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  1. Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    In this discussion of Hungary, attention is directed to the following: geography, people, history, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations between the US and Hungary. In 1985 the population totaled 10.7 million with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate is 20.2/1000 live births; life expectancy is 66 years for men and 73.2 years for women. Hungary was a monarchy for almost 1000 years. Its constitutional parliamentary system preceded, by several centuries, the establishment of such Western-style governments in other East European countries. A communist dictatorship seized power in May/June 1947. The Hungarian uprising of 1956, although forcibly suppressed by Soviet armed intervention, gave impetus to long overdue changes and clearly demonstrated the popular will for national identity and internal reform. With the exception of various small businesses with few employees, all economic activity is run by state-owned enterprises or cooperatives. Agriculture has been collectivized. Hungary has rich bauxite mines and provides for most of its coal and natural gas requirements. Introduction of the "new economic mechanism" in 1968 ushered in a period of rapid growth, accompanied by equilibrium in the balance of trade. Yet, in the early 1970s a number of factors combined to blunt the reform effort, and in 1977 government leaders recognized the need for a new reform effort. Hungary is highly dependent on foreign trade, about 50% of which is with other communist countries. Except for the brief and unsuccessful attempt in November 1956 to establish a position and course of neutrality for Hungary, the foreign policy of the Hungarian government has followed closely the Soviet Union since 1947. In recent years, US/Hungarian relations have featured a steady exchange of official visits.

  2. Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszay, T.

    1990-01-01

    The economy of Hungary remains intensive in both materials and energy. However, Hungary has the prospect of reducing energy intensity, as well as carbon emissions, by integrating itself with the world economy and introducing modern products and production technologies. This high energy intensity is relatively good news because it means that by changing the production structure, personal income may be increased considerably without necessarily increasing energy use and carbon emissions. The government significantly altered the Hungarian energy economy in 1978 by restricting oil and oil products use and requiring substitution with domestic coal, imported electricity, and natural gas. This decision required investment in energy supply to grow to 40% of all industrial investment by 1986

  3. Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given of the activities of Hungary in the field of food irradiation. Two new radiation sources were installed at the Central Food Research Institute, Budapest in 1971. A lot of work was done in the field of radiation chemistry, radiation microbiology (radurization of spices and wine, combination treatment of meat products and fruits) and radiation treatment of various commodities such as spices, vegetables, fruits, and fruit juices. Wholesomeness studies of irradiated standard diet and spices were performed in rats. A short review is given of the present status of legislation and marketing. (MG) [de

  4. Icelandic Geopower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maguire, James

    into these discussions through an ethnographic and practice based approach to the study of renewable energy. It does so by examining the production of geothermal energy in the Hengill volcanic zone in the southwest of Iceland. The analysis that is produced is based upon an engagement with the practices, ideas...... with those who make geothermal energy (geologists) as well as those who protest against its production (residents living in the vicinity of the volcanic zone) allows me to understand how geothermal energy is produced and resisted through particular sets of practices and technologies. At the same time it also....... Carrying out ethnographic fieldwork with key actors allows me to examine how this complex techno-political work is carried out and to what effects. However, drilling deep in the subterranean of a highly active seismic area is dangerous and risky. In producing geothermal energy, other consequences...

  5. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrún; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna

    2017-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (CIV) is a newly developed open-access web resource (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is) intended to serve as an official source of information about volcanoes in Iceland for the public and decision makers. CIV contains text and graphic information on all 32 active volcanic systems in Iceland, as well as real-time data from monitoring systems in a format that enables non-specialists to understand the volcanic activity status. The CIV data portal contains scientific data on all eruptions since Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and is an unprecedented endeavour in making volcanological data open and easy to access. CIV forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the European Union funded effort FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. The supersite concept implies integration of space and ground based observations for improved monitoring and evaluation of volcanic hazards, and open data policy. This work is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.

  6. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation.......The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...

  7. Iceland country update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmason, G.; Gudmundsson, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides information on geothermal energy utilization in Iceland. Topics include: the present and planned production of electricity in Iceland, from all primary sources, the present and planned utilization of geothermal energy for electricity generation, the use of geothermal energy in all public district heating systems, high temperature geothermal localities, high-temperature wells drilled for electrical utilization and wells drilled for the combined use for district heating and power production, and wells drilled for direct use

  8. GLO polymorphism in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, S; Arnason, A; Jensson, O

    1980-01-01

    The phenotypes of red cell glyoxalase I (GLO) were determined in two Icelandic population samples using starch-gel electrophoresis and high-voltage agarose-gel electrophoresis. The gene frequencies of 178 unrelated individuals were 0.46 for GLO/sup 1/ and 0.54 for GLO/sup 2/. In a group of Icelandic insulin-dependent diabetics the gene frequencies were found to be very similar. The evaluation of 30 mother-child pairs is also shown.

  9. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  10. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  11. Latin Hagiography in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensson, Gottskálk

    2017-01-01

    I. INTRODUCTION A. Latin literacy in Iceland and the cult of saints B. Icelandic quasi-hagiography and the Christian monarchs of Norway II. THE ICELANDIC SAINTS AND THEIR LATIN TEXTS A. S. Thorlacus Scalotensis episcopus. – 1. The texts: the Latin hagiography about St Þorlákur. – 2. The historical...

  12. The Icelandic ITQ System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sofie; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Oddsson, Geir

    2009-01-01

    volume of landings is constituted by pelagic species. Cod, which is mainly caught in the Icelanders’ own exclusive economic zone, is the economically most important fish. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the Icelandic individual transferable quota shares system with its management innovations, e.......g. harvest control rule for cod, cod equivalents, temporary closed areas, community quotas and features for regulation of quota concentration. The evaluation considers four possible fisheries management objectives, namely biological robustness, cost-effectiveness of management, economic efficiency......ABSTRACT: The fisheries sector is tremendously important for Iceland: the export of fish products accounts for a large part of the value of exported goods. Fisheries policy in Iceland is, consequently, of national importance to a degree that is not comparable to any of the EU member states...

  13. Refugee Crisis in Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklosa, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Hungary faced a barrage of criticism from various quarters for its lack of support during the 2015/16 refugee crisis. People wondered what had happened to the liberal country that was the first among the Eastern Bloc countries to open its borders to the West, and which had actively assisted GDR...

  14. Hungary : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Hungary using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS),International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the relevant portions of European Union (EU) law (also known as the acquis communautaire) as benchmarks. It also draws on ...

  15. Energy taxes in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhjalmsson, A.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed survey, including data, of energy taxation, and related reforms and plans for reforms, in Iceland is presented. The current energy tax system here is mostly connected with consumption. There is as yet no taxation on air pollutants from fuel combustion. (AB)

  16. The Icelandic ITQ System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sofie; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Oddsson, Geir

    2009-01-01

    volume of landings is constituted by pelagic species. Cod, which is mainly caught in the Icelanders’ own exclusive economic zone, is the economically most important fish. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the Icelandic individual transferable quota shares system with its management innovations, e...

  17. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  18. Acidification policy in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hungary's policy for air pollution abatement aims to reduce air pollution in cities and industrialised areas, to maintain air quality in relatively 'clean' regions, and to fulfill its obligations to the UN-ECE Convention and Protocols on long-range transboundary air pollution. Emissions of NO x and SO x in Hungary have decreased considerably in the last decade although nitrogen oxide emission from cars has remained unchanged. A catalyst programme is planned to reduce NO x , hydrocarbons and CO emissions. Results of some air pollution monitoring programmes are quoted. Acidification of soils has increased over the last decade. Legislation on air pollution due to be issued in 1992 covers sulphur content of fuels, emission limits, establishing critical loads, and setting up a comprehensive monitoring system. 5 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Hungary and the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As regards the Balkans, Hungary is one of the intermediary regions in Europe. At the same time, the Balkans is the tie-up territory between Turkey, one of the emerging regions today, and Hungary, which aims to cooperate with it. Being a NATO and EU member state it takes part in the geopolitical games that are played between the EU, Russia, the USA and some of the countries of the Islamic world. These dealings fundamentally determine tasks in Hungarian foreign policy, cultural policy, economic policy, security- and defence policy for the forthcoming decades. Hungary acts as a gate between Western Europe and the Balkans. This role used to be more dominant in previous centuries of Hungarian history than it is today, not least because the country's size and strength significantly decreased after the Trianon Treaty. Many of the historical, imperial reflexes have remained, but without any imperial gravity. Today we are just one of the intermediary regions that have relations with the Balkans and form a bridge to Europe. The accelerated alteration in the world order, the BRICS countries and the emergence of some important middle-sized states, such as Turkey, make adaptation inevitable for our country. This is what the policy of 'Eastern opening' is about.

  20. Fusion research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    2004-01-01

    Hungarian fusion research started in the 1970s, when the idea of installing a small tokamak experiment emerged. In return to computer equipment a soviet tokamak was indeed sent to Hungary and started to operate as MT-1 at the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) in 1979. Major research topics included diagnostic development, edge plasma studies and investigation of disruptions. Following a major upgrade in 1992 (new vacuum vessel, active position control and PC network based data acquisition system) the MT-1M tokamak was used for the study of transport processes with trace impurity injection, micropellet ablation studies, X-ray tomography and laser blow-off diagnostic development. Although funding ceased in the middle of the 90's the group was held alive by collaborations with EU fusion labs: FZ -Juelich, IPP-Garching and CRPP-EPFL Lausanne. In 1998 the machine was dismantled due to reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. New horizons opened to fusion research from 1999, when Hungary joined EURATOM and a fusion Association was formed. Since then fusion physics studies are done in collaboration with major EU fusion laboratories, Hungarian researchers also play an active role in JET diagnostics upgrade and ITER design. Major topics are pellet ablation studies, plasma turbulence diagnosis using Beam Emission Spectroscopy and other techniques, tomography and plasma diagnostics using various neutral beams. In fusion relevant technology R and D Hungary has less records. Before joining EURATOM some materials irradiation studies were done at the Budapest Research Reactor at KFKI-AEKI. The present day fusion technology programme focuses still on irradiation studies, nuclear material database and electromagnetic testing techniques. Increasing the fusion technology research activities is a difficult task, as the competition in Hungarian industry is very strong and the interest of organizations in long-term investments into R and D is rather weak and

  1. Hungary : Corporate Governance Country Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the corporate governance policy framework and enforcement and compliance practices in Hungary. Hungary has already invested considerable resources in upgrading its legislation to meet European Union Directives, and the legislative and regulatory framework dealing with corporate governance issues is robust. The major issues identified by this review include: (1) the gen...

  2. The Crash Course from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huginn Freyr Þorsteinsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The years between 2006 and 2008 are key in understanding the Icelandic economic crisis. One of the main questions one gets when discussing the lessons from Iceland is: Was the quick recovery due to how the country 'burned' the creditors? Myth has it that when things got tough for the banks, the Icelandic government denied to bail them out and the country therefore escaped the difficult long-term consequence felt by, for example, Ireland. But that is a serious distortion of what happened. The Icelandic banks were on Central Bank life support from 2006 to 2008. It was only when the CBI ran out of steam that an alternative approach in crisis management was put in place. For admirers of historical contingencies, this case is of interest. Iceland did not take a calculated decision to let the banks fail, but an attempted bail-out failed. This meant that that its tackling of a banking crisis took an unexpected turn as banks were put into administration; a move only considered in the face of failure. And despite the route taken by Iceland, the total cost of the economic crisis for the State has surpassed Ireland's and is one of the costliest any sovereign has faced in the ongoing crisis. This is interesting, given the ongoing discussion about the Icelandic 'miraculous' escape from an economic crisis and that the possibilities countries face during crisis management may be many more than those that are discussed.

  3. Geothermy in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontra, J.

    1985-06-01

    In Hungary wells producing geothermal water have been in operation since 1890. The economic exploitation of geothermal energy is possible in over 40% of the country due to favorable conditions such as large reserves, high ground pressure and high geothermal gradient. Some 620 wells presently working produce a considerable quantity of energy and thermal water, in most cases using the single well system but more recent operations now incorporate reinjection wells. Hydrotherapy water supply and various industrial uses, such as drying in the agricultural sector, are its most important uses but further uses of thermal energy are being developed especially that of heating buildings where it could replace other energy sources. Sufficient investment could see an expanding tourist industry based on the recognized therapeutic properties of these mineral waters.

  4. Moral panic in Icelandic society: Arrival of ecstasy to Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónas Orri Jónasson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of illegal drugs has often been shown to ignite fear and insecurity in society. When a new drug appears the media typically reports on this drug and the risk it poses. Soon after ecstasy appeared in Iceland in the 1990s its use created a major public uproar and insecurity in Icelandic society. In the article the theory of moral panic will be used to examine if the arrival of ecstasy to Iceland ignited a moral panic. Media reports on ecstasy, public reactions, interest groups and government institutions will be analysed. Discourse analysis is employed on newspaper reporting on ecstasy between 1985 and 1997 to detect signs of moral panic. The main conclusion is that evidence suggests that a moral panic existed in Iceland as described in well-known theories on the subject.

  5. Women Technical Graduates in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Zsuzsa Frank

    1980-01-01

    Reports on the evolution, since 1945, of the woman's role in science and technology in the Central European nation of Hungary. The report is presented by nine women who are scientists and engineers. (SA)

  6. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Predmerszky, T.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of radioactive contamination in air, soil, surface waters and food products, and of natural radioactiviy in air, soil, and building materials has been carried out. The investigated factors were as follows: a) air samples: yearly and monthly beta- and gamma activities of fallout, precipitation and aerosols in the period 1955-1976 in Budapest and some other towns; b) soil samples: 90 Sr concentration of soils of different quality and cultivation originating from sixteen regions of Hungary measured in the period 1974-1976; c) surface waters: annual mean beta activity of five rivers and of the Lake Balaton in the period 1965-1976, 3 H, 137 Cs and 90 Sr activity of the Danube in the year 1976; d) food products: radioactive contamination of spinach, lettuce and oxalis, originating from three different regions in the period 1959-1976 and mean radioactivity of fodder, corn, tobacco, milk, fish and animal bones in a period of 5-10 years; e) natural radioactivity: radon- and toron concentration of air, activity of 226 Ra fallout of the soil in the vicinity of power plants, 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K activity of different building materials, radiation doses inside buildings constructed by different technics. (L.E.)

  8. Occupational health nursing in hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdi, Henriett Éva; Hong, OiSaeng

    2014-10-01

    This article is the first about occupational health nursing in Hungary. The authors describe the Hungarian health care and occupational health care systems, including nursing education and professional organizations for occupational health nurses. The Fundamental Law of Hungary guarantees the right of every employee to healthy and safe working conditions, daily and weekly rest times and annual paid leave, and physical and mental health. Hungary promotes the exercise of these rights by managing industrial safety and health care, providing access to healthy food, supporting sports and regular physical exercise, and ensuring environmental protection. According to the law, the responsibility for regulation of the occupational health service lies with the Ministry of Human Resources. Safety regulations are under the aegis of the Ministry of National Economy. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Amphipod family distributions around Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Brix

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphipod crustaceans were collected at all 55 stations sampled with an epibenthic sledge during two IceAGE expeditions (Icelandic marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology in 2011 and 2013. In total, 34 amphipod families and three superfamilies were recorded in the samples. Distribution maps are presented for each taxon along with a summary of the regional taxonomy for the group. Statistical analyses based on presence/absence data revealed a pattern of family distributions that correlated with sampling depth. Clustering according to the geographic location of the stations (northernmost North Atlantic Sea and Arctic Ocean can also be observed. IceAGE data for the Amphilochidae and Oedicerotidae were analysed on species level; in case of the Amphilochidae they were compared to the findings from a previous Icelandic benthic survey, BIOICE (Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic waters, which also identified a high abundance of amphipod fauna.

  10. EROI and the Icelandic society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the societal Energy Return on Investment (EROIsoc) is estimated for Iceland between 1960 and the present. The results indicate that the overall EROIsoc was around 27:1 in the early 1960s, and was volatile for a period of time before stabilizing at around 45:1 in 1974 after establis...

  11. Pectinoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Waren, A.; Gudmundsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Icelandic pectinoid fauna is reviewed, based on material from the benthic survey programme BIOICE and 17 species are recorded. Similipecten oskarssoni is proposed as a replacement name for Pecten groenlandicus var. minor Locard, 1898 (Propeamussiidae), which is considered a valid species.

  12. Release from 'prison' in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Anita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In my study I introduce the Hungarian conditional release and presidential pardon and new compulsory presidential pardon system. This study is based on research carried out in the Ministry of Justice at the Pardon Department in which I analyzed several dozen petition pardons. In connection with the new compulsory presidential pardon I examined the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, which has condemned Hungary because of its adoption of real (whole life imprisonment.

  13. Exchange rate smoothing in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Karádi, Péter

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a structural empirical model capable of examining exchange rate smoothing in the small, open economy of Hungary. The framework assumes the existence of an unobserved and changing implicit exchange rate target. The central bank is assumed to use interest rate policy to obtain this preferred rate in the medium term, while market participants are assumed to form rational expectations about this target and influence exchange rates accordingly. The paper applies unobserved varia...

  14. Reforming health care in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Császi, L; Kullberg, P

    1985-01-01

    Over the past two decades Hungary has initiated a series of social and economic reforms which have emphasized decentralization of control and the reintroduction of market mechanisms into the socialized economy. These reforms both reflect and reinforce a changing social structure, in particular the growing influence of upper class special interest groups. Market reforms are an expression of concurrent ideological shifts in Hungarian society. We examined the political significance of three recent proposals to reform health services against the backdrop of broader social and economic changes taking place. The first proposes a bureaucratic reorganization, the second, patient co-payments, and the third, a voucher system. The problems each proposal identifies, as well as the constituency each represents, reveal a trend toward consolidation of class structure in Hungary. Only one of these proposals has any potential to democratize the control and management of the heath care system. Moreover, despite a governmental push toward decentralization, two of these proposals would actually increase centralized bureaucratic control. Two of the reforms incorporate market logic into their arguments, an indication that the philosophical premises of capitalism are re-emerging as an important component of the Hungarian world-view. In Hungary, as well as in other countries, social analysis of proposed health care reforms can effectively illuminate the social and political dynamics of the larger society.

  15. Psychotropic drug use among Icelandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines Reg...... extensive psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. Further scrutiny is needed to assess the rationale behind this widespread use....

  16. Geothermal country report of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottlik, P.

    1990-01-01

    There is a slow but steady increase in the number of geothermal wells in Hungary. The rate of increase is 3-5 new wells/year. In the last years technical development and the raising of efficiency came to the front in utilization of geothermal energy. Technical development is supported by the state. This paper reports that the main directions were: developing a pump suitable for Hungarian conditions, working out the model of sandy and karstic aquifers for simulation and prediction, and developing new chemicals and methods for treating thermal water

  17. Plant life management in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1998-01-01

    The life management in Hungary is in an early stage. The preparation of a suitable database, development of maintenance systems and education of the plant and consultant staff is essential. The Act of Nuclear Safety, the introduction of the 10 years periodic safety review system (periodic licence extension) is a good basis for life management. At the same time the economic changes in the country make the life management difficult. Presently most important task is to prepare the technical environment and the methodology for NPP Life management, and within a few years, when the economy would be consolidated, a real life management will be performed

  18. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  19. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  20. EROI and the Icelandic society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the societal Energy Return on Investment (EROIsoc) is estimated for Iceland between 1960 and the present. The results indicate that the overall EROIsoc was around 27:1 in the early 1960s, and was volatile for a period of time before stabilizing at around 45:1 in 1974 after...... the standard of living greatly. For policymakers in island nations, attention should be given to this relationship between high-EROI energy sources with low price volatility and the standard of living....

  1. Self Censorship among Icelandic Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on media self-censorship has flourished in Iceland after the attacks on the Charlie Hebdo editorial offices in January 2015 and after some dramatic changes in the top management and owner-groups of some of the media firms. But what is this experience that journalists describe as self censorship? This paper attempts to answer two main research questions. On the one hand the question how journalists understand the concept of selfcensorship. On the other hand the question: what is the experience of Icelandic journalist of self-censorship? The approach is the one of a qualitative research and is based on interviews with six experienced journalists. The main findings suggest important influence of the social discourse on news and news values of journalists and their tendency for self-censorship. This discourse is partly directed by politicians and influential bloggers and also by a massive discussion by active social media users. Furthermore the findings suggest, that ownership and the location of the particular medium where a journalist works in the lineup of different commercial-political blocks in the media market, is important for self-censorship. Finally it seems that journalists understand the concept selfcensorship in a different manner and that it is important to define the term carefully if it is to be used as an analytical tool.

  2. Hungary as an aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasszauer, B; Hazafi, K

    1994-12-01

    The authors describe the situation of the aged in Hungary, with a particular focus on the medical and ethical problems that health professionals have to face. The so-called post-communist transitional period is characterised by both economic and moral crisis. The country has a serious foreign debt problem as well as high rate of unemployment and crime, a considerable price inflation, and the pauperisation of the people, particularly among the old. The old are defined as those who have reached retirement age, which is 55 for women and 60 for men. Hungary lacks the kind of incentives that would provide good reasons to live much beyond the age of 60. There is neither a suitable culture for old age nor economic security, and this seriously undermines the independence and autonomy of the old. Neither family nor institutional care for the elderly is adequate. Although over 20 per cent of the population are retired, they are not organized as a political power that would effectively represent them. The health care system is in crises and the elderly suffer the most because of it. Therapeutic nihilism and both over-treatment and under-treatment of the aged is common. Among the old, the suicide rate is high. Because of a lack of funds, an inadequate number of experts, indifference to rehabilitation, and the infrequent use of technological interventions, home and institutional care are inadequate. There are no public debates on setting priorities or allocating limited resources. There are, however, high hopes for the success of a market economy, privatization, and well-functioning democracy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. EMME (Indonesia)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EMME is a program specific M&E tool for the Indonesia Mission that is managed by RTI and provides access to project statuses and success stories for the USAID...

  4. Regionalism on the example of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač Terez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the processes of association with the EU in which Hungary took place, and about the demands that should have been fulfilled. It is shown, on the example of Hungary, what progress has taken place in the last 15 years in the area of establishing of regional science and what sort of conclusion can be made for Yugoslavia. The author also deals with the possible functions of sociology in regional research.

  5. Iceland's Economic Eruption and Meltdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf; Torfason, Bjarni K.

    2012-01-01

    The Icelandic financial collapse, which occurred in the fall of 2008, is without precedent. Never before in modern history has an entire financial system of a developed country collapsed so dramatically. This paper describes the country's path towards financial liberalisation and the economic...... background that lead to an initially flourishing banking sector. In doing so, the paper elaborates on the economic oversights that were made during the financial build-up of the country and how such mistakes contributed to the crash. The focus is thus on identifying the main factors that contributed...... to the financial collapse and on drawing conclusions about how these missteps could have been avoided. Also summarised are the mistakes that followed in the attempted rescue phase after the disaster had struck. The paper discusses these issues from a general perspective to provide an overview of the pitfalls...

  6. Medical isotope applications in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    About $ 12 000 worth of equipment and the services of an expert in the medical applications of radioisotopes were provided by IAEA to the Government of Iceland. The expert was primarily concerned with the establishment of a medical radioisotope laboratory at the State Hospital, Reykjavik. His specific tasks included the setting up of the equipment furnished by IAEA for radioactive measurements in medical work, the establishment of techniques for the routine uses of radioisotopes in medicine, and the training of personnel. The apparatus installed includes a well-type scintillation counter for small samples, a directional scintillation counter, and Geiger counters of different types. The laboratory is thus well equipped for nearly all the conventional applications of radioisotopes in medicine, except those involving very soft beta-ray emitting isotopes

  7. Geomagnetic polarity zones for icelandic lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagley, P.; Wilson, R.L.; Ade-Hall, J. M.; Walker, G.P.L.; Haggerty, S.E.; Sigurgeirsson, T.; Watkins, N.D.; Smith, P.J.; Edwards, J.; Grasty, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of cores collected from a sequence of lavas in Eastern Iceland has made possible an accurate calculation of the average rate of reversal of the Earth's magnetic field. ?? 1967 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Building Information Modelling in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Jóhannesson, Elvar Ingi

    2013-01-01

    with BIM is studied. Based on findings from both parts, ideas and recommendations are put forward for the Icelandic building industry about feasible ways of implementing BIM. Findings – Among the results are that the use of BIM is very limited in the Icelandic companies compared to the other Nordic...... for making standards and guidelines related to BIM. Public building clients are also encouraged to consider initiating projects based on making simple building models of existing buildings in order to introduce the BIM technology to the industry. Icelandic companies are recommended to start implementing BIM...... countries. Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to the Nordic countries in Europe, but many recommendations could be relevant to other countries. Practical implications – It is recommended to the Icelandic building authorities to get into cooperation with their Nordic counterparts...

  9. Geothermal and hydropower production in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of current and future development of geothermal and hydropower production on the economy of Iceland. Natural conditions in Iceland favor the increased utilization and development of both of these abundant power sources. The mean surface run-off in Iceland is about 50 l/s/km 2 (liters per second per square kilometer), with a large part of the country consisting of a plateau more than 400 meters above sea level. More than half of the country is above 500 meters above sea level. ne technically harnessable hydropower potential is estimated at 64 TWh/year (terawatthours per year), of which 30 TWh/year is considered economically and environmentally harnessable. In addition, Iceland has abundant geothermal energy sources. A quarter of the entire country is a volcanic area. Keeping in mind that geothermal resources are not strictly renewable, it is estimated that the potential power production from this source is 20 TWh/year. Present utilization of these two resources totals only 4.2 TWh/year, or only about 8% of Iceland's aggregate potential. There are many issues facing Iceland today as it considers development opportunities utilizing both of these abundant power supplies. This paper will first consider the technical aspects of both hydropower and geothermal power production in Iceland. Then, the economic consequences of alternative utilization of these energy sources will be evaluated. The first alternative to be considered will be the direct export of power by HVDC submarine cable to other countries, such as Scotland or the United Kingdom. Iceland could, as a second alterative, concentrate its efforts on bringing in energy intensive industries into the country

  10. Icelandic occupational therapists' attitudes towards educational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundsd ttir, ELIN EBBA; Kaplan, SUSAN

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of occupational therapists in Iceland to accept a professional as opposed to a technical view of the profession. Most Icelandic occupational therapists were educated in other countries, with little emphasis on liberal arts, sciences and research. The first Icelandic occupational therapy programme, a university-level programme, was founded in 1997. All Icelandic occupational therapists were surveyed. Eighty-seven questionnaires were sent out and 80 (92%) were returned and used for statistical analysis. The results of the study showed that Icelandic occupational therapists valued academic skills over technical skills, emphasizing occupational therapy theory unique to the profession and research to validate practice. More recognition among other health professionals was considered the most needed change in the profession. The results of the study showed that the clinicians' attitudes confirmed in general what is emphasized in the curriculum and in students' fieldwork. Further research is needed to explore whether the Icelandic occupational therapy profession succeeds in promoting research and recognition by other health professions.

  11. New concepts in hydrogen production in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnason, B.; Sigfusson, T.I.; Jonsson, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some new concepts of hydrogen production in Iceland for domestic use and export. A brief overview of the Icelandic energy consumption and available resources is given. The cost of producing hydrogen by electrolysis is calculated for various alternatives such as plant size, load factors and electricity cost. Comparison is made between the total cost of liquid hydrogen delivered to Europe from Iceland and from Northern America, showing that liquid hydrogen delivered to Europe from Iceland would be 9% less expensive. This assumes conventional technology. New technologies are suggested in the paper and different scenarios for geothermally assisted hydrogen production and liquefaction are discussed. It is estimated that the use of geothermal steam would lead to 19% lower hydrogen gas production costs. By analysing the Icelandic fishing fleet, a very large consumer of imported fuel, it is argued that a transition of fuel technology from oil to hydrogen may be a feasible future option for Iceland and a testing ground for changing fuel technology. (Author)

  12. [Migration of dentists within Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2010-09-01

    Concerning the human resource management in the health care, Hungarian analysts focus mainly on cross-national migration, which was instigated considerably by joining the European Union in 2004. Contrasted to other health care professionals, dentists emphasized also the importance of in-country migration (mobility) indicating serious dangers of developing inequalities in the dental service. From the point of view of health system planning, the main problem is to balance the needs and the number of professionals in regions and areas with extremely different socio-economic conditions. Under dictatorial governments, this "balancing" (which was experienced also in Hungary) is a forced allocation of young professionals to the target regions. In political freedom and free market economy, these measures are unthinkable. The present domestic area distribution, concerning also the supply through vacancies by old age inactivity and cross-national migration, is ruled by personal decisions of actually graduated and immigrant professionals respectively. Therefore, it is unavoidable to investigate the interrelation of factors (dentists' births place, study migration and decisions for practice allocation) ruling the in-country geographic patterns of dental practices. This evidence-based knowledge can only explain the present situation and provide guidelines for health policy decision makers.

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION... Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Kenya... Mauritania Mexico Micronesia Moldova (Republic of) Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia...

  14. Framework for foreign investment in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingvarsson, G.; Svanbjoernson, A.

    1992-01-01

    Iceland possesses a wealth of hydro power and geothermal energy. No less than 50,000 GWh/year of power are estimated to be producible from hydro and geothermal in Iceland at a sufficiently low cost to be of interest to power-intensive industries and for export. Only a fraction of this energy potential has been developed or some 5,000 GWh/year. The power resources of Iceland represent one of the country's best opportunities for large scale development and economic growth and their utilization is high on the Government's priority list. In the past Iceland has run a successful campaign attracting foreign investors in power intensive industries and about half of the electric production today is consumed by power intensive industries. New industries can be sure of highly competitive power prices compared with Europe and North America for new contracts. Many other reasons for locating energy intensive industry in Iceland are outlined in the paper, such as the educated work-force, European culture and political stability, Mid-Atlantic location and proximity to markets, good transport and communication facilities, abundance of fresh water, good industrial sites with a large extension potential and excellent harbors for large vessels. The future prospects for hydro and geothermal energy include large greenfield aluminium smelters, direct export of electricity by submarine cables to the European continent and industries using geothermal steam for process application. The Icelandic Energy Marketing Unit, established in 1988 is mandated to promote and market Iceland's energy resources and seek investors in the field of power intensive industries. Currently marketing efforts are being undertaken to promote the direct use of geothermal steam for industrial application

  15. Strength and deformation properties of volcanic rocks in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    2016-01-01

    rock from Iceland has been the topic for rock mechanical studies carried out by Ice-landic guest students at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Den-mark over a number of years in cooperation with University of Iceland, Vegagerðin (The Icelandic Road Directorate......) and Landsvirkjun (The National Power Company of Iceland). These projects involve engineering geological properties of volcanic rock in Iceland, rock mechanical testing and parameter evaluation. Upscaling to rock mass properties and modelling using Q- or GSI-methods have been studied by the students......Tunnelling work and preinvestigations for road traces require knowledge of the strength and de-formation properties of the rock material involved. This paper presents results related to tunnel-ling for Icelandic water power plants and road tunnels from a number of regions in Iceland. The volcanic...

  16. Schools and communities in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyady, Susan

    1980-09-01

    The democratic reform of public education in Hungary after the Second World War brought about a system which now includes Day-Care from the ages of 4-6 and compulsory Elementary School education up to the age of 16. A high proportion of students go on to Secondary education in vocational schools, special schools or grammar shools. The system is supplemented by career-counselling and provision for children with difficult home-backgrounds and for the mentally-retarded. District Councils are responsible for the schools in their areas and for the zoning that determines which schools children should attend. The environment of a school has a strong influence not only upon the standard of its facilities and the quality of its staff but also upon the function it is expected to fulfil in the community. Achievement is directly related to the degree of urbanization, but the increasing participation of farming-co-operatives in education in rural areas promises well for the development of better facilities and mutual understanding there. Housing estates in high-density residential areas make special demands which are being met in different ways. The role of the school in general is being expanded to include children's leisure time activities; at the same time factories are making a significant contribution locally through vocational guidance, financial help, and training-for-work programmes. Councils are implementing the requirements of public education resolutions to integrate school education into the whole scheme of public education, co-ordinating the activities of all social and cultural institutions, and developing new multi-functional complexes, to give a more effective and efficient service to the whole community.

  17. Individualistic Vikings: Culture, Economics and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Wolfgang Mixa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Icelandic culture has generally been considered to share many similarities to the Nordic cultures. However, the financial crisis in 2008 painted a completely different picture, with the Nordic nations faring much less worse than Iceland, which saw its banking system becoming almost entirely worthless. Looking at traditional cultural yardsticks in the vein of the most commonly used research in the field of business and organizational management, generally linked to Hofstede´s dimensional studies, one would at first glance conclude that Icelanders would have behaved in a similar manner as people in the Nordic nations. By focusing on savings ratio, it is shown that Icelanders were much more risk-seeking during the prelude of the crisis. Many nations badly hit during the 2008 financial crisis have a high level of individualism inherent in their culture. Iceland fits this scenario. Thus while general cultural characteristics may lack explanatory power regarding economic behavior of people between cultures, the individual/collective cultural dimension may provide clues of what dangers (and possible strengths lurk within societies from a financial point of view. Such developments may affect the financial stability of nations, especially those with a high level of individualism where financial liberalization with possible abuses is occurring.

  18. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  19. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Iceland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. These studies, conducted in Iceland and in Antarctica, investigated physical and chemical weathering mechanisms and rates, eolitan processes, mudflow phenomena, drainage development, and catastrophic fluvial and volcanic phenomena. Continuing investigations in Iceland fall in three main catagories: (1) catastrophic floods of the Jokulsa a Fjollum, (2) lahars associated with explosive volcanic eruptions of Askja caldera, and (3) rates of eolian abrasion in cold, volcanic deserts. The ice-free valleys of Antarctica, in particular those in South Victoria Land, have much is common with the surface of Mars. In addition to providing independent support for the application of the Iceland findings to consideration of the martian erosional system, the Antarctic observations also provide analogies to other martian phenomena. For example, a family of sand dunes in Victoria Valley are stabilized by the incorporation of snow as beds.

  20. Gendering in one Icelandic preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Alda Hardardottir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed light on gendering in preschool. It analyzes the opinions and beliefs of preschool teachers with regard to boys and girls in one Icelandic preschool, and how gender performative acts are manifested in the preschool’s children. The preschool, which was observed for one school year, comprised 60 children, aged 18 months to five years, and 20 employees, of which eight were qualified teachers. The research material is analyzed in terms of Judith Butler’s gender constructivism. Butler contends that gender is constituted by, and is a product of, society, and that the individual’s empowerment is therefore limited in relation to society, with individuals typically seeking to identify themselves with the dominant norms concerning gender. The main conclusions suggest that “gendering” is prominent within the preschool. There is a strong tendency among the preschool teachers to classify the children into categories of boys/masculine and girls/feminine, and specific norms direct the children into the dominant feminine and masculine categories, thus maintaining and reinforcing their gender stereotypes. The children used symbols such as colors, locations and types of play as means to instantiate the “girling” and the “boying”. These findings are consistent with previous Nordic research and indicate a prevailing essentialist perspective towards both girls and boys. The originality of the research, however, lies in focusing on children’s gender from the individual’s perspective and how the individual child generally enacts gender performatively within the confines of society’s norms.

  1. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  2. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Björnsson, Halldór

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling simulations performed with theWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3...... is higher by 100 e700 W m_2 than that of offshore winds. Based on these results, 14 test sites were selected for more detailed analyses using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license...

  3. Iceland blasts millennium bugs in speed governors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislason, Gisli [Landsvirkjun, Reykjavik (Iceland). Electromechanical Dept.; Ferme, J.-M. [Voith Hydro, Heidenheim (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    This article focuses on the examination of distribution management systems to identify any potential problems related to the year 2000 (Y2K) that would affect the operation of speed governors with date management capacity at Iceland's hydroelectric power plants. Details are given of the work carried out by Landsvirkjun, Iceland's main power generator, the use of date for monitoring functions, the different governor models, the testing of the digital speed governors, and the modification of software in cases where protection relays were untestable.

  4. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1996-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  5. Iceland as a Landscape Investigation Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campanini, Manuela Silvia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Icelanders continue an ancient dialogue. Nature is part of their soul and they take with them bits of their terrestrial landscape when they move to the elsewhere. When they move out in the sea they often name their ships or boats after natural spots (waterfalls, mountains, etc., Moving to the town, architects build monuments inspired by wild nature like Hallgrimskirkja (inspired by Hraundrangar and the columnar basalt or Perlan (inspired by the Geysir and the geothermal water. This is the way Icelanders compensate and take care of their perennial landscape nostalgia.

  6. Climate and Energy Policy in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy problem has been redefined as one of the most important elements of sustainable development by climate change, adaptation and mitigation. Meeting energy needs is always a current issue in Hungary, irrespective of climate change because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, limited opportunities to replace them with domestic production, and the pollution associated with using fossil energy sources. Increasing effectiveness and saving energy can provide relatively short-term solutions with bearable costs and a relatively quick return on investment. The aim of the present paper is to give an overview about the climate and energy policy in Hungary with a special focus on the new energy strategy. Energy policy has a pivotal role in the economic recovery plan of the Hungarian government. The National Energy Strategy 2030 taking shape in Hungary takes climate policy into account with respect to adaptation and mitigation and lists renewable energy sources as the second most important tool for achieving strategic goals. As in most countries, it is also possible in Hungary to introduce climate strategy measures with zero social costs. The expedient management of climate change requires the combination of prevention, adaptation and dissemination initiatives. Strategies must meet a dual requirement: they must face the economic risks associated with premature measures, while also considering the adverse effects of delay.

  7. Hungary Higher Education Quality Assurance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Ru-shan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Higher education quality assurance system has drawn much attention since 1980s. Most countries are committed to build the higher education quality assurance system to meet international standards. Under such an international trend, Hungary also actively promotes higher education reform, and established Hungarian Accreditation Committee and in order to ensure the quality of higher education.

  8. A Second Chance School in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbacher, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Hungary's "Belvarosi Tanoda" Secondary School offers an informal, flexible environment and alternative teaching methods for students who have had problems in other schools. The "Belvarosi Tanoda" (which translates as downtown school) is a second chance school for students who have dropped out of upper secondary education. It…

  9. Rapid restoration after lignite mining in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The 30th anniversary of the commencement of large scale lignite production by opencast mining in Hungary was celebrated in 1987. A process of rapid technical and biological reclamation without the use of humus has now been developed. The costs involved are only 5-10% of those of conventional methods and reclamation cycle is four years compared to ten years for conventional methods.

  10. Irradiation preservation of food in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the food irradiation activities in Hungary for preservation purposes. A historical background of this technology is given, and the present practice is outlined. Several food species are presently treated with Co-60 gamma-irradiation for their radurization. (R.P.)

  11. Nation in a sheep’s coat: The Icelandic sweater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Helgadottir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic sweater is presented and received as being traditional—even ancient—authentically Icelandic and hand made by Icelandic women from the wool of Icelandic sheep. Even so, the sweater type, the so-called ‘Icelandic sweater’ in English, only dates back to the mid-20th century and is not necessarily made in Iceland nor from indigenous wool. Nevertheless, the sweater is a successful invention of a tradition (Hobsbawm & Ranger, 1983, popular among Icelanders and tourists alike since its introduction in the mid-20th century. It has gained ground as a national symbol, particularly in times of crisis for example in the reconstruction of values in the aftermath of the Icelandic bank collapse of 2008. I traced the development of the discourse about wool and the origins of the Icelandic sweater by looking at publications of the Icelandic National Craft Association, current design discourse in Iceland and its effect on the development of the wool industry. I then tied these factors to notions of tradition, authenticity, national culture, image and souvenirs.

  12. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Iceland. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  13. Esperanto and Icelandic: Two Contrasting Lexical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmans, Theodore

    1972-01-01

    The article comprises a table listing Esperanto words conveying international concepts, accompained by equivalents in English, French, German, Russian, Hungarian, Hebrew and Icelandic, representing various language groups. The comparison shows that although the world language would opt for international terms, a language making no claims on…

  14. Recent saltmarsh foraminiferal assemblages from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbers, Julia; Schönfeld, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    This study reports for the first time boreal to subarctic intertidal foraminiferal assemblages from saltmarshes at Borgarnes and Faskrudsfjördur on Iceland. The composition of living and dead foraminiferal assemblages was investigated along transects from the tidal flat to the highest reach of halophytic plants. The foraminiferal assemblages from Borgarnes showed 18 species in the total foraminiferal assemblage of which only 7 species were recorded in the living fauna. The assemblages were dominated by agglutinated taxa, whereas 3 calcareous species were recorded, of which only Haynesina orbicularis was found in the living fauna. The distribution limit of calcifying species corresponds to the lower boundary of the lower saltmarsh vegetation zone. Furthermore, calcareous tests showed many features of dissolution, which is an indication of a carbonate corrosive environment. The species forming the dead assemblages were mainly derived from the ambient intertidal areas and were displaced by tidal currents into the saltmarsh. The foraminiferal assemblages from Faskrudsfjördur showed two species, of which only one species was recorded in the living fauna. The assemblage was dominated by the agglutinated foraminifer Trochaminita irregularis. The foraminiferal species recorded on Iceland were the same as commonly found elsewhere in Europa. Since no species was found which is endemic to North America, Iceland is considered part of the European bio province. The foraminiferal could have been immigrated to Iceland from Europe through warm water currents, migratory birds or marine traffic since the last Ice Age.

  15. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...

  16. Physical properties of suspended dust in Iceland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Olafsson, H.; Arnalds, O.; Škrabalová, L.; Sigurdardottir, G.; Braniš, M.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Navrátil, Tomáš; von Lowis of Menar, S.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2014), s. 8565-8565 ISSN 1607-7962. [ European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 27.04.2014-02.05.2014, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : dust * volcanology * Iceland http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2014/EGU2014-8565.pdf

  17. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  18. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Grímsson, A

    2000-01-01

    Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would lower reimb...

  19. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G

    2016-01-01

    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  20. Historic magmatism on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.; Jakobssen, Sveinn P.

    2009-01-01

    We present new compositional data on a suite of historic lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. They were erupted over a short time period between c. 940 and c. 1340 AD and provide a snap-shot view of melt generation and evolution processes beneath this onshore, 65 km long, ridge segment...

  1. Long-term variability of dust-storms in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Ólafur

    2013-04-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland are volcanic sandy deserts. Natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect not only regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze") but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean > 1000 km at times. The study places Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long term frequency of dust storm events in NE Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in NE Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the NE erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the NE deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust is not only a substantial source for regional air pollution, but may be considered to contribute to the Arctic haze phenomena and Arctic air pollution.

