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  1. Part Time Study in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Colin

    This document, which is intended for adults considering enrolling in part-time study in higher education, examines the objectives and experiences of adults who have pursued part-time study in higher education in the United Kingdom. The following reasons why adults return to higher education are discussed: personal development; self-fulfillment;…

  2. Five Hundred Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the traffic court of a large mid-western city, a young lady was brought before the judge to answer a ticket given her for driving through a red light. She explained to his honor that she was a school teacher and

  3. Higher time derivatives, stability and Fermi Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Sarrion, Justo

    2011-01-01

    We show that statistics is crucial for the instability problem derived from higher time derivatives. In fact, and contrary to previous statements, we check that when dealing with Fermi systems, the Hamiltonian is well bounded and the quantum states are normalizable. Although, ghost states are still present, they do not affect unitarity under certain conditions. We first analyze a quantum oscillator involving Grassman variables and then we generalize it to a Dirac field. Finally, we discuss some physical implications

  4. One Hundred False-Positive Amphetamine Specimens Characterized by Liquid Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Stephanie J.; Doyle, Kelly; Chang, Annie; Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Some amphetamine (AMP) and ecstacy (MDMA) urine immunoassay (IA) kits are prone to false-positive results due to poor specificity of the antibody. We employed two techniques, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and an in silico structure search, to identify compounds likely to cause false-positive results. Hundred false-positive IA specimens for AMP and/or MDMA were analyzed by an Agilent 6230 time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Separately, SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts) was used as an in silico structure search to generate a library of compounds that are known to cross-react with AMP/MDMA IAs. Chemical formulas and exact masses of 145 structures were then compared against masses identified by TOF. Compounds known to have cross-reactivity with the IAs were identified in the structure-based search. The chemical formulas and exact masses of 145 structures (of 20 chemical formulas) were compared against masses identified by TOF. Urine analysis by HRMS correlates accurate mass with chemical formulae, but provides little information regarding compound structure. Structural data of targeted antigens can be utilized to correlate HRMS-derived chemical formulas with structural analogs. PMID:26342055

  5. One Hundred False-Positive Amphetamine Specimens Characterized by Liquid Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Stephanie J; Doyle, Kelly; Chang, Annie; Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A; Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L

    2016-01-01

    Some amphetamine (AMP) and ecstacy (MDMA) urine immunoassay (IA) kits are prone to false-positive results due to poor specificity of the antibody. We employed two techniques, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and an in silico structure search, to identify compounds likely to cause false-positive results. Hundred false-positive IA specimens for AMP and/or MDMA were analyzed by an Agilent 6230 time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Separately, SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts) was used as an in silico structure search to generate a library of compounds that are known to cross-react with AMP/MDMA IAs. Chemical formulas and exact masses of 145 structures were then compared against masses identified by TOF. Compounds known to have cross-reactivity with the IAs were identified in the structure-based search. The chemical formulas and exact masses of 145 structures (of 20 chemical formulas) were compared against masses identified by TOF. Urine analysis by HRMS correlates accurate mass with chemical formulae, but provides little information regarding compound structure. Structural data of targeted antigens can be utilized to correlate HRMS-derived chemical formulas with structural analogs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Higher Education in Turbulent Times. Concluding Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses three issues: the context of the European integration and the European challenge for Poland as a new EU member state; the changing structure of higher education, with special reference to autonomy and funding; and the changing dynamics of public/private higher education, politics and demographics. Processes of European integration are viewed here as an environment in which national changes in higher education and research systems have been occurring. In particular...

  7. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  8. Alfven wave in higher dimensional space time

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, D; Chatterjee, S

    2009-01-01

    Following the wellknown spacetime decomposition technique as applied to (d+1) dimensions we write down the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in a spatially at generalised FRW universe. Assuming an equation of state for the background cosmic fluid we find solutions in turn for acous- tic waves and also for Alfven waves in a warm (cold) magnetised plasma. Interestingly the different plasma modes closely resemble the at space coun- terparts except that here the field variables all redshift with their time due to the expansion of the background. It is observed that in the ultrarelativistic limit the field parameters all scale as the free photon. The situation changes in the prerelativistic limit where the frequencies change in a bizarre fashion depending on initial conditions. It is observed that for a fixed magnetic field in a particular medium the Alfven wave velocity decreases with the number of dimensions, being the maximum in the usual 4D. Further for a fixed dimension the velocity attenuation is more ...

  9. The Reinvention of General Relativity: A Historiographical Framework for Assessing One Hundred Years of Curved Space-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Alexander; Lalli, Roberto; Renn, M Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    The history of the theory of general relativity presents unique features. After its discovery, the theory was immediately confirmed and rapidly changed established notions of space and time. The further implications of general relativity, however, remained largely unexplored until the mid 1950s, when it came into focus as a physical theory and gradually returned to the mainstream of physics. This essay presents a historiographical framework for assessing the history of general relativity by taking into account in an integrated narrative intellectual developments, epistemological problems, and technological advances; the characteristics of post-World War II and Cold War science; and newly emerging institutional settings. It argues that such a framework can help us understand this renaissance of general relativity as a result of two main factors: the recognition of the untapped potential of general relativity and an explicit effort at community building, which allowed this formerly disparate and dispersed field to benefit from the postwar changes in the scientific landscape.

  10. Charged fluid distribution in higher dimensional spheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Singh; S Kotambkar

    2005-07-01

    A general solution of Einstein field equations corresponding to a charged fluid distribution on the background of higher dimensional spheroidal space-time is obtained. The solution generates several known solutions for superdense star having spheroidal space-time geometry.

  11. Just in Time Research: Data Breaches in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grama, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This "Just in Time" research is in response to recent discussions on the EDUCAUSE Higher Education Information Security Council (HEISC) discussion list about data breaches in higher education. Using data from the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, this research analyzes data breaches attributed to higher education. The results from this…

  12. Part-Time Higher Education: Employer Engagement under Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Employer support for employees who are studying part-time for higher education qualifications constitutes a form of indirect employer engagement with higher education institutions that has contributed strongly to the development of work-related skills and knowledge over the years. However, this form of employer engagement with higher education…

  13. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador’s higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador’s universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions of full-time faculty. This article describes the attempt to raise the level of Ecuador’s system of higher education and its impact on faculty and a...

  14. Ecuador's higher education system in times of change

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador’s higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador’s universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions of full-time faculty. This article describes the attempt to raise the level of Ecuador’s system of higher education and its impact on faculty and a...

  15. The Times Higher Education Ranking Product: Visualising Excellence through Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will examine the Times Higher Education's (THE) World University Rankings as a corporate media product. A number of empirical studies have critiqued the methodology of the THE, yet individuals, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and governments continue to use them for decision-making. This paper analyses the influence of…

  16. Adopting Consumer Time: Potential Issues for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Time and temporality have received little attention in the consumerism, marketing or, until recently, higher education literature. This paper attempts to compare the notions of timing implicit in education as "paideia" (transitional personal growth) with that implicit in consumerism and the marketing practices which foster it. This…

  17. Adopting Consumer Time: Potential Issues for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Time and temporality have received little attention in the consumerism, marketing or, until recently, higher education literature. This paper attempts to compare the notions of timing implicit in education as "paideia" (transitional personal growth) with that implicit in consumerism and the marketing practices which foster it. This investigation…

  18. One hundred ways to process time, frequency, rate and scale in the central auditory system: a pattern-recognition meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar eHemery

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian auditory system extracts features from the acoustic environment based on the responses of spatially distributed sets of neurons in the subcortical and cortical auditory structures. The characteristic responses of these neurons (linearly approximated by their spectro-temporal receptive fields, or STRFs suggest that auditory representations are formed, as early as in the inferior colliculi, on the basis of a time, frequency, rate (temporal modulations and scale (spectral modulations analysis of sound. However, how these four dimensions are integrated and processed in subsequent neural networks remains unclear. In this work, we present a new methodology to generate computational insights into the functional organization of such processes. We first propose a systematic framework to explore more than a hundred different computational strategies proposed in the literature to process the output of a generic STRF model. We then evaluate these strategies on their ability to compute perceptual distances between pairs of environmental sounds. Finally, we conduct a meta-analysis of the dataset of all these algorithms' accuracies to examine whether certain combinations of dimensions and certain ways to treat such dimensions are, on the whole, more computationally effective than others. We present an application of this methodology to a dataset of ten environmental sound categories, in which the analysis reveals that (1 models are most effective when they organize STRF data into frequency groupings - which is consistent with the known tonotopic organisation of receptive fields in auditory structures -, and that (2 models that treat STRF data as time series are no more effective than models that rely only on summary statistics along time - which corroborates recent experimental evidence on texture discrimination by summary statistics.

  19. Chaotic Time Series Forecasting Using Higher Order Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waddah Waheeb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel application and comparison of higher order neural networks (HONNs to forecast benchmark chaotic time series. Two models of HONNs were implemented, namely functional link neural network (FLNN and pi-sigma neural network (PSNN. These models were tested on two benchmark time series; the monthly smoothed sunspot numbers and the Mackey-Glass time-delay differential equation time series. The forecasting performance of the HONNs is compared against the performance of different models previously used in the literature such as fuzzy and neural networks models. Simulation results showed that FLNN and PSNN offer good performance compared to many previously used hybrid models.

  20. Composite quarks and leptons in higher space-time dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Kobakhidze, A B

    2002-01-01

    A new approach towards the composite structure of quarks and leptons in the context of the higher dimensional unified theories is proposed. Owing to the certain strong dynamics, much like an ordinary QCD, every possible vectorlike set of composites appears in higher dimensional bulk space-time, however, through a proper Sherk-Schwarz compactification only chiral multiplets of composite quarks and leptons survive as the massless states in four dimensions. In this scenario restrictions related with the 't Hooft's anomaly matching condition are turned out to be avoided and, as a result, the composite models look rather simple and economic. We demonstrate our approach by an explicit construction of model of preons and their composites unified in the supersymmetric SU(5) GUT in five space-time dimensions. The model predicts exactly three families of the composite quarks and leptons being the triplets of the chiral horizontal symmetry SU(3)_h which automatically appears in the composite spectrum when going to ordin...

  1. Money counts for a Times Higher Education top-rank

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between a university’s expenditure per student and its position in international university rankings. We take into account other factors that are expected to play a role, such as university mission, size, and productive inefficiency. We formalise these concepts in our theoretical model of rankings and universities, and estimate this model with data on universities classified in the top 200 by the Times Higher Education Supplement ranking of 2007. We find t...

  2. Too much noise in the Times Higher Education rankings

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Several individual indicators from the Times Higher Education Survey (THES) data base—the overall score, the reported staff-to-student ratio, and the peer ratings—demonstrate unacceptably high fluctuation from year to year. The inappropriateness of the summary tabulations for assessing the majority of the “top 200” universities would be apparent purely for reason of this obvious statistical instability regardless of other grounds of criticism. There are far too many anomalies in the change sc...

  3. Transparent-cap-fitted colonoscopy shows higher performance with cecal intubation time in difficult cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung Hun Kim; Seun Ja Park; Moo In Park; Won Moor; Sung Eun Kim

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the efficacy of cap-fitted colonoscopy (CFC) with regard to cecal intubation time.METHODS:Two hundred and ninety-five patients undergoing screening colonoscopy at Gospel Hospital,Kosin University College of Medicine were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial between January and December 2010.Colonoscopies were conducted by a single endoscopist.Patient characteristics including age,sex,body mass index,history of abdominal surgery,quality of preparation,and the presence of diverticulosis were recorded.RESULTS:One hundred and fifty patients were allocated into a CFC group and 145 into a non-CFC (NCF)group.Cecal intubations were achieved in all patients.Cecal intubation time in the CFC group was significantly shorter than in the NCF group for specific conditions:age ≥ 60 years,prior abdominal surgery,and poor bowel preparation.The number of detected adenomas was higher in the CFC group than in the NCF group (P =0.040).CONCLUSION:CFC facilitated shortening of the cecal intubation time in difficult cases,and was more sensitive for detecting adenomas than was NCF.

  4. Time-Discrete Higher-Order ALE Formulations: Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulations deal with PDEs on deformable domains upon extending the domain velocity from the boundary into the bulk with the purpose of keeping mesh regularity. This arbitrary extension has no effect on the stability of the PDE but may influence that of a discrete scheme. We examine this critical issue for higher-order time stepping without space discretization. We propose time-discrete discontinuous Galerkin (dG) numerical schemes of any order for a time-dependent advection-diffusion-model problem in moving domains, and study their stability properties. The analysis hinges on the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity for dG. Exploiting the variational structure and assuming exact integration, we prove that our conservative and nonconservative dG schemes are equivalent and unconditionally stable. The same results remain true for piecewise polynomial ALE maps of any degree and suitable quadrature that guarantees the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity. This approach generalizes the so-called geometric conservation law to higher-order methods. We also prove that simpler Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order are conditionally stable, that is, subject to a mild ALE constraint on the time steps. Numerical experiments corroborate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  5. "The Times/The Times Higher Education Supplement"--League Tables in Britain: An Insider's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbins, David

    2002-01-01

    Describes how "The Times" and "The Times Higher Education Supplement" use publicly available and verifiable data to publish university league tables as an aid to the application process for young people seeking the most appropriate course programs and institutions. (EV)

  6. Full-Time Students? Term-Time Employment among Higher Education Students in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    A good deal of research has focused on part-time employment among full-time students in higher education. However, little attention has been paid to the way in which these patterns may reflect societally specific processes rather than universal trends. This paper examines ways in which the higher education system itself can influence variation in…

  7. Too much noise in the Times Higher Education rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L; Seidler, Horst; Fieder, Martin; Winckler, Georg

    2010-10-01

    Several individual indicators from the Times Higher Education Survey (THES) data base-the overall score, the reported staff-to-student ratio, and the peer ratings-demonstrate unacceptably high fluctuation from year to year. The inappropriateness of the summary tabulations for assessing the majority of the "top 200" universities would be apparent purely for reason of this obvious statistical instability regardless of other grounds of criticism. There are far too many anomalies in the change scores of the various indices for them to be of use in the course of university management.

  8. Improved Continuous-Time Higher Harmonic Control Using Hinfinity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Frank H.

    The helicopter is a versatile aircraft that can take-off and land vertically, hover efficiently, and maneuver in confined space. This versatility is enabled by the main rotor, which also causes undesired harmonic vibration during operation. This unwanted vibration has a negative impact on the practicality of the helicopter and also increases its operational cost. Passive control techniques have been applied to helicopter vibration suppression, but these methods are generally heavy and are not robust to changes in operating conditions. Feedback control offers the advantages of robustness and potentially higher performance over passive control techniques, and amongst the various feedback schemes, Shaw's higher harmonic control algorithm has been shown to be an effective method for attenuating harmonic disturbance in helicopters. In this thesis, the higher harmonic disturbance algorithm is further developed to achieve improved performance. One goal in this thesis is to determine the importance of periodicity in the helicopter rotor dynamics for control synthesis. Based on the analysis of wind tunnel data and simulation results, we conclude the helicopter rotor can be modeled reasonably well as linear and time-invariant for control design purposes. Modeling the helicopter rotor as linear time-invariant allows us to apply linear control theory concepts to the higher harmonic control problem. Another goal in this thesis is to find the limits of performance in harmonic disturbance rejection. To achieve this goal, we first define the metrics to measure the performance of the controller in terms of response speed and robustness to changes in the plant dynamics. The performance metrics are incorporated into an Hinfinity control problem. For a given plant, the resulting Hinfinity controller achieves the maximum performance, thus allowing us to identify the performance limitation in harmonic disturbance rejection. However, the Hinfinity controllers are of high order, and may

  9. Time is tight: how higher economic value of time increases feelings of time pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Sanford E; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    2011-07-01

    The common heuristic association between scarcity and value implies that more valuable things appear scarcer (King, Hicks, & Abdelkhalik, 2009), an effect we show applies to time as well. In a series of studies, we found that both income and wealth, which affect the economic value of time, influence perceived time pressure. Study 1 found that changes in income were associated with changes in perceived time pressure. Studies 2-4 showed that experimentally manipulating time's perceived economic value caused greater feelings of time pressure and less patient behavior. Finally, Study 5 demonstrated that the relationship between income and time pressure was strengthened when participants were randomly assigned to think about the precise economic value of their time.

  10. Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms

    CERN Document Server

    Cumsille, Patricio; Ossandon, Sebastian; Reyes, Camilo

    2015-01-01

    The stability of higher-order time derivative theories using the polymer extension of quantum mechanics is studied. First, we focus on the well-known Pais-Uhlenbeck model and by casting the theory into the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators we show that the energy spectrum is composed with positive and negative energy parts. The Schrodinger quantization of the model with creation and annihilations operators leads to a theory with unbounded Hamiltonian that can be interpreted in terms of normal particles and Lee-Wick-like particles responsible for the instability. We investigate whether the fundamental discreetness implicit in the polymer quantization can regularize the effects of the negative energies introduced by the Lee-Wick-like particles which are associated to a high-energy scale. Precisely, we show that the polymer quantization leads to a positive defined Hamiltonian whose stability is improved as the number of Lee-Wick-like particles grows.

  11. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order basis functions in time to improve the accuracy of the solver. The method is validated by showing convergence in temporal basis function order, time step size, and geometric discretization order. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. A Stable Higher Order Space-Time Galerkin Scheme for Time Domain Integral Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Pray, A J; Nair, N V; Cools, K; Bağcı, H; Shanker, B

    2014-01-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal for many years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: (1) Exact integration, (2) Lubich quadrature, (3) smooth temporal basis functions, and (4) Space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method was explored in [Pray et al. IEEE TAP 2012]. This method's efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was demonstrated on first order surface descriptions (flat elements) in tandem with 0th order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order temporal basis functions. These higher order temporal basis functions are used in a Galerkin framework. A number of results that demonstrate convergence, stability, and applicability are presented.

  13. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…

  14. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…

  15. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  16. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Felix R; Thompson, Deborah J; Helgason, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in female p...

