WorldWideScience

Sample records for hungary quaternary international

  1. [Dentists' workforce in Hungary and international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2012-06-01

    In Hungary, cross-national migration in dental care was performed rather by patients from abroad instead of the domestic dentists' migration for working abroad. Actually, this tacitly realized and so-called dental tourism experienced two basic changes. The National Medical Tourism Ltd. arranged the First Conference for Development of Dental Tourism on 21 April 2011. Hungary's prime minister addressed the meeting and finally signed an agreement with the organizing Ltd. about governmental financial support for development of dental tourism. On the other hand, Germany and Austria deleted all restrictions against the free cross-national workforce migration since 1 May this year. For understanding and prognosis of dentists' future migration, it is inevitable to collect and analyse relevant data of the previous years. This study is presenting data obtained from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010. According to the net outcome, the dentists' human resource system was balanced down to the end of 2010. However, this state is unsure even for the near future, thus preventing the deficit of dentists all necessary measures must be taken to keep up the present level of the domestic dentral service.

  2. Development of millisecond and internal delayed electric detonators in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedek, D.

    1986-01-01

    The stages of developing millisecond and internal delayed detonators are discussed. The problems of their practical introduction in Hungary as well as the economic background of their production are outlined. The present situation, i.e. production possibilities, application of different detonator types as well as the expected progress in the field of detonator production and use in mines endangered by fire-damp are dealt with.

  3. Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Hungary is a country of 93,000 sq km with 10 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Its constitution was written on August 20m 1949, substantially revised in 1989, and amended in 1990. The terrain is flat with low mountains in the North and Northeast and north of Lake Balaton, with a climate which is temperate. Primarily Magyar is spoken by the 92% population of Magyar, though Gypsies, Germans, Slovaks, Jews, southern Slavs, and other ethnic groups are also resident. Inhabitants are variously of Roman Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran, and other faiths. Life expectancy is 67-75 years. GDP is $35 billion, declining at a rate of 3%. Per capita income is $3300. The country's natural resources include fertile land, bauxite, and brown coal. Meat, corn, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables, fruits, sunflower seeds, machinery, buses and other transportation equipment; precision and measuring equipment; textiles; medical instruments; and pharmaceutical are areas of economic production. Energy, raw materials, machinery, and transportation equipment are imported, and machinery, buses, and other transportation equipment; medical instruments; pharmaceutical; textiles; other consumer manufactures; and agricultural products are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  4. Stable isotope geochemistry of calcrete nodules and septarian concretions in a Quaternary 'red clay' paleovertisol from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Horváth, Zoltán; Demény, Attila; Mindszenty, Andrea

    2006-12-01

    Calcrete nodules and concretions in unusually large amounts are embedded in the Quaternary clay-rich (Vertisol-type) 'red clay' soil-sedimentary complex at the pediment of the Mátra Mountains (Hungary). Stable isotope signatures were studied in nodules and septarian concretions, uncommon due to their several millimeter sized calcite crystals filling voids and fractures, to reveal their origin. The isotope composition of calcrete covers a wide range: delta18O=-5.9 to-10.4 per thousand and delta13C=-8.9 to-12.3 per thousand (vs. V-PDB). Isotope compositions support pedogenic (sensu stricto) and/or shallow groundwater origin for the calcrete nodules and concretions, the role of 'evolved' (isotopically modified) groundwaters in the formation of secondary carbonate was possibly subordinate. Late-stage, large, Mn-rich euhedral calcite crystals in concretions have the lowest delta13C values, which are interpreted as a result of larger contribution of isotopically light organic carbon due to decomposition of organic matter under reducing conditions. Precipitation of late calcite crystals in concretions occurred in early diagenetic environment after shallow burial of the 'red clay' paleovertisol.

  5. Concealed in the Open: Recipients of International Clandestine Jewish Aid in Early 1950s Hungary

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    Zachary Paul Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the emergence of the semi-clandestine efforts of a network of international Jewish philanthropies and the Israeli government to send material and financial aid to Jews in early-communist Hungary. Post Second World War Hungary was a special focus for Jewish aid organizations in the west and the Israeli government. They poured resources into Hungary, both to feed, cloth and provide medical care to hundreds of thousands of Jews, and to assist thousands of Jews migrating west through Hungary. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, the dominant Jewish aid organization in the world at the time, ran its largest and most expensive program in Hungary. Working with Israeli and Hungarian authorities, it financed a network of welfare services, often through the importation of scarce consumer goods and raw materials. As the Communist Party reshaped the economy, and pushed out “undesirable elements” from Hungarian life, this aid program served a growing population of impoverished, sick, and religious Jews, some exiled in Hungary’s countryside. This program increasingly took advantage of black market networks to distribute aid. Yet, after conditions deteriorated so much that this program ceased officially, Jewish aid providers in the US and Israel adapted their earlier practices and networks to take advantage of the impoverished consumer economy in program to distribute aid clandestinely to Hungarian Jews, with the cooperation of Hungary’s communist authorities.

  6. Experiences with an International Digital Slide Based Telepathology System for Routine Sign-out between Sweden and Hungary

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    Tamás Micsik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital microscopy combines the benefits of traditional optical microscopy and the advantages of computer sciences. Using digital whole slides in all areas of pathology is increasingly popular. Telepathology or long distance diagnosis is one such area. In our study we have evaluated digital slide based histopathology diagnosis in an international setting, between Sweden and Hungary. Routine cases from the Sundsvall County Hospital (Landstinget Vasternorrland were collected. Glass slides were scanned using Pannoramic 250 Flash II. (3DHISTECH Ltd., Budapest, Hungary. During the first round of evaluation the glass slides were shipped to Hungary for primary diagnosis. Two pathologists from Hungary, reading glass slides and one pathologist from Sweden reading digital slides signed out 500 cases. Pathologists from Hungary reached the hospital information system with a secure connection. During the second round the pathologists in Hungary reevaluated 200 from the 500 cases using digital slides after three months washout period. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated and diagnostic errors was graded according to clinicopathological consequences. In 182/200 (91% cases digital and optical diagnoses were in full agreement. Out of the remaining 18 cases, 1 (0.5% critical error was identified. In this case the error had therapeutic and prognostic consequence and no uncertainty either because of case complexity or poor image quality was recorded by the pathologist. We think language and communication issues as well as differences in minimal data sets of pathological reports and in guidelines used in Sweden and in Hungary are factors potentially limiting the widespread use of digital slides in a teleconsultation service provided to Sweden from Hungary. We found the quality of digital slides in our study setting acceptable to reach correct primary diagnosis in routine, unselected, random cases of a small-to-medium sized pathology department in Sweden.

  7. American Perspectives on the International Congress on Mathematical Education (6th, Budapest, Hungary, July 27-August 3, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Thomas J., Ed.

    The Sixth International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME-6) was special in that it provided a context commemorating the life and work of George Polya (1887-1985) whose native land was Hungary and to whom all those interested in the teaching of mathematical problem solving owe a great debt. What follows in this publication is a collection…

  8. [First gastroenteritis outbreak caused by sapovirus (GI2) in Hungary - part of an international epidemic?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Kugler, Zoltán; Kátai, Andrea; Reuter, Gábor

    2009-06-28

    Sapovirus belonging to Caliciviridae is one of the known pathogen of sporadic gastroenteritis infections in infants, children and rarely in elderly. Since the beginning of molecular monitoring of caliciviruses (mid 1990's) sapovirus was described rarely, once in approx. 5 years, as source of an outbreak. Circulation of caliciviruses has been monitored with molecular epidemiological methods by authors for 10 years in Hungary. Sapovirus has not been detected yet in the approximately 800 examined non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreak. Based on the informal data supported by the international calicivirus surveillance study group, the number of outbreaks caused by sapovirus was increasing in Europe in 2008. Supposedly these outbreaks can be linked to genotype GI2 sapovirus. To describe the first verified detection and molecular epidemiological description of a gastroenteritis outbreak caused by sapovirus in Hungary. Stool samples originated from Bács-Kiskun County, from a mental deficiency day care center, where a gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in September, 2008. Amplification of the RNA polymerase gene of sapovirus was performed by RT-PCR method and the product was directly sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected by epidemiological investigation. 17 of the 135 exposed people (12.6%) had gastroenteritis with vomiting and diarrhea in the period of September 11-22, 2008. Bacterial pathogens, rotavirus, adenovirus and norovirus were not detected, but sapovirus could be identified in 1 out of the 4 (25%) stool samples. The source of the outbreak was presumably the ill nurse and the virus spread with direct contact among the mentally deficient patients. Based on the RNA polymerase gene region the virus belongs to genotype GI2 sapovirus. This study reports on the first detection of sapovirus from gastroenteritis outbreak in Hungary. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the outbreak in the mental deficiency day

  9. International Patients on Operation Vacation – Perspectives of Patients Travelling to Hungary for Orthopaedic Treatments

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    Eszter Kovacs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The importance of cross-border healthcare, medical and health tourism plays a significant role in the European health policy and health management. After dentistry, orthopaedic treatments are the leading motivation for seeking care in Hungary, as patients with rheumatic and motion diseases are drawn to the thermal spas and well-established orthopaedic centres. This paper aims to gain insight into foreign patients’ perspectives on their experience of having sought medical tourism in orthopaedic care in Hungary. Methods A patient survey was conducted in 2012 on motivations for seeking treatment abroad, orthopaedic care received and overall satisfaction. In addition, health professionals’ interviews, and 17 phone interviews were conducted in 2013 with Romanian patients who had orthopaedic treatment in Hungary. Finally, medical records of foreign patients were analysed. Results The survey was completed by 115 participants – 61.1% females, mean age= 41.9, 87% Romanian origin. Most of the patients came to Hungary for orthopaedic surgeries, e.g. arthroscopy, knee/hip prosthesis or spinal surgery. 72.6% chose Hungary because of related to perceived better quality and longstanding culture of Hungarian orthopaedic care. Over 57% of patients reported being ‘very satisfied’ with care received and 41.6% ‘satisfied’. The follow-up interviews further reflected this level of satisfaction, therefore many respondents stating they have already recommended the Hungarian healthcare to others. Conclusion Based on the findings, patients from neighbouring regions are increasingly seeking orthopaedic care in Hungary. Patients having orthopaedic care are highly satisfied with the quality of care, the whole treatment process from the availability of information to discharge summaries and would consider returning for further treatments.

  10. International patients on operation vacation - perspectives of patients travelling to Hungary for orthopaedic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Eszter; Szocska, Gabor; Knai, Cécile

    2014-11-01

    The importance of cross-border healthcare, medical and health tourism plays a significant role in the European health policy and health management. After dentistry, orthopaedic treatments are the leading motivation for seeking care in Hungary, as patients with rheumatic and motion diseases are drawn to the thermal spas and well-established orthopaedic centres. This paper aims to gain insight into foreign patients' perspectives on their experience of having sought medical tourism in orthopaedic care in Hungary. A patient survey was conducted in 2012 on motivations for seeking treatment abroad, orthopaedic care received and overall satisfaction. In addition, health professionals' interviews, and 17 phone interviews were conducted in 2013 with Romanian patients who had orthopaedic treatment in Hungary. Finally, medical records of foreign patients were analysed. The survey was completed by 115 participants - 61.1% females, mean age= 41.9, 87% Romanian origin. Most of the patients came to Hungary for orthopaedic surgeries, e.g. arthroscopy, knee/hip prosthesis or spinal surgery. 72.6% chose Hungary because of related to perceived better quality and longstanding culture of Hungarian orthopaedic care. Over 57% of patients reported being 'very satisfied' with care received and 41.6% 'satisfied'. The follow-up interviews further reflected this level of satisfaction, therefore many respondents stating they have already recommended the Hungarian healthcare to others. Based on the findings, patients from neighbouring regions are increasingly seeking orthopaedic care in Hungary. Patients having orthopaedic care are highly satisfied with the quality of care, the whole treatment process from the availability of information to discharge summaries and would consider returning for further treatments.

  11. [Occupational asthma in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endre, László

    2015-05-10

    Occupational asthma belongs to communicable diseases, which should be reported in Hungary. During a 24-year period between January 1990 and December 2013, 180 occupational asthma cases were reported in Hungary (52 cases between 1990 and 1995, 83 cases between 1996 and 2000, 40 cases between 2001 and 2006, and 5 cases between 2007 and 2013). These data are unusual, because according to the official report of the National Korányi Pulmonology Institute in Budapest, at least 14,000 new adult asthma cases were reported in every year between 2000 and 2012 in Hungary. Also, international data indicate that at least 2% of adult patients with asthma have occupational asthma and at least 50 out of 1 million employees develop occupational asthma in each year. In 2003, 631 new occupational asthma patients were reported in the United Kingdom, but only 7 cases in Hungary. Because it is unlikely that the occupational environment in Hungary is much better than anywhere else in the world, it seems that not all new occupational asthma cases are reported in Hungary. Of the 180 reported cases in Hungary, 55 were bakers or other workers in flour mills. There were 11 metal-workers, 10 health care assistants, 9 workers dealing with textiles (tailors, dressmakers, workers in textile industry) and 9 employees worked upon leather and animal fur. According to international data, the most unsafe profession is the animal keeper in scientific laboratories, but only 4 of them were reported as having occupational asthma during the studied 24 years in Hungary. Interestingly, 3 museologists with newly-diagnosed occupational asthma were reported in 2003, but not such cases occurred before or after that year. In this paper the Hungarian literature of occupational asthma is summarized, followed by a review on the classification, pathomechanism, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, diagnostics and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Epidemiological data of adult asthma in Hungary and data from

  12. Highlights and impacts of the International Year of Planet Earth in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, László; Ádám, József; Brezsnyánszky, Károly; Haas, János; Kakas, Kristóf; Koppán, András.

    2010-05-01

    IYPE activities of various geo-science associations, universities, research institutes and private companies in Hungary (www.foldev.hu) have been successfully coordinated by the Hungarian National Committee, which was established by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the UNESCO- and the IUGS National Committees. The National Launch Event (April 17, 2008) was followed with a four-days long "Earth Science Fair" at the Hungarian Natural History Museum in Budapest. The IYPE was even briefly reviewed in the Hungarian Parliament. The Science Festival, organized annually by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, in 2008 had a special IYPE-inspired slogan: "Science for the Habitable Earth", where lectures were held about the modern content of the Greek Classical Elements ("earth", "water", "air" and "fire", that is energy) and about the Humanity. In 2008/2009 numerous publications (including the Hungarian version of the IYPE booklet series, under the title GEO-FIFIKA, the Természet Világa special issue in February 2009, the IYPE number of Földrajzi Közlemények (Geographical Communications), and the "Geological Map of Hungary for Tourists" were produced. Throughout the country, symposia (e.g. HUNGEO 2008, ELGI 100, MÁFI 140, Geotourism Symposium in October 2009), several contests (Hungarian Television "Delta", Élet és Tudomány on the occasion of the UN year, and the annual contests starting in 2007 at Miskolc University), film shows (e.g., the movie "Another Planet") and other performances (e.g. End of the Ice Age in Hungarian Natural History Museum) were organized, with modest but increasing media coverage. The worldwide premier of the Planet Earth TV took place in Hungary, on the occasion of the IAGA 11th Scientific Assembly (August 23-30, 2009, www.iaga2009sopron.hu). One of our conferences ("Earth and Heaven - Geology and Theology") pointed out that there should be no conflict between science and religion, either in the fields of Earth's history or evolution

  13. Economy, Ethnicity and International Migration. The Comparison of Finland, Hungary and Russia

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    Annika Forsander

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to compare present migration situation, history, economy and migration regulation in an European Union country (Finland, and, an EU accessing country (Hungary and a major non - EU country (Russia. Our material and methods base on literature survey, policy analysis and analysis of the existing statistics and legislation. The results show that even in the era of globalisation that is often claimed to erode states regulatory power over the ? ows of capital and people, some regulatory power still exists. Instead of developing their policies in accordance with the largely self-regulating migration process, according to our data, the countries sought to regain political control through reproducing economic, ethnic and national hierarchies.

  14. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  15. The Impact of International Migration on the Labor Market – A Case Study from Hungary

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    Judit Oláh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic, political and social changes experienced globally in recent years have influenced international migration in various countries. The aim of our study is to present the economic and non-economic aspects which determine the quantitative evaluation of migration and to reveal which of the two main factor groups is more dominant. In January 2017, an online questionnaire survey was conducted on the subject of migration. The group of respondents consisted of 438 full-time BSc, MSc and PhD students in Hungarian higher education institutions. Based on these questionnaires, two independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA, factor analysis and binary logistic regression procedures were performed. Based on the findings obtained, it was concluded that anti-migration behaviour cannot be explicitly explained by its economic impacts on the labour market. The rejecting attitudes observed on behalf of certain respondents were not in significant correlation with their highest educational levels or their given social class. As a result of the statistical analysis performed, it was concluded that the integration of foreigners is hindered by the so-called socio-cultural barriers, which cannot be removed solely by economic policy measures. Social conflicts of interest have to be eliminated in order for migration to have an active and permanently positive impact on the economy.

  16. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  17. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  18. International Master Erasmus Mundus Quaternary and Prehistory, Master Theses 2006-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Buonsanto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of the Annals of the University of Ferrara presents a rich collection of research carried out by a group of young scholars from around the world gathered in the Erasmus Mundus Master-Prehistory and Quaternary.This is a selection of the arguments put forward by students who participated in the first two years of this extraordinary course financed by the European Union. The first point to make as a synthesis of this advanced course is light here in these pages written in many different languages but that speak all the only language of international research.This book gives us evidence of a University that has become fully European, first of all because the institutions have invested in advanced studies and frontier research, bringing together universities from across the Continent that, in a common effort here have joined with us to give us the best possible conditions to enable young people, not only in Europe but coming from all over the world to play together a basic research on the origins of life in our common Earth.Just beware the origin of these authors to be affected: Jordan, Italy, Senegal, Spain, France, Brazil, Argentina, China, Algeria, Cambodia, Ivory Coast, Georgia, Indonesia.This volume contains the research results conducted by the master students of the first two years of training. The results represent an integral part of the final Master thesis defended before the last discussion in front of the International Commission.

  19. Physics Competitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, ErzséBet SzéP, Jenö

    The following sections are included: * Description of Physics Competitions in Hungary * Training of the Hungarian Team before the International Physics Olympiad * Few Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition for 15 - 16 Year Old students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Year Old Students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * solving this equation we obtain m = 18kg * The work done is 427 joule - 80 joule 347 joule * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Pear Old Students

  20. Computer-Assisted Learning in Anatomy at the International Medical School in Debrecen, Hungary: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A.; Kis, Greta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an…

  1. Countrywide dissemination of a DHA-1-type plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 international high-risk clone in Hungary, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Tóth, Ákos; Jánvári, Laura; Damjanova, Ivelina

    2016-09-01

    The first plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (pAmpC KP) isolate was detected in December 2009 in Hungary. Hungarian microbiological laboratories were asked to send all KP strains showing cefoxitin resistance and decreased susceptibility or resistance to any third-generation cephalosporins to the Reference Laboratories at the National Center for Epidemiology. Investigation was conducted in order to outline spatio-temporal distribution and genetic characterization of pAmpC-KP isolates in Hungary. Between December 2009 and December 2013, 312 consecutive KP clinical isolates were confirmed as producing pAmpCs. All isolates showed resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, and 77 % were non-susceptible to at least one carbapenem. Analysis of β-lactamase genes showed blaDHA-1 in all and additionally blaCTX-M-15 in 90 % of isolates. PFGE typing revealed 12 pulsotypes; of these, KP053 (262/312) and KP070 (38/312) belonged to sequence type ST11 and comprised 96 % of the isolates. The blaDHA-1 and blaCTX-M-15 co-producing KP053/ST11 clone affected 234 patients and spread to 55 healthcare centres across Hungary during the study period. Three KP053 isolates were also resistant to colistin. In two of these, the mgrB gene was truncated by IS10R, while in the third isolate, insertional inactivation of mgrB by ISKPn14 was identified. Hungary is the first European country showing endemic spread of blaDHA-1 facilitated by the international high-risk clone ST11. The rapid countrywide spread of this multidrug-resistant clone seriously endangers Hungarian healthcare facilities and warrants strengthening of infection control practices and prudent use of carbapenems and colistin.

  2. Computer-assisted learning in anatomy at the international medical school in Debrecen, Hungary: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A; Kis, Gréta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an introduction to anatomical digital images along with clinical cases. This low-budget course has a large visual component using images from magnetic resonance imaging and computer axial tomogram scans, ultrasound clinical studies, and readily available anatomy software that presents topics which run in parallel to the university's core anatomy curriculum. From the combined computer images and CHA lecture information, students are asked to solve computer-based clinical anatomy problems in the CHA computer laboratory. A statistical comparison was undertaken of core anatomy oral examination performances of English program first-year medical students who took the elective CHA course and those who did not in the three academic years 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010. The results of this study indicate that the CHA-enrolled students improved their performance on required anatomy core curriculum oral examinations (P students benefit from computer-assisted learning in a multilingual and diverse cultural environment.

  3. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  4. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  5. International patients on operation vacation: medical refuge and health system crisis Comment on "International patients on operation vacation - perspectives of patients travelling to Hungary for orthopaedic treatments".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Neil

    2015-03-07

    An understanding of patient mobility, international patients and medical tourism includes supply and demand side considerations. As well as micro-level reports of motivation and satisfaction we must acknowledge broader system-level dynamics. Exploring these may unearth more complex geographies of patient travel.

  6. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  7. [Cancer screening in Hungary: World Bank supported model programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodó, M; Döbrössy, L; Liszka, G; Ottó, S; Péter, Z

    1997-07-13

    Since 1995, a model cancer screening program has been in operation in Hungary, the overall purpose of which is to promote the establishment of effective and efficient screening programs by means of adapting the internationally agreed principles of organized screening to the needs and opportunities in Hungary. The establishment and operation of a national population-based cancer registration system is an other aim of the Program. The model program--financed partly from a loan from the World Bank, partly from local funds provided by the Government of Hungary--is to develop standard procedure for cervical, breast and colorectal screening and to end up with tested recommendations for introduction of organized screening of proved effectiveness, integrated into the health care system, on country-wide service bases in Hungary.

  8. In-Water Treatment of Biofouling in Internal Systems: Field Validation of Quaternary Ammonium Compound (QAC) Chemical Treatment Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    joined the Environmental Research and Biotechnology Group in 2010. After completed his PhD in Marine Ecology and Ecotoxicology from the University of New...subsequent potential impacts on non- target marine organisms. QACs are not metabolized by aquatic organisms; they are accumulated in the consumable parts...Britton, D.K. and S. Dingman, Use of quaternary ammonium to control the spread of aquatic invasive species by wildland fire equipment Aquatic

  9. [Dental care for foreigners in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter; Oesterle, August

    2008-10-01

    High quality elective dental care for foreign patients was not exceptional in Hungary before the collapse of the old regime in 1989. Nevertheless, it became business as usual only in the new era thanks to the open state borders and the international competitive market environment. Unfortunately, no scientific study concerning this phenomenon has been conducted so far, however its professional and economic significance has been indicated by day-to-day experience. Additionally, the term "dental tourism" also used in international scientific papers became a commonplace in Hungary with unfavourable connotations. The present survey was the first to study this phenomenon by scientific standards in the most involved areas, namely in the capital city Budapest and in three counties in the Western Hungarian Region. Data collecting was performed by a self-reported questionnaire sent via conventional mail to all members of the Dental Section of the Hungarian Medical Chamber practicing in those indicated regions. Respond rates were 20.65% in Budapest and 25.34% in Western Hungary. The sample obtained this way, clearly indicated dimensions of cross-border patient migration and its economic significance as well. In Western Hungary 80.81% of foreign patients came from the neighbouring Austria and two out of ten practices realized 40 to 100% of their income out of this business. In Budapest foreign patients' nationality was more diversified. The largest group arrived from the United Kingdom (9.93%). Nevertheless the economic impact of dental tourism in Budapest is not relevant and outbalanced by a considerable domestic demand on the local private market.

  10. Montesquieu in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gábor Hamza

    2012-01-01

    The interest of the great philosopher, jurist, and political thinker of the French Enlightenment, Charles-Louis de Sécondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu (1689–1755), turned after having published the Lettres persanes (1721) to the study on premises of the lives, customs and laws of different nations, ethnicities. When his friend, Earl James Waldgrave (1684-1741), was appointed as emissary, ambassador to Vienna, to the court of Emperor Charles VI, King of Hungary as Charles III, King o...

  11. Montesquieu in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hamza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest of the great philosopher, jurist, and political thinker of the French Enlightenment, Charles-Louis de Sécondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu (1689–1755, turned after having published the Lettres persanes (1721 to the study on premises of the lives, customs and laws of different nations, ethnicities. When his friend, Earl James Waldgrave (1684-1741, was appointed as emissary, ambassador to Vienna, to the court of Emperor Charles VI, King of Hungary as Charles III, King of Bohemia as Charles II (1711–1740, Montesquieu accompanied i.e. escorted him.

  12. Hungary health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, Peter; Szigeti, Szabolcs; Csere, Marton; Gaskins, Matthew; Panteli, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Hungary has achieved a successful transition from an overly centralized, integrated Semashko-style health care system to a purchaser provider split model with output-based payment methods. Although there have been substantial increases in life expectancy in recent years among both men and women, many health outcomes remain poor, placing Hungary among the countries with the worst health status and highest rate of avoidable mortality in the EU (life expectancy at birth trailed the EU27 average by 5.1 years in 2009). Lifestyle factors especially the traditionally unhealthy Hungarian diet, alcohol consumption and smoking play a very important role in shaping the overall health of the population.In the single-payer system, the recurrent expenditure on health services is funded primarily through compulsory, non-risk-related contributions made by eligible individuals or from the state budget. The central government has almost exclusive power to formulate strategic direction and to issue and enforce regulations regarding health care. In 2009 Hungary spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health, with public expenditure accounting for 69.7% of total health spending, and with health expenditure per capita ranking slightly above the average for the new EU Member States, but considerably below the average for the EU27 in 2008. Health spending has been unstable over the years, with several waves of increases followed by longer periods of cost-containment and budget cuts. The share of total health expenditure attributable to private sources has been increasing, most of it accounted for by out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses. A substantial share of the latter can be attributed to informal payments, which are a deeply rooted characteristic of the Hungarian health system and a source of inefficiency and inequity. Voluntary health insurance, on the other hand, amounted to only 7.4% of private and 2.7% of total health expenditure in 2009. Revenue sources for health have been

  13. 26 April 2012 - Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador A. Dékány, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Hungary to the United Nations Office and other international organisations at Geneva, signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental area and surface building with Collaboration Deputy Spokespersom T. Camporesi; accompanied by M. Bajko, Technology Department. International Relations Office Adviser R. Voss also present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    26 April 2012 - Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador A. Dékány, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Hungary to the United Nations Office and other international organisations at Geneva, signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental area and surface building with Collaboration Deputy Spokespersom T. Camporesi; accompanied by M. Bajko, Technology Department. International Relations Office Adviser R. Voss also present.

  14. Mathematics Education in Hungary Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Tamas

    1988-01-01

    Changes in mathematics education from the 1950s to the 1980s are briefly described by the author, who was a leading mathematics educator in Hungary. Illustrations focus on personal experience and small group interaction. (MNS)

  15. Partitioning the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, Philip L.; Lewin, John

    2016-11-01

    We review the historical purposes and procedures for stratigraphical division and naming within the Quaternary, and summarize the current requirements for formal partitioning through the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). A raft of new data and evidence has impacted traditional approaches: quasi-continuous records from ocean sediments and ice cores, new numerical dating techniques, and alternative macro-models, such as those provided through Sequence Stratigraphy and Earth-System Science. The practical usefulness of division remains, but there is now greater appreciation of complex Quaternary detail and the modelling of time continua, the latter also extending into the future. There are problems both of commission (what is done, but could be done better) and of omission (what gets left out) in partitioning the Quaternary. These include the challenge set by the use of unconformities as stage boundaries, how to deal with multiphase records in ocean and terrestrial sediments, what happened at the 'Early-Mid- (Middle) Pleistocene Transition', dealing with trends that cross phase boundaries, and the current controversial focus on how to subdivide the Holocene and formally define an 'Anthropocene'.

  16. Proposal to redefine the Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BradPillans

    2004-01-01

    The following proposal has been circulated, via the Executive of the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA), to all INQUA members for discussion. It also appears on the ICS web site (www.stratigraphy.org). Comments may be sent to John Clague, President of INQUA (jclague@sfu.ca), and Brad Pillans(brad.pillans@anu.edu.au).

  17. Lung cancer drug therapy in Hungary – 3-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldvay J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Judit Moldvay,1 György Rokszin,2 Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth,2 Lajos Katona,3 Katalin Fábián,4 Gábor Kovács5 1Department of Tumor Biology, National Korányi Institute of Pulmonology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 2RxTarget Company Ltd, Szolnok, Hungary; 3Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 4Department of Pulmonology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 5National Korányi Institute of Pulmonology and Tuberculosis, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Hungary is a world leader in lung cancer deaths, so it is of crucial importance that patients have access to modern treatments. The aim of our analysis was to explore how drug treatments are used in Hungary and how they are compatible with international practice. The inpatient and prescription database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration of Hungary was used to study the frequency of certain chemotherapy protocols and duration of therapies during a 3-year period (2008–2010. During the study period, 12,326 lung cancer patients received first-line chemotherapy, a third of those (n=3,791 received second-line treatment, and a third of the latter (n=1,174 received third-line treatment. The average treatment duration was between 3 and 4 months. The first-line treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma mainly consisted of platinum treatment in combination with third-generation cytotoxic agents. A downward trend of gemcitabine, still the most common combination compound, was observed, in parallel with a significantly increased use of paclitaxel, and as a consequence carboplatin replaced cisplatin. Among the new agents, the use of pemetrexed and bevacizumab increased. Pemetrexed appeared mainly in second-line treatment, while erlotinib appeared also in second-line but mostly in third-line treatments. The first-line treatment of small-cell lung carcinoma consisted of a platinum–etoposide combination, while in the second-line setting

  18. Occupational health nursing in hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdi, Henriett Éva; Hong, OiSaeng

    2014-10-01

    This article is the first about occupational health nursing in Hungary. The authors describe the Hungarian health care and occupational health care systems, including nursing education and professional organizations for occupational health nurses. The Fundamental Law of Hungary guarantees the right of every employee to healthy and safe working conditions, daily and weekly rest times and annual paid leave, and physical and mental health. Hungary promotes the exercise of these rights by managing industrial safety and health care, providing access to healthy food, supporting sports and regular physical exercise, and ensuring environmental protection. According to the law, the responsibility for regulation of the occupational health service lies with the Ministry of Human Resources. Safety regulations are under the aegis of the Ministry of National Economy.

  19. Population information activities in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csahok, I

    1984-12-01

    The focal point for all population information activities in Hungary is the Central Statistical Office which is responsible for the organization and implementation of the decennial population censuses and of the intercensal population surveys and other data collection activities. The Central Statistical Office publishes a large volume of population information. The results of the censuses are presented partly in special census volumes and partly in statistical yearbooks. The Demographic Yearbook and other publications present results of population studies and Hungarian statistics. The Demographic Research Institute, which is part of the Central Statistical Office, is primarily responsible for research activity. The main task of the Institute is to study and analyze population processes and phenomena, as well as explore main demographic trends, carried out by using Hungarian and international demographic data. Demografia and serial publications present results of research activities of the Institute. The Library and Documentation Service, also part of the Central Statistical Office, provides conventional library services. Its main activity is the collection of both Hungarian and foreign and international official statistical publications, as well as theoretical and methodological works. Of a stock of 650,000 volumes covering a wide range of social and economic sciences, in addition to data material, the library has nearly 120,000 official statistical publications consisting mainly of population statistics and demographic data. Another activity of the Library is the processing and dissemination of documentation and it acts as a 2dary source of both Hungarian and foreign publications, especially on demography. The documentation consists of translating articles, book chapters or documents of international organizations, editing annotated bibliographies and disseminating custom-made, user-oriented profiles. This computerized information retrieval system uses Text

  20. Geophysical Evidence for the Locations, Shapes and Sizes, and Internal Structures of Magma Chambers beneath Regions of Quaternary Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, H. M.

    1984-04-01

    at the onset of melting of rocks and to delineate in three dimensions the shape of the partly melted zone. Similarly, decreases in density and electrical resistivity in rocks during melting, can be detected. Seismic refraction and reflection are not yet used extensively in magma chamber studies. In a study, in the Yellowstone region, seismic delays occurring in a fan-shooting configuration and time-term modelling show the presence of an intense molten zone in the upper crust. Deep seismic sounding (a combination of seismic refraction and reflection) and modelling amplitude and velocity changes of diffracted seismic waves from explosions and earthquakes, have enabled mapping of small and large magma chambers beneath many volcanoes in Kamchatka, U.S.S.R. Teleseismic P-wave residuals have been used to model low-velocity bodies, interpreted as magma chambers, in several Quaternary volcanic centres in the U.S.A. The results show that magma chambers with volumes of a few hundred to a few thousand cubic kilometres volume seem to be confined to regions of silicic volcanism. Many of the magma bodies seem to have upper-mantle roots implying that they are not isolated pockets of partial melt, but may be deriving their magma supplies from deeper parental sources. Medium or large crustal magma chambers are absent in the andesitic volcanoes of western United States and the basaltic Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. However, regional velocity models of the Oregon Cascades and Hawaii show evidence for the presence of magma reservoirs in the upper mantle. The transport of magma to the upper crust in these regions probably occurs rapidly through narrow conduits, with transient storage occurring in small chambers of a few cubic kilometres volume. Very little use has been made of the gravity and magnetic maps to model magma chambers. The number of available case histories, though few, indicate that these data can be very useful to give constraints on the density and temperature in magma chambers

  1. Magnetism of quaternary sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Friedrich

    Magnetism of Quaternary sediments was the topic of a well-attended symposium held during the 13th INQUA (International Union of Quaternary Research) congress in Beijing, China, August 2-9. More than 40 papers were delivered by scientists from Belgium, England, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United States, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and other countries. The host country contributed to a productive session that was part of the first large scientific meeting to take place in Beijing after the June 4, 1989, upheaval.Nearly half of the studies focused on paleomagnetic and rock magnetic properties of loess in Alaska, Central Asia, China, and New Zealand. Magnetostratigraphic polarity dating was done at some sections in the western (Shaw et al.) and central Chinese loess plateau (Bai and Hus; Wang and Evans; Yue). The interpretation of the polarity pattern found in the western loess plateau still is not unambiguous. In the central part, certain polarity boundaries, such as the Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) boundary, are found in slightly different stratigraphic positions (Hus et al.; Yue). In deep-sea sediments the lock-in depth of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) at the B/M boundary seems to be a linear function of sedimentation rate (de Menocal et al.). Although the magnetization process in the Chinese loess is not well understood, detailed records of polarity transitions have been reported for the B/M and the Jaramillo R→N transition (Ma et al.; Rolph).

  2. Revisiting the loess/palaeosol sequence in Paks, Hungary: A post-IR IRSL based chronology for the ‘Young Loess Series’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Horváth, Erzsébet; Frechen, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    In Hungary, many loess/palaeosol sequences have been found to be discontinuous. In order to allow for correlations with other Quaternary records, reliable chronologies are needed.We therefore apply post-IR infrared (IR) stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL; pIRIR290) dating to the uppermost 20 m...

  3. [Proceedings of the symposium 'Molluscan Palaeontology' : 11th International Malacological Congress, Siena (Italy) 30th August - 5th September 1992 / A.W. Janssen and R. Janssen (editors)]: Pleistocene Vertigo species from Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krolopp, E.; Sümegi, Pál

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains a short palaeoecological and biostratigraphical evaluation of twelve Vertigo species known from Pleistocene sediments in Hungary. Of these species seven are extant in the Recent Hungarian fauna, three species live in neighbouring areas, and two species became extinct in Europe at

  4. Medical sociology as a heuristic instrument for medical tourism and cross-border healthcare: Comment on "International patients on operation vacation - perspectives of patients travelling to Hungary for orthopedic treatments".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainil, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    In this commentary, we establish a relationship between medical sociology and the study of medical tourism and cross-border healthcare by introducing Ronald Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare use, and linking this model to the recent empirical study of Kovacs et al. on patients travelling to Hungary for orthopedic treatment. Finally, we plead for more measurement in the field of patient mobility.

  5. The library system of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žužana Žoldoš

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history and activity of libraries in Hungary. It presents the general characteristics of the Hungarian library system; with particular types of libraries, library legislation, the development of special libraries and their roles in social, cultural and economic areas of Hungary. The following organisations have an important role in the development of librarian activity: department for librarianship of the Ministry of Culture, Centre for Librarian Science and Work Methodology at the National Library Széchényi in Budapest. The Centre for Library Procuration, which has an important role in forming the library’s fund, is presented as a special point of interest in the Hungarian system.

  6. IMF Loans to Hungary, 1996–2008

    OpenAIRE

    György Csáki

    2013-01-01

    Hungary has been an IMF member since May 1982 and has since benefited from the IMF’s lending instruments on 11 occasions. The IMF loans supported economic transformation (in the period between 1988 and 1993), facilitated Hungary in overcoming the transformation recession (in 1996) and helped to tackle economic crisis (in 2008). This paper analyses the two latter IMF loans in order to provide background context to Hungary’s IMF negotiations, ongoing since November 2011.Ever since 1982, Hungary...

  7. WATER FOOTPRINT IN HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    More and more news report on water-related extreme environmental phenomena. Some of these are natural, which are often beyond the human race. But others are definitely due to anthropogenic effects. I think the water footprint index is able to highlight national and international water-use processes and gives us the opportunity of organizing a sustainable, consumer-, environmental- and governancefriendly management. 81% of the fresh water withdrawal is from surface water bodies in the EU. In E...

  8. Medical Sociology as a Heuristic Instrument for Medical Tourism and Cross-Border Healthcare; Comment on “International Patients on Operation Vacation – Perspectives of Patients Travelling to Hungary for Orthopedic Treatments”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Mainil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, we establish a relationship between medical sociology and the study of medical tourism and cross-border healthcare by introducing Ronald Andersen’s behavioral model of healthcare use, and linking this model to the recent empirical study of Kovacs et al. on patients travelling to Hungary for orthopedic treatment. Finally, we plead for more measurement in the field of patient mobility.

  9. The Gifted and Gifted Education in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The article is an overview on the provision of gifted education in Hungary. It describes views and approaches that have been and are present, including beliefs and the official provisions for gifted students. A separate part of the study introduces new innovations in gifted education in Hungary, as well as the research results. A very detailed…

  10. Medical dosimetry in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turák, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

  11. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  12. Human trichinellosis in Hungary from 1965 to 2009*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glatz K.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis was first documented in Hungary in 1891 and then there were an increased number of reports up to 1964 when the most severe outbreak occurred. After that, no information was available on the international literature on human trichinellosis which occurred from 1965 up to the present years. The aim of this study was to collect all the data available in Hungarian official data-sources on human trichinellosis which occurred from 1965 up to 2009 in Hungary. Furthermore, a comparative analysis was performed on the different serological tests used along the 45 years of investigation. In the period in question, 573 infections were documented in Hungary. Of them, 57 occurred in the years 1965-69, 130 in 1970-79, 302 in 1980-89, 27 in 1990-99, and 57 in 2000-09. The most common sources of infection were pork from backyard pigs and hunted wild boars. Sporadic cases and small family outbreaks marked the last ten years. The comparison of serological tests shows that the ELISA is a good test for the first screening, but ELISA-positive serum samples should be confirmed by western blot except for clinically clear-cut cases.

  13. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  14. FDI in Hungary - the first mover's advantage and disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Sass, Magdolna

    2004-01-01

    Presenting a case study of FDI in Hungary, this paper first reviews the characteristics of FDI in Hungary since the outset of transition. It then examines the determinants of FDI in Hungary, finding that early and comprehensive privatisation and the creation of a generally business-friendly policy environment played key roles in making Hungary an early leader in FDI flows to countries in Central and Eastern Europe. But the paper also observes that some of Hungary's first-mover advantage has b...

  15. International Patients on Operation Vacation: Medical Refuge and Health System Crisis; Comment on “International Patients on Operation Vacation – Perspectives of Patients Travelling to Hungary for Orthopaedic Treatments”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Lunt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of patient mobility, international patients and medical tourism includes supply and demand side considerations. As well as micro-level reports of motivation and satisfaction we must acknowledge broader system-level dynamics. Exploring these may unearth more complex geographies of patient travel.

  16. Searching for Political Fiscal Cycles in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrit Lami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has had a remarkably high public debt throughout the transition, and it has continued to increase during recent years, exceeding 80% of the GDP. Its debt and fiscal deficit were the highest among the Visegrád countries during the transition. One factor triggering the debt increase may be elections-related fiscal policies. By analyzing quarterly data for Hungary, we found clear empirical evidence of fiscal expansion before elections and contractions afterwards. These events are widely known as political fiscal cycles. We observed statistically significant incremental increases in fiscal deficits as elections approach, both in nominal and in GDP ratios, followed by contractions after elections. Thus, it can be concluded that incumbents in Hungary are engaged in opportunistic political fiscal cycles by embracing expansionary fiscal policy before parliamentary elections. Our findings also suggest that political fiscal cycles in Hungary may be an underlying factor contributing to the accumulation of public debt.

  17. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112526Bai Daoyuan (Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410011,China); Liu Bo Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Characteristics and Environmental Evolution of Linli Sag,Dongting Basin (Journal of

  18. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111129 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410011,China);Li Chang’an Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Characteristics and Environmental Evolution of Anxiang Sag in Dongting Basin and Its West Periphery(Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment,ISSN1672-6561,CN61-1423/P,32(2),2010,p.120-129,6 illus.,1 table,48 refs.)Key words:Quaternary,sedimentary environment,structural evolution,Dongtinghu Basin Detailed geologic mapping and bore data was conducted to study on the Quaternary tectonic and sedimentary characteristics and environmental evolution of Anxiang Sag and its west periphery of Dongting Basin,which provided new materials for Quaternary geology of Jianghan-Dongting Basin.The sag trends north-south direction and is surrounded by normal faults.The thickness of Quaternary deposits in the sag is commonly 100~220 m with maximun thickness of 300 m,and from lower to upper,the Quaternary strata is composed of Early Pleistocene Huatian Formation and Miluo Formation,Middle Pleistocene Dongtinghu Formation

  19. The Hard Work of Interpretation: The National Politics of PISA Reception in Hungary and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eszter; Kiss, Adel; Fejes, Ildiko

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the dynamic interaction between global policy and knowledge flows and two post-communist education systems--Hungary and Romania--with special attention to the appropriation of post-bureaucratic regulation tools and the structural changes enhanced by the knowledge transmitted by the Programme for International Student…

  20. The New Public Management is not that bad after all : Evidence from Estonia, Hungary and Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dan (Sorin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews the New Public Management (NPM) literature in Central and Eastern Europe, looking particularly at reforms in Estonia, Hungary and Romania. It finds that research that assessed changes in internal processes and activities within the public sector by far outnumber rese

  1. The Zach family in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Magda

    The Zach Family moved to Hungary. In the first decades of the 18th century the population was so low in Hungary that thousands of people moved into an almost empty country. In 1740 the physician Joseph Zach (1714-1792) came from Moravia to Esztergom which at that time had only 10 000 inhabitants. Soon he became the city doctor. It is very probable, that this was the place where he met Klara Sonntag, who became his wife. In any case, Zach moved to Pest, where he became the city doctor in 1746. The Invalide-Hospital built by Martinelli in 1726 was the biggest and most elegant house in Pest at that time - and it was giving shelter to 4000 invalids, whilst the city itself had only 11 000 inhabitants. There Zach became the ``protomedicus''. In 1751 Austrian Empress Maria Theresia visited this military hospital. She was so impressed by Zach's work that she honoured him with Hungarian nobility in 1765. From the corresponding official paper we know that he had three sons and three daughters. In 1791 he received citizenship in Pest. The Hungarian Magnates favoured the talented physician. The Lord Chief Justice Count György Fekete was also among his patients. His thirteen year-old son Count János Fekete became the godfather of Zach's son Franz Xaver Zach in 1754. It is very likely that Voltairian Count János Fekete influenced the personality of Franz Xaver von Zach. Galicia became Austrian Territory in 1772. Pater Liesganig was nominated to lead the Land-Survey Office of Galicia. Anton von Zach and Franz Xaver Zach were his co-workers in this very important task. At the same time Franz Zach became a professor of mechanics at Lemberg University and in its observatory he began his life-long astronomical observations. It is very probable that he joined the Freemasons here together with his godfather, now General, Jänos Fekete. Later they stayed in the same cities very often. The military and scientific works of the two Zach brothers Anton and Franz were so highly

  2. [Migration of dentists within Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2010-09-01

    Concerning the human resource management in the health care, Hungarian analysts focus mainly on cross-national migration, which was instigated considerably by joining the European Union in 2004. Contrasted to other health care professionals, dentists emphasized also the importance of in-country migration (mobility) indicating serious dangers of developing inequalities in the dental service. From the point of view of health system planning, the main problem is to balance the needs and the number of professionals in regions and areas with extremely different socio-economic conditions. Under dictatorial governments, this "balancing" (which was experienced also in Hungary) is a forced allocation of young professionals to the target regions. In political freedom and free market economy, these measures are unthinkable. The present domestic area distribution, concerning also the supply through vacancies by old age inactivity and cross-national migration, is ruled by personal decisions of actually graduated and immigrant professionals respectively. Therefore, it is unavoidable to investigate the interrelation of factors (dentists' births place, study migration and decisions for practice allocation) ruling the in-country geographic patterns of dental practices. This evidence-based knowledge can only explain the present situation and provide guidelines for health policy decision makers.

  3. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  4. China-Hungary Friendship City Conference Held in Budapest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development of Hungary, the China-Hungary Friendship City Conference was held in Budapest from February 18 to 21.

  5. Size-confined fixed-composition and composition-dependent engineered band gap alloying induces different internal structures in L-cysteine-capped alloyed quaternary CdZnTeS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan; Park, Enoch Y.

    2016-06-01

    The development of alloyed quantum dot (QD) nanocrystals with attractive optical properties for a wide array of chemical and biological applications is a growing research field. In this work, size-tunable engineered band gap composition-dependent alloying and fixed-composition alloying were employed to fabricate new L-cysteine-capped alloyed quaternary CdZnTeS QDs exhibiting different internal structures. Lattice parameters simulated based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) revealed the internal structure of the composition-dependent alloyed CdxZnyTeS QDs to have a gradient nature, whereas the fixed-composition alloyed QDs exhibited a homogenous internal structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis confirmed the size-confined nature and monodispersity of the alloyed nanocrystals. The zeta potential values were within the accepted range of colloidal stability. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed that the surface-capped L-cysteine ligand induced electronic and conformational chiroptical changes in the alloyed nanocrystals. The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) values of the gradient alloyed QDs were 27–61%, whereas for the homogenous alloyed QDs, the PL QY values were spectacularly high (72–93%). Our work demonstrates that engineered fixed alloying produces homogenous QD nanocrystals with higher PL QY than composition-dependent alloying.