  2. Performance Persistence of Equity Funds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the phenomenon of performance persistence of equity funds in Hungary in two time perspectives: 1-year and 6-month perspectives. The empirical results confirm the occurrence of performance dependence in consecutive periods. There is also a strong evidence of short-term persistence in the total horizon of the study (from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2009, and in several sub-periods. The 1-year persistence was also found in the tested sample and, in general, depended on the measure applied. Furthermore, I observed performance reversal, which can be partly explained by trend changes in the financial markets. The persistence of equity funds performance in Hungary is shaped by market factors rather than the diversity of managerial characteristics.

  3. The medical care system of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, N K; Raffel, M W

    1988-01-01

    Medical care in Hungary has made significant progress since World War II in spite of other social priorities which have limited financial support of the health system. A shortage of hard currency in a high technological era is now having a particularly severe adverse impact on further development. Decentralized administration and local finance have, however, provided some room for progress. Preventive efforts are hampered by a deeply entrenched life style which is not conducive to improving the population's health status.

  4. Power reactor noise measurements in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallagi, D.; Horanyi, S.; Hargitai, T.

    1975-01-01

    An outline is given of the history of reactor noise research in Hungary. A brief description is given of studies in the WWR-SM reactor, a modified version of the original WWR-S thermal reactor, for the detection of in-core simulated boiling by analysis of the noise of out-of-core ionization chambers. Coolant velocity measurements by transit time analysis of temperature fluctuations are described. (U.K.)

  5. [Divorces in Hungary in the 1980s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, L

    1989-01-01

    Trends in divorce in Hungary in 1980 are examined using data from official sources. Having presented the data, the author attempts to identify the factors affecting the frequency of divorce, including educational status, geographic factors, income, and social class. In a concluding section devoted to the future of marriage, the author suggests that stable marriages based primarily on emotional rather than economic foundations will become less common, as the economic aspects of marriage are likely to increase rather than decrease in importance.

  6. [Dental care for foreigners in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter; Oesterle, August

    2008-10-01

    High quality elective dental care for foreign patients was not exceptional in Hungary before the collapse of the old regime in 1989. Nevertheless, it became business as usual only in the new era thanks to the open state borders and the international competitive market environment. Unfortunately, no scientific study concerning this phenomenon has been conducted so far, however its professional and economic significance has been indicated by day-to-day experience. Additionally, the term "dental tourism" also used in international scientific papers became a commonplace in Hungary with unfavourable connotations. The present survey was the first to study this phenomenon by scientific standards in the most involved areas, namely in the capital city Budapest and in three counties in the Western Hungarian Region. Data collecting was performed by a self-reported questionnaire sent via conventional mail to all members of the Dental Section of the Hungarian Medical Chamber practicing in those indicated regions. Respond rates were 20.65% in Budapest and 25.34% in Western Hungary. The sample obtained this way, clearly indicated dimensions of cross-border patient migration and its economic significance as well. In Western Hungary 80.81% of foreign patients came from the neighbouring Austria and two out of ten practices realized 40 to 100% of their income out of this business. In Budapest foreign patients' nationality was more diversified. The largest group arrived from the United Kingdom (9.93%). Nevertheless the economic impact of dental tourism in Budapest is not relevant and outbalanced by a considerable domestic demand on the local private market.

  7. High activity gamma irradiators developed in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.

    1997-01-01

    The development of high activity Gamma irradiators began in Hungary already in the early years of 60s. The very first designs were serving research in irradiation chemistry, radiation physics, food and agricultural research, radiation sterilization, plastic radiation chemistry, radiobiology, cancer therapy, personal and high dose dosimetry, following the international trends. Domestic and new international demands forced us to design and construct High Activity Gamma Irradiators: Multipurpose Pilot, Portable and Large scale bulk, Multipurpose Industrial scale types

  8. 2015 Easter bolide over North Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, T.; Csizmadia, S.; Zelkó, Z.; Kereszty, Z.; Bíró, Z.

    2015-01-01

    On Easter Monday, April 6, 2015, at UTC 17h31m (near sunset) there was a bright (peak magnitude -12 ~ -14) bolide which also produced a sonic boom, over North Hungary, close to Miskolc, above the Bükk mountains. The event was witnessed by many people, and recorded by several car dashboard-, meteorological and all sky cameras from as far away as Farád (North-West Hungary) and Görbeháza (North-East Hungary). Unfortunately, with the event having occurred only a few minutes after sunset, the sky was still bright and therefore the Hungarian Video meteor network cameras were not yet operating. Our team has collected and re-calibrated as much video and photo material as possible. Since there were very few direct images of the bolide itself, but more photos and videos of the persistent train left behind, these latter images were also used, in certain circumstances, in our calculations. The deduced final atmospheric path and heliocentric orbit are presented, along with the estimation of the errors.

  9. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D......Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D...

  10. The electric power sector in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingimarsson, J.

    1992-01-01

    In Iceland the government must give permission for the building of a power station etc. but in practise the power plant administrators determine the tariffs. The structure of electric power supply mirrors a strong engagement on the part of the state and the local authorities. Almost all the power plants and distribution systems are state owned or owned by both the state and the local authorities, and so constitute a monopoly, producing 93% of the total amount of electricity supply. Government policy in this field, the Icelandic electric power distribution system and the setting of electricity prices are briefly described. It is claimed that there would be economical advantages in restructuring the distribution network and that the government favours an increase in possibilities for competition and making legislative changes. This will mean that in the future the market will play a more important role and that power plant administrators must review their duties regarding consumer satisfaction, tariffs etc. (AB)

  11. Maximizing industrial infrastructure efficiency in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingason, Helgi Thor; Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I.

    2010-08-01

    As a consequence of the increasing aluminum production in Iceland, local processing of aluminum skimmings has become a feasible business opportunity. A recycling plant for this purpose was built in Helguvik on the Reykjanes peninsula in 2003. The case of the recycling plant reflects increased concern regarding environmental aspects of the industry. An interesting characteristic of this plant is the fact that it is run in the same facilities as a large fishmeal production installation. It is operated by the same personnel and uses—partly—the same equipment and infrastructure. This paper reviews the grounds for these decisions and the experience of this merger of a traditional fish melting industry and a more recent aluminum melting industry after 6 years of operation. The paper is written by the original entrepreneurs behind the company, who provide observations on how the aluminum industry in Iceland has evolved since the starting of Alur’s operation and what might be expected in the near future.

  12. Characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Han Jia

    2006-01-01

    The basic characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar was studied. The experimental result indicates the longevity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is about 2 h under 30 degree C. The thermoluminescence peak moves to the high temperature when the heating speed increasing. The intensity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is directly proportional to radiation dose under 15 Gy. (authors)

  13. Food 
Security
 in
 Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of food security applies in both poor and rich societies and concerns the steady availability of food in the right quantity and quality, at the right price. Globally, policies to assure it remain confused and world food prices are rising. Despite large exports of fish, Iceland produces only around half of its inhabitants’ nutritional needs and relies significantly on imports, also for food production inputs like fodder and seeds. Icelandic supplies are affected by oligopoly in the retail market, and could be put at risk by events in other security dimensions ranging from natural disasters and infrastructure failures to terrorism, neighbouring conflicts and other people’s shortages. Icelandic farmers have used the terminology of ‘food security’ to press their claims for more home-grown production, and more recently also in their campaign against EU membership. The general public however shows little sign of security-awareness in this field. The government possesses suitable non-military security frameworks to address food-related risks and has initiated useful, general and specific, studies. Yet it has not developed a strategy or contingency plan for food security, even following the lessons of the 2008 economic crash and 2010-2011 eruptions. Suitable remedies would include larger emergency stocks and a range of measures to reduce vulnerability and improve resilience in crises. Above all, Iceland needs a balanced and open policy-making process to decide what its general future strategy should be as a food-producing and -importing nation. Food security could then be more precisely defined and pursued with the aim of minimizing threats and risks to that agreed vision.

  14. New Proposed Drilling at Surtsey Volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Marie D.

    2014-12-01

    Surtsey, an isolated oceanic island and a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is a uniquely well-documented natural laboratory for investigating processes of rift zone volcanism, hydrothermal alteration of basaltic tephra, and biological colonization and succession in surface and subsurface pyroclastic deposits. Deposits from Surtsey's eruptions from 1963 to 1967 were first explored via a 181-meter hole drilled in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey and Icelandic Museum of Natural History.

  15. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tímarit.is. Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  16. Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2001-07-01

    A small nation in the middle of the North Atlantic, Iceland currently has a population of 265,000 (1996). The Iceland language has changed very little since the island was settled some 11 centuries ago. Despite the relatively small number of people who speak the language and irrespective of the globalisation efforts by the international community, which includes the ever-increasing influence of English worldwide, the Icelandic language and culture are stronger than ever. The current volume and variety of publications of Icelandic works in all areas have never been as great. Icelandic is a living and growing language. Growth in vocabulary, in response to recent phenomena like the introduction of new technology, has primarily come about with the development of new words from the language's roots. The near absence of Latin, Greek and, more recently, English or Danish words in Icelandic, is striking. Iceland's language policy is not only a governmental policy. It is a policy that comes from the grassroots with the government and official institutions viewing their job as one of service to the people of Iceland. Icelanders are very proud of their language and are extremely determined to continually develop and preserve it for future generations.

  17. Corporate taxation in Iceland and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnarsdóttir Fjóla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the development in the field of corporate tax law in Iceland, from both legal and economic point of view, with a focus on measures taken to protect the tax base and in order to try to make Iceland an attractive place for investment and establishment companies. First, there will be a brief general description of the development of the corporate tax rate in Iceland since 2004 and an overview of new taxes that have been introduced for companies over the past ten years. Second, there will be an analysis of how the Icelandic legal framework provides for incentives for investment and establishment of companies in Iceland. Third, this discussion is to be followed by a section on the steps Iceland has taken in order to combat tax avoidance. Fourth, there is a general description of the economic development for the corporate taxation in Iceland since 1990 and fifth, there is brief discussion of the development of revenues from the corporate tax. Sixth, a short overview of the real investment in the Icelandic economy is given, and finally, the main conclusions of this article will be summed up with a short discussion on the main challenges Iceland is currently facing in the field of corporate taxation in today’s globalised economy.

  18. Petrologic Constraints on Iceland's Lower Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Leftwich, T. E.; Barton, M.

    2005-05-01

    Iceland is an area of relatively thick ocean crust that straddles the spreading MAR. Iceland was created by seafloor spreading originating about 55 Ma above abnormally hot mantle. The high temperatures resulted in greater melt volumes that enhanced crustal thickening. Geophysical investigations provide fundamental insight on crustal features, but results are contradictory. Early seismic, magneto-telluric, and resistivity studies predicted thin crust with partial melt regions at depths of 10-15 km beneath the neovolcanic zones. Reinterpretations based on recent seismic studies suggest thicker and cooler crust. These studies have shown magma lenses at shallow depths beneath volcanic centers, but cannot confirm their presence in the lower crust. Knowledge of the depth of magma chambers is critical to constrain the geothermal gradients in Icelandic crust and to resolve discrepancies in interpretation of geophysical data. Analyses of glasses in Icelandic lavas erupted from 11 volcanic centers throughout the rift zones have been compiled. The pressures of equilibration of these liquids with ol, high-Ca pyx, and plag were estimated qualitatively from projections into the pseudoternary system Ol-Di-Qtz. The results (ca. 0.6 GPa) indicate crystallization in magma chambers located at about 20 km depth. Equilibrium pressures also have been calculated quantitatively. These results (0.6±0.2 GPa) indicate magma chambers at 19.8±6.5 km depth beneath the volcanic centers. Magma chamber at these depths are located in the lower crust inferring that it must be relatively warm. Geothermal gradients have been calculated using the depths of the sourcing magma chambers and any shallow seismically detected magma chambers at each location. An average crustal composition has been calculated from the compiled geochemical data and was used to calculate density variations and seismic velocities along the geotherms. The distribution of sample locations in this study provides sufficient data

  19. Bank Indonesia dalam Tata Pemerintahan Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Maqdir

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on problems as follows: First, position and role of Bank Indonesia as a state body in Indonesia; Second, independency of central bank in performing its monetary function. This research is a juridical normative research using primary legal source which is legislation concerning central bank. Data is collected through document study and literary study. This research concludes that position of Bank Indonesia as a legal entity should have been included in the explanation of ...

  20. Bank Indonesia Dalam Tata Pemerintahan Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Maqdir

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on problems as follows: First, position and role of Bank Indonesia as a state body in Indonesia; Second, independency of central bank in performing its monetary function. This research is a juridical normative research using primary legal source which is legislation concerning central bank. Data is collected through document study and literary study. This research concludes that position of Bank Indonesia as a legal entity should have been included in the explanation of ...

  1. EPA Collaboration with Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indonesia is a key actor in the global environmental arena. In addition to significant ecological resources, Indonesia also has the fourth largest population in the world and the third largest greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Geographic Names of Iceland's Glaciers: Historic and Modern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurðsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Climatic changes and resulting glacier fluctuations alter landscapes. In the past, such changes were noted by local residents who often documented them in historic annals; eventually, glacier variations were recorded on maps and scientific reports. In Iceland, 10 glacier place-names are to be found in Icelandic sagas, and one of Iceland's ice caps, Snaefellsjokull, appeared on maps of Iceland published in the 16th century. In the late 17th century, the first description of eight of Iceland's glaciers was written. Therefore, Iceland distinguishes itself in having a more than 300-year history of observations by Icelanders on its glaciers. A long-term collaboration between Oddur Sigurdsson and Richard S. Williams, Jr., led to the authorship of three books on the glaciers of Iceland. Much effort has been devoted to documenting historical glacier research and related nomenclature and to physical descriptions of Icelandic glaciers by Icelanders and other scientists from as far back as the Saga Age to recent (2008) times. The first book, Icelandic Ice Mountains, was published by the Icelandic Literary Society in 2004 in cooperation with the Icelandic Glaciological Society and the International Glaciological Society. Icelandic Ice Mountains was a glacier treatise written by Sveinn Palsson in 1795 and is the first English translation of this important scientific document. Icelandic Ice Mountains includes a Preface, including a summary of the history and facsimiles of page(s) from the original manuscript, a handwritten copy, and an 1815 manuscript (without maps and drawings) by Sveinn Palsson on the same subject which he wrote for Rev. Ebenezer Henderson; an Editor's Introduction; 82 figures, including facsimiles of Sveinn Palsson's original maps and perspective drawings, maps, and photographs to illustrate the text; a comprehensive Index of Geographic Place-Names and Other Names in the treatise; References, and 415 Endnotes. Professional Paper 1746 (this book) is the second

  3. Visual impairment and blindness in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor László; Tóth, Gábor; Pék, Anita; Lukács, Regina; Szalai, Irén; Tóth, Georgina Zsófia; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe. A cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample size of 3675 was calculated using the standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) software in Hungary. A total of 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected with probability proportionate to size by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Households within the clusters were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with a Snellen tumbling E-chart with or without a pinhole in the households. The adjusted prevalences of bilateral blindness, SVI, MVI and EVI were 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2), 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-0.7), 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-5.9) and 6.9% (95% CI: 5.9-7.9), respectively. The major causes of blindness in Hungary were age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 27.3%) and other posterior segment diseases (27.3%), cataract (21.2%) and glaucoma (12.1%). Cataract was the main cause of SVI, MVI and EVI. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) was 90.7%. Of all bilateral blindness in Hungary, 45.5% was considered avoidable. This study proved that RAAB methodology can be successfully conducted in industrialized countries, which often lack reliable epidemiologic data. The prevalence of blindness was relatively low, with AMD and other posterior segment diseases being the leading causes, and cataract is still a significant cause of visual impairment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The prospects for nuclear heating in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.; Lynch, G.F.

    1989-09-01

    In assessing alternative nuclear heat sources, a joint study was undertaken between Canada and Hungary to determine the feasibility of using the SLOWPOKE Energy System that has recently been developed. The SLOWPOKE Energy System is a benign nuclear heat source designed to supply 10 thermal megawatts in the form of hot water for local heating systems in buildings and institutions. It uses a combination of inherent safety features, including natural convection circulation and negative reactivity coefficients, and engineered features to ensure an extremely safe system. A SLOWPOKE demonstration heating reactor has been constructed in Canada. The unit started operation in July 1987 and is currently undergoing an extensive test program. Since the nuclear heat source is small, operates at atmospheric pressure, and produces hot water below 100 deg. C, the complex high-pressure, and high-temperature systems essential for electricity production are eliminated. As a result, the nuclear heat source can be located close to the load and will require a minimum of operator attention. In this way, a SLOWPOKE Energy System can be considered much like the oil- or natural gas fired furnace it is designed to replace. The extensive use of hot water district heating systems in Hungary offers the opportunity to exploit such simple nuclear systems as base load heat sources without an extensive retrofit of the existing systems. In addition, the studies have concluded that there are many economically attractive sites for 10 MW SLOWPOKE Energy Systems within the existing networks. The low capital investment requirements, coupled with a high degree of localization, even for the first unit, are seen as additional factors that facilitate the transfer of the technology to Hungary. Simple nuclear heat sources, such as the SLOWPOKE Energy System, when applied to the Hungarian district heating systems, offer the prospects of a significant reduction in the dependence on imported fossil fuels in the

  5. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  6. The prospects for nuclear heating in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Papp, I.

    1989-09-01

    Hungary supplies only half of its energy requirements from domestic resources and is very dependent upon imports of oil, natural gas and electricity to meet the current demand. In planning to reduce the dependence on imports, nuclear technology is considered an important element in the long-term energy strategy. To this end, an aggressive nuclear electricity generation program is being implemented with four 440 MWe units now operating and two 1000 MWe units committed. However, nuclear technology must be used in other energy sectors if the goal of long-term energy independence is to be achieved. On the demand side, 30% of the primary energy is consumed in the public sector, the major component being residential heating. Of the 3.7 million apartments in Hungary, 500 000 benefit from being connected to municipal district heating systems that use natural gas or oil as the energy base. This is, therefore, another significant energy sector that is amenable to using nuclear technology to substitute for imported oil and natural gas. In assessing alternative nuclear heat sources, a joint study was undertaken between Canada and Hungary to determine the feasibility of using the SLOWPOKE Energy System that has recently been developed. The SLOWPOKE Energy System is a benign nuclear heat source designed to supply 10 thermal megawatts in the form of hot water for local heating systems in buildings and institutions. It uses a combination of inherent safety features, including natural convection circulation and negative reactivity coefficients, and engineered features to ensure an extremely safe system. A SLOWPOKE demonstration heating reactor has been constructed in Canada. The unit started operation in 1987 July and is currently undergoing an extensive test program

  7. Privatizing and liberalizing electricity, the case of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakos, G. [Kyoto Womens' University (Japan). Institute of Economy

    2001-11-01

    Hungary, a forerunner in Eastern reforms, has boldly privatized its energy sector with foreign capital. While in the west liberalization resulted in electricity abundance and dramatic tariff cuts, in Hungary as a result of asymmetric market opening it brought excess capacities, transparent cost base prices, but lower tariffs are still ahead. Foreign investors made the branch profitable and are planning to expand capacities. (author)

  8. Halving Poverty in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Auwalin, Ilmiawan

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the literature on relationship between economic growth, income inequalities, and poverty reduction. We discuss poverty reduction, using the case ofIndonesia, as one of the Millennium Development Goals declared by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2000. Using provincial level data of Indonesia from 1993 to 2000, we examine the required conditions in order to halve the poverty in Indonesia by2015. The result of analysis shows that Indonesia would need to achiev...

  9. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Hungary, electricity from renewable energy sources is supported by a feed-in-tariff or a market ('green') premium, depending on the capacity and energy source. Household-sized power plants up to 50 kVA can benefit from net metering. In general, subsidy programmes also promote the use of renewable energy sources in the electricity and heating sector. The main support scheme for the use of renewable energy in the transportation sector is a quota system supplemented by a reimbursement of excise duty

  10. Illicit trafficking of radioactive material in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, I.

    1996-01-01

    Hungary, due to its geographical location is a convenient region for illegal transit of nuclear material between source and target countries. In recent years nine cases have became known and altogether 21.7 kg depleted, 4.6 kg natural, and 2.5 kg low enriched uranium have been confiscated. A brief summary is given of possible origin of the illicitly transported radioactive material. The most important elements of the security of sources including the national and accounting system of radioactive material and the intervention plans are discussed. (author)

  11. ICT INDUSTRY R&D IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIENN FEKO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Hungarian ICT Industry related research and development is analysed. The developments and characteristics of the sector are described on one hand on the available statistics and on the other hand on interviews taken with the representatives of leading ICT companies in Hungary. In this short paper in order to have a larger database, we use a more aggregated definition of ICT sector according to European Commission DG JRC, IPTS (NACE rev.1.1. The main objectives of the paper are: to present the main characteristics of the sector and to explore the main causes of relatively low R&D activity of the ICT sector.

  12. The development of radiation protection in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisztray-Balku, S.; Bozoky, L.; Koblinger, L.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains the short history, development and present status of radiation protection and health physics in Hungary. The first chapter discusses the radiation protection standards and practices used in scientific, technical and medical radiology in this country, with their development history. The next chapter is devoted to the radiation protection techniques applied for medical uses of radioisotopes and accelerators including the organizational and management problems. The last chapter presents a review on radiation protection and health physics aspects of the Hungarian industry and agriculture, on radiation protection research and management, on instruments and dosimeters. A national bibliography on the subject up to 1979 is included. (Sz.J.)

  13. Explaining Gender Inequality in Iceland: What Makes the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijstra, Thamar M.; O'Connor, Pat; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the explanations offered by men and women, at different academic ranks, for the scarcity of women in full professorial positions in Icelandic universities. Data derive from interviews and a survey involving the total Icelandic academic population. We test three hypotheses: Firstly, academics will not see family…

  14. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic

  15. The Origin of Noble Gas Isotopic Heterogeneity in Icelandic Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, E. T.; Honda, M.; McDougall, I.

    2001-01-01

    Two models for generation of heterogeneous He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios in Icelandic basalts are evaluated using a mixing model and the observed noble gas elemental ratios in Icelandic basalts,Ocean island Basalt (OIBs) and Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORBs). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Interventions to curb rising pharmaceutical costs in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2003-01-01

    . The cancellation of reimbursement for antibiotics in 1991 resulted in a slight decrease in sales. The change in the list of "hospital only" medicines caused massive protests from pharmacists and physicians. The pharmaceutical policy in Iceland has been problematic in its formulations and implementations....... Recommendations in the light of the problems of Icelandic pharmaceutical policies have been provided in the article....

  17. Heat flow and geothermal processes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.; Saemundsson, Kristján

    1993-09-01

    Heat flow values, derived from temperature measurements in shallow boreholes in Iceland, vary substantially across the country. The near-surface temperature gradients range from almost 0 to 500°C/km. The thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks varies from 1.6 to 2.0 W/m°C. The temperature gradient in Iceland is mainly dependent on four factors: (1) the regional heat flow through the crust, (2) hydrothermal activity, (3) the permeability of the rock, and (4) residual heat in extinct volcanic centers. As Iceland is mainly made of basaltic material the radiogenic heat production is almost negligible. The thermal conductivity is, on the other hand, mainly influenced by the porosity of the rock; it increases as the porosity decreases. Iceland is made of sequences of flood basalts that formed within the volcanic rift zone—a continuation of the axis of the Mid-Atlantic ridge—and subsequently drifted sideways. Fresh basaltic lava is usually highly porous (30%) and fractured, and heat is mainly transported by convection. Therefore, a very low or even no temperature gradient is observed at shallow levels within the volcanic rift zone. As the basalt becomes buried the pores close due to lithostatic pressure and formation of secondary minerals. Below 500-1000 m depth in an uneroded lava pile, the heat is mainly transported by conduction. In the lowlands and valleys of Iceland outside the volcanic rift zone, 1000-1500 m of the original lava pile has been eroded, leaving thermal conduction as the most important heat transport mechanism. The regional temperature gradient has been measured in drillholes in dense and poorly permeable rocks away from the geothermal fields. The results show that the temperature gradient varies from 50 to 150°C/km. The highest values are found close to the volcanic rift zone and the gradient decreases with distance from the spreading axis. This result is mainly based on numerous shallow boreholes (60-500 m) but in some cases the results

  18. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Icelandic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, K.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of hydrothermally altered basalts from depth of up to approx.3 km are reported from three localities in Iceland: International Research Drilling Project (IRDP) core at Reydarfjordur, eastern Iceland (Tertiary age); drill cuttings from Reykjavik (Plio-Pleistocene age); and Halocene drill cuttings from the active Krafla central volcano. Whole rock samples from these three localities have delta 18 O values averaging +3.9 +- 1.3, +2.4 +- 1.1, and -7.7 +- 2.4%, respectively. The observed values in the deeper samples from Krafla are as low as the values for any rocks previously reported. There seems to be a slight negative gradient in delta 18 O with depth at the former two localities and a more pronounced one at Krafla. Oxygen isotope fractionations between epidote and quartz and those between calcite and fluid suggests that the basalts were altered at temperatures of 300 0 --400 0 C. Low deltaD and delta 18 O of epidote and low delta 34 S of anhydrite indicate that the altering fluids in all three areas originated as meteoric waters and have undergone varied 'oxygen shifts'. Differences in the 18 O shift of the fluids are attributed to differences in hydrothermal systems; low water/rock ratios ( 5) at Krafla. The convective hydrothermal activity, which is probably driven by silicic magma beneath the central volcanoes, has caused strong subsolidus depletion of 18 O in the rocks. The primary-magnetic delta 18 O value of the rocks in the Tertiary IRDP core was about +3.9%, which is lower than that obtained for fresh basalt from other places. Such exceptionally low delta 18 O magmas are common in Iceland and may occur as the result of oxygen isotope exchange with or assimilation of altered rocks that form a thick sequence beneath the island due to isostatic subsidence

  19. Lithium Isotopes in Geothermal Fluids from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Asmundsson, R.; Sanjuan, B.

    2008-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the HITI project (HIgh Temperature Instruments for supercritical geothermal reservoir characterization and exploitation), partially funded by the European Union, is to develop methods to characterize the reservoir and fluids of deep and very high temperature geothermal systems. The chemical composition of geothermal waters in terms of major and trace elements is related to the temperature, the degree of water/rock interaction and the mineralogical assemblage of the bedrock. Traditional geothermometers, such as silica, Na-K, Na-K-Ca or K-Mg applied to geothermal waters, make it possible to estimate the temperature at depth of the reservoir from which the waters are derived. However, the values estimated for deep temperature are not always concordant. The chemical geothermometer Na/Li which presents the singularity of associating two chemical elements, one a major element (sodium) and the other a trace element (Li), can be also used and gives an additional temperature estimation. The primary objective of this work was to better understand the behavior of this last geothermometer using the isotopic systematics of Li in order to apply it at very high temperature Icelandic geothermal systems. One particularly important aspect was to establish the nature, extent and mechanism of Li isotope fractionation between 100 and 350°C during water/rock interaction. For that purpose, we measured Li isotopes of about 25 geothermal waters from Iceland by using a Neptune MC-ICP-MS that enabled the analysis of Li isotopic ratios in geothermal waters with a level of precision of ±0.5‰ (2 standard deviations) on quantities of 10-50 ng of Li. Geothermal waters from Reykjanes, Svartsengi, Nesjavellir, Hveragerdi, Namafjall and Krafla geothermal systems were studied and particular emphasis was placed on the characterization of the behavior of Li isotopes in this volcanic context at high temperature with or without the presence of seawater during water

  20. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  1. The Relevance of English Language Instruction in a Changing Linguistic Environment in Iceland: The L2 Self of Young Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeves, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study perceptions of post-compulsory school studies in Iceland were investigated through semi-structured interviews. While colloquial English suffices for entertainment, hobbies and Internet use in Iceland, a high level of proficiency is required for employment and tertiary study. School learners and young people in tertiary study and…

  2. Regulatory problems relating to energy in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyi, K.

    2002-01-01

    One of basic problems of the transition in the energy economy is, how far the process of liberalisation and privatisation could go, i.e. to what extent the control of state/government would be given up, and how the breakdown of the commanding positions of the government would be managed. The transition in the energy sector toward a market economy is characterised by restructuring the regulatory framework of the energy industry, changing the operational structure of the sector and profound reshaping of ownership structures of the enterprises. In Hungary the government, being convinced of the importance of the implementation of the market forces, in 1991 made the first step on the way of restructuring the energy sector in order to increase economic efficiency, to enable companies to react to market forces and to privatise them. Parallel and partly after the restructuring, a profound modification of legal and regulatory framework took place and finally a relatively large scale of privatisation has newly emerged, which will continue in future, too. The process of the energy sector liberalisation in Hungary has a stop and go character and the game is not over. The process can be characterised by institutional restructuring in the energy sector (coal, oil/gas, power ), which is the basic condition for market liberalisation and privatisation, and by the creation of an appropriate environment (regulatory framework, pricing policy, etc. ) for the smooth implementation of the liberation process(author)

  3. [Dentists' workforce in Hungary and international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2012-06-01

    In Hungary, cross-national migration in dental care was performed rather by patients from abroad instead of the domestic dentists' migration for working abroad. Actually, this tacitly realized and so-called dental tourism experienced two basic changes. The National Medical Tourism Ltd. arranged the First Conference for Development of Dental Tourism on 21 April 2011. Hungary's prime minister addressed the meeting and finally signed an agreement with the organizing Ltd. about governmental financial support for development of dental tourism. On the other hand, Germany and Austria deleted all restrictions against the free cross-national workforce migration since 1 May this year. For understanding and prognosis of dentists' future migration, it is inevitable to collect and analyse relevant data of the previous years. This study is presenting data obtained from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010. According to the net outcome, the dentists' human resource system was balanced down to the end of 2010. However, this state is unsure even for the near future, thus preventing the deficit of dentists all necessary measures must be taken to keep up the present level of the domestic dentral service.

  4. CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN OROSZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?

  5. Spatial Characteristics of Art Trade in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolya Várnai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Century-long traditons of art trade in Hungary are strongly connected to the capital, famous, elite auction houses and galleries are concentrated in the downtown area of Budapest. Although art market in Hungary is capital-centered, remarkable amount of art trade takes place in the countryside too. This study aims to give insight into the presence of the different types of art trade (antique shops, second-hand book stores, art galleries and auction houses in rural settlements, compared to the characteristics of art trade in Budapest. The research – based on primary data collection – reveals the social, economic, and cultural factors which explain the regional differences in art trade. During the field work in Budapest, semi-structured interviews were conducted with art gallery owners, auctioners, and antiquarians. The penetration index (PEX which was applied in the case of researches in the countryside shows the rate in which the different types of art trade are present in settlements of different sizes. The results are demonstrated on the map with the help of the Mapinfo 12.5 software.

  6. Country policy profile - Hungary. April 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Hungary is 13%, whereas in 2012 it reached 9,8%. Hungarian renewable electricity meets the support in shape of feed-in tariffs. In the aspect of transport the main means of support for the energy from renewable sources is a quota system. The connection of renewable energy plants to the grid will be ranked as a priority. The costs for the connection of renewable energy plants to and the expansion of the grid are borne either by the plant operator or by the grid operator, depending on certain criteria. There are a number of policies intending to promote the development, installation and use of RES installations. However, some policies are currently not available due to exhausted funds of the related subsidy programs. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Hungary and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  7. Country policy profile - Hungary. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Hungary is 13%, whereas in 2012 it reached 9,8%. Hungarian renewable electricity meets the support in shape of feed-in tariffs. In the aspect of transport the main means of support for the energy from renewable sources is a quota system. The connection of renewable energy plants to the grid will be ranked as a priority. The costs for the connection of renewable energy plants to and the expansion of the grid are borne either by the plant operator or by the grid operator, depending on certain criteria. There are a number of policies intending to promote the development, installation and use of RES installations. However, some policies are currently not available due to exhausted funds of the related subsidy programs. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Hungary and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  8. Icelandic: Linguistic Maintenance or Change? The Role of English. Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda

    The Icelandic language has a long and stable history, and Old Icelandic is still accessible to modern day Icelanders. This is despite being ruled from Denmark, with influence by the Danish language, for about 500 years. Icelandic may now be under a more serious threat from the onslaught of English. This paper evaluates the linguistic situation in…

  9. Epidemiology of organising pneumonia in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G; Sveinsson, O; Isaksson, H J; Jonsson, S; Frodadottir, H; Aspelund, T

    2006-01-01

    Background Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) has also been called idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia. In secondary organising pneumonia (SOP) the causes can be identified or it occurs in a characteristic clinical context. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and epidemiological features of COP and SOP nationwide in Iceland over an extended period. Methods A retrospective study of organising pneumonia (OP) in Iceland over 20 years was conducted and the epidemiology and survival were studied. All pathological reports of patients diagnosed with or suspected of having COP or SOP in the period 1984–2003 were identified and the pathology samples were re‐evaluated using strict diagnostic criteria. Results After re‐evaluation, 104 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for OP (58 COP and 46 SOP). The mean annual incidence of OP was 1.97/100 000 population (1.10/100 000 for COP and 0.87/100 000 for SOP). The mean age at diagnosis was 67 years with a wide age range. The most common causes of death were lung diseases other than OP, and only one patient died from OP. Patients with OP had a lower rate of survival than the general population, but there was no statistical difference between COP and SOP. Conclusions The incidence of OP is higher than previously reported, suggesting that OP needs to be considered as a diagnosis more often than has been done in the past. PMID:16809413

  10. Usutu virus, Austria and Hungary, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Erdélyi, Károly; Brunthaler, René; Dán, Ádám; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2017-10-11

    Usutu virus (USUV, Flaviviridae) was first reported in Europe in Austria in 2001, where it caused wild bird (mainly blackbird) mortality until 2005. Since 2006 no further USUV cases were diagnosed in the country. However, the virus emerged in other European countries (Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Germany and the Czech Republic) between 2005 and 2011. In 2016, widespread USUV-associated wild bird mortality was observed in Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. In this study, we report the results of passive monitoring for USUV in Austria and Hungary between 2010 and 2016. In Hungary, USUV caused sporadic cases of wild bird mortality between 2010 and 2015 (altogether 18 diagnosed cases), whereas in summer and autumn 2016 the number of cases considerably increased to 12 (ten blackbirds, one Eurasian jay and one starling). In Austria, USUV was identified in two blackbirds in 2016. Phylogenetic analyses of coding-complete genomes and partial regions of the NS5 protein gene revealed that USUVs from Hungary between 2010 and 2015 are closely related to the virus that emerged in Austria in 2001 and in Hungary in 2005, while one Hungarian sequence from 2015 and all sequences from Hungary and Austria from 2016 clustered together with USUV sequences reported from Italy between 2009 and 2010. The results of the study indicate continuous USUV circulation in the region and exchange of USUV strains between Italy, Austria and Hungary.Emerging Microbes &Infections (2017) 6, e85; doi:10.1038/emi.2017.72; published online 11 October 2017.

  11. Experimental nuclear physics research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltay, Ede.

    1984-01-01

    The status and recent results of experimental nuclear physics in Hungary is reviewed. The basic nuclear sciences, instrumental background and international cooperation are discussed. Personal problems and the effects of the international scientific deconjuncture are described. The applied nuclear and interdisciplinary researches play an important role in Hungarian nuclear physics. Some problems of cooperation of Hungarian nuclear and other research institutes applying or producing nuclear analytical technology are reviewed. The new instrument, the Debrecen cyclotron under construction gives new possibilities to basic and applied researches. A new field of Hungarian nuclear physics is the fusion and plasma research using tokamak equipment, the main topics of which are plasma diagnostics and fusion control systems. Some practical applications of Hungarian nuclear physical results, e.g. establishment of new analytical techniques like PIXE, RBS, PIGE, ESCA, etc. are summarized. (D.Gy.)

  12. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  13. Are There Cultural Regions in Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER BENKŐ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing up cultural macro-regions in Hungary is hardly possible as not even two of the highly developed mezo-regions are contacting, not speaking about forming a bloc; they rather constitute a mosaic on the country map. Those on medium cultural level make up two groups, while, though the ones with a low standard are mostly found along the Danube as a single bloc, they are isolated by Pest county, statistically grouped in one region with them, with a genuine cultural level far exceeding the low cluster. Consequently, it is only justified to speak about cultural regions in the sense that, on the whole, Dunántúl is on a higher standard than the eastern half of the country.

  14. Organic food purchase habits in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Szente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary organic food market has both demand and supply oriented aspect: several times not necessary products are distributed while the selection and volume of certain products are not satisfactory. Thus our aim was to develop a coordinated benchmark strategy to increase the trade of organic products. To get more details about the Hungarian organic food market we applied the “mystery shopping” method to observe changes in organic food supply and carried out a quantitative survey using a 1,000 member countrywide panel. Our results indicate that organic origin is considered somewhat important for every 4th respondent, while only 3.7% of the interviewees paid attention to put organic food products into their cart. The most serious obstacle is the doubt of surveyed individuals about the authenticity and the alleged benefits of organic products, complete with a high perceived price. “Price” is the most influential factor on shopping decision, but the advantageous “constant quality” and “health benefit” factors are just following it. Most of the respondents stated that they buy organic products directly from the producer (27.4%, but small retail outlets are likewise popular (though to a somewhat lesser extent. In conclusion, there is potential demand for ecological food products in Hungary. Although the proportion of conscious consumers is small; it significantly exceeds the current market share of the products. Consumers should be approached with better prices, smart retailing solutions and through awareness raising.

  15. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...... of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  16. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  17. Macroeconomic conditions and population health in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Helga Birgisdóttir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Results from recent research on the impact of economic cycles and population health have been mixed, with results appearing to be context-sensitive. Objective: We examine the long-term relationship between economic conditions and population health in Iceland, which has experienced some economically turbulent times in the last years and decades. Methods: We use aggregate annual data for 1981‒2014. We use three aggregate indicators of economic activity to proxy the economic cycle: unemployment rate, real GDP per capita, and real GDP. Life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and total mortality as well as four cause-specific mortality rates were used as outcome measures. Results: Our results do not suggest a statistically significant relationship between economic conditions and total mortality, infant mortality, or life expectancy. Different responses between causes of death are found, and in some instances between genders, although statistical significance is low. We do, however, find a consistent and statistically significant relationship for females aged 45‒64, where economic downturns are associated with lower all-cause mortality. Conclusions: For the time period studied we do not find a significant relationship between economic cycles and population health, where health is proxied by mortality rates, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality. Further studies using less extreme health outcomes, such as morbidity rates, are warranted. Contribution: This type of study has not been performed using Icelandic data before and provides a comparison to research from other countries where the relationship has been explored more. Additionally, one of the contributions of this paper is to use a variety of economic indicators as proxies for economic cycles in a study examining their relationship with population health.

  18. GdF in Hungary: the East in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    After Germany and the Czech Republic, Gaz de France (GdF) has decided to export its know-how and technologies about natural gas into Hungary. Thanks to the Hungarian privatization program started in 1995, GdF could obtain the major participation in the Degaz and Egaz companies, two out of the five local distribution companies, and controls 22% of the natural gas distribution in Hungary. (J.S.)

  19. Multigenerational information: the example of the Icelandic Genealogy Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulinius, Hrafn

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the chapter describes the Icelandic Genealogical Database, how it was created, what it contains, and how it operates. In the second part, an overview of research accomplished with material from the database is given.

  20. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new set...

  1. Learning from Bjartur About Today's Icelandic Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Paganelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Economies are complex systems resulting from human action but not from human design. The economic success of Iceland in recent decades was the result of the development of good institutions combined with a positive global economic climate. The recent economic downturn, not just in Iceland but around the world, should be a reminder that good institutions matter and should serve as an exhortation to continue building good institutions rather than dismissing them in favor of institutions that generate poverty.

  2. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  3. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson, ggudmund@landspitali.is.

  4. Underemployment of Immigrant Women in Iceland – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Burdikova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of immigrants living in Iceland has been steadily on the rise for the last decade; between 2007 and 2017, the percentage of immigrants living in Iceland has increased from 7.6 % to 11.9%. Akureyri, the largest town in the North of Iceland with considerable industry and service, has seen its immigrant population double in the last decade, and is now home to 931 immigrants for a total of 18 488 inhabitants. New research from the University of Akureyri[1]shows that immigrant women are the most vulnerable people in the labour market in Iceland. Many occupy positions that do not fit with their level of education; despite having received higher education than men. For example, in the survey conducted 30% of immigrant women in Akureyri answered that they are in employment that does not suit their background, compared to the same answer by only 8% of Icelandic women. This difference has a direct impact on the income: just 11% of immigrant women answered that they earn 300 000 ISK or more per month, compared to 37% for Icelandic women and 22% for immigrant men.

  5. Market conditions in Hungary, central europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, S.

    2000-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only nuclear power plant in Hungary covering 38% of electricity consumption in the country. The nuclear electricity production of the four VVER440/213 type units in the year of 1999 was 14096 GWh, the second best result in the history of the company. After very detailed safety analyses Paks NPP started a safety upgrading program in 1996, and today the CDF values of the reactor units reached an internationally accepted value. The operational and safety culture and the level of safety was evaluated and reviewed by different international organizations like the IAEA, WENRA, WANO. Based on the conclusions of these international organizations the Paks plant w111 be ready for EU accession after the completion of the ongoing safety upgrading program. Capacity enhancement as a part of the preparation for the market conditions resulted a power upgrade around 20 MW for all four units. This way a relatively small investment in comparison with new installations resulted more efficient to market nuclear capacity. Last year the cost of a generated 1 kWh electricity was 5.98 Ft, which is still to be decreased in 2000. To upgrade the competitiveness of nuclear generation lots of efforts were done in the areas of plant management cost reduction, man-power efficiency upgrade. Un-bundling of activities not directly related to electricity generation in one hand, and more efficient cooperation with other VVER operators and the Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. in certain areas on the other hand are good examples for efficient steps in economic improvement. The company as one of the electricity producers also should follow the capabilities of producers in the neighboring countries like Slovakia and Ukraine, where electricity production is with government subsidiary. To find the right balance between the necessary investments and the market induced cost reduction is one of the most important task in Hungary in Eastern-Europe especially when the nuclear energy

  6. SASTRA CYBER DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Fitriani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The digital era started when the internet technology spread to the developing countries including Indonesia. The flourish of cyber literature leads to the debate on the quality of the work of literature. Above all, the existence of literature sites (cyber literature becomes an important alternative for writers and literary activist in Indonesia.