  17. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, Felix R.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Helgason, Hannes; Chasman, Daniel I.; Finucane, Hilary; Sulem, Patrick; Ruth, Katherine S.; Whalen, Sean; Sarkar, Abhishek K.; Albrecht, Eva; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Amini, Marzyeh; Barbieri, Caterina M.; Boutin, Thibaud; Campbell, Archie; Demerath, Ellen; Giri, Ayush; He, Chunyan; Hottenga, Jouke J.; Karlsson, Robert; Kolcic, Ivana; Loh, Po-Ru; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Mangino, Massimo; Marco, Brumat; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Noordam, Raymond; Nutile, Teresa; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perjakova, Natalia; Porcu, Eleonora; Rose, Lynda M.; Schraut, Katharina E.; Segre, Ayellet V.; Smith, Albert V.; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broer, Linda; Bruning, Thomas; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Catamo, Eulalia; Chanock, Stephen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Cox, Angela; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Smith, George Davey; de Geus, Eco J. C. N.; de Mutsert, Renee; De Vivo, Immaculata; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Franke, Lude; Gabrielson, Marike; Gandin, Ilaria; Giles, Graham G.; Grallert, Harald; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Guenel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heiss, Gerardo; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Hu, Frank; Hunter, David J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Im, Hae Kyung; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Joshi, Peter K.; Karasik, David; Kellis, Manolis; Kutalik, Zoltan; LaChance, Genevieve; Lambrechts, Diether; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Lenarduzzi, Stefania; Li, Jingmei; Lind, Penelope A.; Lindstrom, Sara; Liu, YongMei; Luan, Jian'an; Magi, Reedik; Mannermaa, Arto; Mbarek, Hamdi; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Menni, Cristina; Metspalu, Andres; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mulligan, Anna M.; Nalls, Mike A.; Navarro, Pau; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; O'Mara, Tracy A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Pouta, Anneli; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Iffat; Ring, Susan M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Rudan, Igor; Rueedi, Rico; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Scott, Robert A.; Shah, Mitul; Sorice, Rossella; Southey, Melissa C.; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir; Steri, Maristella; Strauch, Konstantin; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Traglia, Michela; Truong, Therese; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Vitart, Veronique; Voelker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wang, Qin; Widen, Elisabeth; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Zygmunt, Marek; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Ciullo, Marina; Cucca, Francesco; Esko, Tonu; Franceschini, Nora; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hayward, Caroline; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Price, Alkes L.; Ridker, Paul M.; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Stoeckl, Doris; Toniolo, Daniela; Ulivi, Sheila; Visser, Jenny A.; Voelzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wilson, James F.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Thorsteindottir, Unnur; Pollard, Katherine S.; Easton, Douglas F.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hinds, David; Murray, Anna; Murabito, Joanne M.; Stefansson, Kari; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R. B.; Study, LifeLines Cohort

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to similar to 370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P <5 x 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in

  18. TIME MANAGEMENT AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A. Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Time Management is a set of principles, practices, skill, tool and systems that work together to help us to get more value out of our his/her time with the aim of improving the quality of our life. The most appropriate word which suites Time Management is self-management which helps us to keep stress to a maximum. Time is the scarcest resource and unless its management decides the success or the failure of an activity. Effective Time Management necessitates a sense of balance. Either extreme ...

  19. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2014-12-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method\\'s efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  20. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Thompson, Deborah J; Helgason, Hannes; Chasman, Daniel I; Finucane, Hilary; Sulem, Patrick; Ruth, Katherine S; Whalen, Sean; Sarkar, Abhishek K; Albrecht, Eva; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Amini, Marzyeh; Barbieri, Caterina M; Boutin, Thibaud; Campbell, Archie; Demerath, Ellen; Giri, Ayush; He, Chunyan; Hottenga, Jouke J; Karlsson, Robert; Kolcic, Ivana; Loh, Po-Ru; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Mangino, Massimo; Marco, Brumat; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Nolte, Ilja M; Noordam, Raymond; Nutile, Teresa; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perjakova, Natalia; Porcu, Eleonora; Rose, Lynda M; Schraut, Katharina E; Segrè, Ayellet V; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broer, Linda; Brüning, Thomas; Buring, Julie E; Campbell, Harry; Catamo, Eulalia; Chanock, Stephen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J; Cousminer, Diana L; Cox, Angela; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Davey Smith, George; de Geus, Eco J C N; de Mutsert, Renée; De Vivo, Immaculata; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Franke, Lude; Gabrielson, Marike; Gandin, Ilaria; Giles, Graham G; Grallert, Harald; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Harris, Tamara B; Hartman, Catharina A; Heiss, Gerardo; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank; Hunter, David J; Ikram, M Arfan; Im, Hae Kyung; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Joshi, Peter K; Karasik, David; Kellis, Manolis; Kutalik, Zoltan; LaChance, Genevieve; Lambrechts, Diether; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J; Laven, Joop S E; Lenarduzzi, Stefania; Li, Jingmei; Lind, Penelope A; Lindstrom, Sara; Liu, YongMei; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Mannermaa, Arto; Mbarek, Hamdi; McCarthy, Mark I; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Menni, Cristina; Metspalu, Andres; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Montgomery, Grant W; Mulligan, Anna M; Nalls, Mike A; Navarro, Pau; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nyholt, Dale R; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Pouta, Anneli; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Iffat; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Rosendaal, Frits R; Rudan, Igor; Rueedi, Rico; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Scott, Robert A; Shah, Mitul; Sorice, Rossella; Southey, Melissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir; Steri, Maristella; Strauch, Konstantin; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; Timpson, Nicholas J; Traglia, Michela; Truong, Thérèse; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uitterlinden, André G; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Vitart, Veronique; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wang, Qin; Widen, Elisabeth; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Zygmunt, Marek; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Boomsma, Dorret I; Ciullo, Marina; Cucca, Francesco; Esko, Tõnu; Franceschini, Nora; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hayward, Caroline; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Nohr, Ellen A; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Price, Alkes L; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stöckl, Doris; Toniolo, Daniela; Ulivi, Sheila; Visser, Jenny A; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wilson, James F; Spurdle, Amanda B; Thorsteindottir, Unnur; Pollard, Katherine S; Easton, Douglas F; Tung, Joyce Y; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hinds, David; Murray, Anna; Murabito, Joanne M; Stefansson, Kari; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2017-06-01

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In aggregate, our findings highlight the complexity of the genetic regulation of puberty timing and support causal links with cancer susceptibility.

  1. Restyling the Humanities Curriculum of Higher Education for Posthuman Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jamila R.

    2016-01-01

    The future viability of the humanities in higher education has been broadly debated. Yet, most of these debates are missing an important consideration. The humanities' object of study is the human, an object that some would argue has been replaced in our onto-epistemological systems by the posthuman. In her 2013 book, "The Posthuman,"…

  2. Restyling the Humanities Curriculum of Higher Education for Posthuman Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jamila R.

    2016-01-01

    The future viability of the humanities in higher education has been broadly debated. Yet, most of these debates are missing an important consideration. The humanities' object of study is the human, an object that some would argue has been replaced in our onto-epistemological systems by the posthuman. In her 2013 book, "The Posthuman,"…

  3. Higher Education in Times of Financial Distress: The Minnesota Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Like many states, Minnesota has incurred large budget deficits during the past two years. Those deficits have, in turn, led to changes in a number of areas of state government, particularly higher education. Faculty have incurred pay freezes and layoffs, programs have closed, and tuition increased. Campuses within the MnSCU system have been…

  4. Rebooting Irish Higher Education: Policy Challenges for Challenging Times

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis (GFC) has cast a long shadow over Ireland and Irish higher education. In 2009, the IMF (2009) said Ireland was experiencing an “unprecedented economic correction…that exceeds that being faced currently by any other advanced economy”, while Ireland’s National Economic and Social Development Office (NESC 2009) said Ireland was beset by five different crises: a banking crisis, a fiscal crisis, an economic crisis, a social crisis and a reputational crisis. These c...

  5. Independent studies in higher education: Great expectations or hard times?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a case of quality enhancement (QE) focusing on the issue of the independent work students are expected to undertake during their studies in Higher Education. It draws on quantitative and qualitative data gathered as part of a large-scale research exercise involving 113 undergraduate and 128 sixth form students of English. It goes on to explore the changing nature and role of students‘ subjective expectations by presenting data gathered through individual student intervie...

  6. Gene control of flowering time in higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Flowering involves a transition process from vegetative growth to reproductive development, in which a series of routine changes take place in the shoot apical meristems from metabolic pathway to external phenotype. Expression of the genes related to flowering is the foundation for achieving the transition. Environmental factors (such as vernalization and photoperiod) and the growth status of cell itself induce the expression of the specific genes. A lot of achievements have been made recently in gene control for the determination of flowering time. The article reviews some new advances of such researches related to our work and the interesting field.

  7. Oversight Hearing on the Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965: Great Falls, Montana, Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    As part of a series of field hearings across the nation on the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965, the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education met in Great Falls, Montana, to hear testimony specifically on access to education for children of middle class farm families in Montana. In the course of the hearing witnesses touched on…

  8. Time-periodic Solution to a Nonlinear Parabolic Type Equation of Higher Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ping Wang; You-lin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the existence and uniqueness of time-periodic generalized solutions and time-periodic classical solutions to a class of parabolic type equation of higher order are proved by Gaierkin method.

  9. Risk of Birth Defects 20 Times Higher for Zika Moms: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk of Birth Defects 20 Times Higher for Zika Moms: CDC Finding highlights importance of preventing infection ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women infected with the Zika virus are 20 times more likely to have ...

  10. Part-Time Higher Education in English Colleges: Adult Identities in Diminishing Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmond, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Adult participation in higher education has frequently entailed mature students studying part time in lower-ranked institutions. In England, higher education policies have increasingly emphasised higher education provision in vocational further education colleges, settings which have extensive adult traditions but which mainly teach…

  11. State Spending on Higher Education: Testing the Balance Wheel over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of higher education in state budgets. It empirically models and tests the balance wheel hypothesis in a robust framework. The balance wheel model posits that in good economic times, higher education is an attractive area for states to fund and tends to be funded at a higher rate than other state budget categories.…

  12. Changing Times of Feminism and Higher Education: From Community to Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Dorothy; Richter, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of space and time for feminist approaches in higher education in the context of shifting community and employment relations and the restructuring of higher education space-time. It draws on the reflections of three feminist academics concerning aspects of their work biographies in two very different higher…

  13. Time as the Fourth Dimension in the Globalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper calls for an analysis of time to be integrated into the theories on the globalization of higher education. Specifically, the author argues that academic capitalism, fuelled by globalization, has led to changes in the university visible in time/space compression, time acceleration, the reification of time and our internalization of the…

  14. Fluid-structure interaction simulations: efficient higher order time integration of partitioned systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuijlen, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    The simulation of fluid-structure interaction can be a very time-consuming task due to the large amount of time steps that need to be taken in order to obtain an accurate solution. To reduce computing times a higher order time integration algorithm is applied. Based on a mixed combination of implici

  15. Changing times of feminism and higher education: From community to employability

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of space and time for feminist approaches in higher education in the context of shifting community and employment relations and the restructuring of higher education space-time. It draws on the reflections of three feminist academics concerning aspects of their work biographies in two very different higher education settings. It explores the shift from working in an academic department concerned with community studies to one concerned with education and rel...

  16. Supporting part-time learners in higher education: Equalities and inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Jackson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions are working in times of change, including a changing student body, changing demographics, and the challenges of globalization.  In the UK and many Western countries, part-time enrolments in universities are expected to rise at a much faster rate than full-time, with the mix between part-time and full-time shifting substantially.   Whilst policies and practices have often denied opportunities to part-time learners, the changing landscape of UK higher education – with many similarities to the landscapes in much of the developed world – are opening more flexible opportunities to participate in higher education.  However, those possibilities are too often marginal, with full-time and younger learners dominating the discourses and practices of higher education institutions.  This paper will discuss ways of supporting academic learning for diverse groups of part-time learners, showing how pedagogic approaches can be developed that enhance and support more flexible and effective learning.  Institutions face particular challenges in ensuring that the voices of diverse groups of students are heard.  This article will argue that to enhance social inclusion, institutions need to ‘speak’ to mature students and part-time students – and many currently do not.  However, it will conclude that there are pedagogic approaches which enable more inclusive practices in higher education to be mainstreamed.

  17. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust collapse in higher dimensional space-time and cosmic censorship hypothesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K D Patil; S H Ghate; R V Saraykar

    2001-04-01

    We consider a collapsing spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust cloud in higher dimensional space-time. We show that the central singularity of collapse can be a strong curvature or a weak curvature naked singularity depending on the initial density distribution.

  18. "The Balancing Act"--Irish Part-Time Undergraduate Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Fleming, Bairbre

    2009-01-01

    While the numbers of part-time students has increased in higher education in Ireland, little is known about these students or about how they balance their study and other commitments. Drawing on a larger study on Irish students' experiences in higher education, this article attempts to address this gap in research and reports on Irish part-time…

  19. Minkowski Spacetime A Hundred Years Later

    CERN Document Server

    Petkov, Vesselin

    2009-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to the one hundredth anniversary of the publication of Hermann Minkowski's paper "Space and Time" in 1909. His work on the spacetime representation of special relativity had a huge impact on the twentieth century physics to the extent that modern physics would be impossible without the notion of spacetime. While there is consensus on the mathematical significance of spacetime in theoretical physics, for a hundred years there has been no consensus on the nature of spacetime itself. We owe Minkowski a clear answer to the question of the nature of spacetime -- whether it is only a mathematical space or represents a real four-dimensional world. A century after its publication the original Minkowski paper still represents an enrichment to the physicists, especially the relativists, who read it with the intent to fully investigate the depth of Minkowski's ideas on space and time and the physical meaning of special relativity. The volume begins with an excellent retranslation of Minkowski's ...

  20. The Motivations and Outcomes of Studying for Part-Time Mature Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jon; Hammond, Cathie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the motivations and outcomes for mature students who study part-time in higher education (HE) in the UK. Although many students in HE are mature part-time learners, they have not been the specific focus of much research or policy interest. In-depth narrative interviews were carried out with 18 graduates who had studied…

  1. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  2. The Benefits of Higher Education Study for Part-Time Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Anne; Sabates, Ricardo; Woodley, Alan; Feinstein, Leon

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study of mature part-time students and their reported benefits of study. It is based on data from a questionnaire survey of graduates from two major--but very different--providers of part-time higher education: Birkbeck, University of London and the Open University. Response items were grouped within a…

  3. Gravitational collapse in higher-dimensional charged-Vaidya space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishor D Patil

    2003-03-01

    We analyze here the gravitational collapse of higher-dimensional charged-Vaidya space-time. We show that singularities arising in a charged null fluid in higher dimension are always naked violating at least strong cosmic censorship hypothesis (CCH), though not necessarily weak CCH. We show that earlier conclusions on the occurrence of naked singularities in four-dimensional case can be extended essentially in the same manner in 5D case also.

  4. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. MULTISTAGE ADAPTIVE HIGHER-ORDER NONLINEAR FINITE IMPULSE RESPONSE FILTERS FOR CHAOTIC TIME SERIES PREDICTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JIA-SHU; XIAO XIAN-CI

    2001-01-01

    A multistage adaptive higher-order nonlinear finite impulse response (MAHONFIR) filter is proposed to predict chaotic time series. Using this approach, we may readily derive the decoupled parallel algorithm for the adaptation of the coefficients of the MAHONFIR filter, to guarantee a more rapid convergence of the adaptive weights to their optimal values. Numerical simulation results show that the MAHONFIR filters proposed here illustrate a very good performance for making an adaptive prediction of chaotic time series.

  6. An efficient higher-order PML in WLP-FDTD method for time reversed wave simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Ou, Haiyan; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Derived from a stretched coordinate formulation, a higher-order complex frequency shifted (CFS) perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs). The higher-order PML is implemented with an auxiliary differential equation (ADE) approach. In order to further improve absorbing performance, the parameter values of stretching functions in the higher-order PML are optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The optimal solutions can be chosen from the Pareto front for trading-off between two independent objectives. It is shown in a numerical test that the higher-order PML is efficient in terms of attenuating propagating waves and reducing late time reflections. Moreover, the higher-order PML can be placed very close to the wall when analyzing the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves in a multipath indoor environment. Numerical examples of TR wave propagation demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.

  7. The study of gravitational collapse model in higher dimensional space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, U; Debnath, Ujjal; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of an inhomogeneous dust cloud in higher dimensional space-time. The naked singularities are shown to be developing as the final outcome of non-marginally bound collapse. The naked singularities are found to be gravitationally strong in the sense of Tipler .

  8. "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 Ranking: Old Wine in a New Bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 ranking is a new twist to the university ranking. It focuses on universities that have a history of 50 years or less with the purpose of offsetting the advantage of prestige of the older ones. This article re-analysed the data publicly available and looked into relevant conceptual and statistical issues. The…

  9. Institutional View of Part-Time Faculty Management in Higher Education Institutes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifeng; Jiang, Xiulan; Li, Hongbo

    2007-01-01

    Part-time faculty has become an important labor force in Chinese colleges and universities. The number of them has risen rapidly and its structure varies in different types of higher education institutes (HEIs), which results from integration of the social motivation and the inner motivation of schools' reform. From the institutional point of…

  10. Analyzing the Anglo-American Hegemony in the "Times Higher Education" Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Amadu Jacky

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the 2009 "Times Higher Education"-QS top 200 universities in the world. Based on this analysis the study claims that the THS reflects the phenomenon of Anglo American hegemony. The United States with 54 universities and the United Kingdom with 29 dominated the THS. In addition, six out of every ten universities on the…

  11. Signal Processing and Sampling Method for Obtaining Time Series Corresponding to Higher Order Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Sterian

    2010-01-01

    accuracy some significant quantities corresponding to the dynamic system. For fast phenomena, such significant quantities are represented by the derivatives of the received signals. In case of advanced computer modeling, the received signal should be filtered and converted into a time series corresponding to the estimated values for the dynamic system through a sampling procedure. This paper will show that present-day methods for computing in a robust manner the first derivative of a received signal (using an oscillating system working on a limited time interval and a supplementary differentiation method can be extended to the robust computation of higher order derivatives of the received signal by using a specific set of second-order oscillating systems (working also on limited time intervals so as estimative values for higher-order derivatives are to be directly generated (avoiding the necessity of additional differentiation or amplifying procedures, which represent a source of supplementary errors in present-day methods.

  12. Improved higher lead time river flow forecasts using sequential neural network with error updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Om

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel framework to use artificial neural network (ANN for accurate forecasting of river flows at higher lead times. The proposed model, termed as sequential ANN (SANN, is based on the heuristic that a mechanism that provides an accurate representation of physical condition of the basin at the time of forecast, in terms of input information to ANNs at higher lead time, helps improve the forecast accuracy. In SANN, a series of ANNs are connected sequentially to extend the lead time of forecast, each of them taking a forecast value from an immediate preceding network as input. The output of each network is modified by adding an expected value of error so that the residual variance of the forecast series is minimized. The applicability of SANN in hydrological forecasting is illustrated through three case examples: a hypothetical time series, daily river flow forecasting of Kentucky River, USA and hourly river flow forecasting of Kolar River, India. The results demonstrate that SANN is capable of providing accurate forecasts up to 8 steps ahead. A very close fit (>94% efficiency was obtained between computed and observed flows up to 1 hour in advance for all the cases, and the deterioration in fit was not significant as the forecast lead time increased (92% at 8 steps ahead. The results show that SANN performs much better than traditional ANN models in extending the forecast lead time, suggesting that it can be effectively employed in developing flood management measures.

  13. Relativistic star solutions in higher-dimensional pseudospheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Chattopadhyay; B C Paul

    2010-04-01

    We obtain relativistic solutions of a class of compact stars in hydrostatic equilibrium in higher dimensions by assuming a pseudospheroidal geometry for the space-time. The space-time geometry is assumed to be ( - 1) pseudospheroid immersed in a -dimensional Euclidean space. The spheroidicity parameter () plays an important role in determining the equation of state of the matter content and the maximum radius of such stars. It is found that the core density of compact objects is approximately proportional to the square of the space-time dimensions (), i.e., core of the star is denser in higher dimensions than that in conventional four dimensions. The central density of a compact star is also found to depend on the parameter . One obtains a physically interesting solution satisfying the acoustic condition when lies in the range > ( + 1)/( − 3) for the space-time dimensions ranging from = 4 to 8 and ( + 1)/( − 3) < < (2 - 4 + 3)/(2 - 8 - 1) for space-time dimensions ≥ 9. The non-negativity of the energy density () constrains the parameter with a lower limit (> 1). We note that in the case of a superdense compact object the number of space-time dimensions cannot be taken infinitely large, which is a different result from the braneworld model.