  6. Wetlands Environmental Management For Agriculture In Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katai Janos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hungary is located at the central Basin of Danube River, which is surrounded by the Alps and the Carpathians mountain range. The 84% of the Hungary area lies below 200 mBm. The rate of the flooded area is significant in the country. The average runoff of surface water exceeds hundred billion cubic meters. Streams and rivers from the surrounding area flow together with the Danube River into the Black sea. The 96% of the mentioned water quantity come from abroad; three-quarters of this water quantity enter the country in the Danube’s, Tisza’s and Drava’s riverbed. In my presentation, I would like to give an account about the status of wetlands in Hungary, its roles of agriculture and social life, difficulties encountered and future possibilities referring to literary sources.

  7. Aspects of Anti-Semitism in Hungary 1915-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bihari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Before 1914 the vocabulary of anti-Semitism was already present in public discourses in Hungary, but it did not yet represent the central problem of a still ‘liberal Hungary.’ With the First World War, the Hungarian middle classes became the main losers in the social disruption of Hungarian society. 1916 must be seen as the turning point of the social splits and divisions. The former policy of the “Burgfrieden,” or party truce, was undermined by the profound psychological experiences of the war. In this context, old anti-Semitic stereotypes prejudices were reactivated while new ones emerged. Jews, in general, came to be treated as internal enemies, earning huge profits from the war at the expense of Christian Hungarian society that was being ruined. This paper analyzes three stages of growing anti-Semitic agitation in Hungarian society during the war: First, the attacks against the banks around 1916; second, the public debate on the Jewish question in 1917, opened by the publication of the book A zsidók útja [The Path of the Jews] by the sociologist Péter Ágoston and intensified by the “inquiry into the Jewish question” of the journal Huszadik Század [Twentieth Century]; third, the surge of anti-Semitism that began with anti-Semitic speeches in the Hungarian Diet in 1917, leading to a broad anti-Semitic campaign by predominantly Catholic newspapers, in which Otto Prohaszka and Bela Bangha were the leading figures. The thesis is that Hungarian anti-Semitism was far from being a spontaneous outburst of popular feelings. It was fairly well organized and coordinated, mainly by ecclesiastical circles. It was the First World War that proved to be the catalyst, contributing to an extreme anti-Semitism and thereby sealing the fate of “liberal Hungary.”

  8. Schools and communities in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyady, Susan

    1980-09-01

    The democratic reform of public education in Hungary after the Second World War brought about a system which now includes Day-Care from the ages of 4-6 and compulsory Elementary School education up to the age of 16. A high proportion of students go on to Secondary education in vocational schools, special schools or grammar shools. The system is supplemented by career-counselling and provision for children with difficult home-backgrounds and for the mentally-retarded. District Councils are responsible for the schools in their areas and for the zoning that determines which schools children should attend. The environment of a school has a strong influence not only upon the standard of its facilities and the quality of its staff but also upon the function it is expected to fulfil in the community. Achievement is directly related to the degree of urbanization, but the increasing participation of farming-co-operatives in education in rural areas promises well for the development of better facilities and mutual understanding there. Housing estates in high-density residential areas make special demands which are being met in different ways. The role of the school in general is being expanded to include children's leisure time activities; at the same time factories are making a significant contribution locally through vocational guidance, financial help, and training-for-work programmes. Councils are implementing the requirements of public education resolutions to integrate school education into the whole scheme of public education, co-ordinating the activities of all social and cultural institutions, and developing new multi-functional complexes, to give a more effective and efficient service to the whole community.

  9. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  10. Peer Helpers in Hungary: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Jozsef; Lacko, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    Hungary is a country in transition that has no real tradition of peer helping. A qualitative study was carried out involving 13 peer helpers of two kinds (a) age-based peers, and (b) way-of-life-based peers (fellow helpers). The motivations for and the processes of becoming a peer helper were analyzed. Results showed the largest difference being…

  11. A Second Chance School in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbacher, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Hungary's "Belvarosi Tanoda" Secondary School offers an informal, flexible environment and alternative teaching methods for students who have had problems in other schools. The "Belvarosi Tanoda" (which translates as downtown school) is a second chance school for students who have dropped out of upper secondary education. It…

  12. Education of Gifted Pupils in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathory, Zoltan; Joo, Andras

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the debate surrounding the education of gifted students in Hungary, examining whether an elitist or a democratic solution should be adopted. Considers the educational past, current problems, and psychological and pedagogical issues. Concludes that the best solution would be a democratic system that minimized social inequalities. (GEA)

  13. Hungary: Political transformation and environmental challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole Jr, Laurence J.; Hanf, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    Hungary is undergoing both radical economic transformation and political change. Presently a number of challenges converge and compete simultaneously for attention and resources. Hungarian environmental policy and administration are part and parcel of these changes and the competing demands they mak

  14. Climate and Energy Policy in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy problem has been redefined as one of the most important elements of sustainable development by climate change, adaptation and mitigation. Meeting energy needs is always a current issue in Hungary, irrespective of climate change because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, limited opportunities to replace them with domestic production, and the pollution associated with using fossil energy sources. Increasing effectiveness and saving energy can provide relatively short-term solutions with bearable costs and a relatively quick return on investment. The aim of the present paper is to give an overview about the climate and energy policy in Hungary with a special focus on the new energy strategy. Energy policy has a pivotal role in the economic recovery plan of the Hungarian government. The National Energy Strategy 2030 taking shape in Hungary takes climate policy into account with respect to adaptation and mitigation and lists renewable energy sources as the second most important tool for achieving strategic goals. As in most countries, it is also possible in Hungary to introduce climate strategy measures with zero social costs. The expedient management of climate change requires the combination of prevention, adaptation and dissemination initiatives. Strategies must meet a dual requirement: they must face the economic risks associated with premature measures, while also considering the adverse effects of delay.

  15. Education of Mathematically Talented Students in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Julianna Connelly

    2010-01-01

    Hungary is famous for its production of large numbers of highly talented mathematicians and physicists. This study explores the Hungarian system for educating mathematically talented secondary school students with the goal of identifying successful features that may be applicable to education in the United States. Highlights of the Hungarian…

  16. Teaching and Learning Science in Hungary, 1867-1945: Schools, Personalities, Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tibor

    2012-03-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of teaching science in Hungary during both the time of the dual monarchy and the newly established independent Hungary after 1920. The integration of Hungary into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1867-1918) strengthened the effect of German speaking European science, the results of which were quickly channelled into the Hungarian school system at all levels. The Hungarian Academy as well as the University of Budapest (today Eötvös Loránd University) played a leading role in the „nationalization" of European science in the educational system. Scientific developments in Hungary strengthened the position of rational and secular thinking in a highly religious society and contributed to the erosion of the mental power of the church tradition, particularly that of the Roman Catholic Church. Toward World War I, influenced by the Protestant Churches, the Jewish tradition, and agnosticism, the public picture of science became more international, occasionally ready to consider challenges of the accepted world view, and sometimes less dogmatic. Leading Hungarian figures with an international reputation who played a decisive role in making science part of Hungarian thinking included the physicists Baron Loránd Eötvös and Sándor Mikola, the mathematicians László Rácz and George Pólya as well as a host of others in related fields. Emigration, mostly Jewish, after World War I, contributed to the curtailment of efforts to teach science effectively as some of the best people left Hungary for, mostly, Germany, Britain, and the United States. However, the interwar school system, the Hungarian version of the German Gymnasium, continued to disseminate scientific thought in Hungarian education. Much of the information was foreign and appeared simply in translation—but an impressive array of indigeneous scientific results paved the way to a larger educated middle class then in the making.

  17. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050939 An Chengbang (Key Lab. of Western Chinese Environment System, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China); Feng Zhaodong Humid Climate During 9-3. 8 KaBP in the Western Part of Chinese Loess Plateau (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 24 (3), 2004, p. 111-116, 3 illus. , 1 table, 40 refs. , with English abstract)

  18. [Legal aspects and the treatment procedure of gender dysphoria in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2015-07-26

    The legal process of gender transition in Hungary had previously been more developed as in most European countries, as the law enabled transsexual people to change their name and gender before or without a medical treatment, which was unique at the time. Over the years, however, lots of European countries developed legal frameworks and accepted international standards of care for the treatment of gender dysphoria that Hungary did not follow. Currently in Hungary there is no consistent legal framework of gender transition, there is no official regulation or guidelines regarding gender transition process, no institution with the obligation to accommodate the process, and there is no nominated specialist in the state health care system whose remit included dealing with transsexual patients. The information on gender transition options both to the professionals and to the patients is limited and incoherent. This paper reviews the legal aspects and clinical management process of gender dysphoria in Hungary. Some issues regarding the Hungarian practice and possible solutions based on examples from the United Kingdom are addressed within the paper.

  19. Cyanines Bearing Quaternary Azaaromatic Moieties

    OpenAIRE

    Sbliwa, Wanda; Matusiak, Grazyna; Bachowska, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Selected cyanines bearing quaternary azaaromatic moieties are presented, showing their monomers, dimers and polymers, as well as their possible applications. Cyanines having NLO properties are also briefly described.

  20. The reconstruction of science and technology in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pungor, E.; Nyiri, L.

    1993-01-01

    The revolutionary changes that have taken place in Eastern and Central Europe were triggered by a deep socio-economic and political crisis - primarily caused by the fact that these countries could not respond to the increasingly decisive challenges encountered since the mid 1970s. The intensive growth of the role of scientific and technological factors in competitiveness was not evident in the COMECON markets. One of the most interesting, and at the same time most exciting tasks of the ongoing transformation process is exactly how to change this situation. Hungary has set out to transform its complete science and technology system, based on the knowledge acquired in basic research, the existing system of international relations, and cultural traditions going back many centuries. 4 tabs.

  1. Performance Persistence of Equity Funds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the phenomenon of performance persistence of equity funds in Hungary in two time perspectives: 1-year and 6-month perspectives. The empirical results confirm the occurrence of performance dependence in consecutive periods. There is also a strong evidence of short-term persistence in the total horizon of the study (from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2009, and in several sub-periods. The 1-year persistence was also found in the tested sample and, in general, depended on the measure applied. Furthermore, I observed performance reversal, which can be partly explained by trend changes in the financial markets. The persistence of equity funds performance in Hungary is shaped by market factors rather than the diversity of managerial characteristics.

  2. Grimmiaceae subfam. Racomitrioideae (Bryophyta in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzberger Peter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Racomitrioideae of the Grimmiaceae is represented in Hungary by seven species belonging to four genera, including Bucklandiella affinis (F. Weber & D. Mohr Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, B. heterosticha (Hedw. Bednarek- Ochyra & Ochyra, B. microcarpa (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, Codriophorus aciculare (Hedw. P. Beauv., C. aquaticus (Brid. Brid., Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw. Brid. and Niphotrichum canescens (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra. All species are briefly described and illustrated and their distribution in Hungary is mapped. A key for determination of genera and species is provided. Some ecological, bryogeographical and conservation questions related to particular species are discussed. The following new statuses and combinations are proposed: Codriophorus P. Beauv. sect. Hydrophilus (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek- Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov., Codriophorus sect. Depressi (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov., and Codriophorus sect. Andicola (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov.

  3. Political Economy of Privatization in Hungary: A Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on the political economy of privatization in its second phase in Hungary, the country which, overall, has gone furthest in privatizing public utilities, introducing elements of competition and setting up regulatory mechanisms and institutions to monitor them. The background to Hungary's reform path, the antecedents to privatization, the debate on the issues, the institutional framework and the progress of privatization in Hungary up to late 1993/early 1994 are well-document...

  4. Coping with socially sensitive topics discourse on interethnic marriages among elderly members of the Serbian minority in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the field research conducted in the Serbian community in Szigetcsép, Hungary, the paper examines interlocutors’ oral discourse on interethnic marriages. Until the Second World War, the Serbs in Hungary, rural communities in particular, mainly practised endogamy. In the post-war era, however, they tended to be among the minority groups with the highest rate of exogamic marriages. Conse­quently, the interviewees established discourse links between “interethnic marriages”, “loss of native language” and “fear of identity loss”. The analytical focus is on the interlocutors’ internal dialogism between the authoritative word of the ancestors and autobiographical assertions.

  5. The medical care system of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, N K; Raffel, M W

    1988-01-01

    Medical care in Hungary has made significant progress since World War II in spite of other social priorities which have limited financial support of the health system. A shortage of hard currency in a high technological era is now having a particularly severe adverse impact on further development. Decentralized administration and local finance have, however, provided some room for progress. Preventive efforts are hampered by a deeply entrenched life style which is not conducive to improving the population's health status.

  6. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected over Hungary and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T.; Amemiya, S.; Tsurita, Y.; Masuda, T.; Koltay, E.; Borbély-Kiss, I.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE analysis of atmospheric samples collected over Hungary and Japan has been made to investigate characteristic features of the samples of Hungary and Japan, and to compare them. Samples were collected at Budapest, Debrecen, Szerencs, Pálháza in Hungary, and at Tokyo, Noma coast Aichi, Obara-mura Aichi (rural district), Mt. Rokko, in Japan. The PIXE analysis of the samples was made using a 2 MeV proton beam from a Van de Graaff accelerator at Nagoya University. Differences, specially in the concentration of lead, between samples collected in Hungary and Japan were observed.

  7. Research in Foreign Language Education in Hungary (2006-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medgyes, Péter; Nikolov, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    In the past quarter century, Hungary has offered fertile ground for innovative developments in foreign language (FL) education. The appropriate, albeit disparaging, label applied to Hungary in the mid-1970s--"a land of foreign language illiterates" (Köllo 1978: 6)--no longer applies. In the wake of the dramatic changes of 1989, the…

  8. Sign Language Culture as Part of Multiculturalism in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarolta, Simigne Fenyo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate sign language culture as part of multiculturalism in Hungary. The study consists of two parts. Referring to the 13 national and linguistic minorities living in the territory of Hungary, the first part gives a short account of the narrower interpretation of multiculturalism according to which it…

  9. [Psychological status of Croatian refugees in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, N; Bosnić, D

    1993-01-01

    This presentation addresses the capability of Croatian refugees from Baranja to acclimatize themselves in the Republic of Hungary. The authors assessed the mental health of 100 refugees through a psychiatric interview using a questionnaire, specifically designed for the purpose of this research. Their ages ranged from 10 to 82 years, average age 38 years. The assessment of mental health of the refugees was conducted 6 weeks following their placement in a camp (social institution) of a small town (Maria Jüd) in Hungary. The authors found that refugees fled their homes and homeland in front of barbarous combined forces of local Serbs whom they identified as terrorists and Yugoslav Federal Army. Leaving homes and country was sudden and unexpected, but by their own will. The departure was accompanied by fear, anxiety, disbelief, despair, anger and rarely by panic behaviour. Fear for children's safety was on the first place, than fear from exposure to violent injury--torture and crippling, while threat for ones own life and life of relatives as well as loss of property were of milder intensity. Among the most dominant feelings refugees manifested during an interview were: home--and homeland sickness and uncertainty about the future. In 61% of the examinees, these feelings prevailed. Forty-two per cent of the subjects experienced emotional and psychosomatic disorders, primarily Beard's "neurasthenic syndrome". Only 5% of the refugees needed psychiatric help, mainly those who had psychic problems before they fled their homes. The authors conclude that Croats from Baranja who took refuge in Hungary had acclimatizational problems even 6 weeks after displacement, which were manifested as emotional and psychosomatic reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Visual impairment and blindness in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor László; Tóth, Gábor; Pék, Anita; Lukács, Regina; Szalai, Irén; Tóth, Georgina Zsófia; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2017-08-21

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe. A cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample size of 3675 was calculated using the standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) software in Hungary. A total of 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected with probability proportionate to size by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Households within the clusters were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with a Snellen tumbling E-chart with or without a pinhole in the households. The adjusted prevalences of bilateral blindness, SVI, MVI and EVI were 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2), 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-0.7), 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-5.9) and 6.9% (95% CI: 5.9-7.9), respectively. The major causes of blindness in Hungary were age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 27.3%) and other posterior segment diseases (27.3%), cataract (21.2%) and glaucoma (12.1%). Cataract was the main cause of SVI, MVI and EVI. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) was 90.7%. Of all bilateral blindness in Hungary, 45.5% was considered avoidable. This study proved that RAAB methodology can be successfully conducted in industrialized countries, which often lack reliable epidemiologic data. The prevalence of blindness was relatively low, with AMD and other posterior segment diseases being the leading causes, and cataract is still a significant cause of visual impairment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. ICT INDUSTRY R&D IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIENN FEKO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Hungarian ICT Industry related research and development is analysed. The developments and characteristics of the sector are described on one hand on the available statistics and on the other hand on interviews taken with the representatives of leading ICT companies in Hungary. In this short paper in order to have a larger database, we use a more aggregated definition of ICT sector according to European Commission DG JRC, IPTS (NACE rev.1.1. The main objectives of the paper are: to present the main characteristics of the sector and to explore the main causes of relatively low R&D activity of the ICT sector.

  12. CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN OROSZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?

  13. Epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in children in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Krisztina; Tóthpál, Adrienn; Kardos, Szilvia; Dobay, Orsolya

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to assess the Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage rate in healthy children all over Hungary and to specify some risk factors, the antibiotic resistance patterns of the bacteria, and their genetic relatedness. In total, 878 children (aged 3-6 years) were screened at 21 day-care centers in 16 different cities in Hungary, between February 2009 and December 2011. Samples taken from both nostrils were cultured on blood agar, and suspected S. aureus isolates were identified by β-hemolysis, catalase positivity, clump test, and nucA PCR. Methicillin-resistant strains were screened by mecA and mecC PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by agar dilution or gradient test strips. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping. S. aureus carriage rate was found to be 21.3%, which correlates well with international data. We found no statistically significant correlation between the gender or the sibling status and S. aureus carriage. All isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and mupirocin. The resistance rates for erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were 7.5%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 3.7%, and 4.3%, respectively. The isolates showed very high genetic diversity. In summary, carried S. aureus isolates are more sensitive to antibiotics compared with clinical isolates in Hungary, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage rate is very low yet.

  14. From Morphostratigraphy to Chronostratigraphy – Modern Quaternary Geomorphology as a Basic for Climatic Research

    OpenAIRE

    Böse, Margot

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the Congress of the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG) in Paris 2013, our French colleagues discussed session proposals with their colleagues from other countries. Hanna Bremer, the internationally renowned geomorphologist from Germany, was informally involved in the discussion – and she proposed a session with Quaternary aspects; I got involved as geomorphologist and president of the German Quaternary Association (DEUQUA) at that time. We were still develo...

  15. ANATOMIC INVESTIGATION OF HUNGARY'S COMMON SHRUB SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter ANTALFI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary a huge part of wooden plants are shrubs. Flora of hungarian forests is among the richest in Europe. Many plants can be classified as shrubs or trees as well, circumstances during their development define what they will become. The diverse world of shrubs and weeds delights the eye under 20-30 meter high trees. From these there are some well known which basically everybody recognises is lilac (Syringa vulgaris, elderberry (Sambucus nigra, dog-rose (Rosa canina, single-seeded hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica. To get these species better known – and occasionally foreshadowing their wood industry usage in some way – it is expendient to familiarize ourselves with their microscopic structure and characteristics. Nowadays there are several imaging methods known, however for examining floral tissue the optical microscope is still the most common one to be used.

  16. Seasonal Variability of Wind Climate in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉLINÉ NÉMETH, Csilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important effects of climate variability and climate change may comefrom changes in the intensity and frequency of climatic extremes. Responding to the need of newclimatologic analyses, complex wind field research was carried out to study and provide reliableinformation about the state and variability of wind climate in Hungary. First of all, special attentionwas paid on creation of a high quality, homogeneous data series. The research is based on 36-yearlong(1975–2010 wind data series of 36 Hungarian synoptic meteorological stations. The means andextremes of near-surface wind conditions assist in estimating the regional effects of climate change,therefore a complex wind climate analysis was carried out. Spatial and temporal distribution of meanand extreme wind characteristics were estimated; wind extremes and trends were interpolated andmapped over the country. Furthermore, measured and ERA Interim reanalysis data were compared inorder to estimate the effects of regional climate change.

  17. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  18. Diversity in Elementary Schools in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Szécsi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on views among Hungarian administrators, teacher educators, mentor teachers and teacher candidates concerning diversity, and explores their related life experiences. The views of 28 participants were examined with Q methodology and follow-up interviews. Results of the Q methodology suggest there were three distinguishing viewpoints. Viewpoint 1 tended to be supportive of diversity issues, Viewpoint 2 appeared to have ethnocentric attitudes, and Viewpoint 3 tended to be culturally sensitive, yet, focused on family responsibilities. Follow-up interviews indicated that the life-experiences of participants associated with the three viewpoints were significantly dissimilar. This investigation provides directions in developing more effective teacher preparation to better address the challenges of increasingly diverse students in Hungary.

  19. Are There Cultural Regions in Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER BENKŐ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing up cultural macro-regions in Hungary is hardly possible as not even two of the highly developed mezo-regions are contacting, not speaking about forming a bloc; they rather constitute a mosaic on the country map. Those on medium cultural level make up two groups, while, though the ones with a low standard are mostly found along the Danube as a single bloc, they are isolated by Pest county, statistically grouped in one region with them, with a genuine cultural level far exceeding the low cluster. Consequently, it is only justified to speak about cultural regions in the sense that, on the whole, Dunántúl is on a higher standard than the eastern half of the country.

  20. Organic food purchase habits in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Szente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary organic food market has both demand and supply oriented aspect: several times not necessary products are distributed while the selection and volume of certain products are not satisfactory. Thus our aim was to develop a coordinated benchmark strategy to increase the trade of organic products. To get more details about the Hungarian organic food market we applied the “mystery shopping” method to observe changes in organic food supply and carried out a quantitative survey using a 1,000 member countrywide panel. Our results indicate that organic origin is considered somewhat important for every 4th respondent, while only 3.7% of the interviewees paid attention to put organic food products into their cart. The most serious obstacle is the doubt of surveyed individuals about the authenticity and the alleged benefits of organic products, complete with a high perceived price. “Price” is the most influential factor on shopping decision, but the advantageous “constant quality” and “health benefit” factors are just following it. Most of the respondents stated that they buy organic products directly from the producer (27.4%, but small retail outlets are likewise popular (though to a somewhat lesser extent. In conclusion, there is potential demand for ecological food products in Hungary. Although the proportion of conscious consumers is small; it significantly exceeds the current market share of the products. Consumers should be approached with better prices, smart retailing solutions and through awareness raising.

  1. Rare and little known Collembola species from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler, D.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two species, Pseudosinella bohemica Rusek, 1979 and Folsomides marchicus (Frenzel, 1941 are recorded from Hungary, the latter species for the first time. An illustrated morphological description of the two species is presented.

  2. Higher Education in Hungary: Facing the Political Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Tamas

    1990-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of the integration of Hungary's higher education system into Europe's, in a discussion which covers the Hungarian system's structure and functions; participation in higher education; organization and management; and finance. (DB)

  3. Managing Economic Transition. Dimensions of Human Resource Development in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Andras; Klekner, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the state of economic transition in Hungary, the status of human resource development, economic and legal reforms, and the social partnership (education, business, government) in vocational training. (SK)

  4. Sustainable Wine and Grape Production, the Example of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallás Edit Ilona

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Before analysing the economic situation of winegrape production, it is practical to mention some issues concerning the industry. Grape production in Hungary suffered a severe crisis in the 1990’s regarding both production and sales. Its consequence is the decreasing area of grape production and the reducing number of grape producers. Lately, after our EU accession the grape and wine verticum has significantly improved. The situation is still grave today as the producers have to face the more and more intense competition in the market and cheap import products both on the national and international markets. Grape production is in a more disadvantaged situation than wine making and the risks are higher. We have to know the cost-profit situation of the well-discernible verticum parts to make recommendations. Despite the changes, the great fluctuation in income is typical for the industry. Grape is one of the plants where price often did not cover costs in the consecutive years. Costs of production cannot be assessed on their own. They can be judged in relation with the yield changes in real.

  5. Fission products from the damaged Fukushima reactor observed in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Árpád; Dezső, Zoltán; Bujtás, Tibor; Manga, László; Lencsés, András; Dombóvári, Péter; Csige, István; Ranga, Tibor; Mogyorósi, Magdolna; Veres, Mihály

    2014-01-01

    Fission products, especially (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) were detected in many places worldwide shortly after the accident caused by natural disaster. To observe the spatial and temporal variation of these isotopes in Hungary, aerosol samples were collected at five locations from late March to early May 2011: Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI, Debrecen, East Hungary), Paks NPP (Paks, South-Central Hungary) as well as at the vicinity of Aggtelek (Northeast Hungary), Tapolca (West Hungary) and Bátaapáti (Southwest Hungary) settlements. In addition to the aerosol samples, dry/wet fallout samples were collected at ATOMKI, and airborne elemental iodine and organic iodide samples were collected at Paks NPP. The peak in the activity concentration of airborne (131)I was observed around 30 March (1-3 mBq m(-3) both in aerosol samples and gaseous iodine traps) with a slow decline afterwards. Aerosol samples of several hundred cubic metres of air showed (134)Cs and (137)Cs in detectable amounts along with (131)I. The decay-corrected inventory of (131)I fallout at ATOMKI was 2.1±0.1 Bq m(-2) at maximum in the observation period. Dose-rate contribution calculations show that the radiological impact of this event at Hungarian locations was of no considerable concern.

  6. The Danger of Not Facing History: Exploring the Link between Education about the Past and Present-Day Anti-Semitism and Racism in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iterson, Swaan; Nenadovic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Until a few years ago the international media devoted scant attention to Hungary. Recently, however, multiple news reports and analyses have expressed concern about rising racism and extremism in this country, as well as a sense that the country's democracy is unraveling. It has often been argued that economic hardship is an important contributor…

  7. Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őrsi, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

  8. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

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    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Erika; Farkas, Ágnes; Kucsera, István

    2016-09-01

    Acanthamoeba species are free-living amebae that can be found in almost every range of environments. Within this genus, numerous species are recognized as human pathogens, potentially causing Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). AK is a corneal disease that is predominantly associated with contact lens use, the epidemiology of which is related to the specific genotype of Acanthamoeba. This study reports seven (7/16; 43.75%) positive cases. Detection of Acanthamoeba in corneal scrapings is based on cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with the molecular taxonomic identification method. By PCR, seven samples were positive; cultivation was successful for five samples, probably because of the low quantity of samples. Genotype identification was carried out with a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR assay based on sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene, and sensitivity and specificity were evaluated in comparison with traditional parasitological techniques. All seven detected Acanthamoeba strains belonged to the T4 genotype, the main AK-related genotype worldwide. These results confirmed the importance of a complete diagnostic protocol, including a PCR assay, for the clinical diagnosis of AK from human samples. Genotyping allowed the identification of all isolates in the T4 group, thus demonstrating the prevalence of this genotype in Hungary.

  10. Chemical Fertilizers Management Change in Hungary

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    Péter Urfi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of chemical fertilization in Hungary over the last three decades, could be divided into three periods: an extremely fast increase of consumption from the middle 60's to the middle 70's; a period of constancy till the 90's; permanent decrease, the phase of new reckless exploitation up to the present. The Hungarian nutrient-management has had a strongly negative nutrient-balance for the last 8 years. This fact is quite a problem for our country in meeting the expectations of EU member-states. Due to accumulation and consumption of nutritive materials in the soil, the income redistribution took place between the 80's and the 90's. Behind extreme soil utilization in planting practice, lie new environmental risks and negative economic effects. Although special conditions call for specific measures, these facts don't seem to be important either to legal administration or to the media. Therefore, the environment policy of not decreasing the nutrient content of soils any longer, is urgent.

  11. DIFFICULTIES OF THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE TISZA (TISA) REGION, HUNGARY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MÁRIA VASVÁRI; KATALIN ERDŐS MARTONNÉ

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties of the Tourism Development in the Middle Tisza (Tisa) Region, Hungary. In this paper the water-based tourism characteristics of Eastern Hungary are studied, mainly concerning the tourism development problems...

  12. Molecular characterization of Dobrava and Kurkino genotypes of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus detected in Hungary and Northern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Viktória; Oldal, Miklós; Madai, Mónika; Horváth, Győző; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2013-12-01

    Among the Hantavirus genus, Saaremaa virus (SAAV) has been the subject of taxonomical debates. While the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses declares SAAV as a distinct species, several European hantavirus experts proposed that SAAV is in fact a genotype of Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV). In the present study we performed S-segment-based phylogenetic analysis of eight DOBV strains identified in rodents in Hungary and Northern Croatia. These new sequences considerably increase the number of complete nucleoprotein gene sequences deposited in the NCBI database. Our phylogenetic analysis clearly support the taxonomical nomenclature recently proposed for DOBV, i.e., genotypes such as Dobrava, Saaremaa, Kurkino, and Sochi should indeed be classified within the DOBV hantavirus species. Moreover, we found that only the Dobrava and Kurkino genotypes of DOBV species are circulating in Hungary while currently there is no evidence for the presence of Saaremaa genotype.

  13. Teaching and Learning Science in Hungary, 1867-1945: Schools, Personalities, Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of teaching science in Hungary during both the time of the dual monarchy and the newly established independent Hungary after 1920. The integration of Hungary into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1867-1918) strengthened the effect of German speaking European science, the results of which were…

  14. Displaying Diaspora: Chinese Christian Presence in Hungary after 1989

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    Dorottya Nagy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article draws attention to the significance of the “Christian” component in researching Chinese migrants’ presence in post-1989 Hungary within the framework of Chinese globalization and the globalization of Chinese Christianity. After a brief review of the dynamics of Chinese migration to Hungary and special focus on the formation of Chinese Christian Communities, the article examines how the concept of diaspora and the rhetoric built around it is used by missionaries to create new ways of understanding the world from migrants’ perspective and interpreting migration experiences as empowering and liberating divine arrangements for the well-being of their current residence and beyond. The case of Chinese migration to Hungary shows that the concept of diaspora implies a diverse range of community formation practices and the complexity of negotiating Chineseness, which highlights the need of revisiting the very concept of diaspora as reduced to a homogeneous and ethnically essentialized community.

  15. The Danube Bend, Hungary - proposal for its recognition as a geoheritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karátson, Dávid

    2016-04-01

    The Danube Bend in North Hungary is a river curvature along the Danube river, cut into a rocky section that reveals Miocene volcanic sucessions. The deepest and narrowest part of the curvature, 5 km in diameter (called Visegrád Gorge), is one of the most picturesque landscapes in Hungary. There, the Danube, before changing its direction toward the south, forms a U-shaped valley in planform - a peculiar shape that has been an enigmatic issue in Hungarian earth sciences since the 19th century. A number of geomorphological theories have been put forward for the origin of the valley, which is incised between remnants of ca. 16 Ma old, small-sized dacitic stratovolcanoes of the Börzsöny Mts to the north, and the ~15 Ma Keserűs Hill lava dome complex to the south, all of which emerged in a contemporaneous archipelago (existent up to Pannonian times). According to Karátson et al. (2006), the U-shaped loop is partly inherited from a late-stage horseshoe caldera morphology of Keserűs Hill volcano, open to the north. Several Ma later, the formation of the Danube Bend was initiated by river incision, removing the post-volcanic sedimentary cover in mid- or rather, late Pleistocene times. Fluvial processes and erosion in turn were triggered by mountain uplift, climate changes, and drop of remote erosion base level. The present curvature of the river was controlled by the exhumation of the horseshoe caldera as well as the surrounding resistant volcaniclastic rocks (e.g. Visegrád Castle Hill) and a hilltop lava dome (Szent Mihály Hill). Moreover, an early-stage meander of Danube may have also inherited. The accelerated Late Quaternary erosion and intense dissection has resulted in a "re-birth" of the volcanic relief, which exhibits again steep slopes to form the spectacular gorge. At present, exposed rock formations (e.g. Vadálló-kövek) tower above the Danube Bend, making the area one of the most scenic landscape in East-Central Europe. Therefore, in 1997, the Danube

  16. Synthesis of Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of N-alkyl or N-aryl chitosan quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via Schiffs base intermediates. Quaternization of N-substituted chitosan derivatives was carried out using methyl iodide to produce water-soluble cationic chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. The degree of substitution of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was calculated by elemental analysis.

  17. Integrated in the global value chains – trade developments between Hungary and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ÉLTETŐ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The international crisis which has been ongoing since 2008 caused severe recession and decrease of internal demand in the EU area. Therefore, European companies began to look for new markets outside the EU. In spite of the large distance, Asia can be one of the regions aimed by exporters. In the case of Hungary, this is even supported by the Hungarian government. The role of Asia has increased between 2000-2012 in Hungarian foreign trade. The article describes the developments and trends of Hungarian exports and imports concerning the Asian countries. The product structure of trade is analysed in detail, geographic and product concentration of trade is shown. We also examine the share of high-tech products in trade with the main important partners of each Asian region. The article concludes that the Hungarian trade with Asia is largely influenced by the global production system of multinational companies.

  18. Teaching Linear Equations: Case Studies from Finland, Flanders and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare how three teachers, one from each of Finland, Flanders and Hungary, introduce linear equations to grade 8 students. Five successive lessons were videotaped and analysed qualitatively to determine how teachers, each of whom was defined against local criteria as effective, addressed various literature-derived…

  19. Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L; Fehér, Enikő; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2015-04-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A-H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I.

  20. Early Childhood Socialization: Societal Context and Childrearing Values in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayfield, April; Korintus, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural context of early childhood socialization in Hungary. Using a macroscopic lens, we describe the national demographic situation and the social organization of early childhood education and care. Our analysis then shifts to a microscopic focus on parental values and beliefs about the substance of what young…

  1. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mihaly; Durko, Matyas

    This document contains two case studies which provide an idea of the types of adult education programs available in Hungary. The first case study, prepared by Mihaly Sari, describes "The Month of Protecting Our Environment," a program developed in the small town of Puspokladany by a club of amateur anglers, a society for propagating…

  2. The Structure of Political Attitudes in Hungary and Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todosijevic, B.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a comparative examination of the structure of political ideology in two post-communist countries, Serbia and Hungary. A broad set of indicators of specific political attitudes is reduced to a smaller number of latent ideological dimensions via factor analysis. The precise

  3. Ethnicizing Poverty through Social Security Provision in Rural Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Rural poverty has become an increasingly ethnicised category for the majority society in contemporary Hungary. The article aims to explore the process and practice of social exclusion and ethnicisation in relation to mutual effects of post-socialist welfare restructuring and changing discourse on poverty in the post-socialist rural reality. The…

  4. Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-01-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  5. Putative novel genotype of avian hepatitis E virus, Hungary, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-08-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  6. COENOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE IRIS MEADOWS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SALAMON-ALBERT

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and vegetation structure by association and local diagnostic, constant and dominant species of Iridetum sibiricae was analysed from Hungary adjusting to the evaluation of European vegetation. Classification, ordination and statistical analyses was carried out to characterize and make distinction to some other wet meadow vegetation types. In the association habitat and management dependent subunits were formed.

  7. The Schools of Austria-Hungary. Bulletin, 1919, No. 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Peter H.

    1919-01-01

    The political changes now taking place in Austria-Hungary will be followed undoubtedly by far-reaching alterations in the school system, whereby old modes will be swept away and new ones inaugurated. In the present sketch the attempt is made to treat only such problems and movements as are likely to continue in some form and thereby maintain a…

  8. Politico-economical aspects of transition in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošonc Alpar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article the author portrays the past as the resource for the post-socialist transition in Hungary. He emphasizes that the market-based reforms in Hungary and exit for the Hungarian citizens into the small markets outside the state property system prove to be an asset for the transition. In the second part of the article the author delineates the specificities of Hungarian transition especially the externally-dependent form of emerging capitalism developed by the reforms in the 1990s. Besides he deals with the fragile relationships between the capitalism and democracy in Hungary concerning the role of trade-unions and measures concerning the work place. It is important to contextualize the Hungarian case within the frame of post-socialist transition and take into account its uniqueness. In the last part the author points to the problems Hungary confronts during the implementation of the so-called second-generation of transition reforms.

  9. Perspectives, Hopes and Disappointments: Higher Education Reform in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajos, Tamas

    1993-01-01

    Broad proposals for reform of higher education in Hungary are outlined. It is argued that the change needed is so great that neither higher education nor government can accomplish it independently; instead, limited and controlled conflicts between the interest of higher education and those of society must precipitate action. (MSE)

  10. The Structure of Political Attitudes in Hungary and Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todosijevic, Bojan

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a comparative examination of the structure of political ideology in two post-communist countries, Serbia and Hungary. A broad set of indicators of specific political attitudes is reduced to a smaller number of latent ideological dimensions via factor analysis. The precise meanin

  11. Teaching Linear Equations: Case Studies from Finland, Flanders and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare how three teachers, one from each of Finland, Flanders and Hungary, introduce linear equations to grade 8 students. Five successive lessons were videotaped and analysed qualitatively to determine how teachers, each of whom was defined against local criteria as effective, addressed various literature-derived…

  12. Otter Distribution, Status and Conservation Problems in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemenes I.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The river otter Lutra lutra has been protected in Hungary since 1974 and became strictly protected in 1978. However, the first and so far only survey of its distribution was carried out by me in 1987-88. I now report the results of this survey and discuss the present status and conservation problems of otter in Hungary. Otters are most plentiful in the south west. Because of contamination of many water courses, otters are dependent on fish farms of various sizes. Until now, these were subsidised, but now they are in private hands, but no compensation for otter-related losses are available, owners on low incomes cannot afford expensive mitigation measures. They would welcome the live-trapping and removal of problem otters, but the government would need to sponsor suitable areas for release of these animals. Conservationists in Hungary are seeking support for such a scheme. We think that it would be in the interest of the conservationists of Europe to help to maintain Hungary as one of the strongholds of otter and we are inviting suggestions and ideas on how to achieve this.

  13. Education of Roma Youth in Hungary: Schools, Identities and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajeva, Jekatyerina

    2017-01-01

    Historically, schools have been homogenizing institutions that often disadvantaged people of color and ethnic and religious minorities. In this article I examine Roma education in Hungary, focusing on (re)production of racial identities and the negotiation of ethnic labels. I distinguish two models of education as they relate to ideas of…

  14. Teaching the System of Social Policy in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talyigas, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Provides an inside perspective on the development of social work education in Hungary during the final years of communism and after the country regained its independence, when there was a strong focus on re-introducing social work and social sciences which had been repressed by the socialist regime in its denial of social problems and thus, its…

  15. Occurrence of Rare Tree and Shrub Species in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARTHA, Dénes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Botany has been focusing on investigating rare taxa of theHungarian dendroflora since 1989. The research dealt with nearly 50 species regarding conditions of occurrence, habitat preference, reproduction and possible conservational management up to 2003. In the investigation of species, chorology was of primary importance. Since 1993 occurrence data have been systematically collected. As a first result, CEU grid-maps of 142 species, including all the rare dendrotaxa in Hungary, were published (Bartha – Mátyás 1995 using grid squares of 10' long. × 6' lat. equalling approx. 12 × 11 km. With organizational and methodological experience, focuses have moved to processing, correction and mapping of reference, herbaria and new field records. A detailed evaluation of the distribution of 34 rare species in Hungary was made and published (Bartha et al 1999. The Department of Botany at the University of West Hungary has been project coordinator of ‘Floristic Mapping of Hungary’ since 2001. The present study describes actual distribution maps of 20 rare tree- and shrub species with short analyses of their conditions in Hungary.

  16. Novel Quaternary Quantum Decoder, Multiplexer and Demultiplexer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2017-05-01

    Multiple valued logic is a promising approach to reduce the width of the reversible or quantum circuits, moreover, quaternary logic is considered as being a good choice for future quantum computing technology hence it is very suitable for the encoded realization of binary logic functions through its grouping of 2-bits together into quaternary values. The Quaternary decoder, multiplexer, and demultiplexer are essential units of quaternary digital systems. In this paper, we have initially designed a quantum realization of the quaternary decoder circuit using quaternary 1-qudit gates and quaternary Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates. Then we have presented quantum realization of quaternary multiplexer and demultiplexer circuits using the constructed quaternary decoder circuit and quaternary controlled Feynman gates. The suggested circuits in this paper have a lower quantum cost and hardware complexity than the existing designs that are currently used in quaternary digital systems. All the scales applied in this paper are based on Nanometric area.

  17. Novel Quaternary Quantum Decoder, Multiplexer and Demultiplexer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2017-02-01

    Multiple valued logic is a promising approach to reduce the width of the reversible or quantum circuits, moreover, quaternary logic is considered as being a good choice for future quantum computing technology hence it is very suitable for the encoded realization of binary logic functions through its grouping of 2-bits together into quaternary values. The Quaternary decoder, multiplexer, and demultiplexer are essential units of quaternary digital systems. In this paper, we have initially designed a quantum realization of the quaternary decoder circuit using quaternary 1-qudit gates and quaternary Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates. Then we have presented quantum realization of quaternary multiplexer and demultiplexer circuits using the constructed quaternary decoder circuit and quaternary controlled Feynman gates. The suggested circuits in this paper have a lower quantum cost and hardware complexity than the existing designs that are currently used in quaternary digital systems. All the scales applied in this paper are based on Nanometric area.

  18. Hungary 70”: Non-remembering the Holocaust in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pető, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of memory studies is usually focusing on processes of remembrance, looking at the actors, sites, processes, institutions of remembering. This article however looks at non-remembering as a conscious strategy of not participating in commemorations of the 70th Anniversary of the Holocaust in Hungary. It claims that lack of common language, the imprisonment of a “true” versus “false” dichotomy is contributing to the further pillarisation of the Hungarian memory culture.Los estudios de memoria privilegian habitualmente el análisis de los procesos de rememoración y recuerdo, tomando como base el estudio de los actores sociales, los lugares, los procesos y las instituciones del recuerdo. Este artículo, sin embargo, se enfoca en el proceso contrario, el de la ausencia de recuerdo como una estrategia consciente, en relación a la no participación en el 70 aniversario del Holocausto en Hungría. Argumenta que la carencia de un lenguaje común y la rigidez de la dicotomía “verdadero” o “falso” está contribuyendo a la polarización de la cultura memorialista húngara.

  19. GROWTH AND VENTURE CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY-BASED SMALL FIRMS THE CASE OF HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky Nagy Patricia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital backed enterprises represent a low proportion of companies, even of innovative ones. The research question was, whether these companies have an important role in innovation and economic growth in Hungary compared to other countries. In the first part of the article I present the theoretical background of technology-based small firms, highlighting the most important models and theories of the economic impact and the special development of innovative technology-oriented small firms. In the second part of the article I present the status of the most important indicators of innovation in connection with entrepreneurship, than I elaborate on the measures of start-ups, mainly the high-tech ones with high-growth potential. I describe the current position of venture capital industry, detailing the venture capital investments, with particular emphasis on classical venture capital investments that points out the number and the amount of venture capital investments financing early stage firms with high-growth potential. At the end I summarize the status of Hungarian technology-based small firms and their possibilities to get financial sources form venture capital investors, with regards to the status and the prospects of the JEREMIE program. In Hungary the number of internationally competitive firms, ready and willing to obtain venture capital, is much lower than in the US or Western European countries. Hungary could take advantage of its competitive edges in some special fields of innovation. The efficiency of information flow would reduce the information gap between the demand and the supply side of the venture capital market and more Hungarian firms could be internationally successful through venture capital financing. The recent years’ policy and special programs like JEREMIE generated more transactions, that helped to inform the entrepreneurs about venture capital and helped to co-invest public resources with private equity more

  20. The New Public Managementis Not That Bad After All: Evidence From Estonia, Hungary and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin DAN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the New Public Man-agement (NPM literature in Central and Eastern Europe, looking particularly at reforms in Estonia, Hungary and Romania. It fnds that research that assessed changes in internal processes and ac-tivities within the public sector by far outnumber research that assessed changes in outputs and outcomes. Signifcant challenges in assessing impacts make sweeping claims about whether NPM ‘works’ diffcult to support with solid evi-dence. The paper shows that NPM policy is still considered as an option for public sector mod-ernization in Central and Eastern Europe, and suggests that a number of components of NPM, if not the model as a whole, are likely to contin-ue to exert infuence on the public sector in the future.

  1. Climate of Hungary in the twentieth century according to Feddema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Ferenc; Breuer, Hajnalka; Skarbit, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    Feddema's (Physical Geography 26:442-466, 2005) bioclimatic classification scheme is applied to Hungary for the twentieth century using the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data series. The method is tested in two modes. In the first, its original form is used which is suitable for global scale analysis. In the second, the criteria used in the method are slightly modified for mesoscale classification purposes. In both versions, potential evapotranspiration (PET) is calculated using McKenney and Rosenberg's (Meteorol 64:81-110, 1993) formula. We showed that McKenney and Rosenberg's formula could be applied to Hungary. According to Feddema's global scale application, local climates of the three main geographical regions, the Great Hungarian Plain, the North Hungarian Mountains, and Transdanubia, can be distinguished. However, the spatial distribution pattern within the regions is poorly reproduced, if at all. According to Feddema's mesoscale application, a picture of climatic subregions could be observed.

  2. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) clonal seed orchards in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Károly Redei; Zoltán Osváth-Bujtás; Irina Veperdi

    2006-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important stand-forming tree species in Hungary and its importance is increasing in many countries. The main aim of the discussed new selection programme is to identify black locust clones with good performance and good form for setting up clonal seed orchards. As a result of selection programme 16 new black locust clones have been improved. In spring 2002 a black locust seed orchard was established with the newly selected clones. About 40% of the plants can be considered to belong to the height growth rate class 1 and 2. Hungary was the first country where micropropagated black locust planting material was used for seed orchard establishment.

  3. The Middle Eocene flora of Csordakút (N Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Boglárka; Rákosi, László

    2009-02-01

    The Middle Eocene fossil plant assemblage from Csordakút (N Hungary) comprises plant remains preserved exclusively as impressions. Algae are represented by abundant remains of Characeae, including both vegetative fragments and gyrogonites. Remains of angiosperms comprise Lauraceae (Daphnogene sp.), Fagaceae (cf. Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum div. sp.), Myricaceae (Myrica sp., Comptonia div. sp.), Leguminosae (leaves and fruit), Rhamnaceae (?Zizyphus zizyphoides), Elaeocarpaceae (Sloanea nimrodi, Sloanea sp. fruit), Smilacaceae (Smilax div. sp.). The absence of gymnosperms is indicative of a floristic similarity to the coeval floras of Tatabánya (N Hungary) and Girbou in Romania. Sloanea nimrodi (Ettingshausen) Kvaček & Hably, a new element for the Hungarian fossil record indicates a floristic relation to the Late Eocene flora of Kučlin (Bohemia).