  7. LDC nuclear power: Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poneman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Indonesia's five-year plan to develop a research reactor is still in the feasibility stage of a policy to minimize domestic oil consumption. The evolution of a nuclear program in Indonesia illustrates the importance of strong political leadership in developing countries which lack technical skills and political and economic stability and the need for strong international support. 39 references

  8. Spent fuel dry storage in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buday, G.; Szabo, B.; Oerdoegh, M.; Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only NPP in Hungary. It has four WWER-440 type reactor units. Since 1989, approximately 40-50% of the total annual electricity generation of the country has been supplied by this plant. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia. Most of the spent fuel assemblies have been shipped back to Russia. Difficulties with spent fuel transportation to Russia have begun in 1992. Since that time, some of the shipments were delayed, some of them were completely cancelled, thus creating a backlog of spent fuel filling all storage positions of the plant. To provide assurance of the continued operation, Paks NPPs management decided to implement an independent spent fuel storage facility and chose GEC-Althom's MVDS design. The construction of the facility started in February 1995 and the first spent fuel assembly was placed in the store in September 1997. The paper gives an overview of the situation, describing the conditions leading to the construction of the dry storage facility at Paks and its implementation. Finally, some information is given about the new Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management established this year and responsible for managing the issues related to spent fuel management. (author)

  9. Countrywide Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, F.; Osvay, M.

    1998-01-01

    Hungary has a countrywide early warning radiation monitoring network which consist of about 70 stations in an on-line connection with the Emergency Information Center of the National System for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness. The system consists of a variety of stations and organizations including Hungarian Meteorological Service, Ministry of Environment and Regional Policy operate their own networks which are not connected with the central system, but could in certain cases exchange the data. The overall impression of the early warning for the radiation emergency is very good, as the system is in the 24 hours on-line mode and raise alarm immediately if the measured values exceed the preset limit. It this respect, the organization appears very good and capable (together with laboratory services) to assure reasonable protection of the population. The possibility to measure the radioactivity in the environment, food and water exist through a series of laboratories, which operate throughout the country. Those appear to be reasonably well equipped and both the knowledge and the experience of their staff appear very high. The same applies for the tools and methods used to forecast the impact and the consequences. (author)

  10. Hungary making progress toward free market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Hungarian government made major progress in reorienting the energy sector toward a market economy in 1991. A study conducted by the International Energy Agency the progress was particularly evident in price reform and restructuring of the Hungarian energy industry. The pace of change has accelerated. Effective with fourth quarter 1991 through 1992 all the main energy enterprises will begin operating under new structures. Assuming that liberalized energy prices are set by suppliers to cover their costs and local governments do not subsidize district heating prices, all energy prices are to be at least at their economic cost level by mid-1992, IEA the. Some prices will be above this level because of sales taxes on gasoline and diesel and taxes on all imported energy. Hungary depends on imports for about half of its primary energy supply. Because domestic production has peaked, the share of imports will rise if consumption, after a likely further decline in the short term, returns to an upward trend

  11. 222Rn in wine cellars in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hunyadi, I.; Szerbin, P.; Juhasz, L.

    2004-01-01

    We measured seasonal average 222 Rn activity concentrations in the air of 60 wine cellars in the Tokajhegyalja and Villany wine regions of Hungary using Radamon type etched track radon detectors. The exposure period was 3 months, matching the seasons of 2003-2004. We also used an ionization chamber-type continuous 222 Rn-monitor (AlphaGUARD PQ222, Genitron Instruments, Germany) to study temporal variations of 222 Rn activity concentration in a selected wine cellar in the Tokajhegyalja wine region. This instruments also recorded temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity data. The etched track detector data revealed that the 222 Rn activity concentrations in the air of wine cellars spread over a wide range, from the ambient outdoor concentration of 6 Bq.m -3 up to 6 kBq.m -3 characteristic of natural caves. The temporal variation of 222 Rn activity concentration in the air of the selected cellar varied inversely with the variation of the atmospheric pressure. Earlier we observed similar phenomena in natural karstic caves connected to the surface with vertical shafts only. This suggests that relatively large volume of pore space of the embedding rock communicates with the volume of the cellar induced by the variation of the atmospheric pressure

  12. Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őrsi, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

  13. Case concerning Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project (Hungary/Slovakia). Judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Hungary and Czechoslovakia in 1977 concluded a treaty for the building of dam structures in Slovakia and Hungary for the production of electric power, flood control and improvement of navigation on the Danube. In 1989 Hungary suspended and subsequently abandoned completion of the project alleging that it entailed grave risks to the Hungarian environment and the water supply of Budapest. Slovakia (successor to Czechoslovakia) denied these allegations and insisted that Hungary carry out its treaty obligations. It planned and subsequently put into operation an alternative project only on Slovak territory, whose operation had effects on Hungary's access to the water of the Danube. In this judgement, the Court found: (1) that Hungary was not entitled to suspend and subsequently abandon, in 1989, its part of the works in the dam project, as laid down in the treaty signed in 1977 by Hungary and Czechoslovakia and related instruments; (2) that Czechoslovakia was entitled ti start, in November 1991, preparation of an alternative provisional solution (called V ariant C ) , but not to put that solution into operation in October 1992 as a unilateral measure; (3) that Hungary's notification of termination of the 1977 Treaty and related instruments on 19 May 1992 did not legally terminate them (and they are consequently still in force and govern the relationship between the Parties); (4) and that Slovakia, as successor to Czechoslovakia became a party the Treaty of 1997.As to the future conduct of the Parties, the Court found: (1) that Hungary and Slovakia must negotiate in good faith in the light of the prevailing situation, and must take all necessary measures to ensure the achievement of the objectives of the 1997 Treaty; (2) that, unless the Parties agree otherwise, a joint operational regime for the dam on Slovak territory must be established in accordance with the Treaty of 1977; (3) that each Party must compensate the other Party for the damage caused by its conduct; (4

  14. Co-operation in nuclear development: The case of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroen, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hungary became a Member of the IAEA in 1957 and has participated in the programme of technical assistance and co-operation from its start in 1958. By the end of 1976, Hungary ranked as the fifteenth largest recipient of IAEA technical assistance. Since then, there has been a significant increase in overall technical co-operation activities, and by the end of 1988 a total of over US $9.5 million of assistance had been received by Hungary, making it the fifth largest recipient of all Member States. In view of this situation, a special evaluation review was carried out in 1989 of the IAEA's technical co-operation programme in Hungary over the period 1976-1989. This evaluation review has shown that, simultaneously with the increase in the IAEA's support, there has been a rapid development in Hungary of the national nuclear infrastructure and this has permitted the country to absorb and utilize the assistance provided to the maximum extent. 7 figs

  15. Geothermal electric power generation in Iceland for the proposed Iceland/United Kingdom HVDC power link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Palmason, G.; Thorhallsson, S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews geothermal electric power potential in Iceland which could economically be developed to supplement hydro power for the proposed HVDC Power Link to the United Kingdom, and power intensive industries in Iceland, which are envisaged for development at this time. Technically harnessable energy for electricity generation taking account of geothermal resources down to an assumed base depth, temperature distribution in the crust, probable geothermal recovery factor, and accessibility of the field, has been assessed. Nineteen known high-temperature fields and 9 probable fields have been identified. Technically harnessable geo-heat for various areas is indicated. Data on high temperature fields suitable for geothermal electric power generation, and on harnessable energy for electric power generation within volcanic zones, is stated, and overall assessments are made. The paper then reviews how the potential might be developed, discussing preference of possible sites, and cost of the developments at todays prices. Cost of geothermal electric power generation with comparative costs for hydro generation are given. Possible transmission system developments to feed the power to the proposed HVDC Link converter stations are also discussed

  16. Erosive and Mechanical Tooth Wear in Viking Age Icelanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Svend; Eliasson, Sigfus Thor

    2017-08-29

    (1) Background: The importance of the Icelandic Sagas as a source of information about diet habits in medieval Iceland, and possibly other Nordic countries, is obvious. Extensive tooth wear in archaeological material worldwide has revealed that the main cause of this wear is believed to have been a coarse diet. Near the volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated, and 49 skulls could be evaluated for tooth wear. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in light of diet and beverage consumption described in the Sagas; (2) Materials and methods: Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation; (3) Results: Extensive tooth wear was seen in all of the groups, increasing with age. The first molars had the highest score, with no difference between sexes. These had all the similarities seen in wear from a coarse diet, but also presented with characteristics that are seen in erosion in modern Icelanders, through consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and was used for the preservation of food in Iceland, until fairly recently; (4) Conclusions: It is postulated that the consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear seen in ancient Icelanders.

  17. Magmatic densities control erupted volumes in Icelandic volcanic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret; Maclennan, John

    2018-04-01

    Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallisation under Iceland.

  18. Magmatic Densities Control Erupted Volumes in Icelandic Volcanic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Hartley

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ. By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallization under Iceland.

  19. The development of the suffix –erni in Icelandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Ellert Þór

    This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood’. By tak......This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood...... stages to establish a clear derivational pattern that is productively used in the language to form new words. Having access to continuous written material in Icelandic from ca. 1200 to 2011 gives us the possibility to track this process through time and follow each step in the development....

  20. Regulatory aspects of uranium remediation in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoevari, M.; Csicsak, J.; Lendvai, Zs.; Varhegyi, A.; Nam, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Hungary, there are numerous acts and decrees concerning the uranium ore mining remediation, including the aspects of radiation protection and release limits. The most important ones are: Mining Act, Atomic Energy Act, Environmental Protection Act, Water Management Act, Government Decrees No. 115/1993 and 152/1995. For radiation protection regulation the baselines are codified in the Hungarian National Standard MSZ 62/1-1989, while the release limits are prescribed in the order No. 3/1984 of Hungarian Water Authority (OVH), and in the standard MSZ 450/1-1989. According to the above documents, the limits for annual effective dose-equivalent are: (a) 50 mSv for persons occupied in nuclear industry or working with radioactive isotopes, this is relevant to mining and processing of uranium ore, (b) 5 mSv for the critical group of members of the public, in the case of long exposure this value could not exceed 1 mSv/a. In accordance to the EC directives, it is expected that the limit for the public will be decreased soon to 1 mSv/a. Release limits for discharge of natural radionuclides (U, Th, Ra, Rn) in surface water: (a) for uranium maximum 2 mg/dm 3 , (b) for radium-226 maximum 1.1 Bq/dm 3 . There are no general discharge limits for other pollutants in waste water, but the competent authorities may give individual limits if asked. Detailed limits are given only for drinking water for toxic and chemical components. Release limits for discharge of heavy metals are listed in order No. 3/1984 OVH. Of course, numerous licenses and permissions have to be obtained for remediation. The most important ones are the Environmental Protection Permission, based on a detailed environmental impact assessment, and the technical reclamation plans. Numerous authorities are involved in the licensing procedures (e.g. Mining Authority, Environmental Protection Authority, Water Authority, National Municipal Health Authority, etc.). (author)

  1. Dinamika Kurikulum di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education does not have a standard reference, which covers access for revision by the authorities. Because education continues to grow along with the rolling times. Therefore, all matters relating to education also do not have a standard reference, including educational curriculum. The curriculum is one of the important elements that has a role to advance education in Indonesia, in accordance with the ideals of the constitution. Curriculum changes are not taboo for education in developed countries of the world (such as Japan, Finlandia,  USA, etc.. Basically the dynamics of curriculum in Indonesia aims to make education in Indonesia able to compete with the developed countries in the world.

  2. Pemberitaan Media Pers Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashadi Siregar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available New freedom and democratic atmosphere existing in Indonesia allow the Indonesian press enjoys its new significant position. This can expand the Indonesian press goals, particularly in enriching the industrial aspiration of the institution. However, bearing in mind that Indonesia is a multicultural country, the Indonesian press can also strengthen the various demographic backgrounds of the state leading to the unity of Indonesia. This article discusses four points of the Indonesian press that need to he considered by the mass media professionals.

  3. Nasionalisme Eropa dan Pengaruhnya Pada Lagu Seriosa di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Tresna Yunita

    2013-11-01

    Nasionalism in Europ and Its Impact on Indonesian Seriosa Song. The growing of nationalism movements in Europe in 1830 had spread out to all over the world, as well as in Indonesia. It gave considerable influence on the development of nationalism in Asia and Africa, especially in Indonesia, in term of the development in the history of music. The nationalism movement in music began in Russia and then was followed by the movement of nationalism in Scandinavian countries, Spain, Italy, Hungary, the United Kingdom and the United States. European nationalism has affected several composers in creating their music as they incorporate elements of melody and lyric in accordance with folk music which they have been familiar with. In Indonesia, nationalism made Indonesian composers created songs as an expression of their spirit against the Dutch colonial government. Some of Indonesian composers at that time, among others, were WR Supratman, Kusbini, Ismail Marzuki and Cornel Simanjuntak. Seriosa Song composed by Indonesian composers who had an important role to fight for the Indonesian independence. Seriosa songs which are created by using western musical’s standard as diatonic scales, harmony, the structure of a song form, rhyme, and so forth can be said as a result of the western musical influences. Keywords: Nationalism, musical influences, seriosa song

  4. Additional Workload or a Part of the Job? Icelandic Teachers' Discourse on Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnþórsdóttir, Hermína; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the discourse of Icelandic compulsory school teachers on inclusive education. From 1974 and onwards, the education policy in Iceland has been towards inclusion, and Iceland is considered to be an example of a highly inclusive education system with few segregated resources for students with special educational…

  5. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Frank; Johannesdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2011-01-01

    The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher engagement with online and open delivery methods of higher…

  6. Isotope heterogeneity of Pre-Holocene groundwater in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E.; Arnorsson, S.; Heinemeier, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that groundwater with a Pre-Holocene component is more common in the Icelandic bedrock than previously thought. Some of the Pre-Holocene water samples are more depleted in delta H-2 and delta O-18 than any mean annual precipitation in Iceland today due to the cold...... climate at that time. However, most often Pre-Holocene water components cannot be detected based on the water isotopes alone due to mixing with younger and isotopically heavier water. The Cl concentration in relation to the water isotopes in specific areas has proved to be a good indicator of a Pre......-Holocene component in the groundwater. The deuterium excess value may also help to identify water from a different climate regime, if no oxygen shift has occurred. The relative abundance of a Pre-Holocene water component of the Icelandic groundwater has led to the understanding that combined interpretation of water...

  7. IDRC in Indonesia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    management. IDRC has long supported research on the sustainable use of forests in Indonesia. It ... participation in managing the Berau ... Science, technology, and innovation are critical ... and policy analysis, this IDRC-funded project.

  8. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  9. Jepara Indonesia Furniture

    OpenAIRE

    romanzick

    2016-01-01

    Jepara Indonesia Furniture A wide choice of Indonesian furniture companies provide free business listings to all types of furniture also for outlets and stores. Each section is accessible that contains a comprehensive list of our range of furniture details information and full campaign. We provided a platform create various products along with featured inspiration section related products, services, accessories. Indonesia Furniture Teak Garden Furniture It is bringing customers distinctive as...

  10. Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Sandra L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia. Islamic fundamentalism is defined as the return to the foundations and principles of Islam including all movements based on the desire to create a more Islamic society. After describing the practices and beliefs of Islam, this thesis examines the three aspects of universal Islamic fundamentalism: revivalism, resurgence, and radicalism. It analyzes the role of Islam in Indonesia under Dutch colonial rule, an alien Christian imperialist po...

  11. Porosity evolution in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, B.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced hydrothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems, grant number CRSII2_141843/1) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. These are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. These shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. Field observations suggest that active and fossil Icelandic hydrothermal systems are built from a superposition of completely altered and completely unaltered layers. With help of 1D and 2D reactive transport models (OpenGeoSys-GEM code), we investigate the reasons for this finding, by studying the mineralogical evolution of protoliths with different initial porosities at different temperatures and pressures, different leaching water composition and gas content, and different porosity geometries (i.e. porous medium versus fractured medium). From this study, we believe that the initial porosity of protoliths and volume changes due to their transformation into secondary minerals are key factors to explain the different alteration extents observed in field studies. We also discuss how precipitation and dissolution kinetics can influence the alteration time scales.

  12. Silicic magma generation at Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2009-04-01

    Rate of magma differentiation is an important parameter for hazard assessment at active volcanoes. However, estimates of these rates depend on proper understanding of the underlying magmatic processes and magma generation. Differences in isotope ratios of O, Th and B between silicic and in contemporaneous basaltic magmas have been used to emphasize their origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered metabasaltic crust in the rift-zones favoured by a strong geothermal gradient. An alternative model for the origin of silicic magmas in the Iceland has been proposed based on U-series results. Young mantle-derived mafic protolith is thought to be metasomatized and partially melted to form the silicic end-member. However, this model underestimates the compositional variations of the hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. New data on U-Th disequilibria and O-isotopes in basalts and dacites from Askja volcano reveal a strong correlation between (230Th/232Th) and delta 18O. The 1875 AD dacite has the lowest Th- and O isotope ratios (0.94 and -0.24 per mille, respectively) whereas tephra of evolved basaltic composition, erupted 2 months earlier, has significantly higher values (1.03 and 2.8 per mille, respectively). Highest values are observed in the most recent basalts (erupted in 1920 and 1961) inside the Askja caldera complex and out on the associated fissure swarm (Sveinagja basalt). This correlation also holds for older magma such as an early Holocene dacites, which eruption may have been provoked by rapid glacier thinning. Silicic magmas at Askja volcano thus bear geochemical signatures that are best explained by partial melting of extensively hydrothermally altered crust and that the silicic magma source has remained constant during the Holocene at least. Once these silicic magmas are formed they appear to erupt rapidly rather than mixing and mingling with the incoming basalt heat-source that explains lack of icelandites and the bi-modal volcanism at Askja

  13. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  14. Superhot Drilling in Iceland, the Experience of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Fowler, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project aims to improve geothermal economics by producing supercritical fluids (www.iddp.is). Supercritical wells could yield an order of magnitude more usable energy than that from conventional geothermal wells because of higher enthalpy and enhanced flow properties. In 2009, the IDDP-1 well failed to reach supercritical conditions in the Krafla caldera in NE Iceland, after encountering rhyolite magma at only 2.1 km depth. The completed geothermal well became the world's hottest and produced superheated steam with a wellhead temperature of 452°C and flow sufficient to generate 35 MWe. The IDDP next moved SW to the Reykjanes Peninsula, the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where it is possible to study an analog of the roots of a black smoker. Reykjanes is unique among Icelandic geothermal systems in being recharged by seawater, which has a critical point of 406°C at 298 bars. Drilling began by deepening an existing 2.5 km deep production well to 3 km depth, and then angling it towards the main upflow zone of the system, for a total slant depth of 4,659 m. Total circulation losses were encountered below 3 km that could not be cured by lost circulation materials or by multiple cement jobs. Accordingly, drilling continued to total depth without return of drill cuttings. We attempted 13 core runs below 3 km depth, only half of which recovered core. The cores are basalts and dolerites with alteration ranging from lower greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies, suggesting formation temperatures >450°C. After the end of drilling in January 2017, following only six days of heating, supercritical conditions (426°C at 340 bars) were measured in the well at a depth of 4.5 km. The well has not yet been allowed to equilibrate to full in situ temperature. A perforated liner was inserted to 4,570 m, depth to facilitate temperature cycling to enhance permeability at depth through thermal cracking. In 2018 this will be followed by a

  15. Determinan Ekspor CPO Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rosita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the products that are important to the economy of Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the performance of Indonesia's CPO exports and to look for the influence of the independent variables such as production volume CPO, CPO consumption and the value of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar. The authors of this study tested using the Method of Error Correction Model. The time interval used is from 1998 to 2011 with the data quarter. The findings suggest that Indonesia's CPO production volume variables exert a positive and significant impact on the number of Indonesian CPO exports in both the short and long term, then the variable volume Indonesia CPO consumption in the short and long term is also a significant effect on the number of Indonesian CPO exports but negatively related, this is due to the domestic CPO consumption greater that the capacity to export will be reduced. Variables of the Rupiah against the U.S. dollar also affects Indonesia's CPO exports significantly and negatively related to both the short and long term and conditions of the depreciation of the rupiah exchange rate is not enough to effectively be driving exports. Estimates show that the close relationship between external demand caused exports to Indonesia's export performance vulnerable to external shocks. Side factors are also a determinant of export performance. Keywords: palm oil, CPO consumption, Error Correction Model

  16. Determinan Ekspor CPO Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rosita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the products that are important to the economy of Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the performance of Indonesia's CPO exports and to look for the influence of the independent variables such as production volume CPO, CPO consumption and the value of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar. The authors of this study tested using the Method of Error Correction Model. The time interval used is from 1998 to 2011 with the data quarter. The findings suggest that Indonesia's CPO production volume variables exert a positive and significant impact on the number of Indonesian CPO exports in both the short and long term, then the variable volume Indonesia CPO consumption in the short and long term is also a significant effect on the number of Indonesian CPO exports but negatively related, this is due to the domestic CPO consumption greater that the capacity to export will be reduced. Variables of the Rupiah against the U.S. dollar also affects Indonesia's CPO exports significantly and negatively related to both the short and long term and conditions of the depreciation of the rupiah exchange rate is not enough to effectively be driving exports. Estimates show that the close relationship between external demand caused exports to Indonesia's export performance vulnerable to external shocks. Side factors are also a determinant of export performance.

  17. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún

    2017-10-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007-2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (PANGAEA.876206" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206).

  18. Holocene and latest Pleistocene climate and glacier fluctuations in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Axford, Yarrow; Ólafsdóttir, Sædís

    2009-10-01

    Multiproxy climate records from Iceland document complex changes in terrestrial climate and glacier fluctuations through the Holocene, revealing some coherent patterns of change as well as significant spatial variability. Most studies on the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation reveal a dynamic Iceland Ice Sheet (IIS) that responded abruptly to changes in ocean currents and sea level. The IIS broke up catastrophically around 15 ka as the Polar Front migrated northward and sea level rose. Indications of regional advance or halt of the glaciers are seen in late Alleröd/early Younger Dryas time and again in PreBoreal time. Due to the apparent rise of relative sea level in Iceland during this time, most sites contain evidence for fluctuating, tidewater glacier termini occupying paleo fjords and bays. The time between the end of the Younger Dryas and the Preboreal was characterized by repeated jökulhlaups that eroded glacial deposits. By 10.3 ka, the main ice sheet was in rapid retreat across the highlands of Iceland. The Holocene thermal maximum (HTM) was reached after 8 ka with land temperatures estimated to be 3 °C higher than the 1961-1990 reference, and net precipitation similar to modern. Such temperatures imply largely ice-free conditions across Iceland in the early to mid-Holocene. Several marine and lacustrine sediment climate proxies record substantial summer temperature depression between 8.5 and 8 ka, but no moraines have been detected from that time. Termination of the HTM and onset of Neoglacial cooling took place sometime after 6 ka with increased glacier activity between 4.5 and 4.0 ka, intensifying between 3.0 and 2.5 ka. Although a distinct warming during the Medieval Warm Period is not dramatically apparent in Icelandic records, the interval from ca AD 0 to 1200 is commonly characterized by relative stability with slow rates of change. The literature most commonly describes Little Ice Age moraines (ca AD 1250-1900) as representing the

  19. High resolution modelling of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The northward inflow of Atlantic Water through Denmark Strait – the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC – is simulated with a numerical model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. The model uses the technique of adaptive grid refinement which allows a high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal, 10 m vertical around Iceland. The model is used to assess time and space variability of volume and heat fluxes for the years 1997–2003. Passive tracers are applied to study origin and composition of NIIC water masses. The NIIC originates from two sources: the Irminger Current, flowing as part of the sub-polar gyre in 100–500 m depth along the Reykjanes Ridge and the shallow Icelandic coastal current, flowing north-westward on the south-west Icelandic shelf. The ratio of volume flux between the deep and shallow branch is around 2:1. The NIIC continues as a warm and saline branch northward through Denmark Strait where it entrains large amounts of polar water due to the collision with the southward flowing East Greenland Current. After passing Denmark Strait, the NIIC follows the coast line eastward being an important heat source for north Icelandic waters. At least 60% of the temporal temperature variability of north Icelandic waters is caused by the NIIC. The NIIC volume and heat transport is highly variable and depends strongly on the wind field north-east of Denmark Strait. Daily means can change from 1 Sv eastward to 2 Sv westward within a few days. Highest monthly mean transport rates occur in summer when winds from north are weak, whereas the volume flux is reduced by around 50% in winter. Summer heat flux rates can be even three times higher than in winter. The simulation also shows variability on the interannual scale. In particular weak winds from north during winter 2002/2003 combined with mild weather conditions south of Iceland led to anomalous high NIIC volume (+40% and heat flux (+60% rates. In this period, simulated north Icelandic

  20. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  1. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  2. Storage experience in Hungary with fuel from research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, J.; Hargitai, T.

    1996-01-01

    In Hungary several critical assemblies, a training reactor and a research reactor have been in operation. The fuel used in the research and training reactors are of Soviet origin. Though spent fuel storage experience is fairly good, medium and long term storage solutions are needed. (author)

  3. COENOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE IRIS MEADOWS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SALAMON-ALBERT

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and vegetation structure by association and local diagnostic, constant and dominant species of Iridetum sibiricae was analysed from Hungary adjusting to the evaluation of European vegetation. Classification, ordination and statistical analyses was carried out to characterize and make distinction to some other wet meadow vegetation types. In the association habitat and management dependent subunits were formed.

  4. Creation and Characteristics of the New Fundamental Law of Hungary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halász, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 150/1, č. 9/2 TLQ (2011), s. 85-105 ISSN 0231-6625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : constitutional law * Fundamental Law of Hungary * Hungarian constitutional system Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  5. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  6. Development of Integrated Public Administration Custom Services in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laki, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case-study introducing a national project in Hungary establishing a countrywide public administration customer service system where accessibility was a key issue. Starting from the concept the paper describes the methods and organisational background how accessible design was integrated in the planning method and gives a feedback of site experiences.

  7. Teaching the System of Social Policy in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talyigas, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Provides an inside perspective on the development of social work education in Hungary during the final years of communism and after the country regained its independence, when there was a strong focus on re-introducing social work and social sciences which had been repressed by the socialist regime in its denial of social problems and thus, its…

  8. [Accidents on Iceland's most dangerous roads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thóroddur; Arnarsson, Sveinn

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify the most dangerous segments of the Icelandic road system in terms of the number of accidents pr km and the rate of accidents pr million km travelled. First to identify the segments where the number of accidents is highest and where the risk of the individual traveller is the greatest. Second to evaluate if the association between the number and the rate of accidents is positive or negative. Third to identify the road segments that are the most dangerous in the sense of many accidents and great risk to individual travellers. Main roads outside urban centers were divided into 45 segments that were on average 78 km in length. Infrequently travelled roads and roads within urban centers were omitted. Information on the length of roads, traffic density and number of accidents was used to calculate the number of accidents per km and the rate of accidents per million km travelled. The correlation between the number and rate of accidents was calculated and the most dangerous road segments were identified by the average rank order on both dimensions. Most accidents pr km occurred on the main roads to and from the capital region, but also east towards Hvolsvöllur, north towards Akureyri and in the Mideast region of the country. The rate of accidents pr million km travelled was highest in the northeast region, in northern Snæfellsnes and in the Westfjords. The most dangerous roads on both dimensions were in Mideast, northern Westfjords, in the north between Blönduós and Akureyri and in northern Snæfellsnes. Most accidents pr km occurred on roads with a low accident rate pr million km travelled. It is therefore possible to reduce accidents the most by increasing road safety where it is already the greatest but that would however increase inequalities in road safety. Policy development in transportation is therefore in part a question of priorities in healthcare. Individual equality in safety and health are not always fully

  9. [Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2013-04-01

    Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.

  10. Injury Pattern in Icelandic Elite Male Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, Elis Thor; Valdimarsson, Örnólfur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Árnason, Árni

    2017-10-10

    To examine the incidence, type, location, and severity of injuries in Icelandic elite male handball players and compare across factors like physical characteristics and playing position. Prospective cohort study. The latter part of the preseason and the competitive season of Icelandic male handball. Eleven handball teams (185 players) from the 2 highest divisions in Iceland participated in the study. Six teams (109 players) completed the study. Injuries were recorded by the players under supervision from their team physiotherapists or coaches. Coaches recorded training exposure, and match exposure was obtained from the Icelandic and European Handball Federations. The players directly recorded potential risk factors, such as age, height, weight, previous injuries, and player position. Injury incidence and injury location and number of injury days. Recorded time-loss injuries were 86, of which 53 (62%) were acute and 33 (38%) were due to overuse. The incidence of acute injuries was 15.0 injuries/1000 hours during games and 1.1 injuries/1000 hours during training sessions. No significant difference was found in injury incidence between teams, but number of injury days did differ between teams (P = 0.0006). Acute injuries were most common in knees (26%), ankles (19%), and feet/toes (17%), but overuse injuries occurred in low back/pelvic region (39%), shoulders (21%), and knees (21%). Previous knee injuries were the only potential risk factor found for knee injury. The results indicate a higher rate of overuse injuries in low back/pelvic region and shoulders than in comparable studies.

  11. Broadcasting in Iceland: Cultural Protectionism and U.S. Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Tim

    Icelanders are a highly literate people, their culture tied together by perhaps the most complete written tradition of any modern nation. No wonder, then, that the tiny island country seemed in no rush to develop a television broadcasting system. Indeed, it is questionable whether television would have been in demand at all if not for outside…

  12. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  13. Primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debaille, Vinciane; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Brandon, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    to a hybrid mixture between the depleted-MORB mantle and the enriched Iceland mantle plume, itself resulting from mixing between recycled oceanic crust and depleted lower mantle. This hybrid accounts for the high 3He/4He (28 Ra), high 143Nd/144Nd (0.5132), high 187Os/188Os (0.14) and low 87Sr/86Sr (0...

  14. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  15. Pressure Algometry in Icelandic Horses : Interexaminer and Intraexaminer Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Eveline S.; Blom, Guy; van Loon, Johannes P A M; Back, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Reliability of pressure algometry as an outcome measure in equine research and therapy needs to be studied. The aim of the present study was to establish interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability of pressure algometry in Icelandic horses and to determine reference mechanical nociceptive threshold

  16. The thirteenth-century runic revival in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Tarrin Jon

    2016-01-01

    alphabet. This paper examines a number of runic phenomenon from the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries in Denmark and Iceland to argue that they belong to a cultural revival movement rather than forming part of a continuous runic tradition stretching back into the early Middle Ages. Some...

  17. Island connections: Icelandic spatiality in the wake of worldly linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bjarnason

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The notions and materiality of connections, through electronic networks as well as modes of mobility, play an ever-increasing role in how we define, understand, engage and experience the world we live in and the islands we live on. This article presents an account of Icelandic encounters with technologies of telecommunication and explores how electronic connections have participated in formulating a particularly connected, island spatiality. It is argued that an island can be regarded as a kind of connected laboratory suitable for studying how associations form around technologies of connections, which can be traced through various actors. For this purpose, the historical genealogy of connections and telecommunication in Iceland is analyzed, as well as more contemporary ideas and representations of mobile phone usage and network connectivity. It is maintained that connections have fundamentally altered the spatiality as well as representations of Iceland. While still an island in a geographical sense, and in that manner remote and isolated, the social space of the island now denies such connotations in many respects, valorizing the connectivity of Iceland and its people.

  18. Iceland and European Union accession - the whaling issue

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Peter G.G.

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to assess one of the important questions regarding Iceland’s potential accession to the EU, namely, whether Iceland could legitimately continue its whaling operations under current EU environmental law if it becomes a member of the regional economic integration organization

  19. Curriculum Analysis and Education for Sustainable Development in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Norodahl, Kristin; Oskarsdottir, Gunnhildur; Palsdottir, Auour; Petursdottir, Bjorg

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how the Icelandic public school curriculum for early childhood, compulsory and upper secondary school deals with education for sustainable development. As the curriculum does not often mention the term sustainability, a key with which to investigate signs of education for sustainable development in the three curricula was…

  20. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar

    2000-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. Methods: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru...

  1. The effect of silica in washing with geothermal water, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindal, B.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial washing operation using geothermal water in Iceland are reported and testing designed to explain the beneficial effect of geothermal water for washing described. The findings indicate, that the silica content of the water may be the principal component for a superior washing quality

  2. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  3. HISTORISITAS POLITIK PEREMPUAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasisto Raharjo Jati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze historicity of political participation and representation of women in the political landscape in Indonesia. This paper used the perspective of feminism theory as core analysis in reviewing its issue. Periodicity of Indonesian women's political participation is very volatile and depends on the political situation contemporary. Indonesian women's political participation in the era of colonialism experienced domestication, revivalism in the Sukarno era, stigmatization in the New Order era, and is now experiencing ambiguity in the Reformation era. Indonesian women's political participation need to find a strong platform to promote the aspirations of his peopleKeywords: partisipation, representation, domestification, stigmatization, and women politic.Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis histo-risitas partisipasi politik dan keterwakilan perempuan dalam lanskap politik di Indonesia. Tu-lisan ini menggunakan perspektif teori feminisme sebagai analisis inti dalam meninjau isu nya. Periodisitas partisipasi politik perempuan Indonesia sangat fluktuatif dan tergantung pada situasi politik kontemporer. Partisipasi politik perempuan Indonesia di era kolonialisme mengalami domestikasi, revivalisme di era Soekarno, stigmatisasi di era Orde Baru, dan sekarang mengalami ambiguitas dalam era Reformasi. Partisipasi politik perempuan Indonesia perlu menemukan platform yang kuat untuk memperjuangkan aspirasi rakyatnyaKata kunci: partisipasi, representasi, domestifikasi, stigmasi, politik perempuan  

  4. IAEA Completes Nuclear Security Review Mission in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A team of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) experts today completed a mission to review nuclear security practices in Hungary. At the request of the Government of Hungary, the IAEA conducted the two-week International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) mission that reviewed the nation's nuclear security-related legislative and regulatory framework, physical protection systems at Hungarian nuclear facilities, and security arrangements applied to the transport of nuclear and radioactive materials. The IAEA team was led by Stephen Ortiz of the United States and included nine experts from six nations and the IAEA. The team met in Budapest with officials from the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority, Hungarian Police Headquarters, National Security Authority and other relevant agencies. They also conducted site visits to the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, the Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility, the Budapest Research Reactor, the Budapest Training Reactor, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility and several other locations where high activity radioactive sources are used for different applications. ''At a time where development of a nuclear power programme is more than ever recognised as necessitating a strong commitment to safety, security and sustainability, the example given today by Hungary strengthens the message about the value of applying the IAEA Security Guidance,'' said IAEA Deputy Director General for Nuclear Safety and Security, Denis Flory, who opened the mission. ''Indeed, IPPAS missions, carried out at the appropriate time in the development of a nuclear power programme, provide valuable insights into how best to reach that goal.'' The IPPAS team concluded that nuclear security within Hungary has been significantly enhanced in recent years. The team also identified a number of good practices at the nation's nuclear facilities, and provided some recommendations and suggestions to assist Hungary in the continuing

  5. Gynecological cancer in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M Farid

    2009-03-01

    To overview the status of gynecologic cancer in Indonesia. Information regarding Indonesia obtained from World Bank Report and Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2007, epidemiological data obtained from Histopathological Data of Cancer in Indonesia 2002, Department of Health-Registry Body of Indonesian Specialist of Pathology Association-Indonesian Cancer Society; Various Hospitals in big Cities in Indonesia. Indonesia is an Archipelago with a total area of 1,922,570.00 km(2), the population is 222,192,000 (2006), the fourth world rank. Female is 49.86% with life expectancy 69 years. Gross National Product per Capita is 690.00 USD. Histopathological report in 2002 revealed that cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancer were the most frequent cancer among female, which were the first (2,532 cases), the third (829 cases) and the eighth (316 cases) rank respectively. The peak age for cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer was 45-54 years. HPV 16, 18 were found in 82% of invasive cervical. Data from various academic hospitals in 2007 showed that cervical cancer is the most common malignancy followed by ovary, uterus, vulva and vagina. Five-year survival rate of stage I, II, III, IV cervical cancer were 50%, 40%, 20%, and 0% respectively. Overall five-year survival rate of carcinoma of the ovary was 54.8%. If sub-classified by stage, five-year survival rate are 94.3%, 75.0%, 31%, and 11.7% for stage I, II, III, and IV respectively. Five-year disease-free survival rate of endometrial cancer was 71.9%. Indonesia is the biggest Archipelago with a dense population but the income per capita still low (poor country). The most common gynecologic cancer is cervical cancer, followed by ovarian and uterine cancer. These cancers are included in top ten cancers in Indonesia. HPV 16, 18 were the most cause of cervical cancer. The five-year survival rates are comparable with world report.

  6. Long-term variability of dust events in Iceland (1949-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Arnalds, O.; Olafsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term frequency of atmospheric dust observations was investigated for the southern part of Iceland and interpreted together with earlier results obtained from northeastern (NE) Iceland (Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al., 2013). In total, over 34 dust days per year on average occurred in Iceland based on conventionally used synoptic codes for dust observations. However, frequent volcanic eruptions, with the re-suspension of volcanic materials and dust haze, increased the number of dust events fourfold (135 dust days annually). The position of the Icelandic Low determined whether dust events occurred in the NE (16.4 dust days annually) or in the southern (S) part of Iceland (about 18 dust days annually). The decade with the most frequent dust days in S Iceland was the 1960s, but the 2000s in NE Iceland. A total of 32 severe dust storms (visibility typically warm, occurring during summer/autumn (May-September) and during mild southwesterly winds, while the subarctic dust events (S Iceland) were mainly cold, occurring during winter/spring (March-May) and during strong northeasterly winds. About half of the dust events in S Iceland occurred in winter or at sub-zero temperatures. A good correlation was found between particulate matter (PM10) concentrations and visibility during dust observations at the stations Vík and Stórhöfði. This study shows that Iceland is among the dustiest areas of the world and that dust is emitted year-round.

  7. The Icelandic volcanological data node and data service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjord, Kristin; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Futurevolc Team

    2013-04-01

    Through funding from the European FP7 programme, the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), as well as the local Icelandic government and RANNÍS research fund, the establishment of the Icelandic volcano observatory (VO) as a cross-disciplinary, international volcanological data node and data service is starting to materialize. At the core of this entity is the close collaboration between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), a natural hazard monitoring and research institution, and researchers at the Earth Science Institute of the University of Iceland, ensuring long-term sustainable access to research quality data and products. Existing Icelandic Earth science monitoring and research infrastructures are being prepared for integration with the European EPOS infrastructure. Because the VO is located at a Met Office, this infrastructure also includes meteorological infrastructures relevant to volcanology. Furthermore, the FP7 supersite project, FUTUREVOLC cuts across disciplines to bring together European researchers from Earth science, atmospheric science, remote sensing and space science focussed on combined processing of the different data sources and results to generate a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. Integration with atmospheric and space science is to meet the need for better estimates of the volcanic eruption source term and dispersion, which depend not only on the magma flow rate and composition, but also on atmosphere-plume interaction and dispersion. This should lead to better estimates of distribution of ash in the atmosphere. FUTUREVOLC will significantly expand the existing Icelandic EPOS infrastructure to an even more multidisciplinary volcanological infrastructure. A central and sustainable part of the project is the establishment of a research-quality data centre at the VO. This data centre will be able to serve as a volcanological data node within EPOS, making multidisciplinary data accessible to

  8. My Classroom: Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the teaching experiences of Alief Noor Farida--a junior lecturer at Indonesia's "Universitas Negeri Semarang" (Semarang State University [UNNES]). Now teaching her fourth semester and an alumna of the English Education program at UNNES, Ms. Farida is an especially motivated and dedicated educator. She teaches 18…

  9. EKSISTENSI OMBUDSMAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yusnani hasjimzoem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Indonesia is a rule of law under Article 1 (3 of the 1945 Constitution and should uphold respect for the rights of individuals and communities in implementing the country. The rights strengthened by the basic norms that become the main spirit of the people of Indonesia, Pancasila. Basic norms that the political objectives in developing the Indonesian nation and enact any bill. Thus the state agency that was created by a special law should work in line with the basic norms of the nation and work together to create prosperity. In 2003 the Ombudsman created by a special law has the duty and function to oversee public services effectively, efficiently, and in spite of the practice of (corruption, collusion, and nepotism. Ombudsman based its duties and functions that have the same vision as mandated in the fourth paragraph of the preamble of the Constitution of 1945. The Ombudsman is thus expected to make a good bureaucratic reform so that it can be a model and public services watchdog whose presence is really felt by the people of Indonesia. Keywords: Ombudsman of the Republic of Indonesia

  10. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  11. ANALISIS EKSPOR KOPI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI - WIDAYANTI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   This study aimed at analyzing, firstly, the factors influencing the coffee export of Indonesia; secondly, the factors influencing the domestic coffee supply; and thirdly, the factors influencing the domestic coffee demand. This research used secondary data, time series data of 1975–1997 which were collected from many resources, i.e. Statistical Center Bureau (BPS, Trade Department, Indonesian Coffee Exporter Association, Forestry and Commercial Agricultural Enterprise Department, and the Indonesian Bank. The factors influencing the coffee export of Indonesia as well as the domestic coffee demand and supply were analyzed by simultaneous equation model in the form of double logarithm using the two stage least square method (2SLS. The research results show that the factors influencing the export quantity of coffee were the coffee FOB price, the coffee price in domestic markets, the exchange rate and the coffee supply of the previous year. The coffee export price had negative correlation with the coffee export quantity of Indonesia with export supply elasticity toward the export price of 2.04. In other words, the increase of coffee export price was followed by the decrease of coffee export quantity. This condition was due to the low quality of the coffee export of Indonesia. The coffee price at domestic markets has positive correlation with the coffee export quantity of Indonesia. Export was still conducted when the coffee price at domestic markets increased because the demand for domestic coffee was still very low. Other factors positively influencing the coffee export quantity were the exchange rate of rupiah and the coffee supply of the previous year. The factors influencing the domestic coffee supply were the domestic coffee price, technology level and the coffee supply of the previous year. The domestic coffee price positively related to the coffee supply at domestic markets with a supply elasticity of 0.04. This means that the

  12. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2017-02-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution. Long-term records of meteorological dust observations from Northeast Iceland indicate the frequency of dust events from Icelandic deserts. The research involves a 60-year period and

  13. Kriptosporidiosis di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wijayanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCryptosporidiosis included to waterborne and soil transmited diseases, caused by Cryptosporidium, obligat intraceluller pathogen organism. Cryptosporidium cause intestinal infection of human and animal acute diarrhea. Lung cryptosporidiosis on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis  patients was reported. Diarrhea still be important health problem because diarrhea was be the third dominant contributor of children morbidity and mortality at some country include Indonesia. Every children have 1,6-2x diarrhea onset annually. Diarrhea cases caused by Cryptosporidium sp parasite was around 4-11%. Focus of this review is  about cryptosporidiosis on children, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients, animal, environment, diagnostic and it’s prevention and control. Cryptosporidium species confirmed in Indonesia are C. wrairi, C. muris,  C. felis, C. hominis, C. meleagridis and C. parvum, indicated that there was a big rule of animal on Cryptosporidium transmission. Cryptosporidium was necessary to be one of diseases diagnose on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients. Transmission of Cryptosporidium by  respiratory secretion (droplet, aerosol or contact with vomiting must be anticipated to prevent cryptosporidiosis especially on imunocompromissed/imunodeficiency people. Rapid Diagnostic Test that have highly sensitivity and spesificity is very important on Cryptosporidium cases finding and surveillance in Indonesia. Environment and cattle sanitation, personal hygiene, water and food treatment, is necessary to prevent cryptosporidiosis transmission.  Kriptosporidiosis termasuk waterborne dan soil transmitted diseases, disebabkan oleh Cryptosporidium yang bersifat obligat intraseluler. Cryptosporidium menyebabkan infeksi pada usus halus dan dapat menyebabkan diare akut pada manusia dan hewan. Kriptosporidiosis paru telah dilaporkan pada penderita HIV/AIDS dan tuberkulosis. Diare merupakan penyumbang utama ketiga angka kesakitan dan kematian anak di berbagai negara

  14. Tax wedge in Croatia, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Onorato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the tax burden on labour income in Croatia, Austria, Greece, Hungary and Poland in 2013. The Taxing Wages methodology has been applied to hypothetical units across a range of gross wages in order to calculate net average tax wedge, net average tax rate, as well as other relevant indicators. When it comes to single workers without children, the smallest tax wedge for workers earning less than the average gross wage was found in Croatia, while Poland had the smallest tax wedge for above-average wages. Due to a progressive PIT system, the tax wedge for a single worker in Croatia reaches 50% at 400% of the average gross wage, equalling that of Austria, Greece and Hungary. Tax wedges for couples with two children show a similar trend.

