of detained asylum seekers on hunger strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Mary A; Silove, Derrick M; Steel, Zachary

    2004-03-01

    The current practice of non-consensual medical treatment of hunger-striking asylum seekers in detention needs closer inquiry. An Australian Government regulation empowers the Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA) to authorise non-consensual medical treatment for a person in immigration detention if they are at risk of physical harm, but there are doubts about whether the regulation would withstand legal challenge. Authorisation by DIMIA does not compel medical practitioners to enforce treatment if such action is contrary to their "ethical, moral or religious convictions". The World Medical Association has established guidelines for doctors involved in managing people on hunger strikes. The Declaration of Tokyo (1975) and the Declaration of Malta (1991) both prohibit the use of non-consensual force-feeding of hunger strikers who are mentally competent. If called upon to treat hunger strikers, medical practitioners should be aware of their ethical and legal responsibilities, and that they should act independently of government or institutional interests.

  3. Computer Assisted Comprehension of Distant Worlds: Understanding Hunger Dynamics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a computer program called RiskMap. Explains that after completing an assignment on rural economics and hunger dynamics in Africa, students showed an increased level of understanding and felt that using RiskMap was helpful in learning the material. Includes references. (DAJ)

  4. The Consequences of Hunger and Food Insecurity for Children: Evidence from Recent Scientific Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA. Center on Hunger and Poverty.

    Asserting that 13 million U.S. children live in households with limited or uncertain access to sufficient food, this report highlights recent findings showing the adverse consequences of hunger and food insecurity for children. The findings are grouped into three broad areas: health consequences, psychosocial and behavioral impacts, and learning…

  5. The Hunger Stones: a new source for more objective identification of historical droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleder, Libor

    2016-04-01

    Extreme droughts recorded recently more frequently in different parts of the world represent the most serious environmental problem. Our contribution identifies periods of hydrological drought. The extreme drought period in summer 2015 enabled the levelling of historical watermarks on the „Hunger Stone" (Hungerstein) in the Elbe in Czech town of Děčín. The comparison of the obtained levels of earlier palaeographic records with systematic measurements in the Děčín profile confirmed the hypothesis that the old watermarks represent the minimal water levels. Moreover, we present a review of so far known Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with their low-level watermarks. For identification of the drought period duration we used the oldest water level records from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) database archive: Magdeburg (since 1727), Dresden (since 1801), Prague (since 1825) and Decin (since 1851) time-series. We obtained more objective and complex information on all historical droughts between 1727 and 2015. The low water-marks on Hunger Stones give us a possibility for augmentation of systematic records and extended our knowledge's back to 1616. The Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with old watermarks are unique testimony for studying of hydrological extremes, and last but not least also of anthropogenic changes in the riverbed of the Elbe.

  6. Insects, Food, and Hunger: The Paradox of Plenty for U.S. Entomology, 1920-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between invention/innovation in pest control practices, food supply, and hunger in the United States from 1920-1970. Includes discussions of the nature, development, and use of insecticides, control of specific pests, and public arguments over the safety of residues leading to search for nonchemical methods of control.…

  7. Effects of hunger state on food-related brain responses across the lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbonnier, L.

    2016-01-01

    Thesis aims The studies conducted in this thesis were part of the Full4Health project. The aims of the Full4Health project were to assess the differences in the brain responses to food presentation and food choice and how these responses are modulated by hunger and gut signals in lean and obese subj

  8. School Lunch Quality Following Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine; Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Barbee, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigates the effect of meal component changes by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) on school lunch quality and consumption in elementary school students, grade 2-5 before and after the HHFKA guidelines were implemented in July 2012 using the Healthy Eating Index. Methods: In Spring 2012, before…

  9. The Games People Play: Information and Media Literacies in the Hunger Games Trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don; Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Katniss Everdeen, the narrator and protagonist of Suzanne Collins' Hunger Games Trilogy, survives the grueling ordeal of forced participation in two games to the death through both physical prowess and mental agility. Both within and outside of the Games, she demonstrates information and media literacies. By becoming adept at interpreting and…

  10. The Games People Play: Information and Media Literacies in the Hunger Games Trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don; Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Katniss Everdeen, the narrator and protagonist of Suzanne Collins' Hunger Games Trilogy, survives the grueling ordeal of forced participation in two games to the death through both physical prowess and mental agility. Both within and outside of the Games, she demonstrates information and media literacies. By becoming adept at interpreting and…

  11. Responsible Grammar Rebels: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Teach the Intentional Sentence Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    Building off of students' interest in popular apocalyptic/dystopian literature, this article explores how passages from Suzanne Collins's "The Hunger Games" trilogy aided in teaching students how to successfully rebel against traditional grammar rules, looking at fragments as intentional stylistic choices. Employing the values of…

  12. Stress augments food 'wanting' and energy intake in visceral overweight subjects in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Sofie G; Rutters, Femke; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-03

    Stress may induce eating in the absence of hunger, possibly involving changes in food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting'. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of acute psychological stress on food reward, and on energy intake, in visceral overweight (VO) vs. normal weight (NW) subjects. Subjects (27 NW, age=26 ± 9 yrs, BMI=22 ± 2 kg/m²; 15 VO, age=36 ± 12 yrs, BMI=28 ± 1 kg/m²) came to the university twice, fasted, for either a rest or stress condition (randomized cross-over design). Per test-session 'liking' and 'wanting' for 72 items divided in six categories (bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, and stationery (control)) were measured twice, each time followed by a wanted meal. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, VAS), heart rate, mood state and level of anxiety (POMS/STAI questionnaires) were measured. High hunger and low satiety (64 ± 19, 22 ± 20 mmVAS) confirmed the fasted state. Elevated heart rate, anger and confusion scores (p ≤ 0.03) confirmed the stress vs. rest condition. Consumption of the first meal decreased hunger, increased satiety, and decreased ranking of 'liking' of bread vs. increased ranking of 'liking' of the control (pfood intake in the absence of hunger, resulting in an increased energy intake.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON FOOD INTAKE AND HUNGER: RELATIONSHIP WITH ACYLATED GHRELIN AND LEPTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Vatansever-Ozen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a long bout of aerobic exercise on hunger and energy intake and circulating levels of leptin and acylated ghrelin. Ten healthy male subjects undertook two, 4 h trials in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trial subjects ran for 105 min at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake and the last 15 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by a 120 min rest period. In the control trial, subjects rested for 4 h. Subjects consumed a buffet test meal at 180 min during each trial. Hunger ratings, acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. No differences were found at baseline values for hunger, acylated ghrelin, leptin, insulin and glucose for both trials (p > 0.05. The estimated energy expenditure of the exercise trial was 1550 ± 136 kcal. Exercise did not change subsequent absolute energy intake, but produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in relative energy intake. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0. 05 interaction effect for hunger and acylated ghrelin. In conclusion, this exercise regimen had a positive effect on reducing appetite which is related to reduced acylated ghrelin responses over time. This finding lends support for a role of exercise in weight management

  14. Insects, Food, and Hunger: The Paradox of Plenty for U.S. Entomology, 1920-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between invention/innovation in pest control practices, food supply, and hunger in the United States from 1920-1970. Includes discussions of the nature, development, and use of insecticides, control of specific pests, and public arguments over the safety of residues leading to search for nonchemical methods of control.…

  15. Class on Fire: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Encourage Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores ways to utilize students' interest in fantasy literature to support critical literacy. Focusing on Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games series (2008, 2009, 2010), the author addresses how elements of the trilogy relate to violent acts in our world, helping student understand that violence and brutality toward children is not…

  16. Putting a Face on Hunger: A Community-Academic Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Nancy; Canales, Mary K.; Moore, Emily; Gullickson, Melissa; Kaczmarski, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for Eau Claire County residents in Western Wisconsin. A community-academic partnership studied food insecurity through the voices of families struggling to access food and institutions that assist with hunger related problems. Data were collected through focus groups held in urban and rural parts of the county.…

  17. Dwelling in Possibilities: Our Students' Spectacular Hunger for Life Makes Them Radically Vulnerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how today's student generation has a spectacular hunger for life and more life. They want to study, travel, make friends, make more friends, read everything (superfast), take in all the movies, listen to every hot band, keep up with everyone they've ever known. They live to multiply possibilities. The author…

  18. School Lunch Quality Following Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine; Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Barbee, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigates the effect of meal component changes by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) on school lunch quality and consumption in elementary school students, grade 2-5 before and after the HHFKA guidelines were implemented in July 2012 using the Healthy Eating Index. Methods: In Spring 2012, before…

  19. Rights-Based Approaches to Ensure Sustainable Nutrition Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sweta

    2016-01-01

    In India, a rights-based approach has been used to address large-scale malnutrition, including both micro- and macro-level nutrition deficiencies. Stunting, which is an intergenerational chronic consequence of malnutrition, is especially widespread in India (38% among children under 5 years old). To tackle this problem, the government of India has designed interventions for the first 1,000 days, a critical period of the life cycle, through a number of community-based programs to fulfill the rights to food and life. However, the entitlements providing these rights have not yet produced the necessary changes in the malnutrition status of people, especially women and children. The government of India has already implemented laws and drafted a constitution that covers the needs of its citizens, but corruption, bureaucracy, lack of awareness of rights and entitlements and social discrimination limit people's access to basic rights and services. To address this crisis, Welthungerhilfe India, working in remote villages of the most backward states in India, has shifted from a welfare-based approach to a rights-based approach. The Fight Hunger First Initiative, started by Welthungerhilfe in 2011, is designed on the premise that in the long term, poor people can only leave poverty behind if adequate welfare systems are in place and if basic rights are fulfilled; these rights include access to proper education, sufficient access to adequate food and income, suitable health services and equal rights. Only then can the next generation of disadvantaged populations look forward to a new and better future and can growth benefit the entire society. The project, co-funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, is a long-term multi-sectoral program that involves institution-building and empowerment.

  20. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in ...

  1. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  2. Population, nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    The World Health Organization defines health as not only the absence of disease but as a more positive state of physical, mental, and social well-being. 1 of the most important influences on health is nutrition. Millions of people throughout the world either do not get enough to eat or do not get enough of the right kinds of food. Malnutrition is the biggest single contributor to child mortality in developing countries; malnourished children have an impaired ability to fight infection and disease. Children suffering protein-energy or protein-calorie malnutrition may develop nutritional deficiency diseases such as marasmus or kwashiorkor. Some estimates indicate that 2/3 of children in developing countries suffer from protein-calorie malnutrition. Some deficiency diseases caused by a lack of 1 or more nutrients are very widespread, such as anemia, endemic goiter, and xerophthalmia. Contributing factors for malnutrition may include low purchasing power of poor families, poor harvests due to crop failure, bad weather, food spoilage, pests, or a poor distribution system, or cultural practices that prevent the full utilization of available food resources. The decline in the incidence of breastfeeding in recent decades is a major factor in the malnutrition and ill health of children. The quality of nutrition affects the development of human beings in many ways that are sometimes overlooked, such as physical growth and intellectual development. In the long run, only economic development will eliminate malnutrition by eliminating its basic causes of food availability, poverty, ignorance, and overpopulation. Breastfeeding is an important nutritional source for infants and has a contraceptive value for mothers. Improved nutrition should have beneficial effects on the costs of providing education, health services, and housing. Improving the nutritional status of small children may increase their ability to withstand disease, resulting in the survival of greater numbers of

  3. The impact of sugar sweetened beverage intake on hunger and satiety in minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearrer, Grace E; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Belcher, Britini R; Daniels, Michael J; Goran, Michael I; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2016-02-01

    Limited research has examined the effects of habitual SSB consumption on hunger/fullness ratings and gut hormones. This study hypothesized that high versus low intakes of habitual SSBs would result in greater hunger, decreased fullness, and a blunted gut hormone response, however the high versus low fiber group would exhibit decreased hunger and increased fullness. This was a randomized crossover feeding trial with 47 African American and Hispanic adolescents. The experiment included three 24-hour recalls to assess habitual dietary intake. During the test meal phase, subjects were served breakfast and lunch. During the ad libitum meal phase, subjects were fed an ad libitum dinner. During the test meal phase, blood was drawn every 30 minutes for 3 hours. During the ad libitum meal phase, hunger and fullness visual analogue scales were completed. For this analysis, subjects were grouped into the following habitual SSB categories: low SSB (≤1 SSB serv/day), medium SSB (>1 - intake. Mixed modeling was used to explore how SSB and fiber categories predicted ghrelin/PYY values and hunger/fullness ratings across time within and between test meals. The following a priori covariates included: sex, ethnicity, age, and obesity status. The low SSB group had higher fullness ratings over the ad libitum meal compared to the high SSB group (β =-0.49, CI=(-0.89, -0.08), p=0.02) and higher ghrelin concentrations than the medium and high SSB group over the test meal phase (β =-1.86, CI=(-2.81, -0.92), pintake appears to play a key role in moderating fullness responses possibly via ghrelin.

  4. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  5. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p satiety (14% increase, p hunger, associated with overeating and obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food.

  6. The Invisible Hunger: Is Famine Identifiable from the Archaeological Record?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Morgan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Famine, as defined by an acute (short-term or chronic (long-term or cyclical period of starvation, is identifiable in the historical period from written records and potentially with archaeological corroboration, but in prehistory other approaches must be employed. Several of these are discussed including studies of diet and nutrition, paleodemography, environmental catalysts, and funerary ritual. Despite a multifactorial analysis integrating palynology, dendrochronology, stable isotope analyses, osteoarchaeology, and social archaeology, difficulties in contemporizing paleodemographic events them with osteological assemblages are substantial enough that the detection of a famine is not possible solely from the archaeological record. More significant is the conclusion that all apparent indicators for acute or chronic starvation are also representative of epidemic disease. Because of this uncertainty, it is not possible to identify famine in prehistory.

  7. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  8. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  9. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  10. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part 4--Implementation, 1970 Amendments to the National School Lunch Act. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., May 3-4, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    In trying to solve the problem of hunger in the classroom, the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs heard the testimony of many witnesses, among whom were: Miss Barbara Bode, Program Director, The Children's Foundation; Miss Barbara Hockert, President, Burlington Ad Hoc Committee on School Lunches; and, Mrs. Joseph H. Young,…

  11. Notes on Cooperation Between Brazil - Angola Regarding Food Security and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Pires Rocha; José Francisco dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of combating hunger in Brazil and Angola, addressing aspects of cooperation between the two countries as regards the assurance of the Human Right to Adequate Food and Food and Nutrition Security. We conducted desk research reports from international organizations and agencies as well as in official agreements present in the Foreign Ministry website. The discussion is divided into four parts, which involve the historical review of the relationship Brazil - Ango...

  12. Exploiting the Poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp Justesen, Mogens; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While extant research has focused on the causes and consequences of corruption at the macro-level, less effort has been devoted to understanding the micro-foundation of corruption. We argue that poor people are more likely to be victims of corrupt behavior by street-level bureaucrats as the poor ...

  13. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  14. The Multidimensional Nutritional Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Senior, Alistair M; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-05-01

    The dietary generalist-specialist distinction plays a pivotal role in theoretical and applied ecology, conservation, invasion biology, and evolution and yet the concept remains poorly characterised. Diets, which are commonly used to define niche breadth, are almost exclusively considered in terms of foods, with little regard for the mixtures of nutrients and other compounds they contain. We use nutritional geometry (NG) to integrate nutrition with food-level approaches to the dietary niche and illustrate the application of our framework in the important context of invasion biology. We use an example that involves a model with four hypothetical nonexclusive scenarios. We additionally show how this approach can provide fresh theoretical insight into the ways nutrition and food choices impact trait evolution and trophic interactions.

  15. Vitamin B-12 Concentrations in Breast Milk Are Low and Are Not Associated with Reported Household Hunger, Recent Animal-Source Food, or Vitamin B-12 Intake in Women in Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anne M; Chantry, Caroline J; Young, Sera L; Achando, Beryl S; Allen, Lindsay H; Arnold, Benjamin F; Colford, John M; Dentz, Holly N; Hampel, Daniela; Kiprotich, Marion C; Lin, Audrie; Null, Clair A; Nyambane, Geoffrey M; Shahab-Ferdows, Setti; Stewart, Christine P

    2016-05-01

    Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in regions in which animal-source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. We measured vitamin B-12 in breast milk and examined its associations with household hunger, recent animal-source food consumption, and vitamin B-12 intake. In a cross-sectional substudy nested within a cluster-randomized trial assessing water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition interventions in Kenya, we sampled 286 women 1-6 mo postpartum. Mothers hand-expressed breast milk 1 min into a feeding after 90 min observed nonbreastfeeding. The Household Hunger Scale was used to measure hunger, food intake in the previous week was measured with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and vitamin B-12 intake was estimated by using 24-h dietary recall. An animal-source food score was based on 10 items from the FFQ (range: 0-70). Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration was measured with the use of a solid-phase competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay and was modeled with linear regression. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for correlated observations at the cluster level. Median (IQR) vitamin B-12 intake was 1.5 μg/d (0.3, 9.7 μg/d), and 60% of women consumed vitamin B-12 concentration was 113 pmol/L (61, 199 pmol/L); 89% had concentrations food score ranged from 0 to 30 item-d/wk. Hunger and recent animal-source food and vitamin B-12 intake were not associated with breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. Maternal age was negatively associated with breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. Most lactating Kenyan women consumed less than the estimated average requirement of vitamin B-12 and had low breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. We recommend interventions that improve vitamin B-12 intake in lactating Kenyan women to foster maternal health and child development. The main trial was registered at

  16. Child and Adult Care Food Program: Meal Pattern Revisions Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-25

    This final rule updates the meal pattern requirements for the Child and Adult Care Food Program to better align them with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. This rule requires centers and day care homes participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program to serve more whole grains and a greater variety of vegetables and fruit, and reduces the amount of added sugars and solid fats in meals. In addition, this final rule supports mothers who breastfeed and improves consistency with the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and with other Child Nutrition Programs. Several of the changes are extended to the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, and Special Milk Program. These changes are based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, science-based recommendations made by the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies), cost and practical considerations, and stakeholder's input. This is the first major revision of the Child and Adult Care Food Program meal patterns since the Program's inception in 1968. These improvements to the meals served in the Child and Adult Care Food Program are expected to safeguard the health of young children by ensuring healthy eating habits are developed early, and improve the wellness of adult participants.

  17. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udipi, S A; Ghugre, P; Antony, U

    2000-09-01

    Nutrition at optimal levels is fundamental in the maintenance of positive health. Matemal nutrition is very important for the course and outcome of pregnancy. Lactation represents a stage wherein health and nutritional status of the infant are dependent on the mother. Successful pregnancy and lactation require adjustments in maternal body composition, metabolism and function of various physioogical systems. A diet that meets matemal nutritional needs is required for these adjustments, so that maternal well-being is safeguarded with birth of an healthy infant. Adequate nutrition supports the growth of both matemal and foetal tissues. Chronic undernutrition throughout pregnancy affects birth weights of newborns. Poor nutrition causes intra-uterine growth retardation. Specific nutrients like zinc, iodine and folate are also required for development of the foetus. Foetal iron deficiency exists in maternal iron deficiency anaemia. Maternal nutritional status, breast milk composition and volume are elaborated in the article. Proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins and their requirements are narrated in detail. Additional nutritional requirements during lactation have been tabulated in this article. Thus improving the nutrition and health of girls and younger women and of mothers during pregnancy and lactation will derive benefits in terms of improved health of their children throughout their lives.

  18. Nutrition in chronic critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingleton, S K

    2001-03-01

    Nutritional management of patients with respiratory failure can be a model of nutritional management in chronically critically ill patients. This model requires recognition of the differing metabolic states of starvation and hypermetabolism. Starvation can result in malnutrition, with adverse effect on respiratory muscle strength, ventilatory drive, and immune defense mechanisms. General nutritional goals include preservation of lean body mass by providing adequate energy and positive nitrogen balance. General nutritional prescriptions for both states include a substrate mix of 20% protein, 60% to 70% carbohydrates, and 20% to 30% fat. Positive nitrogen balance is difficult to attain in hypermetabolic patients and energy requirements are increased compared with starved patients. Enteral nutrition should be the mode of initial nutrient delivery unless the gastrointestinal tract is nonfunctional. Monitoring of nutritional support is essential. Complications of nutritional support are multiple. Nutritional hypercapnia is an important complication in a chronically critically ill patient. Outcomes of selected long-term acute patients are poor, with only 8% of patients fully functional 1 year after discharge. Appropriate nutritional therapy is one aspect of management of these patients that has the possibility of optimizing function and survival.

  19. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G

    2016-03-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour has driven the need for further fundamental research. Full4Health is an EU-funded project conceived to advance our understanding of hunger and satiety mechanisms. Food intake has an impact on and is also affected by the gut-brain signalling which controls hunger and appetite. This review describes selected recent research from Full4Health and how new mechanistic findings could be exploited to adapt and control our physiological responses to food, potentially providing an alternative solution to addressing the global problems related to positive energy balance.