  4. Living with CO{sub 2}: experiences from Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J.M.; Nador, A.; Toth, E. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    In areas of Hungary, seepage of CO{sub 2} to the surface is an everyday occurrence and the villagers continue to live there quite happily, having learnt to adapt their buildings to reduce any risk. Indeed, the innovative Hungarians have turned the seepage of CO{sub 2} to their advantage and created a local industry based on a therapeutic treatment of immersion in CO{sub 2} and another selling naturally carbonated water. The article describes a visit by the NASCENT project team to this volcanic area of northern Hungary where high CO{sub 2} and radon concentrations are exploited. The NASCENT project is studying natural accumulations of CO{sub 2} to understand how CO{sub 2} is trapped in these reservoirs, the safety and stability of storage and the long term effects of migration to the surface. 4 figs.

  5. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  6. Wage setting in Hungary: evidence from a firm survey

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We document results from a survey of wage setting in Hungarian enterprises. The survey was developed and coordinated by the Eurosystem Wage Dynamics Network, and it was administered in 17 European countries; this allows us to put the Hungarian findings in context. The main conclusion from the survey is that while Hungarian firms operate in a quite flexible institutional environment, their wage setting practices are relatively rigid. In its wage setting outcomes, Hungary shares more similariti...

  7. Georeferencing the historical cadastral map sheets of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timár, Gábor; Biszak, Sándor

    2010-05-01

    In the historical Hungary, as a part of the Habsburg Empire, the first preserved and systematic cadastral survey was carried out between 1856 and 1859. Interestingly enough, this cadastral mapping, which was called in Hungary as 'Provisional' was surveyed simultaneously with the Stable Cadastre in the Austrian regions of the Empire. By the commission of the State Archives of Hungary, the Hungarian company Arcanum Ltd. scanned over 46,000 cadastral sheets of the Provisional Cadastre, mostly covering the present-day Hungary but also some copies covering parts of the present-day Croatia, Slovakia and Austria. The base ellipsoid was the Zach-Oriani hybrid (a=6376130 m; f=1/310). The fundamental point of the geodetic datum was the eastern pillar of the later destroyed astronomical observatory on the Gellérthegy, Budapest and the abridging Molodensky parameters from this datum to WGS84 are: dX=+1763 m; dY=+282 m; dZ=+568 m. The Cassini projection can be used for GIS integration with a projection center at the Gellérthegy with longitude=19d 3m 5.55s east of Greenwich; latitude=49d 29m 15.97s. The sheets were rectified by the calculated coordinates at the corner points. With the above given projection and datum parameters, the cadastral mosaic, based on the individual sheets and the digitized borders of the administrative units, is presented in any modern coordinate systems in GIS. Using this feature, the product is published as a DVD series by old counties as well as the distribution in the Internet.

  8. Psychosocial determinants of premature cardiovascular mortality differences within Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Maria; Skrabski, Árpád; Szántó, Zsuzsa; Siegrist, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The life expectancy gap between Central‐Eastern European (CEE) countries, including Hungary, and Western Europe (WE) is mainly attributable to excess cardiovascular (CV) mortality in midlife. This study explores the contribution of socioeconomic, work related, psychosocial, and behavioural variables to explaining variations of middle aged male and female CV mortality across 150 sub‐regions in Hungary. Design Cross sectional, ecological analyses. Setting 150 sub‐regions of Hungary. Participants and methods 12 643 people were interviewed in Hungarostudy 2002 survey, representing the Hungarian population according to sex, age, and sub‐regions. Independent variables were income, education, control in work, job insecurity, weekend working hours, social support, depression, hostility, anomie, smoking, body mass index, and alcohol misuse. Main outcome measures Gender specific standardised premature (45–64 years) total CV, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular mortality rates in 150 sub‐regions of Hungary. Results Low education and income were the most important determinants of mid‐aged CV mortality differences across sub‐regions. High weekend workload, low social support at work, and low control at work account for a large part of variation in male premature CV mortality rates, whereas job insecurity, high weekend workload, and low control at work contribute most noticeably to variations in premature CV mortality rates among women. Low social support from friends, depression, anomie, hostility, alcohol misuse and cigarette smoking can also explain a considerable part of variations of premature CV mortality differences. Conclusion Variations in middle aged CV mortality rates in a rapidly changing society in CEE are largely accounted for by distinct unfavourable working and other psychosocial stress conditions. PMID:16905723

  9. Private pension funds in Hungary : early performance and regulatory issues

    OpenAIRE

    Vittas, Dimitri

    1996-01-01

    Despite the limited scope resulting from the high payroll taxes for the compulsory, unfunded public pillar in Hungary's pensions system, the early voluntary private pensions fund performance has been encouraging. Investment returns have been well above the inflation rate and participation has expanded rapidly. However, the sector is highly fragmented and regulatory weaknesses exist: no compulsory use of custodian and licensed asset managers; use of book values and cashflow accounting rather t...

  10. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH – CHALLENGES FOR HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Paldy; Janos Bobvos

    2010-01-01

    In Hungary detailed research work has been carried out since several years to help the process of getting prepared and adapted to the impacts of climate change. The research activities concerned mainly the health impacts of heat waves (excess mortality). Based on the results of the time series statistical analysis of weather variables and daily mortality of Budapest, it was found that a 5º C increase of the daily mean temperature increases of the risk of all cause mort...

  11. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  12. Bone tuberculosis in Roman Period Pannonia (western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hajdu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse a skeleton (adult female, 25-30 years that presented evidence of tuberculous spondylitis. The skeleton, dated from the Roman Period (III-VI centuries, was excavated near the town of Győr, in western Hungary. The skeleton was examined by gross observation supplemented with mycolic acid and proteomic analyses using MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. The biomolecular analyses supported the morphological diagnosis.

  13. Becoming a Mother in Hungary and Poland during State Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the transition to motherhood in the first co-residential union in the dual-earner context of state socialism, namely in Hungary and Poland between the late 1960s and the end of the 1980s. Our analyses are based on data extracted from the Polish and the Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of the early 1990s. We use the hazard regression method as our analytical tool. Our results for Hungary indicate that women's employment does not necessarily reduce the propensity to become a mother if the combination of labor-force participation and family life has been facilitated by policy measures. In Poland however, this was more difficult, and state support was somewhat less generous, thus part-time workers and housewives had substantially higher first-birth intensity than full-time employed women. Even so, we find indication for Poland, that as policy measures increasingly improved the conditions to combine employment and family responsibilities, the propensity to have the first child increased. The timing of first birth varied greatly across educational levels. Highly educated women were more likely to postpone the transition to motherhood, which in turn resulted in their overall lower propensity to have the first child in both countries, but less so in Hungary than in Poland.

  14. Stable isotope composition of bulk and secondary carbonates from the Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence in Sutto, Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koeniger, Paul; Barta, Gabriella; Thiel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    , and microscale secondary (authigenic) carbonates (calcified root cells, carbonate coatings, hypocoatings, and earthworm biospheroids) and concretions at 10 cm resolution were analysed to interpret stable isotope variations. Isotope values of bulk samples were in the range of 2.6 parts per thousand to -13.9 parts......, secondary carbonates showed more depleted values than bulk samples. Calcified root cells have the most depleted isotope composition with mean values of -16.0 parts per thousand and -11.8 parts per thousand for delta C-13 and 8180, respectively. Results indicate that loess and paleosol secondary carbonates...

  15. Late Quaternary changes in climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, K.; Karlen, W. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography

    1998-12-01

    This review concerns the Quaternary climate with an emphasis on the last 200 000 years. The present state of art in this field is described and evaluated. The review builds on a thorough examination of classic and recent literature. General as well as detailed patterns in climate are described and the forcing factors and feed-back effects are discussed. Changes in climate occur on all time-scales. During more than 90% of the Quaternary period earth has experienced vast ice sheets, i.e. glaciations have been more normal for the period than the warm interglacial conditions we face today. Major changes in climate, such as the 100 000 years glacial/interglacial cycle, are forced by the Milankovitch three astronomical cycles. Because the cycles have different length climate changes on earth do not follow a simple pattern and it is not possible to find perfect analogues of a certain period in the geological record. Recent discoveries include the observation that major changes in climate seem to occur at the same time on both hemispheres, although the astronomical theory implies a time-lag between latitudes. This probably reflects the influence of feed-back effects within the climate system. Another recent finding of importance is the rapid fluctuations that seem to be a normal process. When earth warmed after the last glaciation temperature jumps of up to 10 deg C occurred within less than a decade and precipitation more than doubled within the same time. The forcing factors behind these rapid fluctuations are not well understood but are believed to be a result of major re-organisations in the oceanic circulation. Realizing that nature, on its own, can cause rapid climate changes of this magnitude put some perspective on the anthropogenic global warming debate, where it is believed that the release of greenhouse gases will result in a global warming of a few C. To understand the forcing behind natural rapid climate changes appears as important as to understand the role

  16. Understanding Leadership in Civic Education Reform: An Examination of Change in CIVITAS International Partnerships and the Impact of Leader Theorizing on Civic Education Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Jeffrey W.; Dziuban, Charles D.; Pitts, Annette Boyd; Setenyi, Janos; Rus, Calin; Bush, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the history of an international partnership for civic education begun in 1994, and concluded in 2011 that links Center for Civic Education partners in the United States (Florida Law-Related Education Association), Hungary (Civitas Hungary), and Romania (Intercultural Institute of Romania). This study serves…

  17. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  18. [Immigration of dentists and its effects on the dental profession in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2005-10-01

    There were a very remarkable ethnic and demographic shift in the social composition of dental health care providers in Hungary after the collapse of the old regime in 1989. Hungary is surrounded by states with large ethnic Hungarian minorities blocked in their free migration up to the late 1980's. Although the non-educated members of the Hungarian diaspora did not leave these areas in mass numbers, a great number of highly educated people (among them preeminently health care professionals) moved to the mother state mainly for economic reasons. Dentistry comparing to other medical professions has a special financial advantage because of the considerable share of private financing in the Hungarian dental business. Unfortunately, no statistical analysis was made on the impact of this professional migration in the last 15 years. The present article based on a cross-sectional survey conducted at the end of 2004 demonstrates the proportion of immigrants (mean 7.81 %) among the total number of dental health care providers (5670 to a 10.2 million population) There are 2764 area bounded solo practices contracted to the National Health Insurance (NHI), the other 2907 professionals are engaged in the free market business, and/or they are public employees of the universities with dental faculty as well. As expected, the share of immigrants is higher in NHI-practices, but it varies in a wide range (1.9 - 23.6%) amidst the different counties (19 units plus the capital). Nevertheless, the immigrants may also participate in the free market segment of the dentistry. The variations can be explained by geographic, internal migrational and local economic reasons.

  19. The Influence of Trade Unions on Pension Reform in Romania and Hungary: The Role of Ideas, Interests and Institutions in Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BUCURENCIU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although both Romania and Hungary have inherited pay-as-you-go defined benefit (PAYG-DB pensions systems, they have both moved towards a three-pillar pensions system, in which PAYG-DB becomes just one of three pillars together with the mandatory and the voluntary private pension funds.Trade unions have had an important influence on pension reform in both countries. The analysis of pension reform in Hungary and Romania brings evidence that trade unions’ influence on policy-making is not uniform, but it is shaped by the international policy discourse, by the institutional setting, by their relationship with other policy actors, by their organisational culture and even material inheritance.

  20. Governing through Early Childhood Curriculum, "the Child," and "Community": Ideologies of Socialist Hungary and Neoliberal Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millei, Zsuzsa

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of state ideology in the formation of kindergarten curriculum documents in socialist Hungary during the 1970s and in contemporary neoliberal Australia. The study explores two landmark curriculum documents, of Hungary and Australia, respectively, comparing the ways in which "the child" is conceptualized in…

  1. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  2. New estimates of labour productivity in the manufacturing sectors of Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnikhof, Erik; Ark, Bart van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide benchmark comparisons of manufacturing unit value ratios and productivity levels for the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland relative to Germany in 1996. On average, manufacturing prices were about half of those in Germany for all three countries. Hungary was characterised by

  3. Advertising and Public Relations in Transition from Communism: The Case of Hungary, 1989-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the gradual rise of free print media, Western-style advertising and marketing, and limited public relations in Hungary in its first four years of democracy (1990-94). Notes how Hungary's first democratically elected government failed to understand the public relations implications of a free press, made one public relations mistake after…

  4. Art Education in Post-communist Hungary: Ideologies, Policies, and Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Andre; Gaul, Emil

    1995-01-01

    Traces the history of the interdisciplinary approach to art education in Hungary. Begins with the acceptance of the Kodaly method in the 1970s during the communist regime. Continues with Hungarian independence and the adoption of the National Core Curriculum in the early 1990s. Includes a concise explanation of Hungary's educational system. (MJP)

  5. Advertising and Public Relations in Transition from Communism: The Case of Hungary, 1989-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the gradual rise of free print media, Western-style advertising and marketing, and limited public relations in Hungary in its first four years of democracy (1990-94). Notes how Hungary's first democratically elected government failed to understand the public relations implications of a free press, made one public relations mistake after…

  6. Destined to be defaulted: Local government insolvency and bailout in post-transition Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Barati-Stec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the waves of democratization and the development of the public administration and public finances in Hungary, with special attention municipalities caused by the changes in sub-national finance regulation since 2010. During the transition yeas, Hungary was very forward looking and the first among CEE countries to end central planning and to introduce market rules into the economy. Everybody expected the decentralization to be a success story. 25 years later, Hungary not only failed to meet the expectations, but also undergone though a situation in 2008 to start a massive recentralization process. This paper puts fiscal decentralization in Hungary in a historical context while critically investigating the findings of recent literatures on decentralization process in Hungary. The critical investigation of past experiences and reform steps of the current government suggest possible reform measures to solve the financial problems of Hungarian municipalities.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis strains from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga Mária; Makrai, László; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Fodor, László; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-06-01

    The susceptibility of 29 Bacillus anthracis strains, collected in Hungary between 1933 and 2014, was tested to 10 antibiotics with commercially available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strips. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, penicillin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and cefotaxime was detected in 17.2% (5/29) and 58.6% (17/29) of the strains, respectively. Correlations were not observed between the isolation date, location, host species, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of strains.

  8. Food irradiation in Hungary: commercial processing and development work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, B.; Szikra, L.; Ferencz, P.

    2000-03-01

    The result of an experiment with irradiated frozen poultry meat is presented. The purpose of the experiment was to prove the benefit of irradiation treatment for elimination of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. We found that an average dose of 4.5 kGy kills the bacteria in the meat. Agroster was involved in an EU project on the identification of irradiation treatment of spices and data from this project are presented. Commercial irradiation of spices has been used for more than 15 years in Hungary, proving the benefit of this technology

  9. Results with radioisotope techniques in veterinary science in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pethes, G. (Allatorvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    Radioisotopes have been applied to veterinary science in Hungary since the fifties. A short chronologic review on the development of isotope technology is given emphasizing the possibilities offered by the application of closed and open radiation sources, of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and in vitro nuclear procedures which include competitive protein-binding analysis and radioimmunoassay. The progesterone test, applicable to diagnose the pregnancy of cattles, is carried out generally by RIA. Radioisotopic methods are applied also to determine the thyroid function of cattles, swines and domestic fowls.

  10. Start of exploration and mining of uranium ores in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikolay, I.; Szomolanyi, G. (Mecseki Ercbanyaszati Vallalat, Pecs II (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    The mining of uranium ores is the youngest branch in the history of the Hungarian ore mining. The exploration for uranium ores started in Hungary in the decade from 1947, using simple methods at the beginning to apply more developed technologies later on. From the year 1952 Soviet geologists and geophysicists joined the explorations using the most advanced instruments, in co-operation with the Hungarian experts. From 1953 explorations and developments have been concentrated on the SW area of Mountain Mecsek so that by 1957 the preliminary conditions of a successful Hungarian uranium mining were established.

  11. Analysis of production capacity in coal mining operations. [Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csicsay, A.; Moharos, J.

    1985-01-01

    The longwall mining machines in coal mines are extremely expensive. In the intensive periods of development most of the investments were expended to this machinery but their productivity was found to stay below expectations. After the assessment of the reasons the solution for this problem was sought and new measures were introduced. The analysis covered the survey of the losses and the service times experienced in 19 heavily mechanized longwall mines representing over half of this type in Hungary. Propositions to reduce time and financial losses and to improve the efficiency of mining machines are presented.

  12. Food irradiation in Hungary: commercial processing and development work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, B.; Szikra, L.; Ferencz, P

    2000-03-01

    The result of an experiment with irradiated frozen poultry meat is presented. The purpose of the experiment was to prove the benefit of irradiation treatment for elimination of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. We found that an average dose of 4.5 kGy kills the bacteria in the meat. Agroster was involved in an EU project on the identification of irradiation treatment of spices and data from this project are presented. Commercial irradiation of spices has been used for more than 15 years in Hungary, proving the benefit of this technology. (author)

  13. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  14. History of Plant Phenological Observation in Hungary and Plans for Renewal of System to detect Evidence of the Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkar, M.; Dunkel, Z.

    2009-04-01

    The first plant protection warning was issued 1760 by the Senate of the Town of Debrecen concerning the destruction of caterpillar's nest. In the middle of the 19th century the first responsible Hungarian Government issued a note in which the minister takes measurements for the phytosanitary safety of agricultural products. Though Hungary had not got independent institutional system for plant protection at the end of the 19th c., still in the middle of the 1870s, the territory of the country was protected with harmonised quarantine measures from the introduction of Colorado beetle. A new era started both in Europe and in Hungary with the devastation caused by Phylloxera vastatrix in vineyards. In 1876, the Act 29 definitely specified the measures to be taken for preventing the spread of the pest and the damages caused by it; and it was proclaimed in both Chambers of the Parliament. This incident resulted basically in the launching for the establishment of an independent plant protection institution. In l880, the National Committee on Phylloxera, then in 1881, the National Experimental Station for Phylloxera was set up, this latter considered as the first nucleus of the Hungarian plant protection organisation. The international plant protection convention, concluded in 1929 and signed by our country, had a great role in the history of the development of the plant protection organisation. Hungary agreed to establish an official plant protection organization which should consist of a plant protection service and a research institute. In compliance with the Ministerial Decree 49.000/1932 the Hungarian Plant Protection Service was set up which can now be taken for the first organisation of the uniform national plant protection administration system. Plant protection stations were established in 1954. The plant phenological observation network was run by the plant protection administration but financially was maintained by OMSZ therefore the main aim of the phenological

  15. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  16. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  17. The missing credit informat ion system in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIA KIRÁLY

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hungary is one of a few countries that do not operate either a national, non-profit, or a profit oriented business-based complete mandatory credit information system (i.e., credit register or credit bureau. In its absence, the Hungarian banks have not enough information on their borrowers to evaluate their creditworthiness, to apply behavioural scorings or proper risk management and credit pricing tools. The debate on the necessity of a complete credit information system has almost a decade long history in Hungary. Until now, despite all the professi onal arguments, the counter arguments from the point of view of personal data protect ion proved to be stronger. The lack of the complete credit information system became even more painful during the recent financial crisis, when the quality of the retail credit portfolio significantly deteriorated. This paper presents the most important milestones of the institutional history of the struggle for the complete credit information system and analyses the tendencies on the Hungarian retail lending market, with special regard to the lack of it.

  18. Integrated spatial assessment of wind erosion risk in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Négyesi, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Kovács, Tamás; László, Elemér; Bihari, Zita

    2016-11-01

    Wind erosion susceptibility of Hungarian soils was mapped on the national level integrating three factors of the complex phenomenon of deflation (physical soil features, wind characteristics, and land use and land cover). Results of wind tunnel experiments on erodibility of representative soil samples were used for the parametrization of a countrywide map of soil texture compiled for the upper 5 cm layer of soil, which resulted in a map representing threshold wind velocity exceedance. Average wind velocity was spatially estimated with 0.5' resolution using the Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenised Data Basis (MISH) method elaborated for the spatial interpolation of surface meteorological elements. The probability of threshold wind velocity exceedance was determined based on values predicted by the soil texture map at the grid locations. Ratio values were further interpolated to a finer 1 ha resolution using sand and silt content of the uppermost (0-5 cm) layer of soil as spatial co-variables. Land cover was also taken into account, excluding areas that are not relevant to wind erosion (forests, water bodies, settlements, etc.), to spatially assess the risk of wind erosion. According to the resulting map of wind erosion susceptibility, about 10 % of the total area of Hungary can be identified as susceptible to wind erosion. The map gives more detailed insight into the spatial distribution of wind-affected areas in Hungary compared to previous studies.

  19. Lack of evidence of teratogenicity of benzodiazepine drugs in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, A

    In order to investigate possible teratogenic effects of commonly used benzodiazepines (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, nitrazepam) in Hungary, four approaches were used: 1. A retrospective case-control study of 630 cases with isolated cleft lip +/- cleft palate, 179 cases with isolated cleft palate, 392 cases of multiple congenital anomalies including cleft lip and/or cleft palate, and their matched control cases; 2. The Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Anomalies in Hungary, 1980 to 1984, involving 355 cases with isolated cleft palate, 417 cases with multiple congenital anomalies, and 186 cases with Down's syndrome (as positive controls). Benzodiazepines were taken by 14.9% of 11,073 control pregnant women studied; 3. A prospective study of 33 pregnant women attending the Counselling Clinic following ingestion of benzodiazepines during the first trimester of pregnancy; 4. An observational study involving 12 pregnant women who attempted suicide and one with accidental overdosage with benzodiazepines during pregnancy. None of these four approaches gave any indication of an association between facial clefting and in utero exposure to these substances.

  20. Allelopathic Effects of Invasive Woody Plant Species in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSISZÁR, Ágnes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy may play an important role in the invasion success of adventive plant species.The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive woody plant species occurringin Hungary. Juglone index of fourteen invasive woody plant species in Hungary was determined by themethod of Szabó (1997, comparing the effects of juglone and substance extracted of plant species withunknown allelopathic potential on the germination rate, shoot length and rooth length of white mustard(Sinapis alba L. used as receiver species. Results have proven a more or less expressed allelopathicpotential in case of all species. The juglone index at higher concentration extracts (5 g dry plant materialextracted with 100 ml distilled water of almost every studied species approaches to 1 or is above 1, thismeans the effect of the extracts is similar to juglone or surpasses it. In terms of juglone index, theallelopathic potential of false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa L., tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.Swingle and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. were the highest. Besides these species the treatment withthe extracts of black walnut (Juglans nigra L., black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. and green ash(Fraxinus pennsylvanica MARSH. var. subintegerrima (Vahl Fern. reduced extremely significantly thegermination rate, shoot and root length, compared to the control.

  1. Hungary in transition: Environmental, economic, and political realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csanady, A. (ELTE Nature Conservation Club, Budapest (Hungary)); Csutora, M. (Budapest Univ. of Economic Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Feher, S.; Melanson, M. (Global Environment, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Karas, L. (Peace Corps, Budapest (Hungary). Environmental Programs); Radnai, A. (Ministry of Environment and Regional Planning, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-01-01

    In the several years since the withdrawal of the centralized Soviet government, the unfortunate state of the environment in Hungary has become evident. After the withdrawal of the centralized Soviet approach to resource management and the first free democratic elections in Hungary, the state of the environment improved immediately in some areas due to the bankruptcy of heavy industries suddenly bereft of Soviet subsidies. Currently, the government is struggling with the development of NEPA-like legislation (the Environmental Act), which is intended to be modeled after the environmental acts of western countries and in harmony with the European Communities guidelines. The Environmental Act will include a section dealing with requirements for environmental impacts assessment. The most immediate and obvious environmental problems are air pollution and the contamination of potable groundwater and surface water supplies. Nearly 20% of the population now depends on contaminated drinking water sources, and 40% of the population is exposed to significant air pollution. Sources of ground and surface water contamination are the intensive, centralized agricultural practices which were initiated in the early 1960's, and the disposal of hazardous and toxic wastes by both the private sector and by the Soviet military at abandoned installations throughout the country.

  2. PROGRESS IN QUATERNARY AEOLIAN ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rui-jie; CHEN Yuan; HASI Eerdun; YUE Xing-ling

    2005-01-01

    Quaternary aeolian environment researches were mainly conducted by analyzing the information carri-ers, extracting valuable evidences about aeolian environment changes, so to presume and reconstruct paleoenviron-ments. This paper formulated progress in Quaternary aeolian environment research using dune-morphological records,sedimentological records and bio-fossils records, as well as advances about chronology; presented that people shouldpay more attention to further synthetic study of multi-types of records including dune morphology, size, formationtime, sediment supply, and their relations with wind regime in future, especially the research on dating method.

  3. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocentres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quasdorf, Kyle W.; Overman, Larry E.

    2014-12-01

    Quaternary carbon stereocentres--carbon atoms to which four distinct carbon substituents are attached--are common features of molecules found in nature. However, before recent advances in chemical catalysis, there were few methods of constructing single stereoisomers of this important structural motif. Here we discuss the many catalytic enantioselective reactions developed during the past decade for the synthesis of single stereoisomers of such organic molecules. This progress now makes it possible to incorporate quaternary stereocentres selectively in many organic molecules that are useful in medicine, agriculture and potentially other areas such as flavouring, fragrances and materials.

  4. Climate predictors of late quaternary extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués-Bravo, David; Ohlemüller, Ralf; Batra, Persaram

    2010-01-01

    Between 50,000 and 3,000 years before present (BP) 65% of mammal genera weighing over 44 kg went extinct, together with a lower proportion of small mammals. Why species went extinct in such large numbers is hotly debated. One of the arguments proposes that climate changes underlie Late Quaternary...... extinctions, but global quantitative evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. We test the potential role of global climate change on the extinction of mammals during the Late Quaternary. Our results suggest that continents with the highest climate footprint values, in other words, with climate changes...

  5. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  6. The Characteristics of Finding Employment abroad in Case of the Szeged Tourism Human Resources (Szeged, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mihaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human work provided for tourists is an indispensible element and, in a sense, the very soul of tourism services, and its quality highly influences what image is formed of the travel. By today, the significance of qualified human resources in tourism has been more and more appreciated in Hungary, as one of the conditions of realising internationally competitive tourism is the presence and development of quality human resources. Language knowledge and professional knowledge can make employees more qualified and more in demand both abroad and in the Hungarian labour market. Based on international statistics, it can be stated that the main target countries of Hungarian employees are Germany, Great Britain and Austria. The majority of Hungarian employees in these countries find jobs in the catering sector. The present study was conducted in 2012 with the aim of surveying the target countries of finding employment in case of the Szeged human resources of tourism. 874 people working in the Szeged tourism sector were involved in the survey. The data of the participants were examined according to local touristic structure, age group and highest school qualifications. The survey included those as well who had qualifications in tourism and catering.

  7. Europe's Neogene and Quaternary lake gastropod diversity - a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    - and planorbid-dominated lakes. Nevertheless, several pre-Holocene lakes, such as the early Middle Miocene Lake Rein (Styrian Basin, Austria), several Middle Miocene lakes in Hungary and some Pliocene ones in France, are strikingly "modern" in their generic inventory and genus/species relations. This suggests that the modern composition is not necessarily a young pattern, explained only by the glacial bottleneck. Nevertheless, an overall turnover from melanopsid-pyrgulid-dominated faunas towards planorbid-viviparid-dominated lake faunas from Miocene to Pliocene seems to be reflected in the data on central Europe. This rule of thumb, however, is contradicted by melanopsid-dominated faunas on the Aegean islands during the Pliocene. The FreshGEN project (Freshwater Gastropods of the European Neogene) is currently collecting data for providing the first detailed assessment of the composition of the European freshwater gastropod fauna during the Neogene and Quaternary at species level, with emphasis on lake faunas. This includes revealing shifts in the overall γ-biodiversity, changing evolutionary hotspots, faunal gradients, and the evolution of endemic radiations. The results will be discussed in terms of regional and global patterns and will be related to regional and large-scale climatic changes during the Neogene.

  8. The status of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops) in Hungary: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Halmos Gergő; Nagy Károly; Karcza Zsolt; Szép Tibor

    2015-01-01

    The Hoopoe is a widespread species in Hungary with the strongest populations on the Great plains. The fact that in 2015 it became ‛The Bird of the Year’ in Hungary offers the possibility to summarise the information about the distribution, population size, dispersion, migration as well as the nature conservation status of the Hoopoe population breeding in Hungary. In the period of 1999–2014 the number of breeding pairs and trend of population level was estimated based on the Common Bird Censu...

  9. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Quaternary Stereocenter Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Matcha, Kiran; Lutz, Martin; de Vries, Johannes G.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of beta,beta-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and pr

  11. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric quaternary stereocenter formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, A.L.; Matcha, K.; Lutz, M.; de Vries, J.G.; Minnaard, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of β,β-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and provides

  12. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric quaternary stereocenter formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, A.L.; Matcha, K.; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; de Vries, J.G.; Minnaard, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of β,β-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and provides

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Quaternary Stereocenter Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Matcha, Kiran; Lutz, Martin; de Vries, Johannes G.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of beta,beta-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and pr

  14. [Gymnastics and therapeutic gymnastics in 19th century Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölnei, Lívia

    2009-01-01

    Gymnastics as a way of healing and of preserving health spread in Hungary--almost exclusively among higher classes--only in the first half of the 19th century. The movement was inspired by naturopathic theories of the time, first of all by Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland's macrobiotics, by Vinzenz Priessnitz's hydrotherapy and by his healing gymnastics. Gymnastics has been utilized from the 30ies by a new bough of medicine, orthopaedy. The so called Swedish Gymnastics invented by Per Henrik Ling and by his son Hjalmar Ling or the method of the German gymnast Adolf Spiess were well known in Hungary as well. The pediatrist Agost Schöp-Merei founded the first Institute for Gymnastics in Pest in 1835. As orthopaedy developed, gymnastics was more and more utilized in curing locomotor disorders. Gymnastics however stood in close connection with hydropathy as well. Several institutes for hydropathy and gymnastics were founded in the 50ies and 60ies throughout the country. The most popular of them were those of Károly Siklósy and Sámuel Batizfalvy. Preventive gymnastics gained popularity only in the second half of the 19th century, as 1830 the French gymnast Ignatius Clair moved to Pest and founded the "Pester gymnastische Schule" (Gymnastics School of Pest). This private school flourished till 1863. The Gymnastic Federation of Pest (later National Gymnastics Federation), the first Hungarian sport club was founded in 1866. Tivadar Bakody played an important role in its creation. Gymnastics and sport at the beginning were closely connected with fire-service, so gymnastics clubs often functioned also as fire-guard-bodies. In the 70ies and 80ies the social basis of sport movement was slowly broadened out. The end of the century saw already 44 gymnastics-clubs in Hungary united in a single union, the National Federation of Gymnasts, which organized the education of the profession as well. The trend of development didn't cease up to the Great War. This time the movement was

  15. Landslide susceptibility estimations in the Gerecse hills (Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid, Gerzsenyi; Gáspár, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Surface movement processes are constantly posing threat to property in populated and agricultural areas in the Gerecse hills (Hungary). The affected geological formations are mainly unconsolidated sediments. Pleistocene loess and alluvial terrace sediments are overwhelmingly present, but fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the latest Miocene, and consolidated Eocene and Mesozoic limestones and marls can also be found in the area. Landslides and other surface movement processes are being studied for a long time in the area, but a comprehensive GIS-based geostatistical analysis have not yet been made for the whole area. This was the reason for choosing the Gerecse as the focus area of the study. However, the base data of our study are freely accessible from online servers, so the used method can be applied to other regions in Hungary. Qualitative data was acquired from the landslide-inventory map of the Hungarian Surface Movement Survey and from the Geological Map of Hungary (1 : 100 000). Morphometric parameters derived from the SRMT-1 DEM were used as quantitative variables. Using these parameters the distribution of elevation, slope gradient, aspect and categorized geological features were computed, both for areas affected and not affected by slope movements. Then likelihood values were computed for each parameters by comparing their distribution in the two areas. With combining the likelihood values of the four parameters relative hazard values were computed for each cell. This method is known as the "empirical probability estimation" originally published by Chung (2005). The map created this way shows each cell's place in their ranking based on the relative hazard values as a percentage for the whole study area (787 km2). These values provide information about how similar is a certain area to the areas already affected by landslides based on the four predictor variables. This map can also serve as a base for more complex landslide vulnerability studies involving

  16. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF DISABLED EMPLOYERS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Nagymáté

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays employment is an evergreen topic in Hungary. Many kinds of supplies are provided by the state (on the basis of the 8/1983. EüM-PM Hungarian Law, for example for the group n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217;. It is very difficult to provide job for these people after their rehabilitation. My main goal is to analyze the n#8216;rehabilitationn#8217; of disabled people and to study the related firms and the connection between the employers and employees. My intentions were also to create a strategy for these people to be employed again and for the firms to be motivated to employ them. Statistical figures show, that the highest ratio of n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217; can be found in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary (30 per cent of the total number of n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217;. The employment of these people means extra costs for enterprises. At the same time the complete accessibility of workplaces is still not realized in many cases in Hungary yet. Currently only a few enterprises are specialized to employ people living with disabilities. Unfortunately, most of the enterprises donn#8217;t intend to employ disabled persons. Questionnaires were created in order to study the relationship between people living with disabilities and their possibilities to get employed on the labour market again. My study had two phases. In the first phase we focused on individual persons providing anonymity of the questionnaires. The research focused on special rehabilitation firms and their employees too (they are specialised to employ disabled employers. Two questionnaires for the above mentioned firms and their employees were created in order to gather information on their activities as well as relationship between the firms and its employees. It can be stated that this paper shows the relationship between the employers and employees. I will analyze the importance of factors in working among employers and

  17. Management of black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species to be imported from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is the most important fast-growing stand-forming tree species in Hungary . Black locust plantations can be successfully established in response to arange of economic and ecological opportunities. Plantation survival and productivity are maximized by matching the species' growth characteristics with silvicultura l options and land management needs. In the paper the sequence of forest tending operations in black locust stands is proposed, based on results of long-term st and structure and forest yield trials. Implementing good silvicultural plans and models will lead to profitable black locust stands and greater acceptance of the species by land managers. Black locust would also beavery useful species for energy productions as the related research results have been shown in the paper .

  18. The Changes of Ergonomics in Hungary and Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Lükö

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-technical systems. Here, we present the developmental stages of ergonomics, divided into six periods, first, and then the relationship between environmental ergonomics and health and safety. In the last chapter, I shall expound a few details from Hungarian investigations in work psychology, as well as from the activity of prominent academic circles at certain universities.

  19. Talent identification in Hungary: From identification to investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Péter-Szarka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an outline of talent identification practices and challenges in Hungary. First, it gives a summary of gifted education in the country; then the general challenges of talent identification are introduced: difficulties of defining talent, talent as potential, environmental factors, the role of perseverance and motivation, and individual variety. Later, recent Hungarian identification practices are shown, followed by a summary and a conclusion about how our identification practice should be developed into an investigation of individual characetristics. We propose stronger focus on the use of cognitive profile tests, investigation of interest-based characteristics, the use of observation and dynamic assessment methods, teacher nomination and emphasizing the need for effort. The focus from identification toward investigation exploring individual needs and characteristics to provide the most appropriate pathway for development in the 21st century seems to be a more effective way of talent support than mere selection.

  20. Extraintestinal nematode infections of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sréter, T; Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Varga, I

    2003-08-14

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence and worm burden of extraintestinal nematodes in 100 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Hungary. The overall prevalence of nematode infections of the respiratory tract was 76%. Eucoleus aerophilus (Capillaria aerophila) was the predominant species (66%), followed by Crenosoma vulpis (24%), Eucoleus (Capillaria) böhmi (8%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (5%). Pearsonema (Capillaria) plica was found in 52% of the urinary bladders. In 3% of the foxes, Trichinella britovi was present in muscle samples. The high prevalence of lungworms and P. plica and the fox colonisation in urban areas may enhance the prevalence of these nematode infections in domestic dogs and cats, and the flow of T. britovi from the sylvatic cycle to the domestic cycle, enhancing the risk of infections in humans.

  1. Neolithic pottery at Polgar-10 (Hungary: measuring the habitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Chapman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It is self-evidently true that ceramics form the largest component of the artefact assemblages of the Neolithic and Copper Age of Central and Eastern Europe, yet we are still poorly informed about the final stage of the life of most vessels – their ultimate disposal. In this paper, I wish to consider the ways in which pottery can be studied with respect to disposal and deposition. An assessment of ten different kinds of pottery analysis is made, using site single contexts as the main unit of analysis. I propose that these analyses constitute ways of measuring Bourdieu’s term “habitus”. This contextual analysis is based on examples taken from the Neolithic settlement of Polgar-10, in North East Hungary, excavated by the Upper Tisza Project in 1994.

  2. STATISTICAL INFLUENCE OF LOCAL WEATHER ON CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MIKA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible effects of weather anomalies on mortality in cardiovascular illnesses are investigated in Hungary. Long-term (1971-2005 archives of ca. 2.0 million fatalities are analyzed. The mortality data are individually opposed to seven diurnal meteorological parameters, i.e. the mean, maxima and minima of temperature, cloudiness, wind speed, relative humidity and sea-level pressure. All investigations are performed for Budapest, with ca. 2 million urban dwellers, and for the rest of the county (the ‘rural’, representing over 8 million inhabitants in average of the 35 investigated years. The results support the decreasing (in winter and increasing (in summer effect of temperature on cardiovascular mortality in the rural environment, but this effect is not evident in summer for Budapest. Statistical effects of the other weather variables are less unequivocal.

  3. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Improvement in Hungary: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RÉDEI, Károly

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the first forest tree species introduced andacclimated from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is a fast growing,nitrogen fixing, site tolerant, excellent coppicing species with frequent and abundant seed productionand relatively high yielding potential. It has a durable and high quality wood, which is used for manypurposes. Although native of North America, black locust is now naturalized and widely plantedthroughout the world from temperate to subtropical areas. In Hungary, this species has played a role ofgreat importance in the forest management, covering approximately 23% of the forested area andproviding about 19% of the annual timber output of the country. Due to the increasing interest in blacklocust growing in many countries, this study has been compiled with the aim of giving a summary onthe basis of research and improvement connected with the species over the past decades.

  4. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Hungary 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Hungary for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH – CHALLENGES FOR HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paldy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary detailed research work has been carried out since several years to help the process of getting prepared and adapted to the impacts of climate change. The research activities concerned mainly the health impacts of heat waves (excess mortality. Based on the results of the time series statistical analysis of weather variables and daily mortality of Budapest, it was found that a 5º C increase of the daily mean temperature increases of the risk of all cause mortality by 10%; and the risk of death due to cardio-vascular diseases by 12%. The frequency of heat waves has been increasing since the nineties. The most extreme heat wave hit the country in 2007 with an excess mortality around 1100 cases. A three level heat health warning system was launched in 2005 as an action to support adaptation. A significant association was found between global radiation and the increase of melanoma cases. The incidence of melanoma morbidity increased between 2003– 2008, the number of new cases changed from 1854 to 2610. The data of the previous years support that there is an increasing risk of vector borne diseases, as the continuous increase of the incidence of Lyme diseases (15% per year showed it. Although tick-borne encephalitis is present in the country, the incidence of the disease does not show a strong correlation with climate variability. Diseases like West Nile virus and Hanta virus infection appeared and showed an increasing tendency. The vector of Leishmaniasis also appeared in Hungary. Another consequence of climate change is the temporal and spatial change of allergenic plant species. New, invasive plants will appear, the length of pollination has been increasing.

  6. Dynamics of linguistic and social change: Minority languages in Hungary and the sociolinguistic situation of Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, minority languages and processes of language shift/maintenance have become an important scholarly concern. This paper aims to describe in brief the sociolinguistic situation of the Serbian minority language in Hungary with special attention paid to the relation between language ideology and processes of language shift/maintenance. The first section of this paper presents the current socio-political framework for protection of minority languages in Hungary. The second paper's section provides an overview of the main sociolinguistic surveys of the minority languages in Hungary that have had many centuries of contact with Serbian i.e. German, Romanian, Bulgarian, and Croatian. Finally, the paper provides a quick recapitulation of the Serbian language research in Hungary, and depicts the current sociolinguistic situation of Serbian.

  7. Agriculture and dairy in Eastern Europe after transition focused on Poland and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonini, A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: CEECs, Hungary, Poland, dairy, micro economic theory, efficiency, productivity, allocative efficiency, stochastic frontier, profit function, Markov chain, and maximum entropy econometrics.This thesis analyzes the transition of an economic sector, from a socialist system to a market economy

  8. A new Middle Miocene Niveria Jousseaume, 1884 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trivioidea) from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehse, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    A new species of Niveria from the Middle Miocene (Badenian) of the Paratethys of Borsodbóta, Hungary is described. This species is characterized by its callused dorsum and dorsal depression. Niveria jozefgregoi sp. nov. is discussed with comparative species from the Badenian of Hungary, the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region, Florida and Recent species from Madeira and the Islas Galápagos.

  9. Flocculation of coal sludges produced in Hungary using Hungarian made polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Lakatos, I.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory tests on the flocculation of coal sludges produced in the Mecsek mines (South Hungary) are discussed. Having used polymers of high molecular weight and medium degree of hydrolysis, the initial slurry concentration is to be increased four fold for a setting time of some minutes. Comparison is made among various types of polymers. By means of polymers produced in Hungary for testing purposes, the setting can be made more efficient.

  10. Difficulties of the Tourism Development in the Middle Tisza (Tisa) Region, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    MÁRIA VASVÁRI; KATALIN ERDŐS MARTONNÉ

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties of the Tourism Development in the Middle Tisza (Tisa) Region, Hungary. In this paper the water-based tourism characteristics of Eastern Hungary are studied, mainly concerning the tourism development problems (deriving mainly from the administrative borders) of Lake Tisza in the Middle Tisza (Tisa) region. The fragmentation into planning-statistical and tourism regions, counties, townships, and the recovery of the geographical area demanding special development are not smooth. The...

  11. Long-term airborne contamination studied by attic dust in an industrial area: Ajka, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyesi, P.; Jordan, G.; Szabo, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy industrial activities such as mining, metal industry, coal fired power plants have produced large amount of by-products and wide-spread pollution, particularly in the period of centrally dictated economy after WWII, in Hungary. Several studies suggest that significant amount of these pollutants have been deposited in the urban environment. Nowadays, more than half of the world's population is living in urban areas and people spend almost 80% of their lives indoors in developed countries increasing human health risk due to contamination present in urban dwellings. Attic dust sampling was applied to determine the long-term airborne contamination load in the industrial town of Ajka (Hungary). There has been a high industrial activity in Ajka since the end of the 19th century. In addition to aluminum and alumina industry, coal mining, coal fired power plant and glass industry sites, generated numerous waste heaps which act as multi-contamination sources in the area. In October 2010 the Ajka red mud tailings pond failed and caused an accidental regional contamination of international significance. The major objective of this research was to study and map the spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in airborne attic dust samples. At 27 sampling sites 30 attic dust samples were collected. Sampling strategy followed a grid-based stratified random sampling design. In each cell a house for attic dust sample collection was selected that was located the closest to a randomly generated point in the grid cell. The project area covers a 8x8 grid of 1x1 km cells with a total area of 64 km2. In order to represent long-term industrial pollution, houses with attics kept intact for at least 30-40 years were selected for sampling. Sampling included the collection of background samples remotely placed from the industrialized urban area. The concentration of the major and toxic elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn

  12. Racial, Ethnic, or National Minority? Legal Discourses and Policy Frameworks on the Roma in Hungary and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras L. Pap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by recent Hungarian legislative developments that, in reference to the Roma minority, exchanged the term “ethnic minority” with “nationality”, by providing a detailed case study of the development and morphology of policy measures and frameworks in Hungary, the article provides a general assessment of the relationship between policy instruments and terminology: that is, definitions and conceptualizations in international and domestic legal and policy documents for minority groups. The author argues that while terminology in itself is not a reliable signifier for policy frameworks, it may reveal contradictory group conceptualization and inconsistent policy-making. In regards to the Roma, the author claims that the inconsistent labelling as an ethnic, racial and national minority reflects the lack of consistent conceptualization of who the Roma are, and what should be done with them.

  13. Racial, Ethnic, or National Minority? Legal Discourses and Policy Frameworks on the Roma in Hungary and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras L. Pap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by recent Hungarian legislative developments that, in reference to the Roma minority, exchanged the term “ethnic minority” with “nationality”, by providing a detailed case study of the development and morphology of policy measures and frameworks in Hungary, the article provides a general assessment of the relationship between policy instruments and terminology: that is, definitions and conceptualizations in international and domestic legal and policy documents for minority groups. The author argues that while terminology in itself is not a reliable signifier for policy frameworks, it may reveal contradictory group conceptualization and inconsistent policy-making. In regards to the Roma, the author claims that the inconsistent labelling as an ethnic, racial and national minority reflects the lack of consistent conceptualization of who the Roma are, and what should be done with them.

  14. River sinuosity changes as indicators of the possible neotectonic activity - a case study on the Danube River between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovszki, Judit

    2010-05-01

    The meandering, pre-regulation river planforms of the Danube River, between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia) was digitized from the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (Timár et al., 2006). These maps were surveyed before or simultaneously with the river control works, so it is possible to follow the natural riverbeds, the natural changing of the meandering structure. The sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). The channel sinuosity of this river is analyzed in order to draw conclusions on the neotectonic activity of the western part of the Great Hungarian Plain. Several points of sinuosity change were identified. To prove that these are of neotectonic origin, a neotectonic map and seismic sections crossing the study area, were also analyzed. Significant sinuosity changes (low to high or high to low), spatially correlated to linear features identified in seismic survey sections or in tectonic maps (Horváth et al., 2006), indicate their neotectonic activity (Ouchi, 1985; Timár, 2003; Zámolyi et al., 2010). Upstream of the Hungarian-Serbian border, the Duna (Danube) has anabranching planform, the Baracskai-Duna is the main anabranch. There is a fault on the neotectonic map, crossing both rivers, and cause the decreasing of the sinuosity. The vertical activity of the structural line, which is more or less parallel to the international border, is verified by the sinuosity change. The direction of the change (from high to low sinuosity values) correlates with the normal fault character, shown on the map. Another significant sinuosity change occurs downstream of the Drava River confluence. The explanation of this change can be of two kinds. First, there is a known tectonic feature along the Drava River, with dextral faulting. The sinuosity increase could indicate a small active vertical component of this structural line

  15. Hungary and Poland: "Hungary" Stable Partner in Democracy. Building Partnership for Europe: Poland after a Decade System of Transformation. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steven M.

    This curriculum project provides insight into the transformation processes in which the nations of Hungary and Poland have been participating, from approximately 1979-2002. A major focus of the project is to organize a set of information that teachers and students can analyze and understand the Hungarian and Polish quality of life during the…

  16. [Quaternary prevention: containment as an ethical necessity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez González, C; Riaño Galán, I; Sánchez Jacob, M; González de Dios, J

    2014-12-01

    The growing capacity of medicine to generate more iatrogenic events than ever, and the risk of unsustainability of health systems have led to new prevention concept: quaternary prevention aimed at restraining medicalization. Quaternary prevention is essential in the phenomenon called disease mongering, which could be translated as commercialization of disease. Encouraging this sort of prevention and halting the consequences of disease mongering requires the development of all the institutional potential for prevention, as well as all the personal willingness for restraint; it involves separating us from the unnecessary auspices of industry, being critical of our work, not being maleficent, respecting the principle of justice as managers of the limited public resources and making ourselves feel responsible for the social cost resulting from medical decisions. From this point of view, this work analyses neonatal screening, developments in the area of neonatology and primary health care.