  15. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, T; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) at creating a favourable advertising environment for their products in Hungary, with special regard to efforts resulting in the liberalisation of tobacco advertising in 1997. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents relevant to Hungary available on the World Wide Web. Transcripts of speeches of members of the Parliament during the debate of the 1997 advertising act were also reviewed. The tobacco companies not only entered the Hungarian market by early participation in the privatisation of the former state tobacco monopoly, but also imported theirsophisticated marketing experiences. Evasion and violation of rules in force, creation of new partnerships, establishment and use of front groups, finding effective ways for influencing decision makers were all parts of a well orchestrated industry effort to avoid a strict marketing regulation for tobacco products.

  16. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  17. MEWUJUDKAN NEGARA HUKUM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Soebechi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikel yang berjudul “Mewujudkan Negara Hukum” ini merupakan studi tentang konsepsi negara hukum Indonesia yang membedakannya dengan konsepsi negara hukum lain. meski mendapat pengaruh dari berbagai pemikiran, tetapi konsepsi negara hukum Indonesia berbeda dengan konsepsi rule of law dan rechtsstaat. Hal tersebut dapat ditelisik dari dasar falsafah, sifat kedaulatan, kekuasaan organ negara, dan hak asasi manusia. Terdapat enam unsur utama negara hukum indonesia, yaitu : 1 Pancasila; 2 supremasi hukum; 3 demokratis; 4 pembatasan dan pemencaran kekuasaan negara; 5 kekuasaan kehakiman yang bebas dan mandiri; 6 perlindungan hak asasi manusia. Dengan penguatan Indonesia sebagai negara hukum yang demokratis berdasarkan Pancasila maka seharusnya segala bentuk tindakan bernegara dan bermasyarakat harus disandarkan pada hukum.   This Article entitled " the State law of Indonesian" is the result of a study on the conception of the characteristic of law states of Indonesian that distinguish the conception of the state laws in other countries. Based on the research results, can be explained even get the effect of various thoughts, but the conception of law state of Indonesian different with conception the rule of law and rechtstaat. This can be searched from basic of philosophy, the nature of sovereignty, the powers of state organs, and human rights. There are six main elements of Indonesian law states, namely: 1 Pancasila; 2 supremacy of law;; 3 democratic 4 restrictions and dispersal of state power; 4 independent judiciary; 6 protection of human rights. the statement of Indonesia as a democratic rule of law based on Pancasila then should all forms of civic and social action must be based on the law.

  18. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  19. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Fedák, András; Baska, Ferenc; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Basso, Walter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. FINDINGS: Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region re...

  20. Results of Research about Consciousness of Foodstuff Consumers in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolya Bravacz

    2013-10-01

    How self-restrictive and self-conscious are we when purchasing and consuming foodstuff? – with every foodstuff purchase we make decisions about our environment, which indirectly has an effect on the producers, manufacturers and dealers. I will briefly review the foodstuff consumers segments in Hungary, which first have been identified using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. I have identified the following consumer groups based on health consciousness: Conscious majority, Conscious by commitment, Economist “housewife”, Youthfully eclectic and Passives.

  1. The intellectual background of nuclear energy in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    The education and training of nuclear specialists in Hungary has a long history, since several Hungarian nuclear scientists emigrated to the West before the second war. Some became Nobel-prize winners. In domestic universities, the education of nuclear science and technology has been also preferred. When the first Hungarian nuclear power plant in Paks started operation, well-trained specialists were available to operate it. The present opportunities for nuclear training and education are highlighted. (R.P.)

  2. An overview of the status of radiochemical analysis in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solymosi, J.; Toth, G.

    1994-01-01

    This overview covers the following activities at radioanalytical laboratories in Hungary: tracer techniques and their applications; some important new results; radioimmunoassay; x-ray emission analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis, Moessbauer-spectroscopy and their applications in various fields of science and technology; neutron activation analysis; radiochemical analysis for nuclear power plant applications activities in various laboratories; nuclear environmental analysis (radioanalytical methods for the investigation of contamination by nuclear facilities). (N.T.) 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  3. Gas regulation in Hungary. 5 years after privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varro, L.

    2002-01-01

    The political-economic environment of gas regulation in Hungary is characterized by: Unsustainable starting position; Gas a a default fuel (growth prospects); Scarce domestic capital; serious household exposure, political sensitivity.Import gas prices and the recommended regulatory bans are discussed.Future transmission and storage tariffs are about 12 euro/1000 m 3 and around 7 euro/1000 m 3 , resp. (R.P.)

  4. Bone tuberculosis in Roman Period Pannonia (western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hajdu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse a skeleton (adult female, 25-30 years that presented evidence of tuberculous spondylitis. The skeleton, dated from the Roman Period (III-VI centuries, was excavated near the town of Győr, in western Hungary. The skeleton was examined by gross observation supplemented with mycolic acid and proteomic analyses using MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. The biomolecular analyses supported the morphological diagnosis.

  5. The Changes of Ergonomics in Hungary and Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Istvan Lükö

    2013-01-01

    Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-tech...

  6. Modeling maize response to climate modification in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Anda

    2006-01-01

    Modeling provides a tool for a better understanding of the modified plant behaviour that results from various climatic differences. The present study provides new information about the physiological processes in maize (Zea mays L.) in response to climatic changes. The aim was to help local farmers adapt to climate modifications in Hungary and mitigate the future consequences of these changes. A simulation model was applied to estimate the possible feedback on crop properties and elevated CO2....

  7. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH – CHALLENGES FOR HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Paldy; Janos Bobvos

    2010-01-01

    In Hungary detailed research work has been carried out since several years to help the process of getting prepared and adapted to the impacts of climate change. The research activities concerned mainly the health impacts of heat waves (excess mortality). Based on the results of the time series statistical analysis of weather variables and daily mortality of Budapest, it was found that a 5º C increase of the daily mean temperature increases of the risk of all cause mort...

  8. Incidence of legal abortions and congenital abnormalities in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeizel, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The annual and monthly distributions of congenital abnormalities and pregnancy outcomes as confounding factors were evaluated in Hungary in reflection of the accident at the Chernobyl reactor. The different congenital abnormality entities and the components of fetal radiation syndrome did not show a higher rate after the Chernobyl accident in the data-set of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. Among confounding factors, the rate of induced abortions did not increase after the Chernobyl accident in Hungary. In the 9th month after the peak of public concern (May and June, 1986) the rate of livebirths decreased. Three indicator conditions: 15 sentinel anomalies as indicators of germinal dominant gene mutations, Down syndrome as an indicator of germinal numerical and structural chromosomal mutations, and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities as indicators of germinal dominant gene and chromosomal mutations were selected from the material of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. Diagnoses were checked, familial and sporadic cases were separated and only the sporadic cases were evaluated. The analysis of indicator conditions did not reveal any measurable germinal mutagenic effect of the Chernobyl accident in Hungary

  9. Effectiveness of Traumatic Brain Injury Management Guideline Introduction in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorinola, Abayomi; Buki, Andras; Sandor, Janos; Czeiter, Endre

    2018-01-01

    To describe the impact of the Traumatic Brain Injury management guideline introduction in Hungary. Hospital discharge records (HDR) including age, gender, codes of interventions applied, ICD codes of diagnosed disorders of patients admitted between 01/01/2004 and 31/12/2010 with the diagnosis of intracranial injury (S06 by ICD10) from every inpatient institution in Hungary were collected from the database of National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF). The Case Fatality Ratios (CFR) for one week, one month and six months were calculated for the periods before and after the guideline introduction. The change of CFRs was applied as indicators for change of clinical quality elicited by the guideline. The centers together at one week, one month and six months had pre-guideline introduction CFRs of 23.4%, 37.7% and 47.5% and post-guideline introduction CFRs of 22.1%, 39.1%, and 50.0% respectively. The secondary institutions together at one week, one month and six months had pre-guideline introduction CFRs of 21.5%, 34.8% and 46.3% and post-guideline introduction CFRs of 21.9%, 37.0%, and 48.9% respectively. None of the CFRs showed significant change. The effectiveness of TBI management guideline adaptation in Hungary is poor. Without supportive financing and external auditing system, guideline introduction alone cannot achieve standard clinical practice and a reduction in CFR.

  10. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  11. The current situation of uranium mining in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdi-Krausz, G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the history of uranium production in Hungary. It focuses on the Mecsek Ore Mining Company, now known as Mecsekuran Limited, and its relationship with the Hungarian Government. From the start of uranium production in 1963 until May 1989 all production was exported to the Soviet Union under a bilateral contract. In exchange the Soviet Union agreed to provide fabricated fuel for the future Hungarian nuclear power plant. In May 1989 the Government of Hungary announced closure of its uranium mining operations because of the high cost of production. The paper describes the history of events since 1989, as well as the current plans to terminate all uranium production by 31 December 1997. The Mecsek Mountains lie in the southern part of Hungary, west from the Danube, about 30 km from the former Yugoslavian border, and north from the city of Pecs. Its eastern side is built up from medieval limestone and dolomites, while the western part is from sandstone and clay from the geological Paleozoic. In the eastern part high quality cokeable coal has been mined for more than 200 years, east from the city of Pecs; and in the western part uranium ore was discovered and the mining began only a few decades ago. (author)

  12. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Petersen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007–2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206.

  13. Application of subsurface temperature measurements in geothermal prospecting in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.

    1985-12-01

    In geothermal areas in Iceland aquifers are in most cases found to occur in highly permeable near-vertical fractures in the low permeability basaltic crust. Therefore heat transfer in the rocks surrounding the aquifers is mainly conductive. Temperature profiles in shallow non-flowing boreholes are used to construct a two dimensional model of the temperature distribution in the vicinity of near vertical aquifers. This is done by finite element solution of the equation of heat transfer which requires knowledge of the regional temperature gradient outside the area of geothermal activity and some constraints on the temperature within the aquifers. The model is helpful in estimating dip and location of near-vertical water bearing fractures and thus in siting production wells. An example of successful use to the method and of soil temperature measurements from a geothermal field in North-Iceland is demonstrated.

  14. Icelandic Public Pensions: Why time is running out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the Icelandic public sector pension system enjoying a third party guarantee. Defined benefit funds fundamentally differ from defined contribution pension funds without a third party guarantee as is the case with the Icelandic general labour market pension funds. We probe the special nature of the public sector pension funds and make a comparison to the defined contribution pension funds of the general labour market. We explore the financial and economic effects of the third party guarantee of the funds, their investment performance and other relevant factors. We seek an answer to the question why time is running out for the country’s largest pension fund that currently faces the prospect of becoming empty by the year 2022.

  15. 230Th-238U disequilibria in historical lavas from Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condomines, M.; Morand, P.; Alleegre, C.J.; Sigvaldason, G.

    1981-01-01

    The 230 Th- 238 U disequilibrium studies on historical lavas from Iceland show a relative homogeneity for Th/U ratios and also a variation for ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) activity ratios at the scale of the island. The ( 230 Th/ 238 U) disequilibrium ratio is always greater than 1 which indicates that partial melting produces magmas with Th/U ratios greater than those of the mantle source. Furthermore, there seems to be a correlation between the variations of ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) (and delta 18 O) ratios and the geographical location of the samples along the active zones of Iceland. We develop and discuss several models in order to explain these variations. (orig.)

  16. Linkages between Icelandic Low position and SE Greenland winter precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, M.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Hammann, A. C.; Mioduszewski, J.; Hameed, S.; Tedesco, M.; Stroeve, J. C.; Mote, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Greenland's largest flux of precipitation occurs in its Southeast (SE) region. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling precipitation in this region is lacking despite its disproportionate importance in the mass balance of Greenland and the consequent contributions to sea level rise. We use weather station data from the Danish Meteorological Institute to reveal the governing influences on precipitation in SE Greenland during the winter and fall. We find that precipitation in the fall is significantly correlated to the longitude of the Icelandic Low and the NAO. Winter precipitation is correlated with the strength and longitude of the Icelandic Low, as well as the NAO. We show that in years of extreme high precipitation, onshore winds dominate, thereby advecting more moisture inland. In low precipitation years, winds are more westerly, approaching the stations from land. Understanding the controls of SE Greenland precipitation will help us predict how future precipitation in this key region may change in a warming climate.

  17. The assent of a nation: genethics and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, M G

    1999-04-01

    The Icelandic parliament passed legislation authorizing the establishment of a national health sector database which will be sponsored financially by private enterprises through DeCode Genetics Inc. Health related data will be gathered from patients, without their informed consent, from all points of contact with Icelandic public and private health care providers. A centralized data curator will 'non-personalize' the identity of the subjects in a one-way coding system which the government and DeCode Genetics argue overrides the need for informed consent. This legislation is in conflict with the European Data Protection Act, which requires informed consent for the collection of personal data. The law raises many ethical questions regarding the central tenets of informed consent, the power of government, the rights of the human subject, and finally, the responsibility of the clinician balancing commitments of the patient and research.

  18. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Kristinsson, Sigurður

    2017-01-01

    Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abr...

  19. Long-term variability of dust events in Iceland (1949-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2014-01-01

    The long-term frequency of atmospheric dust observations was investigated for the southern part of Iceland and interpreted together with earlier results obtained from northeastern (NE) Iceland (Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al., 2013). In total, over 34 dust days per year on average occurred in Iceland based on conventionally used synoptic codes for dust observations. However, frequent volcanic eruptions, with the re-suspension of volcanic materials and dust haze, increased the n...

  20. Icelandic boom and bust - Immigration and the housing market

    OpenAIRE

    Lúðvík Elíasson

    2014-01-01

    Possible explanations for the rapid increase in house prices and housing investment in Iceland between 2004 and 2007 and the subsequent market crash are studied. The boom was driven in part by banking liberalisation, international financial conditions, and domestic policies. A simple demand and supply model, based on the study by Elíasson and Pétursson (2009), is fitted to data through the recent boom-bust period. The model is remarkably robust through the cycle despite its unprecedented ampl...

  1. Alcohol and labor supply: the case of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; McGeary, Kerry Anne

    2009-10-01

    At a time when the government of Iceland is considering privatization of alcohol sales and a reduction of its governmental fees, it is timely to estimate the potential effects of this policy change. Given that the privatization of sales coupled with a tax reduction should lead to a decrease in the unit price of alcohol, one would expect the quantity consumed to increase. While it is of interest to project the impact of the proposed bill on the market for alcohol, another important consideration is the impact that increased alcohol consumption and, more specifically, probable alcohol misuse would have on other markets in Iceland. The only available study on this subject using Icelandic data yields surprising results. Tómasson et al. (Scand J Public Health 32:47-52, 2004) unexpectedly found no effect of probable alcohol abuse on sick leave. A logical next step would be to examine the effect of probable alcohol abuse on other important labor-market outcomes. Nationally representative survey data from 2002 allow for an analysis of probable misuse of alcohol and labor-supply choices. Labor-supply choices are considered with reference to possible effects of policies already in force, as well as proposed changes to current policies. Contrary to intuition, but in agreement with the previously mentioned Icelandic study, the adverse effects of probable misuse of alcohol on employment status or hours worked are not confirmed within this sample. The reasons for the results are unclear, although some suggestions are hypothesized. Currently, data to test those theories convincingly are not available.

  2. Servant leadership and job satisfaction in the University of Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Guðjón Ingi Guðjónsson; Sigrún Gunnarsdóttir

    2014-01-01

    Servant leadership is a philosophy of communication and leadership whith focus on decentralization, autonomy, mutual respect and commitment to society. In light of universities’ important societal role and importance of equality of academic staff it is presumed that servant leadership suits a university. Prior research indicates the value of servant leadership for universities’ performance. The purpose of the study was to assess servant leadership in the University of Iceland and its correlat...

  3. Servant leadership and job satisfaction in the University of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðjón Ingi Guðjónsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Servant leadership is a philosophy of communication and leadership whith focus on decentralization, autonomy, mutual respect and commitment to society. In light of universities’ important societal role and importance of equality of academic staff it is presumed that servant leadership suits a university. Prior research indicates the value of servant leadership for universities’ performance. The purpose of the study was to assess servant leadership in the University of Iceland and its correlation with staff job satisfaction using a new Dutch instrument (SLS measuring participants’ attitudes to their next superior. A single item job satisfaction question was included. Results showed considerable practice of servant leadership or 4,19 (scale: 1-6 and the strongest servant leadership characteristic was stewardship, followed by forgiveness and empowerment. 82,6% of participants reported job satisfaction with significant positive correlation with servant leadership. The relatively high degree of servant leadership supports previous study of the uiniversity’s working environment but not recent American studies indicating universities’ a low degree of servant leadership. The degree of servant leadership in the University of Iceland was lower compared to grammar schools (6,46 and general hospital wards (4,33 but identical to hospital emergency care units (4,19. Significant positive correlation of servant leadership with job satisfaction, confirms similar relationships in US universities and in various institutions in Iceland. Results indicate the importance of servant leadership for employees’ job satisfaction, not least empowerment and courage, and this has the potential to support peer management, employee independence and social responsibility of the University of Iceland.

  4. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  5. The involvement of family in child protection cases in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Haugen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of families in child protection cases in Iceland, as well as to shed light on the attitudes of child protection workers on the importance of including families while working on child protection cases. The study is part of an international comparative analysis called: Social Work with Families: Social Workers’ Constructions of Family in Professional Practice. This article only addresses the Icelandic segment of the research. In the study, qualitative methods were used and three focus groups were conducted, in which the same three-step vignette about a child protection case was presented. The findings highlighted how difficult child protection workers found it to define the family. The main element is that family are those individuals closest to the child and connected to them through emotional ties, as Icelandic child protection workers seem to strive to involve family in child protection cases. However, there are signs which show that when working with more complicated cases the definition of a family becomes narrower, and involvement is restricted mostly to parents and grandparents. The findings also show that attitudes toward fathers differ from those toward mothers. The mother is expected to support and create security for the child, while the father is judged mostly on his violent behaviour and is not automatically regarded as providing support or actively taking responsibility for his child.

  6. [Organising Pneumonia - a review and results from Icelandic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur A; Isaksson, Helgi J; Gudmundsson, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Organising pneumonia (OP) is a relatively rare interstitial lung disease. It s definition is based on a characteristic histological pattern in the presence of certain clinical and radiological features. Organising pneumonia represents also what has been called Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia (BOOP). Recently it has been recommended to call OP cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) when no definite cause or characteristic clinical context is found and secondary organising pneumonia (SOP) when causes can be identified such as infection or it occurs in a characteristic clinical context such as connective tissue disorder. The most common clinical symptoms are dyspnea, cough, fever and general malaise. It is common that symptoms have been present for some weeks before the diagnosis is made. Patients commonly have lowered PO2 and a mildly restrictive spirometry. Radiographic features are most often patchy bilateral airspace opacities but an interstitial pattern or focal opacities can also be seen. Most of patients respond well to steroids but relapses are quite common. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the disease and the main results from studies on OP in Iceland. The mean annual incidence for OP in Iceland was 1.97/100,000 inhabitants. Annual incidence for COP was 1.10/100,000 and 0.87/100,000 for SOP. This is higher than in most other studies. In Iceland patients with OP had a higher standardized mortality ratio than the general population despite good clinical responses. No clinical symptoms could separate between SOP and COP.

  7. Gudmundur Finnbogason, "sympathetic understanding," and early Icelandic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2008-05-01

    Gudmundur Finnbogason (1873-1944) was a pioneer of Icelandic psychology. He was educated at the University of Copenhagen where he finished his M.A. in 1901 in philosophy, specializing in psychology. During the years 1901-1905, Finnbogason played a major role in establishing and shaping the future of primary education in Iceland. He defended his doctoral thesis on "sympathetic understanding" at the University of Copenhagen in 1911. This work deals with the psychology of imitation. In it Finnbogason defends the view that imitation is basically perception so that there is a direct link from perception to motor behavior. Through imitation people tend to assume the countenance and demeanor of other people, thus showing, in Finnbogason's terminology, "sympathetic understanding." Finnbogason's theory of imitation in many respects anticipates contemporary approaches to the psychology of imitation. In 1918 Finnbogason became professor of applied psychology at the recently founded University of Iceland. Here he attempted to establish psychology as an independent discipline. In this he was unsuccessful; his chair was abolished in 1924.

  8. Midwifery in Iceland: From vocational training to university education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Olof A; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Gottfredsdottir, Helga

    2018-04-03

    Midwifery education is a foundation for health professionals' competence in providing quality healthcare for the benefit of women, their families and society. This paper describes midwifery and the development of midwifery education in Iceland. It examines policy and extensive reforms, from hospital-based vocational training in midwifery to an academic university education, and the impact on the scope of midwifery practice in Iceland. The university-based programme, with its emphasis on autonomy of the midwife, seems to have affected the context of home birth and strengthened midwives' role in primary healthcare. Education reform with a focus on evidence-based practice and midwife-led continuity of care has had limited influence within the hospital system, where the structure of care is fragmented and childbirth is under threat of increasing interventions. Research is needed on the role of education in supporting evidence-based practice, normal childbirth and reproductive health in the Icelandic context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analisis Cadangan Devisa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusia Bunga Uli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to determine the relationship between variables export, import, and exchange rate against Foreign Exchange Reserves in Indonesia. The data used in the empirical study of a sequence of data monthly time of year 2011.01 through 2014.12 from Bank Indonesia and the Central Statistics Agency (BPS. The analysis tool used is Auto Regression Vector Model (VAR. The results of this study indicate that the one-way relationship between the variables of foreign reserves and export. Then one-way relationship between exchange rate and exports. Lastly, there is a two-way relationship between imports and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between exchange rate and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between imports and exports, two-way relationship between the exchange rate and imports. The results also showed foreign exchange reserves are significantly influenced by the movement itself at a probability of 1 %. Export variable negative and not significantly affect the foreign exchange reserves. While imports of positive and not significant to the foreign exchange reserves. Foreign Exchange Reserves Indonesia is positively influenced by the exchange rate and not significant. Keywords: Foreign exchange reserves, exports, imports, exchange rate   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa keterkaitan antar variabel ekspor, impor, dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap Cadangan Devisa Indonesia. Data yang digunakan dalam kajian empiris ini merupakan data runtutaan waktu bulanan dari tahun 2011.01 sampai 2014. 12 yang berasal dari Bank Indonesia dan Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS. Alat analisis yang digunakan yaitu Vector Autoregression Model (VAR. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hubungan searah antara variabel cadangan devisa ke ekspor. Lalu hubungan searah antara kurs terhadap ekspor Terakhir, terdapat hubungan dua arah antara impor dan cadangan devisa, hubungan dua arah antara kurs dan cadangan

  10. Depths of Magma Chambers in the Icelandic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Kapostasy, D. D.; Barton, M.

    2004-05-01

    There is considerable interest in the structure and thermal state of the crust in Iceland, which lies across the Mid Atlantic Ridge. However, interpretations of seismic and gravity data yield conflicting views of the nature of the lower crust. Some interpretations prefer a model in which the lower crust (15-25 km) is relatively cool and solid, whereas other interpretations, based largely on gravity data, prefer a model in which the lower crust is relatively warm and possibly partially molten. Knowledge of the depth of magma chambers is critical to constrain the geothermal gradient in Icelandic crust and to resolve discrepancies in interpretation of geophysical data. Analyses of aphyric lavas and of glasses in Icelandic lavas erupted from 11 volcanic centers have been compiled. The compositions are picritic and basaltic with SiO2 - 47 to 50 wt%, MgO - 6 to 15wt%, FeO - 8 to 14wt%, to, Na2O - 1.3 to 3.3 wt%, and K2O - 0.03-46 wt%. The pressures of equilibration of these liquids with ol, high-Ca pyx and plag were estimated qualitatively from projections into the pseudoternary system Ol-Di-Silica using methods described by Walker and coworkers and Grove and coworkers. The results (ca. 0.5 GPa) indicate crystallization in magma chambers located at about 16 km depth. Equilibration pressures were also calculated using the method described by Yang and coworkers and by a modified version of this method. Calculated pressures (0.45±0.15 GPa) indicate magma chambers located at 15±4 km depth. Equilibration pressures for Rekjanes Ridge glasses determined using the same techniques are 0.2±0.1 GPa, corresponding to depths of 7.6±3 km. The results indicate the presence of magma chambers in the deep Icelandic crust and that the latter is relatively warm. Shallower chambers (3-7 km) have been identified from seismic studies suggesting a complex magma plumbing system. The results also confirm that magma chambers beneath Iceland are located at greater depths than those beneath the

  11. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  12. Indonesia's migration transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration.

  13. Sekolah Tinggi Aviasi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Laviana

    2017-01-01

    The demand of air transportion has increased significantly each year. This supports the concept of Aerotropolis region at Kualnamu Airport, where the airport as the center of economic movements with various commercial functions in the vicinity. By doing so, the aviation industry require the HR (Human Resources) fatherly balance demand and the needs. In addition, the human resources are also required to have high qualifications in performing their duties. Therefore, Indonesia...

  14. Democracy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    on the president in the formulation of state-policies. The formulation of legislation is the responsibility of the Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR- the...autonomy). These regional governments are composed of the Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (DPR-D: the regional representative assembly). On the other...out to "smash Malaysia ." With these attitudes the economy of Indonesia collapsed and politics became polarized. As political confrontation escalated

  15. KONFLIK AGRARIA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zuber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describe agrarian conflict in Indonesia. Until this moment many agrarian conflict are happen in Papua, Java, Kalimantan and Sumatera. This conflict consist many interests and there isn’t equity policy to society are following this conflict. The implication the agrarian conflict become latent conflict. It usually make huge damage in society and nation.

  16. Designing Futures in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Crosby

    2016-08-01

    This curated issue takes as its departure point Fry’s notion that design broadly shapes the world we occupy. To ask what happens when the world we occupy is not conceived simply in terms of local issues and solutions, but rather as a set of shared concerns that are localised and play out through global flows. To do so this issue presents ten contributions from Indonesia.

  17. Politisasi Birokrasi Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    RINA MARTINI, RINA MARTINI

    2010-01-01

    Indonesian bureaucracy is built in a long history, since an era of kingdom until an era of thestate formation called Indonesia. However, the characteristics of the bureacracy is mainly identifiedas patrimonialistic. The characteristics are inheritted until in the era of reformation when politicalstructure has been reconstructed to be more democratic. The efforst to reform seem not to yield amore legal-rationalistic typology of bureacracy. One of the reasons is a highly politicized bureaucracy...

  18. Determinan Kebahagiaan Di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Puji Rahayu

    2016-08-01

      Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor penentu kebahagiaan di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan data antar ruang/silang tempat dari Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS wave 4, 2007, studi ini mengambil 17,650 pengamatan yang diestimasi menggunakan model Oprobit. Model Oprobit dipilih karena adanya variabel respon ordinal dan asumsi normal dalam distribusi kesalahan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kebahagiaan di Indonesia secara positif dipengaruhi oleh pendapatan, tingkat pendidikan, status kesehatan yang dirasakan dan modal sosial. Namun demikian, modal sosial yang berkaitan dengan agama dan etnis tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kebahagiaan. Semua prediktor bersifat robust. Karakteristik demografi menginformasikan bahwa orang yang menikah, bukan kepala rumah tangga, tinggal di daerah perkotaan, berada di luar pulau Jawa-Bali dan dari suku Jawa lebih bahagia daripada yang lain. Riset ini juga menemukan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan dalam tingkat kebahagiaan antara pria dan wanita. Kemudian, hubungan antara kebahagiaan dan usia menunjukkan kurva yang berbentuk U. Terakhir, efek marjinal menunjukkan efek yang berbeda untuk setiap tingkat kebahagiaan karena perubahan unit variabel independen.

  19. Nuclear programme in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahimsa, Djali

    1994-01-01

    Implementation of the energy policy covers several aspects such as issuance of regulations, standards, energy pricing incentives and disincentives, and the application of appropriate technologies. The policies and implementation of the technologies can fully be supported by the use of nuclear technology, especially toward the now popular issue concerning the environment. In view of these policies and the need to implement these policies. i.e. for the diversification of energy and environmental concern, the Department of Mines and Energy has established an Indonesian Energy Coordination Board (BAKOREN). This board has realised the importance of considering nuclear as a source of energy, which has led to a decision in September 1989, for The National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) to conduct a feasibility study to introduce nuclear power plants in Indonesia. The establishment of an authority for the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia, which is primarily related to the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants, must also be prepared. This authority is still under considerations by the Indonesian Government. In implementing the Indonesia Nuclear Programme, it is important that cooperation exists among countries of the world, Korea, in this respect, as learning from experiences of other countries are very necessary to plan for a successful Nuclear Programme

  20. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  1. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1979, Thirty-Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-30

    Greenland Guam. Guatemala Haiti Honduras. 1I0ng Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran. Ireland Israel. Italy Japan Johnston Island Jordan. 1 1 6...Senaration, or an Entry in the Air Force Strength as a Pesult of Data or Strength Pecan Not Invo]ving Reenlistment .nctions. Deletion of Previously Peported

  2. LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION ISSUES RELATED TO MIGRANTS ARRIVING TO HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Miklos Komives

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration flows appearing in the recent years have gained central relevance in Hungary. Previously people were having no opinion about the current situation of issues related to migration but the increased media attention lead to the development of mixed attitudes among people. Some people feel sorry for the families who are coming from the war zones and lost their homes, others have fear of losing their position at work, or their families because of the acts they have heard from the media and they are hostile to the issue of integration whether it is about education or the labour market. According to the statistical data; in the third quarter of 2015, more than hundred thousand asylum-seekers arrived to Hungary, which dropped drastically in the fourth quarter caused by the significant transformation of the asylum process. This study is intended to serve two objectives: first describe the comprehensive picture of labour market attitudes towards migrants and secondly to identify factors that affect the employment of foreigners in Hungary using secondary data sources. Based on this analysis those questions can be formulated, which may constitute a basis for further labour market researches for the integration of migrants. From our point of view there are vital aspects of the migrants’ successful social integration; we have to integrate the migrants who are coming to our country and plan to stay for a longer time to the field of education and the labour market. The social integration of migrants in a country is closely linked to employment, to the integration into the labour market, and in many cases one of the obstacles in this regard is the prejudiced behaviour and negative attitudes towards migrants which manifests itself as the discrimination in the labour market. The results of the European Commission confirm that in Hungary the ethnicity as a variable appears to be the second on the list of the most serious discrimination factors

  3. Aspects of Anti-Semitism in Hungary 1915-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bihari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Before 1914 the vocabulary of anti-Semitism was already present in public discourses in Hungary, but it did not yet represent the central problem of a still ‘liberal Hungary.’ With the First World War, the Hungarian middle classes became the main losers in the social disruption of Hungarian society. 1916 must be seen as the turning point of the social splits and divisions. The former policy of the “Burgfrieden,” or party truce, was undermined by the profound psychological experiences of the war. In this context, old anti-Semitic stereotypes prejudices were reactivated while new ones emerged. Jews, in general, came to be treated as internal enemies, earning huge profits from the war at the expense of Christian Hungarian society that was being ruined. This paper analyzes three stages of growing anti-Semitic agitation in Hungarian society during the war: First, the attacks against the banks around 1916; second, the public debate on the Jewish question in 1917, opened by the publication of the book A zsidók útja [The Path of the Jews] by the sociologist Péter Ágoston and intensified by the “inquiry into the Jewish question” of the journal Huszadik Század [Twentieth Century]; third, the surge of anti-Semitism that began with anti-Semitic speeches in the Hungarian Diet in 1917, leading to a broad anti-Semitic campaign by predominantly Catholic newspapers, in which Otto Prohaszka and Bela Bangha were the leading figures. The thesis is that Hungarian anti-Semitism was far from being a spontaneous outburst of popular feelings. It was fairly well organized and coordinated, mainly by ecclesiastical circles. It was the First World War that proved to be the catalyst, contributing to an extreme anti-Semitism and thereby sealing the fate of “liberal Hungary.”

  4. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  5. Covariates of Current Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Budapest, Hungary, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Alyssa; Kiss, Eva

    2005-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between health behavior risk factors and cigarette smoking in Hungary. From 1995 to 1999, the prevalence of current smoking increased from 35.9 to 46.0% among secondary students in Budapest, Hungary. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between smoking and other…

  6. Icelandic National Culture compared to National Cultures of 25 OECD member states using VSM94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svala Guðmundsdóttir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers such as Hofstede (2002 and House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman and Gupta, (2004 have defined well-known cultural clusters such as, Anglo, Germanic, and Nordic cultural clusters. However, Iceland was not incorporated in these studies and therefore the research question of this paper is: In relation to Hofstede´s five cultural dimensions where does Iceland differ in relation to 25 of the OECD member states using VSM94? A questionnaire was sent to students at the University of Iceland, School of Social Sciences by e-mail in October 2013. The five dimensions of national culture were measured using scales developed by Hofstede called VSM 94. The results indicated that Iceland differs considerably from nations such as Slovakia, Japan, India, Thailand and China, which were found high in PDI and the MAS dimension while Iceland was found to be high in IDV and low in PDI. When considering the 25 OECD countries, Iceland is more similar to the Anglo cluster, C3, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdon, Australia and United States than the Nordic cluster, C1 i.e. Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Iceland is similar to those countries in relation to high IDV, low PDI but differs in the dimensions MAS and UAI where Iceland scores higher.

  7. Holland in Iceland Revisited: An Emic Approach to Evaluating U.S. Vocational Interest Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong

    2010-01-01

    An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdottir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data…

  8. Development of Indigenous Basic Interest Scales: Re-Structuring the Icelandic Interest Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Eyjolfsdottir, Katrin Osk; Rounds, James

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation used an emic approach to develop a set of Icelandic indigenous basic interest scales. An indigenous item pool that is representative of the Icelandic labor market was administered to three samples (N = 1043, 1368, and 2218) of upper secondary and higher education students in two studies. A series of item level cluster and…

  9. Spring production of Calanus finmarchicus at the Iceland-Scotland Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Richardson, K.; Heath, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution and reproduction activity of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus were studied in the waters between Scotland and Iceland in April 1997 during the expected time of the animals' ascent to surface waters following diapause. Ascent was taking place on both sides of the Iceland-Scot...

  10. Report on a Survey Project in Iceland on the Use of Radiation Pasteurization of Various Seafoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannesson, G.; Dagbjartsson, B. [Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    1970-11-15

    A survey project on the irradiation preservation of seafoods, sponsored by the Government of Iceland, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Atomic Energy Commission has been carried out at the Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories. A summary of results obtained on Norway lobster tails, deep-sea shrimp and cod fish is given in this paper. (author)

  11. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  12. Employment discrimination in hungary and its effect on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzesi, Zsuzsanna; Busa, Csilla; Varga, Ivett; Tistyan, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    A dramatic drop in employment occurred in Hungary following the change of regime which particularly affected the Roma, people of reduced working ability, and mothers with young children. Alongside economic considerations, the prejudices of employers and discrimination in employment constitute the most significant obstacles to returning to the workplace. The poor mental and physical health of these groups further reduces their chances of finding employment. Only legislation exists to manage the problem, which-in the absence of other interventions-has not brought a breakthrough in the employment of these groups in either the state or local governments or in private spheres.

  13. Special Status of Budapest, the Capital of Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Temesi, István

    2012-01-01

    Hungarian capital, Budapest, has always had a special legal status within the system of self-government, except between 1949 and 1990. It is organised in two-tiers: it functions a single local self-government unit (the City of Budapest); while at the same time, its 23 districts enjoy their self-government powers. The paper analyses the history of organisation of Budapest is analysed, as well as the current system of local self-government in Hungary, in order to identify historical and current...

  14. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    András Kovács

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accep...

  15. Safety of WWER type nuclear power plants - viewing from Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeroess, L.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of WWER type nuclear power plants operating in Hungary is given, relative to the safety requirements accepted internationally; how safe can they be regarded and what can be done to assure a high level of safety in all case. After an overview of general safety criteria, an overall description of WWER-440 type nuclear reactors is presented. Design safety, operational safety issues are treated in detail. Safety inspection and safety-related research and development is discussed. Regarding the future, five different issues associated with nuclear reactor safety should be considered. (R.P.) 20 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  17. Results with radioisotope techniques in veterinary science in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethes, Gyoergy

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been applied to veterinary science in Hungary since the fifties. A short chronologic review on the development of isotope technology is given emphasizing the possibilities offered by the application of closed and open radiation sources, of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and in vitro nuclear procedures which include competitive protein-binding analysis and radioimmunoassay. The progesterone test, applicable to diagnose the pregnancy of cattles, is carried out generally by RIA. Radioisotopic methods are applied also to determine the thyroid function of cattles, swines and domestic fowls. (V.N.)

  18. CDM Country Guide for Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Indonesia

  19. ANALISIS DAYA SAING KEDELAI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Sarwono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage index of soybean in Indonesia from 1983 up to 2013 is less than one, mostly. It means that the competitiveness of soybean in Indonesia is low. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influence the soybean competitiveness. OLS (Ordinary Least Square was used as the analysis method. Hypotheses test based on that analysis model is not bias, so that, classic divergence test is needed. It is for getting the Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE appraisal. T statistic and F statistic were also applied. The result of this research shows that production and export have positive and significant influence. In addition, exchange rate and government policy do not influence the Indonesia soybean competitiveness.Indeks RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage kedelai Indonesia dari tahun 1983-2013 kecenderungan bernilai kurang dari satu yang berarti daya saing kedelai Indonesia rendah.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi daya saing kedelai Indonesia.Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Ordinary Least Square (OLS.Pengujian hipotesis berdasarkan model analisis tersebut tidak bias maka perlu dilakukan uji penyimpangan klasik yang tujuannya agar diperoleh penaksiran yang bersifat Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE.Pengujian statistik menggunakan uji t statistikdan uji f statistik.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa produksi dan ekspor berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia. Nilai tukar rupiah dan kebijakan pemerintah tidak berpengaruh terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia.

  20. Iceland as a demonstrator for a transition to low carbon economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsson, Einar Jon; Stefansson, Hlynur; Finger, David Christian

    2017-04-01

    The energy supply in Iceland is quite unique, about 85% of the total primary energy is coming from renewable resources. Nevertheless, the ecological footprint of an average Icelander is with 6.5 worlds, one of the highest worldwide and the energy consumption per capita is about 7 times higher than the European average. Recent developments have shown that there is a great potential to reduce the footprint and develop towards low carbon economy. With its small population, well educated and governed society and clear system boundaries to the outside world, Iceland is a good research laboratory and an ideal demonstrator for a transition towards a low carbon economy. This presentation will outline how several innovative research projects at Reykjavik University could lead Iceland towards a sustainable and low carbon economy. The presentations will conclude with a visionary outlook how Iceland can become a demonstration nation towards a prosperous, low carbon and sustainable economy, helping stabilize global warming at an acceptable level.

  1. Is earthquake rate in south Iceland modified by seasonal loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, S.; Aoki, Y.; Drouin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Several temporarily varying processes have the potential of modifying the rate of earthquakes in the south Iceland seismic zone, one of the two most active seismic zones in Iceland. These include solid earth tides, seasonal meteorological effects and influence from passing weather systems, and variations in snow and glacier loads. In this study we investigate the influence these processes may have on crustal stresses and stressing rates in the seismic zone and assess whether they appear to be influencing the earthquake rate. While historical earthquakes in the south Iceland have preferentially occurred in early summer, this tendency is less clear for small earthquakes. The local earthquake catalogue (going back to 1991, magnitude of completeness M6+ earthquakes, which occurred in June 2000 and May 2008. Standard Reasenberg earthquake declustering or more involved model independent stochastic declustering algorithms are not capable of fully eliminating the aftershocks from the catalogue. We therefore inspected the catalogue for the time period before 2000 and it shows limited seasonal tendency in earthquake occurrence. Our preliminary results show no clear correlation between earthquake rates and short-term stressing variations induced from solid earth tides or passing storms. Seasonal meteorological effects also appear to be too small to influence the earthquake activity. Snow and glacier load variations induce significant vertical motions in the area with peak loading occurring in Spring (April-May) and maximum unloading in Fall (Sept.-Oct.). Early summer occurrence of historical earthquakes therefore correlates with early unloading rather than with the peak unloading or unloading rate, which appears to indicate limited influence of this seasonal process on the earthquake activity.