  20. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charli Sargent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14 or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14. Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00–21:00 h whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00–05:00 h. The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe—as compared to moderate—sleep restriction.

  1. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-01-29

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00-21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00-05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe--as compared to moderate--sleep restriction.

  2. Public intervention in food and nutrition in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Bethsáida A S; Moreira, Emilia A M; Freitas, Maiara B de; Fiates, Giovanna M R; Gabriel, Cristine G; Fagundes, Regina L M

    2011-12-01

    In the last twenty years, the Brazilian government has created a number of income transfer programs for the poorest portion of the population to promote food and nutrition security and eradicate extreme poverty, hunger and malnutrition. These programs have achieved satisfactory results, which cannot, however, be attributed solely to the transference of income, as they involve other governmental public policies in health, education and basic sanitation, Combined, the aim of such public policies is to break patterns of the poverty across generations, thereby contributing to human development in the country.

  3. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Modulates Ghrelin, Hunger, and Satiety in Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blind...

  4. Effects of increased meal frequency on fat oxidation and perceived hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kohrt, Wendy M; Melanson, Edward L

    2013-02-01

    Consuming smaller, more frequent meals is often advocated as a means of controlling body weight, but studies demonstrating a mechanistic effect of this practice on factors associated with body weight regulation are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of consuming three (3M) vs. six meals (6M) per day on 24-h fat oxidation and subjective ratings of hunger. Lean (body mass index <25 kg/m(2) ) subjects (7M, 8F) were studied in a whole-room calorimeter on two occasions in a randomized cross-over design. Subjects were provided isoenergetic, energy balanced diets with a 1- to 2-week washout between conditions. Hunger, fullness, and "desire to eat" ratings were assessed throughout the day using visual analog scales and quantified as area under the curve (AUC). There were no differences (P < 0.05) in 24-h energy expenditure (8.7 ± 0.3 vs. 8.6 ± 0.3 mj d(-1) ), 24-h respiratory quotient (0.85 ± 0.01 vs. 0.85 ± 0.01), or 24-h fat oxidation (82 ± 6 vs. 80 ± 7 g day(-1) ) between 3M and 6M, respectively. There was no difference in fullness 24-h AUC, but hunger AUC (41850 ± 2255 vs. 36612 ± 2556 mm.24 h, P = 0.03) and "desire to eat" AUC (47061 ± 1791 vs. 41170 ± 2574 mm.24 h, P = 0.03) were greater during 6M than 3M. We conclude that increasing meal frequency from three to six per day has no significant effect on 24-h fat oxidation, but may increase hunger and the desire to eat. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  5. [Hunger and satiety factors in the regulation of pleasure associated with feeding behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an instinctive behavior accompanied by rewarding feeling of pleasure during obtaining and ingesting food, corresponding to the preparatory and consummatory phases of motivated behavior, respectively. Perception of this emotional state together with alternating feelings of hunger and satiety drives the feeding behavior. Because alterations of feeding behavior including either overeating or anorexia may lead to obesity and cachexia, respectively, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms of regulation of feeding pleasure may help to develop new therapies of these diseases. The dopamine (DA) system of the mesolimbic projections plays a key role in behavioral reward in general and is also involved in regulating feeding-associated pleasure in the forebrain including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). It suggests that this DA system can be selectively activated by factors specific to different types of motivated behavior including hunger- and satiety- related hormones. Indeed, central administrations of either orexigenic ghrelin or anorexigenic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increase DA release in the NAc. However, DA has also been shown to inhibit food intake when injected into the LHA, historically known as a « hunger center », indicating DA functional involvement in regulation of both appetite and feeding pleasure. Although both NAc and LHA contain neurons expressing melanocortin receptors, only the LHA receives the α-MSH containing nerve terminals from the α-MSH producing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, the main relay of the peripheral hunger and satiety signals to the brain. A recent study showed that α-MSH in the LHA enhances satiety and inhibits feeding pleasure while potently stimulating DA release in this area during both preparatory and consummatory phases of feeding. It suggests that altered signaling by α-MSH to the DA system in the LHA may be involved in the pathophysiology of

  6. Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

    2013-09-01

    Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised.

  7. B-type natriuretic peptide modulates ghrelin, hunger, and satiety in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blinded study (subject) placebo once and 3.0 pmol/kg/min human BNP-32 once administered as a continuous infusion during 4 h. Circulating concentrations of appetite-regulating peptides were measured hourly. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were evaluated by visual analog scales. BNP inhibited the fasting-induced increase in total and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time (P = 0.043 and P = 0.038, respectively). In addition, BNP decreased the subjective rating of hunger (P = 0.009) and increased the feeling of satiety (P = 0.012) when compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in circulating peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. In summary, our results demonstrate that BNP exerts anorectic effects and reduces ghrelin concentrations in men. These data, taken together with the known cardiovascular properties of ghrelin, support the existence of a heart-gut-brain axis, which could be therapeutically targeted in patients with heart failure and obesity.

  8. THE HUNGER GAMES: REPRESENTING THE NEW IMAGE OF AMERICAN POPULAR HEROES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidatul Chusna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at revealing the new image of American popular heroes as depicted in the novel adaptation film of The Hunger Games which is created as a trilogy, which consists of two more novels: Catching Fire and Mockingjay. This film is one of the most phenomenal films in 2013-2104, which grossed out up to $407,999,255. This research used textual approach, which focused on the text as the object, that is The Hunger Games film. The result shows that The Hunger Games essentially brings the issue of slavery back into scrutiny. However, the creation of the heroin in the film is granted as the reconstruction of popular heroes in America. She is an inspiring female hero which is exemplified as the appreciation of womens values. Yet, the heroin is broadly defined with the qualities of rouge heroes as the characteristics are the representation of the belief and values associated with freedom to wash away the oppression restore the rights of the minority. In addition to the issue of slavery , the symbols of new hope and new spirit are implicitly emerged in the story. This attempt was proficiently done by the heroin, which was eventually created as the new image of the American heroes.

  9. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  10. Hunger and associated harms among injection drug users in an urban Canadian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Aranka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insufficiency is often associated with health risks and adverse outcomes among marginalized populations. However, little is known about correlates of food insufficiency among injection drug users (IDU. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported hunger in a large cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. Food insufficiency was defined as reporting "I am hungry, but don't eat because I can't afford enough food". Logistic regression was used to determine independent socio-demographic and drug-use characteristics associated with food insufficiency. Results Among 1,053 participants, 681 (64.7% reported being hungry and unable to afford enough food. Self-reported hunger was independently associated with: unstable housing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 - 2.36, spending ≥ $50/day on drugs (AOR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.06 - 1.91, and symptoms of depression (AOR: 3.32, 95% CI: 2.45 - 4.48. Conclusion These findings suggest that IDU in this setting would likely benefit from interventions that work to improve access to food and social support services, including addiction treatment programs which may reduce the adverse effect of ongoing drug use on hunger.

  11. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  12. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  13. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  14. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  15. Is glycemic index of food a feasible predictor of appetite, hunger, and satiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Adachi, Takashi; Kashimura, Jun; Sakata, Takashi; Sasaki, Hajime; Sekine, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yonekubo, Akie; Kimura, Shuichi

    2009-06-01

    This review assesses the feasibility of using glycemic index (GI) as a predictor of appetite, hunger and satiety by surveying published human intervention studies. We also discuss the relationship between GI and two appetite/satiety control hormones, leptin and ghrelin. Ingestion of high-GI food increased hunger and lowered satiety in short-term human intervention studies. This effect may be attributed to the rapid decline in blood glucose level following a hyperinsulinemic response caused by a sharp and transient increase in blood glucose level that occurs after the ingestion of high-GI food, which is defined as the glucostatic theory. However, appetite, hunger and satiety after the ingestion of foods with varying GI were inconsistent among long-term human intervention studies. From the few relevant long-term studies available, we selected two recent well-designed examples for analysis, but they failed to elicit clear differences in glycemic and insulinemic responses between high- and low-GI meals (consisting of a combination of different foods or key carbohydrate-rich foods incorporated into habitual diets). One of the reasons that these studies could not predict glycemic response to mixed meals is presumably that the GI of each particular food was not reflected in that of the mixed meals as a whole. Thus, it is difficult to conclude that the GI values of foods or mixed meals are a valid long-term predictor for appetite, hunger and satiety. Both insulin and insulin-mediated glucose uptake and metabolism in adipose tissue affect blood leptin concentration and its diurnal pattern. Circulating ghrelin level is suppressed by carbohydrate-rich meals, presumably via glycemia and insulinemia. Accordingly, low-GI foods may not necessarily increase satiety or suppress appetite and/or hunger because of the lack of insulin-mediated leptin stimulation and ghrelin suppression. However, insulin-mediated leptin stimulation and ghrelin suppression per se is not consistent among

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fletcher, Antoinette

    2012-02-01

    The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.

  17. The impact of globalisation, free trade and technology on food and nutrition in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, P

    2001-05-01

    The millennium promises a dramatic politicisation of the food question. In addition to the prominent issues of food security, hunger and nutrition, bioengineering, food safety and quality, there are related issues of environmental sustainability, power, sovereignty and rights. All these issues are deeply implicated in the current corporate form of globalisation, which is transforming historic global arrangements by subordinating public institutions and the question of food security to private solutions. The present paper questions the self-evident association between globalisation and nutritional improvement.

  18. Poor school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2005-11-01

    Education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development. Poor school performance not only results in the child having a low self-esteem, but also causes significant stress to the parents. There are many reasons for children to under perform at school, such as, medical problems, below average intelligence, specific learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, poor socio-cultural home environment, psychiatric disorders and even environmental causes. The information provided by the parents, classroom teacher and school counselor about the child's academic difficulties guides the pediatrician to form an initial diagnosis. However, a multidisciplinary evaluation by an ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, counselor, clinical psychologist, special educator, and child psychiatrist is usually necessary before making the final diagnosis. It is important to find the reason(s) for a child's poor school performance and come up with a treatment plan early so that the child can perform up to full potential.

  19. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna Marie

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and

  20. Non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernstrom, John D

    2015-01-01

    Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) provide sweetness to foods and beverages without adding calories. They have thus been found useful in minimizing the dietary sugar content of diabetics and the dietary energy content of individuals attempting to lose or maintain body weight. Their usefulness in weight reduction has recently been questioned, however, based on the notion that they can actually increase hunger and food intake and thereby promote weight gain. The evidence offered in support of this idea comes principally from the fields of taste physiology, metabolic endocrinology, human behavior, and epidemiology. This review evaluates this evidence and does not find it compelling. Indeed, the most straightforward findings to the contrary derive from several intervention studies in both children and adults showing that the chronic, covert replacement of dietary sugar with NNSs does not increase, and can in fact reduce, energy intake and body weight.

  1. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  2. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  3. Nutrition Education Needs of Elders in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Karen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The dietary patterns and nutrition education needs of 472 Illinois adults over 64 were identified. Many were at nutritional risk, having high cholesterol, overall poor diet, and low intake of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. The project was a collaboration between Cooperative Extension and the Illinois Department of Public Health. (SK)

  4. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  5. The Poor Pay More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folse, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a sociology experiential learning assignment where students learned why people living in poverty can sometimes pay more for products than people with better incomes. Focuses specifically on the rent to own concept. States students achieved the goal of learning how life constraints of poverty can hinder the poor from overcoming their…

  6. Becoming poor in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing to poverty, counteract risk-averse economic behaviour and serve as a substitute for the ... so focus their attention on the vulnerable non-poor (World Bank 2009, Hanlon et al. 2010,. Adato and .... The influx of low cost foreign clothing ... other loans they lost the business as well as the car and valuable household items.

  7. Nutritionally enhanced rice to combat malnutrition disorders of the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2003-06-01

    Major deficiency disorders, including vitamin A deficiency, are especially common in countries in which rice is the staple food. In response to the devastating effects of vitamin A deficiency, which may include blindness and, even death, "Golden Rice" has been developed to deliver this nutrient to those populations who need it most. The case of Golden Rice is used to demonstrate the challenges of radical GMO opposition, consumer acceptance, and regulation of biotechnology-derived foods.

  8. Nutritionally Enhanced Rice to Combat Malnutrition Disorders of the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Major deficiency disorders, including vitamin A deficiency, are especially common in countries in which rice is the staple food. In response to the devastating effects of vitamin A deficiency, which may include blindness and, even death, "Golden Rice” has been developed to deliver this nutrient to those populations who need it most. The case of Golden Rice is used to demonstrate the challenges of radical GMO opposition, consumer acceptance, and regulation of biotechnology-derived foods

  9. Nutritional status of the Indian population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shobha Rao

    2001-11-01

    High prevalence of low birth weight, high morbidity and mortality in children and poor maternal nutrition of the mother continue to be major nutritional concerns in India. Although nationwide intervention programmes are in operation over two decades, the situation has not changed greatly. In addition, the Indian population is passing through a nutritional transition and is expected to witness higher prevalences of adult non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease according to the theory of `fetal origin of adult disease’. Clearly, there is a need for examining several issues of nutritional significance for effective planning of interventions. In particular, maternal nutrition and fetal growth relationship, long term effects of early life undernutrition, interactions of prenatal nutritional experiences and postnatal undernutrition are some of the major issues that have been discussed in the present paper with the help of prospective data from various community nutrition studies carried out in the department.

  10. The Impact Evaluation of the Nutrition Interventions on Students’Health and Education Performance in Poor Areas%营养干预对贫困地区农村学生健康及学业表现的影响评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡颖萍

    2014-01-01

    Based on the randomly contolled experimental data of 75 rural primary schools in Qinghai Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and by making use of an analytical research method in e-conometrics,we find that nutritional interventions have positive impact on improving academic perform-ance and the health status of rural pupils.Among the different interventions,providing the vitamin tab-lets for rural pupils in poor areas has very positive impact on improving the academic performance.%利用对西部地区青海省和宁夏回族自治区的75所小学的随机控制实验数据,运用计量经济学分析方法研究发现,营养干预对降低学生贫血率,提高学习成绩有正面影响。而在不同干预手段中,为学生免费提供富含多种微量元素的维生素片对提高学生的学业表现有较为显著的正面影响。

  11. [Social inequalities in nutrition: Evidence, causes and interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Weyers, Simone

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is unhealthy: obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, and premature mortality are reliably associated with poor nutrition. However, literature reveals that some population groups are at higher risk of poor nutrition than others. More specifically, evidence shows that people with low social status are more likely to have poor nutrition than those with higher status, what may contribute to health inequalities. In this article, selected reviews and meta-analyses on social inequalities in nutrition are presented. By showing current data from the Second National Food Consumption Study, the situation in Germany is highlighted. Further, potential causes of social inequalities in nutrition are discussed, drawing on the results of current research. More specifically, socioeconomic and structural deprivation (e.g., poverty, living in deprived neighborhoods) in addition to unfavorable psychosocial (e.g., poor knowledge of nutrition, low levels of social support) and sociocultural factors (e.g., unfavorable nutritional traditions) might be associated with poor nutrition in people with low social status. Interventions promoting nutritional quality in disadvantaged groups should take into account the various influences on nutrition and meet good practice criteria for health promotion. Using three examples of interventions, conceivable concrete measures that can reduce social inequalities in nutrition are presented.

  12. Psoriasis and Nutrition Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Tevfikoğlu Alceylan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic complex inflammatory disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Nutrition and diet has been suggested to play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of psoriasis. Diets poor in energy and saturated fatty acids and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have positive effects on the treatment of psoriasis. Vitamin A and D modulate immune system and their receptors shows an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the proliferation of keratinocytes. Patients with psoriasis are often Vitamin D deficient, they should be therefore evaluated considering their vitamin D levels. If they take a vitamin D supplementation, they should be monitored for side effects. Consumption levels of minerals such as copper, zinc and iron, and antioxidant compounds, including carotenoids and flavonoids involve in antioxidant reactions should be followed-up. A diet including a variety of vegetables and fruit can help reduce the risk of oxidative stress. Selenium levels are lower in patients, and selenium is effective in the prognosis of the disease when combined with antioxidant treatment. Alcohol consumption has a negative impact on the nutrition of the patients and the prognosis of the disease and should be avoided. The follow-up of the disease at an early stage, adequate and balanced nutrition are important in the treatment of psoriasis. Weight controls should be provided and diets with individual specific nutrition variety should be set.

  13. Nutritional optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka-Pierko, Anna; Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional optic neuropathy (aka deficiency optic neuropathy) is a dysfunction of the optic nerve resulting from improper dietary content of certain nutrients essential for normal functioning of the nerve fibers. Most commonly, it results from folic acid and vitamin B complex deficiency associated with malnutrition or poor dietary habits, incorrectly applied vegetarian diet, or chronic alcohol abuse. Obese patients after bariatric surgery constitute another risk group of optic neuropathy. Nutritional optic neuropathy is characterized by painless, gradually progressing, bilateral and symmetrical decrease in visual acuity, which can be accompanied by the color vision dysfunction. Progression of the neuropathy is associated with optic nerve atrophy, manifesting as complete disc pallor. Treatment of nutritional neuropathy includes dietary supplementation, aimed at compensating for the deficient nutrients. The treatment is mostly based on folic acid, vitamin B complex, and protein replacement, as well as eliminating risk factors of neuropathy. Early treatment commencement, prior to irreversible optic nerve atrophy, is a prerequisite of effective treatment. We would like to highlight this problem by presenting the case of a young woman in whom chronic use "water-based" diet resulted in anemia and bilateral nutritional optic neuropathy.

  14. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving d Employer Matching Gifts d Gifts of Stock or Securities d Giving Circles Golden Circle Circle ... health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low Carb Omega- ...

  15. Parenteral nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility...

  16. ESPEN guideline on ethical aspects of artificial nutrition and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Christiane; Ballmer, Peter E; Druml, Wilfred; Oehmichen, Frank; Shenkin, Alan; Singer, Pierre; Soeters, Peter; Weimann, Arved; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2016-06-01

    The worldwide debate over the use of artificial nutrition and hydration remains controversial although the scientific and medical facts are unequivocal. Artificial nutrition and hydration are a medical intervention, requiring an indication, a therapeutic goal and the will (consent) of the competent patient. The guideline was developed by an international multidisciplinary working group based on the main aspects of the Guideline on "Ethical and Legal Aspects of Artificial Nutrition" published 2013 by the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) after conducting a review of specific current literature. The text was extended and introduced a broader view in particular on the impact of culture and religion. The results were discussed at the ESPEN Congress in Lisbon 2015 and accepted in an online survey among ESPEN members. The ESPEN Guideline on Ethical Aspects of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration is focused on the adult patient and provides a critical summary for physicians and caregivers. Special consideration is given to end of life issues and palliative medicine; to dementia and to specific situations like nursing care or the intensive care unit. The respect for autonomy is an important focus of the guideline as well as the careful wording to be used in the communication with patients and families. The other principles of Bioethics like beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are presented in the context of artificial nutrition and hydration. In this respect the withholding and withdrawing of artificial nutrition and/or hydration is discussed. Due to increasingly multicultural societies and the need for awareness of different values and beliefs an elaborated chapter is dedicated to cultural and religious issues and nutrition. Last but not least topics like voluntary refusal of nutrition and fluids, and forced feeding of competent persons (persons on hunger strike) is included in the guideline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical

  17. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity.

  18. Nutritional anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oski, F A

    1979-10-01

    The role of the metals, iron and copper, and the vitamins E, folic acid, and B12 in the genesis of nutritional anemias in infancy have been reviewed. All are preventable. The precise requirements for each of these trace elements and vitamins in the small premature infant remain to be defined. The nonhematologic consequences of these nutritional deficiencies require further study. Anemia may prove to be the least important manifestation of the deficiency states.

  19. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  20. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  1. Banker to the Poor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bangladeshi economist Muhammad Yunus has been awarded this year's Nobel Peace Prize for making small loans to the poorest of the poor through his Grameen Bank. Grameen, meaning "rural" or "village" in Bangla language, is the world's first microcreditor on this scale. By offering microcredit to the impoverished, Yunus helps those desperately struggling in poverty be more accessible to small business startup. The 66-year-old banker allows those who borrow to change their lives through self-employment, by u...

  2. The importance of good nutrition in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Gina

    2015-02-01

    Poor nutritional status, which is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), has generated considerable interest because of its wide-ranging impact on the children's health and well-being. Understanding the causes of poor nutrition, and the appropriate measurements required to interpret the nutritional status in children with CP, are integral to developing appropriate nutritional intervention strategies. Focusing attention on improving nutrition early in the lives of children with CP affords families and care providers with a unique opportunity for intervention, which may result in better outcomes for the children.

  3. Effect of Nutrition Supplement Education on Nutrition Supplement Knowledge among High School Students from a Low-Income Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeffrey C.; Perry, Danielle R.; Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of a nutrition supplement educational intervention in improving the nutrition supplement knowledge of low-income adolescents. Data on high school students separated into experimental and control groups indicated that they had extremely poor pre-intervention knowledge. However, the short-term nutrition education…

  4. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Langeveld

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold or 24°C (thermoneutrality for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure.