  17. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  18. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry.

  19. Report on the 13th symposium on invertebrate neurobiology held 26-30 August 2015 at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for ecological research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Tihany, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisford, Anna; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the lectures and posters presented at the International Society for Invertebrate Neurobiology's 13th symposium held 26-30 August 2015, at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Tihany, Hungary. The symposium provided an opportunity for scientists working on a range of topics in invertebrate neurobiology to meet and present their research and discuss ways to advance the discipline.

  20. PCA for predicting quaternary structure of protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong WANG; Hongbin SHEN; Lixiu YAO; Jie YANG; Kuochen CHOU

    2008-01-01

    The number and arrangement of subunits that form a protein are referred to as quaternary structure. Knowing the quaternary structure of an uncharacterized protein provides clues to finding its biological function and interaction process with other molecules in a biological system. With the explosion of protein sequences generated in the Post-Genomic Age, it is vital to develop an automated method to deal with such a challenge. To explore this prob-lem, we adopted an approach based on the pseudo position-specific score matrix (Pse-PSSM) descriptor, proposed by Chou and Shen, representing a protein sample. The Pse-PSSM descriptor is advantageous in that it can combine the evolution information and sequence-correlated informa-tion. However, incorporating all these effects into a descriptor may cause 'high dimension disaster'. To over-come such a problem, the fusion approach was adopted by Chou and Shen. A completely different approach, linear dimensionality reduction algorithm principal component analysis (PCA) is introduced to extract key features from the high-dimensional Pse-PSSM space. The obtained dimension-reduced descriptor vector is a compact repre-sentation of the original high dimensional vector. The jack-knife test results indicate that the dimensionality reduction approach is efficient in coping with complicated problems in biological systems, such as predicting the quaternary struc-ture of proteins.

  1. Sediment sampling and processing methods in Hungary, and possible improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Eniko Anna; Koch, Daniel; Varga, Gyorgy

    2016-04-01

    , best organized in the upstream countries, where also on tributaries like the Drau/Drava monitoring stations are in operation. Sampling frequency of suspended load is 3 to 7 per year in Hungary, and even lower downstream. Sediment management is a major challenge, as most methods developed until now are unsustainable, require continuous intervention and are expensive as well. However, there is a new focus on the subject in the 21st century, which still lacks uniform methodological recommendations for measurements and analyses, and the number of engineers with sediment expertise and experience is alarmingly low. Data related to sediment quantity are unreliable and often contradictory. It is difficult to produce high quality long-term databases that could support and enable the mathematical calibration of sediment transport models. Sediment measurements are different in different countries in Europe. Even in Hungary, sampling and laboratory techniques have changed several times in the past. Also, sediment sampling was never really systhematic, and the sampling campaigns did not follow the hydrological processes. That is how sediment data can hardly be compared; and the data series are inhomogeneous and they cannot be statistically analysed. The majority of the existing sediment data in Hungary are not suitable for the data supply needs of state-of-the-art numerical modeling. It is even problematic to describe the connections between water flow (discharge) and sediment transport, because data are scarce and irregular. Even the most modern measurement methods (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler [ADCP], or Laser In Situ Scattering and Transmissometry [LISST]) need calibration, which means field sampling and laboratory processing. For these reasons we need (both quantitatively and qualitively) appropriate sampling of sediment. In frame of projects and programs of the Institute for Hydraulic engineering and Water management of Eötvös József College, we developed the

  2. Compilation of geogenic radon potential map of Pest County, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, K. Zs.; Pásztor, L.; Horváth, Á.; Bakacsi, Zs.; Szabó, J.; Szabó, Cs.

    2010-05-01

    222Rn and its effect on the human health have recently received major importance in environmental studies. This natural radioactive gas accounts for about 9% of lung cancer death and about 2% of all deaths from cancer in Europe due to indoor radon concentrations. It moves into the buildings from the natural decay chain of uranium in soils, rocks and building materials. Radon mapping regionalizes the average hazard from radon in a selected area as a radon risk map. Two major methods (concerning the applied radon data) have been used for mapping. One uses indoor radon data whereas the other is based on soil gas radon data. The outputs of the second approach are the geogenic radon potential maps. The principal objective of our work is to take the first step in geogenic radon mapping in Hungary. Soil samples collected in Pest County (Central Region of Hungary) in the frame of a countrywide soil survey (Soil Information and Monitoring System) were studied to have empirical information of the potential radon risk. As the first two steps radium concentration of soil samples, collected at 43 locations sampling soil profiles by genetic horizons from the surface level down to 60-150 cm, were determined using HPGe gamma-spectroscopy technique, as well as measurement of radon exhalation on the soil samples were carried out applying closed radon accumulation chamber coupled with RAD7 radon monitor detector. From these data the exhalation coefficient was calculated, which shows how many percent of the produced radon can come out from the sample. This rate strongly depends on the depth: at circa 100 cm a drastic decrease have been noticed, which is explained by the change in soil texture. The major source of indoor radon is the soil gas radon concentration (Barnet et al., 2005). We estimated this value from the measured radon exhalation and calculated soil porosity and density. The soil gas radon concentration values were categorized after Kemski et al. (2001) and then the

  3. Regional processes in Hungary - From PHARE to Smart specialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Józsa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Europeanisation and regionalization, European convergence versus local divergence are important and timely questions as regards the future of EU cohesion policy, that originally aimed to reduce economic, social and territorial inequalities. Recently, it does not solely support regional development and stimulate modernization processes, but also aims to advance competitiveness, job creation, innovation, and sustainable growth and development (Europe 2020 strategy, especially at the sub-national level. The comparison of regional processes, institutional systems, experience and the originating potential future scenarios of transition economies are interesting but yet under-examined fields of study. Is there a specific way (trajectory of regionalization in transition economies, or practices vary from country to country? Do EU level policy changes affect national and sub-national level institutions and processes and if yes, for what extent? PHARE programmes were introduced in the early 1990s, short after the change of regime, and following the EU accession, Structural Funds have become the main public financial instruments in these countries, accompanied with a massive foreign direct investment flow. The subsequent EU programming periods and the connected terminology have been predominantly shaping regional policy in these countries; Operational Programmes, Action Plans, Logical Framework Approach, Project fiches, Regional Innovation Strategies, Local Action Groups, Competitiveness Poles, Clustering, Smart Specialisation, Re-industrialisation are only a few keywords that describe this era. The objective of this study is to present a qualitative framework to the evaluation of the period from 1990 to 2015 in Hungary, as a case study of the transition economies, with the identification of the most important milestones and tendencies of regionalization. The relevance of the research is supported by the recent elimination of the NUTS II (regional level

  4. Synthesis of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wei Guo; Xing Zhong; Hua Zhu; Li Juan Feng; Ying De Cui

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane were designed and synthesized from 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid.The structures of target surfactants were confirmed by 1H NMR,elements analysis and FTIR.Surface properties of these surfactants were investigated.Due to the lipophilicity of adamantane,the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and C20 values of the synthesized quaternary ammonium surfactants are lower than that of conventional quaternary ammonium surfactants.

  5. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszes, Dóra J.; Szabó, Dóra J.; Russell, Greg; Kirby, Phil; Paulik, Edit; Nagymajtényi, László

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients' satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination) and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants' experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation), as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software). Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening. PMID:28078306

  6. Carbon cycle history through the Middle Jurassic of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Fozy, Istvan; Galacz, Andras

    2016-04-01

    A carbonate carbon isotope curve from the Aalenian-Bathonian interval is presented from the Obanya valley, of the Mecsek Mountains, Hungary. This interval is less well constrained and studied that other Jurassic time slices. The Obanya valley lies in the eastern part of the Mecsek Mountains, between Obanya and Kisujbanya and provides excellent exposures of a near continuous Aalenian to Lower Cretaceous sequence. It is not strongly affected by tectonics, as compared to other sections of eastern Mecsek of the same age. In parts, a rich fossil assemblage has been collected; the Bathonian ammonites are especially valuable as this locality. The pelagic Middle Jurassic is represented by thin-bedded limestones (the Obanya Limestone) and is overlain by Upper Jurassic siliceous limestones and radiolarites (the Fonyaszo Limestone). The new data indicates a series of positive anomalies within the late Aalenian and early-middle Bajocian. These data are comparable with carbonate carbon isotope recorded from other Tethyan margin sediments. Our integrated biostratigraphy and carbon isotope stratigraphy enables us to improve stratigraphic correlation and age determination of the examined strata.

  7. Objective and subjective thermal comfort evaluation in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajtar Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort sensation can be predicted in the most exact way based on Fanger’s predicted mean vote (PMV model. This evaluation method takes all the six influencing factors into consideration: air temperature and humidity, air velocity, mean radiant temperature of surrounding surfaces, clothing insulation, and occupants’ activities. Fanger’s PMV method was developed for temperate climate and European people, with the participation of university students as subjects. Many researchers had investigated its validity in different geographic locations (i. e. climatic conditions, people and under non-laboratory circumstances. The results were summarised by van Hoof which had been published in the scientific references. The articles gave us the idea to elaborate the former measurement results. During the last decades thermal comfort was evaluated by our research team using subjective scientific questionnaires and applying the objective Fanger’s model in several office buildings in Hungary. The relation between the PMV and actual mean vote values were analysed based on these results. Investigations were carried out under steady-state conditions in winter time. We performed objective thermal comfort evaluations based on instrumental measurements using the PMV theory. Parallel to this we assessed the subjective thermal sensation using scientific questionnaires. The mathematical relationship between the actual mean vote and PMV was defined according to the evaluated thermal environment: AMV = PMV + 0.275, (arg. –1.7 ≤ PMV ≤ +0.5.

  8. Structural Components of Lifestyle and Beyond: The Case of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Keller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of when and how lifestyle and its components are important in social stratification. There is considerable consensus among scholars about the structure of the society being a consequence of hierarchical dimensions like occupation, income, or wealth. Some thirty years ago, largely based on Bourdieu’s “Distinction”, a new paradigm emerged highlighting the lifestyle components and the value-oriented cultural and material consumption in stratifi cation. The idea refl ects the empirical fi nding that inequality between social classes has largely decreased, giving priority to horizontal lifestyle differentiation instead of vertical inequality dimensions. From a theoretical viewpoint, a challenge in the approach is finding out to what extent lifestyle typology is of a non-vertical character in reality. This social determination of lifestyle is investigated for Hungary when comparing an occupation-based typology with a consumption-based one. On the one hand, results reveal that the effects of structural components on social status are stronger than those of lifestyle. On the other hand, lifestyle turns out to be less independent of social position and the top and bottom levels of the lifestyle typology are particularly predictable by structural measures.

  9. Hydraulic evaluation of the hypogenic karst area in Budapest (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Ildikó; Ötvös, Viktória; Erőss, Anita; Czauner, Brigitta; Simon, Szilvia; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    The Buda Thermal Karst area, in central Hungary, is in the focus of research interest because of its thermal water resources and the on-going hypogenic karstification processes at the boundary of unconfined and confined carbonates. Understanding of the discharge phenomena and the karstification processes requires clarification of the groundwater flow conditions in the area. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to present a hydraulic evaluation of the flow systems based on analyses of the archival measured hydraulic data of wells. Pressure vs. elevation profiles, tomographic fluid-potential maps and hydraulic cross sections were constructed, based on the data distribution. As a result, gravitational flow systems, hydraulic continuity, and the modifying effects of aquitard units and faults were identified in the karst area. The location of natural discharge areas could be explained and the hydraulic behavior of the Northeastern Margin Fault of the Buda Hills could be determined. The flow pattern determines the differences in the discharge distribution (one- and two-component) and related cave-forming processes between the Central System (Rózsadomb area) and Southern System (Gellért Hill area) natural discharge areas. Among the premises of hypogenic karstification, regional upward flow conditions were confirmed along the main discharge zone of the River Danube.

  10. Gender differences in suicide attempters in Hungary: retrospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Sandor; Voros, Viktor; Osvath, Peter

    2005-04-01

    To determine gender differences in suicidal behavior and investigate the factors associated with suicide attempts. In the framework of the WHO/Euro Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior, 1,158 suicide attempts have been registered and analyzed retrospectively in Pecs center, Hungary. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the characteristics of male and female suicide attempters. A "typical" female suicide attempter could be characterized as follows: retired or economically inactive (OR=2.38), widowed (OR=6.55), divorced (OR=1.64), or with depression in her personal history (OR=1.27). Female attempters were mainly repeaters, using the method of self-poisoning, mostly with benzodiazepines. Among men, unemployment, living alone, never having been married, and problems with addiction were the main risk factors, while violent methods characterized the typical attempt In the cases of self-poisoning, men were more likely to take meprobamate or carbamazepine. Significant differences were found in the risk factors for suicide attempts between men and women. Since suicide is a multi-causal phenomenon, its therapy and prevention should be complex and gender differences should be taken into consideration while building up our helping strategies.

  11. Results of nutritional screening in institutionalized elderly in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelovics, Zsuzsanna; Bozó, Réka Kegyes; Lampek, Kinga; Figler, Mária

    2009-01-01

    Dietetics contributes to life-long, sustainable health and optimal life quality of people. The knowledge of the nutritional state can be informative and normative in order to optimize personal care. The aims of this study were to summarize the relevant legislative considerations of nourishing the elderly in different long-term residential social institutions and to screen the nutritional state of those living there. No investigation of this type has ever been carried out in Hungary or in central eastern Europe before. We used the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) screening program for the evaluation of nutritional status. Our survey was done in 20 Hungarian nursing homes in 2006. The sample (n=1381) was representative of regional distribution and number of residents. In our study population 38.2% of the patients were endangered in point of malnutrition. The results of our survey call attention to the elevated number of elderly people at risk of malnutrition in nursing homes. As malnutrition has serious consequences regarding also quality of life, nutritional screening of nursing home residents is not only a basic economical interest, but is also in full harmony with the idea "not only to feed, but to nourish" and it is a basic moral duty.

  12. Methylchloroisothiazolinone/Methylisothiazolinone and Methylisothiazolinone Sensitivity in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Györgyi Pónyai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to allowing of methylisothiazolinone (MI in cosmetics, cleaning products, and paints, an epidemic of MI-hypersensitivity emerged. Patch testing Kathon CG® (3:1 mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, MCI/MI does not correctly detect MI contact allergy, due to the low concentration of MI in the test material. Methods. A retrospective survey was performed to estimate the prevalence of MCI/MI hypersensitivity in 14693 patients tested consecutively between 1993 and 2014. Moreover, currently 314 patients were prospectively tested with the allergens MCI/MI and with MI during one year. Results. MCI/MI hypersensitivity increased retrospectively from 0.5% to 6.0%. By current prospective testing we detected 25 patients (8% with MCI/MI and/or MI positive reactions. Out of the 25 patients 10 were only MCI/MI positive, 9 were only MI positive, and 6 were MCI/MI and MI positive. If MI had not been tested separately, MI contact allergy would have missed in 36% of all detected cases and in 2.8% of the total 314 patients. Conclusions. The frequency of MCI/MI hypersensitivity is increasing also in Hungary. We confirm that, in order to detect MI contact allergy, it needs to be tested separately. A further increase of MI hypersensitivity might be expected in the future as products containing MI are still widely available.

  13. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

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    Dóra J. Eszes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients’ satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants’ experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software. Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening.

  14. Hydraulic evaluation of the hypogenic karst area in Budapest (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Ildikó; Ötvös, Viktória; Erőss, Anita; Czauner, Brigitta; Simon, Szilvia; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-09-01

    The Buda Thermal Karst area, in central Hungary, is in the focus of research interest because of its thermal water resources and the on-going hypogenic karstification processes at the boundary of unconfined and confined carbonates. Understanding of the discharge phenomena and the karstification processes requires clarification of the groundwater flow conditions in the area. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to present a hydraulic evaluation of the flow systems based on analyses of the archival measured hydraulic data of wells. Pressure vs. elevation profiles, tomographic fluid-potential maps and hydraulic cross sections were constructed, based on the data distribution. As a result, gravitational flow systems, hydraulic continuity, and the modifying effects of aquitard units and faults were identified in the karst area. The location of natural discharge areas could be explained and the hydraulic behavior of the Northeastern Margin Fault of the Buda Hills could be determined. The flow pattern determines the differences in the discharge distribution (one- and two-component) and related cave-forming processes between the Central System (Rózsadomb area) and Southern System (Gellért Hill area) natural discharge areas. Among the premises of hypogenic karstification, regional upward flow conditions were confirmed along the main discharge zone of the River Danube.

  15. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  16. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

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    András Kovács

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accepting it- that made the uniqueness of the Hungarian Jewry will cease to exist. Since quite a large group of the Hungarian Jews survived the Shoah it was not purely a theoretical question that what sort of identity strategies would emerge among the Jewish population of the country. How did the Jews react to the dramatic political changes that occurred in the decades following the Shoah, what kind of identity strategies they developed in the search for their place in the post-war Hungarian society? After a historical introduction the article discusses the changing socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the post-war Hungarian Jews, Jewish politics in the decades of communist rule and finally the identity problems emerged in the post-war decades.

  17. Serosurvey of pathogenic hantaviruses among forestry workers in Hungary

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    Miklós Oldal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to survey the prevalence of human hantavirus infections among forestry workers, who are considered a risk population for contracting the disease. Sera collected from volunteers were tested for antibodies against Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV and Puumala (PUUV viruses. Material and Methods: For serological analyses, full capsid proteins of DOBV and PUUV viruses were produced in a bacterial expression system, while Ni-resin was used for protein purification. Samples were screened for anti-hantavirus antibodies by ELISA, results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results: A total of 835 samples collected from 750 males and 85 females were tested by indirect ELISA and positive test results were confirmed by Western blot assay. Out of the 45 ELISA-reactive samples, 38 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. The regional distribution of seropositive individuals was as follows: 1.9% (2/107 in the Danube-Tisza Plateau (Great Plains, 3.1% (10/321 in the Southern Transdanubian region, 5.2% (13/248 in the Northern Transdanubian, and 8.2% (13/159 in the North Hungarian Mountains. Conclusions: Our data show marked geographic differences in seroprevalence of pathogenic hantaviruses within Hungary, indicating elevated exposure to hantavirus infections in some areas.

  18. Diet of wolves Canis lupus returning to Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanszki, József; Márkus, Márta; Ujváry, Dóra; Szabó, Adám; Szemethy, László

    2012-04-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, the wolf Canis lupus was extinct in Hungary and in recent decades has returned to the northern highland area of the country. The diet of wolves living in groups in Aggteleki National Park was investigated using scat analysis (n = 81 scats) and prey remains (n = 31 carcasses). Throughout the year wolves (average, minimum two wolves per year) consumed mostly wild-living ungulates (mean percent of biomass consumed, B% 97.2%; relative frequency of occurrence, %O 74.0%). The wild boar Sus scrofa was the most common prey item found in wolf scat (%B 35.6%) and is also the most commonly occurring ungulate in the study areas. The second most commonly occurring prey item in wolf scat was red deer Cervus elaphus (B% 32.8%). Conversely, prey remain analyses revealed wild boar as the second most commonly utilised prey species (%O 16.1%) after red deer (%O 67.7%). The roe deer Capreolus capreolus that occurs at lower population densities was the third most commonly utilised prey species. The importance of low population density mouflon Ovis aries, livestock and other food types was low. The results are similar to those found in the northern part of the Carpathian Mountains.

  19. Radiological aspects of red mud disaster in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tibor; Sas, Zoltán; Jobbágy, Viktor; Csordás, Anita; Szeiler, Gábor; Somlai, János

    2013-08-01

    One of the most severe industrial catastrophes happened in Kolontár, Hungary, on 4 October 2010. Red mud (bauxite residue) broke through the eroded wall of the red mud reservoir pond "Number X" and flooded the surrounding area. This led to the instant death of 10 people and the injury of more than 100 people. Red mud is enriched in radium and thorium isotopes; therefore, there is a chance that this flooding will increase radionuclide concentrations of soils and also in air. In this study we have examined the site to assess the realistic radiological risks. For the risk assessment the following parameters were determined: gamma dose rate, radon concentration, radionuclide concentration of red mud and air dust concentration. It was found that the radiation dose exposure resulting from red mud contamination was < 0.045 mSv y-1 (excluding radon), which can be considered negligible when compared to the average annual effective dose from natural sources (2.4 mSv y-1).

  20. Flowering phenological changes in relation to climate change in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint

    2016-09-01

    The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species ( Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering.

  1. β-CD assisted dissolution of quaternary ammonium permanganates in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Suraj Prakash; Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

    2014-10-13

    The non-polar internal cavity of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been exploited for the entrapment of the hydrophobic tails of two water insoluble quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAPs): cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP) and tetrabutylammonium permanganate (TBAP), for solubilization in aqueous medium. The solubilization and organizational behavior of the QAPs in aqueous β-CD solution have been determined from the comparison of their rates of self-oxidation in presence and in absence of β-CD. Effect of QAP concentration on their observed rate constants (k(obs)) at a fixed β-CD concentration, phase solubility analysis in varying β-CD concentration, impact of quaternary ammonium bromides (QABs) on the kobs values of CTAP and TBAP at fixed QAP and β-CD concentrations, and the temperature effect have been reported. A scheme to explain the solvation of QAPs in aqueous β-CD has been proposed based on dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis of the samples.

  2. Risk factors for suicide in Hungary: a case-control study

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    Kerfoot Michael

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hungary previously had one of the highest suicide rates in the world, but experienced major social and economic changes from 1990 onwards. We aimed to investigate the antecedents of suicide in Hungary. We hypothesised that suicide in Hungary would be associated with both risk factors for suicide as identified in Western studies, and experiences related to social and economic restructuring. Methods We carried out a controlled psychological autopsy study. Informants for 194 cases (suicide deaths in Budapest and Pest County 2002–2004 and 194 controls were interviewed by clinicians using a detailed schedule. Results Many of the demographic and clinical risk factors associated with suicide in other settings were also associated with suicide in Hungary; for example, being unmarried or having no current relationship, lack of other social contacts, low educational attainment, history of self-harm, current diagnosis of affective disorder (including bipolar disorder or personality disorder, and experiencing a recent major adverse life event. A number of variables reflecting experiences since economic restructuring were also associated with suicide; for example, unemployment, concern over work propects, changes in living standards, practising religion. Just 20% of cases with evidence of depression at the time of death had received antidepressants. Conclusion Suicide rates in Hungary are falling. Our study identified a number of risk factors related to individual-level demographic and clinical characteristics, and possibly recent societal change. Improved management of psychiatric disorder and self-harm may result in further reductions in suicide rates.

  3. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric quaternary stereocenter formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L; Matcha, Kiran; Lutz, Martin; de Vries, Johannes G; Minnaard, Adriaan J

    2012-05-29

    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of β,β-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl(2), PhBOX, and AgSbF(6), and provides products in up to 99% enantiomeric excess, with good yields. Based on this strategy, (-)-α-cuparenone has been prepared in only two steps. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A Real Chance to Be the Member of EU"——An interview with Ambassador of the Republic of Hungary to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Hungary, as a new member of European Union, gains both opportunities and chal lenges. Facing such a situation that EU is China's second largest trade partner and vice versa, how will Hungary do to cooperate with China? On this occasion, we have interviewed H.E. Mihaly Bayer, Ambassador of the Republic of Hungary to China. Below is the interview with him.

  5. Lesson Plan on Comparative Political Systems: Compare and Contrast the Presidential Election System of the USA to the Parliamentary Election System of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel W.

    This lesson describes the current government of Hungary and its underlying political and electoral systems. The lesson is structured with: (1) background on the parliamentary model of government, political parties, and Hungary's unique electoral system; (2) a summary of the six major political parties in Hungary and voter information for the 1990…

  6. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Hungary Representing Two Peak Incidence Periods in Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Tímea; Szabó, Móni; Szmolka, Ama; Kiss, János

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from humans (1980 to 1982) and broiler chickens (2016) have been sequenced. They represent the early and recent peak incidences of this serovar in Hungary. Genome sequences of these isolates provide comparative data on the evolution and rise of an endemic S. Infantis clone in Hungary. PMID:28254986

  7. THE BINARY IMAGE OF THE DUAL OF QUATERNARY GOETHALS CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔杰

    2002-01-01

    The 2-adic representations of codewords of the dual of quaternary Goethals code are given. By the 2-adic representations, the binary image of the dual of quaternary Goethals code under the Gray map is proved to be the nonlinear code constructed by Goethals in 1976.

  8. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary.

  9. Measuring Cross-Sectorial Law Enforcement Capacity of Regulatory Agencies in Hungary

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    György GAJDUSCHEK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the effectiveness of law enforcement by regulatory agencies in Hungary. Empirical data were collected from such diverse felds as consumer rights protection, construc-tion, road safety, labor regulation, etc. The data were analyzed using a simplifed rational choice model, looking for evidence of whether adminis-trative practices were effective in preventing ra-tional actors from breaking the law. The analysis robustly proves the ineffectiveness of regulatory activity, as the breaking of laws may yield, in a conservative estimate, 10 to 100,000 times more income than the expected monetary value of the fne. In brief, the government of Hungary is gen-erally unable to enforce its own laws. Though the paper makes use of data solely from Hungary, it aims to provide a methodology for measuring regulatory capacity more generally.

  10. Review of pressurized thermal shock studies of large scale reactor pressure vessels in Hungary

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    Tamás Fekete

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary, four nuclear power units were constructed more than 30 years ago; they are operating to this day. In every unit, VVER-440 V213-type light-water cooled, light-water moderated, ressurized water reactors are in operation. Since the mid-1980s, numerous researches in the field of Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS analyses of Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPVs have been conducted in Hungary; in all of them, the concept of structural integrity was the basis of research and development. During this time, four large PTS studies with industrial relevance have been completed in Hungary. Each used different objectives and guides, and the analysis methodology was also changing. This paper gives a comparative review of the methodologies used in these large PTS Structural Integrity Analysis projects, presenting the latest results as well

  11. APPLICATION OF THE EU-PRINCIPLES IN ROMANIA AND HUNGARY CONCERNING THE BOARDS OF LISTED COMPANIES

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    Gabriella KECZER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance ensures that boards are able to exercise appropriate scrutiny over management and that shareholders, as owners of the company, are able to hold boards accountable. As such, a high level of corporate governance contributes significantly to investors' confidence and market stability, thus fostering business efficiency. In 2005 the European Commission launched a recommendation on the boards of listed companies and invited Member States to follow the guidelines. In 2008 both Romania and Hungary launched a new Code of Corporate Governance on the basis of the EU recommendations. In my paper I present the EU principles, and by examining the national codes of Romania and Hungary I analyze to which extent and in what issues these two countries have adopted the EU recommendations. I concluded that by the new codes of corporate governance issued in 2008 Romania and Hungary have followed to a large extent the provisions of the EU recommendation.

  12. Poroid Fungi of Hungary in the Collection of Zoltán Igmándy

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    SZABÓ, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoltán Igmándy (1925–2000, prominent Hungarian mycologist, worked as professor of forest protection at the University of West-Hungary Sopron. His main research area was the investigation of wood-inhabiting poroid fungi of Hungary, their occurrence and importance in forest pathology and wood protection. During his 40 years of scientific activity Igmándy created a rich fungal collection (herbarium Z. Igmándy which includes the complete polypore mycota known to occur in Hungary until 1990. The paper provides a brief compendium of the collection, a list of species characterised by the number of specimens, number of sampling locations and enumeration of the hosts and substrata of the specimens.

  13. Introduction: Questions of Space and Place in Scholarship on Modern Hungary

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    Steven Jobbitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on both the personal and intellectual factors that influenced this thematic cluster on space, place, and the making of modern Hungary, the authors situate themselves within the history of the post-socialist revival of geography in Hungary, outlining in particular emergent fields of study and new schools of thought that have transformed geographical research and teaching over the last decade. Having drawn together historians and geographers working in Hungary, Canada, and the United States, Part I of this two-part cluster represents an effort to bring different disciplinary streams and academic cultures into contact with one another, and has provided the authors with an opportunity to better survey the state of a very broad and dynamic field of study, and to identify and begin to address lacunae in their collaborative work.

  14. EU Enlargement and Minority Rights Policies in Central Europe: Explaining Policy Shifts in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

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    Peter Vermeersch

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available To what extent has the EU's growing concern for norms of minority protection influenced domestic policy-making in the candidate member states in Central Europe? In order to begin to explore this question, the present article assesses the impact of both domestic and international factors on the development of policies towards national minorities in three Central europen countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. Following an introduction, which places the subject in the context of the larger debates on minority rights, the first part of the article describes the ways in which regional organizations in Europe have attempted to persuade or induce the three countries under consideration to adopt minority rights policies. The second section then describes policy developments in Central Europe and considers the factors that have contributed to policy shifts. Finally, the third part reflects on the uneven impact of the EU's accession criteria on the development of minority rights policies in the candidate countries and concludes that the EU's impact on policy has crucially depended both on domestic interests and receptivity to international concerns for internal security.

  15. Budapest, Hungary, Perspective View, SRTM Elevation Model with Landsat Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    After draining the northern flank of the Alps Mountains in Germany and Austria, the Danube River flows east as it enters this west-looking scene (upper right) and forms the border between Slovakia and Hungary. The river then leaves the border as it enters Hungary and transects the Transdanubian Mountains, which trend southwest to northeast. Upon exiting the mountains, the river turns southward, flowing past Budapest (purplish blue area) and along the western margin of the Great Hungarian Plain.South and west of the Danube, the Transdanubian Mountains have at most only about 400 meters (about 1300 feet) of relief but they exhibit varied landforms, which include volcanic, tectonic, fluvial (river), and eolian (wind) features. A thick deposit of loess (dust deposits likely blown from ancient glacial outwash) covers much of this area, and winds from the northwest, funneled between the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are apparently responsible for a radial pattern of erosional streaks across the entire region.This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The false colors of the scene result from displaying Landsat bands 1, 4, and 7 in blue, green, and red, respectively. Band 1 is visible blue light, but bands 4 and 7 are reflected infrared light. This band combination maximizes color contrasts between the major land cover types, namely vegetation (green), bare ground (red), and water (blue). Shading of the elevation model was used to further highlight the topographic features.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  16. Case reports: arsenic pollution in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw; Visoottiviseth, Pornsawan; Bux, M Khoda; Födényi, Rita; Kováts, Nora; Borbély, Gábor; Galbács, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    Although arsenic contamination in the three countries described herein differs, a number of common themes emerge. In each country, the presence of arsenic is both long term and of geological origin. Moreover, in each of these countries, arsenic was only recently discovered to be a potential public health problem, having been first formally recognized in the 1980s or 1990s. In Bangledesh, exposure of the public to arsenic arose as a result of the search for microbially safe drinking water; this search resulted in the sinking of tube wells into aquifers. In Hungary, the natural bedrock geology was responsible for contamination of aquifer water. The genesis of arsenic contamination in Thailand arose primarily from small-scale alluvial mining activities, which mobilized geologically bound arsenic. Because of the complex chemistry of arsenic, and variability in where it is found and how it is bound, multiple mitigation methods must be considered for mitigating episodes of environmental contamination. The Ron Phibun region of Thailand has a 100-yr history of tin mining. A geological survey of the region was conducted in the mid-1990s by the Department of Mineral Resources and Department of Industry of Thailand, and was supported by the British Geological Society. Skin cancer in Thailand was first reported in 1987, in the southern part of the country; among other symptoms observed, there was evidence of IQ diminutions among the population. Arsenic water levels to 9,000 pg/L were reported; such levels are substantially above any guideline levels. A long-term plan to mitigate arsenic contamination was devised in 1998-2000. The plan involved removal of arsenic-contaminated land and improved management of mining wastes. However, at $22 million, the cost was deemed prohibitive for the regional Thai economy. An alternative solution of providing pipeline drinking water to the exposed population was also unsuccessful, either because arsenic contamination levels did not fall

  17. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  18. THE EVOLUTION OF THE MACROECONOMIC STABILISATION PENTAGON IN ROMANIA, CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY

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    Ionita Rodica Oana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to achieve the pentagon analysis of macroeconomic stabilization in Romania, Czech Republic and Hungary in the period 2000 to 2013. It is a comparative analysis of the countries above mentioned in terms of the five key targets of economic policy, aiming the increasing, dynamic balance of each economy: economic growth rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, the budget deficit as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product, the current account deficit of the balance of payments as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product. The main objective of each economy which passes from planned to market economy should be to cease the economic decline, followed by the elimination of internal and external imbalances and only after that it should be followed by a continuous growth process. All the above mentioned indicators shall be represented on an ad hoc graduated scale. The period of research was chosen so as to obtain a view of the macroeconomic policies in transition from one period to another, in order to highlight the common as well as the main differences in the approach used for economy stabilization. Therefore I have computed the graphical analysis of macroeconomic stabilization pentagon for the three countries in the period 2000- 2013 to captures the dynamics of the economic policy mix. This benchmark tool shows the interdependence which exists between inflation and other important economic indicators. The events occurred in the period starting with 2007/2008 have raised the interest of economics researchers, highlighting the need for significant improvements in the surveillance of the economic and financial system. The global fragility generated concerns regarding the vulnerabilities and causes which led to the occurrence of such events, thus generating different measurement techniques. Despite all its advantages, this approach has a significant limitation consisting in the fact that it can only reveal a picture without surprising other

  19. Health impact assessment of quality wine production in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám, Balázs; Molnár, Agnes; Bárdos, Helga; Adány, Róza

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol-related health outcomes show strikingly high incidence in Hungary. The effects of alcohol consumption are influenced not only by the quantity, but also the quality of drinks; therefore, wine production can have an important effect on public health outcomes. Nevertheless, the Hungarian wine sector faces several vital problems and challenges influenced by the country's accession to the European Union and by the need for restructuring. A comprehensive health impact assessment (HIA) based on the evaluation of the Hungarian legislation related to the wine sector has been carried out, aiming to assess the impact of the production of quality wine versus that of table wine, using a range of public health and epidemiological research methods and data as well as HIA guidelines. The study finds that the toxic effects of alcohol can be reduced with an increased supply of quality wine and with decreased overall consumption due to higher cost, although this might drive some people to seek illegal sources. Quality wine production allows for improved use of land, creates employment opportunities and increases the incomes of producers and local communities; however, capital-scarce producers unable to manage restructuring may lose their source of subsistence. The supply of quality wine can promote social relations, contribute to a healthy lifestyle and reduce criminality related to alcohol's influence and adulteration. In general, the production and supply of quality wine can have an overall positive impact on health. Nevertheless, because of the several possible negative effects expected without purposeful restructuring, recommendations for the maximization of favourable outcomes and suggestions for monitoring the success of the analysis have been provided.

  20. SET UP OF THE NEW AUTOMATIC HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL NETWORK IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NAGy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian Meteorological Service (OMSZ and General Directorate of Water Management (OVF in Hungary run conventional precipitation measurement networks consisting of at least 1000 stations. OMSZ automated its synoptic and climatological network in 90’s and now more than 100 automatic stations give data every 1-10 minutes via GPRS channel. In 2007 the experts from both institutions determined the requirements of a common network. The predecessor in title of OVF is general Directorate for Water and Environment gave a project proposal in 2008 for establishment of a new hydrometeorological network based on common aims for meteorology and hydrology. The new hydrometeorological network was set up in 2012 financed by KEOP project. This network has got 141 weighing precipitation gauges, 118 temperature - humidity sensors and 25 soil moisture and soil temperature instruments. Near by Tisza-Lake two wind sensors have been installed. The network is operated by OMSZ and OVF together. OVF and its institutions maintain the stations itself and support the electricity. OMSZ operates data collection and transmission, maintaines and calibrates the sensors. Using precipitation data of enhanced network the radar precipitation field quality may be more precise, which are input of run-off model. Thereby the time allowance may be increased in flood-control events. Based on soil moisture and temperature water balance in soil may be modelled and forecast can be produced in different conditions. It is very important task in drought and inland water conditions. Considering OMSZ investment project in which new Doppler dual polarisation radar and 14 disdrometers will be installed, the precipitation estimation may be improved since 2015.

  1. Basic education in communist Hungary. A commons approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Gyuris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In commons research, the study of the ‘knowledge commons’ has emerged as a new field of interest over the last few years. Our paper begins by providing a brief overview of the state of research in the field, and proceeds by discussing some crucial but relatively underconceptualised issues. The difference between information and knowledge, and the ambiguities surrounding the claim that all sorts of knowledge can be considered part of the commons, are the focal point here. We also pay close attention to education, arguing that it is not a common good, but rather a common-pool resource institution that ensures that some forms of knowledge can be governed as a commons. With regard to these issues, the article provides a case study, one in which we analyse basic education in Communist Hungary, and look for evidence of the commons design principles as outlined in Elinor Ostrom’s IAD Framework. Given the complex nature of basic education, we investigate it from three points of view: as a service, as a set of physical structures (e.g. school buildings, and as a complex of organizational structures (e.g. legal and financial arrangements. On the basis of empirical findings we argue that basic education in the Stalinist epoch did not correspond to Ostromian design principles. Basic education, therefore, was not managed in an equitable way, and its geographical accessibility was uneven. During the ‘technocratic’ Communism of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the education system underwent important changes. However, though the circle of those who had some impact on the governance of education expanded, most individuals involved with the education system were still excluded. As a result, the commons approach did not become stronger in general, nor did spatial unevenness with respect to access to basic education decrease. The paper finishes with a brief conclusion of our findings and a discussion of some questions for future research.

  2. Monitoring of West Nile virus in mosquitoes between 2011-2012 in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Antal, László; Tóth, Mihály; Kemenesi, Gábor; Soltész, Zoltán; Dán, Adám; Erdélyi, Károly; Bányai, Krisztián; Bálint, Adám; Jakab, Ferenc; Bakonyi, Tamás

    2014-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a widely distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus. WNV strains are classified into several genetic lineages on the basis of phylogenetic differences. Whereas lineage 1 viruses are distributed worldwide, lineage 2 WNV was first detected outside of Africa in Hungary in 2004. Since then, WNV-associated disease and mortality in animal and human hosts have been documented periodically in Hungary. After the first detection of WNV from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 2010, samples were collated from several sources and tested in a 2-year monitoring program. Collection areas were located in the Southern Transdanubium, in northeastern Hungary, in eastern Hungary, and in southeastern Hungary. During the 2 years, 23,193 mosquitoes in 645 pools were screened for WNV virus presence with RT-PCR. Three pools were found positive for WNV in 2011 (one pool of Ochlerotatus annulipes collected in Fényeslitke in June, one pool of Coquillettidia richiardii collected in Debrecen, Fancsika-tó, in July, and one pool of Cx. pipiens captured near Red-Footed Falcon colonies at Kardoskút in September). The minimal infection rate (MIR=proportion of infected mosquitoes per 1000 mosquitoes) of all mosquito pools was 0.25, whereas the MIR of infected species was 2.03 for O. annulipes, 0.63 for C. richiardii, and 2.70 for C.x pipiens. Molecular data have demonstrated that the same lineage 2 WNV strain has circulated in wild birds, horses, humans, and mosquitoes in Hungary since 2004. Mosquito-based surveillance successfully complemented the ongoing, long-term passive surveillance system and it was useful for the early detection of WNV circulation.

  3. Right Radicalism and the Factors of Xenophobic Social Practices in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasov Ilya Nikolaevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary, during 2010-2015 the growing xenophobic attitudes are noticed in the society, and right radical extremist groups gain power. The aim of the article is to identify the most significant factors that encourage xenophobia in Hungary. The types of right organizations and their electoral performance are determined. Our hypothesis is that the activity of right extremist organizations influences the formation of xenophobic social practices in Hungary. By means of factor analysis the author identified the main directions and forms of activity of right radicals, determined the value of socio-economic dynamics of Hungary, characterized the attitudes of society, the law and the ruling elite to the problems of xenophobia and right radicalism. Among the most influential factors we should name: open propaganda of nationalist ideas; constitutional priority to the interests of ethnic Hungarians; parliamentary membership of the Movement “For a Better Hungary”; condoning by the ruling elite, the courts and the police of the right radical activity. The paper presents the trend in the contemporary Hungary: the public demonstrates intolerance to right radicalism in cases of criminal behavior, but for the most part is loyal to its ideologies. Except for oppositional human rights organizations and ethnic communities, a significant part of Hungarian society often shows nearly complete indifference to the issues of xenophobia, racial and ethnic discrimination. The author described five groups of factors that stimulate the reproduction of xenophobic attitudes and practices among various groups of the population: “historical”, institutional, socioeconomic, legal and political. The paper uses empirical data of public opinion polls conducted by leading research centers in Hungary, as well as statistical data of public authorities, civil society institutions.

  4. [The school of drogists in Budapest and the history of education of drogists in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárencz, L

    2000-01-01

    The author, while writing the biography of the Hungarian pharmacist, Endre Kazay (1876-1923) came across a rich and still unpublished archival material regarding the history of the education of drogists in Hungary. The present paper focuses on the making of drogists, and the possibilities of secondary schooling of pharmacists in Hungary from the last decades of the 19 century up to the present days. The paper presents the history of the trade school of drogists, and also the rise and fall of this special profession, which is about to be forgotten. These so far unpublished data will certainly change our views on this subject.

  5. JPRS Report, Supplement, East Europe. Hungary: Antall Government’s Economic Program (The Kupa Plan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    HUNGARY: Antall Government s Economic Program (The Kupa Plan) REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE...SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 ’MIC QtfALWV flfSPEOTED y fN3 East Europe Supplement Hungary: Antall Government’s Economic Program (The Kupa Plan) JPRS-EER-91...079-S CONTENTS 8 June 1991 THE KUPA PLAN Antall Government’s Economic Program: The Kupa Plan [MAGYAR HIRLAP 17 Apr] 1 JPRS-EER-91-079-S 8

  6. USSR Report, International Economic Relations, No. 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-18

    into the material basis for socialist integration. In the Basic Principles of the International Socialist Division of Labor the economic essence of...Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary). At the present time in the People’s Republic of Bulgaria enterprises pay a gross income regulation tax which, in essence ...road stretch rows of spreading acacia and eucalyptus trees. On the right through the luxurious crown of the trees one can see the plots of the

  7. Interview with Erzsébet Barát, Organizer of the Annual Conference, Language, Ideology, Media: Gender/Sexuality Relations in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet László

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Language, Ideology, Media: Gender/Sexuality Relations in Hungary is an annual interdisciplinary conference first launched in September 2005 that has grown into “the only regular research forum for feminist scholarship concerned with Hungarian cultural practices of gender and sexuality” (http://primus.arts.u-szeged.hu/ieas/gender/index.html. Since the first contextualizing/grounding event in 2005, whose theme was ‘A nő helye a magyar nyelvhasználatban’ (Woman’s Place in Hungarian Language Use, the conference has touched upon such important issues as stereotypes of “woman” and “femininity” (2006, feminine/masculine identity and experience (2007, the relation of “woman” and body/sensuality (2008, the spaces of sexuality (2009 institutionalizations of gender relations with a specific focus on the intersection of gender and nation(alism in Hungary (2010. (See the Archive section of the webpage for detailed information. The theme of the upcoming 2011 conference will concern issues of gender relations and feminism in post-socialist Hungary. To date the conference is the only academic forum in Hungary that provides an opportunity to explore contemporary issues of the relations of Hungarian language and power, cultural representations and ideology, and Hungarian women and feminist thought from an interdisciplinary perspective attracting scholars from Hungarian as well as non-Hungarian universities. Speakers of the conference include well-established feminist scholars with international visibility, such as Louise O. Vasvári (New York University, Stony Brook University, Andrea Virginas, Sapientia, Transylvanian Hungarian University, Cluj, Bolemant Lilla Comenius University, Bratislava, Mária Joó ELTE, Budapest, Judit Friedrich, ELTE Budapest, Nóra Sélley, University of Debrecen, or Erzsébet Barát (University of Szeged, Central European University, Budapest, and Anna Kérchy (University of Szeged. The

  8. Preliminary study of a potential CO2 reservoir area in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendula, Eszter; Király, Csilla; Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Falus, György; Szabó, Csaba; Kovács, István; Füri, Judit; Kónya, Péter; Páles, Mariann; Forray, Viktória

    2014-05-01

    Since the first international agreement in 1997 (the Kyoto Protocol) the reduction of greenhouse gas emission has a key role in the European Union's energy and climate change policy. Following the Directive 2009/31/EC we are experiencing a significant change in the Hungarian national activity. Since the harmonization procedure, which was completed in May 2012, the national regulation obligates the competent authority to collect and regularly update all geological complexes that are potential for CO2 geological storage. In Hungary the most abundant potential storage formations are mostly saline aquifers of the Great Hungarian Plain (SE-Hungary), with sandstone reservoir and clayey caprock. The Neogene basin of the Great Hungarian Plain was subsided and then filled by a prograding delta system from NW and NE during the Late Miocene, mostly in the Pannonian time. The most potential storage rock was formed as a fine-grained sandy turbidite interlayered by thin argillaceous beds in the deepest part of the basin. It has relatively high porosity, depth and more than 1000 m thickness. Providing a regional coverage for the sandy turbidite, a 400-500 m thick argillaceous succession was formed in the slope environment. The composition, thickness and low permeability is expected to make it a suitable, leakage-safe caprock of the storage system. This succession is underlain by argillaceous rocks that were formed in the basin, far from sediment input and overlain by interfingering siltstone, sandstone and claystone succession formed in delta and shoreline environments and in the alluvial plain. Core samples have been collected from the potential reservoir rock and its cap rock in the Great Hungarian Plain's succession. The water compositions of the studied depth were known from well-log database. Using the information, acquired from these archive documents, we have constructed input data for geochemical modeling in order to to study the effect of pCO2 injection in the potential

  9. European Union Law — Right of Free Movement — European Court of Justice Holds that the Slovak Republic Did Not Violate EU Law in Banning the President of Hungary from Entering Its Territory. — Case C-364/10, Hungary v. Slovak Republic, 2012 ECJ EUR-Lex LEXIS 2465 (Oct. 16, 2012)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

      Recently, in Hungary v. Slovak Republic, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) held that the Slovak Republic's decision to ban the President of Hungary from entering its territory did not violate EU law...