  14. Higher Throughput Maintenance Using Average Time Standard for Multipath Data Delivery Ad-hoc Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.Shanmugasundaram

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network has come out as one of the key enablers for reliable data delivery for different types of applications.Ad-hoc network consists of self-actuated node that collaborates in order to transfer the information.Trajectory-based Statistical Forwarding (TSF method used optimal target point selection algorithm to forward packets in order to satisfy probability of packet delivery over multi-hopbut failed provide higher throughputon the multipath data delivery. TheVoid Aware Pressure Routing (VAPR method used hop count and intensity information to build a directional data delivery system but performance of specialized geographic routing based multipath data delivery was not attained. To maintain the higher throughput level on ad-hoc network data delivery, Median Multicast Throughput Data Delivery (MMTDD mechanism is proposed in thispaper.The basic idea of MMTDD mechanism is to divide a message into multiple shares and deliver them via multiple independent source paths to the destination. MMTDD mechanism with the average time standard takes the best threshold value for every data (i.e., packet partitioning by avoiding packet loss. By this means, MMTDD mechanism uses the Average Time Standard (ATS to guarantee the required packet allocationwith higher throughput level. With the application of ATS, the MMTDD mechanism derives the theoretical model by attaining approximately 4% higher throughput level on the multipath data delivery in ad-hoc network.MMTDD mechanism makes use of time scheduling schemestodiscover and maintain data delivery paths with minimal time consumption.Median Multicast in MMTDD mechanism used the balanced state flow model to deliver data on multiple paths and experiment is conducted on factors such as time consumption, data delivery rate,average delivery delay and throughput level.

  15. Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our estimates hold without any restrictions on the time steps for dG with exact integration or Reynolds\\' quadrature. They involve a mild restriction on the time steps for the practical Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order. The key ingredients are the stability results shown earlier in Bonito et al. (Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: stability, 2013) along with a novel ALE projection. Numerical experiments illustrate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. DETECTION OF EARLY RUB-IMPACT IN ROTORS VIA HIGHER-ORDER TIME-FREQUENCY ENTROPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhongsheng; Yang Yongmin; Hu Zheng; Shen Guoji

    2004-01-01

    Due to the calculation problem of classical methods (such as Lyapunov exponent) for chaotic behavior, a new method of identifying nonlinear dynamics with higher-order time-frequency entropy (HOTFE) based on time-frequency analysis and information theorem is proposed. Firstly, the meaning of HOTFE is defined, and then its validity is testified by numerical simulation. In the end vibration data from rotors are analyzed by HOTFE. The results demonstrate that it can indeed identify the early rub-impact chaotic behavior in rotors and also is simpler to calculate than previous methods.

  17. Existence of Positive Solutions for Higher Order Boundary Value Problem on Time Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE DA-PENG; LIU YANG; SUN MING-ZHE; Li Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the existence of positive solutions of a class higher order boundary value problems on time scales.The class of boundary value problems educes a four-point (or three-point or two-point) boundary value problems,for which some similar results are established.Our approach relies on the Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem.The result of this paper is new and extends previously known results.

  18. Higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, Johan; Rylander, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain. Brick-shaped elements are used for large homogeneous parts of the computational domain, where we exploit mass-lumping and explicit time-stepping. In regions with complex geometry, we use an unstructured mesh of tetrahedrons that share an interface with the brick-shaped elements and, at the interface, tangential continuity of the electric field is imposed in the weak sense by means of Nitsche's method. Implicit time-stepping is used for the tetrahedrons together with the interface. For cavity resonators, the hybrid method reproduces the lowest non-zero eigenvalues with correct multiplicity and, for geometries without field singularities from sharp corners or edges, the numerical eigenvalues converge towards the analytical result with an error that is approximately proportional to h2p, where h is the cell size and p is the polynomial order of the elements. For a rectangular waveguide, a layer of tetrahedrons embedded in a grid of brick-shaped elements yields a low reflection coefficient that scales approximately as h2p. Finally, we demonstrate hybrid time-stepping for a lossless closed cavity resonator, where the time-domain response is computed for 300,000 time steps without any signs of instabilities.

  19. Higher spins tunneling from a time dependent and spherically symmetric black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M. [Parahyangan Catholic University, Physics Department, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2016-03-15

    The discussions of Hawking radiation via tunneling method have been performed extensively in the case of scalar particles. Moreover, there are also several works in discussing the tunneling method for Hawking radiation by using higher spins, e.g. neutrino, photon, and gravitino, in the background of static black holes. Interestingly, it is found that the Hawking temperature for static black holes using the higher spins particles has no difference compared to the one computed using scalars. In this paper, we study the Hawking radiation for a spherically symmetric and time dependent black holes using the tunneling of Dirac particles, photon, and gravitino. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature is similar to the one derived in the tunneling method by using scalars. (orig.)

  20. Flexible Learning and Teaching: Looking Beyond the Binary of Full-time/Part-time Provision in South African Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages with literature on flexible learning and teaching in order to explore whether it may be possible, within the South African context, to have flexible learning and teaching provide a third way which goes beyond the current practice of full-time/part-time provision. This binary classification of students is a proxy for day-time/after-hours delivery.  The argument is made that effective, flexible learning and teaching requires a fundamental shift in thinking about learning and teaching in higher education that moves us beyond such binaries. The paper proposes that in order to ensure access and success for students, ‘common knowledge’ (Edwards, 2010 will need to be co-constructed which understands flexible learning and teaching in ways which will meet needs of a diversity of students, including working students. It will require ‘resourceful leadership’ (Edwards, 2014 within the university that recognises, enhances and gives purpose to the capability of colleagues at every level of the systems they lead. Also, it will require the building of ‘common knowledge’ between certain sectors of universities and particular workplaces.    

  1. Calculating Higher-Order Moments of Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Summaries in Linear Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Amrit; Minin, Vladimir N

    2017-02-08

    Stochastic mapping is a simulation-based method for probabilistically mapping substitution histories onto phylogenies according to continuous-time Markov models of evolution. This technique can be used to infer properties of the evolutionary process on the phylogeny and, unlike parsimony-based mapping, conditions on the observed data to randomly draw substitution mappings that do not necessarily require the minimum number of events on a tree. Most stochastic mapping applications simulate substitution mappings only to estimate the mean and/or variance of two commonly used mapping summaries: the number of particular types of substitutions (labeled substitution counts) and the time spent in a particular group of states (labeled dwelling times) on the tree. Fast, simulation-free algorithms for calculating the mean of stochastic mapping summaries exist. Importantly, these algorithms scale linearly in the number of tips/leaves of the phylogenetic tree. However, to our knowledge, no such algorithm exists for calculating higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries. We present one such simulation-free dynamic programming algorithm that calculates prior and posterior mapping variances and scales linearly in the number of phylogeny tips. Our procedure suggests a general framework that can be used to efficiently compute higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries without simulations. We demonstrate the usefulness of our algorithm by extending previously developed statistical tests for rate variation across sites and for detecting evolutionarily conserved regions in genomic sequences.

  2. Time-domain multimode dispersion measurement in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-02-01

    We present a new multimode dispersion measurement technique based on the time-of-flight method. The modal delay and group velocity dispersion of all excited modes in a few-mode fiber can be measured simultaneously by a tunable pulsed laser and a high speed sampling oscilloscope. A newly designed higher-order-mode fiber with large anomalous dispersion in the LP(02) mode has been characterized using this method, and experimental results are in good agreement with the designed dispersion values. The demonstrated technique is significantly simpler to implement than the existing frequency-domain or interferometry-based methods.

  3. Discrete sliding mode control for robust tracking of higher order delay time systems with experimental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, A A; Malwatkar, G M; Patre, B M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete time sliding mode controller (DSMC) is proposed for higher order plus delay time (HOPDT) processes. A sliding mode surface is selected as a function of system states and error and the tuning parameters of sliding mode controller are determined using dominant pole placement strategy. The condition for the existence of stable sliding mode is obtained by using Lyapunov function. The proposed method is applicable to HOPDT processes with oscillatory and integrating behavior, open loop instability or non-minimum phase characteristics and works satisfactory under the effect of parametric uncertainty. The method does not require reduced order model and provides simple way to design the controllers. The simulation and experimentation results show that the proposed method ensures desired tracking dynamics.

  4. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2017-10-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  5. Parity- and Time Reversal-Violating Pion Nucleon Couplings: Higher Order Chiral Matching Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Seng, Chien-Yeah

    2016-01-01

    Parity- and time reversal-violating (PVTV) pion-nucleon couplings govern the magnitude of long-range contributions to nucleon and atomic electric dipole moments. When these couplings arise from chiral symmetry-breaking CP-violating operators, such as the QCD $\\theta$-term or quark chromoelectric dipole moments, one may relate hadronic matrix elements entering the PVTV couplings to nucleon and pion mass shifts by exploiting the corresponding chiral transformation properties at leading order (LO) in the chiral expansion. We compute the higher-order contributions to the lowest order relations arising from chiral loops and next-to-next-to leading order (NNLO) operators. We find that for the QCD $\\theta$-term the higher order contributions are analytic in the quark masses, while for the quark chromoelectric dipole moments and chiral symmetry-breaking four-quark operators, the matching relations also receive non-analytic corrections. Numerical estimates suggest that for the isoscalar PVTV pion-nucleon coupling, the...

  6. Sixty-four MDCT achieves higher contrast in pancreas with optimization of scan time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Tina; Brambs, Hans-Jürgen; Freund, Wolfgang; Juchems, Markus S

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare different multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocols to optimize pancreatic contrast enhancement. METHODS: Forty consecutive patients underwent contrast-enhanced biphasic MDCT (arterial and portal-venous phase) using a 64-slice MDCT. In 20 patients, the scan protocol was adapted from a previously used 40-channel MDCT scanner with arterial phase scanning initiated 11.1 s after a threshold of 150 HU was reached in the descending aorta, using automatic bolus tracking (Protocol 1). The 11.1-s delay was changed to 15 s in the other 20 patients to reflect the shorter scanning times on the 64-channel MDCT compared to the previous 40-channel system (Protocol 2). HU values were measured in the head and tail of the pancreas in the arterial and portal-venous phase. RESULTS: Using an 11.1-s delay, 74.2 HU (head) were measured on average in the arterial phase and 111.2 HU (head) were measured using a 15-s delay (P < 0.0001). For the pancreatic tail, the average attenuation level was 76.73 HU (11.1 s) and 99.89 HU (15 s) respectively (P = 0.0002). HU values were also significantly higher in the portal-venous phase [pancreatic head: 70.5 HU (11.1 s) vs 84.0 HU (15 s) (P = 0.0014); pancreatic tail: 67.45 HU (11.1 s) and 77.18 HU (15 s) using Protocol 2 (P = 0.0071)]. CONCLUSION: Sixty-four MDCT may yield a higher contrast in pancreatic study with (appropriate) optimization of scan delay time. PMID:22900134

  7. Fission Multiplicity Detection with Temporal Gamma-Neutron Discrimination from Higher-Order Time Correlation Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberer, R.B.

    2002-11-12

    The current practice of nondestructive assay (NDA) of fissile materials using neutrons is dominated by the {sup 3}He detector. This has been the case since the mid 1980s when Fission Multiplicity Detection (FMD) was replaced with thermal well counters and neutron multiplicity counting (NMC). The thermal well counters detect neutrons by neutron capture in the {sup 3}He detector subsequent to moderation. The process of detection requires from 30 to 60 {micro}s. As will be explained in Section 3.3 the rate of detecting correlated neutrons (signal) from the same fission are independent of this time but the rate of accidental correlations (noise) are proportional to this time. The well counters are at a distinct disadvantage when there is a large source of uncorrelated neutrons present from ({alpha}, n) reactions for example. Plastic scintillating detectors, as were used in FMD, require only about 20 ns to detect neutrons from fission. One thousandth as many accidental coincidences are therefore accumulated. The major problem with the use of fast-plastic scintillation detectors, however, is that both neutrons and gamma rays are detected. The pulses from the two are indistinguishable in these detectors. For this thesis, a new technique was developed to use higher-order time correlation statistics to distinguish combinations of neutron and gamma ray detections in fast-plastic scintillation detectors. A system of analysis to describe these correlations was developed based on simple physical principles. Other sources of correlations from non-fission events are identified and integrated into the analysis developed for fission events. A number of ratios and metric are identified to determine physical properties of the source from the correlations. It is possible to determine both the quantity being measured and detection efficiency from these ratios from a single measurement without a separate calibration. To account for detector dead-time, an alternative analytical technique

  8. A Hundred Years of Peter Pan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollindale, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The centenary of the first performance of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan was celebrated in December 2004. Taking account of the various events in Britain to mark the occasion--newspaper articles, radio and television programmes, retrospects in the original theatre--this article examines the status and popularity of Peter Pan after a hundred years. The…

  9. A Hundred Years of Peter Pan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollindale, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The centenary of the first performance of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan was celebrated in December 2004. Taking account of the various events in Britain to mark the occasion--newspaper articles, radio and television programmes, retrospects in the original theatre--this article examines the status and popularity of Peter Pan after a hundred years. The…

  10. Invitation to “Hundred-Talent Project”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Founded in 1956, the Institute of Computing Technology (ICT) of The Chinese Academyof Sciences (CAS) is the first comprehensive computer research institute and the cradle ofcomputer enterprises in China. Now the following positions for “Hundred-Talent Project”offered by ICT are open to outstanding researchers both domestic and overseas.

  11. Atypical symptom cluster predicts a higher mortality in patients with first-time acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seon Young; Ahn, Young Geun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2012-01-01

    Identifying symptom clusters of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and their clinical significance may be useful in guiding treatment seeking behaviors and in planning treatment strategy. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of acute symptoms and their associated factors that manifested in patients with first-time AMI, and to compare clinical outcomes among cluster groups within 1-year of follow-up. A total of 391 AMI patients were interviewed individually using a structured questionnaire for acute and associated symptoms between March 2008 and June 2009 in Korea. Among 14 acute symptoms, three distinct clusters were identified by Latent Class Cluster Analysis: typical chest symptom (57.0%), multiple symptom (27.9%), and atypical symptom (15.1%) clusters. The cluster with atypical symptoms was characterized by the least chest pain (3.4%) and moderate frequencies (31-61%) of gastrointestinal symptoms, weakness or fatigue, and shortness of breath; they were more likely to be older, diabetic and to have worse clinical markers at hospital presentation compared with those with other clusters. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that, when age and gender were adjusted for, the atypical symptom cluster significantly predicted a higher risk of 1-year mortality compared to the typical chest pain cluster (hazard ratio 3.288, 95% confidence interval 1.087-9.943, p=0.035). Clusters of symptoms can be utilized in guiding a rapid identification of symptom patterns and in detecting higher risk patients. Intensive treatment should be considered for older and diabetic patients with atypical presentation.

  12. GOODS Missing Black Hole Report: Hundreds Found!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Astronomers have unmasked hundreds of black holes hiding deep inside dusty galaxies billions of light-years away Normal Galaxies Normal Galaxies The massive, growing black holes, discovered by NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes, represent a large fraction of a long-sought missing population. Their discovery implies there are hundreds of millions of additional black holes growing in our young universe, more than doubling the total amount known at that distance. "Active, supermassive black holes are everywhere in the early universe," said Mark Dickinson of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. "We had seen the tip of the iceberg before in our search for these objects. Now, we can see the iceberg itself." Dickinson is a co-author of two new papers appearing in the Nov. 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Emanuele Daddi of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France led the research. The findings are also the first direct evidence that most, if not all, massive galaxies in the distant universe spend their youths building monstrous black holes at their cores. For decades, large populations of active black holes have been considered missing. These highly energetic structures, also called quasars, consist of a dusty, doughnut-shaped cloud that surrounds and feeds a growing supermassive black hole. They give off a lot of X-rays that can be detected as a general glow in space, but sometimes the quasars themselves can't be seen because dust and gas blocks their X-rays from our point of view. "We knew from other studies from about 30 years ago that there must be more quasars in the universe, but we didn't know where to find them until now," said Daddi. Daddi and his team initially set out to study 1,000 dusty, massive galaxies that are busy making stars, and were thought to lack quasars. The galaxies are about the same mass as our own spiral Milky Way galaxy, but irregular in shape. At 9 to 11 billion light-years away, they exist at a

  13. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 2--A Survey of the Issues Facing Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Susan; Brown, Nigel; Payne, Philip; Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is the report on part-time study in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) for Universities UK and GuildHE (previously SCOP) from Nigel Brown Associates. It forms Strand 2 of the wider research into part-time higher education commissioned by Universities UK and GuildHE using quantitative data not available from published sources and…

  14. A hundred years of activated sludge: time for a rethink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahiman Sheik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTPs based on the activated sludge (AS process have dramatically improved worldwide water sanitation despite increased urbanization and industrialization. However, current AS-based operations are considered economically and environmentally unsustainable. In this Perspective, we discuss our current understanding of microbial populations and their metabolic transformations in AS-based BWWTPs in view of developing more sustainable processes in the future. In particular, much has been learned over the course of the past 25 years about specialized microorganisms, which could be more comprehensively leveraged to recover energy and/or nutrients from wastewater streams. To achieve this, we propose a bottom-up design approach, focused around the concept of a wastewater biorefinery column, which would rely on the engineering of distinct ecological niches into a BWWTP in order to guarantee the targeted enrichment of specific organismal groups which in turn will allow the harvest of high-value resources from wastewater. This concept could be seen as a possible grand challenge to microbial ecologists and engineers alike at the centenary of the discovery of the AS process.

  15. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  16. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  17. Real-Time Systems: Reflections on higher education in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    File, Jon; Goedegebuure, Leo

    2003-01-01

    Real-time systems (An ICT definition) In real-time multiprocessing there is the extra requirement that the system complete its response to any input within a certain critical time. This poses additional problems, particularly in situations where the system is heavily loaded and is subject to many si

  18. The Impact of Part-Time Faculty on Student Retention: A Case Study in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Curtis V.

    2010-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in community colleges over the last forty years regarding the impact of increased use of part-time faculty (PTF) on student learning. It has been argued that part-time faculty fail to provide the same level of teaching quality as full-time faculty (FTF). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of…

  19. Investigators find hundreds of intentional nuclear releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-10-24

    Investigators with the federal Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments have said that the category of intentional releases is now known to be larger, in variety and quantity, than the 13 releases identified prior to the committee`s formation in January 1994 by President Clinton. The committee is now aware of hundreds of additional intentional releases. In addition to the intentional releases, the committee said it had compiled documents on 400 biomedical experiments involving radiation prior to 1975, and had at least fragmentary evidence of more than 1,000 more. The committee also discovered a top secret 1953 Defense Department policy statement on human experimentation that was based on the World War II-era Nuremberg Code. The committee said it was looking into how or whether the policy was implemented. The committee is expected to issue a final report, including recommendations on possible compensation for victims by April 1995.