  5. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, M; Tan, C Y; Soeters, M R; Virtue, S; Ambler, G K; Watson, L P E; Murgatroyd, P R; Chatterjee, V K; Vidal-Puig, A

    2016-03-01

    Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold) or 24°C (thermoneutrality) for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure. © 2016 The authors.

  6. Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metz Lore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook during a control day (CON and a day with a game (GAME. The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293. Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, p<0.05. The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05. The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05. Hunger feeling was not different between conditions. Referring leads to nutritional adaptations in elite soccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption.

  7. Metabolic and Psychological Restricts of Nutrition Correction in Overweight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Chaychenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The publication provides an overview of materials concerning psychological and metabolic regulators of hunger/satiety and their impact at food behavior in overweight children. In the context of the obesity epidemic in the world, the recommended measures aimed at preventing its spread include increased physical activity and proper organization of child nutrition. At the same time, the effectiveness of these non-drug interventions is extremely low, and psychosocial dysfunction is considered to be its cause. Analysis of the mechanisms of excessive food intake occurrence shows that eating disorders in overweight children have metabolic neuroenteroendocrine basis with direct impact on hunger/satiety center. Constant stimulation of hedonic centers with the formation of physical dependence in children with reduced volitional qualities supported by parental attitude is the basis for an extremely low efficiency of nutrition correction in overweight. In order to improve the efficiency of weight control programs in children, in parallel with endocrinological/pediatric advice, the family-oriented educational programs and social and psychological interventions should be widely implemented.

  8. Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Lore; Deleuze, Thomas; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-01-01

    Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook) during a control day (CON) and a day with a game (GAME). The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293). Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, p<0.05). The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05). The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05). Hunger feeling was not different between conditions. Referring leads to nutritional adaptations in elite soccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption. PMID:26240651

  9. Annual Research Review: Improved Nutrition--A Pathway to Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early child nutritional deficiencies are prevalent in low- and middle-countries with consequences linked not only to poor survival and growth, but also to poor development outcomes. Children in disadvantaged communities face multiple risks for nutritional deficiencies, yet some children may be less susceptible or may recover more…

  10. Effect of rye bread breakfasts on subjective hunger and satiety: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Roger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies report that dietary fibre from different sources promotes the feeling of satiety and suppresses hunger. However, results for cereal fibre from rye are essentially lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate subjective appetite during 8 h after intake of iso-caloric rye bread breakfasts varying in rye dietary fibre composition and content. Methods The study was divided into two parts. The first part (n = 16 compared the satiating effect of iso-caloric bread breakfasts including different milling fractions of rye (bran, intermediate fraction (B4 and sifted flour. The second part (n = 16 investigated the dose-response effect of rye bran and intermediate rye fraction, each providing 5 or 8 g of dietary fibre per iso-caloric bread breakfast. Both study parts used a wheat bread breakfast as reference and a randomised, within-subject comparison design. Appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat was rated regularly from just before breakfast at 08:00 until 16:00. Amount, type and timing of food and drink intake were standardised during the study period. Results The Milling fractions study showed that each of the rye breakfasts resulted in a suppressed appetite during the time period before lunch (08:30–12:00 compared with the wheat reference bread breakfast. At a comparison between the rye bread breakfasts the one with rye bran induced the strongest effect on satiety. In the afternoon the effect from all three rye bread breakfasts could still be seen as a decreased hunger and desire to eat compared to the wheat reference bread breakfast. In the Dose-response study both levels of rye bran and the lower level of intermediate rye fraction resulted in an increased satiety before lunch compared with the wheat reference bread breakfast. Neither the variation in composition between the milling fractions nor the different doses resulted in significant differences in any of the appetite ratings when compared

  11. Hunger alters the expression of acquired hedonic but not sensory qualities of food-paired odors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Mobini, Sirous

    2006-10-01

    To test whether expression of hedonic and sensory odor qualities acquired by association with sweet and bitter tastes depend on hunger state, hungry volunteers experienced odors paired with sucrose, quinine, or water and then were tested under different hunger states manipulated with energy preloads. Acquired liking for sucrose-paired odors was evident following a low-energy or control preload but not a high-energy preload; however, odor sweetness increased in all preload conditions. Acquired dislike and increased bitterness of quinine-paired odors were independent of preloading. These data demonstrate hunger-dependent expression of acquired liking for flavors through flavor-flavor associations in humans and demonstrate independence between acquired hedonic and sensory qualities of odors. Copyright 2006 APA.

  12. Developmental perspectives on nutrition and obesity from gestation to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Layla; Fisher, Jennifer O; Mennella, Julie A; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Huang, Terry T

    2009-07-01

    Obesity results from a complex combination of factors that act at many stages throughout a person's life. Therefore, examining childhood nutrition and obesity from a developmental perspective is warranted. A developmental perspective recognizes the cumulative effects of factors that contribute to eating behavior and obesity, including biological and socioenvironmental factors that are relevant at different stages of development. A developmental perspective considers family, school, and community context. During gestation, risk factors for obesity include maternal diet, overweight, and smoking. In early childhood, feeding practices, taste acquisition, and eating in the absence of hunger must be considered. As children become more independent during middle childhood and adolescence, school nutrition, food marketing, and social networks become focal points for obesity prevention or intervention. Combining a multilevel approach with a developmental perspective can inform more effective and sustainable strategies for obesity prevention.

  13. Nutritional management of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K L; Samson-Fang, L

    2013-12-01

    Children with severe cerebral palsy and particularly those with oropharyngeal dysfunction are at risk of poor nutritional status. Determining the need and the mode of nutritional intervention is multifactorial and requires multiple methodologies. First-line treatment typically involves oral nutritional support for those children who are safe to consume an oral diet. Enteral tube feeding may need to be considered in children with undernutrition where poor weight gain continues despite oral nutritional support, or in those with oropharyngeal dysphagia and an unsafe swallow. Estimates for energy and protein requirements provide a starting point only, and ongoing assessment and monitoring is essential to ensure nutritional needs are being met, that complications are adequately managed and to avoid over or under feeding.

  14. Reduced leptin level is independently of fat mass changes and hunger scores from high-intensity intermittent plus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daniela S; Gonçalves Panissa, Valéria L; Mello Antunes, Barbara; Poleto de Oliveira, Flaviane; Bernardes Malta, Raoni; Santos Caldeira, Renan; Zapaterra Campos, Eduardo; Duarte Pimentel, Gustavo; Franchini, Emerson; Santos Lira, Fábio

    2017-05-09

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) plus strength training on body composition, hormone related to energetic balance (leptin), and hunger scores in physically active non-obese men. Sixteen men were allocated in two different groups, training group (n=10) performed a combined HIIT (5 km, 1 min of effort interspersed by 1 min of rest in passive recovery) followed by strength exercise session (three sets, with load of 8-12 repetition maximum) twice a week, during 8 weeks, while control group (n=6) did not suffer any intervention. Hunger scores, leptin concentrations and body composition were assessed. Body composition, fasting leptin and hunger score were compared through two-way analysis (group and period) with repeated measures in the second factor while leptin and hunger scores in exercise session pre- and post-8weeks through two-way analysis (period and time of measurement) with repeated measures in the second factor. The fasting leptin decreased pre- to post-8week in training group (7.7 ± 4.9 to 2.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p = 0.012). For leptin response to exercise session there was main effect of training period, with higher values pre- (6.5 ± 3.9 ng/ml) than post-training (2.6 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p < 0.001). For hunger scores there was effect of time of measurement (p <0.001), decreasing after breakfast and increasing over the experiment. Combined HIIT plus strength training were able to promote alterations in a hormone related to energy balance independent of body composition and hunger index alterations in physically active non-obese men.

  15. Hunger and satiation in the structure of temporal organization of impulse activity of masticatory muscles in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Ju P; Kromin, A A

    2009-01-01

    Impulse activity of masticatory muscles, jaw elevators and depressors, during hunger, eating, and satiation was studied in chronic experiments on rabbits. The state of hunger is specifically reflected in the structure of temporal organization of impulse activity of proper masticatory muscles as a monomodal distribution of interpulse intervals and in activity of the mylohyoid muscle as bimodal distributions. Food intake induces reorganization of the temporal structure of impulse activity in both muscles manifesting in the form of similar bimodal patterns of distributions of interpulse intervals.

  16. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P men.

  17. Nutrition in the pediatric population in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition is an essential component of patient management in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Poor nutrition status accompanies many childhood chronic illnesses. A thorough assessment of the critically ill child is required to inform the plan for nutrition support. Accurate and clinically relevant nutritional assessment, including growth measurements, provides important guidance. Indirect calorimetry provides the most accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure, but is too often unavailable in the PICU. To prevent inappropriate caloric intake, reassessment of the child's nutrition status is imperative. Enteral nutrition is the recommended route of intake. Human milk is preferred for infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Schools Leaders Successfully Partner with Community Organization: Providing Nutrition so Students Focus on Learning Instead of on Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsky, Shellie; Scigliano, Deborah; Parker, David

    2013-01-01

    Due to the closing of the GM Manufacturing Plants, Grand Rapids, Michigan area experienced an extreme loss of jobs, which led to low-socioeconomic hardships such as "food insecurity" that was witnessed in the needs of the many students who attend the Grand Rapid Public Schools. This case provides insight into how educational leader Principal…

  19. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  20. [Integrating society and nature in the struggle against hunger in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovay, Ricardo

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the contemporary world requires a naturalist view, wherein the work of Josué de Castro is one of the most important expressions: taking a comprehensive approach to social life and reproduction of the natural environment that supports it - including the nature of humans themselves, their bodies - is the cornerstone of the geographic method practiced in Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger]. This method is important for studying regions where hunger severely afflicts the populations, and also offers an important key for interpreting the food problems that are forecast for the 21st century, when the world population is expected to increase by nearly 50%. The food production challenges in the coming years--and which this article discusses briefly--cannot be solved with the techniques that characterized the so-called Green Revolution. Rather, they require a more refined understanding of the links between the social and ecological systems, an interface in which the work of Josué de Castro provides fundamental inspiration.

  1. Acute effect of exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin and hunger in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, David R; Miyashita, Masashi; Wasse, Lucy K; Pulsford, Richard; King, James A; Thackray, Alice E; Stensel, David J

    2017-03-01

    Acute exercise transiently suppresses the orexigenic gut hormone acylated ghrelin, but the extent to which exercise intensity and duration determine this response is not fully understood. The effects of manipulating exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were examined in two experiments. In experiment one, nine healthy males completed three, 4-h conditions (control, moderate-intensity running (MOD) and vigorous-intensity running (VIG)), with an energy expenditure of ~2.5 MJ induced in both MOD (55-min running at 52% peak oxygen uptake (V.O2peak)) and VIG (36-min running at 75% V.O2peak). In experiment two, nine healthy males completed three, 9-h conditions (control, 45-min running (EX45) and 90-min running (EX90)). Exercise was performed at 70% V.O2peak In both experiments, participants consumed standardised meals, and acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were quantified at predetermined intervals. In experiment one, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in MOD (ES = 0.44, P = 0.01) and VIG (ES = 0.98, P ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.77, P ghrelin concentrations remained suppressed at 1.5 h in EX90 but not EX45. In conclusion, exercise intensity, and to a lesser extent duration, are determinants of the acylated ghrelin response to acute exercise. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Midbrain response to milkshake correlates with ad libitum milkshake intake in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan-Poupart, Sarah; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Geha, Paul; Small, Dana M

    2013-01-01

    There is now widespread agreement that individual variation in the neural circuits representing the reinforcing properties of foods may be associated with risk for overeating and obesity. What is currently unknown is how and whether brain response to a food is related to immediate subsequent intake of that food. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether response to a palatable milkshake is associated with subsequent ad libitum milkshake consumption. We predicted that enhanced responses in key reward regions (insula, striatum, midbrain, medial orbitofrontal cortex) and decreased responses in regions implicated in self-control (lateral prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex) would be associated with greater intake. We found a significant positive association between response to milkshake in the periaqueductal gray region of the midbrain and ad libitum milkshake intake. Although strong bilateral insular responses were observed during consumption of the milkshake this response did not correlate with subsequent intake. The associations observed in the midbrain and orbitofrontal cortex were uninfluenced by ratings of hunger, which were near neutral. We conclude that midbrain response to a palatable food is related to eating in the absence of hunger. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intranasal insulin enhances brain functional connectivity mediating the relationship between adiposity and subjective feeling of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2017-05-09

    Brain insulin sensitivity is an important link between metabolism and cognitive dysfunction. Intranasal insulin is a promising tool to investigate central insulin action in humans. We evaluated the acute effects of 160 U intranasal insulin on resting-state brain functional connectivity in healthy young adults. Twenty-five lean and twenty-two overweight and obese participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, on two separate days, before and after intranasal insulin or placebo application. Insulin compared to placebo administration resulted in increased functional connectivity between the prefrontal regions of the default-mode network and the hippocampus as well as the hypothalamus. The change in hippocampal functional connectivity significantly correlated with visceral adipose tissue and the change in subjective feeling of hunger after intranasal insulin. Mediation analysis revealed that the intranasal insulin induced hippocampal functional connectivity increase served as a mediator, suppressing the relationship between visceral adipose tissue and hunger. The insulin-induced hypothalamic functional connectivity change showed a significant interaction with peripheral insulin sensitivity. Only participants with high peripheral insulin sensitivity showed a boost in hypothalamic functional connectivity. Hence, brain insulin action may regulate eating behavior and facilitate weight loss by modifying brain functional connectivity within and between cognitive and homeostatic brain regions.

  4. Delayed discounting and hedonic hunger in the prediction of lab-based eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Alice V; Howard, Janna; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that characteristics identified in obese individuals, such as impulsive decision-making and hedonic hunger, may exist in nonobese populations. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of impulsive decision-making (measured via delay discounting, DD) and hedonic hunger (assessed with the Power of Food Scale, PFS) on food intake. Female participants (N=78) ate a self-determined amount of plain oatmeal, completed self-report measures and the delay discounting task, and participated in a sham taste test of palatable sweet and salty foods. Unexpectedly, PFS and DD scores interacted to predict consumption of the total amount of food consumed, and of oatmeal alone, but not of snack food alone. High-PFS participants consumed more when also high in DD, while low-PFS participants showed the opposite pattern of consumption. The findings identify variables that may increase propensity toward overconsumption and potential weight gain; future research is necessary to evaluate the utility of these constructs to predict increases in BMI over time.

  5. [Graduate education in nutritional medicine in Germany--2 years after organization of the "Nutritional Medicine" teaching curriculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauder, P

    1995-08-01

    Prophylaxis of nutrition-related diseases and therapy of malnutrition are important duties of physicians. While teaching in nutrition for medical students is poor in German universities, progress has been made in regard to postgraduate training. Stimulated by the chamber of physicians of Germany, a "curriculum for Nutritional Medicine" was developed by the Germany Society of Nutritional Medicine. Experience gained by the Academy of Nutritional Medicine Hannover indicates that the postgraduate training based on this curriculum is well received. This may suggest that nutritional medicine is gaining greater acceptance.

  6. Nutritional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted.

  7. Reaching the Underserved Elderly and Working Poor in SNAP: Evaluation Findings from the Fiscal Year 2009 Pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Kauff; Lisa Dragoset; Elizabeth Clary; Elizabeth Laird; Libby Makowsky; Emily Samaa-Miller

    2014-01-01

    A study conducted for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service evaluated pilot demonstrations designed to facilitate access by the elderly or working poor to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Among other key findings, two demonstrations targeting the elderly significantly increased access to nutritional assistance through SNAP.

  8. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  9. Poor ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor ovarian reserve (POR is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women.

  10. Effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and nutritional status of older adults living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja

    2017-09-07

    The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and selected nutritional status of protein, iron, and vitamins of B2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron, and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional

  11. Effects of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on slow electric activity and spike activity of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2013-09-01

    In chronic experiments on rabbits, the effect of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on myoelectric activity of the fundal and antral parts of the stomach was studied under conditions of hunger and satiation in the absence of food. Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation and in previously fed rabbits produced incessant seeking behavior, which was followed by reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of muscles of the stomach body and antrum specific for hungry and satiated animals. Increased hunger motivation during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation in the replacement of bimodal distribution of slow wave periods to a trimodal type typical of 2-day deprivation, while transition from satiation to hunger caused by electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was associated with a shift from monomodal distributions of slow wave periods to a bimodal type typical of 24-h deprivation. Reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was determined by descending inhibitory influences of food motivational excitation on activity of the myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of the stomach.

  12. Low nutritional quality of unconventional tropical crop seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proll, J; Petzke, K J; Ezeagu, I E; Metges, C C

    1998-11-01

    As the search for alternative sources of food to alleviate hunger continues, this study was undertaken to determine the biological value in growing rats (BV) of proteins of some lesser known tropical seeds gathered in Nigeria. Antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, oxalate, tannin, alkaloids) and amino acid compositions were also determined, and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) was calculated using the amino acid requirement pattern of the preschool child and individual seed-specific correction factors for crude protein. A rat growth and balance study was conducted to determine digestibility, nitrogen-, and energy balance by feeding as the only unsupplemented protein source milled and heat-treated seeds of Adansonia digitata (Bombacaceae) and Prosopis africana, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Enterolobium cyclocarpium, Sesbania pachycarpa and Pterocarpus osun (Leguminosae) in comparison to casein fortified with methionine (control). Diets containing P. africana and L. sericeus seeds caused poor feed intake and weight loss in rats and were excluded from the nitrogen-balance test. Among the seed samples, S. pachycarpa followed by A. digitata showed the most advantageous nutritional quality [amino acid composition, digestibility, BV and net protein utilization (NPU)]. True digestibility was 82.9 and 74.5 vs. 98.5, BV was 64.6 and 70.0 vs. 90.4, and NPU was 53.5 and 52.1 vs. 89.0 for S. pachycarpa and A. digitata vs. casein (control), respectively. In terms of PDCAAS, lysine was the first limiting amino acid for S. pachycarpa (88%) and for A. digitata (58%). The PDCAAS of all essential amino acids was below 100% for E. cyclocarpium (e.g., cysteine + methionine: 37%) and for P. africana (e.g., threonine: 46%, except valine and a very high content of cysteine and methionine). In conclusion, all seeds tested in the rat balance trial were of inferior quality compared to casein. Before these tropical seeds could be used as food components

  13. Nutrition training improves health workers’ nutrition knowledge and competence to manage child undernutrition: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F Sunguya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers’ nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. Methods: We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and WHO regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Results: Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers’ nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers’ child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention.Conclusion: In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken towards improving the overall nutritional status of

  14. Nutrition Training Improves Health Workers’ Nutrition Knowledge and Competence to Manage Child Undernutrition: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers’ nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. Methods: We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and World Health Organization regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition-counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Results: Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers’ nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers’ child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention. Conclusion: In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken toward improving the overall nutritional status

  15. Problems of nutritional assessment in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, J

    1999-02-01

    The present paper explores the problems associated with assessment of nutritional status in the community and reviews the literature related to this subject. The first problem is one of terminology, since a logical first step before assessment is screening, which identifies characteristics known to be associated with dietary or nutritional problems. Its purpose is to differentiate individuals who are at high nutritional risk or have poor nutritional status. There are certain factors which should alert the primary health care team to the fact that nutritional intake may be reduced and that risk of malnutrition is increased. These include disease condition, functional disabilities, inadequate or inappropriate food intake, poor dentition or difficulty swallowing, polypharmacy, alcoholism, depression, poor social circumstances or recent discharge from hospital. Patients suffering from these factors need to be identified so that screening becomes a routine part of their medical treatment. At-risk groups include the elderly, the chronically ill, those with cancer and neurological disorders, post-surgical patients and children with developmental disabilities. In the community, practice and community nurses see the majority of at-risk patients and should carry out screening. A number of screening tools have been developed for community use. Most are aimed at the elderly population, but there are others designed to assess nutritional risk in children with developmental disabilities and the general population. These are reviewed and problems of content and validity identified. Some problems associated with nutritional assessment are also reviewed.

  16. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Impact of Lead Exposure Healthier School Day Community Food Systems Ending Childhood Hunger Let's Move HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) Tribal Consultation American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) SNAP E&T Pilots ... Performing and Adaptable Organization Reduce Food Insecurity by Helping Feed Those in Need Ensure ...

  17. Position of the American Dietetic Association, American Society for Nutrition, and Society for Nutrition Education: Food and nutrition programs for community-residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Barbara J; Wellman, Nancy S; Russell, Carlene

    2010-03-01

    Given the federal cost-containment policy to rebalance long-term care away from nursing homes to home- and community-based services, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education that all older adults should have access to food and nutrition programs that ensure the availability of safe, adequate food to promote optimal nutritional status. Appropriate food and nutrition programs include adequately funded food assistance and meal programs, nutrition education, screening, assessment, counseling, therapy, monitoring, evaluation, and outcomes documentation to ensure more healthful aging. The growing number of older adults, the health care focus on prevention, and the global economic situation accentuate the fundamental need for these programs. Yet far too often food and nutrition programs are disregarded or taken for granted. Growing older generally increases nutritional risk. Illnesses and chronic diseases; physical, cognitive, and social challenges; racial, ethnic, and linguistic differences; and low socioeconomic status can further complicate a situation. The beneficial effects of nutrition for health promotion, risk reduction, and disease management need emphasis. Although many older adults are enjoying longer and more healthful lives in their own homes, others, especially those with health disparities and poor nutritional status, would benefit from greater access to food and nutrition programs and services. Food and nutrition practitioners can play a major role in promoting universal access and integrating food and nutrition programs and nutrition services into home- and community-based services.