  10. Quantitative analysis of deuterium using the isotopic effect on quaternary {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Tamim A., E-mail: tamim.darwish@ansto.gov.au [National Deuteration Facility, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 21, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Yepuri, Nageshwar Rao; Holden, Peter J. [National Deuteration Facility, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 21, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); James, Michael [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2016-07-13

    Quantitative analysis of specifically deuterated compounds can be achieved by a number of conventional methods, such as mass spectroscopy, or by quantifying the residual {sup 1}H NMR signals compared to signals from internal standards. However, site specific quantification using these methods becomes challenging when dealing with non-specifically or randomly deuterated compounds that are produced by metal catalyzed hydrothermal reactions in D{sub 2}O, one of the most convenient deuteration methods. In this study, deuterium-induced NMR isotope shifts of quaternary {sup 13}C resonances neighboring deuterated sites have been utilized to quantify the degree of isotope labeling of molecular sites in non-specifically deuterated molecules. By probing {sup 13}C NMR signals while decoupling both proton and deuterium nuclei, it is possible to resolve {sup 13}C resonances of the different isotopologues based on the isotopic shifts and the degree of deuteration of the carbon atoms. We demonstrate that in different isotopologues, the same quaternary carbon, neighboring partially deuterated carbon atoms, are affected to an equal extent by relaxation. Decoupling both nuclei ({sup 1}H, {sup 2}H) resolves closely separated quaternary {sup 13}C signals of the different isotopologues, and allows their accurate integration and quantification under short relaxation delays (D1 = 1 s) and hence fast accumulative spectral acquisition. We have performed a number of approaches to quantify the deuterium content at different specific sites to demonstrate a convenient and generic analysis method for use in randomly deuterated molecules, or in cases of specifically deuterated molecules where back-exchange processes may take place during work up. - Graphical abstract: The relative intensities of quaternary {sup 13}C {"1H,"2H} resonances are equal despite the different relaxation delays, allowing the relative abundance of the different deuterated isotopologues to be calculated using NMR fast

  11. Late Quaternary transgressive large dunes on the sediment-starved Adriatic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correggiari, A.; Field, M.E.; Trincardi, F.

    1996-01-01

    The Adriatic epicontinental basin is a low-gradient shelf where the late-Quaternary transgressive systems tract (TST) is composed of thin parasequences of backbarrier, shoreface and offshore deposits. The facies and internal architecture of the late-Quaternary TST in the Adriatic epicontinental basin changed consistently from early transgression to late transgression reflecting: (1) fluctuations in the balance between sediment supply and accommodation increase, and (2) a progressive intensification of the oceanographic regime, driven by the transgressive widening of the basin to as much as seven times its lowstand extent. One of the consequences of this trend is that high-energy marine bedforms such as sand ridges and sand waves characterize only areas that were flooded close to the end of the late-Quaternary sea-level rise, when the wind fetch was maximum and bigger waves and stronger storm currents could form. We studied the morphology, sediment composition and sequence-stratigraphical setting of a field of asymmetric bedforms (typically 3 m high and 600 m in wavelength) in 20-24 m water depth offshore the Venice Lagoon in the sediment-starved North Adriatic shelf. The sand that forms these large dunes derived from a drowned transgressive coastal deposit reworked by marine processes. Early cementation took place over most of the dune crests limiting their activity and preventing their destruction. Both the formation and deactivation of this field of sand dunes occurred over a short time interval close to the turn-around point that separates the late-Quaternary sea-level rise and the following highstand and reflect rapid changes in the oceanographic regime of the basin.

  12. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  13. Paleomagnetic research on Black Sea Quaternary sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcheva, V.; Nozharov, P.; Kovacheva, M.; Shopov, V.

    1990-10-01

    The paper reports the first paleomagnetic study of a Black Sea Quaternary sediment core made by a Bulgarian research group. The experimental results show an important difference in magnetic behaviour between the samples from the Holocene part and those from the Pleistocene part of the core. Suggestions are made for the character of the remanent magnetization and the main carriers of it. The presence of greigite (Fe 3S 4) and pyrite (FeS 2) is discussed. A rough correlation is established between the variation of inclination for the Holocene part of the sediment and for the Bulgarian archeomagnetic curve. On the basis of the comparison of inclination data obtained from the Pleistocene part of the core and previously studied Black Sea core (related to the absolute time scale), it is suggested that the lower boundary of the Pleistocene part is ˜ 16000 years old (BP).

  14. Suggested terminology for Quaternary dating methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Pierce, K.L.; Birkeland, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Classification of Quaternary dating methods should be based on the level of quantitative information and the degree of confidence contained in the age estimates produced by the dating methods. We recommend the use of the terms numerical-age, calibrated-age, relative-age, and correlated-age to describe these levels. We also classify dating methods by type into sideral, isotopic, radiogenic, chemical and biological, geomorphic, and correlation methods. The use of "absolute" is inappropriate for most dating methods, and should be replaced by "numerical." The use of "date" should be minimized in favor of "age" or "age estimate." We recommend use of the abbreviations ka and Ma for most ages; calender dates can be used where appropriate and yr B.P. can be used for radiocarbon ages. ?? 1987.

  15. Quaternary ammonium compounds – New occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic crossreactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. Med Pr 2014;65(5:675–682

  16. Biosedimentology of Quaternary stromatolites in intertropical Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, J.

    Mineralizations of microbial origin constitute a non-negligeable part of Quaternary limestones in intertropical Africa. Stromatolites have colonized a wide range of environments corresponding to different hydroclimatic situations: travertines in fluviatile environments, oncolites in flood plains, encrustations in sebkha areas and shorelines of deep, fresh water lakes. The developed morphologies represent a complete catalogue of the microbial carbonated mineralizations: oncolites, chemneys, pool-rim dams, biocherms, planar or cylindrical encrustations. The building organisms may be either pure bacterial colonies (hydrothermal and lacustrine environments), cyanophyte associations (fluviatile and lacustrine environments) or complex microbial biocoenoses. Stromatolites have recorded the hydrologic, climatic and sedimentologic evolution of the continental environment in intertropical Africa for the past 240 000 years.

  17. Hydration Structure of the Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Babiaczyk, Wojtek Iwo

    2010-11-25

    Two indicators of the hydropathicity of small solutes are introduced and tested by molecular dynamics simulations. These indicators are defined as probabilities of the orientation of water molecules\\' dipoles and hydrogen bond vectors, conditional on a generalized distance from the solute suitable for arbitrarily shaped molecules. Using conditional probabilities, it is possible to distinguish features of the distributions in close proximity of the solute. These regions contain the most significant information on the hydration structure but cannot be adequately represented by using, as is usually done, joint distance-angle probability densities. Our calculations show that using our indicators a relative hydropathicity scale for the interesting test set of the quaternary ammonium cations can be roughly determined. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. Energy consumption maps for quaternary distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Castro, F.I.; Ramírez-Vallejo, N.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    of the solutions space. For the separation of ternary mixtures, Tedder and Rudd (1978) presented a composition map for which thermally coupled systems allowed energy savings. However, the scenario is different for quaternary mixtures, since no similar information is available. Therefore, in this work, energy...... be generated for the separation of multicomponent mixtures. This fact is an advantage, since a wide portfolio of alternatives can be used to separate a specific mixture; however, this is also a disadvantage since a lot of alternatives must be explored in order to find the optimal one. The optimal configuration......, for a given mixture, depends on the nature of the mixture, usually quantified for ternary mixtures through the ease of separation index (ESI), and also on the feed composition. As can be noticed, the size of the design and optimization problem increases when these variables are considered in the generation...

  19. Late Quaternary temperature change velocity in Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Metrio, A.; Lozano, S.; Sosa-Nájera, S.; Bush, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Quaternary climate has been highly variable, and yet few quantitative continental reconstructions are available for tropical areas. Quantitative records of temperature change during the Quaternary are especially relevant for putting modern climate change into a historic context. Within this perspective, two aspects are of singular relevance: i) Identifying and quantifying past climatic variability, and ii) Providing a means to estimate the seed at which climate change happened in the past. Here we show temperature reconstructions and temperature change velocity calculations for two locations in northern tropical America. Temperature reconstruction was based on two sedimentary records form Lake Chalco (30,000 years), central Mexican highlands, and Lake Petén-Itzá, Guatemalan lowlands (86,000 years). Temperature reconstruction was based on the analysis of fossil pollen on the light of pollen-temperature transfer functions. These functions were calibrated through an extensive survey of modern pollen samples covering an elevational gradient from 0 to 4,218 m asl. Derived temperature profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling of approximately 5 oC during the Last Glacial Maximum in the lowlands and highlands of Mexico and Guatemala. Using a digital elevation model, we ere able to reconstruct the velocity at which isotherms displaced to produce the observed temperature anomalies. Spatial velocities of temperature change in the studied areas were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. This study demonstrates that modern temperature change has no precedent within the last 86,000 years, but also that tropical climate has been more variable than it has been assumed to date.

  20. Study of radiocarbon dynamics of Baradla Cave, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Mihály; Dezsö, Zoltán; Futo, Istvan; Siklósy, Zoltan; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Koltai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Carbon isotope composition of speleothems and their parent drip water reflects the isotope composition of the atmospheric CO2, the soil and the host rock and can sometimes be influenced even by the cave atmosphere. Owing to the fact that 14C in the bedrock has long decayed, the bedrock derived carbon content of the seepage water can be considered as inactive or "dead carbon". The initial dead carbon proportion (dcp) of a stalagmite or tufa layer, caused by the incorporation of the inactive carbon, can be calculated with the help of the C-14 level differences between the contemporary atmosphere and the formed stone carbonate. The revolutionary technological advances of 14C (AMS) have brought the possibility of analysing 14C dynamics of karst systems due to the small amount of demanded material. The Baradla-Domica Cave is the largest cave of Gömör-Torna Karst, a karst area situated in the northeast of Hungary, and located on the Slovakian-Hungarian borderland. The approximately 26 km long cave is a typical example of multi-level speleogenesis. As a case study we have investigated several recent (age < 50 years) and older (age about 10-11 kyrs) stalagmites and recent drip water, some freshwater tufa samples and the recent cave air carbon-dioxide of the Baradla-cave to study the carbon dynamics and dead carbon level there. According four modern stalagmites (formed 1991-2004) the current dcp is very small in Baradla Cave (3-7%). Stalagmites deposited in Holocene (U/Th dated) were also characterized by very small dead carbon contents (1-11% dcp). Outside the cave a dpc about 20-25% was found in a freshwater tufa sample. This relatively low dead carbon content might be either explained by the thinness of the limestone bedrock above (56-80 m) or the relatively fast infiltration conditions, or their combined effect. Cave air is enriched in CO2 (2-5 times higher than in natural air, not homogenous) but the source of this surplus CO2 is not the limestone according its

  1. The Major Trends of Food Consumption in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelita Kata Gódor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 20th century the food consumption levels were much lower than later in the century, when food production increased as well. The selection of foodstuffs became wider and we can observe the modernisation of nutrition principles too, which both had a positive impact on consumption. The variety of food was also affected by the increasing life expectancy. The emergence of more modern ways in food consumption is halted not only by the traditions but by the fact that healthier foods are more expensive than fat or cereal prices. There is a significant correlation between the income levels and the quality of consumed food, as it can be observed that in different regions in Hungary. My aim was also to investigate the change in consumer behaviour in parallel with the increase of income levels; to see which sort of foods are preferred by the wealthier, and which are preferred by the ones with less income. It is also important to analyse the economic and social indicators on regional and other spatial levels and to compare them with food consumption. The annual net income per capita is usually higher in more developed regions than in the less developed ones. Therefore, the expenditure spent on better quality and more expensive food products is also higher. Similarly, in the case of the population there are differences in consumer habits according to purchasing power. For instance, for people with higher income one of the most important factors is to buy healthy and high quality food, but for the ones with lower income it can be a struggle only to find food in sufficient quantities, and quality cannot be as much of an issue. In the consumer basket, foodstuff accounts for approximately one-third of the overall expenditure. In this study I analysed the annual expenditure of Hungary’s population on foodstuffs and the annual quantity of food consumed by households per capita on a regional level between 2010 and 2013.

  2. JURASSIC PALAEOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TRANSDANUBIAN CENTRAL RANGE (HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATTILA VÖRÖS

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Transdanubian Central Range (TCR is a flattened range of hills in northern Transdanubia (Hungary, formed mainly by Mesozoic carbonate rocks showing strong facies similarities with the Southern Alps and the Austroalpine domain. The Jurassic system is divided into several formations of predominantly pelagic limestones. Ammonoids are frequent and were collected bed-by-bed in numerous sections, providing an excellent biostratigraphic resolution. The thickness of the Jurassic system is usually small but changes along the strike of the TCR. It reaches a maximum thickness of 500 m in the western part; is very variable (10-400 m in the central segment (Bakony Mts. and rather low (less than 100 m in the east (Gerecse. In the Bakony segment, the thickness variation reflects the strongly dissected topography of the Jurassic sea-floor. Synsedimentary tectonics is dominated by normal faults; tilted blocks and listric faults may be inferred only in the east.Five main steps were identified in the palaeogeographic evolution: 1 Late Hettangian: carbonate oolitic shoals prevail, except for a few sites where non-deposition or neritic sediments occur. 2 Sinemurian and Pliensbachian: tectonic disintegration resulted in an intricate pattern of submarine horsts and intervening basins, with condensed sedimentation or non-deposition on the horsts and thicker, continuous sedimentary sequences in the basins. The submarine topographic highs are surrounded by aprons of redeposited material (scarp breccias, brachiopod coquinas, crinoidal calcarenites, spiculitic cherty limestones, while pure or argillaceous limestones (Rosso Ammonitico prevail in the distal areas. 3 Early Toarcian: the Tethys-wide anoxic event is superimposed on the previous submarine bottom topography; the resulting black shales and sedimentary Mn-ores are concentrated on the western sides of some horsts. 4 Dogger to Early Malm: radiolarites with heterochronous lower and upper boundaries (Aalenian to

  3. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  4. Whole-body counter intercomparison measurements in Hungary and Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary). KFKI; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a co-operation agreement between Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf, Italian ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection and Hungarian KFKI Atomic Energy Research Centre, an intercomparison on WBC measurements using a modular bottle phantom was performed during 1995 in Hungary, on May-July 1996 in the Northern part of Italy. Results related to the relative bias for the three body masses are reported, together with indication of their compliance with ANSI report N13.30. It turned out that majority of the results were found to be within the performance criteria of the ANSI report, however there were also few outfalling results which were a good indication to check and improve the reliability of calibration and/or other methodological procedures. In the contrary of the expectance, the results related to 20 kg phantom resulted not significantly worse than those obtained for the adult phantom indicating the capacity for the participating WBC centres of measuring people from the general population. [Italiano] Nell`ambito di un accordo di collaborazione tra il Centro di Ricerca di Seibersdorf (Austria), l`Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell`ENEA (ENEA AMB PRO IRP) ed il Centro di Ricerca per l`Energia Atomica KFKI di Budapest (Ungheria), si e` svolto un interconfronto su misure WBC basato sull`utilizzo di un unico fantoccio modulare a bottiglie cui hanno partecipato centri WBC Ungheresi (1995) ed Italiani (Maggio-Giugno 1996). Nel presente rapporto tecnico vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti ed una loro analisi impostata sui criteri di valutazione recentemente proposti dall`ANSI nel rapporto N. 13.30. Sulla base di tale criterio la maggior parte dei risultati dell`interconfronto rientra nell`intervallo di accettabilita`; nei pochi casi di non accettabilita` si rende invece necessaria una revisione dei dati di calibrazione e delle metodologie. Contrariamente a quanto si poteva prevedere, i risultati relativi al fantoccio da 20 kg appaiono sostanzialmente

  5. 40 CFR 262.58 - International agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the..., Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,...

  6. Quaternary Logic and Applications Using Multiple Quantum Well Based SWSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gogna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Spatial Wavefunction-Switched Field-Effect Transistors (SWSFET to implement efficient quaternary logic and arithmetic functions. Various quaternary logic gates and digital building blocks are presented using SWSFETs. In addition, arithmetic operation with full adder using novel logic algebra is also presented. The SWSFET based implementation of digital logic, cache and arithmetic block results in up to 75% reduction in transistor count and up to 50% reduction in data interconnect densities. Simulations of quaternary logic gates using the BSIM equivalent models for SWSFET channels are also described.

  7. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers.

  8. Serbian: The Serbian Language in Education in Hungary. Regional Dossiers Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Anton, Comp.; Solymosi, Judit, Comp.

    2014-01-01

    This regional dossier aims at providing a concise description of and basic statistics on minority language education in a specific region of Europe--the territory of Magyarország (Hungary). Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as…

  9. The Bologna Process as a Trojan Horse: Restructuring Higher Education in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusztai, Gabriella; Szabo, Peter Cs.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in higher education in Hungary are strongly related to those in the economic and social environment. Since the change of the political system in the late 1980s, Hungarian economic development has been marked by periods of contraction and expansion. Notwithstanding this process, influenced in part by the state's imposition of restrictive…

  10. Academic Culture and Citizenship in Transitional Societies: Case Studies from China and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Through organizational case studies conducted at Guangdong University of Foreign Studies in China and Central European University in Hungary, this paper examines academic culture and citizenship in societies transitioning from communist to market-driven social and economic structures. The article presents a new model of citizenship, representing…

  11. Age Group, Location or Pedagogue: Factors Affecting Parental Choice of Kindergartens in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teszenyi, Eleonora; Hevey, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Hungary has experienced significant political, economic, demographic and social changes since the end of Soviet domination in the 1990s. The gradual move towards liberal democracy has been accompanied by growing emphasis on individualism, choice and diversity. Universal kindergarten provision for five- to six-year-olds is a long established…

  12. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Hungary 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurydice, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Hungary has been experiencing major changes and innovation initiatives in public education in the last decade. Transparency of school processes and a focus on outcome and effectiveness have become major issues. Accordingly, the methodology of making relevant data accessible to those concerned has gained major importance. In terms of assessment,…

  13. A Chronicle of School Music Education in Hungary, 1700-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Boglarka

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry is a chronological overview of the history of school music education in Hungary. The study explores the topic from a large-scale humanistic perspective, in which historical context, general education laws, individual institutions and music educators, as well as music curriculum, textbooks, and teaching methods serve as evidence. The…

  14. Whose Children Gain from Starting School Later?--Evidence from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwicker-Hamori, Szilvia; Kollo, Janos

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of school starting age on standardized test scores using data covering all Grade 4 and Grade 8 students in Hungary. Instrumental variables estimates of the local average treatment effect suggest that children generally gain from starting school 1 year later, and the effects are much stronger in the case of students coming…

  15. Retrospective study on the distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacsadi, Á; Papp, A; Szeredi, L; Tóth, G; Nemes, C; Imre, V; Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sréter, T

    2016-04-15

    Europe has experienced the spreading of vector-borne helminths including heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) from the Mediterranean countries towards the northern ones in the past decades. Recently, the establishment of D. immitis was confirmed in Hungary on the basis of period prevalence studies involving dogs, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus). The aim of our retrospective study was to describe the spatial distribution of the parasite and the time course of spreading of D. immitis in Hungary. Necropsy records of 2622 dogs received at our laboratories from 2001 to 2015 were reviewed for heartworm infections. The locality of origin of animals was recorded in a geographic information system database and compared to the results of the period prevalence study involving wild canids. Autochthonous heartworm infection was detected in 27 dogs. The time course analysis indicates that the parasite established in Hungary in 2007. As temperature is one of the most important determinants of the distribution of D. immitis, the climate of the Great Hungarian Plain is the most suitable region for the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary. Our studies revealed that the Great Hungarian Plain became a D. immitis endemic region for 2015. Nevertheless, sporadic cases in wild canids and dogs also occur in other regions of the country.

  16. The syphilis epidemics in Hungary 1985-2004, before entering the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talha, Elyas; Nagy, Károly; Horváth, Attila

    2013-09-01

    In the decade prior to the turn of the millennium, great interest was raised, and rightly so, by the STD (syphilis and HIV/AIDS) epidemic that developed in the Eastern-Central European Region. Its coincidence with the far-reaching political and economic changes that took place at that time suggested a link between the two events.Hungary, where these infections had had low incidence before the period investigated, also experienced an increase in STD incidence. The trend in syphilis infection during the 20 years between 1985-2004, that preceded the turn of the millennium and when finally Hungary joined the European Union, have been analyzed. Due to the nature of venereological epidemiological surveillance in Hungary, syphilis prevalence data are appropriate for further analysis from socio-demographic aspects. Behavioural changes underlying the specific features of the epidemics in Hungary had developed several years earlier and cannot be linked to the political and economic changes that started in the early 90s. The only exception is the phenomenon of growing migration that appeared simultaneously with the political changes and had a decisive impact on the spread and level of infection in some areas in the country. As shown by our data, trends seen in specific demographic groups (females, rural population) preceded the suddenly occurring political changes by about 15 years.

  17. Relationship between land-use intensity and species richness and abundance of birds in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, J.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.

    2004-01-01

    When Hungary, together with nine other central and eastern European countries, enters the European Union in 2004 two major threats will arise to the birds inhabiting agricultural landscapes. Marginal agricultural land may be abandoned, while the remaining area may suffer from intensification. To ass

  18. Environmental Education and Training in Hungary. Training Discussion Paper No. 83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Andras; Kohl, Agnes

    In Hungary, the educational system is responsible for developing an up-to-date and enlightened attitude toward the environment. Elementary schools have made the greatest advance in environmental education during the past 10 years. Conditions for environmental education are most favorable in the gymnasium; secondary vocational education has the…

  19. Changes in the Booktrade and Publishing in Hungary 1985-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Assesses the chaotic state of Hungary's booktrade and publishing industries. Presents a historical background that discusses the shift from centralized book distribution to a market economy and tables that reveal publishing trends. Impacts on the publishing industry include disruption of Hungarian traditions and development of alternative book…

  20. The Rationalisation of the Body: Physical Education in Hungary in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Miklos

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights how "turnen", the modernised form of earlier gymnastic exercises, emerged in Hungary in the second part of the nineteenth century. It is argued that although the advocates of the "turnen" movement are gradually squeezed from the spheres of modern competitive sports, their strategies of expansion are successful: earlier…

  1. Concerns Related to the Education of Romany Students in Hungary, Austria and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1982-01-01

    Describes, in detail, the educational status of Romany students in socialist Hungary and, briefly, in nonsocialist Austria and Finland. Regardless of the country's politics, attempts at successful schooling, through better teaching methods and parental and adult involvement, must be interwoven with changing the prejudices and employment practices…

  2. Cultural relations between Hungary and Albania during the period of Humanism and Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Mala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Hungarian-Albanian relations during the Middle Ages are characterized by a relatively poor intensity. Actually, relations between these two countries are more intense in the political field and especially through the partnership between Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and John Hunyadi. Regarding the origin, the Hungarian culture identity is rather distinct from the Albanian one. Lack of cultural contacts, among others, was conditioned also by the fact that these relations were held under war circumstances and their primary aim was the common defense from Ottoman attacks. Actually, the Albanian medieval culture remained a Mediterranean culture with elements of Byzantine influence in the continental and southern areas. Meanwhile, Hungary belonged to Central Europe, which, even though far away from Mediterranean cultural mainstream, sought to be influenced by this culture, namely by the Renaissance that emanated exactly in the Mediterranean region. It was Matthias Corvinus effort, regarding the cultural influence of the Mediterranean and Renaissance in Hungary but also the fact that Hungary possessed some of the most important towns of the Adriatic coast and particularly Ragusa. This city was the center where cultural relations between Albanian and Hungary started and became intensified in the religious, intellectual and human field.

  3. Situation Report--Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, France, Gambia, Grenada, Hungary, Nepal, and Paraguay. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General…

  4. Radioactive Waste Management on Hungary at the Turn of the Millennium II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temesi, A.; Pellet, S.; Fritz, A.

    2003-02-24

    The paper describes the challenging situation related to the radioactive waste management in Hungary. It is also discussing the legal and financial background and overviewing the developed strategy and the steps to be taken to find a reliable and safe disposal for L/ILW.

  5. Report on the Vocational Education and Training System in Hungary. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocz, Tamas Kopeczi

    An intrinsic part of the transition to a modern market economy in Hungary has been the restructuring of the vocational education and training (VET) system. A positive side effect of the socioeconomic transition is the emergence of human resources development (HRD). The transition process has been successful in the school-based education system,…

  6. Transition of Education and the Economy in Hungary in the Early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Tamas D.

    1993-01-01

    Addresses critical and extensively debated human resource issues involved with Hungary's transition to a market economy. Summarizes key problems, including educational system rigidity versus labor market flexibility and lack of feedback between growing unemployment and school system transformation. Highlights some proposed solutions consistent…

  7. Choice of School and Career, and Its System of Motivation in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Erno; Schuttler, Tamas

    In Hungary, a countrywide survey of school and/or career choice intentions among seventh-grade primary school pupils was complemented by an examination of the motives playing a role in the choice. School achievement was the strongest factor that decides the tendency of the intention of choosing a secondary school. Regarding career choices, the…

  8. Relationship between land-use intensity and species richness and abundance of birds in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, J.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.

    2004-01-01

    When Hungary, together with nine other central and eastern European countries, enters the European Union in 2004 two major threats will arise to the birds inhabiting agricultural landscapes. Marginal agricultural land may be abandoned, while the remaining area may suffer from intensification. To ass

  9. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Hungary 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurydice, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Hungary has been experiencing major changes and innovation initiatives in public education in the last decade. Transparency of school processes and a focus on outcome and effectiveness have become major issues. Accordingly, the methodology of making relevant data accessible to those concerned has gained major importance. In terms of assessment,…

  10. Nitrogen flows in the food production chain of Hungary over the period 1961–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Yong; Ma, Lin; Sárdi, Katalin; Sisák, István; Ma, Wenqi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) emissions from food production can cause serious environmental problems. Mitigation strategies require insights of N cycles in this complex system. A substance flow analysis for N in the Hungary food production and processing chain over the period 1961–2010 was conducted. Our results

  11. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Hungary 2007/08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoczky, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Hungary's arts and cultural education. The cultural area "arts" has the following sub-areas: music, dance and drama, visual culture, film and media. In accordance with the contemporary approach to art, these are all independent branches of art. Although they have a number of common features, they are very different…

  12. Relationship between land-use intensity and species richness and abundance of birds in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, J.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.

    2004-01-01

    When Hungary, together with nine other central and eastern European countries, enters the European Union in 2004 two major threats will arise to the birds inhabiting agricultural landscapes. Marginal agricultural land may be abandoned, while the remaining area may suffer from intensification. To

  13. The effects of family structure on the educational attainment of siblings in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, K. van; Graaf, P.M. de

    1995-01-01

    In this article we examine the impact of family structure on educational attainment in Hungary. Using a data-set collected in 1983 with information on all siblings of 17146 primary respondents, the effects of family size, birth order, and spacing were investigated. Hypotheses on these effects were b

  14. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Hungary 2007/08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoczky, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Hungary's arts and cultural education. The cultural area "arts" has the following sub-areas: music, dance and drama, visual culture, film and media. In accordance with the contemporary approach to art, these are all independent branches of art. Although they have a number of common features, they are very different…

  15. First record of the genus Atrichops Verrall, 1909 in Hungary (Diptera: Athericidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Murányi, D.; Tarjányi, N.; Schöll, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first known larva of Atrichops crassipes (Meigen, 1820) from Hungary. The single specimen was caught with flushing of stones during a year-long monthly sampling in the Morgó Stream, Börzsöny Mts. Characterisation of the sampling site, list of the accompanying fauna and a figure on the habitus of the specimen are given.

  16. Nematodes from rocky grassland in Börzsöny Mountains, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on investigations carried out on soil inhabiting nematodes living in andesitic rock regions ofBörzsöny Mountains. Seventeen species are listed. Heterodorus arcuatus (Thorne, 1939), new to the fauna of Hungary, isdescribed and illustrated in detail.

  17. Nematodes from rocky grassland in Börzsöny Mountains, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on investigations carried out on soil inhabiting nematodes living in andesitic rock regions ofBörzsöny Mountains. Seventeen species are listed. Heterodorus arcuatus (Thorne, 1939, new to the fauna of Hungary, isdescribed and illustrated in detail.

  18. Analysis of long time Standard Precipitation Index series to detect the drought frequency changes in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, M.; Bihari, Z.; Szentimrey, T.

    2010-09-01

    The precipitation has large temporal and spatial variability in Hungary. Monthly precipitation sum could be zero in any month in a year and at any place of the country, but it can be near or even above 200 mm as well. The year-to-year variability of the annual precipitation amount is high, so it has large influence on the agriculture and economy. The long-term precipitation trend shows decreasing pattern from the beginning of the last century. Calculation of the several drought indices is a commonly used method to detect the severe drought events. Analysis of the SPI (Standard Precipitation Index) series is performed in this study. In climate studies the homogeneity of data series is of primary importance, since the SPI (Standard Precipitation Index) drought index calculation based on long time data series. That is homogenized daily and monthly precipitation amounts are used for SPI calculations in Hungary. Homogenization and complementing of precipitation data is performed by method the MASH (Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization; Szentimrey, 1999). Usually the station data series in Hungary are homogenized once in a year, at the beginning of each year after collecting the data also from all traditional precipitation stations. The SPI calculator which is offered on the project page of DMCSEE (Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe) is applied for SPI calculations in Hungary. In the drought mapping there are two ways: the first is when the SPI values are calculated in each grid point after gridding (by gridding part of MISH (Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenized Data Basis; Szentimrey, Bihari, 2007)) the station precipitation data, and then SPI values at all the grid point covering Hungary is visualized; the second one is when the station based SPI values are interpolated by method MISH (Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenized Data Basis; Szentimrey, Bihari, 2007) and then visualize them with a GIS mapping

  19. A Typology of International Strategies for Hungarian Professional Sports Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Kozma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our research project was to examine how league strength explains the observed differences between the international strategies of professional sports clubs in Hungary. Three case studies were made primarily based on the content analysis of management interviews, cross-checked with data from sports databases and corporate documentation. Through our analysis we identified three types of international strategy followed by professional sports clubs in Hungary. The typology highlights the importance of having a competitive product professional clubs may bring to the international marketplace. Hence, governments and local municipalities are advised to focus their support on sports where there is a team with reasonable chance to win trophies at international level. For club managers, the implication is that strategic focus on improving service provision and sales is critical even if they receive windfall support from government.

  20. THE EFFECT OF DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS ON BANK RISKS, RELEVANCE AND FAITHFUL REPRESENTATION: EVIDENCE FROM BANKS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Kornel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a continuously changing business environment accounting data have to provide useful information in order to achieve relevant and faithful representation in financial statements. Since global markets have changed radically, growing international trade means the horizons of investors and borrowers have now become global, which has increased the level of their risks. Concerning international trade and investment, one of the most important risks is uncertainty about future foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. Changes in financial markets have increased the use of derivative instruments (such as forwards, futures, swaps, and options to hedge risk exposure worldwide, while the related accounting standards have not kept pace with those changes. Because of the complexity and variety of these instruments, reporting on derivatives faces many difficulties, since a different framework and different accounting concepts are required to present useful financial information. For these reasons the growing use of derivative financial instruments and the challenges of the global financial system have intensified and sharpened debates about whether derivative instruments increase or decrease the risk of banks, affecting faithful representation based on their financial statements and decision usefulness of the reported information. This study aims to describe the transformation of accounting concepts and its effect on fair value accounting for derivative financial instruments in the information economy. The research question of the paper is whether the advantages of fair value accounting exceed the disadvantages, especially in the case of derivatives, in reducing the uncertainty and risk associated with financial reporting. Based on this question, the purpose of the empirical research is to assess the level of different risks which banks operating in Hungary face when using derivative financial instruments and to investigate how and to what extent

  1. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbach, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The `ITS Directive' will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  2. Demographic stability and high historical connectivity explain the diversity of a savanna tree species in the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jacqueline S; Telles, Mariana P C; Chaves, Lázaro J; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2017-03-01

    Cyclic glaciations were frequent throughout the Quaternary and this affected species distribution and population differentiation worldwide. The present study reconstructed the demographic history and dispersal routes of Eugenia dysenterica lineages and investigated the effects of Quaternary climate change on its spatial pattern of genetic diversity. A total of 333 individuals were sampled from 23 populations and analysed by sequencing four regions of the chloroplast DNA and the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear DNA. The analyses were performed using a multi-model inference approach based on ecological niche modelling and statistical phylogeography. Coalescent simulation showed that population stability through time is the most likely scenario. The palaeodistribution dynamics predicted by the ecological niche models revealed that the species was potentially distributed across a large area, extending over Central-Western Brazil through the last glaciation. The lineages of E. dysenterica dispersed from Central Brazil towards populations at the northern, western and south-eastern regions. A historical refugium through time may have favoured lineage dispersal and the maintenance of genetic diversity. The results suggest that the central region of the Cerrado biome is probably the centre of distribution of E. dysenterica and that the spatial pattern of its genetic diversity may be the outcome of population stability throughout the Quaternary. The lower genetic diversity in populations in the south-eastern Cerrado biome is probably due to local climatic instability during the Quaternary.

  3. First surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Bongiorno, Gioia; Maroli, Michele; Dereure, Jacques; Ready, Paul D

    2011-07-01

    Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe. The numbers of traveling and imported dogs have increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the introduction of CanL caused by Leishmania infantum. Serum samples were collected from 725 dogs (22 localities, 6 counties) that had never traveled to endemic countries, as well as from other potential reservoir hosts (185 red foxes and 13 golden jackals). All sera were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, but they were sero-negative using the OIE cut-off of 1:80 serum dilution except for those of two dogs resident since birth in southern Hungary. These had not received a blood transfusion, but the mode of transmission is unclear because no sandfly vectors were caught locally. From 2006 to 2009, phlebotomine sandflies were sampled in the summer months at 47 localities of 8 counties. They were trapped with castor-oil-impregnated sticky-paper, light, and CO(2)-baited traps. Small numbers of two vectors of Leishmania infantum were found. Phlebotomus neglectus occurred in three villages near to Croatia and one in north Hungary at latitude 47 °N, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi was trapped at two sites in a southeastern county close to the sites where it was first found in 1931-1932. Our report provides baseline data for future investigations into the northward spread of CanL into Hungary, which we conclude has yet to occur.

  4. Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Fault and Fold Database contains the results of thousands of scientific assessments of faults and associated folds in the United States that...

  5. Quaternary phosphorites off the southeast coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Michard, A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Boettcher, M.E.; Krishnaswamy, R.; Thamban, M.; Natarajan, R.; Borole, D.V.

    Detailed petrological, mineralogical, geochemical and radiogenic (U, Sr, Nd) and stable isotope (C, O, S) studies have been carried out on the Quaternary phosphorites of the continental margin off Chennai, southeast coast of India...

  6. Quaternary alluvial stratigraphy and palaeoclimatic reconstruction at the Thar margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Tandon, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Quaternary alluvial record at the Thar desert margin has been examined using the exposed succession along Mahudi, Sabarmati river, Western India. Different alluvial facies, their associations and granulometry have been studied for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Clay mineral indices smectite/...

  7. Late Quaternary record of pteropod preservation from the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sijinkumar, A.V.; Nath, B.N.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    . Millennial/centennial-scale thermocline ventilation changes in the Indian Ocean as reflected by aragonite preservation and geochemical variations in Arabian Sea sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 6771–6788. Brown, B.E., 2007. Coral reefs... Quaternary millennial-scale variability in pelagic aragonite preservation off Somalia. Marine Micropaleontology 59, 171- 183. Klöcker, R., Henrich, R., 2006. Recent and Late Quaternary pteropod preservation on the Pakistan shelf and continental slope...

  8. ARE QUATERNARY AMMONIUM ANTIBACTERIALS SUITABLE FOR DENTAL COMPOSITE RESINS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman MOHAMMADZADEH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to answer the following question: are quaternary ammonium antibacterials suitable for dental materials? Reviewing the literature on quaternary ammonium compounds evidenced that this type of compounds is soluble in water. Our own findings also showed that they are well soluble in water and that their application as dental composites requires to check their solubility level in water.

  9. A Quaternary Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    Reversals and excursions of Earth's geomagnetic field create marker horizons that are readily detected in sedimentary and volcanic rocks worldwide. An accurate and precise chronology of these geomagnetic field instabilities is fundamental to understanding several aspects of Quaternary climate, dynamo processes, and surface processes. For example, stratigraphic correlation between marine sediment and polar ice records of climate change across the cryospheres benefits from a highly resolved record of reversals and excursions. The temporal patterns of dynamo behavior may reflect physical interactions between the molten outer core and the solid inner core or lowermost mantle. These interactions may control reversal frequency and shape the weak magnetic fields that arise during successive dynamo instabilities. Moreover, weakening of the axial dipole during reversals and excursions enhances the production of cosmogenic isotopes that are used in sediment and ice core stratigraphy and surface exposure dating. The Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS) is based on the direct dating of transitional polarity states recorded by lava flows using the 40Ar/39Ar method, in parallel with astrochronologic age models of marine sediments in which O isotope and magnetic records have been obtained. A review of data from Quaternary lava flows and sediments yields a GITS comprising 10 polarity reversals and 27 excursions during the past 2.6 million years. Nine of the ten reversals bounding chrons and subchrons are associated with 40Ar/39Ar ages of transitionally-magnetized lava flows. The tenth, the Guass-Matuyama chron boundary, is tightly bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar dated ash deposits. Of the 27 well-documented excursions, 14 occurred during the Matuyama chron and 13 during the Brunhes chron; 19 have been dated directly using the 40Ar/39Ar method on transitionally-magnetized volcanic rocks and form the backbone of the GITS. Excursions are clearly not the rare phenomena once thought

  10. The Significance and History of Organization Development – in Hungary and International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea BUDAI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the standardization of world economy, the speeding up of technical development and the sharpening market competition there is more and more responsibility on managers, whose primary duties are to make sure the efficient and successful work of the organizations. More and more of them realize that the quality (structure, culture, attitude etc. of the organization can be counted as one of those features that determine success and advantage in contest most. Organization development, which applies structural and behavioral changes to improve both the output of the organization and its members’ general feeling (personal development and well-being, intends to assist them in this respect. By this time the concept of organization development has become more or less known among Hungarian theoretical and practical experts as well. The foundations of organization development were put down in America in the fifties and sixties while carrying out group dynamic surveys at several organizations and summing up the observations. Therefore Americans are called the pioneers of organization development, but most of kind researches are still made.

  11. Known and suggested quaternary faulting in the midcontinent United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.; Crone, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The midcontinent United States between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains contains 40 known faults or other potentially tectonic features for which published geologic information shows or suggests Quaternary tectonic faulting. We report results of a systematic evaluation of published and other publicly available geologic evidence of Quaternary faulting. These results benefit seismic-hazard assessments by (1) providing some constraints on the recurrence intervals and magnitudes of large, prehistoric earthquakes, and (2) identifying features that warrant additional study. For some features, suggested Quaternary tectonic faulting has been disproved, whereas, for others, the suggested faulting remains questionable. Of the 40 features, nine have clear geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting associated with prehistoric earthquakes, and another six features have evidence of nontectonic origins. An additional 12 faults, uplifts, or historical seismic zones lack reported paleoseismological evidence of large. Quaternary earthquakes. The remaining 13 features require further paleoseismological study to determine if they have had Quaternary earthquakes that were larger than any known from local historical records; seven of these 13 features are in or near urbanized areas where their study could affect urban hazard estimates. These seven are: (1) the belt of normal faults that rings the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas. (2) the Northeast Ohio seismic zone, (3) the Valmont and (4) Goodpasture faults of Colorado. (5) the Champlain lowlands normal faults of New York State and Vermont, and (6) the Lexington and (7) Kentucky River fault systems of eastern Kentucky. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  13. The New ILP Database of Quaternary Faults and Folds in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C. H.; Cisneros, H. A.; Machette, M. N.; Dart, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    As part of the International Lithosphere Program's Task Group II-2, we have completed the compilation of Quaternary faults and folds in South America and have established an Internet website for this data. The underpinning maps and reports have been released as electronic U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (pdfs, see poster). The maps show the location, time, sense of slip, and activity rate of major earthquake-related features such as faults and fault-related folds. The maps are accompanied by descriptions of their Quaternary activity. The primary elements of the 10-year project are supervision and interpretation of geologic/tectonic information (Costa and Machette), data compilation (project participants), database design and management (Cisneros), and GIS input and management (Dart). A dozen experts in Quaternary faulting, neotectonics, paleoseismology, and seismology compiled the data: questions about individual faults or additions to the database should be directed to them. Prior to this project, digital maps of Quaternary faults did not exist for any of the South America countries, even though understanding the extent and character of active and older Quaternary faults are critical elements of seismic-hazards analysis. These new data will help extend the relatively short record of instrumental and felt seismicity that is the primary parameter for current seismic-hazard assessments in South American countries. Although some fault data were available for most of the countries (i.e., Venezuela), the degree of completeness varies as a function of the remoteness and vegetation cover (i.e., Brazil). A few faults such as the Bocono have had detailed investigations involving modern paleoseismic techniques. Other faults have been studied in some detail, usually in association with concerns about hazards to urban areas or the safety of critical facilities such as mining operations, oil-and-gas pipelines, or power-generating facilities. However, the general state

  14. Implications of climate change for water surplus and scarcity and how that affects agricultural sustainability in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected impacts of climate change have included, in addition to warmer temperatures, regionally variable effects on precipitation amounts, intensities, and seasonal distribution. Projections downscaled to Hungary and surrounding region were identified and their effects on streamflow, other water r...

  15. [Regional disparities in the feminization of the teaching staff of elementary schools: examples from Austria, Baden-Wurttemberg, and Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, P; Schmude, J

    1991-01-01

    Regional differences in the process of feminization of teaching staffs in Austria, Germany, and Hungary are analyzed, with particular attention given to the Austrian province of Vorarlberg. The study covers the late nineteenth century to the present. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  16. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohadjer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  17. Quaternary stratigraphy and palaeogeography of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Leszek; Dzierżek, Jan; Janiszewski, Robert; Kaczorowski, Jarosław; Lindner, Leszek; Majecka, Aleksandra; Makos, Michał; Szymanek, Marcin; Tołoczko-Pasek, Anna; Woronko, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Though the stratigraphical and palaeogeographical framework of the Quaternary in Poland is still to be completed, several crucial points have been confirmed recently. The preglacial series, accepted for years as belonging to the Lower Pleistocene, is undoubtedly of Early Pliocene age, with a huge hiatus above almost until the uppermost Lower Pleistocene. The earliest glaciation in Poland (Nidanian) occurred at about 900 ka BP when the ice sheet reached the mid-southern part of the country. The following Podlasian Interglacial embraced the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary in the middle, in a similar fashion to the corresponding Cromerian Complex in Western Europe. The late Early and early Middle Pleistocene interglacials in Poland comprised 2-3 optima each, whereas every one of the younger interglacials was characterised by a single optimum only. The Late Vistulian ice sheet was most extensive in the western part of Poland (Leszno Phase) whereas the younger Poznań Phase was more extensive in the central and eastern part of the country. This was due to the varied distance from the glaciation center in Scandinavia, making the ice sheet margin reach a terminal position in different times. Palaeoclimatological research in the Tatra Mountains has provided new evidence for the atmospheric circulation over Europe. During cold phases of the Pleistocene in Poland a continental climate extended further westwards, quite the opposite that occurring during warmer intervals.

  18. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, S.; Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R.; Stübner, K.; Strube, T.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  19. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  20. Perception of the beauty and body image in Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary with application on beauty industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chotváč, Richard

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT CHOTVÁČ, Richard: Perception of beauty and body image in Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary and its application in beauty industry. [Master thesis] -- University of Economics in Prague, VŠE. Faculty of Business Administration; Tutor: doc. Ing. Jan Koudelka, CSc. Prague: VŠE, 2013, 82pages. The Master thesis deals with the perception of the beauty in 3 countries, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. This thesis is showing differences between the perception of body image and beauty ...

  1. Student Mobility or Emigration Flow? The Case of Students Commuting from Serbia to Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Takac

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Student mobility between two European countries in transition, Hungary and Serbia, was considered for the period 2001-2010. The high motivation and number of Hungarian-speaking students emigrating/commuting to Hungary began in 1990, with the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars. In 2010, 1,385 Hungarian-speaking students (from Vojvodina, Serbia studied in Hungary and 3,152 in Serbia. Student mobility between Hungary and Serbia is highly concentrated and causes a very low returning rate of educated young elite (approximately 30%. For this reason, the future of the Hungarian minority has begun to be put into question in Serbia, in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, where their percentage within whole population is noticeably decreasing (1991: 16.9%, 2001: 14.3%. The research has been focused on answering the following questions: Are there integration conflicts in the autochthon minority within the state borders of Serbia? What can higher education offer to these students? Does the region offer enough to provide perspectives for young members of the elite? Will early student mobility end with continuous emigration? Empirical background: Interviews with young adult migrants from Serbia to Hungary; Location: Serbia. Objective: To examine the motives and willingness to emigrate among the Hungarian young adults/students from Vojvodina. Interview subjects: 18 university/college students or young adults with a diploma (from Vojvodina. It is important to note that only those young adults were interviewed who have returned to Serbia having finished their educational career or who are likely to come back later. Conclusions in brief: The Yugoslav Wars, worsening economic conditions, and low living standards have significantly influenced the willingness of the youth to migrate. The motives of migration among the Hungarian youth in Vojvodina are gaining professional experience, broadening knowledge, and improving language. Hungary is the first target country of

  2. Lithosphere temperature model and resource assessment for deep geothermal exploration in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekesi, Eszter; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Vrijlandt, Mark; Lenkey, Laszlo; Horvath, Ferenc

    2017-04-01

    The demand for deep geothermal energy has increased considerably over the past years. To reveal potential areas for geothermal exploration, it is crucial to have an insight into the subsurface temperature distribution. Hungary is one of the most suitable countries in Europe for geothermal development, as a result of Early and Middle Miocene extension and subsequent thinning of the lithosphere. Hereby we present the results of a new thermal model of Hungary extending from the surface down to the lithosphere-astenosphere boundary (LAB). Subsurface temperatures were calculated through a regular 3D grid with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km, a vertical resolution of 200 m for the uppermost 7 km, and 3 km down to the depth of the LAB The model solves the heat equation in steady-state, assuming conduction as the main heat transfer mechanism. At the base, it adopts a constant basal temperature or heat flow condition. For the calibration of the model, more than 5000 temperature measurements were collected from the Geothermal Database of Hungary. The model is built up by five sedimentary layers, upper crust, lower crust, and lithospheric mantle, where each layer has its own thermal properties. The prior thermal properties and basal condition of the model is updated through the ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation technique. The conductive model shows misfits with the observed temperatures, which cannot be explained by neglected transient effects related to lithosphere extension. These anomalies are explained mostly by groundwater flow in Mesozoic carbonates and other porous sedimentary rocks. To account for the effect of heat convection, we use a pseudo-conductive approach by adjusting the thermal conductivity of the layers where fluid flow may occur. After constructing the subsurface temperature model of Hungary, the resource base for EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems) is quantified. To this end, we applied a cash-flow model to translate the geological

  3. Metropolisation and the Evoluti\ton of Systems of Cities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland Since 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zdanowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of systems of cities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland since 1950, and especially since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 when Central and Eastern European cities started to experience the process of metropolisation. This period corresponds to an intense globalisation of the economy which has been characterised by some researchers as an emergence of a world urban system. While the metropolises of formerly industrialised countries had already been strongly interconnected on a macro-regional level, Central and Eastern European countries took on the unique approach of prioritising relations directly at an international level. In addition to its highly exacerbated characteristics, the metropolisation in Central and Eastern Europe has been taking place within a substantially shorter time period in relation to other countries. This article investigates how these phenomena might have influenced the configuration of today’s urban systems. After presenting the methodology used to reconstruct urban agglomerations since 1950 until now, we examine the evolution of the Czech, Hungarian and Polish systems of cities by using several national databases. By analysing the changes in urban hierarchy and new urban patterns, we can stress that after 1989 the metropolisation has rather contributed to raise the predominance of the capital city in the urban systems than to diminish inequalities between the cities.