  20. Transformative, transgressive social learning: rethinking higher education pedagogy in times of systemic global dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Wals, A.E.J.; Kronlid, David; McGarry, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    The nature of the sustainability challenges currently at hand is such that dominant pedagogies and forms of learning that characterize higher education need to be reconsidered to enable students and staff to deal with accelerating change, increasing complexity, contested knowledge claims and inevita

  1. Times, Measures and the Man: the Future of British Higher Education Treated Historically and Comparatively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neave, Guy

    2006-01-01

    This article is a tribute to the life work of Maurice Kogan. Very little of higher education's landscape in the United Kingdom has remained unchanged over the past four decades and this article sets out to analyze the way the perception of the role of universities in society has changed in the inter

  2. Generalized scalar tensor theory in four and higher dimensional spherically symmetric space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subenoy Chakraborty; Arabinda Ghosh

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, we have studied generalized scalar tensor theory for spherically symmetric models, both in four and higher dimensions with a bulk viscous fluid. We have considered both exponential and power law solutions with some assumptions among the physical parameters and solutions have been discussed.

  3. Integrating Health and Sustainability: The Higher Education Sector as a Timely Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, J.; Dooris, M.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of…

  4. The Impact of Term-Time Employment on Higher Education Students' Academic Attainment and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Term-time employment among Britain's undergraduates is a growing phenomenon but it has received scant attention from government and policy makers. Although there are numerous studies on the subject, few have explored the impact of term-time employment on students' actual attainment and those that have are limited. This article attempts to fill…

  5. First integrals for time-dependent higher-order Riccati equations by nonholonomic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Partha; Ghose Choudhury, A.; Khanra, Barun

    2011-08-01

    We exploit the notion of nonholonomic transformations to deduce a time-dependent first integral for a (generalized) second-order nonautonomous Riccati differential equation. It is further shown that the method can also be used to compute the first integrals of a particular class of third-order time-dependent ordinary differential equations and is therefore quite robust.

  6. Integrating health and sustainability: the higher education sector as a timely catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, J; Dooris, M

    2010-06-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of the environmental focus that has to date characterized and driven universities' work in relation to sustainability and the demonstrable value of adopting a whole-system approach, this paper will explore the concept of 'Healthy Universities' as a means of furthering debate and facilitating synergy between public health, sustainable development and climate change. Higher education represents one large-scale sector with a unique combination of roles that can be harnessed to focus and mobilize its education, knowledge exchange, research, corporate responsibility and future shaping agendas to achieve significant impacts in this area. It is the growing commitment to embedding health and well-being within the mainstream business of higher education coupled with the expectation that universities will act sustainably in all that they do that provides the perfect springboard to influence a process of 'co-ordinated action' to address climate change and impact positively on the integrated health and sustainability agenda.

  7. Do Diligent Students Perform Better? Complex Relations between Student and Course Characteristics, Study Time, and Academic Performance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Chris; Broeckmans, Jan; Doumen, Sarah; Groenen, Anne; Molenberghs, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Research has reported equivocal results regarding the relationship between study time investment and academic performance in higher education. In the setting of the active, assignment-based teaching approach at Hasselt University (Belgium), the present study aimed (a) to further clarify the role of study time in academic performance, while taking…

  8. Gelfand-Dickey Algebra and Higher Spin Symmetries On $T^2=S^1\\times S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    Sedra, M B

    2007-01-01

    We focus in this work to renew the interest in higher conformal spins symmetries and their relations to quantum field theories and integrable models. We consider the extension of the conformal Frappat et al. symmetries containing the Virasoro and the Antoniadis et al. algebras as particular cases describing geometrically special diffeomorphisms of the two dimensional torus $T^2$. We show in a consistent way, and explicitly, how one can extract these generalized symmetries from the Gelfand-Dickey algebra. The link with Liouville and Toda conformal field theories is established and various important properties are discussed.

  9. The cosmic censorship conjecture in a higher dimensional space-time with an interacting vacuum energy

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, M

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the inclusion of the vacuum energy in the energy momentum tensor, and the inclusion of the extra dimensions in the space-time, can not be rule out of the research in gravitation. In this work we study the influence of the vacuum energy in the collapse of a stellar fluid process, and consequently for the cosmic censorship conjecture, considering a homogeneous and isotropic space-time with arbitrary number of dimensions. We discuss the active gravitational mass of the black hole formed, where the vacuum energy and the number of dimensions has a crucial role in the process.

  10. [Hundred years of social medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schagen, U; Schleiermacher, S

    2006-02-01

    In 1905 the first German association of Social Medicine was founded. Out of its now 100 years of history two aspects which were of peculiar importance for its development are studied here by the method of historic analysis of the sources and the examination of secondary literature: the noteworthiness of this foundation is characterized by the fact that the society was based from its beginnings on multidisciplinarity and the appliance of different scientific methods. It is showed which fascination had exclusively biological and genetic explanations for the genesis of diseases and human attitude characteristics. In transformation to practical action these ideas led to the extermination of disease causing genetic attributes and often their bearers as well. This aim was followed up even when the genetic causation of specified attitudes was not clearly proved. These biological interpretations of disease phenomenons neglected social causes for the process of the appearance of certain diseases and the emergence of health. They were responsible for medical interventions into the physical integrity of hundreds of thousands of human beings under the political terms and conditions of National Socialism.

  11. Quantum-kinetic equations for time correlation functions in higher-order perturbation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leermakers, M.C.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    The memory kernel of the kinetic equation for the time correlation function of a quantum fluid is determined both in third order of the interaction strength and in the low-density approximation. The results are obtained with the help of a diagram representation for the kernel. The connection with

  12. Spanish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Construction and Validity among Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…

  13. Time for a Paradigm Shift: The New ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Banks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic librarians should expand our understanding of what counts as an authoritative resource, and be unafraid to challenge long-established wisdom in this domain. Wikipedia is far from perfect, but neither is the Encyclopedia Britannica. Wikipedia is updated daily, while the Britannica is no longer printed. If we cling to the Britannica as a symbol of authoritativeness, we will become obsolete ourselves. One way to prevent this fate is to reframe our collective thinking. In 2014 the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL will issue a revised version of the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. The task force shepherding this revision (ACRL, 2012 argues that the standards “should not be reapproved as they exist but should be extensively revised” (pg. 1. This is because the Internet has profoundly altered the ways in which we create, share, analyze and validate information. To be credible, the new ACRL standards must take full account of this change.

  14. Superconducting Accelerating Structure with Gradient as 2 Times Higher as TESLA Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Avrakhov, P V

    2004-01-01

    A proposed new accelerating structure for TESLA is assumed to have an effective gradient 2 times more than existing 9-cell cavity. This structure is an interlaced combination of two side-cavity-coupled standing wave substructures with λ/4 cells length. Intercell coupling provides side-coupled cavities made from a special shape waveguide section. The high accelerating gradient is accomplished by 4 factors: The shortened accelerating cells have transit time factor 0.9 instead of 0.64 for conventional standing wave cells with λ/2 length. The side magnetic coupling has made it possible to reduce the cells beam aperture that reduce relation between the maximum surface field and the acceleration gradient. Stronger intercell coupling allows extending the accelerating cavity and improving a duty factor of linac. Availability of the side coupling elements enables to use them for power input and HOM-couplers. It reduces intercavity distance and enhances duty factor too.

  15. Tensor-product preconditioners for higher-order space-time discontinuous Galerkin methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2017-02-01

    A space-time discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element discretization is presented for direct numerical simulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. An efficient solution technique based on a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method is developed in order to overcome the stiffness associated with high solution order. The use of tensor-product basis functions is key to maintaining efficiency at high-order. Efficient preconditioning methods are presented which can take advantage of the tensor-product formulation. A diagonalized Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) scheme is extended to the space-time discontinuous Galerkin discretization. A new preconditioner for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations based on the fast-diagonalization method is also presented. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of these preconditioners for the direct numerical simulation of subsonic turbulent flows.

  16. Simulation of manufacturing sequences using higher order accurate Runge-Kutta time integration schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleim, Tobias; Schröder, Bettina; Kuhl, Detlef

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the numerical simulation of multi-field problems in the context of functionally graded materials. The corresponding manufacturing sequences are mostly characterized by strong interacting fields with different physical behaviors, which additionally have high dynamic responses. In order to solve these distinct processes with a high accuracy in the time, various RUNGE-KUTTA methods are investigated. Furthermore, a h-error estimator and an embedded error estimator are considered for a qualitative evaluation of the results.

  17. Lyapunov-type inequality for a higher order dynamic equation on time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Taixiang; Xi, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a Lyapunov-type inequality for the following dynamic equation [Formula: see text]on some time scale T under the anti-periodic boundary conditions [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], p is the quotient of two odd positive integers and [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text].

  18. Hospitalisation costs for infant bronchiolitis are up to 20 times higher if intensive care is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Paula; Forma, Leena; Korppi, Matti

    2015-03-01

    Up to 3% of infants with bronchiolitis under 12 months of age are hospitalised, and up to 9% require intensive care. We evaluated the costs of bronchiolitis hospitalisation, with a special focus on whether infants needed intensive care. Baseline and cost data were retrospectively collected, using electronic hospital files, for 80 infants under 12 months old who were treated in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for bronchiolitis during a 13-year period. We calculated the daily costs for patients admitted to the PICU and compared them with 104 admitted to inpatient wards and 56 outpatients treated in the emergency department. The mean hospitalisation cost for PICU patients was €8061 (95% CI 6193-9929), compared to €1834 (1649-2020) for other inpatients and €359 (331-387) for the outpatients. The hospitalisation cost per patient was associated with length of hospital stay, but not gender, age on admission or gestational age. There was no constant increase or decrease in hospitalisation costs during the study period. The hospitalisation costs of infants treated in the PICU for bronchiolitis at <12 months of age were approximately four times more than for other inpatients and over 20 times more than for outpatients. Strategies are needed to reduce the need for intensive care. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A generative spike train model with time-structured higher order correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eTrousdale

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging technologies are revealing the spiking activity in ever larger neural ensembles. Frequently, this spiking is far from independent, with correlations in the spike times of different cells. Understanding how such correlations impact the dynamics and function of neural ensembles remains an important open problem.Here we describe a new, generative model for correlated spike trains that can exhibit many of the features observed in data. Extending prior work in mathematical finance, this generalized thinning and shift (GTaS model creates marginally Poisson spike trains with diverse temporal correlation structures.We give several examples which highlight the model's flexibility and utility. For instance, we use it to examine how a neural network responds to highly structured patterns of inputs.We then show that the GTaS model is analytically tractable, and derive cumulant densities of all orders in terms of model parameters. The GTaS framework can therefore be an important tool in the experimental and theoretical exploration of neural dynamics.

  20. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levakova, Marie; Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr

    2017-02-01

    It is widely accepted that neuronal firing rates contain a significant amount of information about the stimulus intensity. Nevertheless, theoretical studies on the coding accuracy inferred from the exact spike counting distributions are rare. We present an analysis based on the number of observed spikes assuming the stochastic perfect integrate-and-fire model with a change point, representing the stimulus onset, for which we calculate the corresponding Fisher information to investigate the accuracy of rate coding. We analyze the effect of changing the duration of the time window and the influence of several parameters of the model, in particular the level of the presynaptic spontaneous activity and the level of random fluctuation of the membrane potential, which can be interpreted as noise of the system. The results show that the Fisher information is nonmonotonic with respect to the length of the observation period. This counterintuitive result is caused by the discrete nature of the count of spikes. We observe also that the signal can be enhanced by noise, since the Fisher information is nonmonotonic with respect to the level of spontaneous activity and, in some cases, also with respect to the level of fluctuation of the membrane potential.

  1. Space and time diversity in indoor wireless optical links achieving higher data rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Yazan A.

    2013-02-01

    Multispot diffusing configuration (MSDC) in optical wireless links provide uniform optical power needed for multiaccess and spatial dependence that can be used to allow space diversity techniques over the link. The spatial channels are furnished in MSDC through utilizing multibeam transmitter that produces spatially confined diffusing spots, and a multibranch receiver with small enough branch field-of-view (FOV) to restrict the number of diffusing spots within its FOV. Here, we study different encoding techniques that use space and time diversity to reduce the bit error rate. An improved technique, constellation rotation, is proposed for pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) to increase the Euclidian distance between signal points, and thus reduce bit error. Our study shows that when a cap is placed on the amount of power allocated per channel, the performance of the improved 4-PAM using three spatial channels and soft binary decision provide the optimal performance. When the power allocated per user is restricted, the best performance is obtained through soft binary decision and by using symbols identified by their level and spatial channel to carry 2 bits per signal level-channel.

  2. Modern U-Pb chronometry of meteorites: advancing to higher time resolution reveals new problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, Y.; Connelly, J.; Zartman, R.E.; Chen, J.-H.; Gopel, C.; Neymark, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the factors that influence the accuracy of lead (Pb)-isotopic ages of meteorites, and may possibly be responsible for inconsistencies between Pb-isotopic and extinct nuclide timescales of the early Solar System: instrumental mass fractionation and other possible analytical sources of error, presence of more than one component of non-radiogenic Pb, migration of ancient radiogenic Pb by diffusion and other mechanisms, possible heterogeneity of the isotopic composition of uranium (U), uncertainties in the decay constants of uranium isotopes, possible presence of "freshly synthesized" actinides with short half-life (e.g. 234U) in the early Solar System, possible initial disequilibrium in the uranium decay chains, and potential fractionation of radiogenic Pb isotopes and U isotopes caused by alpha-recoil and subsequent laboratory treatment. We review the use of 232Th/238U values to assist in making accurate interpretations of the U-Pb ages of meteorite components. We discuss recently published U-Pb dates of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and their apparent disagreement with the extinct nuclide dates, in the context of capability and common pitfalls in modern meteorite chronology. Finally, we discuss the requirements of meteorites that are intended to be used as the reference points in building a consistent time scale of the early Solar System, based on the combined use of the U-Pb system and extinct nuclide chronometers.

  3. One hundred years of railway disasters and recent trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Rebecca; Björnstig, Ulf

    2011-10-01

    Globally, railway transport is increasing steadily. Despite the adoption of diverse safety systems, major railway incidents continue to occur. Higher speeds and increased passenger traffic are factors that influence the risk of mass-casualty incidents and make railway crashes a reality that merits extensive planning and training. Data on railway disasters were obtained from the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), which maintains the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT). This descriptive study consists of 529 railway disasters (≥10 killed and/or ≥100 non- fatally injured) from 1910 through 2009. The number of railway disasters, people killed, and non-fatally injured, has increased throughout the last hundred years-particularly during the last four decades (1970-2009), when 88% of all disasters occurred. In the mid-20th century, a shift occurred, resulting in more people being non-fatally injured than fatally injured. During 1970-2009, 74% of all railway disasters occurred in Asia, Africa, and South and Central America, combined. The remaining 26% occurred in Europe, North America, and Oceania, combined. Since 1980, railway disasters have increased, especially in Asia and Africa, while Europe has had a decrease in railway disasters. The number killed per disaster (1970-2009) was highest in Africa (n = 55), followed by South and Central America (n = 47), and Asia (n = 44). The rate was lowest in North America (n = 10) and Europe (n = 29). On average, the number of non-fatal injuries per disaster was two to three times the number of fatalities, however, in the African countries (except South Africa) the relation was closer to 1:1, which correlates to the relation found in more developed countries during the mid-20th century. The total losses (non-fatally and fatally injured) per disaster has shown a slight decreasing trend. Despite extensive crash avoidance and injury reduction safety systems, railway crashes occur on all continents

  4. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  5. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  6. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  7. One Hundred Years of College Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Although the first student health service is credited to Amherst College in 1861, almost 50 years passed before Princeton University established the first mental health service in 1910. At that time, a psychiatrist was hired to help with student personality development. Although other schools subsequently established such services, the first 50…

  8. Elementary Particles The first hundred years

    CERN Document Server

    Perkins, Donald Hill

    1997-01-01

    To mark the centenary of the discovery of that first elementary particle, the electron, some remarks and recollections from the early days of high energy physics, including the impact of early experiments and ideas on todayÕs research. Much of our progress in this field has been carefully anticipated and planned, but a surprising number of successes were the result of incredibly lucky breaks, where headway was made despite - or even because of - incorrect experimental results, crossed wires or simply asking the wrong question at the right time. We can be sure therefore that the next century - or perhaps even what remains of this one - will have unexpected surprises in store.

  9. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  10. One hundred years of clostridial butanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyeon Gi; Jang, Yu-Sin; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Binkley, Robert; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-02-01

    Butanol has been widely used as an important industrial solvent and feedstock for chemical production. Also, its superior fuel properties compared with ethanol make butanol a good substitute for gasoline. Butanol can be efficiently produced by the genus Clostridium through the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, one of the oldest industrial fermentation processes. Butanol production via industrial fermentation has recently gained renewed interests as a potential solution to increasing pressure of climate change and environmental problems by moving away from fossil fuel consumption and moving toward renewable raw materials. Great advances over the last 100 years are now reviving interest in bio-based butanol production. However, several challenges to industrial production of butanol still need to be overcome, such as overall cost competitiveness and development of higher performance strains with greater butanol tolerance. This minireview revisits the past 100 years of remarkable achievements made in fermentation technologies, product recovery processes, and strain development in clostridial butanol fermentation through overcoming major technical hurdles. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2012—2013 and Prospects of Science Development in Armenia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The article covers Times Higher Education World Universities Rankings and the criteria, according to which these universities are chosen. Most of them are in North America and Europe and represent Anglo-Saxon school, In the list of top universities appears more and more technical and natural science Asian universities as a result of increasing the number of research universities. The possibility of establishing a research university in Armenia, as well as circumstances that can promote or imp...

  12. A Hundred Years of Physics on Show

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The New Yorker Richard Feynman, well known to all physicists for his diagrams. Eleven vivid posters have recently been hung along the Theoretical Physics corridor on the first floor of Building 53. They tell the story of a century of physics, between 1900 and the end of the nineteen-nineties, the century that gave us atomic and quantum physics and the great breakthroughs that have rocked our understanding of the world and the universe. The posters are a gift from the American Physical Society to the CERN Library. As they were designed for high school and university book collections in the US, they necessarily have a somewhat American view of the history of science. But it is still instructive to revisit contemporary physics through its great figures, such as Marie Curie, Stephen Hawking, and Richard Feynman, not to mention Albert Einstein and many others. Why not take the time for a little trip down this particular stretch of Memory Lane?