  18. Redefining the functional roles of the gastrointestinal migrating motor complex and motilin in small bacterial overgrowth and hunger signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Tack, Jan

    2016-02-15

    During the fasting state the upper gastrointestinal tract exhibits a specific periodic migrating contraction pattern that is known as the migrating motor complex (MMC). Three different phases can be distinguished during the MMC. Phase III of the MMC is the most active of the three and can start either in the stomach or small intestine. Historically this pattern was designated to be the housekeeper of the gut since disturbances in the pattern were associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, its role in the involvement of hunger sensations was already hinted in the beginning of the 20th century by both Cannon (Cannon W, Washburn A. Am J Physiol 29: 441-454, 1912) and Carlson (Carlson A. The Control of Hunger in Health and Disease. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1916). The discovery of motilin in 1973 shed more light on the control mechanisms of the MMC. Motilin plasma levels fluctuate together with the phases of the MMC and induce phase III contractions with a gastric onset. Recent research suggests that these motilin-induced phase III contractions signal hunger in healthy subjects and that this system is disturbed in morbidly obese patients. This minireview describes the functions of the MMC in the gut and its regulatory role in controlling hunger sensations.

  19. Effect of scattered feeding and feeding twice a day during rearing on indicators of hunger and frustration in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Broiler breeders are routinely fed restricted during rearing which has a major negative effect on their welfare. They suffer from hunger and frustration from thwarting of feeding. The aim of this experiment was therefore to study if broiler breeder welfare can be improved by changes in the feeding s

  20. La faim dans les pays occidentaux développés / Hunger in Western developed societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Chenillé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Comment la faim dans les pays occidentaux développés est-elle traitée au cinéma ? Si le cinéma se montre sensible à la faim exprimée chez les enfants ou dans des pays hors de la sphère occidentale, même quand il ne s’agit pas d’une faim qui dure sur plusieurs jours, le cinéma se montre incrédule et méfiant par rapport à la faim éprouvée par les adultes. Ainsi la faim est-elle le plus souvent confinée dans un passé révolu, dans des conditions de vie tout à fait exceptionnelles d’isolement géographique, ou liée à un choix d’existence marginale qui peut se révéler criminelle.This article examines the cinematographic treatment of hunger in developed countries. Western filmmakers tend to be sympathetic towards the hunger endured by children and people in developing countries (even for brief periods but seem dismissive and suspicious of adult hunger. Hunger is portrayed as a thing of the past, linked to such exceptional circumstances as extreme geographical or social isolation and the choice of a marginalised, sometimes criminal lifestyle.

  1. "The Capitol Accent Is so Affected Almost Anything Sounds Funny in It": The "Hunger Games" Trilogy, Queerness, and Paranoid Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michelle Ann

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the "Hunger Games" trilogy, the residents of the Capitol are associated with an array of physical, behavioral, and sartorial traits that have stereotypically been associated with homosexuality in general and gay men in particular. Although none of these characters is explicitly identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual,…

  2. The Backpack Food Program's Effects on U.S. Elementary Students' Hunger and On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Meghan E.; Sifers, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the BackPack Food Program's effectiveness in combating students' hunger over the weekends and school breaks, as well as analyze the program's effects on students' on-task behavior in the classroom. Additionally, this study examined program satisfaction from students, parents, and…

  3. "Reforms Looked Really Good on Paper": Rural Food Service Responses to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia; Golembiewski, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHKA) required schools to make changes to meals provided to children. Rural school districts have limited resources, with increased obesity rates and local food insecurity. In this study we sought to understand the perceptions of rural food service directors and the barriers to implementing…

  4. Baby's Gone A-Hunting: "The Hunger Games," "Bully," and Struggling to Grow Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Movies that treat the imagined future and that deal with issues of adolescence coming to adulthood are represented by "The Hunger Games." The role of movies that present a dystopic view of the future in our actual attempts to deal with contemporary adolescence is discussed in this article. The use of images of the future as…

  5. Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010: An Opportunity for School Nurses to Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jessica L.; Galon, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 will provide an opportunity for school nurses to intervene in the serious childhood obesity problem in the United States. Major changes in the management of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) will likely challenge schools yet may provide the impetus for a collaborative effort by the…

  6. Soluble dietary fiber (Fibersol-2) decreased hunger and increased satiety hormones in humans when ingested with a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhong; Arumugam, Visalakshi; Haugabrooks, Esther; Williamson, Patricia; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that a digestion-resistant maltodextrin, Fibersol-2 (Archer Daniels Midland/Matsutani LLC, Decatur, IL, USA) may impact satiety by decreasing hunger, prolonging satiation, and/or increasing peripheral satiety signals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy subjects (9 men and 10 women) underwent 3 treatments in which they consumed a standardized meal with a tea containing 0, 5, or 10 g of Fibersol-2. A visual analog scale questionnaire was given in 30-minute intervals to measure subjective appetite and satiety. Blood was drawn just before the meal (time 0) and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after meal for measurements of plasma ghrelin, cholecystokinin, gastrin, peptide YY, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, all by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were significant delays in hunger and increased satiety for 1.5 to 2 hours after treatment with 10 g of Fibersol-2. These delays did not occur after ingesting 0 or 5 g Fibersol-2 at any time. Control and 5 g Fibersol-2 treatments did not suppress increases in hunger postmeal; hunger scores increased and satiety scores decreased significantly (P satiety hormones and enhanced satiety.

  7. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Blokdijk, V.M.; Bertina, F.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of simple vs complex carbohydrates (SCHO and CCHO respectively) containing breakfasts on blood parameters, hunger and satiety and mood. DESIGN: A 2-day, open, randomised, cross-over trial. SUBJECTS: A total of 26 male subjects (34±6y; BMI 23.4±2.2 kg m-2). MEASUREMENTS

  8. 广西贫困农村小学生营养干预对身体素质及体成分变化分析研究%Analysis on changes of physical quality and body composition of poor rural students after nutritional ;intervention in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮青; 张倩; 唐雯; 刘玄华; 董邕晖; 任轶文

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact on physical quality and body composition of poor rural students in Guangxi after taking milk and egg-based comprehensive nutrition intervention measures and provide scientific basis for rural students nutrition improvement work. Method Four elementary schools were selected randomly as an intervention in Tianyang County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous region, and the students in these schools were given milk and eggs on each learning day, another 4 primary schools of similar scale in the same town as the control without taking above-mentioned measures. Total 978 students (1-5 grades) of eight primary schools were chosen, and the speed of 50m×8, standing long jump and body composition before and after two years intervention were measured. Results After two years of intervention, the average standing long jump of boys and girls in intervention group reached 25.8cm and 25.2 cm, respectively ,significantly higher than those of the control group(20.8cm and 16.5cm)(P<0.01). Eight-year-old boys in the intervention group improved 26.2s in 50m×8 running, higher than the control group of 19.7s,(P<0.05).The lean body mass of boys and girls in the intervention group increased when comparing with the baseline, but, when comparing with the control group, there was no statistical difference. Conclusion Two years of intervention with milk and egg can improve students' physical strength quality and endurance quality, this is also an effective measures to improve the nutritional status of poor rural primary school students.%目的:评估以牛奶和鸡蛋为主的综合营养干预措施对广西贫困农村小学生身体素质及体成分的影响,为农村学生营养改善工作提供科学依据。方法在广西壮族自治区田阳县随机抽取4所小学作为干预学校,每个学习日给学生发放牛奶和鸡蛋;在同一乡镇选取4所规模相当的小学作为对照学校,不采取上述干预措施。8所小学的1~5

  9. Length and site of the small intestine exposed to fat influences hunger and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, P W Jeroen; Peters, Harry P F; Kodde, Andrea; Geraedts, Maartje; Troost, Fred J; Haddeman, Edward; Masclee, Ad A M

    2011-11-01

    The site of intestinal fat delivery affects satiety and may affect food intake in humans. Animal data suggest that the length of the small intestine exposed to fat is also relevant. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure and the way it is exposed would affect satiety parameters and food intake. In the present single-blind, randomised, cross-over study, fifteen volunteers, each intubated with a naso-ileal tube, received four treatments on consecutive days. The oral control (control treatment) was a liquid meal (LM) containing 6 g fat ingested at t = 0 min, with saline infusion at t = 30-120 min. Experimental treatments were a fat-free LM at t = 0 min, with either 6 g oil delivered sequentially (2 g duodenal, t = 30-60 min; 2 g jejunal, t = 60-90 min; 2 g ileal, t = 90-120 min), simultaneously (2 g each to all sites, t = 30-120 min) or ileal only (6 g ileal, t = 30-120 min). Satiety parameters (hunger and fullness) and cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) secretion were measured until t = 180 min, when ad libitum food intake was assessed. Only the ileum treatment reduced food intake significantly over the control treatment. The ileum and simultaneous treatments significantly reduced hunger compared with the control treatment. Compared with control, no differences were observed for PYY, CCK and GLP-1 with regard to 180 min integrated secretion. Ileal fat infusion had the most pronounced effect on food intake and satiety. Increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure only affected hunger when fat was delivered simultaneously, not sequentially, to the exposed areas. These results demonstrate that ileal brake activation offers an interesting target for the regulation of ingestive behaviour.

  10. Nutrition and parasite interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coop, R L; Holmes, P H

    1996-01-01

    This overview focuses on the interaction between nutritional status and gastrointestinal nematode infection in ruminants and considers: (i) the influence of the parasite on host metabolism; and (ii) the effect of host nutrition on the establishment and survival of parasite populations, the development of the host-immune response and the pathophysiology of infection. Gastrointestinal nematodes reduce voluntary feed intake and efficiency of feed utilisation, a key feature being an increased endogenous loss of protein into the gastrointestinal tract. Overall there is movement of protein from productive processes into repair of the gastrointestinal tract, synthesis of plasma proteins and mucoprotein production. Although reduction in feed intake is a major factor contributing to the reduced performance of parasitised ruminants, the underlying mechanisms of the anorexia are poorly understood. Supplementation of the diet with additional protein does not appear to affect initial establishment of nematode infections but the pathophysiological consequences are generally more severe on lower planes of protein nutrition. The main effect of protein supplementation is to increase the rate of acquisition of immunity and increase resistance to reinfection and this has been associated with an enhanced cellular immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. The unresponsiveness of the young lamb can be improved by dietary protein supplementation. Recent trials have shown that growing sheep offered a free choice between a low and a high protein ration are able to modify their diet selection in order to alleviate the increase in protein requirements which result from gastrointestinal nematode infection. Studies on the influence of nutrition on the expression of genotype have shown that the benefits of a superior genotype are not lost on a low protein diet whereas a high protein diet can partially emeliorate the disadvantages of an inferior genotype. In addition to dietary protein

  11. Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition Impact through the Feed the Future Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lidan; Pinga, Victor; Klein, Alyssa; Danton, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is a multisectoral problem; current state of empirical evidence for agricultural interventions' impacts on nutrition is weak. In the past 10 years, both agriculture and nutrition have risen on the global policy agenda. Several recent international movements have created great momentum for nutrition among global political leaders and policymakers. The 2008 world food price crisis prompted larger investment pledges to agricultural development. The U.S. Government launched the Feed the Future initiative in 2009 to address global hunger and food security, with a primary goal to reduce poverty and undernutrition by simultaneously promoting inclusive agriculture sector growth and improved nutritional status for women and children. With operations in 19 focus countries, Feed the Future provides an important laboratory of learning where efforts can be effective and, once proven, taken to scale to make agriculture work for nutrition. The Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) project has been conducting a series of research on the Feed the Future initiative. This chapter will first provide a review of the nutrition narrative in relation to food and nutrition, introduce the current understanding of linkages between agriculture and nutrition and the Feed the Future initiative's efforts to strengthen the nutritional impact of agricultural and economic growth activities, and describe an extensive review of how the design and early implementation of Feed the Future activities linked agriculture and nutrition. Finally, the chapter presents an updated framework that incorporates ways to improve nutrition outcomes of agricultural programming in the broader context of food system. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of gustatory stimulation on brain activity during hunger and satiety in females with restricting-type anorexia nervosa: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, Silja; Herpertz, Stephan; Rosenberger, Christina; Senf, Wolfgang; Gizewski, Elke R

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated altered neuronal responses to visual stimulation with food in anorexia nervosa, varying with the motivational state of hunger or satiety. The aim of the present fMRI study was to assess hunger- and satiety-dependent alterations in the gustatory processing of stimulation with food in anorexia nervosa. After food abstention (hunger condition) and after eating bread rolls with cheese (satiety condition), 12 females with restricting-type anorexia nervosa and 12 healthy females drank chocolate milk and water via a tube in a blocked design during image acquisition. Additionally, heart rate was registered during the measurements, and subjective ratings of hunger/satiety and of the valence of chocolate milk were assessed using a Likert scale. In participants with anorexia nervosa, drinking chocolate milk in the hunger condition induced significant activations in the right amygdala and in the left medial temporal gyrus relative to healthy controls. When contrasting neuronal responses to drinking chocolate milk during satiety with those evoked during hunger, a significant activation was found in the left insula in healthy controls, whereas in participants with anorexia nervosa, neuronal activity in the inferior temporal gyrus, covering the extrastriate body area, was observed. Neuronal responses evoked by gustatory stimulation differ depending on hunger and satiety. Activations located in the amygdala and in the extrastriate body area might reflect fear of weight gain, representing one of the core symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    , metal, gritty, consistence and ability to drink 150 ml (one glass), and the patients arranged the drinks in order of preference. Results: The sensory qualities differed significantly concerning sweet (p...Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  14. Spatialities of Hunger: Post-National Spaces, Assemblages and Fragmenting Liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Gertel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses the casual structure and spatialities of food insecurity. Drawing from scholarly debates on periphery, I illustrate the limited explana- tory range of state-centered periphery- approaches in order to comprehend the recent constellations of conflict and hunger. I argue that increasingly dynamic and post-national spaces of food insecurity emerge. Due to complex power geometries, these spaces are driven by realigning and territorially-stretched arrangements of action (e.g. global producer-consumer relations, by technologically enhanced new temporal config- urations (e.g. speculation and high frequency trade in food, by the performances of metrics (e.g. models of food price and value-constructions shaping food security, and by the reflexive effects of knowledge production. In order to comprehend these dynamics, concepts capable of cap- turing new assemblages are required.

  15. Violence in Pop-Culture Media and The Hunger Games as a Prime Artifact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Benson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA methodology to analyze the meanings conveyed in relation to violence in Suzanne Collins' popular novel The Hunger Games and its film. As a representational popular­culture artifact marketed to young adults and teens, it is a primary example for the exposure of this age group to the levels of violence regularly displayed in contemporary popular media. This analysis seeks to critique the assertion that the types of violent exposure in the novel and the film are possibly inappropriate for the audience targeted. A new wave of attention and awareness on the part of producers of popular media and people of contemporary society alike is necessary.

  16. Hunger strikers: historical perspectives from the emergency management of refugee camp asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M; Chan, Jimmy T S; Yeung, Richard D S

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of hunger strikers is always contentious, chaotic and complex. The management is particularly difficult for health professionals as it raises unprecedented clinical, ethical, moral, humanitarian, and legal questions. There are never any easy answers. The current situation of prisoners from the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars currently at the Guantanamo Bay Detention Center in Cuba demands unprecedented transparency, accountability and multilevel coordination to ensure that the rights of the strikers are properly met. There are scant references available in the scientific literature on the emergency management of these tragedies. This historical perspective documents the complex issues faced by emergency physicians in Hong Kong surrounding refugee camp asylum seekers from Vietnam in 1994 and is offered as a useful adjunct in understanding the complex issues faced by emergency health providers and managers.

  17. PERAN LOKATIF DALAM NOVEL THE HUNGER GAMES:SUATU KAJIAN SEMANTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Haqiqi Ma'mun

    2013-04-01

     Abstract The research focuses on two main points:(1 explain semantically, kinds of locative role and case that presence in locative role in English; (2 kinds of verb which requires the presence of locative role in English. The data are taken from this novel. This research uses descriptive method with distributional techniques. The result of this research shows that: First, Semantically, the roles of locative consist of static and dynamic locative role. The dynamic locative role is divided into: source, path and goal. Second, verbs which require the presence of locative role in English divided into two kinds of verbs: transitive and intransitive verbs. Moreover, transitive and intransitive verb are divided into four kinds of verbs: state, process, action and action-process verbs. Keywords: Locative role, novel the hunger games, semantic study

  18. "We all have to eat": experiential learning in courses on food and hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozorak, Elizabeth Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Community-based learning offers students the opportunity to understand important concepts through their own experiences. Two courses on food and hunger in society, one a first-year seminar of 12 students and one an upper-level psychology course of 20 students, made site visits to local farms, markets, and a soup kitchen while reading about the issues and discussing them in class. At the end of the semester, each student wrote a short self-evaluation in which they were invited to discuss the aspects of the course that affected them most. Student responses suggest that the experiential component of the course was disproportionately powerful, impelling many of them to make changes in their lives as a result.

  19. Cultivating nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Carol E; Long, Jennifer; Simler, Kenneth R.; Johnson-Welch, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    "Over the past decade, donor-funded policies and programs designed to address undernutrition in the Global South have shifted away from agriculture-based strategies toward nutrient supplementation and food fortification programs. Given the potential benefits resulting from agriculture-based nutrition interventions, this study uses Q methodology to explore the views of a range of stakeholders from both developed and developing countries on the value of—and constraints related to—gender-sensiti...

  20. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  1. Objective Understanding of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels among Nutritionally At-Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold K; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-08-24

    In the ongoing debate about front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels, little data exist regarding nutritionally at-risk populations, although they are critical targets of prevention programs. This study aimed to compare the impact of FOP labels on the ability to rank products according to their nutritional quality among French adults potentially at risk of poor dietary quality (N = 14,230). Four labels were evaluated: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), along with a reference without label. Mixed models were used to assess how individual characteristics and FOP labels were associated with the ability to rank products. Older participants and those with a lower educational level, income, nutritional knowledge, and likelihood of reading nutrition facts were less skilled at ranking food products according to nutritional quality. Compared with individual characteristics, nutrition labels had an increased impact on food product ranking ability. Overall, 5-CNL corresponded to the highest rate of correct responses, followed by MTL, GDA, and Tick (p < 0.0001). The strongest impact of 5-CNL was observed among individuals with no nutritional knowledge (odds ratio (OR): 20.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 13.19-31.06). Therefore, 5-CNL appeared to be effective at informing consumers, including those who are nutritionally at-risk, about the nutritional quality of food products.

  2. Objective Understanding of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels among Nutritionally At-Risk Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ducrot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the ongoing debate about front-of-package (FOP nutrition labels, little data exist regarding nutritionally at-risk populations, although they are critical targets of prevention programs. This study aimed to compare the impact of FOP labels on the ability to rank products according to their nutritional quality among French adults potentially at risk of poor dietary quality (N = 14,230. Four labels were evaluated: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL, Green Tick (Tick, along with a reference without label. Mixed models were used to assess how individual characteristics and FOP labels were associated with the ability to rank products. Older participants and those with a lower educational level, income, nutritional knowledge, and likelihood of reading nutrition facts were less skilled at ranking food products according to nutritional quality. Compared with individual characteristics, nutrition labels had an increased impact on food product ranking ability. Overall, 5-CNL corresponded to the highest rate of correct responses, followed by MTL, GDA, and Tick (p < 0.0001. The strongest impact of 5-CNL was observed among individuals with no nutritional knowledge (odds ratio (OR: 20.24; 95% confidence interval (CI: 13.19–31.06. Therefore, 5-CNL appeared to be effective at informing consumers, including those who are nutritionally at-risk, about the nutritional quality of food products.

  3. Nutritional prediction of pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, R A; Bergstrom, N

    1994-11-01

    This article focuses on nutritional risk factors that predict the development of pressure ulcers in hospital and nursing home patients. Cross-sectional studies associate inadequate energy and protein intake; underweight; low triceps skinfold measurement; and low serum albumin, low serum cholesterol, and low hemoglobin levels with pressure ulcers. Prospective studies identify inadequate energy and protein intake, a poor score on the Braden scale (a risk assessment instrument that includes a nutrition component), and possibly low serum albumin level as risk factors for developing a pressure ulcer. Nutritionists should provide a high-energy, high-protein diet for patients at risk of development of pressure ulcers to improve their dietary intake and nutritional status.