  4. Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L.) Heavy Metal Uptake in Eastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: Soil condition, plant production and ecological protection are most important parts of the sustainable agricultural activity on all over the world nowadays. Soils, their fertility, their content of different macro-, mezo-, micro-, trace elements have almost always dictated the spread of agricultural farmlands, including the plant production-, yield harvest levels and yield element contents possible. The success of agriculturists in the 20th and 21th century, particularly in the Europe has relied on inproved soil fertility managements, appropriate crop production and environmental protection. We can test and improve the situations by using different plant species (Crotalaria juncea L.) x macro nutrients (nitrogen) x chelating agents (Desferal as deferoxamine-mesilate: C25H48N6O8-CH4O3S) methods. Crotalaria has a very potential and important role in soil fertility as a green manure crop in the design of plant rotation to field plant production, in the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high protein content (30%) and in the pytoremediation possibilities. Field experiment was carried out on a calcareous chernozem meadow soil (Kunság-region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of crotalaria experiment series (5 years) in 2001. The agrochemical parameters of the ploughed layer of the region soils were as follows: humus 2.5-3.0%, pH (H2O) 7.7, pH (KCl) 7.0, LE (Lakanen & Erviö 1971 [3])-P2O5 183-218 mg kg-1, LE-K2O 82-115 mg kg-1, LE-Ca 1.3%, LE-Mg 56-60 mg kg-1, LE-Mn 45 mg kg-1 according to soil analysis. Nitrogen (N) x Desferal ("D"-Novartis Pharma AG Basie [7], Switzerland, Suiza 500 mg) x Genotype ("G"-India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time (T) experiment involved The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and Desferal 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2. Experimental datas were estimated by MANOVA of SPSS. The main results can be summarised as follows: a., At harvest, total air dry phytomass

  5. Quaternary tectonic setting of South-Central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettis, William R.; Hanson, Kathryn L.; Unruh, Jeffrey R.; McLaren, Marcia; Savage, William U.; Keller, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent geodetic, geologic, and seismologic studies show that the south-central coast of California is a region of active Quaternary deformation. Northeast-directed crustal shortening is occurring in a triangular-shaped region between the Hosgri-San Simeon fault system on the west, the Southern Coast Ranges on the northeast, and the western Transverse Ranges on the south. We informally call this region the Los Osos domain. In this study, we conducted detailed geological, seismological, and geophysical investigations to characterize the nature and rates of deformation in the domain. Locations of active and potentially active faults and folds are compiled at a scale of 1:250,000 for the entire domain based primarily on onshore geologic data and offshore geophysical data. Crustal shortening in the domain is accommodated by a series of prominent northwest-trending reverse faults and localized folding. The reverse faults separate distinct structural blocks that have little or no internal deformation. Hangingwall blocks are being uplifted at rates of up to 0.2 mm/yr. Footwall blocks are either static or slowly subsiding at rates of 0.1 mm/yr or less, except for localized areas of concentrated subsidence directly adjacent to some faults. The cumulative rate of crustal shortening is about 1 to 2 mm/yr across the northern part of the domain based on observed geologic deformation. Cumulative shortening across the central and southern parts of the domain is poorly constrained by geologic data and may approach 2 to 3 mm/yr. Historical and instrumental seismicity generally are spatially associated with the uplifted blocks and bordering reverse faults to depths of about 10 km. Together with near-surface geological data and deeper crustal geophysical imaging that show high-angle faulting, the seismicity data indicate that the reverse faults probably extend to the base of the seismogenic crust. The base of the seismogenic crust may correspond with a mid-crustal detachment or

  6. Paleoclimate and weathering of the Tokaj (NE Hungary loess-paleosol sequence: a comparison of geochemical weathering indices and paleoclimate parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-K. Schatz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tokaj loess-paleosol sequence in NE Hungary is one of the key sites for detailed paleoclimate reconstructions of the Quaternary in SE Europe. In this study, the geochemical composition of samples from the upper part of the sequence (45–21 ka was analyzed and a variety of commonly used weathering indices and element ratios were applied to estimate weathering intensity. Further, similarities and differences between these weathering indices and their sensitivity to changes in paleoclimatic conditions were assessed. Results indicate that all of them accurately track changes in weathering intensity and are, with minor exceptions, very similar to each other. Based on different transfer functions for major and trace element concentrations (XRF, magnetic susceptibility (MS and δ13C data, we calculated mean annual paleotemperature and mean annual paleoprecipitation for the time intervals of paleosol formation (45–27 ka and dust deposition (27–21 ka. Results differ depending on the respective transfer function and method but largely agree with previously published paleoclimate data of the region. XRF- and δ13C-based results converge to a MAT of 8–10°C (paleosol and 8–9°C (loess and show a~MAP range of 685–879 mm a-1 (paleosol and 572–700 mm a-1 (loess. MS-based results are most reliable with MATs of 8.4°C (paleosol and 6.7°C (loess and MAPs of 325–441 mm a-1 (paleosol and 224 mm a-1 (loess.

  7. Tracing multiple resedimentation on an isolated karstified plateau: The bauxite-bearing Miocene red clay of the Southern Bakony Mountains, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Péter; Dunkl, István; Csillag, Gábor; Mindszenty, Andrea; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Józsa, Sándor

    2017-08-01

    The Vöröstó (= Red Lake) Formation, located in the Southern Bakony Mountains and the Balaton Highlands (Hungary), is a red, clayey continental assemblage containing hard, up to fist-sized bauxite pebbles, occurring in a large apparent stratigraphic gap between underlying karstified Triassic carbonates and mid' Miocene to Quaternary cover. The origin and the exact stratigraphic position of the assemblage have been controversial for a long time. In this study, petrographic observations on the bauxite pebbles revealed common features with Cretaceous bauxite deposits known in the region, whereas heavy mineral composition of the red clay matrix is similar to those known from the Eocene bauxite horizon of the region. Single grain zircon U-Pb ages obtained from the bauxite pebbles and their red clayey matrix show similar late Archean to Jurassic age components. Additionally, Cenozoic U-Pb ages are well represented in the mostly euhedral zircon crystals separated from the red clays, whereas this volcanogenic contribution completely missing from the bauxite pebbles. SEM morphology and related EDX chemical analysis of clay minerals indicate polygenetic, detrital origin for the red clays. The main source material of the bauxite bearing Vöröstó Formation is most probably local Cretaceous and Eocene bauxite deposits exposed during the middle-late Miocene. These tropical weathering products were partly decomposed and degraded, but dilution by siliciclastic contribution is negligible. We suggest a transport mechanism dominated by local redeposition of mostly pelitic and allitic material through seasonal muddy debris flows within a karstic landscape.

  8. Social orientations and adolescent health behaviours in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piko, Bettina F; Skultéti, Dóra; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-02-01

    Adolescent health behaviours are influenced by a variety of social factors, including social orientations, such as social comparison or competitiveness. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the role that these social orientations might play in health behaviours (both health-impairing and health-promoting). Data were collected from high school students (N = 548; ages 14-20 years; 39.9% males) in two counties of the Southern Plain Region of Hungary. The self-administered questionnaires contained items on sociodemographics, such as age, sex, parental schooling, and socioeconomic status (SES) self-assessment; school achievement, health behaviours, competitiveness and social comparison. Multiple regression analyses suggest that those who scored higher on competitiveness engaged in more substance use, a pattern that was not present for health-promoting behaviours. Social comparison, however, was associated with lower levels of substance use. In addition, in relation to health-impairing behaviours, both competitiveness and social comparison interacted with sex; both social orientation variables proved to be more important for boys. Social comparison also contributed to health-promoting behaviours among boys. Findings support the idea that the role of social orientations, such as competitiveness and social comparison, can be quite different depending on sex and the nature of the health behaviour. While competitiveness may act as a risk factor for substance use among boys, social comparison may act as a protection. It appears that social orientations play less of a role in girls' health-related behaviours. More focus is needed on gender differences in influences on adolescents' health-related behaviours. Les comportements de santé des adolescents sont influencés par une variété de facteurs sociaux, incluant les orientations sociales telles que la comparaison sociale ou la compétitivité. Le but principal de la présente étude était d'examiner le r

  9. Climatic and environmental aspects of the Mongol withdrawal from Hungary in 1242 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; di Cosmo, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    The Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe, and especially its sudden withdrawal from Hungary in 1242 CE, has generated much speculation and an array of controversial theories. None of them, however, considered multifaceted environmental drivers and the coupled analysis of historical reports and natural archives. Here we investigate annually resolved, absolutely dated and spatially explicit paleoclimatic evidence between 1230 and 1250 CE. Documentary sources and tree-ring chronologies reveal warm and dry summers from 1238-1241, followed by cold and wet conditions in early-1242. Marshy terrain across the Hungarian plain most likely reduced pastureland and decreased mobility, as well as the military effectiveness of the Mongol cavalry, while despoliation and depopulation ostensibly contributed to widespread famine. These circumstances arguably contributed to the determination of the Mongols to abandon Hungary and return to Russia. While overcoming deterministic and reductionist arguments, our ‘environmental hypothesis’ demonstrates the importance of minor climatic fluctuations on major historical events.

  10. [Most important deficits, contradictions and possibilities in suicide prevention in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is not only a contradictory biological, psychological, sociocultural and spiritual phenomenon, but also a serious public health problem, which is manifold, therefore the fight against it is also complex. The aim of the present publication is to establish the current situation of the fight against suicide in Hungary, which are the most important deficits, contradictions and unexploited possibilities. The author states that although we have accomplished important steps in the prevention of suicide, we did not realise the majority of them in everyday practice. The author defines the most important problems and tasks which should be solved in the next decade. In the near future a great deal more should be done for prevention than what we have accomplished so far in order to significantly reduce the number of suicide victims in Hungary.

  11. Analysis of the full-length VP2 protein of canine parvoviruses circulating in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cságola, Attila; Varga, Szilvia; Lőrincz, Márta; Tuboly, Tamás

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the number of cases of disease caused by canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) in vaccinated dogs has increased. The aim of the present study was to identify CPV-2 strains present in Hungary. Forty-two out of 50 faecal specimens examined were positive, and 25 VP2 sequences were determined and analysed. Based on the current classification, the Hungarian viruses belong to New CPV-2a type, except two viruses that are recombinants of vaccine viruses and CPV-2a strains. The Tyr324Ile alteration was detected for the first time in Europe, and a "Hungarian-specific" substitution (Ala516Thr) was also identified in this study. The immunologically important parts of the currently spreading canine parvoviruses were examined and found to differ greatly from the vaccine strains that are widely used in Hungary.

  12. Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

    2013-10-18

    Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union.

  13. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  14. Resolving Bad Loans in Central and Eastern Europe: The Cases of Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Chul Han

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of transformation in old socialist country in Eastern Europe in 1989, a large scale insolvent debenture emerges. Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic which drove Eastern Europe's economy, use insolvent loan to solve this insolvent debenture and these three countries also make the government bonds as money supply funding patterns. But Hungary and Poland use decentralized solution and leading banks to deal with the bad creditor. On the contrary, Czech has no special way of dealing with that, but let some certain bank mainly focusing on the bad creditor which is called centralized solution. Now, Korean government is using the similar method like Czech. In this point of view, in order avoid insolvent debenture becoming the burden of economy, Korea has to work out the same plan to deal with insolvent debenture with Poland.

  15. ICT diffusion in Hungary Nyuga-Dunántúl region

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    Péter Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of info communication technologies (ICT is an inevitable element of rural development since the infrastructure is more or less developed in Hungary. The problem of acceptance lies in the attitude toward new technologies. In this paper we would like to describe the process where the use of a certain service available only in an online environment becomes popular among the rural population. Using the best known Hungarian social network site IWIW registrants data on settlements and users of a Hungarian NUTS II region combined with spatial and demographic statistics one could describe the scale and direction of diffusion processes which adds some more information to the facts we already know on state of information society in Hungary.

  16. Life-table representations of family dynamics in Sweden, Hungary, and 14 other FFS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a system of descriptions of family-demographic behavior in developed countries. We use life-table techniques in order to describe the experience of men, of women, and of children in processes related to family formation and family dissolution. We develop a large number of descriptive measures, and apply them to survey data from Sweden, Norway, Finland, France, the USA, Austria, Germany (East and West Germany separately, Flanders, Italy, Spain, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, in order to describe patterns in the family-demographic behavior during the late 1980s - early 1990s. We use Sweden and Hungary as examples when presenting the outline of our system of tabulations and provide results for the whole set of countries in an Appendix to the paper.

  17. Exchange rate and oil price interactions in transition economies: Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

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    Bayat Tayfur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates causal dynamics between crude oil prices and exchange rates in Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary by employing monthly data from the beginning of flexible exchange regime in each country to December 2011. The study benefits from the recent advance in the time series econometric analysis and carries out linear causality, non-linear causality, volatility spillover and frequency domain causality tests. The frequency domain causality analysis results imply that oil price fluctuations affect real exchange rates in the long run in Poland and Czech Republic. On the other hand, frequency domain causality test results indicate that oil price fluctuations do not affect exchange rate in any period in Hungary despite its economy’s high imported energy dependency.

  18. Clinical research in Hungary. Infrastructure, organisation, legislation and framework. The situation in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaskó, György; Kardos, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is designed to improve the capacity and quality of the clinical research in Europe and promote innovative pharmaceutical development. The regulation of the company-sponsored clinical trials is functionally acceptable, but other type of investigations (investigator initiated trials, trials of psychology, food supplements, devices, etc.) needs further harmonisation. Hungary joined ECRIN in 2005 and performed a lot of queries in regulation, legislation, monitoring, safety, pharmacovigilance, data management, quality assurance, etc., which are presently summarized in this paper in order to show the present situation of the complicated issues of clinical research in Hungary. This "country report" summarizes the present legislative and regulatory frames including the necessary issues being attached: organizing and setting-up the first representatives of clinical study centres into a network, which will facilitate the organisation and performance of multinational studies in various research areas.

  19. Possibilities for the Creation of Beer Routes in Hungary: A Methodological and Practical Perspective

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    Csapó János

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the possibilities and the potential for the establishment of beer tourism, one of the most recently valorised tourism products of global gastro tourism, and more importantly the creation and professional criteria of beer routes in Hungary. With a thorough investigation of the theoretical background of beer tourism and beer trails the authors try to collect those spatial perspectives which confirm our idea that Hungary is possessing adequate resources for the initiation of this new tourism product. We experienced that this area of tourism geography has not yet been researched thoroughly in the country, for which we make an attempt in this paper, using geographical and GIS methods, basically relying on the beer routes of Bavaria, Germany as good practices.

  20. Building and toning: An analysis of the institutionalization of mediation in penal matters in Hungary

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    Fellegi Borbála

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1 January 2007, victims of crimes and offenders have been offered the chance to have recourse to mediation in Hungary. This paper will first give a short overview of the current situation of mediation in penal matters in Hungary, then it will discuss some general phenomena and dilemmas concerning the general introduction of mediation. After that, I will present a SWOT analysis1 of the current Hungarian mediation system in penal matters. The main goal of this article is to set up certain criteria for the further development of the restorative approach. The lessons we have learnt, the strengths and opportunities of the system and the identification of weaknesses might prove useful for other countries when they choose to introduce mediation, and in relation to the protection of victims in particular.

  1. Quaternary Evolution of Karliova Triple Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sançar, Taylan; Zabcı, Cengiz; Akyüz, H. Serdar

    2013-04-01

    The arguments to explain Quaternary evolution of Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ) depends upon two different analogue models. The compressional type of Prandtl Cell Model (PCM) and 60 km wide shear zone with concomitant counter clockwise block rotation used to modelled for west and east of the KTJ respectively. The data for the model of west of the KTJ acquired by extensive field studies, and quantified geomorphic features. Compressional PCM put forward that behavior of slip lines controlled by boundary faults. But the model is not enough to explain slip distribution, age relation of them. At west of the KTJ boundary faults presented by eastern most segments of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). Slip lines, however, presented by Bahçeli and Toklular faults. Both field studies and morphometric analyses undisputedly set forth that there are two different fault types between the NAFZ and EAFZ. The most strain loaded fault type, which are positioned near the NAFZ, start as a strike-slip fault and when it turn to SE its sense of motion change to oblique normal due to changing orientation of principal stress axes. The new orientation of stress axes exposed in the field as a special kind of caprock -cuesta-. The younger slip lines formed very close to junction point and accommodate less slip. Even though slip trajectories started from the boundary faults in compressional PCM, at the west of KTJ, right lateral trajectories more clearly formed close the NAFZ and left lateral trajectories, relatively less strain loaded fault type, are poorly formed close the EAFZ . We think that, this differences between KTJ and compressional PCM result from the distinction of velocity of boundary faults. East of the KTJ governed by completely different mechanism. The region controlled two main fault systems. The Varto Fault Zone (VFZ), the eastern branch of the KTJ, and Murat Fault (MF) delimited the region from north and south respectively. The

  2. Quaternary Magmatism in the Cascades - Geologic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes

    2007-01-01

    Foreward The Cascade magmatic arc is a belt of Quaternary volcanoes that extends 1,250 km from Lassen Peak in northern California to Meager Mountain in Canada, above the subduction zone where the Juan de Fuca Plate plunges beneath the North American Plate. This Professional Paper presents a synthesis of the entire volcanic arc, addressing all 2,300 known Quaternary volcanoes, not just the 30 or so visually prominent peaks that comprise the volcanic skyline. Study of Cascade volcanoes goes back to the geological explorers of the late 19th century and the seminal investigations of Howel Williams in the 1920s and 1930s. However, major progress and application of modern scientific methods and instrumentation began only in the 1970s with the advent of systematic geological, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the entire arc. Initial stimulus from the USGS Geothermal Research Program was enhanced by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Together, these two USGS Programs have provided more than three decades of stable funding, staffing, and analytical support. This Professional Paper summarizes the resultant USGS data sets and integrates them with the parallel contributions of other investigators. The product is based upon an all-encompassing and definitive geological database, including chemical and isotopic analyses to characterize the rocks and geochronology to provide the critical time constraints. Until now, this massive amount of data has not been summarized, and a systematic and uniform interpretation firmly grounded in geological fact has been lacking. Herein lies the primary utility of this Cascade volume. It not only will be the mandatory starting point for new workers, but also will provide essential geological context to broaden the perspectives of current investigators of specific Cascade volcanoes. Wes Hildreth's insightful understanding of volcanic processes and his uncompromising scientific integrity make him

  3. The isotope hydrology of Quaternary climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, W G

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the links between climate change and human migration and culture is an important theme in Quaternary archaeology. While oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in high-latitude ice cores provide the ultimate detailed record of palaeoclimate extending back to the Middle Pleistocene, groundwater can act as a climate archive for areas at lower latitudes, permitting a degree of calibration for proxy records such as lake sediments, bones, and organic matter. Not only can oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes be measured on waters, but the temperature of recharge can be calculated from the amount of the atmospheric noble gases neon, argon, krypton, and xenon in solution, while residence time can be estimated from the decay of the radioisotopes carbon-14, chlorine-36, and krypton-81 over timescales comparable to the ice core record. The Pleistocene-Holocene transition is well characterised in aquifers worldwide, and it is apparent that isotope-temperature relationships of the present day are not necessarily transferable to past climatic regimes, with important implications for the interpretation of proxy isotope data. Groundwaters dating back to one million years, i.e., to beyond the Middle Pleistocene, are only found in major aquifer basins and information is relatively sparse and of low resolution. Speleothem fluid inclusions offer a way of considerably increasing this resolution, but both speleothem formation and large-scale groundwater recharge requires humid conditions, which may be relatively infrequent for areas currently experiencing arid climates. Both types of record therefore require caution in their interpretation when considering a particular archaeological context.

  4. Seasonal activity and tick-borne pathogen infection rates of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egyed, László; Elő, Péter; Sréter-Lancz, Zsuzsanna; Széll, Zoltán; Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Sréter, Tamás

    2012-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most important tick species in Europe as it is most widely distributed and transmits the majority of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. As limited data are available for Hungary, the aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal timing of questing by I. ricinus and the infection rate of this tick species with all major tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. Monthly collections of I. ricinus were carried out over 3 consecutive years by dragging a blanket in 6 biotopes representing different areas of Hungary. Altogether, 1800 nymphs (300 per collection point) were screened as pooled samples (each of 5 specimens) by PCR-based methods for tick-borne pathogens. I. ricinus larvae, nymphs, and adults had bimodal activity patterns with a major peak in the spring. As newly moulted ticks of all stages are thought to emerge in the autumn of each year, it appears that most newly emerged ticks delayed their questing until the following spring. The minimum prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 2.5%. Borr. afzelii, Borr. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borr. garinii, Borr. lusitaniae, and Borr. valaisiana were identified by hybridization. The minimum infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae was 1.9%. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in all biotopes. The minimum prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia divergens and Bab. microti was low (0.3-0.5%). Bartonella spp.-, Francisella tularensis-, and TBE virus-specific amplification products were not detected. Relative to the results of comparable studies carried out in the Carpathian Basin, the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens was low in Hungary. This might be attributed to the climatic difference between the lowland areas of Hungary and submountain areas of the surrounding countries involved in the studies.

  5. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4).

  6. Population structure of honey bees in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary) confirms introgression from surrounding subspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Péntek‐Zakar, Erika; Oleksa, Andrzej; Borowik, Tomasz; Kusza,Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica) are considered as an indigenous subspecies in Hungary adapted to most of the ecological and climatic conditions in this area. However, during the last decades Hungarian beekeepers have recognized morphological signs of the Italian honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). As the natural distribution of the honey bee subspecies can be affected by the importation of honey bee queens or by natural gene flow, we aimed at determining the genetic s...

  7. Conclusions from the last five years of experiments in the field of food irradiation in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, B.

    1988-01-01

    AGROSTER Co irradiates food packaging material and some types of spices for the meat industry. The step by step strategy of AGROSTER has been very successful. In the last year, its gamma facility was used as much as possible to irradiate food items. The government of Hungary has recognized the benefit of this technology and has given financial assistance to establish a large commercial gamma irradiator in Budapest.

  8. First record of the genus Atrichops Verrall, 1909 in Hungary (Diptera: Athericidae

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    Murányi, D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the first known larva of Atrichops crassipes (Meigen, 1820 from Hungary. The single specimen was caught with flushing of stones during a year-long monthly sampling in the Morgó Stream, Börzsöny Mts. Characterisation of the sampling site, list of the accompanying fauna and a figure on the habitus of the specimen are given.

  9. The Silviculture of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. in Hungary: a Review

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    Károly Rédei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the first forest tree species introduced and acclimated from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. Although native of North America, black locust is now naturalized and widely planted throughout the world from temperate to subtropical areas. In Hungary, this species has played a role of great importance in the forest management, covering approximately 23% of the forested area and providing about 19% of the annual timber output of the country. Due to the increasing interest in black locust growing in many countries, this study has been compiled with the aim of giving a summary on the basis of research and improvement connected with the species over the past decades. Material and Methods: Black locust forests in Hungary have been established on good as well as on medium and poor quality sites. Establishment of black locust stands producing timber of good quality is possible only on sites with adequate moisture and well-aerated and preferably light soils, rich in nutrients and humus. Black locust forests on medium and poor quality sites are utilized for the production of fuel wood, fodder, poles and props, as well as for honey production, soil protection and environmental improvement. Results and Conclusion: Hungary has got much experience in black locust growing, as it has been grown for more than 250 years in the country. It is a fast growing, nitrogen fixing, site tolerant, excellent coppicing species with frequent and abundant seed production and relatively high yielding potential. It has a durable and high quality wood, which is used for many purposes. Being aware of the importance of black locust, forest research in Hungary has been engaged in resolving various problems of black locust management for a long time, and a lot of research results have already been implemented in the practice.

  10. Dirofilaria immitis: an emerging parasite in dogs, red foxes and golden jackals in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sproch, Á; Szeredi, L; Sréter, T

    2014-07-14

    Hungary was not considered to be a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) endemic country until 2007, when the first autochthonous canine infection was described. Herein we report additional autochthonous heartworm infections in two dogs (Canis familiaris), twenty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (n=534; prevalence: 3.7%; 95% CI=2.4-5.7%) and two golden jackals (Canis aureus) (n=27; prevalence: 7.4%; 95% CI=2.1-23.4%) coming from eight counties. The identification of the parasite was based on morphology, morphometrics and amplification of 12S rDNA followed by sequencing in all cases. Our results indicate that Hungary became a D. immitis endemic country in the past decade. The prevalence and intensity of heartworm infection in wild canids is similar to or lower than that observed in the Mediterranean countries of Europe (3.7-7.4% vs. 0.4-12.7% and 1.5 vs. 2.9-4.4 worms/animal). These findings are in line with the results of the recently developed climate based forecast model to predict the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary.

  11. Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sréter, T

    2013-12-06

    Human alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most pathogenic zoonoses in the temperate and arctic region of the Northern Hemisphere. To investigate the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis and the factors influencing this distribution in the recently identified endemic area of Hungary, 1612 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses were randomly collected from the whole Hungarian territory from November 2008 to February 2009 and from November 2012 to February 2013. The topographic positions of foxes were recorded in geographic information system database. The digitized home ranges and the vector data were used to calculate the altitude, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, soil water retention, soil permeability, areas of land cover types and the presence and buffer zone of permanent water bodies within the fox territories. The intestinal mucosa from all the foxes was tested by sedimentation and counting technique. Multiple regression analysis was performed with environmental parameter values and E. multilocularis counts. The spatial distribution of the parasite was clumped. Based on statistical analysis, mean annual temperature and annual precipitation were the major determinants of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis in Hungary. It can be attributed to the sensitivity of E. multilocularis eggs to high temperatures and desiccation. Although spreading and emergence of the parasite was observed in Hungary before 2009, the prevalence and intensity of infection did not change significantly between the two collection periods. It can be explained by the considerably lower annual precipitation before the second collection period.

  12. CURRENT AFFORESTATION PRACTICE AND EXPECTED TRENDS ON FAMILY FARMS IN WEST HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan ANDRASEVITS

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the National Forest Strategy and National Development Plan in Hungary is to increase the ratio of forest cover from the current level of 19,7% to 26-28%. This means planting 700,000 ha of new forest plantation in Hungary between now and 2035. Around 90% of the afforestation1 will occur on private land. So the simultaneous improvement of farming and forestry is critical. Our survey sought to capture the current situation in western Hungary. Our aim was to research the possibilities for complimentary development of agriculture and forestry on family owned farms. Relatedly, we wanted to know about the motivations of farmers regarding afforestation. We established that forestry does not have a favorable effect on the labour effi ciency of agriculture and does not reduce the seasonality of agriculture. Most of the farmers consider afforestation could be a good investment or a potential source of better profi t. However, the level of support available is what mainly motivates willingness to plant tree crops. They believe that the government should compensate short-term profi t loss (due to land set aside for tree crops with longer-term subsidies (according to established EU support practices

  13. Seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Hungary - situation before launching an eradication campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kővágó, Csaba; Forgách, Petra; Szabára, Ágnes; Mándoki, Míra; Hornyák, Ákos; Duignan, Conor; Pásztiné Gere, Erzsébet; Rusvai, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a viral disease appearing in various forms and causing high economic losses in the cattle stocks of Hungary. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Hungary through a monitoring survey carried out on samples collected in cattle-keeping units throughout the country. Since no such survey had been carried out in Hungary during the last thirty years, our study may serve as a basis for later monitoring investigations aimed at following the progress of an expected eradication campaign of BVD. The tests were carried out using an ELISA method, on a total of 1200 blood samples submitted from 54 cattle herds. The herds had not been vaccinated against BVDV before the sampling. Out of the 1200 samples, 521 proved to be positive (43.4%), 40 gave doubtful result (3.3%) and 639 were negative (53.3%). In some stocks the samples were collected from cows having completed several lactation periods, and therefore the seronegativity indicates the BVDV-free status of the given stock. Moreover, among the positive herds we found a few where the seropositivity rate was rather low (campaign launched in the near future, or carried out parallel to the IBR eradication programme, are better than previously expected.

  14. Democracy and Identity in the Danube Region (the Case of Romania and Hungary

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    Boryana Stancheva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at researching the interconnection between two key concepts in political sciences Ŕ Ŗdemocracyŗ and Ŗidentityŗ. The analysis is focused on the Danube Region as an example of a macro-regional construct in the multi-level governance system of the European Union. The author is working on a PhD dissertation dedicated to the democratic deficits in the European Union, with a specific focus on two of the newest member states Ŕ Hungary and Romania. Since both Ŗdemocracyŗ and Ŗidentityŗ are notions that have not been defined by consent in the post-communist member states of the Union, the paper chooses to particularly examine their impact in Romania and Hungary by researching different information sources and statistical data. The paper has to examine the level of interdependency of the post-communist political identity of Hungary and Romania and the state of democracy and its institutions. The results have to be further discussed not only in the context of both countriesř EU-membership, but also with a view to their belonging to the newly established Danube macro-region. The following paper and its results are part of the long-term PhD research of the author. The study will add value to the analysis of two fundamental notions in the theory of political and social sciences by trying to examine the level of their interconnection in two Danube countries.

  15. The status of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops in Hungary: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halmos Gergő

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hoopoe is a widespread species in Hungary with the strongest populations on the Great plains. The fact that in 2015 it became ‛The Bird of the Year’ in Hungary offers the possibility to summarise the information about the distribution, population size, dispersion, migration as well as the nature conservation status of the Hoopoe population breeding in Hungary. In the period of 1999–2014 the number of breeding pairs and trend of population level was estimated based on the Common Bird Census database. The population size was estimated as 13,500–17,500 pairs with a stable trend (slope=−1.3%, SE=2.5% over 1999–2014. There is very limited information on migration from bird ringing, only 8 recoveries between 1928–1963 indicate, that the Hungarian population is migrating on a south-southeast direction in autumn, wintering in the eastern parts of the Sahel, possibly in Chad and Sudan and migrates back in spring following a loop migration pattern further to the east. The main conservation issues are agricultural intensification impacting feeding possibilities, lack of nesting cavities and hunting during migration.

  16. Innovation in Hungary - The Impact of EU Accession and Integration into Global Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szalavetz Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that EU accession has brought about minimal changes in the patterns of innovation in Hungary. The reason why is not that the ‘EU factor’ is of minor importance; rather, it is Hungary's inability to use EU resources effectively, so as to fully benefit from EU membership. The Hungarian story also demonstrates that the EU cannot block member states from reversing reform or abusing the opportunities EU membership offers to them. We contend that globalization (global value chain integration has more effectively contributed to Hungary's knowledge-based upgrading than Europeanization (in the sense of policy transfer; access to EU Structural & Cohesion Funds, and integration in the European Research Area. This argument is substantiated with a case study on innovation strategy design and implementation, which illustrates the ambiguous impact of Europeanization, which is contrasted with our investigation of integration in global value chains, conducted through interviews of foreign-owned manufacturing companies about their R&D-based upgrading experience.

  17. Health and Environmental Benefits from the Implementation of an Energy Saving Program in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, Kristin; Patzay, Gyoergy

    1997-12-31

    This report studies the cost and benefit of implementing a specific energy conservation programme in Hungary. It considers the possible reduction in damage to public health, materials and crops that may be obtained by reducing the emission of important air pollutants and examines how the programme contributes to reduced emission of greenhouse gases. The measures are described in the National Energy Efficiency Improvement and Energy Conservation Programmes (NEEIECP), a programme elaborated by the Hungarian Ministry of Industry and Trade and accepted by the Government in 1994. The energy saving expected from the programme is about 64 PJ/year. Possible benefits were estimated by the use of monitoring data and population and recipient data from urban and rural areas in Hungary together with dose response functions and valuation estimates mainly from western studies. The main benefits of reducing the concentration of pollutants are found in the health sector, the most pronounced effect being less chronic respiratory deceases. Reduced premature mortality is also important. It is calculated that the annual benefit on public health alone probably exceeds the implementation costs of the programme. In addition, the maintenance and replacement costs for building materials have decreased. The damage to crops due to ozone is large, but a significant improvement in Hungary depends upon concerted action in several countries. 68 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Rudiments of recent fertility decline in Hungary: Postponement, educational differences, and outcomes of changing partnership forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Spéder

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study describes fundamental changes in childbearing behavior in Hungary. It documents current postponement of entry into motherhood (first birth and uncovers signs of delay in second birth. We place the behavioral modifications into historical time and reveal the basic role of the political, economic, and societal transformation of Hungary that started in 1989-1990 in these modifications. We document postponement as well as differentiation, and mothers' highest level of education will represent the structural position of individuals. We shed light on the different speed of postponement and support the assumption of behavioral differences according to the highest level of education. Particular attention will be paid to changing partnership relations: Fertility outcomes remain to be strongly associated with the type of partnership and its development; profound changes in partnership formation, namely the proliferation of cohabitation and the increasing separation rate of first partnerships, may therefore facilitate fertility decline in Hungary. The analysis is based on the first wave of the Hungarian panel survey "Turning points of the life course" carried out in 2001/2002.

  19. Continued improvement of cardiovascular mortality in Hungary - impact of increased cardio-metabolic prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozan Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last 35 years the poor ranking of Hungary on the list of life expectancy at birth among European countries, has not changed. In 1970 our lag behind the leading European countries was the smallest. The gap was growing between 1970 and 1993 but from 1994 onwards the life expectancy at birth in Hungary has increased continuously and somewhat faster than in other European countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between decreasing cardiovascular mortality rates, as a main cause of death and the increase in cardio-metabolic prescriptions and possible changes in lifestyle behavior. Methods Analyses were conducted on national data concerning cardiovascular mortality and the number of cardio-metabolic drug prescription per capita. The association between yearly rates of cardiovascular events and changes in antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic prescription rates was analyzed. The changes in other cardiovascular risk factors, like lifestyle were also considered. Results We observed a remarkable decline of mortality due to stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The fall was significantly associated with all prescription rates. The proportion of each treatment type responsible for suppression of specific mortality rates is different. All treatment types comparably improved stroke mortality, while antilipidemic therapy improved AMI outcome. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of a comprehensive strategy that maximizes the population coverage of effective treatments. Hungary appears to be at the beginning of the fourth stage of epidemiologic transition, i.e. it has entered the stage of delayed chronic noninfectious diseases.

  20. Cultures unfolding: experiences of Chinese-Hungarian mixed couples in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kovács

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The research outlined in this paper focuses on a subfield related to Chinese migrants’ integration in Hungary: Chinese-Hungarian mixed partner relationships. I present some findings of an anthropological study on Chinese-Hungarian couples in Hungary, although other localities may also be involved in some of these couples’ lives. Participants and procedure Based on interviews conducted with members of Chinese-Hungarian married, cohabiting and dating, separated or divorced couples, and on data gathered through predominantly online fieldwork, this research explores notions and values that are at play in shaping the dynamics of these relations. Results The sample of thirty-seven couples features two characteristically different types of relationships: those referred to as “student love”, and the relationships of “typical” Chinese migrants with Hungarians. The former tend to be much more successful and persistent in time, with two cases of divorce or separation out of sixteen, whereas the latter are considerably less persistent, with eight cases of divorce or separation and two cases of crises out of thirteen bonds. Another notable finding is that Chinese-Hungarian marriages are much more persistent in time if the Chinese partner is female. Conclusions The paper consists of the following consecutive parts: an introduction to the Chinese migrant context and inter-ethnic partner relations in Hungary; a review of relevant literature; presentation of research methods and fieldwork; presentation and discussion of the research sample; presentation of some results from the interviews; and conclusions.

  1. La Leche League International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish, English, French) Haiti (English) Hong Kong (English, Chinese) Magyarország/Hungary (Hungarian) India (English) Indonesia (Indonesian, English) Ireland (English) Israel (English) Israel (Hebrew) ...

  2. Origin of Quaternary Red Clay of Southern Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXUEFENG; YUANGUODONG; 等

    1998-01-01

    The particle-size distribution,heavy mineral constituents and rare earth elements(REE) characteristics of the Quaternary red clay of southern Anhui Province were studied to explore the origin of the clay.The results showed that the clay had some properties of areolian deposits,which could be compared with,those of the loess in North China ;and its chondrite-normalized curves of REE were similar to those of the Xiashu loess implying tha they shared the same orighin.It was concluded in combination with the results rported by other researchers that the Quaternary red clay of southern Anhui Province originated from aolian deposts, and this could reveal the cycles of warm and cold climates in the area during the Quaternary period.

  3. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-04-15

    The annual ('01-'01) objective of this project is to data the fault activity for the presumed quaternary fault zones to the western part of the Ulsam fault system and southeastern coastal area near the Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant. Rb-Sr, K-Ar, OSL, C-14 and U-series disequilibrium methods were applied to the fault rocks, organic matter and quaternary formations collected from the Pyeonghae, Bogyeongsa, Yugyeri, Byegkye, Gacheon-1 and Joil outcrops of the Yangsan fault system, the Baenaegol outcrop of the Moryang fault system, the Susyongji(Madong-2), Singye, Hwalseongri, Ipsil and Wonwonsa outcrops of the Ulsan fault system and from quaternary marine terraces (Oryoo and Kwangseong sites) in the southeastern coastal area. The experimental procedure of the OSL SAR protocol was reexamined to get more reliable dating results.

  4. Atmospheric effects on Quaternary polarization encoding for free space communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorat, Ram; Vudayagiri, Ashok

    2016-10-01

    We have simulated atmospheric effects such as fog and smoke in laboratory environment to simulate depolarisation due to atmospheric effects during a free space optical communi- cation. This has been used to study noise in two components of quaternary encoding for polarization shift keying. Individual components of a Quaternary encoding, such as vertical and horizontal as well as 45$^\\circ$ and 135$^\\circ$ , are tested separately and indicates that the depo- larization effects are different for these two situation. However, due to a differential method used to extract information bits, the protocol shows extremely low bit error rates. The information obtained is useful during deployment of a fully functional Quaternary encoded PolSK scheme in free space.

  5. The biological activity of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Obłąk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium salts (QASs, especially those of cationic surfactant character, are applied as antibacterial and antifungal disinfectants. QASs affect lipid-enveloped viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, but not non-enveloped viruses. These compounds are extensively used in domestic (as ingredients of shampoos, hair conditioners, agricultural (as fungicides, pesticides, insecticides, healthcare (as medications, and industrial applications (as biocides, fabric softeners, corrosion inhibitors. The extensive use of quaternary ammonium disinfectants in recent years has led to the development of resistance in microorganisms to these drugs. Thus [i]Staphylococcus[/i] [i]aureus[/i] strains contain the plasmid-carrying genes [i]qacA[/i] and [i]qacB [/i]encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and acriflavine. The membrane proteins QacA and QacB confer multidrug resistance by exporting the compound by the proton motive force which is generated by the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient.

  6. [The biological activity of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obłak, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej

    2010-04-19

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), especially those of cationic surfactant character, are applied as antibacterial and antifungal disinfectants. QASs affect lipid-enveloped viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), but not non-enveloped viruses. These compounds are extensively used in domestic (as ingredients of shampoos, hair conditioners), agricultural (as fungicides, pesticides, insecticides), healthcare (as medications), and industrial applications (as biocides, fabric softeners, corrosion inhibitors). The extensive use of quaternary ammonium disinfectants in recent years has led to the development of resistance in microorganisms to these drugs. Thus Staphylococcus aureus strains contain the plasmid-carrying genes qacA and qacB encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and acriflavine. The membrane proteins QacA and QacB confer multidrug resistance by exporting the compound by the proton motive force which is generated by the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient.

  7. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  8. Linking Entrepreneurial Orientation to Firm Performance in a Post-Socialist Market Context: the Case of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David KOVACS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial orientation provoked the interest of numerous scholars as well as political and administrative decision-makers. Both start-ups and already established corporate entities are increasingly persecuting new opportunities, products, and business models in order to establish superiority above their competitive environment. The tendencies evince an optimist impact of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance, namely on financial performance. Beyond the aforementioned relationship, there are impulses such as environmental and organizational factors, which are affecting the businesses. The results of this study provide evidence of the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance in a post-socialist context. We test the impact of three moderators on this bivariate relationship. In contrast to the substantial body of literature for Western markets, we contribute to minimizing the considerable gap of research in post-socialist economies. Entrepreneurial orientation as an organizational behavior may affect the financial performance of businesses differently in distinct market contexts. Both, internal and external factors are crucial to identifying, analyze and monitor, to achieve superior performance and to overcome competitors. This study builds upon a stratified sampling survey of Hungarian company owners and managers from the Amadeus database. The study uses a deductive approach. For the analysis, we rely on structural equation modeling using the PLS algorithm. Our study contributes to the existing literature by means of confirming the entrepreneurial orientation to firm performance relationship for Hungary. In this context, we test the moderating effects of environmental dynamism, environmental hostility as environmental factors and firm age as an organizational factor. Environmental hostility is closely related to an unfavorable environment, deriving from rapid and radical changes in the industry, which are

  9. Comparative study of porous limestones used in heritage structures in Cyprus and in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Ioannou, Ioannis; Rozgonyi-Boissinot, Nikoletta; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    Porous limestone is widely used as construction material in the monuments of Cyprus and Hungary. The present study compares the physical properties of a bioclastic limestone from Cyprus and an oolitic limestone from Hungary. Petra Gerolakkou is a Pliocene limestone from Cyprus that originates from the district of Nicosia, the island's capital. It has been extensively used throughout the years in construction and restoration projects, particularly in the Nicosia area. Distinctive examples of its use can be found in the majority of the most important historic monuments in Nicosia, such as the Venetian walls and fortifications, churches (e.g. the Agia Sofia Cathedral), the archbishop and presidential palaces and a high number of other traditional buildings. The studied Miocene limestone from Hungary was exploited from Sóskút quarry (15-20 km W-SW to Budapest). The quarry provided stone for emblematic monuments of the capital of Hungary such as the Parliament building, Mathias Church, the Opera House and Citadella. In this study, mechanical parameters for both aforementioned stones, such as uniaxial compressive and tensile strengths, were tested under laboratory conditions. Their density, porosity and water absorption were also compared. The studied limestone from Cyprus exhibits porosity values within the range of 48-51%, apparent density between 1340 and 1400 kg/m3 and strength values under uniaxial compressive load between 1.2 and 2.8 MPa. This lithotype is also considered susceptible to salt decay, since an approximate mass loss of 12.5% is noted after 15 salt crystallization artificial weathering cycles. The porosity of the Hungarian limestone is in the order of 16-35%, the bulk density is 1600-1950 kg/m3, while the compressive strength is 2.5-15 MPa. Durability tests indicate that even after 10 freeze-thaw cycles the loss in strength is dramatic. Test results indicate that use of porous limestone in both countries is common and fabric strongly controls the

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of quaternary ammonium electrolytes : Unexpected side reactions in organic electrochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri Nigjeh, Eslam; de Vries, Marcel; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.

    2012-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts are among the most widely used electrolytes in organic electrochemistry, but there is little known about their unwanted side oxidation reactions. We have, therefore, studied the constant potential oxidation products of quaternary ammonium electrolytes using mass spectrometr

  11. Antibacterial activity of reactive quaternary ammonium compounds in solution and in nonleachable coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozzelino, G.; Romero Tobar, D.E.; Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial polymers suitable for coating applications without leaching of the biocidal component have been obtained by UV copolymerization of acrylic resins with acrylic monomers containing quaternary ammonium moieties. Suitable reactive biocides, based on quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs), end

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of quaternary ammonium electrolytes : Unexpected side reactions in organic electrochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri Nigjeh, Eslam; de Vries, Marcel; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.

    Quaternary ammonium salts are among the most widely used electrolytes in organic electrochemistry, but there is little known about their unwanted side oxidation reactions. We have, therefore, studied the constant potential oxidation products of quaternary ammonium electrolytes using mass

  13. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János

    2010-05-01

    Africa-Europe convergence vector. Pliocene-Quaternary was characterised by 1-5 km left lateral wrenching along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. Based on high resolution seismic measurements on the Danube river Toth (2003) supposed an even more recent activity along the Paks-Szolnok wrench fault zone. The supposed late Quaternary activity of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations. According to Mádl-Szőnyi et al (2005) and Simon et al (in press) from the Pre-Neogene basement originates an ascending overpressured highly saline water flow regime. Deep ascending water rises near to the surface, intercepting the aquifer and aquitard layers along conductive strike slipe faults of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt and mixing with shallower groundwater. Acknowledgements The research work was supported by the Hungarian National Research Fund (OTKA 035168, T 047159). References Detzky Lőrinc K. (1997) Detailed tectonic study of the Western edge of the Szolnok flysch zone using seismic and well data. Thesis Candidate of Science. Hungarian Academy of Science. p. 121. Grow J. A., R. E. Mattick, A. Bérczi-Makk, Cs. Péró, D. Hajdú, Gy. Pogácsás, P. Várnai, E. Varga, (1994) Structure of the Békés basin inferred from seismic reflection, well and gravity data. in Teleki P., J. Kókai, R.E. Mattick eds. Basin analysis in petroleum exploration, a case study from the Békés basin, Hungary. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 1-38. Juhász, Gy., Pogácsás Gy., Magyar I. (2007) A giant canyon system incised into the Late-Neogene (pannonian s.l.) sediments? (in Hungarian Óriáskanyon-rendszer szeli át a pannóniai üledékeket? Földtani Közlöny (Bulletin of the Geological Society of Hungary)137/3. 307-326. Mádlné Szőnyi J. Simon Sz. Tóth J. Pogácsás Gy. (2005) Interrelationship between surface and subsurface waters at the Kelemen-szék and Kolon lakes, Duna-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary (in Hungarian Felszíni és felsz

  14. Kinetic Study of MOCVD Ⅲ-Ⅴ Quaternary Antimonides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of MOCVD GaInAsSb and AlGaAsSb was studied by the growth rate as a function of growth temperature and partial pressure of Ⅲ and Ⅴ MO species. The diffusion theory was used to explain the mass transport processes in MOCVD Ⅲ-Ⅴ quaternary antimonides. On the basis of the discussion about their growth kinetics and epilayer properties, the good quality multi-epilayers of these two quaternary antimonides and their photodetectors and arrays with wavelength of 1.8~2.3 μm and detectivities of D*>109 cm Hz1/2 W-1 were obtained.