  2. The Last Glacial in Northern Iceland: geothermal and permafrost controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, A.; van Vliet-Lanoë, B.; Bourgeois, O.; Dauteuil, O.; Embry, J. C.; Guillou, H.; Schneider, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    This paper provides arguments for a multi-advance model of Weichselian glaciation-deglaciation of Northern Iceland considering the influence of the geothermal gradient and of the ice sheds on the different ice-stream outlets. This paper is based on morphological mapping , SPOT images analysis high resolution stratigraphy, palaeopedology, tephra petrography and Ar/K dating. The Last Glaciation Maximum has a limited extend in Northern Iceland, with cold-based characteristics, except in sectors of high thermal gradient which supported low profile ice streams, a main difference with MIS6. Ice sheet building started from MIS 5d with a limited extent. At MIS 5b the thickness of the ice is enough to enable the activity of the eastern hyalocastite ridge in the NVZ. The maximal extent is reached abruptly at the boundary stage 3/2, probably in relation with increased precipitation, with development of H3, followed by a drastic retreat, controlled by very low precipitation rate and cold-based glaciers. This period is responsible for long periglacial morphogenesis inland, on the nunataks and ice free areas, and for starved sedimentation on the shelf and in the fjords. From 17 ka or H2, precipitation rose again and a second maximal extent, the Fnjoskadalur Stadial, the so-called "Old Dryas", in retreat from the former one. The main deglaciation took place at the onset of the Bölling. A late glacial pulse of minimal intensity occurred with the Younger Dryas. The Pre-Boreal stadial is extremely limited in the North of Iceland in relation with the lower and colder conditions compared to the south coast inflenced by the Irminger current.

  3. Variation in the crustal structure across central Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhijun; Foulger, G. R.

    2001-04-01

    We determine the crustal structures beneath 12 broad-band seismic stations deployed in a swath across central Iceland along and around the ICEMELT explosion seismic profile by combining teleseismic receiver functions, surface wave dispersion curves and the waveforms of a large, local event in Iceland. By using teleseisms that approach from different backazimuths, we study lateral structural variability out of the line of the ICEMELT profile. Beneath Tertiary areas, the thickness of the upper crust, as defined by the 6.5kms-1 velocity horizon, is ~8km and the depth to the base of the lower crust, as defined by the 7.2kms-1 velocity horizon, is ~29-32km. Beneath the currently active rift zone the upper crust thins to ~6.0km and the depth to the base of the lower crust increases to ~35-40km. A substantial low-velocity zone underlies the Middle Volcanic Zone in the lower crust, which may indicate anomalously high geothermal gradients there. This suggests that the large-scale thermal centre of the hotspot may be more westerly than northwest Vatnajokull, where it is generally assumed to lie. Simplified description of the results notwithstanding, there is substantial variability in the overall style of crustal structure throughout Iceland, and a clear, tripartite division into upper and lower crusts and a sharp Moho is poorly supported by many of our results. The nature, distinctiveness and continuity of the Moho is variable and in many areas the crust-mantle transition is a zone with enhanced velocity gradients several kilometres thick.

  4. [Fluctuations in unemployment and disability in Iceland 1992-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, Sigurdur; Olafsson, Stefán

    2008-03-01

    To examine and explain the effect of unemployment on the number of disability pensioners in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2006. Information on gender and place of residence of new recipients of disability pension in Iceland and corresponding information on unemployment for each year in the period 1992 to 2006. The variables were correlated and disaggregated by gender and regions within Iceland. Two big fluctuations occurred in the rate of new disability pension receivers during the study period, with significant increases in disability from 1993 to 1995 and again from 2003 onwards. Both of these fluctuations are associated with considerable increases in the unemployment rate. The extent of new disability pensioners declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same relative extent. In the upswing from 2003 a delay of about a year in the increase of disability pensioners' numbers, following the rise in unemployment rate, became more prominent and the overall rate of new disability pensioners reached new highs. The relationship applies equally to the capital area as well as the provincial areas as a whole. There is though a small deviation in three of the seven provincial areas, with less decline of the disability rate on the downswing. Health and capability condition determine the overall disability rate, but fluctuations over time are related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The features of the welfare system, especially the benefit and rehabilitation system, as well as the extent and character of activation measures in the labour market also influence the number of disability pensioners. A new method of disability assessment from late 1999 may have had some influence on the relationship during the latter part of the period and increasing applications from people with mental and psychiatric deficiencies seems to have had a significant influence on

  5. Money Talks: Gender Budgeting in the University of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnborg S. Jónasdóttir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the financial framework, decision-making and budgeting processes of the University of Iceland from a gender perspective. The newly appointed rector of the University of Iceland (elected 2015 together with the university council is currently revising the UI system of the distribution formula of budget allocation. This provides an opportunity to examine the system which is inspired by New Public Management, with emphasis on global competition and performance based indicators. The aim of the article is to scrutinize the current system of budget allocation and distribution and its significance when it comes to gender. We ask how the, allegedly gender neutral, system plays out for different schools and disciplines and for academics in different ranks, when the gender dimension is taken into account. We draw on empirical data collected as part of the GARCIA research project, Gendering the Academy and Research combating Career Instability and Asymmetries, which is supported by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. To shed a light on the process we focus on the male-dominated School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (SENS and the more feminised School of Social Sciences (SSS. The exploration shows that the financial framework, decision-making and budgeting processes at the University of Iceland are rather non-transparent, and biased in favour of the natural sciences. This applies to funding from the state; third party funding; the allocation of funding in the teaching part of the budgeting, as well as the research part. From the article it can be concluded that the current system contains an internal, though unintended, gender bias that needs to be corrected.

  6. Emergence of Melioidosis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauran, Patricia M; Sennang, Nurhayana; Rusli, Benny; Wiersinga, W Joost; Dance, David; Arif, Mansyur; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-12-01

    Melioidosis is known to be highly endemic in parts of southeast Asia and northern Australia; however, cases are rarely reported in Indonesia. Here we report three cases of melioidosis in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia occurring between 2013 and 2014. Two patients died and the other was lost to follow-up. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from all three cases were identified by the VITEK2 Compact installed in the hospital in 2012. None of the three patients reported received antimicrobials recommended for melioidosis because of the delayed recognition of the organism. We reviewed the literature and found only seven reports of melioidosis in Indonesia. Five were reported before 1960. We suggest that melioidosis is endemic throughout Indonesia but currently under-recognized. Training on how to identify B. pseudomallei accurately and safely in all available microbiological facilities should be provided, and consideration should be given to making melioidosis a notifiable disease in Indonesia. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. 'Vacation for your teeth' - dental tourists in Hungary from the perspective of Hungarian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, E; Szocska, G

    2013-10-01

    Hungary has become a popular destination for foreign patients in the last two decades, particularly in dental care. Since 2008, increasing prices in Western Europe coupled with Hungary's accessibility and availability of dental treatment, has meant the country has become a leader in 'dental tourism'. As the quality of care in Hungary is high and prices are more affordable than in Western Europe, and due to the freedom of movement of people, services and goods within the EU, patient flow into Hungary has increased progressively. The aim of this article is to provide comprehensive empirical evidence from the perspective of a recipient country in dental tourism. A questionnaire survey was conducted among Hungarian dentists (n = 273). Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of dental professional bodies (n = 10). Both research methods aimed to elicit dentists' views on the presence of dental tourism - particularly the push and pull factors (for example, source countries, competitors, information sources, patient motivation). The findings show that there are several reasons why Hungary could maintain a leading position in dental tourism. First, the cost/benefit ratio is outstanding. The affordable price and value for money were already recognised in the early 1990s and were appreciated even before Hungary joined the EU. Secondly, the high quality of Hungary's dental profession: a) dental professionals in Hungary are well-qualified dental practitioners who have received high level dental training; b) dental professional standards are up-to-date and often supervised; c) in Hungary dental technology, the quality of materials and equipment used in dental practices is of European level quality. The rate of complications in dental care is around 5%, similar to other European countries. Finally, previous treatment experiences are positive and patient satisfaction levels are high. More and more patients seek care in Hungary, and more and more

  8. Volcanic systems of Iceland and their magma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir

    2017-04-01

    Several active hot-spot volcanoes produce magma from mantle sources which composition varies on decadal time scale. This is probably best demonstrated by the recent work of Pietruszka and collaborators on Kilauea, Hawaii. In marked contrast, basalt lavas from volcanic system in Iceland located above the presumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume have uniform isotope composition over the last 10 thousand years. Volcanic systems are composed of a central volcano and a fissure swarm, or a combination of both and they represent a fundamental component of the neovolcanic zones in Iceland. Four such systems, those of Askja, Bárðarbunga, Kverkfjöll and Grímsvötn in central Iceland were chosen for investigation. The last three have central volcanoes covered by the Vatnajökull ice-sheet whereas part of their fissure swarms is ice-free. Tephra produced during subglacial eruptions together with lavas from the fissure swarms of Holocene age have been collected and analysed for Sr, Nd and Th isotope ratios. Those volcanic formations that can be univocally correlated to a given volcanic system display uniform isotope ratio but different from one volcanic system to another. An exception to this regularity is that Askja products have isotope ratios indistinguishable from those of Gímsvötn, but since these volcanic systems lies far apart their lava fields do not overlap. A practical aspect of these findings was demonstrated during the rifting event of Bárðarbunga and fissure eruption forming the Holuhraun lava field. Relatively low, O isotope ratios in these basalts and heterogeneous macrocrystal composition have been ascribed to important metabasaltic crustal contamination with or without crystal mush recycling. In that case a surprisingly efficient magma mixing and melt homogenization must have occurred in the past beneath the volcanic systems. One possibility is that during the rapid deglaciation much mantle melting occurred and melts accumulated at the mantle

  9. Environmental mapping and monitoring of Iceland by remote sensing (EMMIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Falco, Nicola; Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Rustowicz, Rose; Belart, Joaquin M.-C.; Gísladóttir, Gudrun; Benediktsson, Jón A.

    2016-04-01

    Iceland is exposed to rapid and dynamic landscape changes caused by natural processes and man-made activities, which impact and challenge the country. Fast and reliable mapping and monitoring techniques are needed on a big spatial scale. However, currently there is lack of operational advanced information processing techniques, which are needed for end-users to incorporate remote sensing (RS) data from multiple data sources. Hence, the full potential of the recent RS data explosion is not being fully exploited. The project Environmental Mapping and Monitoring of Iceland by Remote Sensing (EMMIRS) bridges the gap between advanced information processing capabilities and end-user mapping of the Icelandic environment. This is done by a multidisciplinary assessment of two selected remote sensing super sites, Hekla and Öræfajökull, which encompass many of the rapid natural and man-made landscape changes that Iceland is exposed to. An open-access benchmark repository of the two remote sensing supersites is under construction, providing high-resolution LIDAR topography and hyperspectral data for land-cover and landform classification. Furthermore, a multi-temporal and multi-source archive stretching back to 1945 allows a decadal evaluation of landscape and ecological changes for the two remote sensing super sites by the development of automated change detection techniques. The development of innovative pattern recognition and machine learning-based approaches to image classification and change detection is one of the main tasks of the EMMIRS project, aiming to extract and compute earth observation variables as automatically as possible. Ground reference data collected through a field campaign will be used to validate the implemented methods, which outputs are then inferred with geological and vegetation models. Here, preliminary results of an automatic land-cover classification based on hyperspectral image analysis are reported. Furthermore, the EMMIRS project

  10. Semi-supervised morphosyntactic classification of Old Icelandic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Kryztof; Tangherlini, Timothy R; Vijūnas, Aurelijus; Broadwell, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    We present IceMorph, a semi-supervised morphosyntactic analyzer of Old Icelandic. In addition to machine-read corpora and dictionaries, it applies a small set of declension prototypes to map corpus words to dictionary entries. A web-based GUI allows expert users to modify and augment data through an online process. A machine learning module incorporates prototype data, edit-distance metrics, and expert feedback to continuously update part-of-speech and morphosyntactic classification. An advantage of the analyzer is its ability to achieve competitive classification accuracy with minimum training data.

  11. Family counts: deciding when to murder among the Icelandic Vikings

    OpenAIRE

    Palmstierna, Markel; Frangou, Anna; Wallette, Anna; Dunbar, Robin

    2017-01-01

    In small scale societies, lethal attacks on another individual usually invite revenge by the victim's family. We might expect those who perpetrate such attacks to do so only when their own support network (mainly family) is larger than that of the potential victim so as to minimise the risk of retaliation. Using data from Icelandic family sagas, we show that this prediction holds whether we consider biological kin or affinal kin (in-laws): on average, killers had twice as many relatives as th...

  12. Photovoltaic systems in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjaroko, T.; Bakker, P. de

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the reasons for the slow growth of the photovoltaic industry in Indonesia where more than 100 million people have no access to electricity, but there is an abundance of solar power. There should be considerable scope for solar home systems in particular. Barriers to expansion of the PV market have included the devaluation of the rupee and the failure of many government-initiated projects. It is concluded that at present, the purchasing power of individuals is insufficient for the potential PV market to expand

  13. KURVA PHILLIPS DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maichal Maichal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the existence of the Philips curve in the Indonesian economy, 2000Q1-2010Q3. The results obtained by using OLS method shows that the expectations augmented Philips curve and the New Keynesian Philips curve models cannot give a clear results of Philips curve existence in the Idonesia economy. Shocks variable such as percentage change of exchange rates and crude oil prices provide a very small effect on the inflation rate in Indonesia. Furthermore, the results obtained by using GMM method on the hybrid model of the New Keynesian Philips curve shows that the Philips curve exists in the Indonesian economy.

  14. Postinor -- the unique method of emergency contraception developed in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, S

    1995-08-01

    In Hungary, an important form of emergency contraception (EC) is the pill containing 0.75 mg levonorgestrel, which is marketed by Gedeon Richter under the name Postinor in four-pill packages. Women are instructed to take one pill within an hour of any unprotected act of intercourse, up to four pills per month. The nature of the administration requires that women be in possession of the pills before they need them, and, while Postinor is marketed as an EC, the target market is young, unmarried women who experience infrequent intercourse. When it was first offered a decade ago, Postinor gained widespread use in place of contraception. The product was overused and there was a backlash in the medical community. Thus, the manufacturer changed its packaging instructions and removed the original 10-pill package from the market. While the price of the drug is considered prohibitive for use by adolescents, more than three million pills were sold in the past three years in Hungary and more than 60 million pills were sold in over 20 countries. Clinical studies show a failure rate of less than 1% and relatively few side effects (10-20% nausea and 20-40% bleeding) if not more than four pills per month are used. The World Health Organization is currently conducting trials to compare use of Postinor with the Yuzpe method. Results of these trials will be available in 1996.

  15. Radiation protection training for users of ionizing radiation in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, S.; Giczi, F.; Elek, R.; Temesi, A.; Csizmadia, H.; Sera, E.

    2012-01-01

    According to the current and previous regulation related to the safety use of ionizing radiation, the personnel involved must obtain special qualification in radiation protection. In Hungary the radiation protection training are performed by appropriately certified training centers on basic, advanced and comprehensive levels. Certification of the training centers is given by the competent radiological health/radiation protection authority. The office of the Chief Medical Officer is the certifying authority for advanced and comprehensive levels training, as well as competent Regional Radiological Health Authority is responsible for basic level courses. The content and length of courses are specified in the regulation for all three levels of industrial, laboratory and medical users, in general. Some of the universities, technical and medical oriented are certified for advanced training for students as gradual course. Recently in Hungary there are 47 certified training centers for advanced and comprehensive courses, where the trainers should have a five years job experience in radiation protection and successful completion of comprehensive level course in radiation protection. (authors)

  16. Assessment of the Efficiency of Stroke Awareness Campaigns in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folyovich, András; Biczó, Dávid; Béres-Molnár, Katalin Anna; Toldi, Gergely

    2018-03-01

    The critical period of stroke management lies between the disease onset and the time of the emergency call, relying on stroke-related knowledge of the population. Public campaigns play a role in spreading relevant health information. Due to the substantial expenses of these campaigns, the assessment of their efficiency is reasonable. We assessed the number of thrombolytic treatments performed in Hungary, subjected to national media coverage and in particular in Budapest, being the location of the Stroke Day campaign, in the period between 2008 and 2015. We compared the change in the daily mean number of thrombolytic treatments performed during the preceding and following day, week, and month. Data were also compared with annual means. No meaningful changes can be seen in the number of thrombolytic treatments on the days immediately following Stroke Days, and casual differences can be seen in the following week. The comparison of the numbers of thrombolytic treatments performed in the postcampaign months with the monthly means in the corresponding years revealed a positive effect in each year except for 2012, 2014, and 2015. Regarding the whole examined period, however, the effect is not statistically significant, neither for data obtained from Hungary nor from Budapest. Better outcomes were observed 1 month after a campaign than more immediately. This can be partly explained by ongoing media coverage in a given period rather than exposure of the public on a single Stroke Day. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  18. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2006 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Hungary has arrived at an important moment in its energy policy. The Hungarian government has improved energy policies in a number of areas. Still, significant challenges remain. To prepare the country for the full liberalisation of the EU electricity and gas market by July 2007, further steps in market reform are urgently required. At this point in time, there is no clarity about the system under which the market should operate after its full opening. Subsidies are another problem. Even though substantial progress has been made in reforming payments to gas consumers, the overall level of subsidies to producers and consumers of energy needs to be reviewed. This analysis makes recommendations to tackle these concerns and also discusses the potential contribution of energy efficiency to increasing energy security and economic competitiveness. The gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine in January 2006 focused global attention on consumer nations' vulnerability to supply disruptions. The Hungarian government has since placed greater emphasis on diversification of suppliers and has supported the development of new routes to bring gas into Europe. Hungary has dramatically improved its energy efficiency during the last 15 years. Nevertheless, enhanced efficiency, particularly in the field of gas use will continue to play a key role for securing future national energy supplies. This review has identified significant room for progress particularly in the gas-to-power sector, where old power stations need to be replaced, and in the residential sector, where improved thermal performance of Hungarian housing could bring impressive results.

  19. Prevalence and features of canine atopic dermatitis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpataki, Noémi; Pápa, Kinga; Reiczigel, J; Vajdovich, P; Vörösi, K

    2006-09-01

    Medical records of 600 dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis were reviewed and evaluated with reference to history, geographical distribution, breed predilection, clinical signs and positive reactions to allergens as determined by intradermal skin testing (IDT) manufactured by Artuvetrin Laboratories. In 66.6% of dogs, the age of onset of atopic dermatitis was between 4 months and 3 years. Dogs living in the garden suburb of Budapest were more sensitive to house dust mites, fleas and moulds, and dogs from the western part of Hungary were more sensitive to weeds than to other allergens (p French bulldog, Doberman Pinscher and Bobtail which were over-represented among atopic dogs compared to the breed distribution of the general dog population of a large city in Hungary. Breeds with verified adverse reaction to food were Cocker spaniels, French bulldogs, Bullmastiffs, Bull terriers, St. Bernards, Tervurens, West Highland White terriers and American Staffordshire terriers (p < 0.05). The clinical signs of atopic dermatitis and their occurrence are in accordance with the data described in the literature.

  20. Integrated spatial assessment of wind erosion risk in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pásztor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion susceptibility of Hungarian soils was mapped on the national level integrating three factors of the complex phenomenon of deflation (physical soil features, wind characteristics, and land use and land cover. Results of wind tunnel experiments on erodibility of representative soil samples were used for the parametrization of a countrywide map of soil texture compiled for the upper 5 cm layer of soil, which resulted in a map representing threshold wind velocity exceedance. Average wind velocity was spatially estimated with 0.5′ resolution using the Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenised Data Basis (MISH method elaborated for the spatial interpolation of surface meteorological elements. The probability of threshold wind velocity exceedance was determined based on values predicted by the soil texture map at the grid locations. Ratio values were further interpolated to a finer 1 ha resolution using sand and silt content of the uppermost (0–5 cm layer of soil as spatial co-variables. Land cover was also taken into account, excluding areas that are not relevant to wind erosion (forests, water bodies, settlements, etc., to spatially assess the risk of wind erosion. According to the resulting map of wind erosion susceptibility, about 10 % of the total area of Hungary can be identified as susceptible to wind erosion. The map gives more detailed insight into the spatial distribution of wind-affected areas in Hungary compared to previous studies.

  1. New voices in Iceland young adults with disabilities in Iceland: The importance of relationships and natural supports

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason, Dóra S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with young adults’ perspectives and experiences of growing up with a variety of impairments in Iceland, and how they impact the young disabled adults’ approach to the status of adulthood. The paper is based on a qualitative study that explored perspectives and experiences of 36 young disabled adults (16–24 years old), their parents, friends and teachers. The purpose of this paper is to share themes related to the way that choices made by and for disabled children and young pe...

  2. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  3. Food appearances in children's television programmes in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Berg, Christina

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to advertisements cannot fully explain the associations between young children's dietary intake and the time they spend in front of the television. It is therefore of importance to study television content other than advertisements in this aspect. The present study aimed to examine the nature and extent of verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages in children's television programmes on Icelandic public service television. A total of 27 h of children's programmes (domestic and internationally produced) were watched. All verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages were coded, as well as the context in which the foods/beverages were discussed or appeared. Children's programmes on Icelandic public service television. Two food groups were of special interest for their importance from a public health perspective: high-calorie and low-nutrient (HCLN) foods and fruits and vegetables (F&V). The χ 2 test and logistic regression were performed to analyse if the occurrence of the two groups was associated with the context where foods/beverages appeared. Of the 125 different programmes, a food or beverage appeared in 86 %. Of the total food appearances (n 599), HCLN foods accounted for 26 % and F&V for 23 %. HCLN foods were presented as desirable by appearing more frequently with child characters (Pfood and eating is presented in children's programmes, as young childhood is a critical period for founding healthy habits for later life.

  4. Changes in groundwater chemistry before two consecutive earthquakes in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Skelton, Alasdair

    2014-09-21

    Groundwater chemistry has been observed to change before earthquakes and is proposed as a precursor signal. Such changes include variations in radon count rates1, 2, concentrations of dissolved elements3, 4, 5 and stable isotope ratios4, 5. Changes in seismic wave velocities6, water levels in boreholes7, micro-seismicity8 and shear wave splitting9 are also thought to precede earthquakes. Precursor activity has been attributed to expansion of rock volume7, 10, 11. However, most studies of precursory phenomena lack sufficient data to rule out other explanations unrelated to earthquakes12. For example, reproducibility of a precursor signal has seldom been shown and few precursors have been evaluated statistically. Here we analyse the stable isotope ratios and dissolved element concentrations of groundwater taken from a borehole in northern Iceland between 2008 and 2013. We find that the chemistry of the groundwater changed four to six months before two greater than magnitude 5 earthquakes that occurred in October 2012 and April 2013. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in groundwater chemistry were associated with the earthquakes. We suggest that the changes were caused by crustal dilation associated with stress build-up before each earthquake, which caused different groundwater components to mix. Although the changes we detect are specific for the site in Iceland, we infer that similar processes may be active elsewhere, and that groundwater chemistry is a promising target for future studies on the predictability of earthquakes.

  5. Icelandic media firms viewed from the perspective of agency theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Hildur Kolbeins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been proposed that agency theory (principal-agent approach might be applied to media organizations to understand how media owners make sure that their companies are managed according to their wishes. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate: a whether agency theory is applicable to three Icelandic media companies, and b how the theory manifests itself in the management practices of these companies. The media companies that were examined were: the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RÚV ohf., 365 miðlar ehf. and Árvakur hf. Qualitative interviews were conducted with three editors-in-chief, two CEOs/publishers, the director general of RÚV and the news director of RÚV in May of 2012. Two of the interviewees were also part- owners of the media companies. The results indicated that it is, indeed, possible to analyze management practices of media organizations from the perspective of agency theory. However, it varies how much the companies are driven by profit maximization, for instance – on which agency theory places an optimum emphasis. The media house 365 miðlar ehf. turned out to be the best example of how the underlying constructs of agency theory are incorporated into the management practices of a media organization.

  6. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru......BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using...... an interrupted time series design that contrasts the monthly sales data for over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine before and after the legislation took effect. RESULTS: The total use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine as well as those containing paracetamol and codeine has risen...... leads to irrational use of over-the-counter medicines is not substantiated in the case of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  7. Changes in groundwater chemistry before two consecutive earthquakes in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Skelton, Alasdair; André n, Margareta; Kristmannsdó ttir, Hrefna; Stockmann, Gabrielle; Mö rth, Carl-Magnus; Sveinbjö rnsdó ttir, Á rny; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Sturkell, Erik; Guð rú nardó ttir, Helga Rakel; Hjartarson, Hreinn; Siegmund, Heike; Kockum, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater chemistry has been observed to change before earthquakes and is proposed as a precursor signal. Such changes include variations in radon count rates1, 2, concentrations of dissolved elements3, 4, 5 and stable isotope ratios4, 5. Changes in seismic wave velocities6, water levels in boreholes7, micro-seismicity8 and shear wave splitting9 are also thought to precede earthquakes. Precursor activity has been attributed to expansion of rock volume7, 10, 11. However, most studies of precursory phenomena lack sufficient data to rule out other explanations unrelated to earthquakes12. For example, reproducibility of a precursor signal has seldom been shown and few precursors have been evaluated statistically. Here we analyse the stable isotope ratios and dissolved element concentrations of groundwater taken from a borehole in northern Iceland between 2008 and 2013. We find that the chemistry of the groundwater changed four to six months before two greater than magnitude 5 earthquakes that occurred in October 2012 and April 2013. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in groundwater chemistry were associated with the earthquakes. We suggest that the changes were caused by crustal dilation associated with stress build-up before each earthquake, which caused different groundwater components to mix. Although the changes we detect are specific for the site in Iceland, we infer that similar processes may be active elsewhere, and that groundwater chemistry is a promising target for future studies on the predictability of earthquakes.

  8. Inventory of Forts in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinandi, N.; Suryaningsih, F.

    2015-08-01

    The great archipelago in Indonesia with its wealthy and various nature, the products and commodities of tropic agriculture and the rich soil, was through the centuries a region of interest for other countries all over the world. For several reasons some of these countries came to Indonesia to establish their existence and tried to monopolize the trading. These countries such as the Portuguese, the Spanish, the Dutch and the British built strengthened trade stations which later became forts all over Indonesia to defend their interest. The archipelago of Indonesia possesses a great number of fortification-works as legacies of native rulers and those which were built by European trading companies and later became colonial powers in the 16th to the 19th centuries. These legacies include those specific structures built as a defence system during pre and within the period of World War II. These fortresses are nowadaysvaluable subjects, because they might be considered as shared heritage among these countries and Indonesia. It's important to develop a vision to preserve these particular subjects of heritage, because they are an interesting part of the Indonesian history and its cultural treasures. The Government of the Republic of Indonesia has national program to compile a comprehensive documentation of the existing condition of these various types of forts as cultural heritage. The result of the 3 years project was a comprehensive 442 forts database in Indonesia, which will be very valuable to the implementation of legal protection, preservation matters and adaptive re-use in the future.

  9. EFISIENSI PERBANKAN SYARIAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif Amirillah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the factors that can cause the efficiency value difference of Islamic Banking in In-donesia. The data at this research is monetary data of Islamic Banking. It was obtained from Bank of Indonesia. Then, it was divided into input and output variables. The determination of input output variables at this research uses Value Added Approach. Its input output variables consist of Demand Deposits, Saving Deposits, Time Depo-sits, Paid -In Capital, Placement at Bank ofIndonesia, Inter Bank Assets, Mudharabah, Musyara kah, Murabahah, Istishna, Ijarahand Qardh. This research used Data Envelopment Analysis method. This method has a strength that is having the capability to measure inefficiency input output variables, so that, the variable can have the efficiency. This research has resulted Islamic Banking efficiency in Indonesia, but it does not include BPRS. The mean efficiency of Islamic banking in Indonesia is 99,94%. Penelitian ini bertujuan mencari faktor –faktor penyebab perbedaan nilai efisiensiperbankan syariah di Indo-nesia yang dibandingkan secara relatif untuk setiap periode. Data yang digunakan pada penelitian ini menggu-nakan data keuangan perbankan syariah yang diperoleh dari Bank Indonesia kemudian dibagi menjadi variabel input dan output. Penentuan variabel input dan output pada penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan Value Added Approach. Variabel input outputnyaterdiri dari : Giro iB, Tabungan iB, Deposito iB, Modal disetor, Pen-empatan padaBank Indonesia, Penempatan pada bank lain, Mudharabah, Musyarakah, Murabahah,Istishna, Ijarah dan Qardh. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan metode Data Envelopment Analysis yang mempunyai kel-ebihan dalam menghitung efisiensi untuk setiap variabel input outputyang mengalami inefisiensi. Penelitian ini menghasilkan nilai efisiensi perbankan syariah di Indoenesia (tidak termasuk BPRS. Efisiensi perbankan syariah di Indonesia mengalami efisiensi rata-rata sebesar 99,94%.

  10. The Slovak Politics and Society in Austria-Hungary before the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Syrný

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the conditions in Austria-Hungary, respectively the Kingdom of Hungary, focused at political and social status of Slovakia (Upper Hungary. The political representation of the Slovak citizens (at about 12 % of the citizens of the Kingdom of Hungary since the begining of the 20th century went through dynamic transformation. This transformation went into the direction of some kind of deviation from the idea of Slovak autonomy within the Kingdom of Hungary. The general frame of the description of conditions of the era Austria-Hungary is based on autoritative researches by Slovak, Hungarian and Anglo-Saxon origin. There were used such scientific methods as analysis and synthesis, concretization, generalization while solving the research tasks. In addition, the paper used the historical-situational method, involving the study of historical facts in the context of the period under review in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. The creation of the own statehood in cooperation with more powerful Czech politics became the new goal of the Slovak politics. This study will emphasize preconditions and development not only within political elites but also within the dimension of public climate of the Slovak part of the Kingdom of Hungary.

  11. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF DISABLED EMPLOYERS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Nagymáté

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays employment is an evergreen topic in Hungary. Many kinds of supplies are provided by the state (on the basis of the 8/1983. EüM-PM Hungarian Law, for example for the group n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217;. It is very difficult to provide job for these people after their rehabilitation. My main goal is to analyze the n#8216;rehabilitationn#8217; of disabled people and to study the related firms and the connection between the employers and employees. My intentions were also to create a strategy for these people to be employed again and for the firms to be motivated to employ them. Statistical figures show, that the highest ratio of n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217; can be found in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary (30 per cent of the total number of n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217;. The employment of these people means extra costs for enterprises. At the same time the complete accessibility of workplaces is still not realized in many cases in Hungary yet. Currently only a few enterprises are specialized to employ people living with disabilities. Unfortunately, most of the enterprises donn#8217;t intend to employ disabled persons. Questionnaires were created in order to study the relationship between people living with disabilities and their possibilities to get employed on the labour market again. My study had two phases. In the first phase we focused on individual persons providing anonymity of the questionnaires. The research focused on special rehabilitation firms and their employees too (they are specialised to employ disabled employers. Two questionnaires for the above mentioned firms and their employees were created in order to gather information on their activities as well as relationship between the firms and its employees. It can be stated that this paper shows the relationship between the employers and employees. I will analyze the importance of factors in working among employers and

  12. Landslide susceptibility estimations in the Gerecse hills (Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzsenyi, Dávid; Gáspár, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Surface movement processes are constantly posing threat to property in populated and agricultural areas in the Gerecse hills (Hungary). The affected geological formations are mainly unconsolidated sediments. Pleistocene loess and alluvial terrace sediments are overwhelmingly present, but fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the latest Miocene, and consolidated Eocene and Mesozoic limestones and marls can also be found in the area. Landslides and other surface movement processes are being studied for a long time in the area, but a comprehensive GIS-based geostatistical analysis have not yet been made for the whole area. This was the reason for choosing the Gerecse as the focus area of the study. However, the base data of our study are freely accessible from online servers, so the used method can be applied to other regions in Hungary. Qualitative data was acquired from the landslide-inventory map of the Hungarian Surface Movement Survey and from the Geological Map of Hungary (1 : 100 000). Morphometric parameters derived from the SRMT-1 DEM were used as quantitative variables. Using these parameters the distribution of elevation, slope gradient, aspect and categorized geological features were computed, both for areas affected and not affected by slope movements. Then likelihood values were computed for each parameters by comparing their distribution in the two areas. With combining the likelihood values of the four parameters relative hazard values were computed for each cell. This method is known as the "empirical probability estimation" originally published by Chung (2005). The map created this way shows each cell's place in their ranking based on the relative hazard values as a percentage for the whole study area (787 km2). These values provide information about how similar is a certain area to the areas already affected by landslides based on the four predictor variables. This map can also serve as a base for more complex landslide vulnerability studies involving

  13. Fertilitas Remaja di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugia Bayu Raharja

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fertilitas remaja merupakan isu penting dari segi kesehatan dan sosial karena berhubungan dengan tingkat morbiditas serta mortalitas ibu dan anak. Tujuan penelitian adalah mempelajari faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi fertilitas remaja di Indonesia. Data yang digunakan adalah hasil Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2012 dengan unit analisis wanita usia subur yang termasuk dalam kategori usia remaja (15 - 19 tahun. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 6.927 responden. Analisis dilakukan dengan metode deskriptif dan inferensial menggunakan model regresi logistik biner. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa satu dari sepuluh remaja wanita tersebut pernah melahirkan dan atau sedang hamil saat survei dilakukan; sebesar 95,2% dari remaja yang sudah pernah melahirkan, memiliki satu anak sisanya sebesar 4,8% memiliki dua atau tiga anak; sebesar 11,1% dari remaja wanita yang pernah kawin, pertama kali kawin pada usia 10 - 14 tahun. Secara statistik, terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara kejadian fertilitas remaja dengan daerah tempat tinggal, pendidikan, status bekerja, serta tingkat kesejahteraan keluarga. Wanita berisiko tinggi mengalami fertilitas pada usia remaja adalah mereka yang tinggal di perdesaan, berpendidikan rendah, tidak bekerja dan berstatus ekonomi rendah. Rekomendasi berdasarkan hasil penelitian adalah akses ke tingkat pendidikan formal yang lebih tinggi bagi remaja wanita, penyediaan pelatihan usaha ekonomi kreatif terutama pada daerah perdesaan, peningkatan pengetahuan kesehatan reproduksi bagi remaja melalui pendidikan. Adolescent fertility is an important issue in terms of health and social care as it relates to the morbidity and mortality of mothers and children. This study aimed to know the factors that influence adolescent fertility in Indonesia. The data used was the result of Indonesian Demography and Health Survey in 2012 with units of analysis included women of childbearing age in the adolescent age group (15 - 19 years. Total

  14. Konservatisme Akuntansi di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Hananto Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Dalam penyajian laporan keuangan yang berkualitas, perusahaan dihadapkan oleh pertimbangan yang salah satunya adalah penerapan konservatisme akuntansi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan bukti empiris pengaruh company growth, profitability, dan investment opportunity set (IOS terhadap penerapan prinsip konservatisme akuntansi. Konservatisme akuntansi dalam penelitian ini diukur menggunakan perhitungan total akrual. Total akrual adalah selisih antara laba sebelum extraordinary item ditambah dengan depresiasi dikurangi dengan arus kas operasi untuk mengetahui apakah perusahaan menggunakan konservatisme akuntansi tinggi atau rendah di dalam perusahaan. Sampel yang digunakan sebanyak 114 perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI di tahun 2012 dan 2013. Metoda pemilihan sampel yang digunakan yaitu purposive sampling. Alat analisis yang digunakan untuk pengujian adalah regresi linier berganda yang sebelumnya harus lolos uji asumsi klasik. Hasil pengujian secara parsial menunjukkan company growth, profitability dan investment opportunity set berpengaruh positif signifikan terhadap konservatisme akuntansi.

  15. Plasmodium ovale in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Purnomo; Masbar, S

    1990-12-01

    We report 34 infections by Plasmodium ovale found among 15,806 blood film examinations taken between 1973 and 1989 from several sites in Indonesia. Twenty five of the P. ovale infections occurred in a single sample of 514 people living in Owi, Irian Jaya. We detected five additional infections at 3 other sites in Irian Jaya. Other infections by P. ovale occurred at two sites in West Flores. Another infection has already been reported from East Timor. Despite relatively frequent sampling of populations on Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java and Sulawesi, P. ovale has not been found on those islands. It appears that this parasite occurs only on the easternmost islands of the Indonesian archipelago where it is nonetheless a rare finding.

  16. DETERMINAN PERMINTAAN KARET INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hartana I Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the factors that determinant the rubber demand by Unites States of America. The analysis method of this research is Partial Adjustment Model. Demand of Indonesia rubber by United States of America at research time line of 1995.1 up to 2007.4, simply only influenced by the price of rubber in international market. As for international price influence of rubber to demand of rubber by United States of America from Indonesian is significant and negativity. Whereas other independent variable is federal exchange rate and US’s GDP doesn't have an effect on to demand of rubber by United States of AmericaDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i2.2603

  17. December 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The December 26, 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra, Indonesia earthquake (3.316 N, 95.854 E, depth 30 km) generated a tsunami that was observed worldwide and caused...

  18. Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Woltjer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    I. Theoretical Reflections on Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society 1. Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society in Indonesia Ronald Holzhacker, Rafael Wittek and Johan Woltjer 2. Good Governance Contested: Exploring Human Rights and Sustainability as Normative Goals

  19. Health services in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosen, S; Gunawan, S

    In Indonesia, rapid economic development has led to a reduction in poverty among the 195 million inhabitants. While population increased more than 50% from 1971 to 1990, the annual growth rate, crude birth rate, and total fertility rates have declined rapidly. Life expectancy has increased from 45.7 years in 1971 to 62.7 in 1994 as crude death rates and infant and child mortality rates have declined. Causes of death have shifted from infectious to chronic diseases, but in 1992 major causes of death in children under 5 years old were preventable, and the maternal mortality rate was 425/100,000. Policies which guide the development of health care call for improvements in quality of life, adherence to humanitarian principles, use of scientifically approved traditional medicine, and provision of public health through a three-tiered system. Health care is financed by the government and the community, and managed care has been encouraged. Foreign aid has bolstered development in the health sector. Adequate sanitation has been achieved for 35% of the population, and 65% of urban and 35% of rural residents have reasonable access to clean water. Improvements in health indicators include 55% contraceptive prevalence, reduction in prevalence of anemia during pregnancy, 55.8% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care, a decrease in protein-energy malnutrition among children under five, and high vaccination coverage. Remaining public health problems include malaria, tuberculosis, dengue hemorrhagic fever, an increase in HIV/AIDS, iodine-deficiency, an increasing number of traffic fatalities, and an increasing number of smokers. New health policies have been instituted to meet these challenges as Indonesia's need for a productive and competitive labor force increases.

  20. Ergonomics policy in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarjo, Untung S

    2007-12-01

    Workers' conditions in accordance with their place of work are different from one area to another, especially in this reformation era where there are immense alterations in politics shown from the centralized government shifting to decentralization and district autonomy. Ergonomics problems in Indonesia are reviewed. In home industries, workers have to adjust themselves to their jobs, and ergonomic improvement may face significant impediments especially in small-scale industries. It is necessary to create or identify the most plausible model to be implemented in accordance with the conditions of districts, including low awareness about the relation between ergonomics and workers' productivity in producing goods and services and working processes scattered often at their own houses. As conditions conducive to ergonomics programs, district-level willingness to improve and increase the wealth of their society, recognition by businesses about the impacts of ergonomics on productivity and reduction of medical treatment costs may be mentioned. Labor unions support ergonomic improvements at production processes, and professionals and academicians are ready to assist, whereas national banks and foreign investment may encourage new technologies including ergonomics aspects. It is important to strengthen ergonomic improvement efforts in Indonesia through establishing district ergonomics improvement networks and ergonomics peer leaders with the support of continual training starting from the training of core leaders at the province level and extending to peer leaders at district level. This training should be made as simple as possible in order to facilitate innovations toward changes. Finally assistance is needed by the mentor teams in order to periodically monitor the improvements undertaken.

  1. Construction gets underway on Hungary's Modern Vault Dry Store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A construction licence has recently been granted for a Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) for spent fuel at the Paks reactor site in Hungary. The store will be used for medium term (50 years) storage of spent fuel from four VVER-440 reactors. It is anticipated that storage capacity for 1350 fuel assemblies will be available by 1996. Two further construction phases will take the capacity to 4950, covering the first ten years of reactor operation. The design provides for further extension to accommodate a total 15000 assemblies, corresponding to 30 years of reactor operation. The MVDS has developed out of the first application of dry store technology to spent Magnox reactor fuel at the Wylfa power station in the United Kingdom 25 years ago. (UK)

  2. Talent identification in Hungary: From identification to investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Péter-Szarka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an outline of talent identification practices and challenges in Hungary. First, it gives a summary of gifted education in the country; then the general challenges of talent identification are introduced: difficulties of defining talent, talent as potential, environmental factors, the role of perseverance and motivation, and individual variety. Later, recent Hungarian identification practices are shown, followed by a summary and a conclusion about how our identification practice should be developed into an investigation of individual characetristics. We propose stronger focus on the use of cognitive profile tests, investigation of interest-based characteristics, the use of observation and dynamic assessment methods, teacher nomination and emphasizing the need for effort. The focus from identification toward investigation exploring individual needs and characteristics to provide the most appropriate pathway for development in the 21st century seems to be a more effective way of talent support than mere selection.

  3. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Hungary. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  4. Reconstructing Quaternary pedogenesis in a paleosol sequence in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uveges, J.B.; Horvath, Z.; Micheli, E.; Mindszenty, A.; Nemeth, T. [Szent Istvan University, Godollo (Hungary). Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry & Soil Science

    2003-07-01

    In addition to conducting field observations, mineralogical, chemical, and micromorphological analyses, and scanning electron microscope studies were carried out to reconstruct soil forming processes in a paleosol profile sequence located in an open-cast lignite mine in North Central Hungary (Visonta, pediment of the Matra Mountains). Based on these investigations, several different, sometimes contradictory processes were identified: bioturbation on various scales, shrinking-swelling, leaching, CaCO{sub 3} and Fe-oxide precipitation, erosion, sedimentation, weathering, clay mineral transformation, clay illuviation, organic matter accumulations, reduction and oxidation, and frost action. Joint occurrence of these phenomena indicates environmental changes during the formation of the studied sequence. Many of these processes overlap and might have occurred several times. The presence of erosional surfaces makes it more difficult to establish the exact age of this complex formation. All observations suggest that sedimentation and soil formation on the Matra pediment were not continuous during the Quaternary Period

  5. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Hungary 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Hungary for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  6. The Changes of Ergonomics in Hungary and Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Lükö

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-technical systems. Here, we present the developmental stages of ergonomics, divided into six periods, first, and then the relationship between environmental ergonomics and health and safety. In the last chapter, I shall expound a few details from Hungarian investigations in work psychology, as well as from the activity of prominent academic circles at certain universities.