  4. Effect of chemoradiotherapy on nutrition status of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Sheng; Wu, Li-Hong; Su, Li; Zhang, Hai-Rong; Lv, Wen-Long; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Tian, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of chemoradiotherapy on the nutritional status of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and to detect the risk factors for poor nutrition status in NPC patients after radiotherapy. A total of 104 NPC patients participated in this clinical observational study. Psychological distress and nutritional indicators were measured prior to chemoradiotherapy. During the course of radiation therapy, side effect symptoms were assessed weekly. At the end of radiotherapy, nutritional indicators were measured again. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for poor nutritional status after radiotherapy. The values of the 9 nutritional indicators were significantly lower after radiotherapy (P nutritional status were old age (P = 0.042), female gender (P nutritional status before radiotherapy (P = 0.015). Radiotherapy affects the nutritional status of NPC patients. To prevent malnutrition during radiotherapy, nutritional assessment and intervention should be an integral part of treatment.

  5. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs.

  6. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMIlabelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label.

  7. Assessing and Improving Childhood Nutrition and Growth Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anne M; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2017-08-01

    Improving maternal and child nutrition is central to global development goals and reducing the noncommunicable disease burden. Although the process of becoming malnourished starts in utero, the consequences of poor nutrition extend across the life cycle and into future generations. The global nutrition targets for 2025 include reducing infant and young child growth faltering, halting the increase of overweight children, improving breastfeeding practices, and reducing maternal anemia. In this review, we address nutritional assessment, discuss nonnutritive factors that affect growth, and endorse the evidence-based interventions that should be scaled up to improve maternal and child nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intravenous nutrition during a twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamatsu, J T; Boyd, A T; Cooke, J; Vinall, P S; McMahon, M J

    1987-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman in the third trimester of a twin pregnancy who required intravenous nutrition because of inadequate absorption of nutrients due to a jejunoileal bypass. Weight gain was poor, and there was evidence of intrauterine growth retardation before commencement of intravenous feeding. She received overnight intravenous nutrition for 6 weeks and gained weight with ultrasound evidence of fetal growth. During the 33rd week of gestation, she was delivered of healthy twin males who were at appropriate birth weights and development for their age of gestation. The considerations in intravenous nutrition for a twin pregnancy after jejunoileal bypass are discussed.

  9. Nutrition leadership training in North-East Asia: an IUNS initiative in conjunction with nutrition societies in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo; Sun, Jiang-Qin; Ge, Keyou; Paik, Hee-Young; Cho, Sung Hee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2008-01-01

    Food for humans is one of the most important of all global issues. It is a critical determinant of planetary and individual health, of economic development, of how sustainable energy and water supplies are, and its security a powerful determinant of peace or conflict. Those who assume leadership for the integrity of food and health systems have great responsibility. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), regional and national nutrition science and food technology organizations have concern about the leadership capacity available and required in what are rapidly changing and increasingly demanding circumstances. These include persistent poverty and hunger, climate change which threatens the sustainability of food production and fragile financial systems which are making food less affordable for many. North East Asia (NEA) is a major region for its population size, its economic wealth and disparities, its food production, its life expectancies among the best and its global reach. In 2008, for those of Chinese ancestry and of wider Asian origin, Nutrition Leadership training has been conducted in Hangzhou, Shanghai, Seoul and Taiwan (Hsinchu and Zhunan). Ninety prospective young leaders participated in all. Several successful early career Asian nutrition scientists and professionals served as role models. Senior colleagues acted as mentors for groups of 2 or 3. With mentors, the concept of leadership has been examined, careers and roles explored, knowledge and skills honed for a different future, and plans made to network in mutual support. Early feedback indicates that new opportunities have been created and seized.

  10. Reflections of hunger and satiation in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical and spike activities of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2012-11-01

    Manifestations of hunger and satiation in myoelectric activity patterns in different portions of the stomach were studied in chronic experiments. The state of hunger manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow electric activity of muscles in the stomach body and antrum in the form of bimodal distributions of slow electric wave periods, while satiation as unimodal distribution. In hunger-specific bimodal distribution of slow electric wave periods generated by muscles of the stomach body and antrum, the position of the first maximum carries the information about oncoming food reinforcement, since this particular range of slow wave fluctuations determines temporal parameters of slow electric activity of muscles in all stomach regions in the course of subsequent successive food-procuring behavior. Under conditions of hunger, the pacemaker features of muscles in the lesser curvature are realized incompletely. Complete realization is achieved in the course of food intake and at the state of satiation.

  11. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  12. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do I Stay Healthy Share this page: Nutrition for Lung Cancer Key Points There is no ... lung cancer symptoms, making them worse or better. Nutrition Goals Each person's nutritional needs during lung cancer ...

  13. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  14. Geriatric nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M

    1989-01-01

    In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian.

  15. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition in infants and young children in Rwanda: implications for attainment of the Millennium Development Goal to end poverty and hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnès; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Rukundo, Alphonse; Ratnayake, Niloo; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayumba, Josephine; Dowdle, Bridget; Chopyak, Elena; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-12-29

    Progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) to end poverty and hunger has lagged behind attainment of other MDGs due to chronic poverty and worldwide inequity in access to adequate health care, food, clean water, and sanitation. Despite ongoing challenges, Rwanda has experienced economic progress and the expansion of the national public health system during the past 20 years. However, protein-energy malnutrition in children under five is still a major concern for physicians and government officials in Rwanda. Approximately 45% of children under the age of five in Rwanda suffer from chronic malnutrition, and one in four is undernourished. For years, health facilities in Rwanda have used incorrect growth references for measuring nutritional status of children despite the adoption of new standards by the World Health Organization in 2006. Under incorrect growth references used in Rwanda, a number of children under five who were severely underweight were not identified, and therefore were not treated for malnutrition, thus potentially contributing to the under five mortality rate. Given that one in ten children suffer from malnutrition worldwide, it is imperative that all countries with a burden of malnutrition adopt the most up-to-date international standards for measuring malnutrition, and that the problem is brought to the forefront of international public health initiatives. For low income countries in the process of improving economic conditions, as Rwanda is, increasing the identification and treatment of malnutrition can promote the advancement of MDG1 as well as physical and cognitive development in children, which is imperative for advancing future economic progress.

  16. Increased peptide YY blood concentrations, not decreased acyl-ghrelin, are associated with reduced hunger and food intake in healthy older women: Preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Mary; Moss, Charlotte; Dhillo, Waljit S; Bottin, Jeanne; Frost, Gary

    2016-10-01

    With ageing there is frequently a loss of appetite, termed anorexia of ageing, which can result in under-nutrition. We do not know how appetite control alters with ageing. The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences in the release of, and response to, gastrointestinal appetite hormones is altered in young compared to old healthy volunteers. We hypothesised that an increase in PYY and GLP-1 or a decrease ghrelin may result in a decreased appetite. A comparative experimental design, using a cross-sectional sample of ages from a healthy population, matched for sex and BMI was used. The study compared total ghrelin, acyl-ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1 and subjective appetite responses to ingestion of a standardised 2781kj (660 kcal) test meal. 31 female volunteers aged between 21 and 92yrs took part. Multiple linear regression showed that both age and sex had an independent effect on energy intake. Subjective appetite scores showed that hunger, pleasantness to eat, and prospective food intake were significantly lower in the older age groups. PYY incremental area under the curve (IAUC) was greater in the oldest old compared to younger ages f(3,27) = 2.9, p = 0.05. No differences in GLP-1, ghrelin or acyl-ghrelin were observed in the older compared to younger age groups. Our data suggest that there may be increases in postprandial PYY(3-36) levels in female octogenarians, potentially resulting in reduced appetite. There does not appear to be any change in ghrelin or acyl-ghrelin concentrations with ageing.

  17. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition in infants and young children in Rwanda: implications for attainment of the Millennium Development Goal to end poverty and hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binagwaho Agnès

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1 to end poverty and hunger has lagged behind attainment of other MDGs due to chronic poverty and worldwide inequity in access to adequate health care, food, clean water, and sanitation. Despite ongoing challenges, Rwanda has experienced economic progress and the expansion of the national public health system during the past 20 years. However, protein-energy malnutrition in children under five is still a major concern for physicians and government officials in Rwanda. Approximately 45% of children under the age of five in Rwanda suffer from chronic malnutrition, and one in four is undernourished. For years, health facilities in Rwanda have used incorrect growth references for measuring nutritional status of children despite the adoption of new standards by the World Health Organization in 2006. Under incorrect growth references used in Rwanda, a number of children under five who were severely underweight were not identified, and therefore were not treated for malnutrition, thus potentially contributing to the under five mortality rate. Given that one in ten children suffer from malnutrition worldwide, it is imperative that all countries with a burden of malnutrition adopt the most up-to-date international standards for measuring malnutrition, and that the problem is brought to the forefront of international public health initiatives. For low income countries in the process of improving economic conditions, as Rwanda is, increasing the identification and treatment of malnutrition can promote the advancement of MDG1 as well as physical and cognitive development in children, which is imperative for advancing future economic progress.

  18. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Boys and Girls in Government School Children in Rompicherla Mandal Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is the intake of food to meet the body's dietary needs through different sources namely vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Good nutrition and well balanced diet with regular physical activities is acceptable. Poor nutrition leads to reduction in immunity of an individual, on the other hand increased levels of nutrition leads…

  19. Social Welfare and the Psychology of Food Sharing: Short-Term Hunger Increases Support for Social Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene; Jensen, Niels Holm

    2014-01-01

    Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short......-term fluctuations in hunger. Using theories in evolutionary psychology, we predict that hungry individuals will be greedier and take more resources from others while also attempting to induce others to share by signaling cooperative intentions and expressing support for sharing, including evolutionarily novel forms...... of sharing such as social welfare. We test these predictions using self-reported hunger data as well as comparisons of subjects who participated in relevant online studies before and after eating lunch. Across four studies collected in two different welfare regimes—the United Kingdom and Denmark...

  20. Explanation of Image in "The Hunger Artist"%《饥饿艺术家》意象阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习琲

    2012-01-01

    This paper explains Kafka's short story "The Hunger Artist" through some images from three aspects:"the cage","the time" and "the audience" constitute the loneliness predicament,"the hunger artist" stay "hungry" for attitude against,"the leop-ard" and "the death of artist" should cause self-examination.%本文从卡夫卡的短篇小说《饥饿艺术家》中"笼子"、"时间"、"观众"诸意象构成的孤独困境,"饥饿艺术家"以"饥饿"为存在态度的反抗,以及"小豹"的生存状态和"艺术家之死"应引起的反思等方面对文本进行阐释。

  1. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  2. Nutrition sensitivity of the 2014 budget statement of Republic of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Akparibo, Robert; Zotor, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Ghana's Constitution and several international treaties she has ratified demonstrate support for fundamental human rights to nutrition and freedom from hunger. However, it is unknown how this support is being translated into investment in nutrition. National budgets are important vehicles through which governments communicate intent to address pertinent national challenges. The present paper assesses the nutrition sensitivity of Ghana's budget statement for the year ending 31 December 2014. We perused the budget in its entirety, examining allocations to various sectors with the goal of identifying support for direct nutrition interventions. We examined allocations to various sectors as per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). The review shows that the total revenue and grants for the 2014 fiscal year is Ghana Cedis (GH¢) 26 001·9 million (25 % of GDP). The total expenditure for the same period is estimated at GH¢34 956·8 million (33·1 % of GDP). The health sector is allocated GH¢3 353 707 814 (3·8 % of GDP). As of 28 October 2014, the Bank of Ghana's Official Exchange Rate was US$1 = GH¢3·20. It is one of the key sectors whose interventions directly or indirectly impact on nutrition. However, the proportion of the national budget that goes to direct nutrition interventions is not evident in the budget. Nutrition is embedded in other budget lines. Allocations to relevant nutrition-sensitive sectors are very low (Ghana's 2014 budget statement pays scant attention to nutrition. By embedding nutrition in other budget lines, Ghana runs the risk of perpetually rolling out national spending actions insensitive to nutrition.

  3. Effects of high and low glycemic load meals on energy intake, satiety and hunger in obese Hispanic-American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nazrat M; Klein, Catherine J; Palmer, Matilde G; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; Ebbeling, Cara B; Ludwig, David S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-06-01

    Some short-term pediatric studies have suggested beneficial effects of low glycemic load (LGL) meals on feelings of hunger and on energy intake. However, the effects of LGL diets have not been systematically studied in obese Hispanic children, who stand to benefit from successful interventions. To examine the effects of LGL and high-GL (HGL) meals on appetitive responses and ad libitum energy intake of obese Hispanic youth. A total of 88 obese Hispanic youth aged 7-15 years were enrolled in a community-based obesity intervention program and randomly assigned to consume meals designed as either LGL (n = 45) or HGL (n = 43). After 12 weeks, participants were admitted for a 24-hour metabolic study. Following the morning test meal, subjects serially reported hunger, fullness, and satiety using a visual analog scale. Blood insulin and glucose were measured. After 5 hours, participants were fed another test meal and given a snack platter from which to eat ad libitum. All test food was weighed and the energy, macronutrients, and glycemic load (GL) of consumed foods were calculated. The HGL group had significantly higher insulin (p = 0.0005) and glucose (p = 0.0001) responses to the breakfast meal compared with the LGL group. There were no significant between-group differences in energy consumed from the snack platter (1303 vs. 1368 kcal, p = 0.5), or in the subjective feelings of hunger (p = 0.3), fullness (p = 0.5) or satiety (p = 0.3) between the two groups. Our study provides no evidence that, for obese Hispanic youth, changing the GL of the diet affects short-term hunger, fullness, satiety, or energy intake. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01068197.

  4. Sociodemographic, health and lifestyle predictors of poor diets

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Janas M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Layte, Richard; Lutomski, Jennifer E; Molcho, Michal; Perry, Ivan J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Poor-quality diet, regarded as an important contributor to health inequalities, is linked to adverse health outcomes. We investigated sociodemographic and lifestyle predictors of poor-quality diet in a population sample.Design A cross-sectional analysis of the Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN). Diet was assessed using an FFQ (n 9223, response rate = 89 %), from which a dietary score (the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score) was constructed.Setting ...

  5. Impact of exercise and dietary fatty acid composition from a high-fat diet on markers of hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J A; Watras, A C; Paton, C M; Wegner, F H; Adams, A K; Schoeller, D A

    2011-02-01

    To compare the effects of both dietary fatty acid composition and exercise vs. sedentary conditions on circulating levels of hunger and satiety hormones. Eight healthy males were randomized in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The four treatments were 3 days of HF diets (50% of energy) containing high saturated fat (22% of energy) with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions, and high monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Cycling exercise was completed at 45% of VO(2)max for 2h daily. On the third HF day, 20 blood samples were drawn over a 24h period for each hormone (leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY)). A visual analog scale (VAS) was completed hourly between 0800 and 2200. Average 24h leptin and insulin levels were lower while 24h PYY was higher during exercise vs. sedentary conditions. FA composition did not differentially affect 24h hormone values. VAS scores for hunger and fullness did not differ between any treatment but did correlate with ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. High saturated or unsaturated fat diets did not differ with respect to markers of hunger or satiety. Exercise decreased 24h leptin and insulin while increasing PYY regardless of FA composition.

  6. Metabolic Impairments Precede Changes in Hunger and Food Intake Following Short-Term Administration of Second-Generation Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Karl; Alshehabi, Erica; Rickels, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    The second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with weight gain and an increased incidence of metabolic diseases. The metabolic impairments are assumed a consequence of increased body adiposity secondary to central nervous system-associated increases in food intake. We have previously reported that, independent of weight gain, 9 days of olanzapine administration to control subjects is associated with insulin resistance and increases in postprandial levels of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 to a mixed meal challenge. This current report describes previously unpublished data on the effects of the SGAs olanzapine and aripiprazole compared with placebo on detailed hunger and satiety responses over the 12-day inpatient evaluation as well as postprandial ghrelin and leptin responses prior to and following administration of the 2 SGAs. We found no changes in hunger, fullness, or in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin or satiety hormone leptin, consistent with our previous report indicating no change in weight during this study. The results indicate that the SGAs are associated with metabolic changes prior to changes in hunger, satiety, and food intake, and this temporal separation suggests that there are differential mechanisms mediating SGA-associated changes in metabolism and food intake.

  7. Influence of two breakfast meals differing in glycemic load on satiety, hunger, and energy intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is the product of glycemic index of a food and amount of available carbohydrate in that food divided by 100. GL represents quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate. Little is known about the role of GL in hunger, satiety, and food intake in preschool children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two breakfast meals differing in GL on hunger, satiety, and subsequent food intake at lunch in preschool children aged 4-6 y. Methods Twenty three subjects consumed low-GL (LGL and high-GL (HGL breakfast meals according to a randomized crossover design followed by an ad libitum lunch 4 h after consumption of breakfast. Children were asked to consume meals until they are full. Each treatment was repeated twice in non-consecutive days and data were averaged. Results Children in LGL group consumed significantly lower amounts of GL, total carbohydrate, energy, energy density, and dietary fiber and higher amounts of protein and fat at the breakfast compared to those in HGL group. Prior to lunch, children were hungrier in the HGL intervention group compared to the LGL intervention group (P Conclusions Decreased hunger in children prior to lunch in LGL group is likely due to higher protein and fat content of LGL breakfast. Diets that are low in GL can be recommended as part of healthy diet for preschool children.

  8. Child and youth care workers: Profile, nutrition knowledge and food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... The World Health Report of 2002 confirmed that iodine, iron, vitamin A and zinc ... most serious health risk factors worldwide (WHO 2002). Manary and ... indicators of poor nutrition and, combined with deficiencies in vitamin A ...

  9. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... The food available food is of poor nutritional value, this causes malnutrition ..... body tissues and fluids (Ma G et al 2005). ... and is required as a component of the human diet. .... Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and.

  10. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    and alignment algorithms, such that each has pros and cons. Thus, the use of more than one software tool and/or the use of several parameter settings during data preprocessing are likely to decrease the risk of failing to detect features (potential marker candidates) in untargeted metabolomics. On the other...... handling, this thesis also deals with biological interpretation of postprandial metabolism and trans fatty acid (TFA) intake. Two nutritional issues were objects of investigation: 1) metabolic states as a function of time since the last meal and 2) markers related to intakes of cis- and trans-fat. Plasma...... to TFA intake (16 weeks) and its depletion (12 weeks) were examined in order to identify metabolic patterns affected by this potentially toxic fat using a parallel intervention study. In addition, the impact of cis- vs. trans-fat intake on a glucose challenge was investigated (PAPER II). The postprandial...

  11. Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum proteinnutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.

  12. Nutritional Assessment of the Young Child with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, Maureen A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy sometimes display nutritional inadequacy, as evaluated through anthropometric measurements and laboratory values. Causes of poor nutritional status include inadequate calories offered or adequate calories offered but not consumed. Inadequate caloric retention may be due to vomiting, rumination, or gastroesophageal…

  13. [Nutritional and metabolic aspects of neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas Vilà, Mercè

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system regulates food intake, homoeostasis of glucose and electrolytes, and starts the sensations of hunger and satiety. Different nutritional factors are involved in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases. Patients with acute neurological diseases (traumatic brain injury, cerebral vascular accident hemorrhagic or ischemic, spinal cord injuries, and cancer) and chronic neurological diseases (Alzheimer's Disease and other dementias, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease) increase the risk of malnutrition by multiple factors related to nutrient ingestion, abnormalities in the energy expenditure, changes in eating behavior, gastrointestinal changes, and by side effects of drugs administered. Patients with acute neurological diseases have in common the presence of hyper metabolism and hyper catabolism both associated to a period of prolonged fasting mainly for the frequent gastrointestinal complications, many times as a side effect of drugs administered. During the acute phase, spinal cord injuries presented a reduction in the energy expenditure but an increase in the nitrogen elimination. In order to correct the negative nitrogen balance increase intakes is performed with the result of a hyper alimentation that should be avoided due to the complications resulting. In patients with chronic neurological diseases and in the acute phase of cerebrovascular accident, dysphagia could be present which also affects intakes. Several chronic neurological diseases have also dementia, which lead to alterations in the eating behavior. The presence of malnutrition complicates the clinical evolution, increases muscular atrophy with higher incidence of respiratory failure and less capacity to disphagia recuperation, alters the immune response with higher rate of infections, increases the likelihood of fractures and of pressure ulcers, increases the incapacity degree and is an independent factor to increase mortality. The periodic nutritional

  14. Preterm nutrition and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, Sara E; Georgieff, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The brain is the most highly metabolic organ in the preterm neonate and consumes the greatest amount of nutrient resources for its function and growth. As preterm infants survive at greater rates, neurodevelopment has become the primary morbidity outcome of interest. While many factors influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, nutrition is of particular importance because the healthcare team has a great deal of control over its provision. Studies over the past 30 years have emphasized the negative neurodevelopmental consequences of poor nutrition and growth in the preterm infant. While all nutrients are important for brain development, certain ones including glucose, protein, fats (including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), iron, zinc, copper, iodine, folate and choline have particularly large roles in the preterm infant. They affect major brain processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis, all of which are proceeding at a rapid pace between 22 and 42 weeks' post-conception. At the macronutrient level, weight gain, linear growth (independent of weight gain) and head circumference growth are markers of nutritional status. Each has been associated with long-term neurodevelopment. The relationship of micronutrients to neurodevelopment in preterm infants is understudied in spite of the large effect these nutrients have in other young populations. Nutrients do not function alone to stimulate brain development, but rather in concert with growth factors, which in turn are dependent on adequate nutrient status (e.g. protein, zinc) as well as on physiologic status. Non-nutritional factors such as infection, corticosteroids, and inflammation alter how nutrients are accreted and distributed, and also suppress growth factor synthesis. Thus, nutritional strategies to optimize brain growth and development include assessment of status at birth, aggressive provision of nutrients that are critical in this time

  15. The impact of hunger on food cue processing: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Jessica; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Bublatzky, Florian; Schupp, Harald T

    2009-10-01

    The present study used event-related brain potentials to examine deprivation effects on visual attention to food stimuli at the level of distinct processing stages. Thirty-two healthy volunteers (16 females) were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 h of food deprivation or after normal food intake. Participants viewed a continuous stream of food and flower images while dense sensor ERPs were recorded. As revealed by distinct ERP modulations in relatively earlier and later time windows, deprivation affected the processing of food and flower pictures. Between 300 and 360 ms, food pictures were associated with enlarged occipito-temporal negativity and centro-parietal positivity in deprived compared to satiated state. Of main interest, in a later time window (approximately 450-600 ms), deprivation increased amplitudes of the late positive potential elicited by food pictures. Conversely, flower processing varied by motivational state with decreased positive potentials in the deprived state. Minimum-Norm analyses provided further evidence that deprivation enhanced visual attention to food cues in later processing stages. From the perspective of motivated attention, hunger may induce a heightened state of attention for food stimuli in a processing stage related to stimulus recognition and focused attention.