  15. Quaternary Structure Analyses of an Essential Oligomeric Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Christensen, Janni B; Desbois, Sebastien; Gordon, Shane E; Gupta, Ruchi; Hogan, Campbell J; Nelson, Tao G; Downton, Matthew T; Gardhi, Chamodi K; Abbott, Belinda M; Wagner, John; Panjikar, Santosh; Perugini, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    Here, we review recent studies aimed at defining the importance of quaternary structure to a model oligomeric enzyme, dihydrodipicolinate synthase. This will illustrate the complementary and synergistic outcomes of coupling the techniques of analytical ultracentrifugation with enzyme kinetics, in vitro mutagenesis, macromolecular crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering, and molecular dynamics simulations, to demonstrate the role of subunit self-association in facilitating protein dynamics and enzyme function. This multitechnique approach has yielded new insights into the molecular evolution of protein quaternary structure.

  16. Stereocontrolled Introduction of the Quaternary Stereogenic Centre in Lyngbyatoxin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Janne Ejrnæs; Tanner, David Ackland

    In our study of the enantioselective total synthesis of Lyngbyatoxin A, we have focused first on the stereocontrolled introduction of the quaternary stereogenic centre. The key step in the synthesis involves an enantiospecific Lewis-acid mediated rearrangement of chiral vinyl epoxides, a methodol......In our study of the enantioselective total synthesis of Lyngbyatoxin A, we have focused first on the stereocontrolled introduction of the quaternary stereogenic centre. The key step in the synthesis involves an enantiospecific Lewis-acid mediated rearrangement of chiral vinyl epoxides...

  17. Numerical Weather Prediction Models on Linux Boxes as tools in meteorological education in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, A. Z.; Andre, K.; Salavec, P.; Horanyi, A.; Szepszo, G.; Mille, M.; Tasnadi, P.; Weidiger, T.

    2012-04-01

    Education of Meteorologist in Hungary - according to the Bologna Process - has three stages: BSc, MSc and PhD, and students graduating at each stage get the respective degree (BSc, MSc and PhD). The three year long base BSc course in Meteorology can be chosen by undergraduate students in the fields of Geosciences, Environmental Sciences and Physics. BasicsFundamentals in Mathematics (Calculus), Physics (General and Theoretical) Physics and Informatics are emphasized during their elementary education. The two year long MSc course - in which about 15 to 25 students are admitted each year - can be studied only at our the Eötvös Loránd uUniversity in the our country. Our aim is to give a basic education in all fields of Meteorology. Main topics are: Climatology, Atmospheric Physics, Atmospheric Chemistry, Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology, Numerical Weather Prediction, modeling Modeling of surfaceSurface-atmosphere Iinteractions and Cclimate change. Education is performed in two branches: Climate Researcher and Forecaster. Education of Meteorologist in Hungary - according to the Bologna Process - has three stages: BSc, MSc and PhD, and students graduating at each stage get the respective degree. The three year long BSc course in Meteorology can be chosen by undergraduate students in the fields of Geosciences, Environmental Sciences and Physics. Fundamentals in Mathematics (Calculus), (General and Theoretical) Physics and Informatics are emphasized during their elementary education. The two year long MSc course - in which about 15 to 25 students are admitted each year - can be studied only at the Eötvös Loránd University in our country. Our aim is to give a basic education in all fields of Meteorology: Climatology, Atmospheric Physics, Atmospheric Chemistry, Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology, Numerical Weather Prediction, Modeling of Surface-atmosphere Interactions and Climate change. Education is performed in two branches: Climate Researcher and Forecaster

  18. Ecosystem resilience to abrupt late Quaternary change in continental southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Poppy; Mackay, Anson; Bezrukova, Elena; Shchetnikov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Quaternary climate variability is dominated by long term orbital forcing along with abrupt sub-Milankovitch events on the scales of millennia to centuries, driven by internal feedback mechanisms, volcanic forcing and fluctuating solar activity. Although these are well documented in the North Atlantic region, their expression is poorly understood in Siberia, particularly in relation to abrupt climatic events. Siberia has the world's highest level of continentality offering an opportunity to study changes remote from oceanic influences and improving understanding of interactions between the Siberian High and other atmospheric systems including the Aleutian Low, Arctic oscillation and Icelandic Low1 and ENSO2. Understanding of palaeoenvironmental change in Siberia is essential due to the region's high sensitivity to climatic change, with warming rates considerably higher than the global average over the past 50 years3, triggering significant environmental changes, including permafrost degradation, shifts in the forest-steppe biome, increases in forest fires and warming of seasonally ice-covered lakes. Additionally, the region provides essential palaeoenvironmental context for early hominins, for example at globally important sites such as Denisova cave4, and megafauna extinctions5. This presentation outlines ongoing work at Lake Baunt, SE Siberia including: key quaternary climate forcings, the site and its regional context, the key methods and preliminary results. These include a dated record back to ˜30ka BP (based on multiple 14C dates and Bayesian age modelling), multiproxy indicators of palaeoproductivity (e.g. biogenic silica and diatom analyses) and lake mixing regimes (inferred from diatom analyses). Together these highlight several key Quaternary fluctuations potentially correlated to events recorded in Greenland Ice Cores (GS2, GS2.1, GI1, GS1), and these are considered against key Quaternary records including those from nearby Lake Baikal and Hulu Cave in

  19. The conservation value of karst dolines for vascular plants in woodland habitats of Hungary: refugia and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Bátori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limestone (karst surfaces in Hungary are rich in dolines, in which many endangered vascular plant species occur. To date, the majority of studies dealing with doline vegetation have focused on the local rather than the landscape level, without using comparative data from other areas. However, in this study we aimed to compare the vegetation pattern and species composition of dolines under different climate regimes of Hungary with regard to regional species pools. The fieldwork was carried out between 2005 and 2012. Twenty dolines were selected in the Mecsek Mountains (southern Hungary and nine dolines in the Aggtelek Karst area (northern Hungary. More than 900 vascular plants and more than 2000 plots were included in the study. The moving split window (MSW technique, nestedness analysis and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA were used to reveal the vegetation patterns in dolines. Although we found remarkable differences between the species composition of the two regions, dolines of both regions play a similar role in the preservation of different groups of species. Many plants, in particular mountain species, are restricted to the bottom of dolines where appropriate environmental conditions exist. In addition, depending on the doline geometry, many species of drier and warmer forests have colonized the upper slopes and rims. Thus, we can conclude that karst dolines of Hungary can be considered as reservoirs for many vascular plant species, therefore they are particularly important from a conservation point of view. Moreover, these dolines will likely become increasingly indispensable refugia for biodiversity under future global warming.

  20. Hungary-Ukraine energy cooperation and its contribution to the security of supply in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, P.

    2007-07-01

    The European Union (EU) will be increasingly dependant upon non-EU primary energy resources as domestic resources are depleted. Ukraine can play a pivotal role in future supply to the EU through its neighbor Hungary. Ukraine is the largest country in the world by volume of gas transit. Through its pipeline, the transit gas deliveries amount annually to 140 billion m{sup 3}, including 120 billion m{sup 3} to countries of Central and Western Europe. The country also has an under-utilized 750 kV electricity transmission line that reaches into Hungary. These assets make Eastern Hungary a key location for a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT). A plant of this type would be able to provide electricity generation for the Central Eastern Europe (CEE) region. The heat generated by the plant could also be used in local industrial and agricultural production, thereby providing an additional impetus for regional development initiatives. Hungary is open for foreign investment from the West, but also from investors in the Ukraine and Russia. The construction of the CCGT plant and the related regional development is a great opportunity to strengthen the cooperation of Ukraine, the EU and Hungary for the common benefit of the entire region. (auth)

  1. A review of Neogene and Quaternary snakes of central and eastern Europe. Part 1: Scolecophidia, Boidae, Colubrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyndlar, Z.

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Remains of Neogene and Quaternary seoleeophidians, boids and «eolubrine» eolubrids, including snakes previously deseribed and those undeseribed yet, eoming fram Poland, Ukraine, Moldavia, Czeehoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece are diseussed. The following taxa, including 7 extinet speeies, were reeognized: Seoleeophidia indet.; Boidae: Bransateryx septentrionalis, Bransateryx sp., Albaneryx volynicus, cf., Gongylophis sp., Eryx jaculus, Eryx sp., eL Eryx sp., Eryeinae indet.; Colubridae: Texasophis bohemiacus, Coluber dolnicensis, Coluber planicarinatus, Coluber viridij1avus, cf. Coluber viridiflavus, Coluber caspius, Coluber gemonensis, cf. Coluber gemonensis, Coluber sp., Coronella austriaca, Coronella sp., cf. Coronella sp., Elaphe kohfidischi, cf. Elaphe kohfidischi, Elaphe paralongissima, Elaphe longissima, cf. Elaphe longissima, Elaphe quatuorlineata, cf. Elaphe quatuorlineata, eL Elaphe situla, Elaphe sp., cf. Malpolon sp., Telescopus sp., «Colubrinae» indet.Revisión de las serpientes neógenas y cuaternarias de Europa central y oriental. Parte 1: Scolecophidia, Boidae, Colubrinae. Se estudian restos neógenos y cuaternarios de escolecofidios, boidos y colúbridos «colubrinos», incluyendo tanto formas ya descritas como inéditas, y procedentes de Polonia, Ucrania, Moldavia, Checoslovaquia, Austria, Hungría, Rumanía, Bulgaria y Grecia. Se reconocen los siguientes taxones: Scolecophidia indet.; Boidae: Bransateryx septentrionalis, Bransateryx sp., Albaneryx volynicus, cf. Gongylophis sp., Eryx jaculus, Eryx sp., cf. Eryx sp., Erycinae indet.; Colubridae: Texasophis bohemiacus, Coluber dolnicensis, Coluber planicarinatus, Coluber viridij1avus, cf., Coluber viridiflavus, Coluber caspius, Coluber gemonensis, eL Coluber gemonensis, Coluber sp., Coronella austriaca, Coronella sp., cf. Coronella sp., Elaphe kohfidischi, cf. Elaphe kohfidischi, Elaphe paralongissima, Elaphe longissima, cf. Elaphe

  2. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  3. Session Introduction: Global correlation on late Quaternary paleovalley systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Amorosi, A.; Busschers, F.S.; Hori, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2015-01-01

    All around the world, paleovalley systems have trapped great amounts of deposits and hold a quite complete Late Quaternary record. Uniquely, these records directly interlink the shelf marine with the hinterland fluvial realms. In the vicinity of ice sheets, in similar ways, paleovalleys interlink th

  4. Application of Analytic Geometry to Ternary and Quaternary Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Advantages of representing ternary and quaternary composition diagrams by means of rectangular coordinates were pointed out in a previous paper (EJ 288 693). A further advantage of that approach is that analytic geometry, based on rectangular coordinates, is directly applicable as demonstrated by the examples presented. (JN)

  5. A revision of the Pliocene and Quaternary Lutrinae from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a revision of the Pliocene and Quaternary Lutrinae from Europe is presented. Such a revision, including fossil material, has not been published since the work of Pohle (1919). Three tribes within the Lutrinae are recognized: the Lutrini, the Aonyxini and the Enhydrini. The latter comp

  6. Significant differences in late Quaternary bedrock erosion and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, John; Bjørk, Anders Anker; Eberl, Dennis;

    2015-01-01

    We use quantitative X-ray diffraction to determine the mineralogy of late Quaternary marine sediments from the West and East Greenland shelves offshore from early Tertiary basalt outcrops. Despite the similar basalt outcrop area (60 000–70 000 km2), there are significant differences between East ...

  7. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Hungary: a new species on Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) and new record on Convolvulus arvensis (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Géza

    2014-12-22

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aculus castriferrei n. sp., associated with Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) is described and illustrated from Hungary. Morphological differences distinguishing this vagrant species from other rosaceous inhabiting congeners are discussed. Aceria malherbae Nuzzaci is a new record for the eriophyoid fauna of Hungary after it was found causing severe damage symptoms to Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae).

  8. Public accounting and its challenges: the case of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOZSEF SIMON

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic state, citizens expect that those currently in power be obliged to justify the way they spend and manage public funds. The enforcement of accountability has several preconditions. At the same time, the accounting system constitutes one part of the public sector’s information system. Thus, studying the information system in a systematic manner is important. The information system must meet diverse needs. The present paper aims at showing those requirements. When considered in a comparative perspective, different public accountancy systems implemented internationally show different forms. Every country can decide in which area and how the cash-flow approach and accrual based accounting can be used. The purpose of this paper is to verify whether and how could the usage of accrual based accounting influence the public accounting methods and the functions of public accountancy.

  9. Pliocene-Quaternary contourites along the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin: sedimentary stacking pattern and regional distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llave, Estefanía; Matias, Hugo; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Ercilla, Gemma; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Medialdea, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    This study reports novel findings on the Pliocene-Quaternary history of the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin and the spatiotemporal evolution of the associated contourite depositional system. Four major seismic units (P1, P2, QI and QII) were identified in the Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary record based on multichannel seismic profiles. These are bounded by five major discontinuities which, from older to younger, are the M (Messinian), LPR (lower Pliocene revolution), BQD (base Quaternary discontinuity), MPR (mid-Pleistocene revolution) and the actual seafloor. Unit P1 represents pre-contourite hemipelagic/pelagic deposition along the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin. Unit P2 reflects a significant change in margin sedimentation when contourite deposition started after the Early Pliocene. Mounded elongated and separated drifts were generated during unit QI deposition, accompanied by a general upslope progradation of drifts and the migration of main depocentres towards the north and northwest during both the Pliocene and Quaternary. This progradation became particularly marked during QII deposition after the mid-Pleistocene (MPR). Based on the spatial distribution of the main contourite depocentres and their thickness, three structural zones have been identified: (1) an eastern zone, where NE-SW diapiric ridges have controlled the development of two internal sedimentary basins; (2) a central zone, which shows important direct control by the Guadalquivir Bank in the south and an E-W Miocene palaeorelief structure in the north, both of which have significantly conditioned the basin-infill geometry; and (3) a western zone, affected in the north by the Miocene palaeorelief which favours deposition in the southern part of the basin. Pliocene tectonic activity has been an important factor in controlling slope morphology and, hence, influencing Mediterranean Outflow Water pathways. Since the mid-Pleistocene (MPR), the sedimentary stacking pattern of contourite drifts has been

  10. Soon, later, or ever? The impact of anomie and social capital on fertility intentions in Bulgaria (2002) and Hungary (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipov, Dimiter; Spéder, Zsolt; Billari, Francesco C

    2006-11-01

    We use survey data from Bulgaria and Hungary to investigate the determinants of whether women intend to have a first or a second child and, if so, whether they intend to have the child within the ensuing 2 years or later. These determinants differ significantly by the order and timing of the intended birth. The variables used include measures of anomie and social capital and these appear to be among the factors that determine both whether to have a child and when. There is some evidence that these measures and economic factors are relatively more important in Bulgaria than in Hungary, and that ideational factors are more important in Hungary, particularly in the case of voluntary childlessness.

  11. Pointy Bras and Loose House Dresses: Female Dress in Hungary and the United States in the 1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Medvedev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative study of the social, ideological and economic differences between the United States and Hungary during the 1950s through the examination of the expressive features of female dress. It argues that dress served as a significant means of conveying the major divisions between the two countries and demonstrates that the female body became one of the crucial sites for waging the everyday battles of the Cold War opponents. Because less information is available about the construction of gender and the sartorial practices of women in Hungary in the 1950s this paper primarily focuses on Hungary. Data for this paper was collected through oral histories, archival sources and through the examination of contemporary photographic images.

  12. Tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme disease in Hungary: the epidemiological situation between 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöldi, Viktor; Juhász, Attila; Nagy, Csilla; Papp, Zoltán; Egyed, László

    2013-04-01

    Diagnosed cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme disease (LD) have been reportable infectious diseases in Hungary since 1977 and 1998, respectively. Clinically diagnosed cases have been registered in the National Database of Epidemiological Surveillance System (NDESS). All reported TBE cases are confirmed by laboratory serological and, if necessary, PCR tests, whereas the registered cases of LD are mainly based on the appearance of erythema migrans concurring with possible exposure of tick bite. Our work is the first comparative epidemiological and geographical information analysis of these 2 diseases together. The following demographic data from each individual case (703 TBE and 13,606 LD) recorded in the NDESS were used: Sex, age, the starting date and place of the onset of disease, and a short report from the affected person. The descriptive epidemiological analysis of incidence was carried out using directly standardized rates, and smoothed indirectly standardized incidence ratios were calculated by hierarchical Bayesian methods at the municipality level using a Rapid Inquiry Facility (RIF). The average yearly incidence rate of TBE was 0.64 per 100,000 inhabitants (range, 0.46-0.84) and of LD was 12.37 per 100,000 inhabitants (range, 9.9-18.1), with the highest incidence rates in 1998 for TBE and 2008 for LD. The most affected age groups were men between 15 and 59 years of age for TBE, and women between 45 and 64 years of age for LD. Seasonality, based on the starting date of the illness, was also characterized. Extended areas of high risk were identified in western and northern Hungary, illustrated on high-resolution (municipality level) maps. On the basis of our analysis, it is possible to associate areas and periods of high-risk with characteristics (sex, age, residence) of groups most affected by tick-borne diseases in Hungary.

  13. Identification of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks collected in southeastern Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintér, Réka; Madai, Mónika; Vadkerti, Edit; Németh, Viktória; Oldal, Miklós; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Kiss, Gábor; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an arthropod-borne viral pathogen causing infections in Europe and is responsible for most arbovirus central nervous system infections in Hungary. Assessing the TBEV prevalence in ticks through detection of genomic RNA is a broadly accepted approach to estimate the transmission risk from a tick bite. For this purpose, 2731 ticks were collected from the neighboring area of the town of Dévaványa, located in southeastern Hungary, which is considered a low-risk-transmission area for TBEV. Altogether, 2300 ticks were collected from the vegetation, while 431 were collected from rodents. Samples were pooled and then screened for TBEV with a newly designed semi-nested RT-PCR (RT-snPCR) targeting the NS1 genomic region. PCR results were confirmed by direct sequencing of the second round amplicons. Among the 3 different collected tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor marginatus), I. ricinus was the only species that tested positive for TBEV. TBEV-positive ticks were collected from small mammals or from the vegetation. One nymphal pool and 4 larval pools tested positive for TBEV. The only positive nymphal pool was unfed and came from vegetation, while ticks of the 4 positive larval pools were collected from rodents. Minimal TBEV prevalence in ticks was 0.08% for unfed nymphs and 0.78% for feeding larvae. Our results indicate that further long-term investigations on the occurrence of TBEV are needed to better describe the geographic distribution and the prevalence of infected ticks in Hungary.

  14. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of genital mycoplasmas in sexually active individuals in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pónyai, K; Mihalik, N; Ostorházi, E; Farkas, B; Párducz, L; Marschalkó, M; Kárpáti, S; Rozgonyi, F

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and antibiotic sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis strains cultured from the genital discharges of sexually active individuals who attended our STD outpatient service. Samples were taken with universal swab (Biolab®, Budapest, Hungary) into the Urea-Myco DUO kit (Bio-Rad®, Budapest, Hungary) and incubated in ambient air for 48 h at 37 °C. The determination of antibiotic sensitivity was performed in U9 and arginin broth using the SIR Mycoplasma kit (Bio-Rad®, Budapest, Hungary) under the same conditions. Between 01.05.2008 and 31.12.2011, 373/4,466 (8.35 %) genito-urethral samples with U. urealyticum and 41/4,466 (0.91 %) genito-urethral samples with M. hominis infection were diagnosed in sexually active individuals in the National STD Center, Semmelweis University. U. urealyticum was isolated in 12.54 % in the cervix and 4.1 % in the male urethra, while M. hominis was isolated in 1.33 % in the cervix and 0.51 % in the male urethra. The affected age group was between 21 and 60 years old. U. urealyticum strains were sensitive to tetracycline (95.9 %), doxycycline (97.32 %), and azithromycin (85.79 %), and resistant to erythromycin (81.23 %), clindamycin (75.06 %), and ofloxacin (25.2 %). Cross-resistance occurred in 38.71 % of patients to erythromycin and clindamycin. M. hominis strains were sensitive to clindamycin, ofloxacin, and doxycycline in more than 95 %, to tetracycline in 82.92 %, and no cross-resistance was detected among the antibiotics. Our study confirms that the continuously changing antibiotic resistance of ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas should be followed at least in a few centers in every country, so as to determine the best local therapy options for sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients.

  15. NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphism in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Is Hungary different?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carsten Büning; Tomas Mlolnar; Ferenc Nagy; Janos Lonovics; Renita Weltrich; Bettina Bochow; Janine Genschel; Hartmut Schmidt; Herbert Lochs

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyse the impact of NOD2/CARD15 mutations on the clinical course of Crohn's disease patients from an eastern European country (Hungary).METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of the three common NOD2/CARD15 mutations (Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg,1007finsC) in 148 patients with Crohn's disease, 128patients with ulcerative colitis and 208 controls recruited from the University of Szeged, Hungary. In patients with Crohn's disease, the prevalence of NOD2/CARD15 mutations was correlated to the demographical and clinical parameters.RESULTS: In total, 32.4% of Crohn's disease patients carried at least one mutant allele within NOD2/CARD15compared to 13.2% of patients with ulcerative colitis (P = 0.0002) and to 11.5% of controls (P<0.0001). In Crohn's disease patients, the allele frequencies for Arg702Trp,Gly908Arg and 1007finsC were 7.1%, 3.0% and 10.8%respectively. Interestingly, only the 1007finsC mutation was associated with a distinct clinical phenotype. The patients positive for the 1007finsC mutation suffered more frequently from stenotic disease behaviour (P = 0.008). Furthermore,51.9% of patients positive for the 1007finsC mutation underwent a surgical resection within the ileum compared to only 17.4% of patients without the 1007finsC mutation (P = 0.001). With respect to the other two mutations (Arg702Trp and Gly908Arg), no associations were found with all investigated clinical parameters.CONCLUSION: NOD2/CARD15 mutations are frequently found in Crohn's disease patients from Hungary. The 1007finsC mutation is associated with stenotic disease behaviour and frequent ileal resections.

  16. Changes in patterns of injecting drug use in Hungary: a shift to synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péterfi, Anna; Tarján, Anna; Horváth, Gergely Csaba; Csesztregi, Tamás; Nyírády, Adrienn

    2014-01-01

    The spread of synthetic cathinone injecting is a new phenomenon observed in recent years in Hungary. Until 2010, when the first anecdotal reports on cathinone injecting appeared, injecting was associated with the use of heroin and amphetamine. In this paper we review available evidence of the changes in the drug market and a concurrent shift in patterns of injecting drug use that have been taking place in Hungary since 2010. Remarkable changes have been observed in police seizures data since 2010. While new psychoactive substances have appeared, the availability of heroin has dropped significantly. A qualitative study in 2011 revealed that these market changes correlate with changes in patterns of injecting drug use: decreasing heroin use and the appearance of mephedrone injecting were reported by treatment and needle and syringe programme (NSP) personnel. These changes are detectable in other routine epidemiological data collection systems in the following years as well (i.e. treatment, drug-related deaths, NSP clientele). Heroin-related treatment demand dropped, as did heroin-related mortality. Parallel to this, a growing number of clients appeared in treatment and in NSPs who were primarily injecting cathinones. The shift to cathinones can be observed in amphetamine and heroin injectors as well. Monitoring changes in patterns of injecting drug use are especially important because of the vulnerability of this drug-user population and the consequences of this high-risk route of drug administration. The realignment observed in Hungary is to be further investigated with regard to its determinants, changes in risk behaviour, and in treatment needs.

  17. Population structure of honey bees in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary) confirms introgression from surrounding subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péntek-Zakar, Erika; Oleksa, Andrzej; Borowik, Tomasz; Kusza, Szilvia

    2015-12-01

    Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica) are considered as an indigenous subspecies in Hungary adapted to most of the ecological and climatic conditions in this area. However, during the last decades Hungarian beekeepers have recognized morphological signs of the Italian honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). As the natural distribution of the honey bee subspecies can be affected by the importation of honey bee queens or by natural gene flow, we aimed at determining the genetic structure and characteristics of the local honey bee population using molecular markers. All together, 48 Hungarian and 84 foreign (Italian, Polish, Spanish, Liberian) pupae and/or workers were used for mitochondrial DNA analysis. Additionally, 53 sequences corresponding to 10 subspecies and the Buckfast hybrid were downloaded from GenBank. For the nuclear analysis, 236 Hungarian and 106 foreign honey bees were genotyped using nine microsatellites. Heterozygosity values, population-specific alleles, FST values, principal coordinate analysis, assignment tests, structure analysis, and dendrograms were calculated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity values showed moderate values. We found that one haplotype (H9) was dominant in Hungary. The presence of the black honey bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) was negligible, but a few individuals resembling other subspecies were identified. We proved that the Hungarian honey bee population is nearly homogeneous but also demonstrated introgression from the foreign subspecies. Both mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses corroborated the observations of the beekeepers. Molecular analyses suggested that Carniolan honey bee in Hungary is slightly affected by Italian and black honey bee introgression. Genetic differences were detected between Polish and Hungarian Carniolan honey bee populations, suggesting the existence of at least two different gene pools within A. m. carnica.

  18. A survey of the burden of allergic rhinitis in Hungary from a specialist’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilasi Mária

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The casual and severity distribution of allergic rhinitis (AR in Hungary is unknown. The aim of this survey was to evaluate symptom perception, disease severity, concomitant asthma frequency and the impact of AR on everyday life activities in a cross-sectional, multicenter study in Hungary under the supervision of Hungarian Respiratory Society. Methods Data were recorded by 933 AR patients (65.93% women and their treating specialists. The perceptions of patients regarding the symptoms (nasal, ocular and others of AR and its severity, together with its impact on everyday life were assessed. Physicians recorded data regarding the diagnosis and severity of AR, and comorbidities. Results 52.5% of patients suffered from seasonal AR, 35.1% from perennial AR. A large proportion of patients had moderate to severe disease (MS-AR (57.34%, persistent disease (98.0% and concomitant asthma (53.32% in the mild, 57.52% in the MS-AR group. MS-AR was more frequent among women. Despite the treatment used, in MS-AR the proportions of patients reporting moderate to severe rhinorrhoea, nasal obstruction, ocular itching/redness, watering, itchy throat and sneezing were as high as 52.0%, 54.0%, 33.8%, 26.5%, 44.0% and 31.2%, respectively. Overall, there was a poor agreement between disease severity reported by patients and specialists. The adherence to oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids was found to be between 50 and 65%; mostly depending on the dosage form. Conclusions AR remains a significant health problem in Hungary because of the burden of symptoms, high rate of concomitant asthma and the significant proportion of MS-AR affecting general well being.

  19. Regional variations in agrobiont composition and agrobiont life history of spiders (Araneae within Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samu, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrobiont spider species are well adapted to arable systems, which have fairly uniform vegetation structure and pest assemblages over continent-wide areas. We wanted to study, whether agrobiont spider subassemblages and the life history of the most prominent agrobiont, Pardosa agrestis, show any regional variation within Hungary, where only modest climatic differences exist between the NW and SE parts of the country. We studied agrobiont species of spider assemblages in 27 alfalfa and 21 cereal fields with suction sampling and pitfalls. The similarity structure of these agrobiont sub-assemblages (Sørensen distance measure was congruent with the geographic distance matrices (Eucledian distance, as tested by Mantel tests. However, if we considered sub-assemblages consisting of the non-agrobiont species, this congruency was always higher. Thus, agrobionts responded only moderately to geographical variation if we compare them to non-agrobiont species. We studied the generation numbers and the occurrence of the first adult individuals in P. agrestis; the most common agrobiont spider in Hungary. This comparison involved comparing fields along a NW – SE gradient during 6 sampling years in pairwise comparisons, where in each year a northern and a southern population was compared with a minimum distance of 126 km in between. In generation numbers there was no difference; we found two generations across Hungary. In contrast, the first occurrence of adult individuals was on average 15 days earlier in both generations in the more southern populations. Thus, it can be concluded that agrobionts show a fairly stable and relatively low magnitude response over country-sized geographical ranges.

  20. Playing the Part: Hungarian Boy Scouts and the Performance of Trauma in Interwar Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jobbitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1920, the historic Kingdom of Hungary was dismembered according to the dictates of the Treaty of Trianon. Resulting in the loss of two-thirds of the nation’s pre-World War I territory, and one-third of its prewar population, Trianon has long stood as a symbol for Hungarian suffering and trauma in the twentieth century. Historians of modern Hungary have given much consideration to Trianon, with serious attention being paid to what some have called the Trianon syndrome, or the Trianon trauma. Arguing that interwar Hungarian culture and politics need to be understood in light of the menacing psychological shadow cast by Trianon, a number of historians have suggested that the people of Hungary were traumatized spontaneously and universally by the dismemberment of the nation and the suffering that followed. This paper argues that, though this may indeed have been the case on a raw emotional level, careful consideration needs to be given to the overlapping political and pedagogical functions of the Trianon trauma, especially as this trauma found expression in repeated public “performances” of the Trianon tragedy. Focusing on the revisionist performances of Hungarian boy scouts between the wars, and in particular on the personal papers of the Hungarian geographer and boy scout leader Ferenc Fodor, this paper draws a direct link between trauma and performance in the interwar period, and argues that, though trauma was indeed central to Hungarian cultural politics, it functioned as much as a pedagogical strategy as it did a psychological reality.

  1. Farm Inputs and Agri-Environment Measures as Indicators of Agri-Environment Quality in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with agri-environmental indicators, examines farm inputs, on the basis of statistical data of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Szabo, Pomazi 2002) and the Eurostat (2004). The examined indicators are placed in the agricultural DPSIR model. The paper presents how the use of farm inputs changed in Hungary from 1980-2000. Farm inputs are related to the inputs of the EU-15, the study demonstrates that today they are below the EU- 15 average. Area ...

  2. Emerging Risks Due to New Injecting Patterns in Hungary During Austerity Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Anna; Dudás, Mária; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Rusvai, Erzsébet; Tresó, Bálint; Csohán, Ágnes

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of the massive restructuring of drug availability, heroin injection in Hungary was largely replaced by the injecting of new psychoactive substances (NPS) starting in 2010. In the following years in our sero-prevalence studies we documented higher levels of injecting paraphernalia sharing, daily injection-times, syringe reuse, and HCV prevalence among stimulant injectors, especially among NPS injectors. Despite the increasing demand, in 2012 the number of syringes distributed dropped by 35% due to austerity measures. Effects of drug market changes and the economic recession may have future epidemiological consequences. Study limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested.

  3. Compilation of functional soil maps for the support of spatial planning and land management in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Szatmári, Gábor; Fodor, Nándor; Illés, Gábor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized DSM products heavily based on legacy soil data. Delineation of Areas with Excellent Productivity in the framework of the National Regional Development Plan or delimitation of Areas with Natural Constraints in Hungary according to the common European biophysical criteria are primary issues in national level spatial planning. Impact assessment of the forecasted climate change and the analysis of the possibilities of the adaptation in the agriculture and forestry can be supported by scenario based land management modelling, whose results can be also incorporated in spatial planning. All these challenges require adequate, preferably timely and spatially detailed knowledge of the soil cover. For the satisfaction of these demands the soil conditions of Hungary have been digitally mapped based on the most detailed, available recent and legacy soil data, applying proper DSM techniques. Various soil related information were mapped in three distinct approaches: (i) basic soil properties determining agri-environmental conditions (e.g.: soil type according to the Hungarian genetic classification, rootable depth, sand, silt and clay content by soil layers, pH, OM and carbonate content for the plough layer); (ii) biophysical criteria of natural handicaps (e.g.: poor drainage, unfavourable texture and stoniness, shallow rooting depth, poor chemical properties and soil moisture balance) defined by common European system and (iii) agro-meteorologically modelled yield values for different crops, meteorological

  4. Observations on the flight pattern of some Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera species by using suction trap in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orosz Szilvia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the seasonal flight activity of the Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera species was studied by using suction trap, in South-East Hungary, in the years 2000 and 2004 from April to October. The flight period of two dominant species, namely Haplothrips angusticornis Priesner and Haplothrips aculeatus Fabricius (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae, was observed in high number in Europe. Also, it was the first record of mass flight observation of H. angusticornis. In addition, the effect of meteorological factors, such as temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity, air pressure, and their influences, were evaluated.

  5. Indicators of Internet usage: does the Internet reflect regional inequalities within Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Csótó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to examine whether or not traditional regional differences in Hungary can be perceived and if they can, in what way does this relate to the use of information communication technologies (ICT. The authors analysed data from the Hungarian sample of the World Internet Project, and the results indicate that internet-useage reflects the existing imbalances, and it is the different composition of individual characteristics between rural and urban populations and between populations of different regions that account for the regional digital divides.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISM OF ROAD AND RAILWAY TRANSPORT: A CASE STUDY IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Török

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mankind around the world is unquestionable. Resources are used and pollution is made during the transportation of human capital, raw materials, semi-final and final products. Nowadays pollution is a key factor in the progress towards sustainability in all sectors. Recently only the transport sector has not been able to fulfil the requirements and lower its emission in Europe. Further on there is a global pressure on modal shift from road to rail. But the question is still not answered whether the rail transport pollutions less? This article aims to present a method of analysis and to answer these questions in the case of Hungary.

  7. Business Ethics and CSR in Pharmaceutical Industry in the Czech Republic and Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Lőrinczy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How do business ethics and CSR form part of pharmaceutical business in the Czech Republic and Hungary? The question was analyzed through empirical studies where surveys were the main tool. The research investigated business ethics, CSR, ethical code, ethical involvement of employees as factors that might be important to achieve ethical behaviour in the pharmaceutical industry. Results showed that, with 69.4% response rate, that Czech and Hungarian original companies are more towards ethical behaviour and the employees know more about the organization they work for. The data were compared with parametric statistical analysis based on Mann-Whitney U calculator.

  8. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  9. Do Mathematicians Integrate Computer Algebra Systems in University Teaching? Comparing a Literature Review to an International Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Neil; Buteau, Chantal; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    We present a comparative study of a literature review of 326 selected contributions (Buteau, Marshall, Jarvis & Lavicza, 2010) to an international (US, UK, Hungary) survey of mathematicians (Lavicza, 2008) regarding the use of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in post-secondary mathematics education. The comparison results are organized with respect…

  10. Seasonal dynamics, age structure and reproduction of four Carabus species (Coleoptera: Carabidae) living in forested landscapes in Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Ferenc; Fazekas, Judit P.; Sárospataki, Miklós;

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics and reproductive phenological parameters of four Carabus species (C. convexus, C. coriaceus, C. germarii and C. hortensis) common in Hungary were studied by pitfall trapping and dissection. Beetles were collected in an abandoned apple orchard and in the bordering oak forest near...... Budapest (Central Hungary), in 1988–1991. The sex ratio was male-dominated, but this was significant only for C. coriaceus. The catch of C. germarii adults showed relatively short activity period with unimodal curve, but activity was longer and bimodal for the other three species. Adults of C. germarii...

  11. Millipedes (Diplopoda from the Zemplén Mountains, Northeast Hungary, with two julid species new to the Hungarian fauna

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    Bogyó, D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New data of millipedes from 92 sites in Northeastern Hungary are presented, based on the examination of more than 1300 individuals. The studied regions were the Zemplén Mountains and its surrounding plains, the Hernád valley and the Bodrogköz area. Altogether 25 millipede species were found, two Carpathian species are new to the fauna of Hungary: Leptoiulus liptauensis (Verhoeff, 1899 and Cylindroiulus burzenlandicus (Verhoeff, 1907. Remarkable and rare species for the Hungarian fauna are Trachysphaera costata (Waga, 1858 and Brachydesmus dadayi Verhoeff, 1895.

  12. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus in rodents captured in the transdanubian region of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintér, Réka; Madai, Mónika; Horváth, Győző; Németh, Viktória; Oldal, Miklós; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection is a common zoonotic disease affecting humans in Europe and Asia. To determine whether TBEV is present in small mammalian hosts in Hungary, liver samples of wild rodents were tested for TBEV RNA. Over a period of 7 years, a total of 405 rodents were collected at five different geographic locations of the Transdanubian region. TBEV nucleic acid was identified in four rodent species: Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, Microtus arvalis, and Myodes glareolus. Out of the 405 collected rodents, 17 small mammals (4.2%) were positive for TBEV. The present study provides molecular evidence and sequence data of TBEV from rodents in Hungary.

  13. Comparative analyses of quaternary arrangements in homo-oligomeric proteins in superfamilies: Functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Govindarajan; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the quaternary features of distantly related homo-oligomeric proteins is the focus of the current study. This study has been performed at the levels of quaternary state, symmetry, and quaternary structure. Quaternary state and quaternary structure refers to the number of subunits and spatial arrangements of subunits, respectively. Using a large dataset of available 3D structures of biologically relevant assemblies, we show that only 53% of the distantly related homo-oligomeric proteins have the same quaternary state. Considering these homologous homo-oligomers with the same quaternary state, conservation of quaternary structures is observed only in 38% of the pairs. In 36% of the pairs of distantly related homo-oligomers with different quaternary states the larger assembly in a pair shows high structural similarity with the entire quaternary structure of the related protein with lower quaternary state and it is referred as "Russian doll effect." The differences in quaternary state and structure have been suggested to contribute to the functional diversity. Detailed investigations show that even though the gross functions of many distantly related homo-oligomers are the same, finer level differences in molecular functions are manifested by differences in quaternary states and structures. Comparison of structures of biological assemblies in distantly and closely related homo-oligomeric proteins throughout the study differentiates the effects of sequence divergence on the quaternary structures and function. Knowledge inferred from this study can provide insights for improved protein structure classification and function prediction of homo-oligomers. Proteins 2016; 84:1190-1202. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around Buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Christensen, Steen

    In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures. The admini...... on the results we will evaluate how to use the method to re­fine a regional scale model covering an area north of the town of Aarhus, Denmark. The area, which contains several buried valleys, is marked with a red square on the map.......­finement (LGR) method developed for MODFLOW-2005 for simulation of groundwater flow in areas containing buried valleys. The tests are conducted as comparative analysis between simulations made with a globally refi­ned model, a locally re­fined model, and a globally coarse model, respectively. Based...

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN STUDENTS’ INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY. RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN ROMANIA, HUNGARY AND SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamburg Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study is meant to be an extension of and completion to a former research paper entitled “The Role of Foreign Language Teachers in Developing Students’ Intercultural Communication Skills” concluding that students of the University of Oradea, Romania, generally lack intercultural sensitivity and it falls to a great extent to foreign language teachers to change this state of affairs. When the former study came up with proposals for methods of enhancing students’ cultural awareness (see simulation games on cultural differences like Barnga, BaFá BaFá, Randömia Balloon Factory and others, the present study focuses on an international comparison, though limited to only three academic institutions in three countries, regarding Eastern and Central European students’ intercultural sensitivity. The initial idea was to see to what extent students of the University of Oradea, Romania, studying Economics, Medicine and Law dispose of intercultural skills. For this reason a Likert-type scale questionnaire was applied to more than 200 students of the above mentioned faculties. The survey was extended in the second round in Oradea, Romania, also to the Faculty of Environmental Protection and that of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, respectively to an international level asking students of the University of Debrecen, Hungary and the University of Maribor, Slovenia, the same questions. Although we are aware of the limitations of present study, – only three institutions included in the research, having in Debrecen and Maribor less respondents than in Oradea and only from some fields of study, Slovenian students not getting a Slovenian version of the questionnaire, which may have influenced their level of understanding issues, responses not always being consistent – its results have still an informative value. They confirm the author’s initial hypothesis that in spite of the extended international relations and

  16. Factors affecting reproductive success in three entomophilous orchid species in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtkó, Anna E; Sonkoly, Judit; Lukács, Balázs András; Molnár V, Attila

    2015-06-01

    The reproductive success of orchids is traditionally estimated by determining the fruit-set of individuals. Here, we investigated both the fruit and the seed production of three orchid species and the factors that may affect individual fruit-set, like pollination strategy, individual traits or the annual amount of precipitation. The species [Dactylorhiza sambucina (L.) Soó, Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb.) P. F. Hunt & Summerhayes and Platanthera bifolia (L.) L. C. M. Richard] were studied in three consecutive years (2010-2012) in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary. All three species were proved to be non-autogamous by a bagging experiment. Data analyses showed significant differences between seed numbers but not between fruit-sets of species. There was no statistical difference in individual reproductive success between wet and dry years, however, the effect of the annual amount of precipitation is significant on the population level. Comparison of published fruit-set data revealed accordance with our results in P. bifolia, but not in D. sambucina and D. majalis. We assume that the surprisingly high fruit-set values of the two Dactylorhiza species may be due to the fact that the pollination crisis reported from Western European countries is not an actual problem in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary.

  17. ANALYSES OF LANDSCAPE GEOGRAPHIC IMPACTS OF POTENTIAL CLIMATE CHANGE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER CSORBA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Change of climate can be a remarkable turning point in the 21st century history of mankind. An important task of landscape geographic research is forecasting environmental, nature protection, land use demands and helping mitigation of disadvantageous processes from the aspect of society. ALADIN and REMO numeric climate models predict strong warming and lack of summer precipitation for the area of Hungary for the period between 2021 and 2100. There is a predictedgrowth in frequency of extreme weather events (heat waves, droughts hailstorms. Changes have been forecasted using data presented in table 1. For analyses of complex landscape geographic impacts ofclimate change the area of Hungary have been divided into 18 mesoregions with 5.000-10.000 km2 area each (figure 1. The main aspect of choosing the regions was that they should have homogeneousphysical, geographic and land use endowments and, for this reason, they should react to climate change the same way. Relationships between landscape forming factors and meteorological elementsexamined by us have been taken into consideration. Results of analyses of impacts of the meteorological factors on the changes of relief through the mass movements are presented in this paper. Changes of landscape sensibility of mesoregions to mass movements have been presented in the last chapter for the periods between 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 according to numeric climate models.

  18. [E-health developments in the system of health services in Hungary and the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Ágnes

    2014-05-25

    The question of electronic solutions in public health care has become a contemporary issue at the European Union level since the action plan of the Commission on the e-health developments of the period between 2012 and 2020 has been published. In Hungary this issue has been placed into the centre of attention after a draft on modifications of regulations in health-care has been released for public discourse, which - if accepted - would lay down the basics of an electronic heath-service system. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of e-health solutions in Hungary and the European Union with the help of the most important pieces of legislation, documents of the European Union institutions and sources from secondary literature. When examining the definition of the basic goals and instruments of the development, differences between the European Union and national approaches can be detected. Examination of recent developmental programs and existing models seem to reveal difficulties in creating interoperability and financing such projects. Finally, the review is completed by the aspects of jurisdiction and fundamental rights. It is concluded that these issues are mandatory to delineate the legislative, economic and technological framework for the development of the e-health systems.

  19. Territorial Differences of Rural Cities and the Development of Transport Infrastructure in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÁSZLÓ PÉLI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional disparities can be explored from many aspects, however, most researchers agree in that due to political and economic changes, the former trend of decreasing regional disparities turned back and started to increase rapidly. In the early 2000s, a new structure with more competitive, more innovative areas and also with lagging settlements and areas seem to emerge. As result of the differentiation processes of the past two decades, in comparison with the EU member states, Hungary has the largest gap in GDP per capita among its regions. A little more than 50% of the Hungarian micro-regions have disadvantaged conditions for 30% of the population. Even now, in many studies and disputes, the under- and over-valuation of the role of highways are combined with each other. In our opinion, highways have strong, if not the strongest economic stimulus effect and settlements bordering highways formulate a single, coherent cluster. In general, these areas belong to the more developed areas of the country, which have better employment, income and infrastructure conditions. Currently, Hungary has strongly central and radial transport network. This structure hinders the formation and strengthening of large rural cities, as the capital city is the political and economic centre of the country, and its central location makes it easily accessible from the major part of the country. This state however does not help strengthening rural growth centres.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of human calicivirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Hungary, 1998 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gábor; Farkas, Tibor; Berke, Tamás; Jiang, Xi; Matson, David O; Szücs, György

    2002-11-01

    Between November 1998 and November 2000, 196 stool specimens from 21 outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis occurring in 11 of the 19 counties of Hungary were collected and tested for human caliciviruses. Human caliciviruses were detected and characterized by a type-common enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. Twenty (95%) and 14 (67%) outbreaks were positive by EIA and RT-PCR, respectively, and 12 RT-PCR-positive outbreaks were also confirmed by sequencing. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 13 Norwalk-like virus sequences in the 12 outbreaks, including 11 Norwalk-like virus genogroup II (seven in Hawaii-like, two Lordsdale-like, one Melksham-like, and one Hillingdon-like) and two Norwalk-like virus genogroup I (related to Southampton-like and Desert Shield-like clusters) viruses. Multiple Norwalk-like virus clusters, with a predominance of Hawaii-like viruses, played an important role in nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks during the study period. This is the first country-wide molecular epidemiological investigation of human calicivirus-associated, gastroenteritis outbreaks in Hungary and Central-Eastern Europe.

  1. 'Doctors by Fax' or cleaner production: the problem of prevention in post-communist Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampek, Kinga; Fuzesi, Zsuzsanna; Slatin, Craig; Levenstein, Charles

    2004-01-01

    In 1989, approximately half of the medical visits in Hungary were to factory doctors. Two thousand physicians in the National Health Service were assigned to factories and all medical students served in factories as part of their training. There were certainly problems in the system, but workers preferred the factory doctors to other physicians based in communities or districts; and factory physicians knew about workplace hazards, knew what production processes looked like, and were mandated to deal with work environment problems as well as provide other kinds of patient care. With the reform of the National Health Service, the role of factory physician was eliminated, although companies could institute their own medical services (and sometimes employed the previous medical staff). Later legislation required companies to have access to occupational medical services, but critics have called the new system "Doctors by Fax." We discuss the adequacy of the new legislative requirements (including mandatory health and safety committees) and report on new issues in worker health and safety that have emerged post "reform." Finally, the possibility of linking the prevention of occupational disease and injury prevention to "cleaner production" in Hungary is discussed.

  2. [The current state, the possibilities and difficulties of palliative and hospice care in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Katalin; Lukács, Miklós; Schaffer, Judit; Csikós, Agnes

    2014-09-21

    Hospice-palliative care has existed in Hungary for more than 20 years but physicians know very little about it. The objective of the study is to give detailed practical information about the possibilities and the reasonability of hospice care and the process of how to have access to it. The authors review and analyze the database of the national Hospice-Palliative Association database to provide most recent national data on hospice-palliative care. In addition, legal, financial and educational issues are also discussed. At present there are 90 active hospice providers in Hungary, which provide service for more than 8000 terminally ill cancer patients. According to WHO recommendations there would be a need for much more service providers, institutional supply and more beds. There are also problems concerning the attitude and, therefore, patients are admitted into hospice care too late. Hospice care is often confused with chronic or nursing care due to lack of information. The situation may be improved with proper forms of education such as palliative licence and compulsory, 40-hour palliative training for residents. The authors conclude that a broad dissemination of data may help to overcome misbeliefs concerning hospice and raise awareness concerning death and dying.