  13. One Hundred Years: The Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kathleen A.

    1999-01-01

    A centennial history of the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities chronicles its origins, difficult early years, evolution alongside American secondary and higher education, reorganization, adjustments to modern times, and current mission. (MSE)

  14. Magnetoplasmadynamic electric propulsion thruster behavior at the hundred megawatt level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Darin William

    Characteristic measurements were made of a hundred megawatt modified helium inverse pinch switch and compared against numerical modeling and theoretically expected behavior. Thruster voltage was measured for currents between three and three hundred kilo amps and for mass flow rates between 0.96 and 40 grams per second. From that, characteristic voltage, power, and resistance curves were generated. Electron temperature measurements made inside the plasma flow using triple Langmuir probes were found to be between three and thirty electron volts. General expected MPD thruster behavior, such as decreasing resistance with increasing mass flow rate, were confirmed. The quasi steady assumption was studied between 1.5 and 1.7 milliseconds and found to be appropriate. A theoretical model, based on integrating the magnetic field to determine thrust, as for an MPD thruster, was used to estimate fall voltages, pumping coefficients, and specific impulse. An empirical model for thruster voltage was then created to estimate the behavior of voltage as a function of the similarity parameter. The two models were then put together and found to be self consistent with the experimental data. Three sources of power loss were estimated given the experimental and theoretical model. The power lost due to fall voltage mechanisms was calculated from the theoretical model and the input current as a function of time. The ionization losses were estimated using a worst case scenario of complete double ionization of the input helium mass flow rate as a function of time. Thermal losses were calculated from the electron temperature and the input mass flow rate. Total temperature, specific impulse, and efficiency measurements were all presented as a function of a similarity parameter in line with MPD theory. Basic MPD thruster behavior was confirmed. Suggestions were made for future continuation of the project.

  15. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  16. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    arXiv:1210.8106v2 [gr-qc] 11 Feb 2013 Late Time Acceleration of the 3-Space in a Higher Dimensional Steady State Universe in Dilaton Gravity Özgür Akarsua , b, Tekin Derelia a Department of Physics, Koç University, 34450 Sarıyer, İstanbul, Turkey b Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste, Italy Abstract We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an ar...

  17. Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2012—2013 and Prospects of Science Development in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutyunyan, T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article covers Times Higher Education World Universities Rankings and the criteria, according to which these universities are chosen. Most of them are in North America and Europe and represent Anglo-Saxon school, In the list of top universities appears more and more technical and natural science Asian universities as a result of increasing the number of research universities. The possibility of establishing a research university in Armenia, as well as circumstances that can promote or impede it are considered. The megaprojects implemented in Armenia are presented and the role of research universities in the promotion and establishment of these projects is substantiated.

  18. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  19. INFLUENCE OF THE PORTFOLIO APPROACH ON THE EFFECTIVE USE OF TIME BY STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor V. Grechnikov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the paper examines the influence of the portfolio approach on the effective use of training time by contemporary students. This problem is topical due to modernisation of domestic education and the introduction of the new federal state educational standards of higher education, which foresee the intensification of educational process at Institutions of Higher Education. Materials and Methods: based of the analysis of differentiation of students depending on capability for instruction and desire to learn, the paper reveals the potential categories of students requiring a motivational tool, that would enable them to rapidly and effectively acquire general cultural and professional competences. The students of Samara State Aerospace University participated in the experiment. The instruction of students in control groups was carried out traditionally, and in the experimental one – with the application of portfolio approach. Results: upon completion of testing entitled “do you have a feeling of time?” the research into timesaving potential of portfolio approach has revealed, that students in control and experimental groups can be divided into four categories: “overbusy”, “in general able to manage their studies well”, “able to manage their studies optimally” and “virtually successful”. The research showed that students in experimental groups began to manage more in a shorter time, the portion of students of the second and third categories has increased in comparison with the first and the fourth groups. Discussion and Conclusions: as a whole, the findings have practical significance, making it possible to intensify the educational activity of students. The application of portfolio approach during the organisation of the independent work of students changed their attitude to “ the value” of time.

  20. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera based on multiple genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA. Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP, maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s and Bayesian (BEAST molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic.

  1. A more than one-hundred-fold higher per capita rate of authorship of five democratic nations versus their relatively undemocratic neighboring nations among 6,437 articles in 14 medical journals: does democracy and civil liberties promote intellectual creativity and medical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, Mitchell S

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work is to compare medical research productivity between democratic countries and their relatively undemocratic neighbors to identify mechanisms to promote medical research. Country of authorship was determined manually for articles published in 14 medical journals in 2005, and compared pairwise for democracies vs. relatively undemocratic nations: Israel vs. the rest of the Middle East; Japan vs. Russia; South Korea vs. North Korea; and Taiwan or Hong Kong vs. Mainland China. Democracies were quantitatively defined according to the Freedom House Index and the Economist's Index of Democracy. The frequency of publication of Israeli authors of unsolicited articles (excludes editorials) was found to be 1.08%, while its percentage of the world population is only .11% (OR = 9.97, 95%-ORCI: 4.30-23.1, P democracy: correlation coefficient with Freedom House Index = 0.83, and correlation coefficient with the Economist's Democracy Index = 0.76. The OR of national authorship was also (mildly less) correlated with per capita income (corr. coeff. = 0.75). In conclusion, five democracies exhibit a remarkably higher relative frequency of medical publications than their relatively undemocratic neighbors. The relative frequency of authorship was, furthermore, extremely strongly correlated with democracy and political freedom. The freedom hypothesis may help explain this phenomenon: political freedom and liberty in democracies may promote intellectual creativity and medical research. This hypothesis should be tested by a multivariate analysis of univariate risk factors of medical authorship for all nations.

  2. Experience of one hundred cases of ASD closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaypal Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available jdjdBackground & Objectives: Atrial Septal Defect is a common congenital heart disease and surgical closure is the treatment of choice in many cases. This article presents the diagnostic criteria, surgical technique and postoperative management of hundred consecutive patients operated by a single surgeon at single centre.Materials and methods: One hundred (100 patients having atrial septal defect (ASD underwent surgery at Osmania General Hospital, OMC, Hyderabad between January 1990 and October 1998. Sixty eight percentages (68% of the patients were females and 32% of the patients were male. Fifty nine percentages (59% of patients were in the age group of 11-30 yrs. Majority of the patients (70% were symptomatic and were in NYHA class II. 'O' Rh-positive blood group was found in 35% of patients. Associated cardiac lesions were present in 28% of cases. One case each of Cortriatrium, Lutembacher's syndrome and Holt-Oram syndrome were present in this series. Eighty nine percentages (89 % were moderate sized defects repaired by direct closure where as rest of 11% needed patch repair. Cold crystalloid cardioplegia with moderate hypothermia (28°C was employed in 83 cases, ventricular fibrillation at normothermia in 5 cases and normothermic warm blood cardioplegia with continuous perfusion of coronary arteries in 12 patients.Results: Total duration of cardiopulmonary bypass ranged from 21 minutes to 100 minutes (mean duration 54.4 minutes and aortic cross clamp time ranged from 10 minutes to 68 minutes (mean duration 22.9 minutes. Blood transfusion requirement ranged from 1 unit to 10 units (mean 3.1 units. There was no hospital death. Postoperative complication rate was 15%.Conclusion: Atrial septal defect closure is a safe, simple and effective operation with excellent long term results.Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, Vol.11(4 2015: 9-13

  3. Free water transport in children on peritoneal dialysis is higher with more biocompatible dialysis solutions, higher with older age and declines with time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Coester, A.; Smit, W.; Krediet, R.T.; Schroder, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water transport in peritoneal dialysis occurs through small pores and aquaporins. Free water transport (FWT) occurs through aquaporins only and gives a reflection of peritoneal aquaporin function. In this study, FWT in children was calculated for the first time in different settings. MET

  4. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: Its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eBialek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship. However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal.The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries - conjoint analysis - which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 & 2, and they are more stable over time (Study 2 compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods.

  5. Adaptive signal processing and higher order time- frequency analysis for acoustic and vibration signatures in condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Kwon

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a useful engineering technique to detect and analyse faults in rotating machinery. The methods developed are based on the advanced signal processing such as the adaptive signal processing and higher-order time frequency methods. The two-stage Adaptive Line Enhancer (ALE), using adaptive signal processing, has been developed for increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio of impulsive signals. The enhanced signal can then be analysed using time frequency methods to identify fault characteristics. However, if after pre-processing by the two stage ALE, the SNR of the signals is low, the residual noise often hinders clear identification of the fault characteristics in the time-frequency domain. In such cases, higher order time-frequency methods have been proposed and studied. As examples of rotating machinery, the internal combustion engine and an industrial gear box are considered in this thesis. The noise signal from an internal combustion engine and vibration signal measured on a gear box are studied in detail. Typically an impulsive signal manifests itself when the fault occurs in the machinery and is embedded in background noise, such as the fundamental frequency and its harmonic orders of the rotation speed and broadband noise. The two-stage ALE is developed for reducing this background noise. Conditions for the choice of adaptive filter parameters are studied and suitable adaptive algorithms given. The enhanced impulsive signal is analysed in the time- frequency domain using the Wigner higher order moment spectra (WHOMS) and the multi-time WHOMS (which is a dual form of the WHOMS). The WHOMS suffers from unwanted cross-terms, which increase dramatically as the order increases. Novel expressions for the cross-terms in WHOMS have been presented. The number of cross-terms can be reduced by taking the principal slice of the WHOMS. The residual cross-terms are smoothed by using a general class of kernel functions and the

  6. Computer-mediated communication and time pressure induce higher cardiovascular responses in the preparatory and execution phases of cooperative tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Ferrer, Raquel; Serrano Rosa, Miguel Ángel; Zornoza Abad, Ana; Salvador Fernández-Montejo, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    The cardiovascular (CV) response to social challenge and stress is associated with the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. New ways of communication, time pressure and different types of information are common in our society. In this study, the cardiovascular response to two different tasks (open vs. closed information) was examined employing different communication channels (computer-mediated vs. face-to-face) and with different pace control (self vs. external). Our results indicate that there was a higher CV response in the computer-mediated condition, on the closed information task and in the externally paced condition. These role of these factors should be considered when studying the consequences of social stress and their underlying mechanisms.

  7. Quantum Statistical Entropy of Non-extreme and Nearly Extreme Black Holes in Higher-Dimensional Space-Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dian-Yan

    2003-01-01

    The free energy and entropy of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in higher-dimensional space-time are calculated by the quantum statistic method with a brick wall model. The space-time of the black holes is divided into three regions: region 1, (r > r0); region 2, (r0 > r > n); and region 3, (T-J > r > 0), where r0 is the radius of the outer event horizon, and r, is the radius of the inner event horizon. Detailed calculation shows that the entropy contributed by region 2 is zero, the entropy contributed by region 1 is positive and proportional to the outer event horizon area, the entropy contributed by region 3 is negative and proportional to the inner event horizon area. The total entropy contributed by all the three regions is positive and proportional to the area difference between the outer and inner event horizons. As rt approaches r0 in the nearly extreme case, the total quantum statistical entropy approaches zero.

  8. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  9. Somewhere Over the Rainbow… - a few hundred nanometres above and perhaps much higher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian Buhl; Jensen, Bjarke B. E.; Eriksen, René Lynge;

    The dream: Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Graphene as versatile sensor platform Blueberry dye based optical sensor......The dream: Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Graphene as versatile sensor platform Blueberry dye based optical sensor...

  10. Assessments of higher-order ionospheric effects on GPS coordinate time series: A case study of CMONOC with longer time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Ma, Yifang

    2014-05-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HIO) corrections are proposed to become a standard part for precise GPS data analysis. For this study, we deeply investigate the impacts of the HIO corrections on the coordinate time series by implementing re-processing of the GPS data from Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Nearly 13 year data are used in our three processing runs: (a) run NO, without HOI corrections, (b) run IG, both second- and third-order corrections are modeled using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 (IGRF11) to model the magnetic field, (c) run ID, the same with IG but dipole magnetic model are applied. Both spectral analysis and noise analysis are adopted to investigate these effects. Results show that for CMONOC stations, HIO corrections are found to have brought an overall improvement. After the corrections are applied, the noise amplitudes decrease, with the white noise amplitudes showing a more remarkable variation. Low-latitude sites are more affected. For different coordinate components, the impacts vary. The results of an analysis of stacked periodograms show that there is a good match between the seasonal amplitudes and the HOI corrections, and the observed variations in the coordinate time series are related to HOI effects. HOI delays partially explain the seasonal amplitudes in the coordinate time series, especially for the U component. The annual amplitudes for all components are decreased for over one-half of the selected CMONOC sites. Additionally, the semi-annual amplitudes for the sites are much more strongly affected by the corrections. However, when diplole model is used, the results are not as optimistic as IGRF model. Analysis of dipole model indicate that HIO delay lead to the increase of noise amplitudes, and that HIO delays with dipole model can generate false periodic signals. When dipole model are used in modeling HIO terms, larger residual and noise are brought in rather than the effective improvements.

  11. CORRELATION OF CRISES, CRISIS EXPERIENCES AND ORIENTATION OF TIME PERSPECTIVE AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF TRAINING IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kurus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of article is identification of an actual problem of psychological science: correlation of crises and a crisis experiences with and orientation of time perspective at the initial stage of training in institution of higher education.Methods. During the research the following psychodiagnostic methods are applied: the questionnaire of crisis experiences for student by V. R. Manukyan; a questionnaire of time perspective by F. Zimbardo in adaptation of A. Syrtsova, E. T. Sokolova, O. V. Mitina (ZTPI.Results and scientific novelty. Data on interrelation of crises and crisis experiences with an orientation of temporary prospect are obtained and analysed on the basis of representative selection of students in Novosibirsk State Medical University. Gender distinctions of crises behaviour of students are shown. It is established that temporary prospects «The negative past» and «The fatalistic present» correlate with all the crisis experiences of students at the initial stage of training in higher education institution. The temporary prospect «Future» has the return correlation with crisis experience «absence of the appreciably attractive purposes in the future», and the interrelation with crises is absent. In this regard the author proposes the correction procedure of psychological escort of first-year students.Practical significance. The research findings can be used by educational psychologists for psychological diagnostics of pupils, to search the reasons of their poor progress, during the developing and correction of programs of psychology and pedagogical escort of first-year students, in particular when writing the program of adaptive training in the centers of psychosocial maintenance of the trainees. Guidelines for a choice of the techniques and methods promoting overcoming of the problems connected with crisis of identity and biographic crises are given.

  12. Higher urinary lignan concentrations in women but not men are positively associated with shorter time to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sunni L; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Schisterman, Enrique F; Sweeney, Anne M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rybak, Michael E; Maisog, Jose M; Parker, Daniel L; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Louis, Germaine M Buck

    2014-03-01

    Phytoestrogens have been associated with subtle hormonal changes, although effects on fecundity are unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the association between male and female urinary phytoestrogen (isoflavone and lignan) concentrations and time to pregnancy (TTP) in a population-based cohort of 501 couples desiring pregnancy and discontinuing contraception. Couples were followed for 12 mo or until pregnancy. Fecundability ORs (FORs) and 95% CIs were estimated after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, site, creatinine, supplement use, and physical activity in relation to female, male, and joint couple concentrations. Models included the phytoestrogen of interest and the sum of the remaining individual phytoestrogens. FORs 1 a shorter TTP. Urinary lignan concentrations were higher, on average, among female partners of couples who became pregnant during the study compared with women who did not become pregnant (median enterodiol: 118 vs. 80 nmol/L; P < 0.10; median enterolactone: 990 vs. 412 nmol/L; P < 0.05) and were associated with significantly shorter TTP in models based on both individual and couples' concentrations (couples' models: enterodiol FOR, 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.26; enterolactone FOR, 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21). Male lignan concentrations were not associated with TTP, nor were isoflavone concentrations. Sensitivity analyses showed that associations observed are unlikely to be explained by potential unmeasured confounding by lifestyle or other nutrients. Our results suggest that female urinary lignan concentrations at levels characteristic of the U.S. population are associated with a shorter TTP among couples who are attempting to conceive, highlighting the importance of dietary influences on fecundity.

  13. Private and Public Returns to Investments in Secondary and Higher Education in New Zealand Over Time: 1981-1996

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    With significant increases in the demand for new skills and participation in higher education in New Zealand since the 1980s, and the introduction of economic reforms toward market liberalisation since the mid 1980s, an examination of income returns to investments in higher education has been of significant interest. This study utilises micro level data from the New Zealand Census for the years 1996, 1991, 1986 and 1981 to examine the market returns to post-compulsory secondary and tertiary e...

  14. Educational Family Background and the Realisation of Educational Career Intentions: Participation of German Upper Secondary Graduates in Higher Education over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Felix; Steininger, Hanna-Marei

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we evaluate the impact of social origin on the realisation of educational intentions at the time of becoming eligible for higher education in Germany. In general, we find high persistence of intentions and actual attendance of higher education. However, effects of parental education on the changes of educational intentions…

  15. A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education: Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Mark; Jacobson, Rod

    2012-01-01

    All higher education institutions are struggling with a rapidly changing market and financial landscape. Here is a management-centered analysis of what happened when a college president, recognizing the need to make a radical adaptation to those changes, tried moving a campus community to a new organizational model, without collegial consensus,…

  16. Just-in-Time Research: A Call to Arms for Research into Mobile Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Dexter, Hilary; Hart, Jo; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne, Ged; Sampson, Ian; Mooney, Jane; Lumsden, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n = 443) who received…

  17. Unprecedented Times in the Professionalisation and State Regulation of Counselling and Psychotherapy: The Role of the Higher Education Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a number of issues facing those involved in counselling and psychotherapy training within United Kingdom Higher Education Institutes. It is proposed that the increasing professionalisation of counselling and psychotherapy has significant implications for lecturers and trainers. The article will explore the tension between…

  18. Australian Higher Education Leaders in Times of Change: The Role of Pro Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Geoff; Bell, Sharon; Coates, Hamish; Grebennikov, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses responses provided by 31 Pro Vice-Chancellors (PVCs) and Deputy Vice-Chancellors (DVCs) who were part of a larger study of more than 500 higher education leaders in roles ranging from DVC to head of programme in 20 Australian universities. Using both quantitative and qualitative data the paper gives an insider's perspective on…

  19. Universities' Autonomy in Times of Changing Higher Education Governance: A Study of the Swiss Academic Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschung, Lukas; Goastellec, Gaele; Leresche, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Although eternally debated, the issue of autonomy in higher education is rarely analysed in its complexity. To address this issue, this article uses an analytical matrix which combines the distinction between substantive and procedural autonomy and the distinction between HEI governing bodies, academic professions and individual academics. This…

  20. Hard Times in Higher Education: The Closure of Subject Centres and the Implications for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chalkley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Within many British Universities and, indeed, across higher education internationally, how best to provide education for sustainable development (ESD has become an increasingly important issue. There is now a widespread view that higher education sectors have a key part to play in preparing societies for the transition to a low carbon economy and the shift towards more sustainable ways of living and working. In the UK, a leading role in this field has been played by the Higher Education Academy and especially its network of 24 Subject Centres, each of which promotes curriculum enhancement in a particular discipline area. The mission of the Higher Education Academy has been to help raise the overall quality of the student learning experience across all disciplines and all Higher Education institutions (HEIs. As part of promoting and supporting many kinds of curriculum innovation and staff development, the HE Academy has championed the cause of ESD. Now, however, as a result of government spending cuts, the Academy is facing severe budget reductions and all its Subject Centres are soon to close. At this pivotal moment, the purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the HE Academy’s past contribution to ESD and to explore the likely future implications of the demise of its Subject Centres. The paper ends by outlining some ideas as to how the ESD agenda might be advanced in the post-Subject Centre era, in the light of the Academy’s intention to support subject communities under its new structure. The paper has been developed through participation in key committees, engagement with Academy and Subject Centre staff, as well as through a literature review.