  16. "Hunger Hurts, but Starving Works". The Moral Conversion to Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Gisella

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined. The moral transformations of women with eating disorders in Malta and Italy, the two considered contexts of this research, reflect the social expectations of women in these societies. The drastic changes in personal attitudes towards both food and the body that characterise eating disorders are the result of a complete dedication to the moral values embodied in thinness, namely the control of bodily needs and pleasure. The self-transformative process of people with eating disorders can be understood as a form of moral conversion along a continuum of increasing control over hunger: the higher the control, the higher the level of satisfaction and the degree of moral conversion achieved. Considering the general low recovery rates of people with eating disorders, this approach helps in the understanding of why people who are diagnosed with an eating disorder accept medical definitions and treatments to different extents.

  17. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence.

  18. 'Expected satiety' changes hunger and fullness in the inter-meal interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Brown, Steven; Hinton, Elanor C; Rogers, Peter J; Fay, Stephanie H

    2011-04-01

    Previously, we have shown that foods differ markedly in the satiety that they are expected to confer (compared calorie-for-calorie). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that 'expected satiety' plays a causal role in the satiety that is experienced after a food has been consumed. Before lunch, participants (N=32) were shown the ingredients of a fruit smoothie. Half were shown a small portion of fruit and half were shown a large portion. Participants then assessed the expected satiety of the smoothie and provided appetite ratings, before, and for three hours after its consumption. As anticipated, expected satiety was significantly higher in the 'large portion' condition. Moreover, and consistent with our hypothesis, participants reported significantly less hunger and significantly greater fullness in the large-portion condition. Importantly, this effect endured throughout the test period (for three hours). Together, these findings confirm previous reports indicating that beliefs and expectations can have marked effects on satiety and they show that this effect can persist well into the inter-meal interval. Potential explanations are discussed, including the prospect that satiety is moderated by memories of expected satiety that are encoded around the time that a meal is consumed.

  19. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p < 0.001; peak insulin level: 370.4 ± 66.5 vs. 109.6 ± 21.5 pmol/l; t(14) = 4.563, p < 0.001) followed by a sharp decline in glycaemia to a nadir of 3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l (vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l at the corresponding time in the control condition; t(14) = -3.972, p = 0.001) after stopping the infusion. Despite this wide glycemic fluctuation in the glucose infusion condition subjective feelings of hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety.

  20. Nutritional assessment of drug addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria-Fernández, F J; Gómez-Sirvent, J L; González-Reimers, C E; Batista-López, J N; Jorge-Hernández, J A; Rodríguez-Moreno, F; Martínez-Riera, A; Hernández-García, M T

    1995-04-01

    To discern if factors such as organic pathology, sex, duration and/or intensity of drug addiction, alcohol abuse, hepatitis B infection, anorexia with poor food and drink consumption, or disturbance of social and familial networks, are related to an impaired nutritional status in hospitalized drug addicts. Cross-sectional prospective study. Detoxication unit and internal medicine unit of a university hospital. 140 drug addicts without acute organic pathology and 18 with acute organic pathology related to drug addiction. The immunological study was compared with a control group composed of 50 healthy and well-nourished individuals (26 women and 24 men), age-matched with our patients. Drug addicts without organic pathology were under-nourished: 92.4% weighed under the mean weight for the population and 55.7% had had a weight loss above 5%. The distribution of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold (TSF) measurement and mid-arm muscle area (MAMA) compared with the percentiles for the population showed a shift towards lower values. We found a high percentage of patients with a high lymphocyte count (55%). Despite the high lymphocyte count, delayed hypersensitivity was depressed in our patients. Of our patients, 66.4% exhibited anorexia at admission. The mean calorific intake was 978 +/- 89 kcal/day in females and 1265 +/- 64 kcal/day in males. However, in most cases, malnutrition (usually marasmus-like malnutrition) was not very severe; only 30% of the drug addicts weighed less than 80% of the mean weight for the population, or admitted to a weight loss above 10%, and by subjective nutritional assessment, only 18% were deeply malnourished. Otherwise, the nutritional status was very poor in drug addicts with acute organic pathology. We also found a worse nutritional status in our patients related to female sex, intensity of drug addiction, anorexia with poor food and drink consumption, and disturbance of the social and familial networks. Many drug addicts

  1. Energy expenditure, nutrition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskin, A E; Davies, J H; Wootton, S A; Beattie, R M

    2011-06-01

    Fundamental to appropriate nutritional prescription is an understanding of the conditions necessary for growth that include the requirements for energy in health and illness. Energy requirements need to be met by the dietary intake to prevent weight loss. A positive energy balance will result in weight gain. Energy requirement includes several components; the largest is the basal metabolic rate, although physical activity level and the energy needs of growth are important components. All aspects of energy metabolism are likely to be influenced by illness and impact on energy balance. Changes in dietary intake and physical activity are observed clinically but poorly described in most childhood illnesses. Changes in metabolic rate are poorly described in part owing to methodological problems. This review explores changes in energy expenditure associated with health and disease, highlights the lack of evidence underpinning this aspect of practical nutritional support and provides the clinician with a guide to the factors involved in estimating energy requirements, emphasising the importance of measuring the child's response to nutritional support.

  2. Medical nutrition therapy planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torović Ljilja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diet has vital, preventive and therapeutic functions. Medical nutrition therapy is a part of the Standardized Nutrition Care Process integrated in health care systems. Material and methods. An overview of the Nutrition Care Process model and the application of nutrition guidelines based on literature, reports, documents and programmes of international health, food and physical activity authorities was done. Results. The Nutrition Care Process model requires registered dieticians, standardized terminology as well as nutrition diagnosis categorization. It consists of four distinct, but interrelated and connected steps: (a nutrition assessment, (b nutrition diagnosis, (c nutrition intervention, and (d nutrition monitoring and evaluation. An individual approach is essential for successful medical nutrition therapy. Nutrition guidelines facilitate the process of understanding and application of medical nutrition therapy. Conclusion. The Nutrition Care process provides dietetic professionals information on high-quality client nutrition care. The success of medical nutrition therapy rests not only upon the advice of the dietician, but also upon the client’s compliance.

  3. Family physicians and patients: is effective nutrition interaction possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truswell, A S

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations from an international workshop held in Heelsum, Netherlands, 14-16 December 1998 that was sponsored by the Dutch Dairy Foundation on Nutrition and Health, the Department of Nutrition at Wageningen Agricultural University, the Dutch College of General Practitioners, and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences. Twenty-one speakers and 12 other participants were invited from 9 countries: the Netherlands, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Denmark, New Zealand, Spain, and Sweden. The workshop was chaired by GJAJ Hautvast and the scientific secretary was GJ Hiddink. Family physicians are highly trusted. Many consultations include a nutritional aspect, but physicians do not discuss nutrition with their patients as often as they could. Major barriers include short visit times, the paucity of nutrition teaching in medical schools, and poor compliance of patients with physicians' dietary prescriptions. Problems, practicalities, operational research, and some solutions were discussed at this meeting of leading family doctors with interested nutritionists. Family physicians have to distill the essentials for their patients from many different specialties ranging from ophthalmology to podiatry. They look for clarity of recommendations from nutrition researchers. Among developments discussed at the meeting that can increase nutritional work in family medicine are 1) new opportunities to teach nutrition in vocational training programs, 2) some manuals and a new journal specially written by nutritional scientists for family physicians, 3) nutritional advice being incorporated into computer software for family physicians, 4) more dietitians working with family physicians, and 5) nutrition training for practice nurses in some countries.

  4. A qualitative study of nutrition-based initiatives at selected food banks in the feeding America network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handforth, Becky; Hennink, Monique; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-03-01

    Food banks are the foundation of the US emergency food system. Although their primary mission is to alleviate hunger, the rise in obesity and diet-related diseases among food-insecure individuals has led some food bank personnel to actively promote more nutritious products. A qualitative interview approach was used to assess nutrition-related policies and practices among a sample of 20 food banks from the national Feeding America network. Most food bank personnel reported efforts to provide more fresh produce to their communities. Several described nutrition-profiling systems to evaluate the quality of products. Some food banks had implemented nutrition policies to cease distributing low-nutrient products, such as soda and candy; however, these policies were more controversial than other strategies. The obstacles to implementing strong nutrition policies included fear of reducing the total amount of food distributed, discomfort choosing which foods should not be permitted, and concern about jeopardizing relationships with donors and community partners. Empirical research is needed to measure how food bank nutrition policies influence relationships with food donors, the amount of food distributed, the nutritional quality of food distributed, and the contribution of food bank products to the food security and nutritional status of the communities they serve. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining Nutritional Adequacy and Dietary Diversity Among Women in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse-Egbuonye, Nafissatou; Ishdorj, Ariun; McKyer, E L J; Mkuu, Rahma

    2017-01-19

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the nutritional adequacy and dietary composition among women residing in Zinder and Maradi of Niger, and the factors that affect the variety of their dietary intake. Methods Data from 3360 women of ages 15-49 were used in the analysis. The variable of interest was the Women Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS), which is the simple sum of scores of the 9 categorized food groups, ranging from 0 to 9. Lower values for WDDS indicate nutritionally inadequate dietary diversity. Analysis included descriptive, Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression. Results The majority of the participants were residing in the Maradi Region (56.7%) and were living in households with both male and female adults (94.9%). The mean WDDS was 3.5 in Zinder compared to 2.5 in Maradi (p food items in both Zinder and Maradi were starchy staple food (98.3%). Region of residence was one of the strong predictor of WDDS. A total number of farmers in the household and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) had positive and significant effects on WDDS whereas Household Hunger Scale (HHS) had a negative and significant effect on WDDS. Conclusion Niger has one of the highest concentrations of malnutrition in the world. In 2012, approximately 2.5 million Nigeriens were affected by malnutrition. Our study results reinforce the importance to conduct more studies that examine the nutritional intake of women in Niger.

  6. Effective nutrition programming for children and the role of UNICEF: consensus points from an expert consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultink, Werner; Arabi, Mandana

    2009-06-01

    Countries of the world have agreed on eradicating extreme poverty and hunger and reducing the mortality rate of children under five by two-thirds by 2015 as part of the Millennium Development Goals, and without mainstreaming maternal, infant, and young child nutrition in the development agenda, these goals cannot be achieved. Although the recent Lancet Series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition brought attention to the importance of early nutrition interventions to improve child health, nutrition, and future economic productivity, there needs to be a more concerted effort at clarifying the path forward, focusing on moving beyond projects and evidence from randomized, controlled trials towards developing large-scale programs with sound plausibility design to achieve results for children. In an effort to cast a fresh eye on nutrition programming in light of the new evidence, UNICEF Headquarters hosted an Expert Consultation on effective nutrition programming with participants from various academic organizations and United Nations agencies to discuss effective program strategies in nutrition. The consultation resulted in recommendations for UNICEF on eight focus areas for programming and recognition of six overarching themes. It is clear that more action is needed to accelerate progress: more effective global coalitions, better coordination, more coherence, and better targeting of efforts.

  7. Nutrition and Development: Considerations for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Ernesto; Gorman, Kathleen S.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to commentary on the Pollitt et al. study reported in this monograph. Posits that nutritional insults are sensitive to intervention. Discusses research methodology; methodological issues related to sex differences; the buffering influence of high SES and dietary supplementation against the adverse effects of poor diet and low SES,…

  8. Safety Umbrella for Rural Poor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For lower-income farmers in China,from those living in the generally well-off coastal regions in the east,to those in the relatively poor landlocked interior in the west,the recent news from Beijing no doubt brought smiles to tired and worried faces:the Central Government has decided to extend the safety net,literally dubbed the basic living guarantee system,to all the rural poor from this year.

  9. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Hefferon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  10. Maternal nutrition in deprived populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K P

    1981-02-01

    In deprived populations, a large proportion of women are chronically undernourished, the chances being therefore great that their infants will be undernourished in utero and present a low birth weight. Their children thus have a poor start in life, for which even breastmilk with its special protective and nutritive qualities cannot completely compensate, especially if the mothers continue to be chronically malnourished while subject to heavy workloads and repeated pregnancies. The supplementary feeding of pregnant and lactating women can to some extent offset these negative effects on both mother and child, but constitute a late intervention. Current literature on these issues is reviewed, and areas of action to improve women's nutritional status are indicated. In order to ensure that those most in need are reached at the grass roots level, the actions undertaken should be based on community participation, within the context of a multisectoral approach and a primary health care strategy.

  11. The Second International Conference on Nutrition, as Seen by a Member State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Hanns-Christoph; Welte, Simone

    2016-01-01

    For years now, providing people with food and balanced diets has been a problem unsolved by the world community. Despite numerous initiatives, the great breakthrough has still not happened, not least because the issue is so complex. Hunger and undernourishment must be fought as much as hidden hunger, overweight and obesity. Increasingly, several forms of malnutrition have been occurring simultaneously. The so-called double burden of malnutrition has become the new normal. The follow-up process of the Second International Conference on Nutrition assumes a vital role in that context. The Rome Declaration and the Framework for Action commit the international community, international organizations and civil society to undertake joint efforts across and beyond sectorial policies. Both documents also indicate numerous starting points for actions that consider individual national examples. Germany has been actively engaged at both the national and the international levels. Since its inception in 2008, the National Action Plan 'IN FORM' has taken up a number of suggestions made by the Second International Conference on Nutrition. While IN FORM is further developed, the ideas given in the Framework for Action shall provide a fresh impetus. Within its development cooperation, Germany is increasingly focusing on improving the nutritional situation, such as through its One World, No Hunger initiative. In the follow-up process, all stakeholders, including the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization, will have to offer platforms to promote exchange among all parties involved and to initiate coherent actions that also reach beyond national borders. Only then can the improvement of the nutritional situation really be seen as a truly global challenge. Given the issue's complexity, it is equally important to establish priorities in each case in order for progress not to be thwarted by lengthy decision-making processes. Improving the situation of

  12. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Brooke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  13. Polypharmacy and nutritional status in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyrkkä, Johanna; Mursu, Jaakko; Enlund, Hannes; Lönnroos, Eija

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of drugs among elderly people has raised concerns about possible negative health outcomes, including malnutrition, associated with polypharmacy. Evidence about the association of polypharmacy with nutritional status is scarce. This review summarizes the relevant evidence regarding polypharmacy and nutritional status in elderly people. The probability of nutritional problems as a consequence of drugs is highest in elderly people suffering from several diseases. Drug treatment may contribute to poor nutritional status by causing loss of appetite, gastrointestinal problems, and other alterations in body function. Some recently published studies add evidence on possible association between increasing number of drugs and malnutrition. Studies indicate also an association between polypharmacy and weight changes. In addition, there are available studies that have shown deficits in the intake of specific macronutrients and micronutrients (e.g. fiber, glucose, and specific vitamins) for those with a high number of drugs in use. On the basis of available evidence, the role of polypharmacy on nutritional status among elderly people is unclear. Some diseases promote malnutrition; thus, the independent role of drugs for nutritional status is challenging to determine. Longitudinal studies with careful adjustment for underlying diseases are needed to explore association between polypharmacy and malnutrition. Nutritional evaluation should be a routine part of comprehensive geriatric assessment that is conducted ideally in multiprofessional teams, including physician, pharmacist, and dietitian.

  14. Enteral nutrition in dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-04-03

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  15. [The roles of a nutrition support team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takashi

    2004-02-01

    In 1998, a new system called the potluck party method (PPM) for the operation of nutrition support teams (NSTs) was developed. In the PPM, just as at a potluck party where each participant brings a single dish of food to share, the NST is operated and managed by each department contributing a small amount of staff and resources at one time. Based on the PPM, 1 or 2 staff members are selected from each department and each ward and carry out the work of the NST as they continue to go about their routine duties. The roles of the NST are 1) nutritional assessments, 2) checking whether the nutritional support provided is adequate, 3) recommending the best nutritional therapy for each patient, 4) preventing complications during nutritional therapy, and 5) responding to consultations on nutritional support. NST performance based on the PPM have proven effective as demonstrated by the following results: 1) decreases in the number of problem cases in terms of nutritional management; 2) reductions in the incidence of catheter sepsis; 3) reductions in the numbers of patients with poor food intake; 4) prevention of pressure ulceration; 5) attempts to eradicate nosocomial infections; 6) decreases in mean length of hospital stay; and 7) a total cost benefit of at least 120,000,000 yen (US$1,000,000) per year.

  16. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed.

  17. Genetically Modified Foods and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reci MESERI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To consume a balanced diet may prevent many illnesses. After the Second World War the “Green Revolution” was conducted to increase efficiency in agriculture. After its harmful effects on environment were understood genetically modified foods (GMO were served to combat hunger in the world. Today insufficiency in food product is not the main problem; imbalanced food distribution is the problem. In addition, GMO’s might be harmful for health and environment. Moreover economical dependency to industrialized countries will carry on. If the community tends to use up all the sources and the population increases steadily hunger will not be the only scarcity that the human population would face. There will also be shortage in energy and clean water resources. In conclusion combating just with hunger using high technology will only postpone the problems for a short period of time. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 455-460

  18. Effects of electrical stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus and food reinforcement on impulse activity of the stomach in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenina, O Yu; Kromin, A A

    2012-10-01

    Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in preliminary fed animals in the presence of the food is associated with successful food-procuring behavior, accompanied by regular generation of high-amplitude slow electrical waves by muscles of the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach, which was reflected in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical activity in the form of unimodal distribution of slow wave periods typical of satiation state. Despite increased level of food motivation caused by stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus, the additional food intake completely abolished the inhibitory effects of hunger motivation excitement on slow electrical muscle activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach of satiated rabbits. Changes in slow electrical activity of the stomach muscles in rabbits deprived of food over 24 h and offered food and associated food-procuring behavior during electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus have a two-phase pattern. Despite food intake during phase I of electrical stimulation, the downstream inhibitory effect of hunger motivation excitement on myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of stomach abolishes the stimulating effect of food reinforcement on slow electrical muscle activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach. During phase II of electrical stimulation, the food reinforcement decreases inhibitory effect of hunger motivation excitement on myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature that paces maximal rhythm of slow electrical waves for muscles activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach, which is reflected by unimodal distribution of slow electrical wave periods. Our results indicated that the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical activity of the stomach muscles reflects convergent interactions of food motivation and reinforcement excitations on the dorsal vagal complex neurons in medulla oblongata.