  3. Observed temperature and precipitation changes in Hungary with an outlook to the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Tamas; Lakatos, Monika; Bihari, Zita; Szentimrey, Tamas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges natural ecosystems and also human activity, and is expected to result in significant changes in temperature and precipitation in Hungary. The exact knowledge of the observed tendencies are crucial for responsible awareness. Climate indices are used in several projects on climate change as prevailing indicators of changes in extremes. The past tendencies of temperature are presented by examining the changes in the number of summer days, frost days, warm nights and hot days. For describing the precipitation changes the number of wet days, days with heavy rainfall, simple daily intensity (precipitation sum/number of wet days) and maximum number of consecutive days are analyzed in this paper. The changes of such indices for Hungary from the beginning of the 20th century to present are illustrated and analyzed on graphs and trend maps. With an outlook to the Carpathian region the preliminary results of the CARPATCLIM project, hold by JRC and lead by the Hungarian Meteorological Service are introduced in this study. The homogenized and interpolated database is produced in daily temporal resolution for the period 1961-2010 and in 0.1° spatial resolution for the 50°N - 44°N, 17°E - 27°E area for many basic meteorological variables. The harmonized database provides relevant outcomes for climate change studies and other climatological research. Several climate indices are presented in this study for the Carpathian region as preliminary results of the investigations of the dataset.

  4. A Dynamic Analysis on Determining of Housing Demand: A Comparison for Turkey, Hungary, and UK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selahattin Bekmez; Ash Ozpolat

    2014-01-01

    Housing is both good and investment assets so that it plays an important role in the economy. Housing also can be characterized the most complex economic good because of its durability, heterogeneity, locational fixity, the possibility to raise loans against housing collateral, and the effect on well-developed secondary markets. On the other hand, income distribution, socio-economic justice, and regional disparities imply that housing market is an important concept for social and cultural transformation. In this study, the determinants of housing demand were compared for countries. These countries are selected according to economic situation: Turkey, Hungary, and United Kingdom. As a scope of this, the dynamic relationship between the housing demand and variables determining the housing demand in Turkey, Hungary, and UK has been analyzed. The model estimated uses quarterly data from January 2002 to January 2014. Building permits has been considered as housing demand. The other variables used for determining the housing demand are GDP, monetary aggregate, interest rate, and share prices. The long term relationship among variables has been analyzed with Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR) as impulse response and variance decomposition. The findings indicate that determining of housing demand changes according to economic and financial components such as government policies, mortgage system, consumer choice, tax, and subsidy in selected countries. All variables play an important role in housing demand, although the level of their impacts varies.

  5. The Impact of the Hotel Industry on the Competitiveness of Tourism Destinations in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Tóth Attila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a complex question from the perspective of the hotel industry. It tries to draw attention to the importance of hotels, enhancing it on the basis of the tourism destination competitiveness models and introducing the role and place of the hotel industry in the most important models. The hotel industry research evaluates the most important tourism destinations of Hungary on the micro-regional level that justifies the importance and contribution of the hotels and accommodations to competitiveness and success of tourism destinations with exact results. As a result of the research, the micro-regional destinations can be ranged within three groups in Hungary. In the first group of the most developed and most competitive tourism destinations, the hotel industry plays a very important role. In these regions, the hotel industry has a significant effect not only on competitiveness of tourism but also on general development of the regions. In the second group, which can be still called tourism destination, tourism and the hotel industry both play a significant role, but only the competitiveness of tourism can be considered good, the effects of the tourism on general development of the region can be proved only to a lesser extent. In the third group, the effects of tourism and the hotel industry can only be experienced to a lesser extent. The majority of these regions are not considered to be attractive tourism destinations for tourists any more.

  6. Farm size and growth in field crop and dairy farms in France, Hungary and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bakucs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between size and farm growth. The existing theories of the association between size and farm growth give mixed results by countries and over time. This paper pursues a twofold objective: on one hand, to test the validity of Gibrat’s Law for French, Hungarian and Slovenian specialized dairy and crop farms during the pre- and post-accession period to the European Union membership. Dairy and crops farms are prevailing in the farming structure of these countries. Using Farm Accountancy Data Network datasets makes it necessary to avoid biases due to heterogeneous structures across the farming systems. Thus we use quantile regressions to control for farm size related heterogeneity in the samples. On the other hand, the main novelty of this paper is the comparative analysis of the relationship between farm size and farm growth between transition Hungarian and Slovenian and non-transition French farming sectors, characterized by rather different farm structures. The results reject the validity of Gibrat’s Law for crop farms in Hungary and to a lesser extent in France, and for French and Slovenian dairy farms. We provide evidence that smaller farms grew faster than larger ones over the studied period 2001-2007 for France, 2001-2008 for Hungary, and 2004-2008 for Slovenia. Conversely, the results for Slovenia suggest that the rate of growth of crop farms in terms of its land is independent from its size.

  7. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF HUNGARY'S INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Dmitrievich Protsenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main historical trends, formed the preconditions for the transformation of the industry of Hungary, and studied the features of the development of the industrial sector in terms of European integration. Within the article highlighted the positive and negative aspects of the transformation of Hungarian industry in the context of European integration and, in addition, formulated the basic directions of the further economic and industrial development of the country. Methodology. In this article, based on the methods of historical and retrospective economic and statistical analysis outlines the main trends that determine the development of Hungarian industry in the context of European integration. With the use of the comparative analytical method, developed in the works of MV Panova [3] ranging of regions of the country on the level of economic development activity. The basis of the analytical method laid the ratio of the economically and industrially active regions on areas of the country to the total population of these regions based on key socio-economic indicators: population, economic indicators, the number of industrial enterprises, agriculture and service sectors, the investment attractiveness of regions. On the basis of previously made predictions (see. Works VL Martynov [4] and R. Brunet [5] formed the main points that determine the further industrial and economic development of Hungary in the framework of European integration.

  8. Biological control of thrips pests (Thysanoptera: Thripidae in a commercial greenhouse in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Péter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphagous thrips, like western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and onion thrips Thrips tabaci, are major pests in various ornamental and vegetable crops in greenhouses throughout the world. In Hungary, both of these polyphagous thrips species frequently cause severe damage in many greenhouse crops, especially in commercial sweet pepper. Chemical control is not always feasible because of certain ecological characteristics of these thrips species. The commercially available phytoseiid predatory mites like Amblyseius swirskii and anthocorid flower bugs like Orius laevigatus are often used simultaneously for the biological control of severe thrips infestation in sweet pepper cultivation in Hungary. Our observations demonstrated that the polyphagous thrips assemblages were effectively controlled by the combined release of natural enemies, despite the fact that the establishment of O. laevigatus did not seem to be successful in the first year. Overall, the thrips population density remained below the economic threshold in both years. However, the low infestation level of thrips suggests that a single predator release strategy could be applied effectively and still maintain the thrips below the damage threshold in greenhouse sweet pepper.

  9. Sustainable energy and development in disadvantaged communities: New approaches from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, and Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legro, Susan [Eco Ltd (Czech Republic)

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines two community projects implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The first, Promoting Access to Energy Services to Foster Integration and Human Development for Disadvantaged Communities in Hungary and Slovakia with a Special Focus on the Roma, built on regional development work with isolated communities without reliable access to heat and electricity. The second, Energy Efficiency in Housing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), focused on a network of communities where rebuilding was underway following the Balkans conflict. While the projects took place in different environments, both shared common approaches. First, they focused on community energy planning in areas where infrastructure was severely deficient. Planning was designed so that current investments in building stock would not have to be retrofitted later for efficiency. Second, they linked energy agencies and NGOs with institutions outside of the energy/environment community, such as the National Minority Self Government in Hungary and the Ministry of Refugees in BiH . The projects thus leveraged funds and expertise from new sources while raising awareness of sustainable energy issues in organizations already funding infrastructure.While time and funding were limited by the terms of the grants, both projects established a foundation of information, planning, and partnerships. Both projects included baseline energy studies, training workshops, and practical guides for local leaders. In addition, there were tangible community benefits in education (reliable heat supply for a new kindergarten), jobs creation (wood-chipping in a municipal forest), and business development (contracts for efficient construction)

  10. Active tectonics of the Oran (Algeria) Quaternary plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    youcef, Bouhadad; rabah, Bensalem; e-hadi, oubaiche

    2016-04-01

    The Oran region, in north-western Algeria, has been hit several times in the past by destructive moderate-sized and strong earthquakes. The Oran October 9th , 1790 (I0= X) was among the strongest seismic events in the western Mediterranean area comparable, if we consider the described effects, to the El- Asnam (1980, Ms=7.3) and Zemmouri (2003, Mw=6.8) earthquakes. Such strong seismic events requires the presence of major active geological structures that are re-activated several times in the past. In this work we present results of a multi- disciplinary study combining geomorphic analysis, field earthquake geological investigations and geophysical methods, undertaken to study the southern border of the Oran Quaternary plain. A 50 km long, SW-dipping and NE-SW trending active fault has been identified that showing clear quaternary deformation. Keywords: earthquake geology, active fault, geomorphic, geophysics, Algeria.

  11. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Quaternary Ammonium Pyridoxine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrlin, Nikita V; Sapozhnikov, Sergey V; Koshkin, Sergey A; Iksanova, Alfiya G; Sabirov, Arthur H; Kayumov, Airat R; Nureeva, Aliya A; Zeldi, Marina I; Shtyrlin, Yurii G

    2015-01-01

    A series of 26 quaternary ammonium pyridoxine derivatives were synthesized and their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities against clinically relevant bacterial strains were tested in vitro. The antibacterial activity of mono-ammonium salts increased with the rise of the lipophilicity and compound 3,3,5-trimethyl-8,8-dioctyl-1,7,8,9-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxino[5,4-d]pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridin-8-ium chloride (2d) reaches a maximum among them. Bis-ammonium salt of pyridoxine 4 with two dimethyloctylamine groups also demonstrated high antibacterial activity despite lower lipophilicity. The results of MTT assay indicated that HEK 293 cells were more sensitive than HSF to quaternary ammonium pyridoxine derivatives. Compounds 2d and 4 did not induce the damage of the DNA and might be of interest in the development of new antimicrobials.

  12. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  13. Alpha-Crystallin: The Quest For A Homogeneous Quaternary Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Alpha A and alpha B crystallins are key members of the small heat-shock protein family. In addition to being a major structural protein of the lens, they are constitutively found in many other cells, where their function to is not completely understood. Alpha B crystallin is also known to be over-expressed in many neurological diseases. To date, all efforts to crystallize alpha A or alpha B have failed. Thus, high-resolution data on the tertiary and quaternary structure of alpha crystallin is not available. The main reason for this failure seems to be the polydisperse nature of alpha crystallin. This review deals mainly with the polydisperse properties of alpha crystallin and the influence of post-translational modification, chemical modifications, truncations and mutation on its quaternary structure. PMID:18703051

  14. Distribution of acidic groundwater around quaternary volcanoes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asamori, Koichi; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Iwatsuki, Teruki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    2002-06-01

    One important key issue in the understanding of the long-term stability of the geological environment is the influence of magmatism. In this study, we examined the general spatial distribution of acidic groundwater around Quaternary volcanoes in Japan using a database of groundwater geochemistry. The results may be summarized as follows: Acidic groundwater with pH < 4.8 mainly occur in present volcanic regions and are distributed from several kilometers to about 20 km from Quaternary volcanoes. The pH value of groundwater tends to decrease with increasing distance from a volcano. However, these results may be affected by inhomogeneity of groundwater data distribution and the characteristic activity of each volcano. In order to assess a specific volcanic region, a detailed analysis that considers volcanic activity, using a data set with high spatial density is necessary. (author)

  15. Studies on a Cationically Modified Quaternary Ammonium Salt of Lignin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ai-li; JIANG Wen-ju

    2007-01-01

    A new quaternary ammonium salt monomer was synthesized and a quaternary amination of lignin( noted as QL),with the monomer was carried out by grafting copolymerization. The products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy(FTIR). The experimental results indicate that the yield of the monomer was 99.06%, and the conversion of the monomer and the grafting yield of QL were 93.69% and 185.78%, respectively. The feasibility of QL as the fiocculant to be applied in color removal of five artificial dyes, eriochrome black T( dye A), gongo red( dye B), direct fast black G (dye C), cuprofix blue green B (dye D), and acid black ATT (dye E) was examined.Results show that QL exhibits the favorable flocculation performance and high stability.

  16. A Synthetic Route to Quaternary Pyridinium Salt-Functionalized Silsesquioxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kostenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic route to potentially biocidal silsesquioxanes functionalized by quaternary pyridinium functionalities has been developed. N-Alkylation reactions of the precursor compounds 4-(2-(trimethoxysilylethyl-pyridine (5 and 4-(2-trichloro-silylethylpyridine (6 with iodomethane, n-hexylbromide, and n-hexadecylbromide cleanly afforded the corresponding N-alkylpyridinium salts (7–10. The synthesis of a 4-(2-ethylpyridine POSS derivative (2 was achieved by capping of the silsesquioxane trisilanol Cy7Si7O9(OH3 (1 via two different preparative routes. Attempts to use compound 2 as precursor for quaternary pyridinium salt-functionalized POSS derivatives were met with only partial success. Only the reaction with iodomethane cleanly afforded the new N-methylpyridinium salt 12 in high yield, whereas n-hexylbromide and n-hexadecylbromide failed to react with 2 even under forcing conditions.

  17. Adaptation of the osteoarthritis-specific quality of life scale (the OAQoL) for use in Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Jeanette; McKenna, Stephen P; Kutlay, Şehim; Bender, Tamas; Braun, Jürgen; Castillo-Gallego, Concepcion; Favero, Marta; Geher, Pal; Kiltz, Uta; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Ramonda, Roberta; Rouse, Matthew; Tennant, Alan; Küçükdeveci, Ayşe A

    2017-02-15

    The Osteoarthritis Quality of Life scale (OAQoL) is specific to individuals with osteoarthritis. The present study describes the adaptation of the OAQoL for use in the following five European languages: German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish and Turkish. The study involved three stages in each language; translation, cognitive debriefing (face and content validity) and validation. The validation stage assessed internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), reproducibility (test-retest reliability using Spearman's rank correlations), convergent and divergent validity (correlations with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of osteoarthritis and Nottingham Health Profile) and known group validity. The OAQoL was successfully translated into the target languages with minimal problems. Cognitive debriefing interviewees found the measures easy to complete and identified few problems with content. Internal consistency ranged from 0.94 to 0.97 and test-retest reliability (reproducibility) from 0.87 to 0.98. These values indicate that the new language versions produce very low levels of measurement error. Median OAQoL scores were higher for patients reporting a current flare of osteoarthritis in all countries. Scores were also related, as expected, to perceived severity of osteoarthritis. The OAQoL was successfully adapted for use in Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Turkey. The addition of these new language versions will prove valuable to multinational clinical trials and to clinical practice in the respective countries.

  18. Geological provenance of Quaternary deposits from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)]. E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Veiga, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Carvalho, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Gomes, P.R.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)

    2007-05-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of beach sand deposits were performed with the aim of understanding the provenance and transport processes of sediments along the coastal zone of three Brazilian States. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the mineralogical properties of beach sand minerals, which reflect the geological history of transport and sorting processes. A considerable positive correlation with the geological evolution of these Quaternary coastal deposits was observed.

  19. The impact of Quaternary Ice Ages on mammalian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Adrian M

    2004-02-29

    The Quaternary was a time of extensive evolution among mammals. Most living species arose at this time, and many of them show adaptations to peculiarly Quaternary environments. The latter include continental northern steppe and tundra, and the formation of lakes and offshore islands. Although some species evolved fixed adaptations to specialist habitats, others developed flexible adaptations enabling them to inhabit broad niches and to survive major environmental changes. Adaptation to short-term (migratory and seasonal) habitat change probably played a part in pre-adapting mammal species to the longer-term cyclical changes of the Quaternary. Fossil evidence indicates that environmental changes of the order of thousands of years have been sufficient to produce subspeciation, but speciation has typically required one hundred thousand to a few hundred thousand years, although there are both shorter and longer exceptions. The persistence of taxa in environments imposing strong selective regimes may have been important in forcing major adaptive change. Individual Milankovitch cycles are not necessarily implicated in this process, but nor did they generally inhibit evolutionary change among mammals: many evolutionary divergences built over multiple climatic cycles. Deduction of speciation timing requires input from fossils and modern phenotypic and breeding data, to complement and constrain mitochondrial DNA coalescence dates which appear commonly to overestimate taxic divergence dates and durations of speciation. Migrational and evolutionary responses to climate change are not mutually exclusive but, on the contrary, may be synergistic. Finally, preliminary analysis suggests that faunal turnover, including an important element of speciation, was elevated in the Quaternary compared with the Neogene, at least in some biomes. Macroevolutionary species selection or sorting has apparently resulted in a modern mammalian fauna enriched with fast-reproducing and/or adaptively

  20. Quaternary fossil fauna from the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, LC; Barham, LS; Ditchfield, P.; Elton, S; Harcourt-Smith, WH; Dawkins, P

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a large collection of Quaternary fossil fauna from the Luangwa rift valley, Zambia. Stone Age artefacts have been recovered from stratified fluvial contexts, but no in situ fossil fauna have yet been recovered. We report on 500 fossil specimens collected from the surface of point bars exposed seasonally along the banks of the main Luangwa river channel. We used non-destructive x-ray fluorescence analysis of the fossils' chemical signatures to determine whether they derive...

  1. Associations between Child and Teacher Characteristics and Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships: The Case of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koles, Bernadett; O'Connor, Erin E.; Collins, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate variations in teacher-child relationships in childcare classrooms in Budapest, Hungary (N = 172 children in 43 classrooms), and to examine whether variations were associated with child and/or teacher characteristics. In addition, cultural variation was examined with reference to an American…

  2. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  3. Environmental values in post-socialist Hungary : Is it useful to distinguish egoistic, altruistic and biospheric values?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith. I. M.; Steg, Linda; Keizer, Martijn; Farsang, Andrea; Watt, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors examine whether the significance of biospheric values as a separate cluster next to egoistic and altruistic values is mainly a Western European phenomenon or whether biospheric values are also endorsed as a value in its own right in post-socialist Hungary. In two differen

  4. Environmental values in post-socialist Hungary : Is it useful to distinguish egoistic, altruistic and biospheric values?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith. I. M.; Steg, Linda; Keizer, Martijn; Farsang, Andrea; Watt, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors examine whether the significance of biospheric values as a separate cluster next to egoistic and altruistic values is mainly a Western European phenomenon or whether biospheric values are also endorsed as a value in its own right in post-socialist Hungary. In two differen

  5. Preparation, structure and superconductivity of high T(c) compounds: Research of high temperature superconductors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, I.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the main directions, methods and results of the investigation of high-T(c) superconductors in Hungary are briefly summarized. The fundamental idea of this research is to study the effect of starting conditions on the microstructure of samples and the influence of the latter one on their superconducting parameters. The investigation concerning technical development is also mentioned.

  6. Emerging from the Cocoon of Romani Pride: The First Graduates of the Gandhi Secondary School in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Susan Roberta

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent educational reforms in Hungary, only 33% of Roma who enter primary school subsequently enroll in secondary school, and a mere 0.2% progress to higher education. To address this situation, in 1994 the Gandhi Secondary School opened its doors as the first college preparatory school for Roma in Europe. In 2000, the school graduated 18…

  7. Differentiation in the Making: Consequences of School Segregation of Roma in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Vera

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how various forms of ethnic segregation in education affect everyday life and future aspirations of Roma youth in three Central and Eastern European countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia. It draws on a comparative European investigation about the diverging experiences and paths of ethnic minority youth in…

  8. Effect of pest management systems on foliage- and grass-dwelling spider communities in an apple orchard in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogya, S.; Marko, V.; Szinetár, C.

    2000-01-01

    Spider communities (Araneae) inhabiting the canopy, the herbaceous layer and the borders, as well as the populations overwintering on the tree trunks of different aged IPM and conventional apple orchards were investigated in Hungary. Abundance and species richness of entire spider communities in IPM

  9. Fábián, Katalin: "Contemporary Women’s Movements in Hungary: Globalization, Democracy and Gender Equality"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Shima Glanz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fábián, Katalin. Contemporary Women’s Movements in Hungary: Globalization, Democracy and Gender Equality. The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, D.C.: 2009. 396 pp., Illus. Reviewed by Penny Shima Glanz, Freelance Writer.

  10. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  11. Microstructure development in Al-Cu-Ag-Mg quaternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Froyen, L.

    2012-01-01

    The solidification behaviour of multi-component and multi-phase systems has been largely investigated in binary and ternary alloys. In the present study, a quaternary model system is proposed based on the well known Al-Cu-Ag and Al-Cu-Mg ternary eutectic alloys. The quaternary eutectic composition and temperature were determined by EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) analysis, respectively. The microstructure was then characterised by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). In the DSC experiments, two types of quaternary eutectics were determined according to their phase composition. For each type of eutectic, various microstructures were observed, which result in different eutectic compositions. Only one of the determined eutectic compositions was further studied by the controlled growth technique in a vertical Bridgeman type furnace. In the initial part of the directionally solidified sample, competing growth between two-phase dendrites and three-phase eutectics was obtained, which was later transformed to competing growth between three-phase and four-phase eutectics. Moreover, silver enrichment was measured at the solidification front, which is possibly caused by Ag sedimentation due to gravity and Ag rejection from dendritic and three-phase eutectic growth, and its accumulation at the solidification front.

  12. Quaternary tectonic faulting in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Paleoseismological study of geologic features thought to result from Quaternary tectonic faulting can characterize the frequencies and sizes of large prehistoric and historical earthquakes, thereby improving the accuracy and precision of seismic-hazard assessments. Greater accuracy and precision can reduce the likelihood of both underprotection and unnecessary design and construction costs. Published studies proposed Quaternary tectonic faulting at 31 faults, folds, seismic zones, and fields of earthquake-induced liquefaction phenomena in the Appalachian Mountains and Coastal Plain. Of the 31 features, seven are of known origin. Four of the seven have nontectonic origins and the other three features are liquefaction fields caused by moderate to large historical and Holocene earthquakes in coastal South Carolina, including Charleston; the Central Virginia Seismic Zone; and the Newbury, Massachusetts, area. However, the causal faults of the three liquefaction fields remain unclear. Charleston has the highest hazard because of large Holocene earthquakes in that area, but the hazard is highly uncertain because the earthquakes are uncertainly located. Of the 31 features, the remaining 24 are of uncertain origin. They require additional work before they can be clearly attributed either to Quaternary tectonic faulting or to nontectonic causes. Of these 24, 14 features, most of them faults, have little or no published geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting that could indicate the likely occurrence of earthquakes larger than those observed historically. Three more features of the 24 were suggested to have had Quaternary tectonic faulting, but paleoseismological and other studies of them found no evidence of large prehistoric earthquakes. The final seven features of uncertain origin require further examination because all seven are in or near urban areas. They are the Moodus Seismic Zone (Hartford, Connecticut), Dobbs Ferry fault zone and Mosholu fault (New York

  13. Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Luis; Chiang, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Norovirus, formerly known as Norwalk virus, is an important cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in hospitals, food services, schools, and cruise ships. Infection control practices by using disinfectants to eliminate noroviruses from surfaces and environmental samples reduce the morbidity and spread of virus outbreaks. There are not many commercial disinfectants effective against norovirus. Noroviruses cannot be cultivated in vitro. However, feline calicivirus can be used as a surrogate to determine disinfectant efficacy against noroviruses. Feline calicivirus was used in a virucidal effectiveness test protocol as a surrogate for norovirus to determine the virucidal efficacy of R-82, a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant cleaner. Feline calicivirus suspensions containing at least 5% fetal bovine serum were dried on carriers and treated with 1:256 dilutions of R-82 disinfectant in water, with a hardness of 400 ppm as calcium carbonate, for 10 minutes. Hypochlorite concentrations of 100 +/- 10 and 1,000 +/- 10 ppm, respectively, were also analyzed as internal control standards. After contact period, the test agents were neutralized with 2 mL of appropriate neutralizer, and mixtures were scraped from carrier surfaces with a cell scraper. Selected dilutions of the neutralized inoculum/test agent mixtures were added to cultured cell monolayers of appropriate host cells. Postincubation, the infectious feline calicivirus was scored microscopically by observing virus-specific cytopathic effects produced by replicating infectious virus. The performance criterion was a minimum of 4-log(10) reduction in cytopathic effects of feline calicivirus. After a 10-minute contact time, formulation R-82 diluted 1:256 showed a 6.6- and 6.4-log(10) reductions in cytopathic effects of feline calicivirus during initial and confirmatory testing, respectively, demonstrating complete inactivation of the virus. A hypochlorite solution of 1,000 ppm exhibited similar log(10) reductions to the

  14. Before and after Tambora: Extreme floods in the mid-1810s in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Either considering the eruption among the potential causes or not, the vicissitudinous times around the year of the Tambora eruption, with a great number of extreme weather events and serious socio-economic consequences, gained and gain relatively great attention among historians in Hungary. Even if in 1816 and partly already in 1815, different areas of the country were affected in different ways (and partly in different times), the number of extraordinary weather-related extremes with great damages, harvest failures and the great food shortage/famine in large areas made these years (combined with preceding bad years) exceptionally difficult. In the presentation 3 main subject areas are addressed: Based on scientific literature and contemporary documentary evidence, a country-wise overview of the presently known evidence mentioning unusual atmospheric phenomena (e.g. dry fog), extreme weather and related events (with special emphasis on great floods) as well as their immediate consequences (e.g. casualties, damages, food-shortage) are provided concerning the years of 1815 and 1816. In the second part of the presentation, through local case studies (from West-, Central-, and Southeast Hungary), floods occurred in the period individual extremes as well as their short- and (if available) long-term consequences are discussed. While short-term consequences mainly appear in the form of casualties and material damages in all study areas, some of the extreme events, for example the great flood of the Tisza river at Szeged (7 months constant flooding btw. Dec. 1815-June 1816, and then an extraordinary huge flood in June 1816), clearly had long-term effects in the area (e.g. in terms of flood protection issues). The years of 1815 and 1816 were part of a multi-annual crisis period in Hungary which - with an increased number of weather extremes, bad harvests, food shortage and in some areas even severe famine as a consequence - can be already detected (at least) from the year

  15. [DRGs in psychiatric hospital financing exemplified by Hungary. A model for Germany?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylath, E

    2000-12-01

    One of the most important provisions incorporated in the reform of the German health sector has been the introduction of a per case prospective payment system for hospitals with the exception of admissions to psychiatric care. The reasons for the exclusion of psychiatric care are unclear, but it is as a result all the more interesting to look at the experience of Hungary, where in-patient psychiatric care has been financed on the basis of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) for the past seven years. The article describes how in the early 1990's the funding of the Hungarian health service was reorganized from being a state-financed system with a set budget to a system financed by contributions. Parallel to this development, service-related financing was introduced. In the hospital sector this involved DRGs. At the beginning of 1993 the Hungarian DRGs comprised only 437 categories, but this has since increased to 758. Furthermore, other characteristics are listed which, apart from the number of groups, differentiate the Hungarian DRGs from the AP-DRGs. Among other things, service-related financing includes non-typical areas such as psychiatry. In this case, it covers in-patient psychiatric care in an unusual combination of DRGs in the acute case category (50% of all beds in psychiatric units in Hungary are for acute cases) with daily nursing charges in the chronic case category. An analysis is given in the article of 16 homogeneous diagnostic categories in psychiatric care, followed by experiences gathered in conjunction with the application of this approach in this particular sphere, with special reference to three problem areas. These are as follows: the trend towards diagnoses with a relatively high weighting; the practice of charging for psychiatric DRGs in somatic wards; and, finally, the perpetuation of poor service structures and practices through DRGs. In general, evidently the introduction of psychiatric DRGs may also be recommended in Germany because of the

  16. Quaternary Geology and Surface Faulting Hazard: Active and Capable Faults in Central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.1), in central Italy, raised the issue of surface faulting hazard in Italy, since large urban areas were affected by surface displacement along the causative structure, the Paganica fault. Since then, guidelines for microzonation were drew up that take into consideration the problem of surface faulting in Italy, and laying the bases for future regulations about related hazard, similarly to other countries (e.g. USA). More specific guidelines on the management of areas affected by active and capable faults (i.e. able to produce surface faulting) are going to be released by National Department of Civil Protection; these would define zonation of areas affected by active and capable faults, with prescriptions for land use planning. As such, the guidelines arise the problem of the time interval and general operational criteria to asses fault capability for the Italian territory. As for the chronology, the review of the international literature and regulatory allowed Galadini et al. (2012) to propose different time intervals depending on the ongoing tectonic regime - compressive or extensional - which encompass the Quaternary. As for the operational criteria, the detailed analysis of the large amount of works dealing with active faulting in Italy shows that investigations exclusively based on surface morphological features (e.g. fault planes exposition) or on indirect investigations (geophysical data), are not sufficient or even unreliable to define the presence of an active and capable fault; instead, more accurate geological information on the Quaternary space-time evolution of the areas affected by such tectonic structures is needed. A test area for which active and capable faults can be first mapped based on such a classical but still effective methodological approach can be the central Apennines. Reference Galadini F., Falcucci E., Galli P., Giaccio B., Gori S., Messina P., Moro M., Saroli M., Scardia G., Sposato A. (2012). Time

  17. Phylogeography of Rhodiola kirilowii (Crassulaceae: a story of Miocene divergence and quaternary expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Zhang

    Full Text Available The evolution and current distribution of the Sino-Tibetan flora have been greatly affected by historical geological events, such as the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP, and Quaternary climatic oscillations. Rhodiola kirilowii, a perennial herb with its distribution ranging from the southeastern QTP and the Hengduan Mountains (HM to adjacent northern China and central Asia, provides an excellent model to examine and disentangle the effect of both geological orogeny and climatic oscillation on the evolutionary history of species with such distribution patterns. We here conducted a phylogeographic study using sequences of two chloroplast fragments (trnL-F and trnS-G and internal transcribed spacers in 29 populations of R. kirilowii. A total of 25 plastid haplotypes and 12 ITS ribotypes were found. Molecular clock estimation revealed deep divergence between the central Asian populations and other populations from the HM and northern China; this split occurred ca. 2.84 million year ago. The majority of populations from the mountains of northern China were dominated by a single haplotype or ribotype, while populations of the HM harbored both high genetic diversity and high haplotype diversity. This distribution pattern indicates that HM was either a diversification center or a refugium for R. kirilowii during the Quaternary climatic oscillations. The present distribution of this species on mountains in northern China may have resulted from a rapid glacial population expansion from the HM. This expansion was confirmed by the mismatch distribution analysis and negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS values, and was dated to ca. 168 thousand years ago. High genetic diversity and population differentiation in both plastid and ITS sequences were revealed; these imply restricted gene flow between populations. A distinct isolation-by-distance pattern was suggested by the Mantel test. Our results show that in old lineages, populations may harbour

  18. Prevalence and diversity of human pathogenic rickettsiae in urban versus rural habitats, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Sándor; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke; Rigó, Krisztina; Jablonszky, Mónika; Majoros, Gábor; Sprong, Hein; Földvári, Gábor

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses belong to the important emerging infectious diseases worldwide. We investigated the potential human exposure to rickettsiae by determining their presence in questing ticks collected in an urban park of Budapest and a popular hunting and recreational forest area in southern Hungary. Differences were found in the infectious risk between the two habitats. Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica were identified with sequencing in questing Ixodes ricinus, the only ticks species collected in the city park. Female I. ricinus had a particularly high prevalence of R. helvetica (45%). Tick community was more diverse in the rural habitat with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks having especially high percentage (58%) of Rickettsia raoultii infection. We conclude that despite the distinct eco-epidemiological traits, the risk (hazard and exposure) of acquiring human pathogenic rickettsial infections in both the urban and the rural study sites exists.

  19. Low-carbon Building Innovation Trends and Policy Pespectives in Hungary between 2020 and 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarassy Csaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the aspects of climate policy, the building sector in Hungary is one of the best performing industries. This means that the GHGs (Greenhouse Gasses the sector emits can be decreased more effectively and at less cost than in the case of other sectors. This is no surprise in the European Union, since there is a continual demand on behalf of society to develop old and outdated buildings, thus modern technological solutions also inherently result in operating efficacy. The ‘climate policy targeted’ development of the built environment based on EU funds is thus one of the most popular developments amongst European Union Member States. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the climate policy effects of the presently preferred strategy approach(es between 2020 and 2030.

  20. Folklore anecdote between memorata and fabulata: Field research of Serbs in Medina (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on folklore material, which was gathered during ethno linguistic field research of Serbian traditional lexicon and spiritual culture in Medina village in Hungary in 2002. Folklore material is composed of the sayings by the informer Sava Sokic and primarily can be defined as a series of comical narrations. If we look upon these narrations as a genre of oral speech and within context of ethno linguistic interview, we can notice a complex structure of this oral genre. That is, this genre functions as a memorat with typical beginnings and met textual comments. On the other hand, it respects almost all genre norms, which are characteristic for folklore anecdote. Therefore, comic narrations of Save Sokic, and that are valid also for folklore anecdote in general, can be classified as borderline genre - between memorata and fabulata.

  1. ‘Malenkey Robot’ in the Carpathian Basin, in Hungary – Data, Facts, Interpretations, Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bognár Zalán

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation problems related to the notion of ‘malenkaya rabota,’ POW, internee, GULAG and GUPVI. Ways of classification of the victims of ‘malenkaya rabota' in the Carpathian Basin, various groups and types. Determination of the effective number of the groups, and of the total number of those deported as civilians from the 14.7 million inhabitants of the Hungary of the time, based on different data, and the difficulties of definitions. The interpretation and implementation of the central Soviet commands. The connections between the deportations. Similarities and differences between the deportations as internee and as POW. Manageability of the data, interpretation of Soviet and Hungarian archive data and the reasons why they are different. The real value of Soviet archival sources. The determination of the losses attributed to ‘malenkaya rabota’.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility and macrolide resistance genes in Streptococcus pyogenes collected in Austria and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattringer, Rainer; Sauermann, Robert; Lagler, Heimo; Stich, Karin; Buxbaum, Astrid; Graninger, Wolfgang; Georgopoulos, Apostolos

    2004-09-01

    A total of 341 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from Vienna, Austria and three Hungarian cities were tested for susceptibility to four macrolides and 12 other antibiotics. All isolates were fully susceptible to penicillin and the other beta-lactams tested. A high level of tetracycline resistance was found in Austria (26.7%) and in Hungary (30.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin was 4.7% in Vienna and 3.7% in the Hungarian communities. In both countries, the MIC(90) values of erythromycin and clarithromycin were 0.12 mg/L and the MIC(90) of josamycin was 0.5mg/L. The M phenotype of resistance conferred by the mefA genes was predominant (n = 9) among the macrolide-resistant isolates (n = 14).

  3. Paleoenvironmental conditions at the loess paleosol sequence Bodrogkeresztúr in NE Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösken, Janina; Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Klasen, Nicole; Hambach, Ulrich; Sümegi, Pál; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Loess paleosol sequences (LPS) have the ability to preserve past environmental and climatic conditions. Therefore, they are a widely used terrestrial archive for the reconstruction of paleoclimatic dynamics. In this study, we use several proxies (grain size distributions, geochemical analysis, rock magnetism, and color measurements) to study past environmental changes in a LPS covering the MIS 2/MIS 3 transition. Geochronological control is given by post infrared infrared stimulated luminescence dating of polymineral fine grains. The research aim lies in the reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental conditions at the loess-paleosol sequence Bodrogkeresztúr in northeastern Hungary using a multi-proxy approach. The sequence is located at the foot of the Kopasz hill, the southernmost part of the Tokaj Mountains, which belong to the Carpathian mountain range. The area is famous for the Bodrogkeresztúr-Henye Gravettian site (Lengyel, 2015). The profile contains eolian loess deposits intercalated by two paleosols. The lower paleosol overlays possibly fluvial clay (fine overbank deposits) forming the base of the profile. The luminescence samples have been tested thoroughly and have been measured with the pIR50IR290 protocol (Thiel et al., 2011). The final age assessment between 28.0±2.1 ka and 33.5±2.5 ka fits well to the established geochronologies of the Kopasz hill (Sümegi and Hertelendi, 1998) and the Tokaj section (Schatz et al., 2012). Paleoenvironmental conditions are investigated through the multi-proxy approach. The measurement of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility is interpreted in regard of paleowind directions. The magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in paleosols, especially in the lower one, indicating strong pedogenesis. Grain size parameters also show high clay contribution in the lower paleosol, but also indicate two distinct features of stronger wind dynamics in the loess layer in the middle of the profile (double sigmoidal fluctuations in all

  4. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal.

  5. Different management methods on prevalence of lameness in 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary

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    Gudaj R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lameness in dairy cattle is the third most expensive outbreak after mastitis and reproductive disorders. 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary were observed for two years to estimate the impact of different trimming methods and managements for the controll of the incidence of lameness. Professional trimming was found to be more effective on farms with no nutritional disorders and where refurnishment works were carried out. The greatest decrease in the prevalence of lameness was observed on farms which provided professional trimming, effective footbathing, improved walking and resting surfaces and which treated severely lame cows between regular trimmings. The greatest increase in occurrence of lameness was reported on farms with on-farm trimmers and where building projects were carried out and nutritional disorders found.

  6. Propagation methods for black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) improvement in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important stand-forming tree species in Hungary and its importance is increasing in many countries. Black locust plants are commonly produced by two methods, by seed and by root cuttings. Tissue culture propagation can be considered as a relatively new method. Growing trees from seed is a relatively simple method for reliably producing seedlings on a large scale under a variety of circumstances. Mechanization of the method is easy and the production cost is relatively low. Propagation from root cuttings and tissue culture are valuable for reproduction of superior individuals or varieties. By applying these methods, superior traits of the selected trees can be preserved in the clones. Recent experiments demonstrated that micropropagated trees could be successfully transplanted into soil, hardened and grown in the field.

  7. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea

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    Ferenc Kozár

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %, to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera; Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera; Margarodidae sensu lato (5 species in 5 genera; Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera; Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus; and Cerococcidae (1 species. Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  8. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidaesensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  9. ‘The Vienna School in Hungary: Antal, Wilde and Fülep’

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    Paul Stirton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has two principal aims. The first is to outline the approach and development of a group of Hungarian-born art historians who trained in Vienna and who came together in Budapest during the First World War. The radical intellectual climate and the experience of war and revolution exposed these scholars to new concepts of art and culture, challenging many of their aesthetic principles. From this emerged one tradition in the social history of art. The second part of the article traces the dispersal of this group and their subsequent careers, contrasting their work with approaches to art historical scholarship that dominated in Hungarian institutions in the inter-war period. By implication, the article suggests that a distinctive type of art history could have developed in Hungary if the political situation had been more conducive.

  10. New Keynesian Phillips Curve Estimation: The Case of Hungary (1981–2006

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    Aleksandar Vasilev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates for the presence of a New Keynesian Phillips (NKPC curve in Hungary in the period 1981:3–2006:2. The empirical model we test features forward-looking firms who pre-set prices for a couple of periods ahead, using Calvo (1983 pricing rule.We also estimate a hybrid version of NKPC, where some of the firms are backward looking, and others are forward-looking in their price-setting behaviour. Real marginal costs and forward-looking behaviour are statistically significant and quantitatively important in the nkpc.However, there are some econometric issues to be considered, such as the weak identification of the parameters of the structural NKPC as well as those of the hybrid NKPC.

  11. Attitudes Towards Immigrants, Immigration Policies and Labour Market Outcomes: Comparing Croatia with Hungary and Slovenia

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    Botrić Valerija

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides comparative evidence on attitudes towards immigrants, their labour market outcomes and policies in Croatia and two neighbouring countries – Slovenia and Hungary. Three different data sources have been used: the European Social Survey, an ad-hoc Labour Force Survey module for the year 2014, and the MIPEX index. Although immigrants have a disadvantaged position on the Croatian labour market, most analysed indicators do not imply that they are in a worse position than in other European economies. Migrant integration policies related to the labour market are assessed as being relatively favourable for Croatia. Judging by the comparable indicators for the native population in Croatia, immigrants’ adverse labour market outcomes seem to be more related to the unfavourable general economic situation, and particularly by the deep and long recession.

  12. Did NATO attacks in Yugoslavia cause a detectable environmental effect in Hungary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, A; Capote-Cuellar, A; Köteles, G J

    2001-02-01

    Because of the intensive NATO bombardment of the neighboring region to Hungary, i.e., Vojvodina, North Yugoslavia, air monitoring for detection of depleted uranium particles supposed to be used as a component of bullets was extended to the Southern region of the country. Alpha spectrometry was applied as a sensitive analytical technique able to detect uranium. Though no depleted uranium was detected in air by the sensitive technique of alpha-spectrometry, the increased uranium content in natural ratio as a component of normal soil, natural gas, etc., is suggested to originate from well dispersed dust (2.5 microm size) emitted to the atmosphere by explosions during bombing. This observation is supported by the geographical distribution and the relatively rapid decrease of pollution after the bomb attacks ceased.

  13. Entangled traditions of race: Physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania, 1900-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turda, Marius

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between race and physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania between 1900 and 1940. It begins by looking at institutional developments in both countries and how these influenced the most important Hungarian and Romanian anthropologists' professional and research agendas. Drawing from a wide range of primary sources, the article reveals the significant role the concept of race played in articulating anthropological and ethnic narratives of national belonging. It is necessary to understand the appeal of the idea of race in this context. With idealized images of national communities and racial hierarchies creeping back into Eastern European popular culture and politics, one needs to understand the latent and often unrecognized legacies of race in shaping not only scientific disciplines like anthropology, but also the emergence and entrancement of modern Hungarian and Romanian nationalism.

  14. Improved Cost Management at Small and Medium Sized Road Transport Companies: Case Hungary

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    Zoltan Bokor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized road freight transport companies located in Hungary are facing strong competition on the logistics market. An advanced cost management system supporting decisions on capacity allocations or pricing may be a competitive advantage for them and indirectly for the whole economy as well. Still, they generally apply simple, traditional cost calculation regimes, potentially sufficient in case of a homogeneous service portfolio. Nevertheless, road haulage companies with heterogeneous service structures may witness information distortions when using traditional costing methods. So it might be recommended for them to introduce better costing principles. To support an improved transport costing, a multi-level full cost allocation model has been set up and tested in this paper. The research results have pointed out that such a methodological development accompanied by the extension of the data collection mechanism can contribute to making the cost management systems of road freight transport companies more effective.

  15. Mass Mortality of Beech (Fagus sylvatica in South-West Hungary

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    MOLNÁR, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass mortality of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in Hungary, which started in 2003 andwent on through 2004, is the result of a typical damage chain. Mortality appeared first of all in beechforests close or outside of its native distribution area. The most significant reason was the droughtperiod from 2000 to 2004, which weakened the trees, and favoured the development of different pestsand pathogens. Characteristic symptoms were frequent at stand margins and in stands thinned forregeneration. The direct causes of the mortality were insects, the green jewel beetle (Agrilus viridisand the beech bark beetle (Taphrorychus bicolor as well as the fungus species Biscogniauxianummularia. With the improvement of weather conditions a continuous recovery of the stands hasbeen observed since 2005.

  16. Bridging Cultural Borders: American Students’ Pedagogical Cross-Cultural Experiences in Hungary

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    Jackie Greene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In exploring the best practices for preparing new teachers to meet the challenges of the changing demographics present in contemporary classrooms, cross-cultural internship experiences emerge as an important component to teacher training curriculums. The authors present information based on the experiences of American student teachers spending three weeks teaching English and American Culture in Szent István’s Practice School, making presentations to local clubs, churches, libraries, and traveling throughout Hungary. This exchange program presented a great opportunity for the authors to conduct a study related to exploring the impact of the student teaching abroad experience in their teaching dispositions as well as in developing an understanding of working within a culturally and linguistically diverse environment.

  17. Climate change in Hungary during the twentieth century according to Feddema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Hajnalka; Ács, Ferenc; Skarbit, Nóra

    2017-02-01

    Climate change in Hungary during the twentieth century is analyzed using Feddema's original scheme suitable for global scale applications (F-GS) and Feddema's fine-tuned scheme designed for Hungarian applications (F-HU). Input data of precipitation (P) and air temperature (T) are taken from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) TS 1.2 database constructing P-T data referring to three 30-year periods (1901-1930, 1941-1970, 1971-2000) and two 50-year periods (1901-1950, 1951-2000). The method and data organizational effects are compared using these schemes and data sets. The results show that the evaluation of the climate change process depends much more on the methodological rather than on data organizational effects. Methodical fine-tuning effects considerably improved the spatial distribution, while the organization of data improved the insight into the dynamic of the processes. According to F-GS, there is no climate change on 76.7 % of Hungarian territory. According to F-HU, such areas amount to only 38.5 %. The main climate change process for F-GS is drying, while for F-HU drying and warming beside either drying or warming. For both models, the most climate change affected areas are characterized by higher altitudes, such as in the Mecsek and Villány Mountains (geographical region Transdanubia), in the Bükk Mountains (geographical region North Hungarian Mountains), and in the region of the so-called Danube Bend. The spatially most realistic climate description is obtained by using F-HU and the 30-year data sets. It is to be noted that Köppen's, Holdridge's, and Thornthwaite's methods are less suitable than F-HU for representing the process of climate change in Hungary in the twentieth century.

  18. A Special Issue: Geomathematics in practice: Case studies from earth- and environmental sciences – Proceedings of the Croatian-Hungarian Geomathematical Congress, Hungary 2015

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    Hatvani István Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to introduce the current problems of geomathematics along with giving on overview on the papers published in the special issue covering the Croatian-Hungarian Geomathematical Congress of 2015 in Hungary.

  19. Review Article: The Saddest History Ever Written: On Randolph L. Braham’s "The Geographical Encyclopedia of the Holocaust in Hungary" (2013

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    Marguerite De Huszar Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Only in 1989, after forty-five years of Soviet domination, could the Holocaust in Hungary begin to be discussed openly and honestly. One scholar in particular, the author – editor of this mammoth geographical encyclopedia, Randolph L. Braham, has devoted his life and career to uncovering the truth about what happened within the borders of Hungary and the annexed territories. Since 1961 he has written or edited, co-authored or co-edited more than fifty books on the Holocaust. The masterful two-volume Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary (1994 appeared to be his definitive statement. But now, with a team of Hungarian Holocaust scholars and journalists, he uncovers, with maps and photos, how the Holocaust was implemented within each and every city, town, and village of every one of the forty-one counties in wartime Hungary.

  20. Know-how from Austria for a hydroelectric power plant in Hungary. The Nagymaros power plant is under construction at the Danube river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fremuth, W.

    1989-06-01

    In Hungary, a hydroelectric power plant is being constructed at the Danube river and is planned to be operated by the CSSR and Hungary. The project management is an Austrian company, Donaukraft, who thus inverts its know-how in hydroelectric power plant construction. The plant is planned to be ready for operation by 1994, and will stretch out over a distance of 180 kilometers along the Danube river, supplying about 171 MW of electricity. (orig.).