  1. Killing-Yano Forms of a Class of Spherically Symmetric Space-Times II: A Unified Generation of Higher Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Acik, O; Önder, M; Vercin, A

    2008-01-01

    Killing-Yano (KY) two and three forms of a class of spherically symmetric space-times that includes the well-known Minkowski, Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrom, Robertson-Walker and six different forms of de Sitter space-times as special cases are derived in a unified and exhaustive manner. It is directly proved that while the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom space-times do not accept any KY 3-form and they accept only one 2-form, the Robertson-Walker space-time admits four KY 2-forms and only one KY 3-form. Maximal number of KY-forms are obtained for Minkowski and all known forms of de Sitter space-times. Complete lists comprising explicit expressions of KY-forms are given.

  2. Analysis of higher vocational colleges part-time teacher management mechanism%高职院校兼职教师管理机制探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐黎君

    2012-01-01

    随着高等职业教育的发展,大量聘请的兼职教师在高职院校中发挥重要作用的同时也隐现出了一些管理漏洞,文章以当前高职兼职教师管理中的瓶颈为突破口,试图找到适合高职院校发展的兼职教师管理机制。%In recent years,with the development of higher vocational education,a lot of hiring part-time teachers in higher vocational colleges played an important role but some loopholes were loomed out in management,based on a breakthrough of bottleneck in the current higher vocational part-time teachers management,tried to find a suitable part-time teachers management mechanism in development of higher vocational colleges.

  3. The Hidden Benefits of Part-Time Higher Education Study to Working Practices: Is There a Case for Making Them More Visible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Little, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Within the UK, part-time study is now seen as important in meeting wider government objectives for higher education (HE) and for sustainable economic growth through skills development. Yet, measures to capture the impact of HE may not be wholly appropriate to part-time study. In particular, the continuing focus on tangible, economic measures may…

  4. Tangent Adjoint Methods In a Higher-Order Space-Time Discontinuous-Galerkin Solver For Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo; Murman, Scott; Blonigan, Patrick; Garai, Anirban

    2017-01-01

    Presented space-time adjoint solver for turbulent compressible flows. Confirmed failure of traditional sensitivity methods for chaotic flows. Assessed rate of exponential growth of adjoint for practical 3D turbulent simulation. Demonstrated failure of short-window sensitivity approximations.

  5. One hundred years of statistical developments in animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianola, Daniel; Rosa, Guilherme J M

    2015-01-01

    Statistical methodology has played a key role in scientific animal breeding. Approximately one hundred years of statistical developments in animal breeding are reviewed. Some of the scientific foundations of the field are discussed, and many milestones are examined from historical and critical perspectives. The review concludes with a discussion of some future challenges and opportunities arising from the massive amount of data generated by livestock, plant, and human genome projects.

  6. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  7. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  8. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  9. The Times Higher Education Supplement and Quacquarelli Symonds (THES - QS) World University Rankings: New Developments in Ranking Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowter, Ben

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents key new developments in the THES - QS World University Rankings in 2007, related to enhancements to the "Peer Review", "Data Collection" and "Statistical Aggregation" utilised in this ranking as well as discussing the decision to utilise Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) figures for personnel statistics. Indicator correlation is also…

  10. Higher order perturbations of anti-de Sitter space and time-periodic solutions of vacuum Einstein equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostworowski, Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Motivated by the problem of stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime, we discuss nonlinear gravitational perturbations of maximally symmetric solutions of vacuum Einstein equations in general and the case of AdS in particular. We present the evidence that, similarly to the self-gravitating scalar field at spherical symmetry, the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of globally regular asymptotically AdS, time-periodic solutions of vacuum Einstein equations whose frequencies bifurcate from linear eigenfrequencies of AdS. Interestingly, our preliminary results indicate that the number of one-parameter families of time-periodic solutions bifurcating from a given eigenfrequency equals the multiplicity of this eigenfrequency.

  11. Time Management Application Research of Scientific Research Projects in Higher Vocational Education%高职科研项目时间管理应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈李萍

    2016-01-01

    在高职科研项目实施过程中,科研时间浪费及结题延误现象时有发生,将时间管理引入高职院校的科研项目管理,有助于按时保质完成科研项目。文章首先介绍科研项目时间管理理论,然后阐述目前高职科研项目时间管理存在的问题,接着提出做好时间管理的措施,可为高职科研项目负责人提高项目绩效提供参考。%It often occurs the phenomenon of time waste and delay in the process of scientific research projects in higher vocational colleges, so the introduction of time management into the management of scientific research projects in higher vocational colleges will help to complete the scientific research projects on time and quality. The article firstly introduces the scientific research project time management theory, then expounds the problems existing in the time management of scientific research projects in higher vocational colleges, and finally puts forward the measures of time management, which can provide reference for improving project performance of scientific research project in higher vocational colleges.

  12. Teachers' views of using e-learning for non-traditional students in higher education across three disciplines [nursing, chemistry and management] at a time of massification and increased diversity in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Helen T; O'Driscoll, Mike; Simpson, Vikki; Shawe, Jill

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of the higher educational sector in the United Kingdom over the last two decades to meet political aspirations of the successive governments and popular demand for participation in the sector (the Widening Participation Agenda) has overlapped with the introduction of e-learning. This paper describes teachers' views of using e-learning for non-traditional students in higher education across three disciplines [nursing, chemistry and management] at a time of massification and increased diversity in higher education. A three phase, mixed methods study; this paper reports findings from phase two of the study. One university in England. Higher education teachers teaching on the nursing, chemistry and management programmes. Focus groups with these teachers. Findings from these data show that teachers across the programmes have limited knowledge of whether students are non-traditional or what category of non-traditional status they might be in. Such knowledge as they have does not seem to influence the tailoring of teaching and learning for non-traditional students. Teachers in chemistry and nursing want more support from the university to improve their use of e-learning, as did teachers in management but to a lesser extent. Our conclusions confirm other studies in the field outside nursing which suggest that non-traditional students' learning needs have not been considered meaningfully in the development of e-learning strategies in universities. We suggest that this may be because teachers have been required to develop e-learning at the same time as they cope with the massification of, and widening participation in, higher education. The findings are of particular importance to nurse educators given the high number of non-traditional students on nursing programmes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Space-Time Estimates of Mild Solutions of a Class of Higher-Order Semilinear Parabolic Equations in Lp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandjo Albert N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish the well-posedness of boundary value problems for a family of nonlinear higherorder parabolic equations which comprises some models of epitaxial growth and thin film theory. In order to achieve this result, we provide a unified framework for constructing local mild solutions in C0([0, T]; Lp(Ω by introducing appropriate time-weighted Lebesgue norms inspired by a priori estimates of solutions. This framework allows us to obtain global existence of solutions under the proviso that initial data are reasonably small

  14. Just-in-time research: a call to arms for research into mobile technologies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Byrne-Davis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n=443 who received tablet computers (iPads from their medical school during their 4th year of study. Students were surveyed prior to receiving the iPads and again regarding their usage and experiences at 2, 6 and 12 months post receipt of tablets. Findings indicate that students differed in their use of iPads but that the majority felt that tablets had impacted on their learning and the majority were using them frequently (at least once a day during learning. Almost half of the students reported that clinical supervisors had raised the possibility of tablets changing patient care. These results, although only descriptive, raise important questions about the impact of mobile technologies on learning.

  15. Extended interface layer concept for higher stability and improvement of life time in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Power conversion efficiency (PCE of bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells has reached above ∼10%. These BHJ cells have potential for flexible thin films at low processing temperatures using roll to roll printing on flexible substrates. Further, the basic materials properties can be tailored through organic synthetic routes. However, the issues related to its durability should be addressed before its commercialization. Hence, a conventional solar cell of the poly (3-hexylthiophene (P3HT :(6, 6-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM blend on ITO substrates was fabricated, and investigated, which shows improved life time by using a combinational Ca/Al cathode, wherein the deposition of calcium layer is extended beyond the aluminum layer. The extended deposition of calcium layer beyond aluminum prevents the edge degradation by its oxidation and hence protecting the active pixel area of the device, resulting in the improvement of life time of device from ∼80 hours to ∼ 400 hrs.

  16. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Pan, Zhichen

    2016-07-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese megascience project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of the People's Republic of China. The National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) is in charge of its construction and subsequent operation. Upon its expected completion in September 2016, FAST will surpass the 305 m Arecibo Telescope and the 100 m Green Bank Telescope in terms of absolute sensitivity in the 70 MHz to 3 GHz bands. In this paper, we report on the project, its current status, the key science goals, and plans for early science.

  17. Academic Work—Faster, Higher, Further? On the (Missing Proportion of Work to Spare Time in the (Cultural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Dressel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We make the practices of the academic production of knowledge a subject of critical discussion by focusing on the world of academic work and the academics themselves. Based on interviews with academics in the field of cultural sciences we conclude that with regard to their daily routines, their annual schedules, and their life-courses the so-called private life (family life, leisure time etc. becomes dominated by the social and cultural logics of the working sphere. Although it might appear exaggerated, we will refer to the humanities as a "total institution" which entails social, physical, and mental costs for its "inmates" as well as for those who never managed to become "inmates" (in spite of their efforts and those who don’t belong to the institution any more. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801385

  18. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  19. Building on Strengths in a Time of Retrenchment: Developing an M.Ed. in Higher Education--Student Affairs Emphasis to Train Christian Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jason; Haseltine, Jeffrey; Williams, Carol

    2007-01-01

    To gain approval of a new master's degree in difficult financial times, the authors applied strategies that are applicable at other institutions. Using existing internal resources to build on the university's mission was key in developing a new M.Ed. in Higher Education--Student Affairs Emphasis at Abilene Christian University. Creativity and…

  20. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Charmaine B. Lo; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods: Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n ...

  1. Institutional view of part-time faculty management in higher education institutes in china%高校兼职教师管理的制度视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志峰; 江秀兰; 李宏波

    2007-01-01

    Part-time faculty has become an important labor force in Chinese colleges and universities. The number of them has risen rapidly and its structure varies in different types of higher education institutes (HEIs), which results from integration of the social motivation and the inner motivation of schools' reform. From the institutional point of view, some problems related to the management of part-time faculty members are as follows: defects of institution design, deficiency of appointment institution mechanism, unreasonable wage treatment institution and unscientific evaluation institution. The institution construction of pat-time staff includes aspects such as qualification examination, appointment, wage, reward and punishment, evaluation, professional development and so on.

  2. Detection and attribution of abrupt climate changes in the last one hundred years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wen; Wan Shi-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Based on physical backgrounds, the four time series of the Guliya (Tibetan plateau) ice core (GIC) δ18O, and three natural factors, I.e. The rotation rate of earth, sunspots, and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals, are decomposed into two hierarchies, I.e. More and less than 10-year hierarchies respectively, and then the running t-test is used to reanalyse the data before and after filtering with the purpose of investigating the contribution of natural factors to the abrupt climate changes in the last one hundred years. The results show that the GIC δ18O evolved with a quasi-period of 7-9 years, and the abrupt climate changes in the early 1960s and in the period from the end of the 1970s to the beginning of the 1980s resulted from the joint effect of the two hierarchies, in other words, the two interdecadal abrupt changes of climate in the last one hundred years were global. The interannual variations of ENSO and sunspots were the important triggering factors for the abrupt climate changes in the last one hundred years. At the same time, the method of Information Transfer (IT) is employed to estimate the contributions of ENSO signals and sunspots activities to the abrupt climate changes, and it is found that the contribution of the interannual variation of ENSO signals is relatively large.

  3. Higher-order in time "quasi-unconditionally stable" ADI solvers for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in 2D and 3D curvilinear domains

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces alternating-direction implicit (ADI) solvers of higher order of time-accuracy (orders two to six) for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional curvilinear domains. The higher-order accuracy in time results from 1) An application of the backward differentiation formulae time-stepping algorithm (BDF) in conjunction with 2) A BDF-like extrapolation technique for certain components of the nonlinear terms (which makes use of nonlinear solves unnecessary), as well as 3) A novel application of the Douglas-Gunn splitting (which greatly facilitates handling of boundary conditions while preserving higher-order accuracy in time). As suggested by our theoretical analysis of the algorithms for a variety of special cases, an extensive set of numerical experiments clearly indicate that all of the BDF-based ADI algorithms proposed in this paper are "quasi-unconditionally stable" in the following sense: each algorithm is stable for all couples $(h,\\Delta t)$ of spatial and t...

  4. Detectability of BI-RADS category 3 or higher breast lesions and reading time on mammography: comparison between 5-MP and 8-MP LCD monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Kawanami, Satoshi; Kamitani, Takeshi; Matsumura, Tomomi; Yamasaki, Yuzo; Morishita, Junji; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Background Five-megapixel (MP) displays are recommended as soft copy devices for digital mammogram. An 8-MP liquid crystal display (LCD) (two 4-MP displays within one display) might offer the advantage of being able to view biplane mammography more easily than the dual planes of 5-MP LCDs. Purpose To compare detectability of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 or higher lesions and reading time on mammography between 5- MP and 8-MP LCDs. Material and Methods The mammograms of 240 breasts of 120 patients including 60 breasts with BI-RADS category 3 or higher lesions and 180 breasts with normal or category 2 lesions were enrolled. All bilateral mammograms were displayed on bifacial 5-MP LCDs or an 8-MP LCD (two 4-MP displays within one display). Six radiologists assessed 240 breasts on each display. The observations were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A jack-knife method was used for statistical analysis. We employed a paired t-test to determine whether any significant differences existed in the reading time between two different displays. A P value reading time between two types of displays (57.8 min. vs. 51.5 min, P = 0.39). Conclusion The detectability of BI-RADS category 3 or higher lesions and reading time using an 8-MP LCD were comparable to those using a 5-MP LCD.

  5. Pedagogical Change at Times of Change in the Higher Education System: An Exploration of Early Career Mentoring, Co-publication and Teaching & Learning Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities are at a time of change. Their social, political and economic conditions are under challenge, while technological change challenges curriculum design and implementation, requiring reconsiderations of teaching and learning practices. In this context, and as part of the conference session on Higher education in 2014: threshold, watershed or business as usual?, I reviewed an approach I have been trialing to supporting early- and mid-career academics to navigate through this changing environment. This paper presents an illustrated essay on a human-scale approach to early- and mid-career mentoring through the establishment of small team-based research and writing projects. The essay provides examples of activities that, on the one hand, assist academics to develop the tools they need to navigate the new and evolving environment of higher education, while on the other hand directly addresses key pedagogical issues and provides new insight into teaching and learning in higher education.

  6. $SU(2)_k\\times SU(2)_l/SU(2)_{k+l}$ Coset Conformal Field Theory and Topological Minimal Model on Higher Genus Riemann Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Konno, H

    1993-01-01

    We consider the Feigin-Fuchs-Felder formalism of the $SU(2)_k\\times SU(2)_l/SU(2)_{k+l}$ coset minimal conformal field theory and extend it to higher genus. We investigate a double BRST complex with respect to two compatible BRST charges, one associated with the parafermion sector and the other associated with the minimal sector in the theory. The usual screened vertex operator is extended to the BRST invariant screened three string vertex. We carry out a sewing operation of these string vertices and derive the BRST invariant screened $g$-loop operator. The latter operator characterizes the higher genus structure of the theory. An analogous operator formalism for the topological minimal model is obtained as the limit $ l=0$ of the coset theory. We give some calculations of correlation functions on higher genus.

  7. A Portrait of One Hundred Thousand and One Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    galaxies are usually quite "thin" (some hundred light-years), as compared to their radial extent (tens of thousands of light-years across). In areas where only small amounts of dust are present, it is possible to see much more distant galaxies right through the disk of NGC 300 , as demonstrated by this image. Technical information about this photo is available below. ESO PR Photo 18h/02 ESO PR Photo 18h/02 [Preview - JPEG: 451 x 400 pix - 89k] [Normal - JPEG: 902 x 800 pix - 856k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 2439 x 2163 pix - 6.0M] Caption : PR Photo 18h/02 is an astronomers' joy ride to infinity. Such a rarely seen view of our universe imparts a feeling of the vast distances in space. In the upper half of the image, the outer region of NGC 300 is resolved into innumerable stars, while in the lower half, myriads of galaxies - a thousand times more distant - catch the eye. In reality, many of them are very similar to NGC 300, they are just much more remote. In addition to allowing a detailed investigation of dark matter and lensing effects in this field, the present, very "deep" colour image of NGC 300 invites to perform a closer inspection of the background galaxy population itself . No less than about 100,000 galaxies of all types are visible in this amazing image. Three known quasars ([ICS96] 005342.1-375947, [ICS96] 005236.1-374352, [ICS96] 005336.9-380354) with redshifts 2.25, 2.35 and 2.75, respectively, happen to lie inside this sky field, together with many interacting galaxies, some of which feature tidal tails. There are also several groups of highly reddened galaxies - probably distant clusters in formation, cf. PR Photo 18f/02 . Others are seen right through the outer regions of NGC 300, cf. PR Photo 18g/02 . More detailed investigations of the numerous galaxies in this field are now underway. From the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300 to objects in the young Universe, it is all there, truly an astronomical treasure trove, cf. PR Photo 18h/02 ! Notes [1]: "NGC" means "New

  8. Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN; Rendong

    2006-01-01

    Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST) will be the largest radio telescope in the world. The innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realizing a huge single dish in the most effective way. Three outstanding features of the telescope are the unique karst depressions as the sites, the active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and a wide band without involving a complex feed system, and the light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as secondary adjustable system to carry the most precise parts of the receivers. Being the most sensitive radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jumpstart many of the science goals, for example, the neutral hydrogen line surveying in distant galaxies out to very large redshifts, looking for the first shining star, detecting thousands of new pulsars, etc. Extremely interesting and exotic objects may yet await discovery by FAST. As a multi-science platform, the telescope will provide treasures to astronomers, as well as bring prosperity to other research, e.g. space weather study, deep space exploration and national security. The construction of FAST itself is expected to promote the development in high technology of relevant fields.

  9. Legacies of Garrod's brilliance. One hundred years--and counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L E

    2008-10-01

    One hundred years ago--in 1908--Archibald Garrod delivered his four Croonian Lectures. In these formerly forgotten, but now famous, dissertations, Garrod first used the expression, 'inborn errors of metabolism', to describe four rare disorders: albinism, alkaptonuria, cystinuria, and pentosuria. This prescient work proposed that such disorders resulted from enzymatic defects in the catabolic pathways for amino acids and sugars. Thus, Garrod can rightfully be called the first human geneticist. Much influenced by his colleague Bateson, who brought Mendel's work to his attention, Garrod then was the first to apply Gregor Mendel's law of gene segregation to humans, the first to propose recessive inheritance in humans, and the first to point out the importance of consanguinity. He even mentioned the role of ethnicity in inherited disorders. This would have been legacy enough, but Garrod did much more. He wrote about such other 'modern' topics as genetic predisposition to common disorders; the critical importance of physicians who were also scientists; and the proper role of the university in society. Although Garrod's work and ideas were not appreciated during his lifetime, they have echoed and reverberated ever since. He can rightly be deemed one of the most profound intellectuals of the 20th century, whose bequests to science and medicine continue to increase in value. All of us who study inborn errors of metabolism and who apply our knowledge in the hope of improving the diagnosis and treatment of affected patients are, in a genuine sense, Garrodians.