  19. Randomized Exposure to Food Advertisements and Eating in the Absence of Hunger Among Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Lansigan, Reina K; Ramanujam, Archana; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2016-12-01

    Preschoolers in the United States are heavily exposed to unhealthy food advertisements. Whether such exposure promotes cued eating has not been documented in this age group. Randomized experiment among 60 children, aged 2 to 5 years, recruited in 2015-2016 from New Hampshire and Vermont. Children completed the experiment at a behavioral laboratory. Children were provided with a healthy snack to consume upon arrival then randomized to view a 14-minute TV program embedded with advertisements for either a food or a department store. Children were provided 2 snack foods to consume ad libitum while viewing the TV program; 1 of those snacks was the food advertised. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) was operationalized as the kilocalories of snack foods consumed. t tests were used to compare EAH by advertisement condition; linear regression models assessed effect modification by the child's age, sex, BMI percentile, and parental feeding restriction. Mean age was 4.1 (SD 0.9) years, 55% of children were male, 80% were non-Hispanic white, and 20% were overweight or obese. There were no differences in child or socioeconomic characteristics by advertisement condition. Child BMI was not related to EAH. Mean kilocalories consumed during the EAH phase was greater among children exposed to the food advertisements (126.8, SD: 58.5) versus those exposed to the nonfood advertisements (97.3, SD: 52.3; P = .04), an effect driven by greater consumption of the advertised food (P advertisement exposure may encourage obesogenic-eating behaviors among the very young. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. [Nutrition and fluid management in palliative medicine: do food and drink keep body and soul together?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaser, E; Meissner, W

    2012-01-01

    Induction, implementation and continuation of an invasive nutrition or fluid administration in patients with advanced, life-limiting illnesses is an often controversial but also very emotionally discussed topic. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge based mainly on the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines and is intended as a simple guide for clinical practice. In the early phase of disease the induction of an invasive food and fluid administration may be indicated in order to prevent undernutrition and cachexia, to enhance compliance with anti-tumor treatment, to control some adverse effects of anti-tumor therapy and to improve the quality of life. If oral or enteral feeding is possible this should be preferred. Patients in the final stage of a disease rarely suffer from hunger or thirst. In this phase of the disease other things, such as monitoring of patients and relatives play a much more important role.

  1. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  2. Selective attention to food-related stimuli in hunger: are attentional biases specific to emotional and psychopathological states, or are they also found in normal drive states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, K; Bradley, B P; Hyare, H; Lee, S

    1998-02-01

    Previous work has indicated that anxiety disorders and eating disorders are associated with selective processing of stimuli relevant to patients' concerns (e.g. Mathews and MacLeod, 1994; Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 25-50; Channon et al., 1988; British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 259-260). A dot probe task was used to investigate whether attentional biases are also a feature of a normal drive state. Specifically, we examined whether hunger is associated with biases in selective attention and in pre-attentive processes for food-relevant stimuli. Subjects with high levels of hunger showed a greater attentional bias for food-related words presented in a suprathreshold exposure condition (words shown for 500 msec), in comparison with those with low hunger. There was no evidence in the present study of a hunger-related bias in pre-attentive processes (i.e. when words were shown for 14 msec and masked). Results suggest that a non-emotional motivational state, such as hunger, is associated with a bias in certain aspects of information processing, such as selective attention, for stimuli that are relevant to the motivational state. Findings are discussed in relation to recent research into emotion-related cognitive biases.

  3. Breastfeeding Practices among Poor Women in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey; Desai, Sima S; Haakenstad, Annie; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-08-01

    Breastfeeding is an effective intervention to reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of practices and predictors of breastfeeding among the poor in Mesoamerica has not been well described. We estimated the prevalence of ever breastfeeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding between 6 mo and 2 y of age using household survey data for the poorest quintile of families living in 6 Mesoamerican countries. We also assessed the predictors of breastfeeding behaviors to identify factors amenable to policy interventions. We analyzed data from 12,529 children in Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, Panama, and El Salvador using baseline survey data from the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 Initiative. We created multivariable Poisson regression models with robust variance estimates to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% CIs for breastfeeding outcomes and to control for sociodemographic and healthcare-related factors. Approximately 97% of women in all countries breastfed their child at least once, and 65.1% (Nicaragua) to 79.0% (Panama) continued to do so between 6 mo and 2 y of age. Breastfeeding in the first hour of life varied by country (P < 0.001), with the highest proportion reported in Panama (89.8%) and the lowest in El Salvador (65.6%). Exclusive breastfeeding also varied by country (P = 0.037), ranging from 44.5% in Panama to 76.8% in Guatemala. For every 20% increase in the proportion of peers who exclusively breastfed, there was an 11% (aRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) increase in the likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. Our study revealed significant variation in the prevalence of breastfeeding practices by poor women across countries surveyed by the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 initiative. Future interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding should consider ways to leverage the role of the community in supporting individual women. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Nutritional status, nutrition practices and post-operative complications in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, A K; Newsome, C M; Simmance, N; Crowe, T C

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition and its associated complications are a considerable issue for surgical patients with upper gastrointestinal and colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether specific perioperative nutritional practices and protocols are associated with improved patient outcomes in this group. Patients admitted for elective upper gastrointestinal or colorectal cancer surgery (n = 95) over a 19-month period underwent a medical history audit assessing weight changes, nutritional intake, biochemistry, post-operative complications and length of stay. A subset of patients (n = 25) underwent nutritional assessment by subjective global assessment prior to surgery in addition to assessment of post-operative medical outcomes, nutritional intake and timing of dietetic intervention. Mean (SD) length of stay for patients was 14.0 (12.2) days, with complication rates at 35%. Length of stay was significantly longer in patients who experienced significant preoperative weight loss compared to those who did not [17.0 (15.8) days versus 10.0 (6.8) days, respectively; P nutritional assessment, 32% were classified as mild-moderately malnourished and 16% severely malnourished. Malnourished patients were hospitalised twice as long as well-nourished patients [15.8 (12.8) days versus 7.6 (3.5) days; P nutrition post surgery was a factor in post-operative outcomes, with a positive correlation with length of stay (r = 0.493; P cancer. Poor nutritional status coupled with delayed and inadequate post-operative nutrition practices are associated with worse clinical outcomes.

  5. Dietitians' Perspectives on Teaching Nutrition to Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Emily; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Ray, Sumantra; Ball, Lauren

    2017-08-01

    The provision of nutrition care by health professionals can facilitate improved patient nutrition behaviors. Some education institutions include nutrition in their medical curriculum; however, doctors and medical students continue to lack competence in providing nutrition care. Dietitians are increasingly teaching nutrition to medical students, yet evidence on the topic remains anecdotal. It is important to understand the experiences of these dietitians to support improvements in undergraduate medical nutrition education. The aim of this study was to explore dietitians' perspectives of teaching nutrition to medical students. A qualitative study was conducted in collaboration with the Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme (NNEdPro). Twenty-four dietitians who had provided nutrition education to medical students participated in individual semistructured interviews. Participants were from Australia (n = 5), New Zealand (n = 1), the United States (n = 6), Canada (n = 5), the United Kingdom (n = 5), Germany (n = 1), and Finland (n = 1). Data analysis was conducted using a constant comparative approach to thematic analysis. The dietitians expressed confidence in their ability to teach medical students and believed that they were the most appropriate professionals to administer the education. However, they were not confident that medical students graduate with sufficient nutrition competence and attributed this to poor curriculum planning for nutrition. Dietitians had access to useful resources and tools to support education, with opportunity to contribute further to integration of nutrition throughout medical curricula. This study suggests that dietitians are likely appropriate nutrition teachers in medical education. However, optimizing dietitians' role requires their further involvement in curriculum planning and development. Including dietitians as members of medical faculty would facilitate their input on nutrition throughout the curriculum, which could

  6. The weight of obesity: hunger and global health in postwar Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2015-01-01

    A woman with hypertension refuses vegetables. A man with diabetes adds iron-fortified sugar to his coffee. As death rates from heart attacks, strokes, and diabetes in Latin America escalate, global health interventions increasingly emphasize nutrition, exercise, and weight loss—but much goes awry as

  7. War on Hunger: A Report from the Agency for International Development, December 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoad, David L., Ed.

    Produced by the Agency for International Development, this magazine presents articles and speeches on international development. Published monthly, the articles focus on developing nations and problems and areas of development. Typical issues offer articles on food and nutrition, education, disaster and humanitarian relief, U.S. government policy,…

  8. Dietary fibre added to very low calorie diet reduces hunger and alleviates constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Vrist, E; Quaade, F

    1990-01-01

    To examine whether supplement of dietary fibre may improve compliance to a very low calorie diet (VLCD) a nutrition powder providing 388 kcal/day (men: 466 kcal/day) was compared with a similar version containing plant fibre 30 g/day. Twenty-two obese patients entered the study. After a baseline...

  9. A high-protein breakfast prevents body fat gain, through reductions in daily intake and hunger, in "Breakfast skipping" adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Higgins, Kelly A; Shafer, Rebecca S

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the daily consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs. high-protein (HP) breakfast meals improves appetite control, food intake, and body composition in "breakfast skipping" young people with overweight/obesity. Fifty-seven adolescents (age: 19 ± 1 years; BMI: 29.7 ± 4.6 kg m(-2)) completed a 12-week randomized controlled trial in which the adolescents consumed either a 1,464 kJ NP breakfast (13 g protein) or a HP breakfast (35 g protein) or continued to skip breakfast (CON). Pre- and post-study appetite, food intake, body weight, and body composition were assessed. Time-by-group interactions (P fat mass, daily intake, and perceived hunger. Specifically, HP prevented fat mass gains over the 12 weeks (-0.4 ± 0.5 kg) vs. CON (+1.6 ± 0.9 kg; P = 0.02), whereas NP did not (+0.3 ± 0.5 kg). HP led to reductions in daily intake (-1,724 ± 954 kJ) vs. CON (+1,556 ± 745 kJ; P = 0.03), whereas NP did not (+494 ± 213 kJ). Lastly, only the HP group experienced reductions in daily hunger vs. CON (P fat gain, voluntary reductions in daily intake, and reductions in daily hunger in breakfast skipping adolescents with overweight/obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Chibarabada, Tendai; Modi, Albert

    2016-01-06

    Whereas sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region's agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  11. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region’s agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  12. [Relevance of nutrition knowledge on clinical practice: medical opinion survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Luísa; Moreira, Isabel; Oliveira, António

    2007-01-01

    Although previous studies show that physicians generally agree that nutrition knowledge is important for their daily clinical practice, several other studies report their poor knowledge of the subject. One of the strongest reasons given for this is the non-incorporation of Nutrition as a compulsory subject for the medical sciences degree. Dietary counselling and assessment of the patients' nutritional status don't seem to be systematic. The aim of this study is to asses how relevant physicians consider Nutrition to be in the successful running of a good practice. The study was undertaken at the general hospital of Vila Real/Peso da Régua (CHVR/PR) by distribution of a self- administered questionnaire to 153 of the physicians of the clinical body. Mean values were compared with the Student's t test and proportions with the Chi-square test. Of the 153 physicians, 108 replies were received (70,6%). Of these 108 replies, 53,3% consider nutrition knowledge important although 29,6% state their knowledge is poor. More than half say that Clinical Nutrition should be a compulsory subject of the Medical Sciences syllabus, and 99,1% deem it important to assess the patient's nutritional status. About 95% stated they provided written or verbal nutritional guidance, and most of the physicians had already sought the assistance of a nutritionist. This study shows that the clinical body of the CHVR/PR is aware of the importance nutrition knowledge has in their daily practice. It must be noted, though, that although almost one third of the physicians rate their nutrition knowledge poor, most of them provide nutritional guidance to their patients.

  13. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: non-surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetti, F; Arends, J; Lundholm, K; Micklewright, A; Zurcher, G; Muscaritoli, M

    2009-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increasing or ensuring nutrient intake in patients in whom normal food intake is inadequate and enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. These guidelines are intended to provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of parenteral nutrition in cancer patients. They were developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with accepted standards, are based on the most relevant publications of the last 30 years and share many of the conclusions of the ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition in oncology. Under-nutrition and cachexia occur frequently in cancer patients and are indicators of poor prognosis and, per se, responsible for excess morbidity and mortality. Many indications for parenteral nutrition parallel those for enteral nutrition (weight loss or reduction in food intake for more than 7-10 days), but only those who, for whatever reason cannot be fed orally or enterally, are candidates to receive parenteral nutrition. A standard nutritional regimen may be recommended for short-term parenteral nutrition, while in cachectic patients receiving intravenous feeding for several weeks a high fat-to-glucose ratio may be advised because these patients maintain a high capacity to metabolize fats. The limited nutritional response to the parenteral nutrition reflects more the presence of metabolic derangements which are characteristic of the cachexia syndrome (or merely the short duration of the nutritional support) rather than the inadequacy of the nutritional regimen. Perioperative parenteral nutrition is only recommended in malnourished patients if enteral nutrition is not feasible. In non-surgical well-nourished oncologic patients routine parenteral nutrition is not recommended because it has proved to offer no advantage and is associated with increased morbidity. A benefit, however, is reported in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  14. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Cancer When Your Child Has Cancer Nutrition for Children with Cancer Nutrition is an important part of the health of ... help you ensure your child is getting the nutrition he or she needs. Why good nutrition is ...

  15. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Liver Transplant: Nutrition for Veterans and the Public Nutrition Liver ... apply to transplant and liver disease patients. Pre-Transplant Protein Malnutrition -- Many patients with end stage liver ...

  16. Nutrition.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gov Sites FAQ Contact Us En Español Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Browse by ... Phytonutrients Food Additives What's in Food FAQs Welcome Nutrition.gov is a USDA-sponsored website that offers ...

  17. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  18. Diabetes and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  19. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  20. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. Function Pots, pans, and other tools used in ...

  1. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  2. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002458.htm Nutrition and athletic performance To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle ...

  3. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition Most people are surprised to learn that the ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  4. Nutrition - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF California Dental Association Nutrition Resources - English Nutrition Resources - Hmoob (Hmong) PDF U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) Expand Section Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a ...

  5. The nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Jane B

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome. Its defining feature is involuntary weight loss, which arises, in part, because of muscle atrophy and is accompanied by functional decline. International expert consensus recommends that nutritional support and counselling is a component of multimodal therapy for cancer cachexia, as poor nutritional intake can contribute to progression of the syndrome. The present paper focuses on what is presently known about the nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia. There is potential for nurses to play an important role. However, obstacles to this include lack of a robust evidence base to support their nutritional care practices and unmet need for education about nutrition in cancer. The nursing role's boundaries and the outcomes of nurse-delivered nutritional care in cancer cachexia are both uncertain and should be investigated.

  6. Alimentação alternativa: análise crítica de uma proposta de intervenção nutricional Alternative foods: a critical analysis of a proposal for nutritional intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Amaya Farfan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O Instituto Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição (Inan está propondo o uso, em nível nacional, de fórmula de alimentação alternativa, denominada "Multimistura", à base de farelos de arroz, e/ou trigo, sementes de gergelim e abóbora, folhas de mandioca, beterraba, cenoura, verduras nativas e pó de casca de ovo, como solução para combater a fome da população carente. Embora o crítico estado nutricional da população-alvo possa fazer qualquer questionamento técnico ou ético parecer por demais filosófico, uma série de considerações nutricionais, toxicológicas e até de viabilidade prática sugerem que a posição adotada pelo Inan deveria ser revista. A solução da multimistura, talvez válida para situações transitórias de extrema pobreza, carece de universalidade para ser utilizada, independentemente de faixa etária, estado nutricional e período de duração da intervenção.The nationwide use of a "Multimixture," a formula based on alternative foods such as rice and/or wheat bran, sesame and squash seeds, cassava, beet and carrot leaves, several indigenous leafy vegetables, and ground egg shells has been proposed by the National Institute of Food and Nutrition (INAN as an official solution to fight hunger among poor Brazilians. The fragile nutritional state of the target population may make technical or ethical questions appear purely academic, yet nutritional, toxicological, and practical feasibility considerations appear to warrant a revision of the INAN proposal. While the Multimixture approach may prove valid as a temporary solution in cases of extreme poverty, it is not universally applicable for the intended use, failing to take into account the age and nutritional status of the subjects or duration of the intervention.

  7. Effects of electrical stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus and food reinforcement on impulse activity of the mylohyoid muscle in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Ju P; Kromin, A A

    2011-03-01

    Effects of electrical stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus and food reinforcement on impulse activity of mylohyoid muscle were studied in chronic experiments under conditions of hunger and satiety. Threshold stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in starving and satiated rabbits in the absence of food induced searching behavior associated with burst-like impulse activity with a bimodal distribution of interpulse intervals. Regular spike burst in the mylohyoid muscle during stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in the absence of food serves as an example of the anticipatory type reaction. Increased food motivation during threshold stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in starving and satiated rabbits with food offered led to successful food-procuring behavior, during which the frequency of spike bursts in the mylohyoid muscle became comparable with that under conditions of natural foraging behavior stimulated by the need in nutrients. Our results suggest that temporal structure of mylohyoid muscle impulse activity reflects convergent interactions of food-motivation excitation with reinforcement excitation on neurons of the masticatory and deglutitive centers.

  8. Food provisioning experiences of ultra poor female heads of household living in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Rondeau, Krista; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Hatfield, Jennifer; Islam, Khaled Shamsul; Huda, Syed Nazmul

    2011-03-01

    Ultra poor women in Bangladesh are especially vulnerable to poverty and food insecurity, and they have generally been excluded from recent improvements in hunger and poverty rates in the country. An examination of the food provisioning narratives of 43 ultra poor female heads of household in Bangladesh was conducted in order to deepen understanding of this obstacle to the country's achievement of the First Millennium Development Goal. All participants were the household's sole income provider, had dependent children, and earned less than $1 USD per day. Women were purposively selected based on occupational group, context, and personal characteristics. Ethnographic interviews were conducted in January and February, 2008. Analysis of women's accounts of their daily food routine revealed chronic and pervasive food insecurity punctuated by acute episodes of absolute food deprivation that resulted from seasonal fluctuations in earnings, rising food prices, illness disrupting work, and healthcare costs. Women's accounts of their daily food provisioning experiences suggested compromises in, and trade-offs between, multiple basic needs as a result of inadequate income. Women were further constrained by social norms and gender roles that influenced their ability to work outside the home. Our method of inquiry led us to construct an organizing framework that extends knowledge of ultra poor women in Bangladesh's complex and multi-sphered experience of poverty and food insecurity. Based on these findings, we propose a strategy called whole person development (WPD), which seeks small adjustments to services, programs, and policies based on leverage points identified through in-depth narratives.

  9. When hunger does (or doesn't) increase unhealthy and healthy food consumption through food wanting: The distinctive role of impulsive approach tendencies toward healthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Audrin, Catherine; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc

    2017-09-01

    Hunger indirectly triggers unhealthy high-calorie food consumption through its positive effect on the incentive value (or "wanting") for food. Yet, not everyone consumes unhealthy food in excess, suggesting that some individuals react differently when they are exposed to unhealthy high-calorie food, even when they are hungry. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether individual differences in impulsive approach tendencies toward food may explain how, and for whom, hunger will influence unhealthy food consumption through its effect on food wanting. A complementary goal was to explore whether these individual differences also influence healthy food consumption. Students (N = 70) completed a questionnaire measuring their hunger and food wanting. Then, they performed a manikin task designed to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward unhealthy food (IAUF) and healthy food (IAHF). The main outcomes variables were the amount of sweets (i.e., unhealthy food) and raisins (i.e., healthy food) consumed during a product-testing task. A moderated mediation analysis revealed that the indirect effect of hunger on unhealthy consumption through food wanting was moderated by IAHF. Specifically, hunger positively predicted sweets consumption through wanting for food among individuals with a low or moderate, but not high IAHF. The moderated mediation pattern was, however, not confirmed for IAUF. Finally, results revealed a direct and positive effect of IAHF on raisins consumption. These findings showed that IAHF play a protective role by preventing hunger to indirectly increase unhealthy food consumption through wanting for food. It confirms the importance of considering how individuals may differ in their impulsive approach tendencies toward food to better understand why some individuals will increase their unhealthy food intake when they are hungry, whereas other will not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  11. The role of agriculture in the nutrition of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Malcolm

    2014-11-01

    Data from across the developing world show consistently that a fundamental cause of poor nutrition is low agricultural productivity and consequent low incomes, especially amongst poor rural households. Conventionally, technical solutions have been sought to contribute to greater household food security, and thus better childhood nutrition. A more holistic approach is required. This paper draws from field examples, mainly in southern and east Africa, to illustrate the implementation and effectiveness of what is termed a 'green evolution' approach which emphasizes the efficient use of available resources of land, labour and inputs, thus allowing food to be sold profitably at low prices. With low food prices, the poor can use their limited funds to invest in better housing, education and health care. This is achieved through building thoughtful, farmer demand-led initiatives, backed by high quality science to deliver widespread improvements in nutrition for the poor.