  7. Management of black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species to be imported from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is the most important fast-growing stand-forming tree species in Hungary . Black locust plantations can be successfully established in response to arange of economic and ecological opportunities. Plantation survival and productivity are maximized by matching the species' growth characteristics with silvicultura l options and land management needs. In the paper the sequence of forest tending operations in black locust stands is proposed, based on results of long-term st and structure and forest yield trials. Implementing good silvicultural plans and models will lead to profitable black locust stands and greater acceptance of the species by land managers. Black locust would also beavery useful species for energy productions as the related research results have been shown in the paper .

  8. Pricing and reimbursement of drugs and medical devices in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulácsi, L; Dávid, T; Dózsa, Cs

    2002-01-01

    Similarly to other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, Hungary has witnessed massive diffusion of healthcare technology such as drugs and medical devices since 1990. While substantial new pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and procedures have been liberalized, there has been no proper evaluation or training in their use. Healthcare providers have come to find themselves as entrepreneurs in private practice, while patients are acquiring an increasing awareness as customers of healthcare,demanding services in return for their taxes and contributions. This has led to extremely irrational patterns of investment in technology, with most an obvious waste of resources, while leaving basic needs unmet. Both the National Health Insurance Fund and the Ministry of Finance believe that the current pharmaceutical and medical device bill is too high. However, introducing a more transparent and flexible pricing and reimbursement framework may enable a more efficient allocation of the limited resources to be achieved.

  9. Neolithic pottery at Polgar-10 (Hungary: measuring the habitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Chapman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It is self-evidently true that ceramics form the largest component of the artefact assemblages of the Neolithic and Copper Age of Central and Eastern Europe, yet we are still poorly informed about the final stage of the life of most vessels – their ultimate disposal. In this paper, I wish to consider the ways in which pottery can be studied with respect to disposal and deposition. An assessment of ten different kinds of pottery analysis is made, using site single contexts as the main unit of analysis. I propose that these analyses constitute ways of measuring Bourdieu’s term “habitus”. This contextual analysis is based on examples taken from the Neolithic settlement of Polgar-10, in North East Hungary, excavated by the Upper Tisza Project in 1994.

  10. Kedudukan Musyawarah dan Demokrasi di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanafi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Kedudukan Musyawarah dan Demokrasi di Indonesia. Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia (NKRI berdasarkan lintasan sejarah perjuangan, memiliki konstruksi kenegaraan satu-satunya di dunia yang bangsa terlahir dahulu, kemudian baru membentuk negara. Presiden pertama Republik Indonesia Ir. Soekarno menegaskan, bahwa Negara Kesatuan ialah Negara Kebangsaan. Tujuan Bangsa Indonesia terlahir, merdeka, dan membentuk negara memiliki satu cita-cita, Kehendak Untuk Mengangkat Harkat dan Martabat Hidup Rakyat Indonesia (Kedaulatan Rakyat Indonesia. Melalui analisis atas realitas kehidupan saat ini, Bangsa Indonesia telah hidup pada kondisi tatanan kehidupan seolah-olah sama dengan Negara Demokrasi, ialah negara dulu terbentuk baru bangsanya dilahirkan kemudian. Sehingga kedaulatan rakyat Indonesia yang berdasarkan prinsip musyawara-mufakat dan perwakilan belum mampu terealisasi. Sementara pelaksanaan demokrasi voting yang memiliki dasar liberalisme terus bergulir, sehingga kehidupan bangsa Indonesia semakin jauh dari cita-cita awal. DOI: 10.15408/jch.v1i2.2657

  11. Geophysical Observations Supporting Research of Magmatic Processes at Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín. S.; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Roberts, Matthew J.

    2010-05-01

    Magmatic processes at volcanoes on the boundary between the European and North American plates in Iceland are observed with in-situ multidisciplinary geophysical networks owned by different national, European or American universities and research institutions, but through collaboration mostly operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. The terrestrial observations are augmented by space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images of the volcanoes and their surrounding surface. Together this infrastructure can monitor magma movements in several volcanoes from the base of the crust up to the surface. The national seismic network is sensitive enough to detect small scale seismicity deep in the crust under some of the voclanoes. High resolution mapping of this seismicity and its temporal progression has been used to delineate the track of the magma as it migrates upwards in the crust, either to form an intrusion at shallow levels or to reach the surface in an eruption. Broadband recording has also enabled capturing low frequency signals emanating from magmatic movements. In two volcanoes, Eyjafjallajökull and Katla, just east of the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), seismicity just above the crust-mantle boundary has revealed magma intruding into the crust from the mantle below. As the magma moves to shallower levels, the deformation of the Earth‘s surface is captured by geodetic systems, such as continuous GPS networks, (InSAR) images of the surface and -- even more sensitive to the deformation -- strain meters placed in boreholes around 200 m below the Earth‘s surface. Analysis of these signals can reveal the size and shape of the magma as well as the temporal evolution. At near-by Hekla volcano flanking the SISZ to the north, where only 50% of events are of M>1 compared to 86% of earthquakes in Eyjafjallajökull, the sensitivity of the seismic network is insufficient to detect the smallest seismicity and so the volcano appears less

  12. Investigations of Very High Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2012-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal reservoirs. Earlier modeling indicates that the power output of a geothermal well producing from a supercritical reservoir could potentially be an order of magnitude greater than that from a conventional hot geothermal reservoir, at the same volumetric flow rate. However, even in areas with an unusually high geothermal gradient, for normal hydrostatic pressure gradients reaching supercritical temperatures and pressures will require drilling to depths >4 km. In 2009 the IDDP attempted to drill the first deep supercritical well, IDDP-01, in the caldera of the Krafla volcano, in NE Iceland. However drilling had to be terminated at only 2.1 km depth when ~900°C rhyolite magma flowed into the well. Our studies indicate that this magma formed by partial melting of hydrothermally altered basalts within the Krafla caldera. Although this well was too shallow to reach supercritical pressures, it is highly productive, and is estimated to be capable of generating up to 36 MWe from the high-pressure, superheated steam produced from the upper contact zone of the intrusion. With a well-head temperature of ~440°C, it is at present apparently the hottest producing geothermal well in the world. A pilot plant is investigating the optimal utilization of this magmatically heated resource. A special issue of the journal Geothermics with 16 papers reporting on the IDDP-01 is in preparation. However, in order to continue the search for supercritical geothermal resources, planning is underway to drill a 4.5 km deep well at Reykjanes in SW Iceland in 2013-14. Although drilling deeper towards the heat source of this already developed high-temperature geothermal field will be more expensive, if a supercritical resource is found, this cost increase should be offset by the considerable increase in the power output and lifetime of the Reykjanes geothermal

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF MIGRATION POTENTIAL IN HUNGARY FROM 2000 UNTIL TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Csipkés

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing the words “international migration”, two things might come to our mind. One of them is the emigration process and the other is the wave of refugees. In our study, we examined the changes of the number of employees emigrating from Hungary from 2000 until today. Nowadays, the examination of the migration potential is an important topic in Hungary, since the rate of Hungarian emigrants started to grow after 2006 and the rate of growth became even faster after 2010. The reason of the acceleration was the opening of the Austrian and German labour market. The actuality of the topic is based on the fact that international emigration merges the labour market’s processes, influences the given country’s employment level, moreover it has an influencing role on the rate of wages. Emigration from a given state has several reasons: natural disasters, war, marginalization, economic reasons, etc. In our study, we examine emigration caused by economic reasons. We have to take into consideration that measuring emigration processes is a difficult task, due to the lack of data. The reason of the deficiency is that those who leave the country, often forget to report their leaving. From 1 March 2013, only the permanent foreign settlement should be reported towards the administration (District Office, Consulate. Earlier, temporary (more than 3 months settlement was also obligatory to be reported. Many of the leaving Hungarians do not report their leaving, however working abroad for more than 3 months should be reported towards social insurance organizations and tax authorities. I would like to emphasise that my migration potential presentation does not show a direct correlation with the actual migration. However, this study might show the expected movement rates and the composition of emigrants.

  14. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH – CHALLENGES FOR HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paldy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary detailed research work has been carried out since several years to help the process of getting prepared and adapted to the impacts of climate change. The research activities concerned mainly the health impacts of heat waves (excess mortality. Based on the results of the time series statistical analysis of weather variables and daily mortality of Budapest, it was found that a 5º C increase of the daily mean temperature increases of the risk of all cause mortality by 10%; and the risk of death due to cardio-vascular diseases by 12%. The frequency of heat waves has been increasing since the nineties. The most extreme heat wave hit the country in 2007 with an excess mortality around 1100 cases. A three level heat health warning system was launched in 2005 as an action to support adaptation. A significant association was found between global radiation and the increase of melanoma cases. The incidence of melanoma morbidity increased between 2003– 2008, the number of new cases changed from 1854 to 2610. The data of the previous years support that there is an increasing risk of vector borne diseases, as the continuous increase of the incidence of Lyme diseases (15% per year showed it. Although tick-borne encephalitis is present in the country, the incidence of the disease does not show a strong correlation with climate variability. Diseases like West Nile virus and Hanta virus infection appeared and showed an increasing tendency. The vector of Leishmaniasis also appeared in Hungary. Another consequence of climate change is the temporal and spatial change of allergenic plant species. New, invasive plants will appear, the length of pollination has been increasing.

  15. Demographic processes of developmentally peripheral areas in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pénzes János

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates the demographic processes and challenges of the Hungarian developmentally peripheral settlements. Demographic challenges can be regarded as important consequences of the social and economic disadvantages in spatial terms. However, the interrelating negative demographic tendencies cause even more backward situation blocking or hindering the development. The objective of the current analysis is to discover the demographic characteristics of the peripheral settlements, to detect the spatial disparities and to point out the correlation between backwardness and the investigated demographic phenomena with the help of the census databases 1980-2011 and local datasets on Roma population. Using methods of multivariate statistical analysis, seven indicators were selected in order to achieve the goals of the paper. Backward areas are primarily characterized by population decrease with significant disparities, but there were growing communities among them as well. Some small villages in Northern and Southwestern Hungary will foreseeably face complete depopulation within few years. Primarily small sized villages faced intense decrease in rate of natural change, but dynamic population growth was also detected. Migration loss tends to correlate with the extent of peripherality, as increasing values of migration balance accompany decreasing ratio of peripheral settlements in the area. The ratio of elderly population shows an expressively two-faced character, with the extremely aging and very juvenile settlements. The ratios of Roma population reflect the scale of peripherality. Extended ethnic change could be predicted in Northeastern and Southwestern Hungary and near the Middle Tisza valley. Presented demographic processes will make the backwardness of most of the peripheral settlements stable.

  16. Evaluating the new soil erosion map of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltner, István; Centeri, Csaba; Takács, Katalin; Pirkó, Béla; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Pásztor, László

    2017-04-01

    With growing concerns on the effects of climate change and land use practices on our soil resources, soil erosion by water is becoming a significant issue internationally. Since the 1964 publication of the first soil erosion map of Hungary, there have been several attempts to provide a countrywide assessment of erosion susceptibility. However, there has been no up-to-date map produced in the last decade. In 2016, a new, 1:100 000 scale soil erosion map was published, based on available soil, elevation, land use and meteorological data for the extremely wet year of 2010. The map utilized combined outputs for two spatially explicit methods: the widely used empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and the process-based Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA) models. The present study aims to provide a detailed analysis of the model results. In lieu of available national monitoring data, information from other sources were used. The Soil Degradation Subsystem (TDR) of the National Environmental Information System (OKIR) is a digital database based on a soil survey and farm dairy data collected from representative farms in Hungary. During the survey all kind of degradation forms - including soil erosion - were considered. Agricultural and demographic data was obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (KSH). Data from an interview-based survey was also used in an attempt to assess public awareness of soil erosion risks. Point-based evaluation of the model results was complemented with cross-regional assessment of soil erosion estimates. This, combined with available demographic information provides us with an opportunity to address soil erosion on a community level, with the identification of regions with the highest risk of being affected by soil erosion.

  17. Basic characteristics of hospital stroke services in Eastern Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalka, Laszlo; Fekete, Istvan; Csepany, Tuende; Csiba, Laszlo; Bereczki, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Stroke mortality is extremely high in Central-Eastern European countries. We report basic characteristics of a stroke unit in Eastern Hungary, including age and sex distribution; the proportion of transient ischemic attacks (TIA), ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes; case fatality; application of diagnostic methods; and length of stay for all patients treated with acute cerebrovascular disease over a 12-month period. Records of all patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (n = 522) discharged in 1995 from a stroke unit with a well defined catchment area of 220,000 inhabitants in Eastern Hungary were retrospectively analyzed. Case fatality was 18.6% for all patients and 21.1% after excluding cases with TIA. Computer tomography, duplex carotid ultrasound, cerebrospinal fluid examination and electroencephalography were performed in 79%, 77%, 7% and 2% of the patients, respectively. The database of the university hospital with the same catchment area was electronically searched for patients who were discharged with the diagnosis of stroke from the three departments of internal medicine. Stroke mortality data of the catchment area based on death certificates was obtained from the Central Statistical Bureau. Two hundred twenty-eight stroke deaths were reported in the catchment area in 1995. In the same period 97 stroke deaths occurred at the stroke unit and 76 at the departments of internal medicine. If we aim to treat all patients with acute stroke at the stroke unit, with the present stroke incidence and duration of hospital stay the current capacity of the stroke unit (1 bed per 10.000 inhabitants) should be doubled

  18. Analisis Industri Ritel Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Soliha, Euis

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an overview the analisys of retail industry in Indonesia.Retail industry in Indonesia grow rapidly. Industrial presence of modern retailbasically exploits public shopping pattern especially middle-weight and to which donot want to mill around in traditional market. Analysis Five Forces is used toanalysis retail industry. Analysis five force is bargaining power of buyers,bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new entrants, threat of new substituteproducts, and rivalry a...

  19. PROSES PEMBENTUKAN KOMUNITAS MUSLIM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhan AM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study in mapping out more about the process of formation of the Muslim community in Indonesia. History is a reconstruct of the past. It seems as if the past was to be away from the present. Is it true that this view. We borrow the Kuntowijoyo’s words: “Historians are like people take who takes the train to look back, and he can freely turn to the right and to the left, which can not be done is to look ahead”. History is a valuable clue, a picture of the past that can be used as guidelines in stride, present and future. The Indonesian Islam history has significance for this nation generation. Because it has its own characteristics compared to the history of Islam in other countries. It can give the feel of the real Islam in Indonesia. The Indonesian Islam is an Islamic hue promising future in the era of globalization. Thus, Indonesian Islam will be in focus in the eyes of the world. In this description, the writer describes the entry and the development of Islam in Indonesia with discussion; process and the introduction of Islam to Indonesia, acceptance by indigenous and institutionalization of Islam in society. Then, point the establishment of Islam in Indonesia, as well as the transformation of Indonesia society

  20. The Role of Business Schools in Ethics Education in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Vaiman, Vlad; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    2014-01-01

    should not be held responsible for employees’ unethical behavior. Nevertheless, managers believe that business schools should assist future employees in understanding ethics by including business ethics in teaching curricula. Second, managers believe that the workplace is not where ethics are learned......This article explores managers’ views on various ways in which business schools can contribute to providing solid ethics education to their students, who will ultimately become the next generation of business leaders. One thousand top level managers of Icelandic firms were approached and asked......, while also insisting that former students should already have strong ethical standards when entering the workplace. Third, managers call for business schools not only to contribute more to influencing students’ ethical standards, but also to reshape the knowledge and capabilities of practicing managers...

  1. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...... to a standardised handling procedure whereas controls (n = 12) remained untrained. Behavioural and heart rate responses in a novel object test and 2 handling fear tests (HFTs) were measured. The HFTs were conducted with both an unknown (HFT-unknown) and a known handler (HFT-known). Results There was no effect...... correlated significantly between tests. Conclusions Previous handling may affect the behavioural fear response of horses when handled by their usual handler, whereas this effect did not apply to an unknown handler. Heart rates appeared unaffected by handling and may be a more reliable indicator...

  2. Inflection of modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives and adverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a list of Modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, analysed into their respective stems and endings; the declension of the suffixed definite article is also included. Under each item it is stated which rules, if any, apply in the derivation of its grammatical forms. The following items of the list should be consulted for new phonological rules: (3, (11, (12, and (133. A grammatical innovation has been implemented in the list, namely the so-called REPLACING ENDINGS. These are not added after the last segment of the stem, as endings usually are, but replace the last segment(s of the stem. More is said on replacing endings in the Introduction.

  3. Fractionation of boron isotopes in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive δ 1 1B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive δ 1 1B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to absorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  4. Hydrogeology of the Krafla geothermal system, northeast Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Krafla geothermal system is located in Iceland's northeastern neovolcanic zone, within the Krafla central volcanic complex. Geothermal fluids are superheated steam closest to the magma heat source, two-phase at higher depths, and sub-boiling at the shallowest depths. Hydrogen isotope ratios...... of geothermal fluids range from -87‰, equivalent to local meteoric water, to -94‰. These fluids are enriched in 18O relative to the global meteoric line by +0.5-3.2‰. Calculated vapor fractions of the fluids are 0.0-0.5 wt% (~0-16% by volume) in the northwestern portion of the geothermal system and increase...... the benefits of combining phase segregation effects in two-phase systems during analysis of wellhead fluid data with stable isotope values of hydrous alteration minerals when evaluating the complex hydrogeology of volcano-hosted geothermal systems....

  5. Agriculture and dairy in Eastern Europe after transition focused on Poland and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonini, A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: CEECs, Hungary, Poland, dairy, micro economic theory, efficiency, productivity, allocative efficiency, stochastic frontier, profit function, Markov chain, and maximum entropy econometrics.This thesis analyzes the transition of an economic sector, from a socialist system to a market

  6. A Saga for Dinner: Landscape and Nationality in Icelandic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Hennig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iceland’s attempted industrialisation through an expansion of hydropower andaluminium smelters can lead to a significant reshaping of the country’slandscapes. There has been considerable resistance against such plans since the1970s, culminating in the debate about the Kárahnjúkar project between 2001and 2006. The book Draumalandið. Sjálfshjálparbók handa hræddri þjóð[Dreamland. A Self-Help Manual for a Frightened Nation] by the writer AndriSnær Magnason has been particularly influential. It combines ecologicalconsciousness with an appreciation of Iceland‘s literary tradition and history.Thus it displays a view of landscape which connects nature preservation closelyto cultural achievements and to national sovereignty. This perception oflandscape originates from the assumption that Iceland experienced a golden agefrom the beginning of colonisation in the Viking age until the subordinationunder the Norwegian and later Danish kings in the 13th century, which led to anall-embracing degeneration. Nationalist poets such as Jónas Hallgrímsson inthe 19th century based their demands for independence on Iceland‘s medievalsaga literature and the country‘s landscapes. These seemed to provide evidencefor a high culture in unity with nature during the time of the Commonwealth.Although the historical reliability of the sagas is doubtful, they are still used asan important argument in Draumalandið. Now the narratives as such are put inthe foreground, as they can give value and meaning to the landscapes and placesthey describe. Thus a turn from a realistic to a more constructivist perception oflandscape can be observed in contemporary Icelandic environmental literature.

  7. Climate-driven vertical acceleration of Icelandic crust measured by continuous GPS geodesy

    KAUST Repository

    Compton, Kathleen; Bennett, Richard A.; Hreinsdó ttir, Sigrú n

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Earth's present-day response to enhanced glacial melting resulting from climate change can be measured using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. We present data from 62 continuously operating GPS instruments in Iceland. Statistically significant upward velocity and accelerations are recorded at 27 GPS stations, predominantly located in the Central Highlands region of Iceland, where present-day thinning of the Iceland ice caps results in velocities of more than 30mm/yr and uplift accelerations of 1-2mm/yr2. We use our acceleration estimates to back calculate to a time of zero velocity, which coincides with the initiation of ice loss in Iceland from ice mass balance calculations and Arctic warming trends. We show, through a simple inversion, a direct relationship between ice mass balance measurements and vertical position and show that accelerated unloading is required to reproduce uplift observations for a simple elastic layer over viscoelastic half-space model.

  8. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M...

  9. Research and higher education background of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gy.

    2002-01-01

    The connection of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, with research and development as well as with higher education is discussed. The main research areas include reactor physics, thermohydraulics, radiochemistry and radiochemical analysis, electronics and nuclear instruments, computers, materials science. The evolution of relations with higher education in Hungary and the PNPP is presented, before and after the installation of the various units. (R.P.)

  10. Guðrún Johnsen: Bringing Down the Banking System: Lessons from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Conrad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the myths that have been spun not only on the causes of the crisis, but maybe more importantly on the democratic awakening in Icelandic society in the aftermath, it is evident that a much broader audience – especially outside Iceland – should have a keen interest in understanding the political and societal climate that facilitated the emergence of the phenomenon that has also been termed "Viking Capitalism".

  11. The association between lifting an administrative restriction on antidepressant dispensing and treatment patterns in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thengilsdottir, G; Gardarsdottir, H; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2013-01-01

    On March 1st 2009, restrictions on the dispensing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in Iceland were lifted. Incident rates and changes in early discontinuation and switching before and after the change were investigated.......On March 1st 2009, restrictions on the dispensing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in Iceland were lifted. Incident rates and changes in early discontinuation and switching before and after the change were investigated....

  12. IMPLEMENTASI PENDIKTEAN BAHASA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Purwarianti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper ini memaparkan hasil penelitian dalam membangun aplikasi pendiktean Bahasa Indonesia untuk waktu nyata. Dalam membangun sebuah aplikasi pendiktean, terdapat beberapa masalah seperti perintah suara (voice command, Out Of Vocabulary (OOV, noise, dan filler. Adapun yang menjadi fokus dalam penelitian ini adalah penanganan perintah suara dan OOV dari kata yang didiktekan. Pendiktean suara merupakan pengembangan lanjut dari pengenalan suara secara waktu nyata dengan tambahan metode untuk menangani hal-hal yang telah dinyatakan sebelumnya. Untuk menangani perintah suara, sebuah modul ditambahkan untuk mengecek hasil decoding dari sistem pengenalan suara. Adapun untuk menangani OOV, ditambahkan modul penanganan pengejaan setelah sebelumnya dinyatakan status ejaan. Model perintah suara dan model huruf ditambahkan ke dalam kamus dan digunakan sebagai pelatihan dari model bahasa n-gram. Dalam pengujian, dilakukan evaluasi terhadap sistem pengenalan suara, penanganan perintah suara, dan modul pengejaan sebagai strategi untuk menangani kata OOV. Untuk modul pengenalan suara, akurasi yang dicapai adalah 70%. Untuk modul penanganan perintah suara, pengujian menunjukkan bahwa perintah suara dapat ditangani dengan baik. Sedangkan untuk modul pengejaan, pengujian menunjukkan bahwa hanya 20 dari 26 huruf yang berhasil dikenali. In this paper, we presented the results of research in building applications dictation of the Bahasa Indonesia for real-time. In developing a dictation application, there are some problems such as voice command, Out of Vocabulary (OOV, noise, and filler. As the focus in this research is the handling of voice command and OOV from dictated words. Voice dictation is a further development of real time voice recognition with an additional method to deal with things that have been stated before. To handle voice commands, a module is added to check the results of decoding of the voice recognition system. To handle OOV, spelling handling

  13. Weathering The Storm – Icelandic Municipalities’ Handling of an Unprecedented Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnús Árni Skjöld MAGNÚSSON

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within a few days in October 2008, following serious turmoil on financial markets worldwide, some 85% of the Icelandic banking sector collapsed, together with the Icelandic currency, the króna. Almost all the rest followed early in 2009. The Icelandic stock market took a nosedive. The Republic of Iceland had entered the worst economic crisis of its history. Icelandic municipalities, which had taken on an increasing burden of running the welfare state, were hard hit financially, without the ability of the state to help out. In fact, some of the post-crisis actions of the state, under IMF direction, were difficult for the municipalities. It did not make things easier that the crisis had been precluded by an unprecedented period of growth, encouraging the municipalities to borrow in international markets and invest in infrastructure that turned out to be superfluous in the post-crisis period. This paper will look at the reactions of the Icelandic municipalities to the crisis, the political implications of it, where they are now and if there are lessons that can be learned from the difficult years in the last decade.

  14. Fingerprinting North Atlantic water masses near Iceland using Nd-isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Norbert [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, INF229, Heidelberg (Germany); Waldner, Astrid [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Montagna, Paolo [CNR - ISMAR, Bologna (Italy); Colin, Christophe [IDES, Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Wu, Qiong [State Key Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-07-01

    The radiogenic {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio of seawater is a valuable tracer of north Atlantic circulation pathways, driven by continental runoff (freshwater and Aeolian dust), boundary exchange and advection and thus mixing patterns. A region of particular interest in the North Atlantic is the overflow across the Iceland-Scotland Ridge injecting water from the Arctic Ocean into the Iceland basin (Iceland Scotland Overflow Water). However, Iceland itself constitutes a local source for Nd due to possible leaching of young volcanic basalts adding radiogenic {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd to seawater. We have conducted an intense survey of physical properties and Nd-isotope composition between Iceland and the Azores that allows to fingerprint different water masses of the North Atlantic through the {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio and that demonstrates the very local influence of volcanic material to the seawater Nd cycle. A first local transect is achieved from the open ocean to the outflow of the Vatnajoekull glacier. Runoff influences seawater Nd in close vicinity (< 40 km near the outflow). A along shelf transect provide a similar observation. From Iceland to the Azores, however, water masses of the sub-tropical and sub-polar gyre are clearly distinguishable.

  15. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preferences, power and policy outcomes in public policy in Iceland: The Icelandic Housing Fund fiasco 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurbjörg Sigurgeirsdóttir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the interplay of politics, bureaucracies and markets in Iceland. It aims to explain theoretically how politics and bureaucracies operate when a coalition government makes and implements decisions in a policy environment in which decisions and their effects intersect public bureaucracies’ and markets’ boundaries. The decision to raise the limits of Housing Fund mortgages in 2003 is a case examined by agenda-setting theories in public policy. The research is based on the data from parliamentary Special Investigation reports on the collapse of the Icelandic banks and the Housing Fund as well as the author’s interviews home and abroad. The research shows that, when made, the decision ignited competition between the Housing Fund and the recently privatized banks and that between the banks themselves. The Independence Party’s attempts to delay implementation of the decision involved system change backed by an instrument designed to stem a run on the Fund. The impact of this instrument (a tax on pre-payments was incompatible with the Progressive Party’s political interests. In a hasty attempt to implement its election promises, the Progressive Party ignored the fact that the Fund was operating within a transformed financial system. The conclusions indicate that those who think long-term in politics make policies by changing system dynamics, those who think short-term change programmes. System dynamics, however, change the balance of power and influence between actors, leaving legacies which curb the government’s attempt at change, unless consolidated and sustained political authority and will are established to see changes through.

  17. Health Information in Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/indonesian.html Health Information in Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  18. DESENTRALISASI PENGELUARAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Herni Rochana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of Law 22/1999 and Law 25/1999 of 2001, has been an increase in the implementation of fiscal decentralization with a phenomenon called Big Bang. The study was conducted to determine the degree of decentralization of expenditure covering the period before and after the implementation of regional autonomy. The research data is a panel data drawn from 30 provinces between 1994 to 2007. The results showed that in Indonesia there has been a significant increase in expenditure decentralization since 2001. Significant increases occurred mainly on the expenditure side, especially the decentralization of authority be spending more than doubled from the previous. On a national scale, the degree of decentralization of authority expenditure increased from 10.48% in the year 2000 to 25.45% in 2001. And the average for each province, the degree of decentralization of spending authority increased from 0.40% in 2000 to 0, 85% in 2001DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v2i2.2423

  19. INDUSTRI KREATIF INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN ANALISIS KINERJA INDUSTRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Kamil

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration...

  20. The Political Economy of Joining the European Union : Iceland's Position at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Iceland can consider its participation in the European Economic Area (EEA) as an associate membership of the European Union (EU). Under the EEA agreement, Iceland participates in the EU free movement of capital, persons, services and industrial goods, along with cooperation in social policy and related fields. However, Iceland does not participate in the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), or in the EU Cust...

  1. Prospek Perekonomian Indonesia dalam Memasuki Afta

    OpenAIRE

    Basuki, Agus Tri

    2002-01-01

    This article will analyze Indonesia's economic performance towards ASEAN free trade area (AFTA). From the economic performance, Indonesia is facing high threats, especially on the competitiveness of product and KKN (corruption, collusion, and nepotism) problem that cause high cost economy. So, government and businessman must anticipate it in order to strengthened Indonesia's economy.

  2. Kenaf: its prospect in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estri Laras Arumingtyas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf is a plant fibre with high potential as source of material industry. Originally, kenaf usage in Indonesia is still limited only for jute sacks material, which is then displaced by plastic sacks production. While at international scale, kenaf has been started to be developed as pulp material, polypropylene composite, fibreglass replacement, and particle board for automotive industry materials. Indonesia is a tropical country this condition which suitable for kenaf cultivation. However, research reports about kenaf potential usages are still few and limited in domestic level only. Whereas, Indonesian kenaf plant information is needed by international community to understand comprehensively about the potential of tropical plants. This article aims to provide an overview about kenaf cultivation potential and usages in Indonesia as well as the possibility of future development. Key words: kenaf, fibre, prospect, potential.

  3. DETERMINAN TABUNGAN MUDHARABAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roikhan Moch Aziz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research to determine how the influence of macro variables were Profit Sharing Ratio (equivalent rate, Inflation, GDP, and SWBI against Mudharabah Savings at Islamic Banking in Indonesia. The data used in this research were data time series by using multiple regressions and analysis by Ordinary Least Squares. The results showed that simultaneously independent variables (Profit Sharing ratio, Inflation, GDP, and SWBI have significant influence the dependent variable (MudharabaH Savings with probability 0.000000. End that partially independent variables (Inflation with probability 0.0013, GDP with probability 0.0000, and SWBI with probability 0.0000 have positively influence and significantly to dependent variable (Mudharabah Savings in the Islamic Banking of Indonesia. While between the variable independent (Profit Sharing ratio to dependent variable (Mudharabah Savings have not significantly with probability 0.2040, in the Islamic Banking of IndonesiaDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v2i2.2425

  4. Indonesia: bursting forth with supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-28

    Indonesia increased its coal production fourfold between 1987 and 1990 and could well triple its output to over 30 mt/yr in 1993. Figures are given for production by the state owned companies, contractors of PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam and private companies from 1990 to 1995. Domestic demand for coal is, however, lagging behind production capability. Three or four 400MW units have been commissioned for a coal-fired power station at Paiton in East Java and there should be some growth in Indonesia's cement industry but there is likely to be a large increase in the exportable surplus of coal. When the new Kalimantan terminals are completed Indonesia will be in a position to compete with Australia and South Africa as a coal exporter. The high moisture content of coals from several Indonesian fields may put restrictions on its usage in existing power stations. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. PERSPEKTIF ARSITEKTUR SURYA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Priatman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a prospective alternative resource due to its existence as a non-polluting source of renewable energy. The potency of solar energy in Indonesia at the belt of equator enables its usage in buildings directly to fulfill human needs. The integrative implementation of solar technology into building emerges specific challenges in architectural design and evolves a new architectural approach which is called "solar architecture". Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Energi surya merupakan sumberdaya alternatif yang prospektif karena energi surya merupakan sumber energi yang dapat diperbarui dan tidak menimbulkan polusi. Potensi energi surya di Indonesia yang berada dijalur khatulistiwa memungkinkan penggunaan secara langsung dalam bangunan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusia. Implementasi teknik pemanfaatan energi surya kedalam bangunan secara integratif menimbulkan tantangan spesifik dalam perancangan arsitektur dan merupakan embrio pewujudan suatu tatanan arsitektur baru yang dikenal sebagai "arsitektur surya" Keywords: arsitektur surya, energi surya

  6. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  7. Human induced impacts on soil organic carbon in southwest Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Erlendsson, Egill; Lal, Rattan

    2013-04-01

    The Icelandic environment has been strongly influenced by natural processes during the Holocene. Since settlement in AD 874, the introduction of grazing animals and other land use has drastically affected the natural environment. This includes the diminishing of vegetative cover, which has led to soil exposure and accelerated erosion over large areas, especially when in conjunction with harsh climate. This has specifically impacted processes and properties of volcanic soils (Andosols), which are subject to accelerated erosion by wind and water. While approximately 46% of the land surface in Iceland has sustained continuous vegetation cover, large areas have lost some or all of their soil cover formed during the postglacial era. Elsewhere, remaining soils have sparse or no vegetation cover, thus impairing soil carbon (C) sequestration. Among their multifunctional roles, soils support plant growth, increase soil biotic activity, enhance nutrient storage and strengthen the cycling of water and nutrients. In contrast, soil degradation by accelerated erosion and other processes impairs soil quality, reduces soil structure and depletes the soil organic matter (SOM) pool. Depletion of the SOM pool has also global implications because the terrestrial C pool is the third largest pool and strongly impacts the global C cycle. Erosional-depositional processes may deplete soil organic C (SOC) by erosion and increase by deposition. Some SOC-enriched sediments are redistributed over the landscape, while others are deposited in depression sites and transported into aquatic ecosystems. SOC decomposition processes are severely constrained in some environmental settings and any SOC buried under anaerobic conditions is protected against decomposition. Yet, the impact of the SOC transported by erosional processes and redistributed over the landscape is not fully understood because the variability in its turnover characteristics has not been widely studied. Thus, the fate of C

  8. COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii

    2014-05-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the

  9. Indonesia country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murni Soedyartomo Soentono, Tri [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia - Batan, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Development Centre, Pasar Jum' at, Cinere Raya, 12570 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-07-01

    Several nuclear research are currently operation in Serpong, Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta; these facilities has been in operation step wisely and having strong link with various universities and laboratories within the country (30 MW in Serpong, 2 MW in Bandung, Cyclotron CS-30 Serpong, Accelerator Yogyakarta, Irradiator Co-60). Public Acceptance: Further more the routine activities of the public information by WiN regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially to the immediate environment of the NPP candidate site are indeed of important steps. Future of nuclear power: Since 1990's, Indonesia planned to build NPP station in Jepara to anticipate future energy crisis. Indonesia National Energy Policy has four main objectives: - Securing the continuity of energy supply for domestic use at price affordable to the public, - Enhancing the life quality of the people, - Stimulating economic growth, and, - Reserving an adequate supply of oil and gas for expert to provide source of foreign exchange to fund the national development program. Nuclear Waste Management Policy: Law no 10/1997 on nuclear power became the basic policy in management of radioactive waste The only national agency dealing with radioactive substances, BATAN possesses all data and information concerning the use of nuclear power. Radioactive waste management is particularly earmarked for maximum protection of living creatures, the environment and its ecosystems. In order to guarantee maximum safety and protection, all parties involved in the acquisition of radioactive materials should abide by the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. In order to achieve radioactive waste management that complies with the principle of sustainable development, technological applications should be technically and economically viable for maximum protection of the environment and safety from any potential nuclear hazards, now and in future. The application must also be accepted by the community

  10. ANALISIS IMPOR BERAS DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kumala Sari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Salah satu kebijakan pemerintah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan beras yaitu dengan menggenjot produksi beras dalam negeri. Namun dengan semakin meningkatnya jumlah penduduk akan meningkatkan permintaan terhadap beras dan upaya peningkatan produktivitas dalam negeri tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan beras dalam negeri. Sehingga untuk menutupi kekurangan tersebut pemerintah mengambil keputusan untuk melakukan impor beras dari negara lain. Akan tetapi pada kenyataannya impor beras dilakukan ketika data statistik menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia sedang mengalami surplus beras. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi impor beras di Indonesia. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis regresi linier berganda dengan model Error Correction Model (ECM. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa secara parsial maupun secara bersama-sama produksi beras, konsumsi beras, harga beras dalam negeri dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dollar AS berpengaruh dan signifikan terhadap impor beras di Indonesia. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ One of the government’s policy to fulfill the need of rice is to boost the domestic production. However, by increasing the population, the demand of rice will also increase and the effort of increasing the domestic productivity cannot supply domestic rice need. So, to cover the shortage the government make decision to import rice from other countries. Yet, in fact importing rice is occurred when the statistical data showed that the supply of rice in Indonesia is surplus. The purpose of this research is necessary to study the factors which influence the import of rice in Indonesia. The analysis method used is multiple linear regression analysis model with Error Correction Model (ECM. Based on the research proven that partially or jointly the production, the consumption, the

  11. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kovács

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accepting it- that made the uniqueness of the Hungarian Jewry will cease to exist. Since quite a large group of the Hungarian Jews survived the Shoah it was not purely a theoretical question that what sort of identity strategies would emerge among the Jewish population of the country. How did the Jews react to the dramatic political changes that occurred in the decades following the Shoah, what kind of identity strategies they developed in the search for their place in the post-war Hungarian society? After a historical introduction the article discusses the changing socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the post-war Hungarian Jews, Jewish politics in the decades of communist rule and finally the identity problems emerged in the post-war decades.

  12. Regional tendencies of extreme wind characteristics in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radics, Dr.; Bartholy, Dr.; Péliné

    2009-09-01

    Human activities have substantial effects on climate system. It has already accepted that change in the long-term climatic mean state will have significant consequences in the global economy and society, but the most important effects of climate change may come from changes in the intensity and frequency of climatic extremes. It is therefore of great interest to document the extremes of surface wind that could assist in estimating the regional effects of climate change. The research presented is based on 34-year-long (1975-2008) wind (speed, direction, and wind gust) data sets of 36 Hungarian synoptic meteorological stations. After processing (including digitalisation of old instrumental records, quality control and homogenisation of wind time series) the measured wind data sets, time series and complex wind climate analysis were carried out. Spatial and temporal distributions of mean and extreme wind climate characteristics were estimated, wind extremes and trends were interpolated and mapped over the country. Finally, measured and reanalysed (ERA40) wind data were compared over Hungary, in order to verify not only the validity of ERA40 reanalysed data sets, but the adaptability of climate simulation results in estimation of regional climate change effects.

  13. The Beginning of Variable star astronomy in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsoldos, Endre

    Variable star astronomy began in Hungary as elsewhere: new objects have been recognized in the sky. Comets appeared in 16th - 17th century chronicles. The first mention of the new star of 1572 seems to be the "Prognosticon" of Wilhelm Misocacus, printed in 1578. New stars were discussed in the 17th century by Jesuits as well as Protestants. The work of Jacob Schnitzler is especially interesting from this point. The Cartesians dealt with new stars with less enthusiasm, they hardly mentioned them. The beginning of the 19th century saw the development of science in Hungarian, variable stars, however, were left out. The birth of variable star astronomy might be linked to the Ógyalla Observatory, originally a private observatory of Miklós Konkoly Thege. The 1885 supernova in the Andromeda Nebula were observed there, as well as the spectra of a few interesting variable stars. Theoretical astrophysics also has its beginnings in Ógyalla through the work of Radó Kövesligethy. Professional variable star astronomy started here in the early 20th century through the work of Antal Tass

  14. Structural Components of Lifestyle and Beyond: The Case of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Keller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of when and how lifestyle and its components are important in social stratification. There is considerable consensus among scholars about the structure of the society being a consequence of hierarchical dimensions like occupation, income, or wealth. Some thirty years ago, largely based on Bourdieu’s “Distinction”, a new paradigm emerged highlighting the lifestyle components and the value-oriented cultural and material consumption in stratifi cation. The idea refl ects the empirical fi nding that inequality between social classes has largely decreased, giving priority to horizontal lifestyle differentiation instead of vertical inequality dimensions. From a theoretical viewpoint, a challenge in the approach is finding out to what extent lifestyle typology is of a non-vertical character in reality. This social determination of lifestyle is investigated for Hungary when comparing an occupation-based typology with a consumption-based one. On the one hand, results reveal that the effects of structural components on social status are stronger than those of lifestyle. On the other hand, lifestyle turns out to be less independent of social position and the top and bottom levels of the lifestyle typology are particularly predictable by structural measures.

  15. Spent fuel management in Hungary: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenczi, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd. operates the only NPP of Hungary, consisting of a 4 WWER-440 type units. Since 1989, approximately 40-50 % of the total yearly electricity generation of the country has been supplied by this plant. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia (previously from the Soviet Union) and the spent fuel assemblies are shipped back to Russia for later reprocessing after 5 years of decay storage in the spent fuel pools of the plant. Seeing the political and economical changes that started in Russia, the Paks NPP's management made a decision in 1990 to study the implementation of an independent spent fuel storage facility (ISFSF) at the Paks site and in 1992 to choose the GEC-ALSTHOM's MVDS. On the basis of the Construction License issued by the HAEC, the construction of the ISFSF was started in March 1995. The paper gives general information on the spent fuel arisings, the storage at the site, the shipment to Russia and on the implementation of the ISFSF. (author). 3 refs

  16. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra J. Eszes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients’ satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants’ experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software. Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening.

  17. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  18. Contribution of clinical trials to gross domestic product in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Antal, János; Pénzes, Miklós; Pozsgay, Csilla; Szepezdi, Zsuzsanna; Nagyjánosi, László

    2014-10-01

    To determine the contribution of clinical trials to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Hungary. An anonymous survey of pharmaceutical companies and clinical research organizations (CROs) was conducted to estimate their clinical trial-related employment and revenues. Clinical trial documents at the National Institute of Pharmacy (NIP) were analyzed to estimate trial-related revenues at health care institutions and the value of investigational medical products (IMPs) based on avoided drug costs. Financial benefits were calculated as 2010 US $ purchasing power parity (PPP) values. Clinical trials increased the revenue of Hungarian health care providers by 1 US $65.6 million. The value of IMPs was US $67.0 million. Clinical trial operation and management activities generated 900 jobs and US $166.9 million in revenue among CROs and pharmaceutical companies. The contribution of clinical trials to the Hungarian GDP in 2010 amounted to 0.2%. Participation in international clinical trials may result in health, financial, and intangible benefits that contribute to the sustainability of health care systems, especially in countries with severe resource constraints. Although a conservative approach was employed to estimate the economic benefits of clinical trials, further research is necessary to improve the generalizability of our findings.

  19. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ingimundardóttir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963–1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis. Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum. Some species (especially Bryum spp. benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments

  20. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimundardóttir, G. V.; Weibull, H.; Cronberg, N.

    2014-08-01

    The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963-1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis). Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata) while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum). Some species (especially Bryum spp.) benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments or dispersal agents

  1. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Migration and Deforestation in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rivayani Darmawan; Stephan Klasen; Nunung Nuryartono

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia now has the highest deforestation rate in the world, with an average increase of about 47,600 ha per year. As a result, the nation is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and is putting its rich biodiversity at risk. Although the literature discussing the political economy of Indonesia commercial's logging is growing, only a small amount focuses on the relation-ship between migration and deforestation. Migration may contribute to the forest cover change, as m...