  10. Game Times and Higher Winning Percentages of West Coast Teams of the National Football League Correspond With Reduced Prevalence of Regular Season Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brager, Allison J; Mistovich, Ronald J

    2017-02-01

    Brager, AJ and Mistovich, RJ. Game times and higher winning percentages of west coast teams of the National Football League correspond with reduced prevalence of regular season injury. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 462-467, 2017-West coast teams of the National Football League are more statistically likely to win home night games against east coast opponents. The alignment of game times with daily rhythms of alertness is thought to contribute to this advantage. This study aims to determine whether rates of turnovers and injuries during the regular season, putative measures of mental and physical fatigue, impact winning percentages. Regular season schedules and rates of turnovers for each of the 32 teams were obtained from Pro-Football-Reference. We developed our own metric of injury risk for each position obtained from depth charts and regular season schedules. This metric compared cumulative weeks on injury reserve with cumulative time zone travel. West coast teams traveled 4 times as often as east coast teams. However, teams traveling eastward won twice as many games. There was no relationship between the extent and direction of travel and number of turnovers. Losing teams had more turnovers. The offensive and defensive lines in Central Time (CT) were placed on injury reserve 4 times as often as offensive and defensive lines in Pacific Time (PT). Injury prevalence in CT vs. PT was most prominent midseason. Plotting midseason game time relative to biological time revealed that PT teams play games closer to endogenous peaks in alertness, whereas CT teams play games closer to endogenous troughs in alertness. Overall, closer alignment of game time with the endogenous "alerting" signal may protect west coast teams from fatigue-related injuries and suggests for modified strength and conditioning programs.

  11. Iron plasma generation using a Nd:YAG laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Jun; Kumaki, Masafumi; Kondo, Kotaro; Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the high intensity plasma generated by using a Nd:YAG laser to apply a laser-produced plasma to the direct plasma injection scheme. The capability of the source to generate high charge state ions strongly depends on the power density of the laser irradiation. Therefore, we focused on using a higher power laser with several hundred picoseconds of pulse width. The iron target was irradiated with the pulsed laser, and the ion current of the laser-produced iron plasma was measured using a Faraday cup and the charge state distribution was investigated using an electrostatic ion analyzer. We found that higher charge state iron ions (up to Fe21+) were obtained using a laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds in comparison to those obtained using a laser pulse of several nanoseconds (up to Fe19+). We also found that when the laser irradiation area was relatively large, the laser power was absorbed mainly by the contamination on the target surface.

  12. VALFAST: Secure Probabilistic Validation of Hundreds of Kepler Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Tim; Petigura, E.; Johnson, J. A.; Howard, A.; Marcy, G. W.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.; Riddle, R. L.; Ciardi, D. R.; Robo-AO Team

    2014-01-01

    The scope, scale, and tremendous success of the Kepler mission has necessitated the rapid development of probabilistic validation as a new conceptual framework for analyzing transiting planet candidate signals. While several planet validation methods have been independently developed and presented in the literature, none has yet come close to addressing the entire Kepler survey. I present the results of applying VALFAST---a planet validation code based on the methodology described in Morton (2012)---to every Kepler Object of Interest. VALFAST is unique in its combination of detail, completeness, and speed. Using the transit light curve shape, realistic population simulations, and (optionally) diverse follow-up observations, it calculates the probability that a transit candidate signal is the result of a true transiting planet or any of a number of astrophysical false positive scenarios, all in just a few minutes on a laptop computer. In addition to efficiently validating the planetary nature of hundreds of new KOIs, this broad application of VALFAST also demonstrates its ability to reliably identify likely false positives. This extensive validation effort is also the first to incorporate data from all of the largest Kepler follow-up observing efforts: the CKS survey of ~1000 KOIs with Keck/HIRES, the Robo-AO survey of >1700 KOIs, and high-resolution images obtained through the Kepler Follow-up Observing Program. In addition to enabling the core science that the Kepler mission was designed for, this methodology will be critical to obtain statistical results from future surveys such as TESS and PLATO.

  13. Disability Pension at the Time of Coronary Revascularisation Is Associated with Higher Five-Year Mortality; A Swedish Nationwide, Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Zetterström

    Full Text Available Although coronary revascularisation by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI are common procedures, little is known regarding disability pension (DP at the time of coronary revascularisation and its association with mortality. The aim was to investigate the five-year mortality following a first coronary revascularisation among women and men on DP, compared with those not on DP at the time of intervention, accounting for socio-demographic and medical factors.A nationwide prospective population-based cohort study was conducted, using national registers including 70,040 patients (80% men, aged 30-64 years, with a first CABG (n = 24,987; 36% or PCI (n = 45,053; 64% during 1994-2006 in Sweden, who were alive 30 days after the intervention. The main outcome was all-cause and cause-specific mortality within five years or through 31 December 2006, following CABG and PCI, and the exposure was DP at the time of a first coronary revascularisation. Information on DP, patient characteristics, date and cause of death was obtained from nationwide registers. Hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI for the outcome were estimated, using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. All analyses were stratified by type of intervention and gender.Four percent died following coronary revascularisation. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death (54%, followed by neoplasms (25%. Regardless of type of intervention, gender and after multivariable adjustments, patients on DP had a higher HR for five-year mortality compared with those not on DP at time of revascularisation (CABG: women HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.59-2.89, men HR 2.09; 1.84-2.38, PCI: women HR 2.25; 1.78-2.83, men HR 1.95; 1.72-2.21. Young women on DP at the time of PCI had a substantially higher HR (HR 4.10; 95% CI: 2.25-7.48.Patients on DP at the time of first coronary revascularisation had a higher five-year risk of mortality compared with

  14. One hundred years of the Fritz Haber Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Bretislav; Hoffmann, Dieter; James, Jeremiah

    2011-10-17

    the Institute. Throughout its one-hundred-year history, the Institute's pace-setting research has been shaped by dozens of distinguished scientists, among them seven Nobel laureates. Here we highlight the contributions made at the Institute to the fields of gas-phase kinetics and dynamics, early quantum physics, colloid chemistry, electron microscopy, and surface chemistry, and we give an account of the key role the Institute played in implementing the Berlin Electron Synchrotron (BESSY I and II). Current research at the Institute in surface science and catalysis as well as molecular physics and spectroscopy is exemplified in this issue [Angew. Chem. 2011, 123, 10242; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 10064].

  15. PAH features within few hundred parsecs of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J. J.; Hönig, S. F.; Rakshit, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Asmus, D.; Gandhi, P.; Kishimoto, M.; Smette, A.; Tristram, K. R. W.

    2017-09-01

    Spectral features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules observed in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range are typically used to infer the amount of recent and ongoing star formation on kiloparsec scales around active galactic nuclei (AGN) where more traditional methods fail. This method assumes that the observed PAH features are excited predominantly by star formation. With current ground-based telescopes and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, much smaller spatial scales can be probed and we aim at testing if this assumption still holds in the range of few tens to few hundreds of parsecs. For that, we spatially map the emitted 11.3 μm PAH surface flux as a function of distance from 0.4-4 arcsec from the centre in 28 nearby AGN using ground-based high-angular-resolution mid-IR spectroscopy. We detect and extract the 11.3 μm PAH feature in 13 AGN. The fluxes within each aperture are scaled to a luminosity-normalized distance from the nucleus to be able to compare intrinsic spatial scales of AGN radiation spanning about two orders of magnitude in luminosity. For this, we establish an empirical relation between the absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity and the sublimation radius in these sources. Once normalized, the radial profiles of the emitted PAH surface flux show similar radial slopes, with a power-law index of approximately -1.1, and similar absolute values, consistent within a factor of a few of each other as expected from the uncertainty in the intrinsic scale estimate. We interpret this as evidence that the profiles are caused by a common compact central physical process, either the AGN itself or circumnuclear star formation linked in strength to the AGN power. A photoionization-based model of an AGN exciting dense clouds in its environment can reproduce the observed radial slope and confirms that the AGN radiation field is strong enough to explain the observed PAH surface fluxes within ∼10-500 pc of the nucleus. Our results advice caution

  16. The Hundred Year Hunt for the Red Sprite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W. A.; Schmidt, M.

    2003-12-01

    This presentation reviews an NSF Informal Science Education project directed by the PO of an ongoing NSF Physical Meteorology/Aeronomy-sponsored research program on red sprites. For over 100 years, anecdotal reports and citations in the literature have persisted of strange luminous apparitions occurring high above thunderstorms. They were long discounted by the scientific community - until 1989, when by pure chance, a video revealed two giant pillars of light extending tens of kilometers above a thunderstorm. Since then, thousands of events, now called sprites, have been imaged, many by the PI. Mesospheric sprites, at 40 to 90 km altitude, are induced by lightning discharges having highly unusual characteristics. Science is now gradually unraveling the nature of the giant lightning discharges which spawn sprites. In the process we have found even more unusual electrical discharges above thunderstorms, suggesting that many new discoveries await to be made. We produced and are distributing a planetarium DVD/video program (42 minutes length) entitled, "The Hundred Year Hunt for the Red Sprite." It documents the application of the scientific method to unraveling this century old mystery surrounding strange lights in the night sky. We also contrasted this story of discovery to the pseudo-science prevalent today in topics such as UFOs. With distribution to numerous planetaria and science centers, we believe over 200,000 persons will eventually view this program (which has won three major video production awards). Our long term goal is to inspire planetarium visitors to undertake their own self-directed learning programs. A companion educational web site (www.Sky-Fire.TV) allows students and adults sufficiently motivated by the planetarium experience to further investigate sprites and related basic science topics. The highly interactive web site challenges visitors to test their knowledge of sprites and lightning by participating in an on-line 20 question quiz game, which

  17. Research on part-time and full time Adult Higher Education faculty%成人高等教育师资队伍专兼职问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志卿

    2013-01-01

    师资队伍是保障成人高等教育质量的关键因素,在大力倡导终身教育、提高国民可持续性教育的今天,成人高等教育的师资队伍建设却存在一系列问题,阻碍了成人高等教育的良性发展,尤为突出的是缺乏一支结构合理、人员稳定的教师队伍,本文通过对专职、兼职教师的比较,阐述其各自优势,希望各培养单位能够建立一支专兼职相结合的稳定的成教师资队伍,巩固并推动成人高等教育的发展。%Faculty is the key factor to guarantee the adult higher education. Nowadays,by strongly promoting life-long education and improving national Sustainable Education,adult higher education faculty construction has a series of problems which obstruct the development of adult higher education. Especial y it lacks a reasonable structure and stable team of faculty. In this article,based on the comparison of part-time and full time teachers and state their advantages,i hope each training unit wil be able to build a stable faculty which combine the part-time and ful-time teachers. This wil promote and improve the adult higher education.

  18. 1957-2007: 50 Years of Higher Order Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Alen Lovrenčić; Mario Konecki; Tihomir Orehovački

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years ago one of the greatest breakthroughs in computer programming and in the history of computers happened -- the appearance of FORTRAN, the first higher-order programming language. From that time until now hundreds of programming languages were invented, different programming paradigms were defined, all with the main goal to make computer programming easier and closer to as many people as possible. Many battles were fought among scientists as well as among developers around concepts ...

  19. A hundred-year-old insight into the gut microbiome!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ramy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the National Institutes of Health-funded Human Microbiome Project enters its second phase, and as a major part of this project focuses on the human gut microbiome and its effects on human health, it might help us to travel a century back in time and examine how microbiologists dealt with microbiome-related challenges similar to those of the 21st century using the tools of their time. An article by Arthur I. Kendall, published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry in November 1909 (Some observations on the study of the intestinal bacteria J Biol Chem 1909, 6:499-507, offers a visionary insight into many of today's hot research questions.

  20. From literal meaning to veracity in two hundred milliseconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara D Martin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Do the integration of semantic information and that of world knowledge occur simultaneously or in sequence during sentence processing? To address this question, we investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by the critical word of English sentences in three conditions: (1 correct; (2 semantic violation; (3 world knowledge violation (semantically correct but factually incorrect. Critically, we opted for low constraint sentence contexts (i.e., whilst being semantically congruent with the sentence context, critical words had low cloze probability. The processing of semantic violations differed from that of correct sentences as early as the P2 time-window. In the N400 time-window, the processing of semantic and world knowledge violations both differed significantly from that of correct sentences and differed significantly from one another. Overall, our results show that the brain needs approximately 200 ms more to detect a world knowledge violation than a semantic one.

  1. Variation of Zipf's exponent in one hundred live languages: A study of the Holy Bible translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Ali; Jamaati, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    Zipf's law, as a power-law regularity, confirms long-range correlations between the elements in natural and artificial systems. In this article, this law is evaluated for one hundred live languages. We calculate Zipf's exponent for translations of the holy Bible to several languages, for this purpose. The results show that, the average of Zipf's exponent in studied texts is slightly above unity. All studied languages in some families have Zipf's exponent lower/higher than unity. It seems that geographical distribution impresses the communication between speakers of different languages in a language family, and affect similarity between their Zipf's exponent. The Bible has unique concept regardless of its language, but the discrepancy in grammatical rules and syntactic regularities in applying stop words to make sentences and imply a certain concept, lead to difference in Zipf's exponent for various languages.

  2. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  3. Shortened time interval between colorectal cancer diagnosis and risk testing for hereditary colorectal cancer is not related to higher psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergen, K M; Prins, J B; Brunner, H G; Hoogerbrugge, N

    2011-03-01

    Current diagnostic practices have shortened the interval between colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis and genetic analysis for Lynch syndrome by MSI-testing. We studied the relation of time between MSI-testing since CRC diagnosis (MSI-CRC interval) and psychological distress. We performed a cross-sectional study in 89 patients who had previously been treated for CRC. Data were collected during MSI-testing after genetic counseling. Psychological distress was measured with the IES, the SCL-90 and the POMS; social issues with the ISS, ISB and the ODHCF. The median time of MSI-CRC interval was 24 months (range 0-332), with 23% of the patients diagnosed less than 12 months and 42% more than 36 months prior to MSI-testing. In 34% of the patients cancer specific distress was high (IES scores >26). Mean psychopathology (SCL-90) scores were low, mean mood states (POMS) scores were moderate. Interval MSI-CRC was not related to psychological distress. High cancer specific distress was reported by 24% of patients diagnosed with CRC less than 12 months ago versus 39 and 35% by those diagnosed between 12 and 36 months and more than 36 months ago respectively. Distress was positively related to female gender (P = 0.04), religiousness (P = 0.01), low social support (P = 0.02) and difficulties with family communication (P testing is not associated with higher psychological distress. Females, religious persons, those having low social support and those reporting difficulties communicating hereditary colorectal cancer with relatives are at higher risk for psychological distress.

  4. [One hundred years' history of public health activities in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, K H

    1999-01-01

    In a dictionary of epidemiology, recently edited by John Last, public health was defined as one of the efforts organized by society to protest, promote, and restore the peoples' health. It is the combination of sciences, skills, and beliefs that is directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all the people through collective or social action. In most countries, the efforts to protect, promote, and restore the peoples' health are mostly organized by the government, and therefore, the history of public health in the respective countries is closely related to the state of government and its administrative structures. In this article, the history of public health activities in Korea during the last 100 years has been reviewed in four consecutive time periods from the end of Li Dynasty till now. The public health during the first some 50 years from 1897 when the Dae Han Empire began to 1945 when the Japanese colonial period ended can be characterized by enforcement of personal and environmental hygiene by the police. In those days, communicable disease control was the main purpose of such public health measures. Second phase of Korean public health from 1945 to the time of military coup in 1961 is characterized by enactment of various public health laws and the related public health practices. Major health related laws are communicable disease control law, environmental hygiene act, industrial safety and health law, and so on. Important public health practice in this time period was family planning. Third phase of public health history from 1962 to 1992 can be recorded as the time when the actual public health practices were fully developed. Because of well established health center activities throughout the country, basic public health services were provided together with primary medical care services to the people in rural areas. Since 1993, two civilian governments have been trying to change the concept of their health administration from providing

  5. Population-based estimate of trauma-related deaths for law enforcement personnel: Risks for death are higher and increasing over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Alexander L; Cripps, Michael W; Abdelfattah, Kareem R; Inaba, Kenji; Weiser, Thomas G; Spain, David A; Staudenmayer, Kristan L

    2017-08-01

    Trauma-related deaths remain an important public health problem. One group susceptible to death due to traumatic mechanisms is US law enforcement (LE). We hypothesized that LE officers experienced a higher chance of violent death compared with the general US population and that risks have increased over time. The National Institute on Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance is a population-based survey of occupational deaths. It includes data for workers who died during 1985 to 1998 in one of 30 US states (EARLY period). Additional deaths were added from 23 US states in 1999, 2003 to 2004, 2007 to 2010 (LATE period). Mortality rates are estimated by calculating proportionate mortality ratios (PMR). A PMR above 100 is considered to exceed the average background risk for all occupations. All adults older than 18 years whose primary occupation was listed as "law enforcement worker" were included in the analysis. Law enforcement personnel were more likely to die from an injury compared with the general population (Fig. 1). The overall PMR for injury in EARLY was 111 (95% confidence interval [CI], 108-114; p over time, suggesting an at-risk population that requires further interventions. Targeted efforts based on risk factors, such as sex and race, may assist with the development of prevention programs for this population. Epidemiologic study, level II.

  6. Evaluation of a reduced centrifugation time and higher centrifugal force on various general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes in plasma and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette F; Søndergaard, Tove R; Kristensen, Helle T; Münster, Anna-Marie B

    2017-09-01

    Background Centrifugation of blood samples is an essential preanalytical step in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Centrifugation settings are often altered to optimize sample flow and turnaround time. Few studies have addressed the effect of altering centrifugation settings on analytical quality, and almost all studies have been done using collection tubes with gel separator. Methods In this study, we compared a centrifugation time of 5 min at 3000 ×  g to a standard protocol of 10 min at 2200 ×  g. Nine selected general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes and interference indices were studied in lithium heparin plasma tubes and serum tubes without gel separator. Results were evaluated using mean bias, difference plots and coefficient of variation, compared with maximum allowable bias and coefficient of variation used in laboratory routine quality control. Results For all analytes except lactate dehydrogenase, the results were within the predefined acceptance criteria, indicating that the analytical quality was not compromised. Lactate dehydrogenase showed higher values after centrifugation for 5 min at 3000 ×  g, mean bias was 6.3 ± 2.2% and the coefficient of variation was 5%. Conclusions We found that a centrifugation protocol of 5 min at 3000 ×  g can be used for the general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes studied, with the possible exception of lactate dehydrogenase, which requires further assessment.

  7. Estimating Black Hole Masses in Hundreds of Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Hernitschek, Nina; Bovy, Jo; Morganson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We explore the practical feasibility of AGN broad-band reverberation mapping and present first results. We lay out and apply a rigorous approach for stochastic reverberation mapping of unevenly sampled multi-broad-band flux measurements, assuming that the broad-line region (BLR) line flux is contributing up to 15 % in some bands, and is directly constrained by one spectroscopical epoch. The approach describes variations of the observed flux as the continuum, modeled as a stochastic Gaussian process, and emission line contribution, modeled as a scaled, smoothed and delayed version of the continuum. This approach is capable not only to interpolate in time between measurements, but also to determine confidence limits on continuum -- line emission delays. This approach is applied to SDSS observations in 'Stripe 82' (S82) providing flux measurements precise to 2 % at $\\sim$ 60 epochs over $\\sim$ 10 years. The strong annual variations in the epoch sampling prove a serious limitation in practice. Also, suitable reds...