  12. Aging and Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

  13. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  14. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth > For Parents > Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  15. Specific hunger- and satiety-induced tuning of guinea pig enteric nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, Lina; Boesmans, Werend; Dondeyne, Marjan; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan; Vanden Berghe, Pieter

    2012-09-01

    Although hunger and satiety are mainly centrally regulated, there is convincing evidence that also gastrointestinal motor activity and hormone fluctuations significantly contribute to appetite signalling. In this study, we investigated how motility and enteric nerve activity are set by fasting and feeding. By means of video-imaging, we tested whether peristaltic activity differs in ex vivo preparations from fasted and re-fed guinea pigs. Ca(2+) imaging was used to investigate whether the feeding state directly alters neuronal activity, either occurring spontaneously or evoked by (an)orexigenic signalling molecules. We found that pressure-induced (2 cmH(2)O) peristaltic activity occurs at a higher frequency in ileal segments from re-fed animals (re-fed versus fasted, 6.12 ± 0.22 vs. 4.84 ± 0.52 waves min(-1), P = 0.028), even in vitro hours after death. Myenteric neuronal responses were tuned to the feeding status, since neurons in tissues from re-fed animals remained hyper-responsive to high K(+)-evoked depolarization (P < 0.001) and anorexigenic molecules (P < 0.001), while being less responsive to orexigenic ghrelin (P = 0.013). This illustrates that the feeding status remains ‘imprinted' ex vivo. We were able to reproduce this feeding state-related memory in vitro and found humoral feeding state-related factors to be implicated. Although the molecular link with hyperactivity is not entirely elucidated yet, glucose-dependent pathways are clearly involved in tuning neuronal excitability. We conclude that a bistable memory system that tunes neuronal responses to fasting and re-feeding is present in the enteric nervous system, increasing responses to depolarization and anorexigenic molecules in the re-fed state, while decreasing responses to orexigenic ghrelin. Unlike the hypothalamus, where specific cell populations sensitive to either orexigenic or anorexigenic molecules exist, the enteric feeding state-related memory system is present at the functional level

  16. Episodes of voluntary total fasting (hunger strike) in Spanish prisons: A descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, J; Vera-Remartínez, E J

    2015-08-01

    To provide a description of the frequency and main features of the episodes of voluntary total fasting (VTF) taking place in Spanish prisons. Information on the episodes of VTF reported between 04/01/2013 and 03/31/2014 was gathered. Once the appropriate informed consent was given, other data on social, demographic, penitentiary and clinical aspects were collected. A descriptive study of such variables together with a bivariate analysis was then carried out by means of standard statistical techniques and binary logistic regression models. IBM SPSS Statistics v.20 software was used for this purpose. This study was approved by an accredited Clinical Research Ethics Committee. 354 episodes of VTF took place among an average population of 29,762 prisoners. Therefore, the incidence rate was 11.9 VTF episodes per ‰ inmates-year. Informed consent (IC) was given in 180 cases (50.8%). 114 were of Spanish nationality and the average age was 38.7 years old (95% CI 37.2-40.1). The median duration of the episodes was 3 days (IQR 1-10), ranged between 1 and 71 days. The main reason was a disagreement on the decisions of treatment groups (57 cases, 31.7%). The average weight loss was 1.3 kg (70.8 vs. 69.5; p < 0.0001) and 0.7 of the BMI (24.5 vs. 23.8; p < 0.0001). 60 prisoners (33.3%) lost no weight at all and only 8 (4.4%) lost over 12% of the basal weight (8.5 kg). Ketone smell was identified in 61 cases (33.9%) and ketonuria in 63 (35%). Only one third of those who go on hunger strike in prison actually fast. Revindicative episodes of voluntary total fasting are somewhat common in Spanish prisons, but rarely are they carried out rigorously and entail a risk for those who fast. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. When snacks become meals: How hunger and environmental cues bias food intake

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    Shimizu Mitsuru

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental and situational cues influence food intake, it is not always clear how they do so. We examine whether participants consume more when an eating occasion is associated with meal cues than with snack cues. We expect their perception of the type of eating occasion to mediate the amount of food they eat. In addition, we expect the effect of those cues on food intake to be strongest among those who are hungry. Methods One-hundred and twenty-two undergraduates (75 men, 47 women; mean BMI = 22.8, SD = 3.38 were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions in which they were offered foods such as quesadillas and chicken wings in an environment that was associated with either meal cues (ceramic plates, glasses, silverware, and cloth napkins at a table, or snack cues (paper plates and napkins, plastic cups, and no utensils. After participants finished eating, they were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed their hunger, satiety, perception of the foods, and included demographic and anthropometric questions. In addition, participants' total food intake was recorded. Results Participants who were in the presence of meal-related cues ate 27.9% more calories than those surrounded with snack cues (416 versus 532 calories. The amount participants ate was partially mediated by whether they perceived the eating occasion to be a meal or a snack. In addition, the effect of the environmental cues on intake was most pronounced among participants who were hungry. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that environmental and situational cues associated with an eating occasion could influence overall food intake. People were more likely to eat foods when they were associated with meal cues. Importantly, the present study reveals that the effect of these cues is uniquely intertwined with cognition and motivation. First, people were more likely to eat ambiguous foods when they perceived them as a meal rather than a

  18. Nutrition for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Millen, Barbara E

    2016-11-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally, and are attributable largely to poor nutrition and suboptimal lifestyle behaviors. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans promote healthy eating and lifestyle patterns across the lifespan to reduce risk of NCDs. Physicians are well positioned to provide lifestyle preventive interventions that are personalized to their patients' biological needs and cultural preferences through multidisciplinary team activities or referral to professional nutrition and physical activity experts. They can also advocate for environmental changes in healthcare and community settings that promote healthful lifestyle behaviors.

  19. Growth and Nutrition Disorders in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    KUPERMINC, MICHELLE N; Stevenson, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Growth and nutrition disorders are common secondary health conditions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Poor growth and malnutrition in CP merit study because of their impact on health, including psychological and physiological function, healthcare utilization, societal participation, motor function, and survival. Understanding the etiology of poor growth has led to a variety of interventions to improve growth. One of the major causes of poor growth, malnutrition, is the best-studied cont...

  20. Nutritional value of cannibalism and the role of starvation and nutrient imbalance for cannibalistic tendencies in a generalist predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren

    2006-01-01

    1. Cannibalism is considered an adaptive foraging strategy for animals of various trophic positions, including carnivores. However, previous studies on wolf spiders have questioned the high nutritional value of cannibalism. We therefore analysed two different aspects of nutritional quality of conspecifics in the wolf spider Pardosaprativaga: their value for survival, growth and development; and the growth efficiency of feeding on conspecifics. We also measured the propensity for cannibalistic attacks and the consumption rate of conspecifics in an experiment where hunger level and nutrient balance were manipulated. In all experiments, cannibalism was compared with predation on fruit flies as control prey. 2. The growth experiment gave ambiguous results regarding the nutritional quality of conspecifics. Spiders on pure cannibalistic diets split into two distinct groups, one performing much better and the other much worse than spiders on fruit fly diets. We discuss the possibility that the population is dimorphic in its cannibalistic propensity, with the latter group of individuals showing a high level of inhibition against cannibalistic attacks in spite of a high nutritional value of cannibalism. 3. The food utilization experiment confirmed the high nutritional quality of conspecifics, as cannibalistic spiders had the same growth rate as spiders fed insect prey in spite of a much lower consumption rate. 4. Inhibition against cannibalistic attacks was demonstrated in medium-sized juveniles: only half of the spiders attacked a prescribed victim of 50% the size of their opponents, and the latency for those that did attack was more than half an hour, compared with a few minutes for spiders fed fruit flies. 5. Nutrient-imbalanced spiders utilized an alternative insect diet less efficiently than balanced spiders, whereas no difference was present in efficiency of utilizing conspecifics. This result indicates that spiders can remedy at least part of a nutrient imbalance

  1. The effects of denture status on nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, A S; Palmer, C A; Rounds, M C; Russell, R M

    1998-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the Human Nutrition Research Center of the United States Department of Agriculture's Nutritional Status Study (NSS) of 691 independently living elderly people aged 60-98 found that poor dietary quality was associated with low educational attainment, low median family income, and self-report of partial or full dentures. In Part II, further analysis was conducted on a random subsample of 181 subjects who were examined and divided into four groups according to dentate status: two dentures, one denture, partial dentures, and teeth. In this subgroup, significant correlations were found between the quality of nutrient intake and the degree of edentulousness. Analysis of 53 nutrients plus calories from three-day food records showed a significantly higher nutritional quality of the diet in dentate volunteers than in the other groups. This difference was approximately 20% for 19 nutrients, bringing some nutrients (such as calcium) below the RDA for this age group. Although direct correlations cannot be made with actual nutritional status, the introduction of dentures could further compromise the precarious nutritional intake of the elderly population. With this in mind, dentists need to consider carefully the importance of their elderly patients maintaining at least some natural dentition and should provide adequate information on nutritional adaptations to dentures.

  2. Basolateral amygdala response to food cues in the absence of hunger is associated with weight gain susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Kroemer, Nils B; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; de Araujo, Ivan E; Gitelman, Darren R; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

    2015-05-20

    In rodents, food-predictive cues elicit eating in the absence of hunger (Weingarten, 1983). This behavior is disrupted by the disconnection of amygdala pathways to the lateral hypothalamus (Petrovich et al., 2002). Whether this circuit contributes to long-term weight gain is unknown. Using fMRI in 32 healthy individuals, we demonstrate here that the amygdala response to the taste of a milkshake when sated but not hungry positively predicts weight change. This effect is independent of sex, initial BMI, and total circulating ghrelin levels, but it is only present in individuals who do not carry a copy of the A1 allele of the Taq1A polymorphism. In contrast, A1 allele carriers, who have decreased D2 receptor density (Blum et al., 1996), show a positive association between caudate response and weight change. Regardless of genotype, however, dynamic causal modeling supports unidirectional gustatory input from basolateral amygdala (BLA) to hypothalamus in sated subjects. This finding suggests that, as in rodents, external cues gain access to the homeostatic control circuits of the human hypothalamus via the amygdala. In contrast, during hunger, gustatory inputs enter the hypothalamus and drive bidirectional connectivity with the amygdala. These findings implicate the BLA-hypothalamic circuit in long-term weight change related to nonhomeostatic eating and provide compelling evidence that distinct brain mechanisms confer susceptibility to weight gain depending upon individual differences in dopamine signaling.

  3. Lateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum roles in eating and hunger: interactions between homeostatic and reward circuitry

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    Daniel Charles Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the neural bases of eating behavior, hunger, and reward has consistently implicated the lateral hypothalamus (LH and its interactions with mesocorticolimbic circuitry, such as mesolimbic dopamine projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc and ventral pallidum (VP, in controlling motivation to eat. The NAc and VP play special roles in mediating the hedonic impact (‘liking’ and motivational incentive salience (‘wanting’ of food rewards, and their interactions with LH help permit regulatory hunger/satiety modulation of food motivation and reward. Here, we review some progress that has been made regarding this circuitry and its functions: the identification of localized anatomical hedonic hotspots within NAc and VP for enhancing hedonic impact; interactions of NAc/VP hedonic hotspots with specific LH signals such as orexin; an anterior-posterior gradient of sites in NAc shell for producing intense appetitive eating versus intense fearful reactions; and anatomically distributed appetitive functions of dopamine and mu opioid signals in NAc shell and related structures. Such findings help improve our understanding of NAc, VP, and LH interactions in mediating affective and motivation functions, including ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ for food rewards.

  4. Repeated sense of hunger leads to the development of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jong-Min; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Min-Kyung; Kim, Young-Ae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. Herein, we show that a repeated sense of hunger leads to a high risk of developing visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model (both 3-week and 6-week-old age, 10 mice in each group). The ad libitum (AL) group (normal eating pattern) and the food restriction (FR) group (alternate-day partially food restriction by given only 1/3 of average amount) were compared after 8-week experimental period. The total food consumption in the FR group was lower than in the AL group, however, the FR group showed a metabolic syndrome-like condition with significant fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Consequently, the repeated sense of hunger induced the typical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in an animal model; a distinct visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, we found that specifically leptin, a major metabolic hormone, played a major role in the development of these pathological disorders. Our study indicated the importance of regular eating habits besides controlling calorie intake.

  5. Repeated sense of hunger leads to the development of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Han

    Full Text Available Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. Herein, we show that a repeated sense of hunger leads to a high risk of developing visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model (both 3-week and 6-week-old age, 10 mice in each group. The ad libitum (AL group (normal eating pattern and the food restriction (FR group (alternate-day partially food restriction by given only 1/3 of average amount were compared after 8-week experimental period. The total food consumption in the FR group was lower than in the AL group, however, the FR group showed a metabolic syndrome-like condition with significant fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Consequently, the repeated sense of hunger induced the typical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in an animal model; a distinct visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, we found that specifically leptin, a major metabolic hormone, played a major role in the development of these pathological disorders. Our study indicated the importance of regular eating habits besides controlling calorie intake.

  6. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna V Klenova

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous sp...

  7. Nutritional support for liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Ronald L; Avenell, Alison; Lipman, Timothy O

    2012-05-16

    Weight loss and muscle wasting are commonly found in patients with end-stage liver disease. Since there is an association between malnutrition and poor clinical outcome, such patients (or those at risk of becoming malnourished) are often given parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or oral nutritional supplements. These interventions have costs and adverse effects, so it is important to prove that their use results in improved morbidity or mortality, or both. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, and oral nutritional supplements on the mortality and morbidity of patients with underlying liver disease. The following computerised databases were searched: the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded (January 2012). In addition, reference lists of identified trials and review articles and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched. Trials identified in a previous systematic handsearch of Index Medicus were also considered. Handsearches of a number of medical journals, including abstracts from annual meetings, were done. Experts in the field and manufacturers of nutrient formulations were contacted for potential references. Randomised clinical trials (parallel or cross-over design) comparing groups of patients with any underlying liver disease who received, or did not receive, enteral or parenteral nutrition or oral nutritional supplements were identified without restriction on date, language, or publication status. Six categories of trials were separately considered: medical or surgical patients receiving parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or supplements. The following data were sought in each report: date of publication; geographical location; inclusion and exclusion criteria; the type of nutritional support and constitution of the nutrient formulation; duration of

  8. Nutritional Status Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  9. [Nutrition and population: study of three countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion

  10. Contemporary African food habits and their nutritional and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniang'o, Ruth K; Mutuku, Joseph M; Malaba, Serah J

    2003-01-01

    Food is fundamental to human survival, in more than just one way. First, food is basic for averting hunger and maintaining health for every human being. Secondly, food satisfies our palate and makes us happy and emotionally and socially content. Third, food constitutes a form of cultural expression. The food we eat should be safe, palatable, affordable, and of the quality that can maintain mental, emotional, physiologic and physical health. Even with globalization that has seen food movements to and from different parts of the world, for most populations in Africa, food is still very locale-specific, especially in the rural farming areas where it is produced. Many locally produced foods have both nutritional and intrinsic value. The types of foods produced in Western Africa are very different from those produced in Eastern Africa. The staple foods, vegetables and the drinks that go with these foods are different. The way food is prepared is also very different in the two parts of Africa. Cultural specificity appears to be more pronounced in Western Africa, involving more secondary processing in the home and more spicing. Data linking food to health, as something that is understood by traditional communities is not easily available. This paper will collate information that discusses people's perceptions in both Western and Eastern Africa, and try to draw comparisons between the two. The paper presents a community picture of food, nutrition and health.

  11. Nutritional issues in adolescents after bone marrow transplant: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Cheryl; Walsh, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation and related complications can cause gastrointestinal (GI) side effects that can lead to poor nutrition, which has been associated with several morbidity and mortality issues. Adolescents require adequate nutrition not only to maintain health but to advance with normal growth and development. This article synthesizes the bone marrow transplant (BMT) literature regarding adolescents' nutritional needs, etiologies of altered oral intake, GI symptoms, nutritional assessments, nutritional interventions, and quality of life associated with poor nutrition. In addition, gaps in knowledge in the literature are identified. To provide effective and thorough care to patients during their BMT recovery, the knowledge base of nutritional and eating issues after transplant needs to become more comprehensive. Nurses play an important role in gathering and reporting clinical information. By anticipating potential risk factors, assessing and identifying symptoms, and initiating appropriate interventions promptly, patients can experience a more positive BMT experience.

  12. Evaluation of Iranian college athletes' sport nutrition knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Jessri, Maryam; RashidKhani, Bahram; Zinn, Caryn

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (+/- 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (+/- 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (+/- 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education.

  13. Fome, desnutrição e pobreza: além da semântica Hunger, malnutrition and poverty: beyond the semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2003-06-01

    justificadas e mais eficientes.Hunger, malnutrition, and poverty present distinct nature, magnitude and trends in Brazil and therefore require distinct solutions in terms of scale, investments and contents. Public actions to the combat of poverty deserve high priority and justify great investments and should essentially aim at the income increase of the poor. Actions resulting in higher economic growth with better wealth distribution that are conducive to national economy reactivation, creation of jobs and acceleration of land reform are seen as consensual measures in Brazil. More recently, the same consensus seems to exist regarding direct governmental cash transfer the poorest families provided that the family keeps the children at schools ("bolsa-escola" or attends preventive care clinics ("bolsa alimentação". Successful actions to combat poverty will foster the struggle against malnutrition. However, both national and international experiences show that investments in education, sanitation and primary health care are essential especially for the eradication of child malnutrition. The fight against resilient hunger will also benefit from the combat against poverty. Nevertheless, the evidence indicate that specific actions to fight hunger, particularly actions food distribution - directly through cash credits of food coupons - should be employed in Brazil in a limited way and only under exceptional and justifiable conditions. The uncontrolled expansion of food distribution actions in Brazil perhaps contrary to the commond sense and the justified indignation toward a highly unjust society would imply allocating resources that could be better used in more efficient and justifiable social policies.

  14. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia.

  15. Health indicators associated with poor sleep quality among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To associate the sleep quality of Brazilian undergraduate students with health indicators. Method A cross-sectional study was developed with a random sample of 662 undergraduate students from Fortaleza, Brazil. The demographic data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and health data indicators (smoking, alcoholism, sedentary lifestyle, nutritional condition and serum cholesterol were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood was collected at a clinical laboratory. In order to estimate the size of the associations, a Poisson Regression was used. Results For students who are daily smokers, the occurrence of poor sleep was higher than in non-smokers (p<0.001. Prevalence rate values were nevertheless close to 1. Conclusion The likelihood of poor sleep is almost the same in smokers and in alcoholics.

  16. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-12-16

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans (n = 5862, 20-64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012-2013). Household food security status was categorized as "food-secure household", "food-insecure household without hunger", and "food-insecure household with hunger". Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both "food-insecure household" groups. Both "food-insecure household" groups, particularly the "food-insecure household with hunger" group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52-3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49-3.92) than did the "food-secure household" group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  17. Early nutritional depletion in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, M M; Wiley, J S; Holbrook, P R

    1981-08-01

    Nutritional status was evaluated in 50 medical admissions to a pediatric ICU. All patients were evaluated within 48 h of admission; none had chronic organ failure or malignancies. Nutritional assessment included weight/50th percentile weight for length, length/50th percentile length for age, triceps skinfold thickness, and midarm muscle circumference. Acute protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) occurred in 16% of all children. Chronic PEM also occurred in 16%. The nutrient stores of fat and somatic protein were deficient in 18 and 20% of all children. Acute PEM and deficient somatic protein stores were more frequent in children less than 2 years (p less than 0.05). These findings indicate that malnutrition and nutrient store deficiencies are common early in the course of critical illnesses in children, especially in those less than 2 years of age. However, the findings do not indicate if the severity of illness was the cause or effect of poor nutritional status.

  18. Pediatric Nutrition Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Corkins, Kelly; Teague, Erin E

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric patients with chronic illnesses or diseases or who require long-term nutrition support are most vulnerable to nutrition-related issues. Malnutrition in a pediatric patient may negatively affect long-term growth and development. Children also become malnourished much more quickly than adults. A comprehensive nutrition assessment that includes food and nutrition-related history, anthropometric measurements, biochemical data, medical tests and procedures, nutrition-focused physical findings, and patient history should be completed on these patients as no one parameter is a comprehensive indicator of nutrition status. Anthropometric measurements provide important information on the growth and nutrition status of a child, yet many times it is difficult to get accurate and valid measurements due to physical limitations of the child or improper technique. Inaccurate measurements may result in a missed diagnosis of malnutrition or may lead to an incorrect diagnosis of a healthy child. Knowledge of appropriate anthropometric measurements and alternatives is crucial when assessing growth in all children and essential for those who are physically handicapped or critically ill. The purpose of this review is to present key components of a pediatric nutrition assessment so proper nutrition-related diagnosis, including malnutrition, can be accomplished, a nutrition care plan established, and expected outcomes documented.

  19. The Profound Sense of Dissatisfaction: A Comparative Study of Franz Kafka's "A Hunger Artist" and Maulana Jalalu-d'-Din Muhammad i Rumi's "A Man of Baghdad"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooti, Noorbakhsh; Borna, Mohammad Reza Moradi

    2014-01-01

    This study delves into investigating Kafka's "A Hunger Artist" and Rumi's "A Man of Baghdad," in which they have a dramatized sense of dissatisfaction, its causes and consequences in a symbolic manner. In fact, it has utilized the story of Rumi that its main character is in a condition similar to the main character in Kafka's…

  20. "Are You Done?" Child Care Providers' Verbal Communication at Mealtimes that Reinforce or Hinder Children's Internal Cues of Hunger and Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A.; Branen, Laurel J.; Fletcher, Janice; Price, Elizabeth; Johnson, Susan L.; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. Methods: Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. Results: Adults' verbal…