  3. Probabilitas Teroris Perempuan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Endy Saputro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian police through Densus 88 have analyzed and predicted the strategy of terrorism in Indonesia, which was important to note that those Indonesian terrorist are males. In short, the Indonesian terrorists need to set up their strategy of attack. Will the Indonesian terrorists build a new strategy with taking involve woman within the strategy? This paper aims to understand the involvement of women terrorist in some suicide actions in global context. To sum up, this paper argues that the emergence of women terrorist in Indonesia are possible, yet it requires the precedence conditions of world women terrorists in global contexts.

  4. Floating like a cork: The importance of glacial isostasy in the deglaciation progress in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norddahl, H.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2016-12-01

    Being positioned on top of a hotspot and between two spreading ocean plates explains rheological structure of Iceland and the properties of a 30-35 km thick lithosphere, possibly with high proportion of partial melt, on top of a low viscous asthenosphere below Iceland, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. Rapid variations in glacier loading on the Iceland crust have been proved to generate more or less an instantaneous depression or uplift of the crust and, thus, uphold both temporal and spacial glacio-isostatic equilibrium. Formation of a shoreline requires at least temporal equilibrium between glacial isostasy and eustasy. Eminent raised shorelines - found throughout Iceland - were formed during two separate but consecutive culmination of climatically induced glacier re-advance and consequent transgression of relative sea-level in Younger Dryas and Preboreal times (12.0 and 11.3 kcal BP). A Marine Limit shoreline in W Iceland was formed at 14.7 kcal BP, subsequent to a collapse-like retreat of the marine based part of the Icelandic Ice Sheet (IIS) and just prior to the onset of the Bølling warming, i.e. during a period of anticipated rapid isostatic uplift. A temporary glacio-isostatic equilibrium at that time is best explained by changes in the mode of deglaciation generating dynamic changes within the Ice Sheet itself, changes that resulted in reduced rates of mass-loss and glacio-isostatic uplift to such a degree that a temporal quasi-equilibrium between eustatic rise and isostatic uplift was established. Formation of well-developed raised shoreline is generally regarded as a deglaciation proxy signaling large ice volume changes. Formation of the ML shoreline in W Iceland during the rapid climatic improvement at the beginning of the Bølling/Allerød Interstadial underlines the importance of, beside the geological data, also to take into consideration physical properties of both the lithosphere and asthenosphere in each location.

  5. Iceland as the largest source of natural air pollution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Meinander, Outi; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur

    2017-04-01

    Arctic aerosols are often attributed to the Arctic Haze and long-range transport tracers. There is, however, an important dust source in the Arctic/Sub-arctic region which should receive more attention. The largest desert in the Arctic as well as in the Europe is Iceland with > 40,000 km2 of desert areas. The mean dust suspension frequency was 135 dust days annually in 1949-2012 with decreasing numbers in 2013-2015. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31-40 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling > 1000 km at times. The physical properties of Icelandic dust showed differences in mineralogy, geochemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and colour, compared to the crustal mineral dust. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin, dark in colour with sharp-tipped shards and large bubbles. About 80% of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals, such as iron and titanium. Suspended dust measured at the glacial dust source consisted of such high number of close-to-ultrafine particles as concentrations during active eruptions. Generally, about 50% of the suspended PM10 are submicron particles in Iceland. Contrarily, suspended grains > 2 mm were captured during severe dust storm after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption when the aeolian transport exceeded 11 t m-1 of materials and placed this storms among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Our reflectance measurements showed that Icelandic dust deposited on snow lowers the snow albedo and reduces the snow density as much as Black Carbon. Icelandic volcanic dust tends to act as a positive climate forcing agent, both directly and indirectly, which is different to what generally concluded for crustal dust in the 2013 IPCC report. The high frequency, severity and year-round activity of volcanic dust emissions suggest that Icelandic dust may contribute to Arctic warming.

  6. [Lung volume reduction surgery for severe pulmonary emphysema in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir I; Johannsson, Kristinn B; Guðjónsdóttir, Marta; Jónsson, Steinn; Beck, Hans J; Magnusson, Bjorn; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can benefit patients with severe emphysema. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of LVRS performed in Iceland. A prospective study of 16 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral LVRS through median sternotomy between January 1996 and December 2008. All patients had disabling dyspnea, lung hyperinflation, and emphysema with upper lobe predominance. Preoperatively all patients underwent pulmonary rehabilitation. Spirometry, lung volumes, arterial blood gases and exercise capacity were measured before and after surgery. Mean follow-up time was 8.7 years. Mean age was 59.2 ± 5.9 years. All patients had a history of heavy smoking. There was no perioperative mortality and survival was 100%, 93%, and 63% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) improved significantly after surgery by 35% (plung capacity, residual volume and partial pressure of CO2 also showed statistically significant improvements but exercise capacity, O2 consumption and diffusing capacity of the lung for CO did not change. Prolonged air leak (≥ 7 days) was the most common complication (n=7). Five patients required reoperation, most commonly for sternal dehiscence (n=4). In this small prospective study, FEV1 and FVC increased and lung volumes and PaCO2 improved after LVRS. Long term survival was satisfactory although complications such as reoperations for sternal dehiscence were common and hospital stay therefore often prolonged.

  7. Cultivating Communication: Participatory Approaches in Land Restoration in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Berglund

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Staff of environmental agencies, however, often lack training in communication and in conducting participatory processes. Their interpretation of "participation" is of interest because interpretation affects how participation is practiced. We explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland and how the interpretation affected how participation was carried out in two land restoration projects. Our methods included semi-structured interviews with agency staff and involved stakeholders, participant observations, and document review. The findings showed that participation was seen as a method to accomplish the agency's tasks, and the focus was primarily on the outputs, or products, of the participatory processes. This interpretation worked well and created positive outcomes as long as process factors, such as interaction with other stakeholders and shared influence, were adequately attended to and joint gains were assured, but other stakeholders expressed dissatisfaction when they were not. We conclude that, although tangible outcomes are necessary for environmental agencies, maintaining a balance between product and process focus in participatory projects is important for optimal results. To increase their ability to deal with process factors, environmental agencies, and ultimately environmental management, would benefit from enhancing their personnel's understanding of participation, and capacity to conduct participatory processes. To facilitate participation, this understanding should also be integrated in the institutional framework the agencies work within.

  8. Xylanases of thermophilic bacteria from Icelandic hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertulla, M; Raettoe, M; Viikari, L [VTT, Biotechnical Lab., Espoo (Finland); Kondradsdottir, M [Dept. of Biotechnology, Technological Inst. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Kristjansson, J K [Dept. of Biotechnology, Technological Inst. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland) Inst. of Biotechnology, Iceland Univ., Reykjavik (Iceland)

    1993-02-01

    Thermophilic, aerobic bacteria isolated from Icelandic hot springs were screened for xylanase activity. Of 97 strains tested, 14 were found to be xylanase positive. Xylanase activities up to 12 nkat/ml were produced by these strains in shake flasks on xylan medium. The xylanases of the two strains producing the highest activities (ITI 36 and ITI 283) were similar with respect to temperature and pH optima (80deg C and pH 8.0). Xylanase production of strain ITI 36 was found to be induced by xylan and xylose. Xylanase activity of 24 nkat/ml was obtained with this strain in a laboratory-scale-fermentor cultivation on xylose medium. [beta]-Xylosidase activity was also detected in the culture filtrate. The thermal half-life of ITI 36 xylanase was 24 h at 70deg C. The highest production of sugars from hydrolysis of beech xylan was obtained at 70deg C, although xylan depolymerization was detected even up to 90deg C. (orig.).

  9. Political control and perceptions of corruption in Icelandic local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Political control is an important value of democratic governance and without it democratic accountability can hardly mean much. This is why a number of authors have seen politicization of public service appointments and greater control by the centre as a potential counterweight against trends in recent decades towards more networked and less hierarchical organizational forms of directing public policy. It may help to reassert democratic control. The option of strengthening political control, however, has not been much studied with regard to its likely effects on corruption. Power has the potential to corrupt unless adequately controlled and strengthening political power in a networked environment may create a structure of temptation which conventional deterrents to corruption are unable to curb. The impact of strong political leadership on corruption is here studied in the context of Icelandic local government, making use of institutional variations in the office of Mayor, which provide a unique opportunity for testing the effects of strong political control on corruption. The analysis indicates that municipalities with strong political mayors are likely to be associated with perceptions of corruption even when other factors, such as the structure of temptation and deterrents, are accounted for.

  10. The Impact of Amalgamations on Services in Icelandic Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grétar Thór Eythórsson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with answering the question whether municipal amalgamations can meet the wishes at the root of the most common motives behind them: to gain cost-efficiency and more quality in the municipal services. The analysis is partly based on a survey among Icelandic local leaders in 2015 and partly on survey among citizens in 8 recently amalgamated municipalities collected with a snowball method through Facebook in the spring and summer 2013. The main results are that the impact of amalgamations on municipal services seems to depend on whether we look at the central or peripheral parts of the municipality. Both leaders and citizens seem to perceive developments of services differently depending on the position in the municipality. In the peripheries, they have significantly more negative view than in the service centres. This has to do with both their evaluation of specific services and their general evaluation of service development. However, in the general evaluation the difference is significantly larger.

  11. Magma-Hydrothermal Transition: Basalt Alteration at Supercritical Conditions in Drill Core from Reykjanes, Iceland, Iceland Deep Drilling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Fowler, A. P.; Schiffman, P.; Fridleifsson, G. Ó.; Elders, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project well IDDP-2, drilled to 4,659 m in the Reykjanes geothermal system, the on-land extension of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, SW Iceland. Drill core was recovered, for the first time, from a seawater-recharged, basalt-hosted hydrothermal system at supercritical conditions. The well has not yet been allowed to heat to in situ conditions, but temperature and pressure of 426º C and 340 bar was measured at 4500 m depth prior to the final coring runs. Spot drill cores were recovered between drilling depths of 3648.00 m and 4657.58 m. Analysis of the core is on-going, but we present the following initial observations. The cored material comes from a basaltic sheeted dike complex in the brittle-ductile transition zone. Felsic (plagiogranite) segregation veins are present in minor amounts in dikes recovered below 4300 m. Most core is pervasively altered to hornblende + plagioclase, but shows only minor changes in major and minor element composition. The deepest samples record the transition from the magmatic regime to the presently active hydrothermal system. Diabase near dike margins has been locally recrystallized to granoblastic-textured orthopyroxene-clinopyroxe-plagioclase hornfels. High temperature hydrothermal alteration includes calcic plagioclase (up to An100) and aluminous hornblende (up to 11 Wt. % Al2O3) locally intergrown with hydrothermal biotite, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and/or olivine. Hydrothermal olivine is iron-rich (Mg # 59-64) compared to expected values for igneous olivine. Biotite phenocrysts in felsic segregation veins have higher Cl and Fe compared to hydrothermal biotites. Orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene pairs in partially altered quench dike margins give temperature of 955° to 1067° C. Orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene pairs from hornfels and hydrothermal veins and replacements give temperature ranging from 774° to 888° C. Downhole fluid sampling is planned following thermal equilibration of the drill hole. Previous work

  12. Small Enterprise Dynamics in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, A.; Rodriquez, E.; Sandee, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia before and during the crisis. It argues that SME productivity has risen substantially, at rates not far from those of larger firms. Case studies indicate that various mechanisms are at work, such as technology

  13. Comparison of grass haylage digestibility and metabolic plasma profile in Icelandic and Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, S; Jansson, A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare digestibility and metabolic response in Icelandic and Standardbred horses fed two grass haylages harvested at different stages of maturity. Six horses of each breed were used in a 24-day change-over design. A total collection of faeces was made on days 15-17 and 22-24. Blood samples were collected on day 24 of each period and analysed for total plasma protein (TPP), plasma urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cortisol and insulin concentration. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre or energy between breeds but organic matter digestibility was higher in the Standardbred horses. On both haylages, the Icelandic horses gained weight whereas the Standardbred horses lost weight. The Icelandic horses had higher TPP, plasma insulin and lower plasma urea concentrations. Our results indicate that the Icelandic horse may be more prone to maintain positive energy balance in relation to the Standardbred horse, but there were no indication of a better digestive capacity in the Icelandic horses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurður Kristinsson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abroad, but also to confront difficult moral issues concerning surrogacy, global justice, human rights and exploitation. In March 2015, a legislative proposal permitting altruistic surrogacy, subject to strict regulation and oversight, and prohibiting the solicitation of commercial surrogacy abroad, was presented in the Icelandic Parliament. The proposal aims to protect the interest of the child first, respect the autonomy of the surrogate second, and accommodate the intended parents’ wishes third. After a brief overview of the development of the surrogacy issue in Iceland, this article describes the main features of this legislative proposal and evaluates it from an ethical and global justice perspective. It concludes that the proposed legislation is a response to problems generated by cross-border surrogacy in the context of evolving public attitudes toward the issue, and constitutes a valid attempt to reduce the moral hazards of surrogacy consistent with insights from current bioethical literature. Although the proposed legislation arguably represents an improvement over the current ban, however, difficult problems concerning evasive travel and global injustice are likely to persist until effective international coordination is achieved.

  15. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurður

    2016-12-01

    Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abroad, but also to confront difficult moral issues concerning surrogacy, global justice, human rights and exploitation. In March 2015, a legislative proposal permitting altruistic surrogacy, subject to strict regulation and oversight, and prohibiting the solicitation of commercial surrogacy abroad, was presented in the Icelandic Parliament. The proposal aims to protect the interest of the child first, respect the autonomy of the surrogate second, and accommodate the intended parents' wishes third. After a brief overview of the development of the surrogacy issue in Iceland, this article describes the main features of this legislative proposal and evaluates it from an ethical and global justice perspective. It concludes that the proposed legislation is a response to problems generated by cross-border surrogacy in the context of evolving public attitudes toward the issue, and constitutes a valid attempt to reduce the moral hazards of surrogacy consistent with insights from current bioethical literature. Although the proposed legislation arguably represents an improvement over the current ban, however, difficult problems concerning evasive travel and global injustice are likely to persist until effective international coordination is achieved.

  16. Icelandic basaltic geothermal field: A natural analog for nuclear waste isolation in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, G.C.; Grandstaff, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Analog studies of Icelandic geothermal fields have shown that the design of nuclear waste repositories in basalt can benefit by comparison to the data base already available from the development of these geothermal fields. A high degree of similarity exists between these two systems: their petrology, groundwater geochemistry, mineral solubilities, hydrologic parameters, temperature ranges, water-rock redox equilibria, hydrothermal pH values, and secondary mineralogies all show considerable overlap in the range of values. The experimentally-simulated hydrothermal studies of the basaltic nuclear waste repository rocks have, at this time, produced a data base that receives a strong confirmation from the Icelandic analog. Furthermore, the Icelandic analog should eventually be employed to extrapolate into higher and lower temperatures, into longer time-base chemical comparisons, and into more realistic mineral deposition studies, than have been possible in the laboratory evaluations of the nuclear waste repository designs. This eventual use of the Icelandic analog will require cooperative work with the Icelandic Geological Survey. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Iceland as a western country. How to classify medieval church law in the vernacular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lára Magnúsardóttir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iceland’s subjection to the king of Norway in 1262-64 was followed by a legislation in which a law book for Church and spiritual matters was composed in the vernacular for each country. Such law was implemented in Iceland in 1275 along with a separate secular law book in 1281. Both books remained in force until the middle of the 16th century. A church law that was separate, both from the secular law and that of Roman Church appears to set Iceland apart from other Western European countries where spiritual matters were governed according to the Latin law of the Roman Church. This has been viewed as an indication of constant rivalry between the religious and secular authorities, usually presenting the Church as an overreaching and even oppressive institution against which laity struggled. But a comparison of Icelandic Church law with the Latin Canon law shows that the Church in Iceland submitted entirely to the authority of the Roman Church and thus shows that the Icelandic Church law was, despite its obscure language, a specific representation of the law of the Roman Church. A Norwegian concordat from 1277 shows the king’s recognition of separate spiritual and temporal jurisdictions. This cooperation is readily apparent in later court cases.

  18. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Rennie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher enegagement with online and open delivery methods of higher education. The Net-University Project was an EU Leonardo-funded initiative to compare approaches to open and distance education in Iceland, Sweden, and Scotland, with additional lessons from Atlantic Canada. In particular, it sought to focus on the transfer of innovation in continuing university education, with particular emphasis on the development and delivery of online higher education courses throughout rural Iceland (i.e., outside of Reykjavik. The partners concentrated on how knowledge and experience about distributed and distance learning models could be transferred between the partner countries and how such models can be integrated into the education system to better support higher education and lifelong learning. There was a particular interest in the practical use of open educational resources (OER for course design and in the sharing of these course modules among university partners. Some good practice and lessons from OER use in course creation are listed.

  19. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  20. Economic conditions, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: analysis of the Icelandic economic collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdóttir, Kristín Helga; Jónsson, Stefán Hrafn; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has found a positive short-term relationship between the 2008 collapse and hypertension in Icelandic males. With Iceland's economy experiencing a phase of economic recovery, an opportunity to pursue a longer-term analysis of the collapse has emerged. Using data from a nationally representative sample, fixed-effect estimations and mediation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between the Icelandic economic collapse in 2008 and the longer-term impact on hypertension and cardiovascular health. A sensitivity analysis was carried out with pooled logit models estimated as well as an alternative dependent variable. Our attrition analysis revealed that results for cardiovascular diseases were affected by attrition, but not results from estimations on the relationship between the economic crisis and hypertension. When compared to the boom year 2007, our results point to an increased probability of Icelandic women having hypertension in the year 2012, when the Icelandic economy had recovered substantially from the economic collapse in 2008. This represents a deviation from pre-crisis trends, thus suggesting a true economic-recovery impact on hypertension.

  1. The impact of divergence time on the nature of population structure: an example from Iceland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkes L Price

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic population has been sampled in many disease association studies, providing a strong motivation to understand the structure of this population and its ramifications for disease gene mapping. Previous work using 40 microsatellites showed that the Icelandic population is relatively homogeneous, but exhibits subtle population structure that can bias disease association statistics. Here, we show that regional geographic ancestries of individuals from Iceland can be distinguished using 292,289 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. We further show that subpopulation differences are due to genetic drift since the settlement of Iceland 1100 years ago, and not to varying contributions from different ancestral populations. A consequence of the recent origin of Icelandic population structure is that allele frequency differences follow a null distribution devoid of outliers, so that the risk of false positive associations due to stratification is minimal. Our results highlight an important distinction between population differences attributable to recent drift and those arising from more ancient divergence, which has implications both for association studies and for efforts to detect natural selection using population differentiation.

  2. The Spatial Variation of Dust Particulate Matter Concentrations during Two Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 10 to 1600 µg·m−3 (PM10 = 7 to 583 µg·m−3. The mean PM1 concentrations were 97–241 µg·m−3 with a maximum of 261 µg·m−3 for the first storm. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios of >0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34–0.63 show that suspension of volcanic materials in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations, similar to polluted urban areas in Europe or Asia. Icelandic volcanic dust consists of a higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. Both dust storms occurred in relatively densely inhabited areas of Iceland. First results on size partitioning of Icelandic dust presented here should challenge health authorities to enhance research in relation to dust and shows the need for public dust warning systems.

  3. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Case reports: arsenic pollution in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw; Visoottiviseth, Pornsawan; Bux, M Khoda; Födényi, Rita; Kováts, Nora; Borbély, Gábor; Galbács, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    Although arsenic contamination in the three countries described herein differs, a number of common themes emerge. In each country, the presence of arsenic is both long term and of geological origin. Moreover, in each of these countries, arsenic was only recently discovered to be a potential public health problem, having been first formally recognized in the 1980s or 1990s. In Bangledesh, exposure of the public to arsenic arose as a result of the search for microbially safe drinking water; this search resulted in the sinking of tube wells into aquifers. In Hungary, the natural bedrock geology was responsible for contamination of aquifer water. The genesis of arsenic contamination in Thailand arose primarily from small-scale alluvial mining activities, which mobilized geologically bound arsenic. Because of the complex chemistry of arsenic, and variability in where it is found and how it is bound, multiple mitigation methods must be considered for mitigating episodes of environmental contamination. The Ron Phibun region of Thailand has a 100-yr history of tin mining. A geological survey of the region was conducted in the mid-1990s by the Department of Mineral Resources and Department of Industry of Thailand, and was supported by the British Geological Society. Skin cancer in Thailand was first reported in 1987, in the southern part of the country; among other symptoms observed, there was evidence of IQ diminutions among the population. Arsenic water levels to 9,000 pg/L were reported; such levels are substantially above any guideline levels. A long-term plan to mitigate arsenic contamination was devised in 1998-2000. The plan involved removal of arsenic-contaminated land and improved management of mining wastes. However, at $22 million, the cost was deemed prohibitive for the regional Thai economy. An alternative solution of providing pipeline drinking water to the exposed population was also unsuccessful, either because arsenic contamination levels did not fall

  5. Budapest, Hungary, Perspective View, SRTM Elevation Model with Landsat Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    After draining the northern flank of the Alps Mountains in Germany and Austria, the Danube River flows east as it enters this west-looking scene (upper right) and forms the border between Slovakia and Hungary. The river then leaves the border as it enters Hungary and transects the Transdanubian Mountains, which trend southwest to northeast. Upon exiting the mountains, the river turns southward, flowing past Budapest (purplish blue area) and along the western margin of the Great Hungarian Plain.South and west of the Danube, the Transdanubian Mountains have at most only about 400 meters (about 1300 feet) of relief but they exhibit varied landforms, which include volcanic, tectonic, fluvial (river), and eolian (wind) features. A thick deposit of loess (dust deposits likely blown from ancient glacial outwash) covers much of this area, and winds from the northwest, funneled between the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are apparently responsible for a radial pattern of erosional streaks across the entire region.This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The false colors of the scene result from displaying Landsat bands 1, 4, and 7 in blue, green, and red, respectively. Band 1 is visible blue light, but bands 4 and 7 are reflected infrared light. This band combination maximizes color contrasts between the major land cover types, namely vegetation (green), bare ground (red), and water (blue). Shading of the elevation model was used to further highlight the topographic features.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  6. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  7. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  8. Tissue banking in Hungary: legal, ethical and technical frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, S.; Ternesi, A.

    1999-01-01

    Hungary is a small country in the middle of Europe with a population of 10 million. Many religions are represented in the country but the majority of the population is Christian. The Hungarian medical education and practice based on the 'German School' and the modem medicine has been started more than 200 years ago. At the same time some of the medical school have been established first in Nagyszombat and the school for surgery in Kolozsyar, later in Debrecen 80 years ago. Recently we have four medical faculties. From the beginning of implementation of modern medicine many efforts were taken to establish the relevant legal frame and ethical rules to help and make understandable and acceptable for the society of various medical interventions. The previous mentioned structure was before and presently conformed with the political and social structure of the country. The initial of tissue for transplantation in medicine was widely accepted by medical fraternity since the middle of the century. Recently tissue grafts are performed daily is in burn, reconstructive surgery, in bone and nerve surgery, unfortunately we use commercial products in heart surgery. At the initial phase of our tissue banking activity, we first followed the American Association Tissue Banking procedures based on our personal contact with leading US Tissue Bank and the American Association of Tissue Banks. Later after joining the Europe Association of Tissue Bank we played an active role in the establishing of the Europe recommendations related to legal, ethical and technical rules of tissue banking. In this presentation the legal frame and the recent ethical concept for tissue donation as well as the technical possibilities and the donor recreation programme of tissue banks will be introduced to the audience. Also the problems of legal harmonization will be mentioned to which we are facing as an associated country to the European Union

  9. Smoking ban and health at birth: Evidence from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Tamás; Hajdu, Gábor

    2018-06-13

    In 2012, smoking restrictions were extended to hospitality venues in Hungary. Women working in bars and restaurants were primarily affected by the intervention. In this research, we analyze the effect of this smoking ban on the outcomes of their pregnancies. Using individual live birth, fetal loss, and infant mortality registry data, we examine the probability of live birth, indicators of health at birth, and the probability of death in the first year of life. We apply a difference-in-differences framework and show that the smoking ban has improved health at birth. We observed birth weight to increase by 56 g (95% CI: 4.2 to 106.8) and gestation length by 0.19 weeks (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.36). Due to the ban, the probability of being born with very low and low birth weight has decreased by 1.2 and 2.2 percentage points, respectively (95% CI: -0.2 to -2.2 and 0.06 to -4.4), and we see a 0.9 percentage points reduction in the chance of being born very preterm (95% CI: -0.03 to -1.9). We also observe a decrease in the probability of being born with a low Ponderal index (decrease of 4.1 percentage points, 95% CI: -0.7 to -7.5). Performing a series of robustness and placebo tests, we provide evidence that supports the causal interpretation of our results. We also show that the ban was more beneficial for newborns of parents with low educational attainment and at the bottom of the fetal health endowment distribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Basic education in communist Hungary. A commons approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Gyuris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In commons research, the study of the ‘knowledge commons’ has emerged as a new field of interest over the last few years. Our paper begins by providing a brief overview of the state of research in the field, and proceeds by discussing some crucial but relatively underconceptualised issues. The difference between information and knowledge, and the ambiguities surrounding the claim that all sorts of knowledge can be considered part of the commons, are the focal point here. We also pay close attention to education, arguing that it is not a common good, but rather a common-pool resource institution that ensures that some forms of knowledge can be governed as a commons. With regard to these issues, the article provides a case study, one in which we analyse basic education in Communist Hungary, and look for evidence of the commons design principles as outlined in Elinor Ostrom’s IAD Framework. Given the complex nature of basic education, we investigate it from three points of view: as a service, as a set of physical structures (e.g. school buildings, and as a complex of organizational structures (e.g. legal and financial arrangements. On the basis of empirical findings we argue that basic education in the Stalinist epoch did not correspond to Ostromian design principles. Basic education, therefore, was not managed in an equitable way, and its geographical accessibility was uneven. During the ‘technocratic’ Communism of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the education system underwent important changes. However, though the circle of those who had some impact on the governance of education expanded, most individuals involved with the education system were still excluded. As a result, the commons approach did not become stronger in general, nor did spatial unevenness with respect to access to basic education decrease. The paper finishes with a brief conclusion of our findings and a discussion of some questions for future research.

  11. Radiation protection training: twenty year experience in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, Sandor; Kanyar, Bela; Zagyvay, Peter; Solymosi, Jozsef; Bujtas, Tibor; Feher, Istvan; Giczi, Ferenc; Deme, Sandor; Uray, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    In Hungary, radiation protection training for radiation workers has been introduced in very early, just following the publication of the ICRP recommendation No. 26. Before that, in some of the institutions, radiation protection training was recommended for technicians and medical doctors working in nuclear medicine, X-ray diagnostic radiology and radiation therapy, as well as in some of industrial applications, but not on regular way. Since 1988, radiation protection training regulated by the Ministry of Health and required for all of the workers in radiation workplaces licensed by the authority the State Public Health and Medical Officers Service (SPHAMOS). Decree No. 16/2000. (VI. 8.) EuM of the Minister of Health on the enforcement of Clauses of the Nuclear Law 116/1996 regulates the radiation protection training of Radiation Workers (RW). Annex 4 of Decree sees radiation protection training and in-service training: Persons performing conducted work in the field of the use of the nuclear energy and any other work within legal relationship shall be educated in training and in-service training at an interval of 5 years. Three levels of the training introduced; basic, extended and comprehensive, based on radiation risk related to the given job. Several institutions are involved in performing radiation protection training, such universities, scientific institutions, Regional Radiological Health Centers (RRHC) of SPHAMOS, private enterprises etc. All training course material is subject to accreditation. Most of the faculties of the universities involved in training of natural sciences and engineering provide subjects on the fundamentals of dosimetry, radiobiology and radiation protection within the courses of physics, biophysics, chemistry, biology, ecology etc. These courses take 5-10 contact hours per week on average. The members of the Hungarian Committee of EUTERP Platform summarize their broad experience collected in the past 20 year. (author)

  12. SET UP OF THE NEW AUTOMATIC HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL NETWORK IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NAGy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian Meteorological Service (OMSZ and General Directorate of Water Management (OVF in Hungary run conventional precipitation measurement networks consisting of at least 1000 stations. OMSZ automated its synoptic and climatological network in 90’s and now more than 100 automatic stations give data every 1-10 minutes via GPRS channel. In 2007 the experts from both institutions determined the requirements of a common network. The predecessor in title of OVF is general Directorate for Water and Environment gave a project proposal in 2008 for establishment of a new hydrometeorological network based on common aims for meteorology and hydrology. The new hydrometeorological network was set up in 2012 financed by KEOP project. This network has got 141 weighing precipitation gauges, 118 temperature - humidity sensors and 25 soil moisture and soil temperature instruments. Near by Tisza-Lake two wind sensors have been installed. The network is operated by OMSZ and OVF together. OVF and its institutions maintain the stations itself and support the electricity. OMSZ operates data collection and transmission, maintaines and calibrates the sensors. Using precipitation data of enhanced network the radar precipitation field quality may be more precise, which are input of run-off model. Thereby the time allowance may be increased in flood-control events. Based on soil moisture and temperature water balance in soil may be modelled and forecast can be produced in different conditions. It is very important task in drought and inland water conditions. Considering OMSZ investment project in which new Doppler dual polarisation radar and 14 disdrometers will be installed, the precipitation estimation may be improved since 2015.

  13. Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and The Influence of Special Interest Groups: Taxation in Iceland from 1930 to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on tax evasion and tax avoidance in Iceland, and on how special interest groups have shaped the taxation system to serve their own ends. The period covered is from 1930, when the present Icelandic system of power was established, to the present.

  14. Imaging of bone spavin. A radiographic and scintigraphic study of degenerative joint disease in the distal tarsus in Icelandic horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eksell, P.

    2000-01-01

    Radiography and scintigraphy are commonly used for the diagnosis of skeletal disorders in horses. Icelandic Horses have a high prevalence of degenerative joint disease of the distal tarsus, generally known as bone spavin (BS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and develop the use of radiography and scintigraphy for the detection of BS in Icelandic Horses

  15. Soot on snow in Iceland: First results on black carbon and organic carbon in Iceland 2016 snow and ice samples, including the glacier Solheimajökull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Gritsevich, Maria; Aurela, Minna; Arnalds, Olafur; Dragosics, Monika; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Kontu, Anna; Kivekäs, Niku; Leppäranta, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Laaksonen, Ari; Lihavainen, Heikki; Arslan, Ali N.; Paatero, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    New results on black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) on snow and ice in Iceland in 2016 will be presented in connection to our earlier results on BC and OC on Arctic seasonal snow surface, and in connection to our 2013 and 2016 experiments on effects of light absorbing impurities, including Icelandic dust, on snow albedo, melt and density. Our sampling included the glacier Solheimajökull in Iceland. The mass balance of this glacier is negative and it has been shrinking during the last 20 years by 900 meters from its southwestern corner. Icelandic snow and ice samples were not expected to contain high concentrations of BC, as power generation with domestic renewable water and geothermal power energy sources cover 80 % of the total energy consumption in Iceland. Our BC results on filters analyzed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC) confirm this assumption. Other potential soot sources in Iceland include agricultural burning, industry (aluminum and ferroalloy production and fishing industry), open burning, residential heating and transport (shipping, road traffic, aviation). On the contrary to low BC, we have found high concentrations of organic carbon in our Iceland 2016 samples. Some of the possible reasons for those will be discussed in this presentation. Earlier, we have measured and reported unexpectedly low snow albedo values of Arctic seasonally melting snow in Sodankylä, north of Arctic Circle. Our low albedo results of melting snow have been confirmed by three independent data sets. We have explained these low values to be due to: (i) large snow grain sizes up to 3 mm in diameter (seasonally melting snow); (ii) meltwater surrounding the grains and increasing the effective grain size; (iii) absorption caused by impurities in the snow, with concentration of elemental carbon (black carbon) in snow of 87 ppb, and organic carbon 2894 ppb. The high concentrations of carbon were due to air masses originating from the Kola Peninsula, Russia

  16. APPLICATION OF THE EU-PRINCIPLES IN ROMANIA AND HUNGARY CONCERNING THE BOARDS OF LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella KECZER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance ensures that boards are able to exercise appropriate scrutiny over management and that shareholders, as owners of the company, are able to hold boards accountable. As such, a high level of corporate governance contributes significantly to investors' confidence and market stability, thus fostering business efficiency. In 2005 the European Commission launched a recommendation on the boards of listed companies and invited Member States to follow the guidelines. In 2008 both Romania and Hungary launched a new Code of Corporate Governance on the basis of the EU recommendations. In my paper I present the EU principles, and by examining the national codes of Romania and Hungary I analyze to which extent and in what issues these two countries have adopted the EU recommendations. I concluded that by the new codes of corporate governance issued in 2008 Romania and Hungary have followed to a large extent the provisions of the EU recommendation.

  17. Antibacterial use in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark 1999-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gudnason, Thorolfur; Jensen, Ulrich Stab

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark are neighbouring Nordic countries with great ethnic, cultural, and political similarities and are relatively homogeneous. Important information about prescribing practices can be obtained by comparing the antibacterial use in these countries...... in the Faroe Islands and Iceland, whereas in Denmark it increased gradually from 13.5 DID in 1999 to 19.5 DID in 2011. The higher use in Iceland can be explained by much higher consumption of tetracyclines. There was also considerable variation in the use of individual penicillins and macrolides between...... the countries. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the great ethnic and cultural similarities of these 3 countries, we found marked differences in total antibacterial use and important differences in the use of individual antibacterials....

  18. Network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur - the Sagas of Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Carron, P.; Kenna, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Íslendinga sögur - or Sagas of Icelanders - constitute a collection of medieval literature set in Iceland around the late 9th to early 11th centuries, the so-called Saga Age. They purport to describe events during the period around the settlement of Iceland and the generations immediately following and constitute an important element of world literature thanks to their unique narrative style. Although their historicity is a matter of scholarly debate, the narratives contain interwoven and overlapping plots involving thousands of characters and interactions between them. Here we perform a network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur in an attempt to gather quantitative information on interrelationships between characters and to compare saga society to other social networks.

  19. Alteration in the IRDP drill hole compared with other drill holes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna

    1982-08-01

    The overall alteration pattern in the drill hole at Reydarfjördur is very similar to alteration patterns observed in Icelandic geothermal areas and in low-grade metamorphosed basalts in deep crustal sections elsewhere in Iceland. However more detail is obtained by the study of the IRDP drill core than by study of drill cuttings sampled in previous drill holes in Iceland. A comparatively high fossil thermal gradient is obtained at Reydarfjördur by a combination of mineral stability data and the observed occurence of secondary minerals. This high gradient is consistent with the measured dike dilation at the drill site and the location of the drill site adjacent to a central volcano.

  20. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...... in the selected samples. Uncontaminated Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts appear to have sampled the same broad range in mantle compositions seen in Recent Iceland basalts. In contrast to the peripheral lava suites from the British Isles and Southeast Greenland, where the inferred uncontaminated magmas have...... to the most radiogenic values found in recent Icelandic basalts. Furthermore, the main volume of lavas in East Greenland is displaced away from the NAEM towards this radiogenic Pb component. Thus, this ‘Iceland radiogenic Pb end-member’ component was a significant contributor to the break-up-related magmatism...

  1. Iceland and the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy: Challenge or Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iceland had initial misgivings about the EU’s capacity created in 1999 for military crisis management. In the current debate over Iceland’s EU application, questions have been raised about the possible impact of CSDP on the nation’s non-military status. In fact the CSDP is designed to respect national choices in defence; requires unanimity on new actions; and allows case-by-case decisions on participation. Preliminary study of six other small states in the EU suggests that none of them has been obliged by membership to abandon national preferences in this field, though all have made special efforts to support EU police and civilian operations - an area where Iceland is also well qualified to contribute. The more significant effects of EU membership for Icelandic security might in fact come in other, ‘softer’ areas including EU obligations for mutual assistance in civil emergencies.

  2. Geographical, and seasonal variation in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Icelandic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gísli A Víkingsson

    2003-07-01

    Overall capelin (Mallotus villosus comprised the predominant prey, followed by sandeel (Ammodytidae sp., then gadids, cephalopods and redfish (Sebastes marinus, while other taxa were of less importance. Differences were detected in diet composition among 5 areas around Iceland with redfish and gadids more prominent in the northern areas. Off SW Iceland there was considerable seasonal variation in the porpoise diet, where capelin appeared to be dominant in late winter and spring and sandeel in the summer through early winter. Predominance of capelin in the diet coincided with the spawning migration of capelin from northern waters along the east, south and west coasts of Iceland. Mature females appeared to have a more diverse diet than other reproductive classes. The length distributions of fish consumed by the porpoises ranged from 1 to 51 cm although most fish prey were less than 30 cm.

  3. International Patients on Operation Vacation – Perspectives of Patients Travelling to Hungary for Orthopaedic Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Kovacs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The importance of cross-border healthcare, medical and health tourism plays a significant role in the European health policy and health management. After dentistry, orthopaedic treatments are the leading motivation for seeking care in Hungary, as patients with rheumatic and motion diseases are drawn to the thermal spas and well-established orthopaedic centres. This paper aims to gain insight into foreign patients’ perspectives on their experience of having sought medical tourism in orthopaedic care in Hungary. Methods A patient survey was conducted in 2012 on motivations for seeking treatment abroad, orthopaedic care received and overall satisfaction. In addition, health professionals’ interviews, and 17 phone interviews were conducted in 2013 with Romanian patients who had orthopaedic treatment in Hungary. Finally, medical records of foreign patients were analysed. Results The survey was completed by 115 participants – 61.1% females, mean age= 41.9, 87% Romanian origin. Most of the patients came to Hungary for orthopaedic surgeries, e.g. arthroscopy, knee/hip prosthesis or spinal surgery. 72.6% chose Hungary because of related to perceived better quality and longstanding culture of Hungarian orthopaedic care. Over 57% of patients reported being ‘very satisfied’ with care received and 41.6% ‘satisfied’. The follow-up interviews further reflected this level of satisfaction, therefore many respondents stating they have already recommended the Hungarian healthcare to others. Conclusion Based on the findings, patients from neighbouring regions are increasingly seeking orthopaedic care in Hungary. Patients having orthopaedic care are highly satisfied with the quality of care, the whole treatment process from the availability of information to discharge summaries and would consider returning for further treatments.

  4. Indonesia-DLN Is A Digital Library Network In Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, Ismail

    2001-01-01

    Within this paper, philosophy of the knowledge sharing, vision of the network, and how it can give benefits to Indonesia are described. The status of the network is described that show the successfulness of the architecture in tying together partner's knowledge from all big islands of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya) whether they have dedicated internet connection or only a dial-up one. Currently 13 institutions have joined the network and 15+ in progress of developing their servers. Features of the software, Ganesha Digital Library (GDL version 3.1) are presented, that is now distributed as a Free-Software that is based on My SQL, PHP, and Apache

  5. Post-partum reproductive performance of the Icelandic dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldon, J.; Olafsson, T.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to monitor the reproductive performance of Icelandic dairy cow herds with and without histories of fertility problems under normal farming conditions. Artificial inseminations and calvings were recorded, pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation, and progesterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in sequential samples of milk. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals and the concentrations of glucose, urea, calcium and magnesium were determined. Clinical ketosis and low glucose were found in one third of the cows on problem farms. The mean time of first post-partum ovulation was 49 days for cows with ketosis, compared with 34 days for cows free of ketosis. Cows in the normal herds ovulated considerably later than is reported for many other breeds of dairy cows; however, the time of first post-partum AI, the time of conception and the conception rate were similar to those reported for other breeds. The effects of season and herd were statistically significant for the time of first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception; the effect of area was highly significant for the time of ovulation. Progesterone profiles showed that over 50% of the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short and had low progesterone concentrations. Season had significant effects on the length of the interval from calving to first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception, on the conception rate to first AI and consequently on the number of AIs per conception, and on the blood levels of glucose, urea and calcium. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion in the subarctic environment of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Jóhannesdóttir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensified agricultural practices have driven biodiversity loss throughout the world, and although many actions aimed at halting and reversing these declines have been developed, their effectiveness depends greatly on the willingness of stakeholders to take part in conservation management. Knowledge of the willingness and capacity of landowners to engage with conservation can therefore be key to designing successful management strategies in agricultural land. In Iceland, agriculture is currently at a relatively low intensity but is very likely to expand in the near future. At the same time, Iceland supports internationally important breeding populations of many ground-nesting birds that could be seriously impacted by further expansion of agricultural activities. To understand the views of Icelandic farmers toward bird conservation, given the current potential for agricultural expansion, 62 farms across Iceland were visited and farmers were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire survey in which respondents indicated of a series of future actions. Most farmers intend to increase the area of cultivated land in the near future, and despite considering having rich birdlife on their land to be very important, most also report they are unlikely to specifically consider bird conservation in their management, even if financial compensation were available. However, as no agri-environment schemes are currently in place in Iceland, this concept is highly unfamiliar to Icelandic farmers. Nearly all respondents were unwilling, and thought it would be impossible, to delay harvest, but many were willing to consider sparing important patches of land and/or maintaining existing pools within fields (a key habitat feature for breeding waders. Farmers' views on the importance of having rich birdlife on their land and their willingness to participate in bird conservation provide a potential platform for the codesign of conservation management with landowners

  7. 87Sr/86Sr isotope fingerprinting of Scottish and Icelandic migratory shorebirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jane; Bullman, Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Biosphere Sr isotope composition data from Iceland and Scotland suggest that terrestrially feeding birds from these two countries will have significantly different 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotope composition in their tissues. The aim of this study is to test if these differences can be measured within the bone and feather of migratory wading birds, who feed terrestrially as juveniles, thus providing a provenance tool for these birds. The study shows that birds can be distinguished on the basis of the Sr isotope composition of their bone. The field for Icelandic birds is defined by data from juvenile common redshank (Tringa totanus) and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) which give 0.7056 ± 0.0012, (2σ, n = 7). The majority of Scottish birds in this study are from coastal regions and have a signature close to that of seawater of 0.7095 ± 0.0006 (2σ, n = 9). The Sr ratios in the body tissue of these two populations of all Icelandic and Scottish adult and juvenile birds analysed are significantly different (p 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values as high as 0.7194 which reflect their non-marine diet. Icelandic redshank (Tringa totanus robusta) that have flown to Scotland and returned to Iceland show the effect of the Scottish contribution to their diet with elevated values of 0.7086 ± 0.0004, (2σ, n = 6). Redshank found in Scotland that cannot be classified on the basis biometric analysis are shown to be of Icelandic origin and analysis of the primary feathers from two birds demonstrates that isotope variation between feathers could be used to track changes in diet related to the timing of individual feather growth.

  8. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1 How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2 Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3 Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4 Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5 Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive. Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas.

  9. The Role and Importance of Spa and Wellness Tourism in Hungary's Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó János

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and highlights the role and importance of spa and wellness tourism in Hungary. Ever since tourism has played an important role in the social-economic processes of the country the leading tourism product proved to be health tourism (spa and wellness thanks to the advantageous physical geographical and social-political background. After the presentation of the country-specific theoretical system of spa and wellness, the paper examines the supply and the demand side together with competitor analysis and recent trends in spa and wellness in Hungary.

  10. Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huse-Olsen Lisel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of the "primitive" Icelandic horse relative to that reported for large horse breeds developed over the recent centuries. This information would provide practical guidance to owners and veterinarians as to when the skeleton is mature enough to commence training, and would be potentially interesting to those scientists investigating the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis. Interestingly, osteochondrosis has not been documented in the Icelandic horse. Methods The radiographic closure time of the appendicular growth plates was studied in 64 young Icelandic horses. The results were compared with previously published closure times reported for other, larger horse breeds. The radiographs were also examined for any signs of developmental orthopaedic diseases. In order to describe further the growth pattern of the Icelandic horse, the total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined and the height at the withers was measured. Results Most of the examined growth plates were fully closed at the age of approximately three years. The horses reached adult height at this age; however ALP activity was still mildly increased over baseline values. The growth plates in the digits were the first to close at 8.1 to 8.5 months of age, and those in the regions of the distal radius (27.4 to 32.0 months, tuber olecrani (31.5 to 32.2 months, and the stifle (27.0 to 40.1 months were the last to close. No horse was found to have osteochondrosis type lesions in the neighbouring joints of the evaluated growth plates. Conclusion The Icelandic horse appears to have similar radiographic closure times for most of the growth plates of its limbs as reported for large new breeds of

  11. Konstruksi Pencitraan Maskulinitas pada Majalah Men's Health Indonesia Versus Feminitas pada Majalah Women's Health Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Azis, Andi Azisah; Cangara, Hafied; Bahfiarti, Tuti

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the construction of image projection of masculinity formed Indonesia Men's Health magazine versus femininity of Indonesia Women's Health magazine. The subjects of the research were the covers of Indonesia Men's Health magazine and Indonesia Women's Health magazine published from December 2014 to May 2015. The methods of obtaining the data were done by interpreting picture texts and categorizing written text topics. They were analyzed descriptive qualit...

  12. FINANCIAL DEPTH AND FINANCIAL ACCESS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Setiawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relatively better than its financial depth, especially for financial markets, in which Indonesia ranks in the lower average group. From literature reviews, it can be inferred that the main factor driving the poor financial depth in Indonesia is non-competitiveness of the institutions; whereas the driving force of poor financial access in Indonesia are geographical constraints, poverty, a high income gap, and a less than effective national financial development policy.

  13. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW IN INDONESIA AFTER 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Selvie Sinaga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such changes in Indonesia. Tulisan ini melihat kembali perubahan-perubahan besar dalam bidang hak kekayaan intelektual di Indonesia setelah tahun 2001. Pada tahun tersebut, Indonesia, yang telah menjadi anggota Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS sejak 1994, siap untuk memenuhi komitmennya dalam TRIPS. Untuk memenuhi komitmen tersebut, Indonesia telah membuat perubahan-perubahan dalam bidang legislatif, administratif, tata cara pengadilan dan penegakan hukum. Tulisan ini juga membahas permasalahan di seputar pelaksanaan perubahan-perubahan tersebut.

  14. Management of Disused Sealed Sources in Hungary - 13077

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitany, Sandor

    2013-01-01

    Since 1976 the spent and disused radioactive sources arisen in Hungary are stored in a central storage facility called Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility operated by Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management. The Facility is responsible for the record keeping, the waste acceptance procedure, the shipment and the storage or disposal (whether a certain source meets the waste acceptance criteria for disposal or not) of sources. Based on the more than 35 year old operation of the facility many experiences have been gathered regarding the technology for long-term storage of sources, the attitude of the users of sources, the evolution of the legislation and the national record keeping system. Recently a new legislation for the security of radioactive materials (including sources) was introduced, first in Central-Europe. It requires special security arrangements from the facility for transport and for storage. Due to the ongoing retrieval of radioactive waste formerly disposed of, partly containing sealed sources, there is a new challenge in the physical inventory control of historical waste. The paper would show the effect of the changes in the legislation system of record keeping or security on the users' attitude for discard of sources and on the management of the sources in the facility. The facility has a unique storage technology (shallow boreholes) in the narrow region. The sealed sources are placed into vertical pipes sunk into the surface. In the beginning, each of the sources were dropped into the pipe directly, recently they are placed in a metal tube first ensuring the retrieval. The lessons learned will be presented. There were several issues to introduce the new security arrangements (partly financially supported by US DOE) for storage and for transportation of sealed sources. These issues are addressed. In the past part of the sealed sources were disposed together with solid radioactive waste packaged in plastic bags. A waste

  15. Whole-body counter intercomparison measurements in Hungary and Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary). KFKI; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a co-operation agreement between Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf, Italian ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection and Hungarian KFKI Atomic Energy Research Centre, an intercomparison on WBC measurements using a modular bottle phantom was performed during 1995 in Hungary, on May-July 1996 in the Northern part of Italy. Results related to the relative bias for the three body masses are reported, together with indication of their compliance with ANSI report N13.30. It turned out that majority of the results were found to be within the performance criteria of the ANSI report, however there were also few outfalling results which were a good indication to check and improve the reliability of calibration and/or other methodological procedures. In the contrary of the expectance, the results related to 20 kg phantom resulted not significantly worse than those obtained for the adult phantom indicating the capacity for the participating WBC centres of measuring people from the general population. [Italiano] Nell`ambito di un accordo di collaborazione tra il Centro di Ricerca di Seibersdorf (Austria), l`Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell`ENEA (ENEA AMB PRO IRP) ed il Centro di Ricerca per l`Energia Atomica KFKI di Budapest (Ungheria), si e` svolto un interconfronto su misure WBC basato sull`utilizzo di un unico fantoccio modulare a bottiglie cui hanno partecipato centri WBC Ungheresi (1995) ed Italiani (Maggio-Giugno 1996). Nel presente rapporto tecnico vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti ed una loro analisi impostata sui criteri di valutazione recentemente proposti dall`ANSI nel rapporto N. 13.30. Sulla base di tale criterio la maggior parte dei risultati dell`interconfronto rientra nell`intervallo di accettabilita`; nei pochi casi di non accettabilita` si rende invece necessaria una revisione dei dati di calibrazione e delle metodologie. Contrariamente a quanto si poteva prevedere, i risultati relativi al fantoccio da 20 kg appaiono sostanzialmente

  16. The Major Trends of Food Consumption in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelita Kata Gódor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 20th century the food consumption levels were much lower than later in the century, when food production increased as well. The selection of foodstuffs became wider and we can observe the modernisation of nutrition principles too, which both had a positive impact on consumption. The variety of food was also affected by the increasing life expectancy. The emergence of more modern ways in food consumption is halted not only by the traditions but by the fact that healthier foods are more expensive than fat or cereal prices. There is a significant correlation between the income levels and the quality of consumed food, as it can be observed that in different regions in Hungary. My aim was also to investigate the change in consumer behaviour in parallel with the increase of income levels; to see which sort of foods are preferred by the wealthier, and which are preferred by the ones with less income. It is also important to analyse the economic and social indicators on regional and other spatial levels and to compare them with food consumption. The annual net income per capita is usually higher in more developed regions than in the less developed ones. Therefore, the expenditure spent on better quality and more expensive food products is also higher. Similarly, in the case of the population there are differences in consumer habits according to purchasing power. For instance, for people with higher income one of the most important factors is to buy healthy and high quality food, but for the ones with lower income it can be a struggle only to find food in sufficient quantities, and quality cannot be as much of an issue. In the consumer basket, foodstuff accounts for approximately one-third of the overall expenditure. In this study I analysed the annual expenditure of Hungary’s population on foodstuffs and the annual quantity of food consumed by households per capita on a regional level between 2010 and 2013.

  17. Investigation of indoor aerosols at educational institutions in Debrecen, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoboszlai, Z.; Furu, E.; Angyal, A.; Szikszai, Z.; Kertesz, Zs.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. It is well known that the exposure to particulate matter (PM) during school-age, when children are in their growing stage, can have lifelong adverse effects on their health. Because of these facts it is important to analyse PM in such places where children stay in a limited space during long-term periods. An average schoolchild spends at least six to eight hours a day in an indoor environment. Thus the more detailed knowledge of the air parameters of scholastic environments is particularly important. In this study our aim was to measure those parameters which might help the better estimation of the PM impact on the health of the children/students and teachers in autumn winter season in different educational institutions in the centre of Debrecen, Hungary. Two schools (a primary and a secondary grammar) and a kindergarten were selected for the study. Coarse and fine mass concentrations, elemental composition and mass size distributions were determined in selected microenvironments. These were different classrooms, school yards, gymnasiums, a computer lab, a chemical lab and a so-called salt-room. The elemental composition (for Z ≥ 13) was determined by PIXE and the mass concentrations of particulate matter were determined by gravimetry. In the case of the kindergarten two cascade impactors were also deployed to provide size distribution. In all cases the coarse concentrations of PM were higher inside the educational buildings than in the outer air, and every case the PM 10 concentration exceeded the EU air quality standard (Fig. 1). The highest values were measured in the gymnasiums which could be explained by the activities. We observed increased PM concentrations in the lower educational levels. The fine concentration inside the buildings did not differ significantly from the air outside. We did not detect big differences between the indoor and outdoor elemental compositions, but found differences in the elemental

  18. Management of Disused Sealed Sources in Hungary - 13077

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitany, Sandor [PURAM, Puskas Tivadar street 11, Budaors, Pest 2040 (Hungary)

    2013-07-01

    Since 1976 the spent and disused radioactive sources arisen in Hungary are stored in a central storage facility called Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility operated by Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management. The Facility is responsible for the record keeping, the waste acceptance procedure, the shipment and the storage or disposal (whether a certain source meets the waste acceptance criteria for disposal or not) of sources. Based on the more than 35 year old operation of the facility many experiences have been gathered regarding the technology for long-term storage of sources, the attitude of the users of sources, the evolution of the legislation and the national record keeping system. Recently a new legislation for the security of radioactive materials (including sources) was introduced, first in Central-Europe. It requires special security arrangements from the facility for transport and for storage. Due to the ongoing retrieval of radioactive waste formerly disposed of, partly containing sealed sources, there is a new challenge in the physical inventory control of historical waste. The paper would show the effect of the changes in the legislation system of record keeping or security on the users' attitude for discard of sources and on the management of the sources in the facility. The facility has a unique storage technology (shallow boreholes) in the narrow region. The sealed sources are placed into vertical pipes sunk into the surface. In the beginning, each of the sources were dropped into the pipe directly, recently they are placed in a metal tube first ensuring the retrieval. The lessons learned will be presented. There were several issues to introduce the new security arrangements (partly financially supported by US DOE) for storage and for transportation of sealed sources. These issues are addressed. In the past part of the sealed sources were disposed together with solid radioactive waste packaged in plastic bags. A

  19. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  20. New radiocarbon measurement methods in the Hertelendi Laboratory, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovics, Róbert; Major, István; Rinyu, László; Veres, Mihály; Molnár, Mihály

    2013-04-01

    -sampler. The presented two new methods can be suitable for C-14 measurements and dating of hydrological, and environmental samples as well. The new AMS facility in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) using an EnvironMICADAS AMS system with gas ion source has a great potential in groundwater C-14 analyses. The research was supported by the by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and the Hungarian NSF (OTKA MB08-A 81515)

  1. KAJIAN BISNIS FRANCHISE MAKANAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Astuti

    2005-01-01

    Food franchising business in Indonesia is growing up very fast. Factors that urge the growth are the specific characteristics of franchise inself, the rise of market demand, the availability of skilled labor, the high of return on investment and the internal factors such as the motivation, personality and the changing life style. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Bisnis franchise makanan di Indonesia berkembang dengan cepat. Beberapa faktor yang mendorong pertumbuhannya adalah ciri-ciri dari fra...

  2. KEJAHATAN KORPORASI DALAM HUKUM PERBANKAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodosiva Yovita

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Subjects involved in criminal law are people and corporation. In banking crime when a corporate involved the law enforcement is frequently less cared about. Therefore, it will be a need to do further study on how a banking law regulates the corporation crime in Indonesia. Corporation in Banking Law has a broader meaning than in Civil Law A form of corporation crime is raising fund from the community without any license from Central Bank of Indonesia, Bank Indonesia.

  3. Opportunity for Tourism Professional Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Menara Simanjuntak

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on opportunities related to the professional growth of tourism in Indonesia at this time and in the future. The proportion of workers in the tourism sector, including the fourth largest after agriculture, manufacturing and non-manufacturing, tends to grow very fast, because tourists visiting Indonesia will increase sharply in coming years. The purpose of this study is to provide advice to the government, tourism, and educational institutions in Indonesia's tourism industry ...

  4. STRATEGI MARKET ENTRY CONVENIENCE STORE DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Respati Wulandari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa dan melihat strategi yang digunakan pada Convenience Store di Indonesia dengan mengambil 7-Eleven sebagai sumber field study dengan metode orientasi pasar. Pengaruh lifestyle menjadi indikator penunjang dalam perkembangan 7-Eleven ddengan menerapkan beberapa strategi yang mengena di market Indonesia, terutama bagi kalangan muda dimana diketahui memiliki indikasi terpenting dalam siklus lifestyle di Indonesia. Tujuan tercapai dengan mengetahui penerapan strategi yang digunakan sehingga dapat diterapkan dalam menjalankan strategi bisnis pada Convenience Store

  5. FINANCIAL DEPTH AND FINANCIAL ACCESS IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sigit Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...

  6. Nuclear energy research in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supadi, S.; Soentono, S.; Djokolelono, M.

    1988-01-01

    Indonesia's National Atomic Energy Authority, BATAN (Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional), was founded to implement, regulate and monitor the development and launching of programs for the peaceful uses of nuclear power. These programs constitute part of the efforts made to change to a more industrialized level the largely agricultural society of Indonesia. BATAN elaborated extensive nuclear research and development programs in a variety of fields, such as medicine, the industrial uses of isotopes and radiation, the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear technology and power generation, and in fundamental research. The Puspiptek Nuclear Research Center has been equipped with a multi-purpose research reactor and will also have a fuel element fabrication plant, a facility for treating radioactive waste, a radiometallurgical laboratory, and laboratories for working with radioisotopes and for radiopharmaceutical research. (orig.) [de

  7. Perlakuan Akuntansi Karbon di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Meliana Taurisianti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the implementation of accounting for carbon, about how it can be measured, recognized, recorded, presentedand disclosed based on Pernyataan Standar Akuntansi (PSAK 19, 23, 32 and 57, also the impact toward the financial ratios. The object of this study is the financial statements of an integrated timber company in Indonesia. This study has analyzed the enables account to be used to record accounting for carbon, also analyzed the impact of implementation of accounting for carbon toward the financial ratios. The results of this study are support the previous study, which intangible asset can be recognized based on PSAK 19, whereas asset and contingent liabilities can be recognized based on PSAK 57. This study also fit out the previous study, which a company can recognize its expense and other income based on PSAK 19, 23 and 32 as a basis for forestry accounting in Indonesia.

  8. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri S. Margono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

  9. KERAGAAN KOPI PASAR DOMESTIK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufani Sagita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee has been becoming one of priority commodity of Indonesia since this country also as one of main producer in the world. However, Indonesia got hardly in maintaining world position due to increasing of production and capacity of other country such as in Vietnam and Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize situation of demand and supply for coffee commodity in domestic scope to understand further the bargaining position level. Various variable such as production, productivity,demand, supply, domestic price, export and import of coffe are considered to be performance variables for domestic market. This research used SAS (Statistical Analysis System tool by using times series data. The result of the analysis shown that the performance of Indonesian coffee trading is affected by the supply, demand and price of Indonesian coffee.

  10. INDONESIA: FROM PLURALISM TO MULTICULTURALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Wasino Wasino

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia was not a new entity when started to become national country. It was called a continuation of the history of the Dutch East Indies. The people lived under western colonial was a pluralistic society, people separated by social class, ethnicity, religion, race and inter-group. Between the authorities and the people separated along racial lines. In addition there was the separation of ethnic groups associated with the economic, educational and social relations. After Indonesian indepen...

  11. Analisis Financial Deepening di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruslan, Dede

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to analize the financial deepening on Indonesia economy. The focusof analysize is to identifiying effect of interest rate, exchange rate and Gross DomesticProduct (GDP) to financial deepening on Indonesian economy for 1980-2007. Methodeof analysize is linier regression model. The result of analysize are Gross DomesticProduct (GDP) and interest rate have significant effect to financial deepening onIndonesian economy.

  12. Mekanisme Transmisi Syariah di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ERWIN HARDIANTO

    2005-01-01

    Since Indonesia has two different type of banking system (shariah and interest rate system) debtor or investor can chose appropriate system for their investment. When monetary instrument became tightening (high interest rate) so instrument from shariah system will substituted it. This situation arises because of nature from shariah instrument (revenue sharing) that flexible for price volatility. The other circumstances are revenue sharing can reduce inflation because with this system possibil...

  13. Transmigration and accumulation in Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Sáinz, Juan Pablo

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper tracing the evolution of migration policy involving state intervention to reduce problems of overpopulation and employment in Indonesia - describes historical internal migration from java and bali to the outer islands during colonialism and after to up 1979, and argues that migration policy based on exploitation of surplus labour supply for reasons of capitalism has ended in failure. References and statistical tables.

  14. EKSISTENSI BAHASA INDONESIA SEBAGAI BAHASA PERSATUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsudi Marsudi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Bahasa Indonesia lahir dari Bahasa Melayu yang pada zaman dulu menjadi bahasa lingua franca, yakni bagasa perdagangan antarpulau di nusantara. Kemudian dikukuhkan menjadi bahasa persatuan melalui momen Sumpah Pemuda. Bahasa Melayu menjadi dominan di kala itu dikarenakan fleksibelitasnya akan bahasa-bahasa lain. Dengan fakta tersebut, tepatnya 28 Oktober 1928, bahasa Melayu diangkat sebagai bahasa persatuan dan tahun 1945 diresmikan sebagai bahasa negara. Permasalahan yang muncul dalam eksistensi bahasa Indonesia adalah bagaimanakah cara mempertahankan eksistensi bahasa Indonesia? Tidak hanya masalah eksistensi saja, tetapi sanggupkah bahasa-bahasa daerah di negeri ini memperkaya kosa kata dan istilah bahasa Indonesia? Selain itu, bagaimanakah potensi bahasa Indonesia di era globalisasi? Eksistensi bahasa Indonesia, selain dipengaruhi kekonsistenan penggunaanya, juga didukung oleh kemampuan bahasa tersebut dalam mengungkapkan fenomena baru yang berkembang. Oleh karena itu, perkembangan bahasa Indonesia sangat tergantung pada tingkat keberhasilan menciptakan kosa kata dan istilah-istilah baru. Bahasa Indonesia sudah mulai mengglobal karena bahasa Indonesia memiliki sifat terbuka dan demokratis. Perkembangan yang terjadi sekarang dan yang datang tidak hanya menyangkut masalah struktur dan bahasa, tetapi lebih jauh mengungkapkan permasalahan manusia baru yang dialami manusia di dalam sebuah proses perubahan dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan

  15. UPAYA PENANGGULANGAN TINDAK PIDANA TERORISME di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Firmansyah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism has become the most serious issue in Indonesia after terrorist attacks in Bali, November 2002. With the current condition where Indonesia still faces a key risk of new militant attacks with new cells and more bomb experts, this paper aims to analyse the way Indonesian government fight against terrorism. Terorisme adalah permasalahan yang sangat serius di Indonesia, pasca serangan bom di Bali pada November 2002. Dengan keadaan sekarang di mana Indonesia masih menghadapi permasalahan serius serangan militan dengan jaringan baru dan lebih banyak ahli bom, tulisan ini bertujuan menganalisis cara yang ditempuh pemerintah untuk melakukan penanggulangan tindak pidana terorisme.

  16. The Third Wave of Democratization in Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delin, Azizan

    2000-01-01

    .... The revolutionary struggle shaped general Indonesian acceptance of the authoritarian rule. However, by 1997 Indonesia's authoritarian rule was faced with a serious problem of legitimacy and governability...

  17. PERSPEKTIF GLOBAL PENYELESAIAN SENGKETA INVESTASI DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syaifuddin

    2011-06-01

    Pembentukan UUPM No. 25/2007 adalah konsekwensi yuridis dari ratifikasi Perjanjian WTO. TRIMs, yang bertujuan menciptakan hukum investasi, termasuk hukum penyelesaian sengketa investasi, yang sesuai dengan kehendak investor asing dalam perspektif global, yaitu: pertama, mengandung karakter hukum yang berkepastian, berkeadilan, dan berefisiensi; dan kedua, berlandaskan spirit hukum yang mengarahkan pemerintah dan penanaman modal asing menyelesaikan sengketa investasi melalui arbitrase internasional daripada pengadilan bahkan arbitrase nasional di Indonesia. Krisis lembaga peradilan di Indonesia harus diselesaikan dengan cara membangun sistem hukum peradilan dengan mengacu pada Pancasila sebagai cita hukum investasi Indonesia. Hal tersebut adalah  suatu syarat bagi terbentuknya aturan hukum penyelesaian sengketa investasi yang serasi dalam perspektif global dan lokal (Indonesia.

  18. Pembaruan Hukum Perwakafan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Siregar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on Islamic law product relating to charitable religious endowment (waqf in Indonesia. Based on the traditional perspective of fiqh originated from the earlier Islamic jurists of orthodox view and in turn it had long been legislised as part of Indonesia positive law system, the law of waqfhad regulated that the wealth to be waqf shall be limited to only unmoving properties.  This regulation had led the management of waqf to be unproductive to raise the social welfare.By the virtue of the relatively wider viwpoint of the contemporar y Islamic law thinkers,the Islamic law refor m takes place in Indonesia particularly at the level of postive law ,namely Law Number 41/2004 Relating to Waqf. This law stipulates the thing to be waqf could be either unmoving or moving properties, like cash, gold, certificate of obligation, inteletual wealth, and so forth. This law also lays down the regulation relating to the penalty against those who deviate in managing a waqf. However, as a critque and recommendation the writer propose that the society could be involved in preser ving the purpose of a waqf which is the right of Allah. And it could be conducted by stipulating the class action as a way of the settlements of dispute occuring to a waqf property.

  19. Inflation Rate Modelling in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzy Eko Caraka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyse: (i Modelling the inflation rate in Indonesia with parametric regression. (ii Modelling the inflation rate in Indonesia using non-parametric regression spline multivariable (iii Determining the best model the inflation rate in Indonesia (iv Explaining the relationship inflation model parametric and non-parametric regression spline multivariable. Based on the analysis using the two methods mentioned the coefficient of determination (R2 in parametric regression of 65.1% while non-parametric amounted to 99.39%. To begin with, the factor of money supply or money stock, crude oil prices and the rupiah exchange rate against the dollar is significant on the rate of inflation. The stability of inflation is essential to support sustainable economic development and improve people's welfare. In conclusion, unstable inflation will complicate business planning business activities, both in production and investment activities as well as in the pricing of goods and services produced.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i2.3260

  20. Indonesia`s Palm Oil Industrialization: the Resistance of Tanjung Pusaka Villagers, Central Kalimantan Against Palm Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wulansari, Ica

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia`s Palm oil industry is the greatest export commodity in the world. Palm oil industry has been developed since Soeharto`s administration with World Bank`s initiative. Indonesia`s development pattern is modernization which is fully supported by global capitalist agent. Furthermore, the government of Indonesia has issued policies to support this industry and the ease of accessibilty for investor to build in Indonesia. Most of the policies focus on economic interest with lack of attenti...

  1. INDONESIA: FROM PLURALISM TO MULTICULTURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasino Wasino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia was not a new entity when started to become national country. It was called a continuation of the history of the Dutch East Indies. The people lived under western colonial was a pluralistic society, people separated by social class, ethnicity, religion, race and inter-group. Between the authorities and the people separated along racial lines. In addition there was the separation of ethnic groups associated with the economic, educational and social relations. After Indonesian independence the pluralistic society situation continues. The end of the New Order has opened a Pandora's Box of poor relations between ethnic and inter-religious. As a result many conflicts occurred based on religious and ethnic differences. The conflict heated up as the influx of political interests. The process of political reform gave birth to a new awareness of the relationship between ethnicity and religion. The starting point of this change was when the President Abdurrahman Wahid unlocked barriers on multicultural relationship that respects the differences of cultural orientation among the existing ethnic. From that moment the concept of multiculturalism experienced socialization process within Indonesian society. Key words: pluralism, multiculturalism, colonial, new order, socialization Ketika Indonesia lahir sebagai negara nasional, Indonesia bukanlah  entitas yang baru. Ia merupakan kelanjutan  sejarah dari masyarakat yang disebut Hindia Belanda. Masyarakat di bawah penjajah Barat ini merupakan masyarakat majemuk, masyarakat yang terpisah-pisah berdasarkan kelas sosial, suku, agama, ras, dan antar golongan. Antara penguasa dan rakyat terpisah secara garis rasial. Selain itu ada pe-misahan suku bangsa terkait dengan ekonomi, pendidikan, dan hubungan-hubungan sosial. Setelah Indonesia merdeka situasi masyarakat majemuk terus berlangsung. Berakhirnya Orde Baru telah membuka kotak pandora  buruknya hubungan antar etnik dan antar agama. Akibatnya

  2. Cultural relations between Hungary and Albania during the period of Humanism and Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Mala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Hungarian-Albanian relations during the Middle Ages are characterized by a relatively poor intensity. Actually, relations between these two countries are more intense in the political field and especially through the partnership between Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and John Hunyadi. Regarding the origin, the Hungarian culture identity is rather distinct from the Albanian one. Lack of cultural contacts, among others, was conditioned also by the fact that these relations were held under war circumstances and their primary aim was the common defense from Ottoman attacks. Actually, the Albanian medieval culture remained a Mediterranean culture with elements of Byzantine influence in the continental and southern areas. Meanwhile, Hungary belonged to Central Europe, which, even though far away from Mediterranean cultural mainstream, sought to be influenced by this culture, namely by the Renaissance that emanated exactly in the Mediterranean region. It was Matthias Corvinus effort, regarding the cultural influence of the Mediterranean and Renaissance in Hungary but also the fact that Hungary possessed some of the most important towns of the Adriatic coast and particularly Ragusa. This city was the center where cultural relations between Albanian and Hungary started and became intensified in the religious, intellectual and human field.

  3. A conceptual magnetic fabric development model for the Paks loess in Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradák, B.; Ujvari, Gabor; Seto, Y.

    2018-01-01

    We describe magnetic fabric and depositional environments of aeolian (loess) deposits from Paks, Hungary, and develop a novel, complex conceptual sedimentation model based on grain size and low-field magnetic susceptibility anisotropy data. A plot of shape factor (magnetic fabric parameter) and d...

  4. Echinococcus multilocularis: An Emerging Pathogen in Hungary and Central Eastern Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sréter, Tamás; Széll, Zoltán; Egyed, Zsuzsa

    2003-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, is reported for the first time in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary. This parasite may be spreading eastward because the population of foxes has increased because of human interventions, and this spread may result in the emergence of alveolar echinococcosis in Central Eastern Europe. PMID:12643838

  5. Szendro - type Integrated Vegetation Fire Management--Wildfire Management Program from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ágoston Restás

    2006-01-01

    Szendrő Fire Department is located in the northeastern part of Hungary. The main task is to fight against wildfire and mitigate the impact of fire at the Aggtelek National Park -- which belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage list. Because of greater effectiveness, in 2004 the Fire Department started a project named Integrated Vegetation Fire Management (IVFM)....

  6. Age Group, Location or Pedagogue: Factors Affecting Parental Choice of Kindergartens in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teszenyi, Eleonora; Hevey, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Hungary has experienced significant political, economic, demographic and social changes since the end of Soviet domination in the 1990s. The gradual move towards liberal democracy has been accompanied by growing emphasis on individualism, choice and diversity. Universal kindergarten provision for five- to six-year-olds is a long established…

  7. Academic Culture and Citizenship in Transitional Societies: Case Studies from China and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Through organizational case studies conducted at Guangdong University of Foreign Studies in China and Central European University in Hungary, this paper examines academic culture and citizenship in societies transitioning from communist to market-driven social and economic structures. The article presents a new model of citizenship, representing…

  8. Recent developments in the field of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellionisz, P.

    1992-01-01

    A considerable percentage (32.8% in 1989) of electric energy in Hungary is produced by nuclear power plant Paks. The paper presents an overview of activities on control and instrumentation in the following areas: Control and instrumentation upgrading; training simulators; diagnostic systems. (author). 1 tab

  9. Anti-Roma Hate Speech in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belavusau, U.; Goodwin, M.; De Hert, P.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter examines the protection against anti-Romani hate speech provided by the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, in particular the legal avenues of redress available to victims. This research combines an analysis of the legal framework with its functioning in practice, and situates both in a

  10. [Legal aspects and the treatment procedure of gender dysphoria in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2015-07-26

    The legal process of gender transition in Hungary had previously been more developed as in most European countries, as the law enabled transsexual people to change their name and gender before or without a medical treatment, which was unique at the time. Over the years, however, lots of European countries developed legal frameworks and accepted international standards of care for the treatment of gender dysphoria that Hungary did not follow. Currently in Hungary there is no consistent legal framework of gender transition, there is no official regulation or guidelines regarding gender transition process, no institution with the obligation to accommodate the process, and there is no nominated specialist in the state health care system whose remit included dealing with transsexual patients. The information on gender transition options both to the professionals and to the patients is limited and incoherent. This paper reviews the legal aspects and clinical management process of gender dysphoria in Hungary. Some issues regarding the Hungarian practice and possible solutions based on examples from the United Kingdom are addressed within the paper.

  11. Serological survey of domestic animals for tick-borne encephalitis and Bhanja viruses in northeastern Hungary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikutová, Silvie; Hornok, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Doležálková, I.; Juřicová, Zina; Rudolf, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 135, 3-4 (2009), s. 267-271 ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Bhanja virus * Cattle * Horse * Sheep * Hungary Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2009

  12. Safeguarding values in the European Union: : The European Parliament, Article 7 and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonelli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The recent constitutional crisis in Hungary and other political developments in several EU member states have raised concerns over the capacity of the European Union to safeguard its fundamental values: democracy, the rule of law and human rights. Mechanisms in the hands of the institutions are

  13. [Sleep duration among school-age children in Hungary and Romania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sólyom, Réka; Lendvai, Zsófia; Pásti, Krisztina; Szeifert, Lilla; Szabó, J Attila

    2013-10-06

    Children's sleep duration is decreasing in the last decade. Despite of the well known negative consequences, there are no data on children's sleep duration in Hungary and Romania. The aim of the authors was to assess sleep duration of school-age children in Hungary and Romania. A self-edited questionnaire was used for the study. 2446 children were enrolled. All elementary and secondary schools in a Hungarian city, and one elementary and secondary school in a Romanian city took part in the study. Mean sleep duration was 8.3 ± 1.2 hours on weekdays. There was a significant difference between the two countries (Hungary vs. Romania, 8.5 ± 1.2 hours vs. 7.8 ± 0.9 hours, p = 0.001). Age correlated with sleep duration on weekdays (r= -0.605, p = 0.001), but not during weekend. This is the first study on children's sleep duration in Hungary and Romania. The difference between countries may be due to the difference in mean age or cultural and/or geographical differences.

  14. The Hard Work of Interpretation: The National Politics of PISA Reception in Hungary and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eszter; Kiss, Adel; Fejes, Ildiko

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the dynamic interaction between global policy and knowledge flows and two post-communist education systems--Hungary and Romania--with special attention to the appropriation of post-bureaucratic regulation tools and the structural changes enhanced by the knowledge transmitted by the Programme for International Student…

  15. South–South? Culture Talk and Labour Relations at a Chinese-owned Factory in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyiri, P.D.; Xu, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, a large Hungarian chemical factory was acquired by a Chinese competitor. The resulting encounter between Chinese managers and Hungarian staff — which took place in the context of a harsh retrenchment that has curtailed the powers of organized labour in Hungary — highlights the inadequacy of

  16. A new alien snail species from the Eger stream, Hungary (Mollusca, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisóczki, B.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our macrozoobenthon samplings carried out in the Eger stream during 2015–2016 resulted in recording an alien species Marisa cornuarietis (Linneaus, 1758 the giant ramshorn snail which has not been reported so far from outdoorwaters in Hungary. Here we report on collecting several specimens from the urban section of the stream close to the outflow of the Eger thermal spa.

  17. An Overview of the Current Status of Talent Care and Talent Support in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuszek, Csilla

    2014-01-01

    After a short historical introduction, the article provides an overview of the current talent support trends in Hungary. It gives an insight into the legislation, guidelines and institutional system associated with the national talent support strategy, and presents the main NGO initiatives present in the early 21st century, in particular the…

  18. Supporting Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Higher Education in Hungary. OECD Skills Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report presents evidence-based analysis of current strategies and practices in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Hungary towards a value-creating use of knowledge resources for innovation and entrepreneurship. The analysis and recommendations are highly relevant for policy makers and HEI leaders in other countries. Increased attention…

  19. Changes in status attainment in Hungary between 1910 and 1989 : Trendless fluctuation or systematic change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, Ruud; Róbert, Péter; Graaf, Paul M. de; Ganzeboom, Harry B.G.

    2002-01-01

    This article addresses the effects of economic and political change on social mobility in Hungary between 1910 and 1989 by investigating whether the effects of family background on schooling and the effects of family background and schooling on first occupation vary between periods in Hungary’s

  20. Hungarian-Russian Bilingual Schools in Hungary during the Soviet Occupation (1945-1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Agnes

    2018-01-01

    Through the example of the establishment, functioning, and closing of bilingual schools during the Soviet occupation of Hungary, this paper aims to introduce this segment of public education in Central-Eastern Europe. In the period between 1945 and 1989, the learning of Russian as a compulsory subject was introduced, teaching other languages was…

  1. High population density of Little Owl (Athene noctua) in Hortobagy National Park, Hungary, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Chrenková, M.; Kipson, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2013), s. 165-169 ISSN 1505-2249 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Little Owl * population density * distribution * breeding places * Hortobagy National Park * Hungary Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2013

  2. CAPITALISM FROM BELOW: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF SMALL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN HUNGARY, POLAND, AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Augustin STOICA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The contours of markets and entrepreneurship are shaped by historical and politico-institutional factors. In the case of Central and Eastern Europe, the development of new entrepreneurial classes is a function of communist legacies and post-1989 political processes. Employing survey data from 2000, this article examines how political and institutional conditions influence patterns of recruitment into self-employment and income returns to small entrepreneurship in Hungary, Poland, and Romania. The results of this analysis show that human capital (captured by education has positive significant effects on becoming a self-employed individual with employees in Hungary and Romania. As compared to other individuals, former socialist “petit bourgeois” (i.e., individuals who were business owners in 1988 are more likely to be small business operators in post-communism. Individuals who held managerial authority positions before 1989 have higher chances to become small business operators in Romania but not in Hungary or Poland. Unemployment seems to function as a push-factor for becoming a small business operator in Hungary and Poland but not in Romania. In Romania, most small entrepreneurs earn significantly more than employees in the state or private sector. Gender, age, and education have significant positive effects on income returns in all of the three countries under scrutiny.

  3. Childbearing trends in Iceland, 1982-2013: Fertility timing, quantum, and gender preferences for children in a Nordic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Klængur Jónsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iceland is one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, but one that does not seem to have experienced the same fertility fluctuations as most other countries, following the enhanced role of women in society. Objective: In this study we examine the childbearing trends in Iceland during 1982-2013 by analysing the progressions to parities one, two, and three. We also investigate whether there is evidence of gender preferences for children among Icelandic parents. Methods: Official individual longitudinal register data is used, covering the total female population born in Iceland between 1941 and 1997. The data is analysed by means of event history analysis. Results: We find evidence of tendencies to postpone motherhood during the period, with increases in fertility for women in their 30s and 40s. The propensity to have a second and a third child has not declined; on the contrary, these birth intensities have increased since the mid-1980s. Estimates suggest that Icelandic parents prefer to have daughters. Conclusions: During a period of increased educational attainment and postponed family formation, the resilience of Icelandic fertility is intriguing. Contribution: The study provides the first comprehensive overview of fertility trends in Iceland.

  4. Climate-driven vertical acceleration of Icelandic crust measured by continuous GPS geodesy

    KAUST Repository

    Compton, Kathleen

    2015-02-06

    © 2015 The Authors. Earth\\'s present-day response to enhanced glacial melting resulting from climate change can be measured using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. We present data from 62 continuously operating GPS instruments in Iceland. Statistically significant upward velocity and accelerations are recorded at 27 GPS stations, predominantly located in the Central Highlands region of Iceland, where present-day thinning of the Iceland ice caps results in velocities of more than 30mm/yr and uplift accelerations of 1-2mm/yr2. We use our acceleration estimates to back calculate to a time of zero velocity, which coincides with the initiation of ice loss in Iceland from ice mass balance calculations and Arctic warming trends. We show, through a simple inversion, a direct relationship between ice mass balance measurements and vertical position and show that accelerated unloading is required to reproduce uplift observations for a simple elastic layer over viscoelastic half-space model.

  5. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  6. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  7. The Role of Choral Singing in the Lives of Amateur Choral Singers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja; Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what motivates people to sing in choirs as a leisure activity. Subjects were retrieved from members of 10 amateur choirs of various types in Iceland through a paper-based survey. Results indicated that participants gain both personal and social benefits from singing in a choir. Findings revealed…

  8. Interaction of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow with Iceland Basin intermediate waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullgren, Jenny E.; Fer, Ilker; Darelius, Elin; Beaird, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The narrow and deep Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) is an important pathway for cold, dense waters from the Nordic Seas to flow across the Iceland-Scotland ridge into the North Atlantic. The swift, turbulent FBC overflow is associated with strong vertical mixing. Hydrographic profiles from a shipboard survey and two Slocum electric gliders deployed during a cruise in May-June 2012 show an intermediate water mass characterized by low salinity and low oxygen concentration between the upper waters of Atlantic origin and the dense overflow water. A weak low-salinity signal originating north-east of Iceland is discernible at the exit of the FBC, but smeared out by intense mixing. Further west (downstream) marked salinity and oxygen minima are found, which we hypothesize are indicators of a mixture of Labrador Sea Water and Intermediate Water from the Iceland Basin. Water mass characteristics vary strongly on short time scales. Low-salinity, low-oxygen water in the stratified interface above the overflow plume is shown to move along isopycnals toward the Iceland-Faroe Front as a result of eddy stirring and a secondary, transverse circulation in the plume interface. The interaction of low-salinity, low-oxygen intermediate waters with the overflow plume already at a short distance downstream of the sill, here reported for the first time, affects the final properties of the overflow waters through entrainment and mixing.

  9. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...

  10. Environmental Education. University Level. 10 Years Development; Recommendations. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    The Nordic countries have worked together over the last decade to enhance the efforts of environmental educators. This document details: (1) the history and activities of the group responsible for the coordination of efforts at the university level; (2) the types of environmental education occurring in Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, and…

  11. Was it for walrus? Viking Age settlement and medieval walrus ivory trade in Iceland and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Karin M.; Coutu, Ashley N.; Smiarowski, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Walrus-tusk ivory and walrus-hide rope were highly desired goods in Viking Age north-west Europe. New finds of walrus bone and ivory in early Viking Age contexts in Iceland are concentrated in the south-west, and suggest extensive exploitation of nearby walrus for meat, hide and ivory during the ...

  12. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  13. Glacio-meteorological investigations on Vatnajökull, Iceland, summer 1996: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Björnsson, H.; Kuhn, M.; Obleitner, F.; Palsson, F.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; Vugts, H.F.; Wolde, J. de

    1999-01-01

    We give an overview of a glacio-meteorological experiment carried out in the summer (melt season) of 1996 on the largest European ice cap, Vatnajökull, Iceland (area 8000 km2; altitude range: from sea level to about 2000 m). The main goal was to understand how the energy used in the melting of snow

  14. Design and Craft Education in Iceland, Pedagogical Background and Development: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Brynjar; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2009-01-01

    Sloyd pedagogy was introduced towards the close of the 18th century to Icelandic educators. Subsequently craft was established as a specific subject aimed at general education. In the beginning craft was called "school industry," to distinguish it from "home industry" whose aim was to help homes to be self-sufficient for…

  15. An Action Research Study in an Icelandic Preschool: Developing Consensus about Values and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Ingibjorg; Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Values education is embedded in the curricula of all the Nordic countries. However, values education remains a neglected area for research and practice in early childhood education and care. This article reports on the aspects of an action research project conducted in a preschool in Iceland, across a period of 18 months. The study focused on the…

  16. Learning Icelandic Language and Culture in Virtual Reykjavik: Starting to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédi, Branislav; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni; Helgadóttir, Hafdís Erla; Ólafsson, Stefán; Björgvinsson, Elías

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how beginners of Icelandic as a foreign and second language responded to playing the first scene in Virtual Reykjavik, a video game-like environment where learners interact with virtual characters--Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). This game enables learners to practice speaking and listening skills, to learn about the…

  17. How to deal with the collapse of a banking system the Icelandic way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solnes, Valgerdur

    2016-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, a crisis materialized in the global financial markets, creating the imminent risk of collapse in Icelandic's largest financial institutions and the banking system as a whole. The perilous situation originated in similar conditions that formed overseas in the US and around...

  18. Paleomagnetism and geochronology of the Pliocene-Pleistocene lavas in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, Ian; Wensink, H.

    Potassium-argon dates are reported on five basalt samples from the Pliocene-Pleistocene sequence of lavas in the Jökuldalur area, northeastern Iceland. These dates confirm the correlations previously made with the geological time scale by means of paleomagnetic stratigraphy. The R1 and N2 polarity

  19. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi...

  20. Manifestations of Heterosexism in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools and the Responses of LGBT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2013-01-01

    How does institutionalized heterosexism manifest itself in Icelandic upper secondary schools and how do lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students respond to these manifestations? In addressing these questions, interviews were conducted with six current and former LGBT upper secondary school students, using queer theory and thematic…