  8. Psychological changes in hundred-day remote Antarctic field groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J.; Lugg, D. J.; Hysong, S. J.; Harm, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Psychological adaptation to extreme environments has been examined from several perspectives. In this study, two Australian teams, each consisting of six male crew members, completed computer-administered questionnaires twice weekly during 100-day traverses around the Lambert Glacier Basin, Antarctica. Only small trends were noted when data were aggregated at the group level, which is consistent with the findings of others. Data were then analyzed using pooled time-series regression. These analyses incorporated personality characteristics, environmental factors, and interpersonal factors as predictors of Group Tensions, Personal Morale, Emotional State, Cognitive Readiness, and the Team's Work Life. Most of the psychological discomfort and problems that occurred appeared to be within the individual or between individuals. They did not affect all members of the group equally.

  9. Hundred metre virtual telescope captures unique detailed colour image

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    A team of French astronomers has captured one of the sharpest colour images ever made. They observed the star T Leporis, which appears, on the sky, as small as a two-storey house on the Moon [1]. The image was taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), emulating a virtual telescope about 100 metres across and reveals a spherical molecular shell around an aged star. ESO PR Photo 06a/09 The star T Leporis as seen with VLTI ESO PR Photo 06b/09 The star T Leporis to scale ESO PR Photo 06c/09 A virtual 100-metre telescope ESO PR Photo 06d/09 The orbit of Theta1 Orionis C ESO PR Video 06a/09 Zoom-in onto T Leporis "This is one of the first images made using near-infrared interferometry," says lead author Jean-Baptiste Le Bouquin. Interferometry is a technique that combines the light from several telescopes, resulting in a vision as sharp as that of a giant telescope with a diameter equal to the largest separation between the telescopes used. Achieving this requires the VLTI system components to be positioned to an accuracy of a fraction of a micrometre over about 100 metres and maintained so throughout the observations -- a formidable technical challenge. When doing interferometry, astronomers must often content themselves with fringes, the characteristic pattern of dark and bright lines produced when two beams of light combine, from which they can model the physical properties of the object studied. But, if an object is observed on several runs with different combinations and configurations of telescopes, it is possible to put these results together to reconstruct an image of the object. This is what has now been done with ESO's VLTI, using the 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes. "We were able to construct an amazing image, and reveal the onion-like structure of the atmosphere of a giant star at a late stage of its life for the first time," says Antoine Mérand, member of the team. "Numerical models and indirect data have allowed us to imagine the

  10. [Psychiatric Hospital San Juan de Dios. One hundred years later].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocula-León, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and psychiatric diseases have always attracted people's and health authorities' attention due to its magical approach, the lack of knowledge that surrounds them, and, at the same time, the religious fear they provoke. Both have played an important role in the history of humanity, of public health politics, and of physicians. The places where psychiatric patients were treated are of historical interest, because through the historical knowledge we can identify an approach from the science and the health policies that prevailed in each age. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was developed in México a new model of hospital care attention to psychiatric patients. La Casa de Salud San Juan de Dios para Pacientes Alienados is an example; the concept "alienated patients" suggests a social and cultural perspective. This paper presents a chronological type description of one of the major institutions involved in mental health care in México. Similarly, it shows a review of the events that affected the religious order San Juan de Dios from 1901 to 2012, when the hospitaller order was reinstated in México and established the Casa de Salud San Juan de Dios para Pacientes Alienados in the town of Zapopan, Jalisco, institution that exists up to the present day and keeps participating in the mental health care in the state of Jalisco, with the current name of Servicios de Salud San Juan de Dios.

  11. Hundreds of fridges to cool the heart of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The detectors used in the LHC experiments are packed with electronics that will register thousands of particles produced in the collisions. All this hard work will generate a lot of heat, but there are systems in place to help the electronics to cool down, not shut down. Members of the DC section team in USA15 of the ATLAS cavern, standing behind four of the compressors used in the cooling system. The inlet and outlet pipes that carry the refrigerant to the experimental hall can be seen on the left. Left to right: M. Battistin, P. Bonneau, C. Houd, P. Feraudet, F. Corbaz, J. Lethinen, P. Guglielmini, M. Ciclet, P. Tropea, S. Berry (M. Pimenta absent).An unconfirmed member of the DC section :-) in charge of a part of the perfluoropropane distribution network for the ATLAS evaporative cooling system. The next time your desktop computer crashes from overheating, spare a thought for Pierre Feraudet, a member of the Detector Cooling section (TS/CV/DC). He is in charge of constructing the cooling systems for the d...

  12. The hundred most-cited publications in orthopaedic knee research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sufian S; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios S; Abbasian, M; Röder, Christoph; Kohl, Sandro

    2014-11-19

    Despite its limitations, citation analysis remains one of the best currently available tools for quantifying the impact of articles. Bibliometric studies list the "best-sellers" in a single location, and they have been published frequently in many fields during recent years. The purpose of the present study was to report the qualities and characteristics of citation classics in orthopaedic knee research. The database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was utilized for identification of articles published from 1945 to March 2014. All knee articles that had been published in sixty-five orthopaedic and twenty-nine rheumatology journals and that had been cited at least 200 times were identified. The top 100 were selected for further analysis of authorship, source journal, number of citations, citation rate (both since publication and in 2013), geographic origin, article type, and level of evidence. The publication dates of the 100 most-cited articles ranged from 1948 to 2007, with the greatest number of articles published in the 1980s. Citations per article ranged from 2640 to 287. All articles were published in eleven of the ninety-four journals. The leading countries of origin were the U.S. followed by the U.K. and Sweden. The two main focus areas were sports traumatology and degenerative disease. The number of citations per article was also greatest for articles published in the 1980s. Basic research articles were cited more quickly, but not more often, than clinical articles. Most articles represented Level-IV evidence, followed by Levels II, III, and I. This bibliometric study is likely to include a list of intellectual milestones in orthopaedic knee research. It is apparent that a high level of evidence is not mandatory for an article to gain a large number of citations. Bibliometric reports provide a reflection of the quality of cited research published in a specific field and should therefore provoke thinking within the scientific community

  13. Valences temporal tuning fork in novel One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria BARAGA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Class time is experiencing a particularly wide spread in different spheres of human manifestation: in science and art, religion and everyday life. During World Literature the time becomes subject to interest. Colombian writer Gabriel García Márquez in his creation, but especially in the novel One Hundred Years of Solitude, with great talent show time category. In the present investigation, based on the content quality of time and in the figurative image of the movement, we deduced the most representative forms of temporal in garciamarquezian novel. We disclose specifics forms of macondiene time: Time of sacred history, time of eternal return, historical time and Apocalyptic time. Originality of macondian time consists of temporal relationship between these forms, the magic of virtualization game and their updates. And while macondian prodigious time impresses just by strength revealing of the imaginary area.

  14. First-time success with needle procedures was higher with a warm lidocaine and tetracaine patch than an eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Borrometi, Fabio; Benini, Franca; Neri, Elena; Rusalen, Francesca; Celentano, Loredana; Zanon, Davide; Schreiber, Silvana; Ronfani, Luca; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-05-01

    More than 50% of children report apian during venepuncture or intravenous cannulation and using local anaesthetics before needle procedures can lead to different success rates. This study examined how many needle procedures were successful at the first attempt when children received either a warm lidocaine and tetracaine patch or an eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) cream. We conducted this multicentre randomised controlled trial at three tertiary-level children's hospitals in Italy in 2015. Children aged three to 10 years were enrolled in an emergency department, paediatric day hospital and paediatric ward and randomly allocated to receive a warm lidocaine and tetracaine patch or EMLA cream. The primary outcome was the success rate at the first attempt. The analysis included 172 children who received a warm lidocaine and tetracaine patch and 167 who received an EMLA cream. The needle procedure was successful at the first attempt in 158 children (92.4%) who received the warm patch and in 142 children (85.0%) who received the cream (p = 0.03). The pain scores were similar in both groups. This study showed that the first-time needle procedure success was 7.4% higher in children receiving a warm lidocaine and tetracaine patch than EMLA cream. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Higher specificity of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification isothermal technology than of real-time PCR for quantification of HIV-1 RNA on dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier-Delarue, Severine; Vray, Muriel; Plantier, Jean Christophe; Maillard, Theodora; Adjout, Zidan; de Olivera, Fabienne; Schnepf, Nathalie; Maylin, Sarah; Simon, Francois; Delaugerre, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are widely proposed as a plasma surrogate for monitoring antiretroviral treatment efficacy based on the HIV-1 RNA level (viral load [VL]) in resource-limited settings. Interfering coamplification of cell-associated HIV-1 DNA during reverse transcription (RT)-PCR can be avoided by using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technology, which is based on an RNA template and isothermic conditions. We analyzed VL values obtained with DBS and plasma samples by comparing isothermic NASBA (NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 V2.0; bioMérieux) with real-time RT-PCR (Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 V2.0; Roche). Samples from 197 HIV-1-infected patients were tested (non-B subtypes in 51% of the cases). Nucleic acid extractions were performed by use of NucliSENS EasyMAG (bioMérieux) and Cobas AmpliPrep (Roche) before the NASBA and RT-PCR quantifications, respectively. Both quantification assays have lower limits of detection of 20 (1.3) and 800 (2.9) log10 copies/ml (log) in plasma and DBS, respectively. The mean (DBS minus plasma) differences were -0.39 and -0.46 log, respectively, for RT-PCR and NASBA. RT-PCR on DBS identified virological failure in 122 of 126 patients (sensitivity, 97%) and viral suppression in 58 of 70 patients (specificity, 83%), yielding 12 false-positive results (median, 3.2 log). NASBA on DBS identified virological failure in 85 of 96 patients (sensitivity, 89%) and viral suppression in 95 of 97 patients (specificity, 98%) and yielded 2 false-positive results (3.0 log for both). Both technologies detected HIV-1 RNA in DBS at a threshold of 800 copies/ml. This higher specificity of NASBA technology could avoid overestimation of poor compliance or the emergence of resistance when monitoring antiretroviral efficacy with the DBS method.

  16. Binary Quadratic Programing for Online Tracking of Hundreds of People in Extremely Crowded Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Afshin; Shah, Mubarak

    2017-03-24

    Multi-object tracking has been studied for decades. However, when it comes to tracking pedestrians in extremely crowded scenes, we are limited to only few works. This is an important problem which gives rise to several challenges. Pre-trained object detectors fail to localize targets in crowded sequences. This consequently limits the use of data-association based multi-target tracking methods which rely on the outcome of an object detector. Additionally, the small apparent target size makes it challenging to extract features to discriminate targets from their surroundings. Finally, the large number of targets greatly increases computational complexity which in turn makes it hard to extend existing multi-target tracking approaches to high-density crowd scenarios. In this paper, we propose a tracker that addresses the aforementioned problems and is capable of tracking hundreds of people efficiently. We formulate online crowd tracking as Binary Quadratic Programing. Our formulation employs target's individual information in the form of appearance and motion as well as contextual cues in the form of neighborhood motion, spatial proximity and grouping, and solves detection and data association simultaneously. In order to solve the proposed quadratic optimization efficiently, where state-of art commercial quadratic programing solvers fail to find the solution in a reasonable amount of time, we propose to use the most recent version of the Modified Frank Wolfe algorithm, which takes advantage of SWAP-steps to speed up the optimization. We show that the proposed formulation can track hundreds of targets efficiently and improves state-of-art results by significant margins on eleven challenging high density crowd sequences.

  17. 49 CFR 230.17 - One thousand four hundred seventy-two (1472) service day inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One thousand four hundred seventy-two (1472) service day inspection. 230.17 Section 230.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General General Inspection Requirements § 230.17 One thousand four hundred seventy-two...

  18. Some Observations from a Very Telling Innocuous Query: An Essay on the State of Higher Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, José; Wakefield, Michael; LeMaster, Jane

    2010-01-01

    We present a self-reflective assessment of higher education from the perspective of educators and administrators prompted by a common question addressed to many of us, perhaps hundreds of times in the year; "What's my grade?" Upon some scrutiny, we find a series of troubling interrelated issues that more or less depict a system of higher…

  19. Stochastic analysis of California's recent precipitation drought in the context of the last one hundred years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, G.; Gianotti, D.; Anderson, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately one hundred years of daily precipitation data have been analyzed at thirteen stations in California. Seasonal markovian stochastic models accounting for daily occurrence and depth are constructed using a generalized linear modeling framework. A probit link function is used to model the seasonally varying probability of daily precipitation, and a reciprocal link is used to model the (seasonally varying) mean of a gamma distribution for dailyprecipitation depth. Short-term memory is accounted for with lagged indicator variables of precipitation occurrence. In this framework, the model is flexible enough to well capture the variability of daily precipitation, and its parameters are readily estimated using standard methods. Simulated realizations of centuries of daily data, however, do not capture the measured variance of precipitation at seasonal to annual time scales, indicating that low frequency variations in the underlying processes are present, which, by construct, are not accounted for. To account for this a clustering algorithm is developed that separates the years of data into distinct clusters (with associated parameters) in an optimal fashion with respect to the likelihood of the fitted generalized linear models. Typically three clusters are found to adequately be able to reproduce the aggregated (i.e. annual) rainfall statistics (e.g. the variance and also the probability distribution of annual rainfall). The final estimated models are again used to simulate hundreds of ensembles of the last century of rainfall, and are used to assess how unusual, or not, the calendar year 2013 drought was. At 10 of 13 stations, the annual 2013 rainfall was not statistically unusual, in the sense that a year as dry as 2013 would be expected to occur at least once in each century in ten percent of the ensembles. At 3 stations, however, the simulations reproduced 2013 levels of rainfall (in each simulated century) less than ten percent of the time. From these

  20. Assessing the Impact of a Statewide STEM Investment on K-12, Higher Education, and Business/Community STEM Awareness over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Johnson, Carla C.; Walten, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite monetary and educational investments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) being at record high levels, little attention has been devoted to generating a common understanding of STEM. In addition, working with business, K-12 schools, and/or institutions of higher education to establish a grassroots effort to help…

  1. Technology, Time and Transition in Higher Education--Two Different Realities of Everyday "Facebook" Use in the First Year of University in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Within the range of websites and apps that are part of first-year undergraduates' digital environments, the social network site "Facebook" is perhaps the most popular and prominent. As such, the ubiquitous nature of "Facebook" in the higher education landscape has drawn much attention from scholars. Drawing on data from a…

  2. Estimations procedures with RATS 8.0 or higher for Introduction to time series and forecasting, book by Brockwell & Davis (2 ed)

    OpenAIRE

    Josheski, Dushko

    2015-01-01

    This file consists of estimations in the time series software RATS (Regression Analysis of Time Series). In this file program files and procedures for the estimations in the book by Brockwell and Davis (2 ed ) had been provided. The order of estimations is by the book chapters

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis: milestones in clinical and microbiological diagnostics in the last hundred years: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Irén

    2007-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis an obligate intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium is the causative agent of several acute or chronic, local and systemic human diseases such as trachoma, oculogenital and neonatal infections. It was discovered in 1907 by Halberstaedter and von Prowazek who observed it in conjunctival scrapings from an experimentally infected orangutan. In the last hundred years the detection and study of the intracellular pathogens, including chlamydiae, passed through an enormous evolution. This memorial review is dedicated to these important research and diagnostic discoveries and to the scientists who significantly contributed to this evolution starting from the application of simple light microscopy through the cell culture technique, antibiotic susceptibility, antigen and antibody detection, serotyping, to the real-time nucleic acid amplification and restriction fragment lengths polymorphism analysis. Although the majority of these old and new excellent diagnostic methods have been introduced into the rutine practice, the trachoma has remained one of the leading causes of blindness, and oculogenital chlamydial infections still are the most frequent sexually transmitted bacterial diseases, furthermore lymphogranuloma venereum is a disease emerging in the developed countries at the beginning of the 21 st century.

  4. Hundred joules plasma focus device as a potential pulsed source for in vitro cancer cell irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, J.; Moreno, J.; Andaur, R.; Armisen, R.; Morales, D.; Marcelain, K.; Avaria, G.; Bora, B.; Davis, S.; Pavez, C.; Soto, L.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma focus devices may arise as useful source to perform experiments aimed to study the effects of pulsed radiation on human cells in vitro. In the present work, a table top hundred joules plasma focus device, namely "PF-400J", was adapted to irradiate colorectal cancer cell line, DLD-1. For pulsed x-rays, the doses (energy absorbed per unit mass, measured in Gy) were measured using thermoluminescence detectors (TLD-100 dosimeters). The neutron fluence and the average energy were used to estimate the pulsed neutron doses. Fifty pulses of x-rays (0.12 Gy) and fifty pulses of neutrons (3.5 μGy) were used to irradiate the cancer cells. Irradiation-induced DNA damage and cell death were assessed at different time points after irradiation. Cell death was observed using pulsed neutron irradiation, at ultralow doses. Our results indicate that the PF-400J can be used for in vitro assessment of the effect of pulsed radiation in cancer cell research.

  5. Hundreds of Genes Experienced Convergent Shifts in Selective Pressure in Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikina, Maria; Robinson, Joseph D; Clark, Nathan L

    2016-09-01

    Mammal species have made the transition to the marine environment several times, and their lineages represent one of the classical examples of convergent evolution in morphological and physiological traits. Nevertheless, the genetic mechanisms of their phenotypic transition are poorly understood, and investigations into convergence at the molecular level have been inconclusive. While past studies have searched for convergent changes at specific amino acid sites, we propose an alternative strategy to identify those genes that experienced convergent changes in their selective pressures, visible as changes in evolutionary rate specifically in the marine lineages. We present evidence of widespread convergence at the gene level by identifying parallel shifts in evolutionary rate during three independent episodes of mammalian adaptation to the marine environment. Hundreds of genes accelerated their evolutionary rates in all three marine mammal lineages during their transition to aquatic life. These marine-accelerated genes are highly enriched for pathways that control recognized functional adaptations in marine mammals, including muscle physiology, lipid-metabolism, sensory systems, and skin and connective tissue. The accelerations resulted from both adaptive evolution as seen in skin and lung genes, and loss of function as in gustatory and olfactory genes. In regard to sensory systems, this finding provides further evidence that reduced senses of taste and smell are ubiquitous in marine mammals. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of identifying genes underlying convergent organism-level characteristics on a genome-wide scale and without prior knowledge of adaptations, and provides a powerful approach for investigating the physiological functions of mammalian genes.

  6. Quantum information experiments with 2D arrays of hundreds of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Kevin; Bohnet, Justin; Sawyer, Brian; Britton, Joseph; Wall, Michael; Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria; Bollinger, John

    2016-05-01

    We summarize recent experimental work with 2D arrays of hundreds of trapped 9 Be+ ions stored in a Penning trap. Penning traps utilize static magnetic and electric fields to confine ions, and enable the trapping and laser cooling of ion crystals larger than typically possible in RF ion traps. We work with single-plane ion crystals where the ions form a triangular lattice through minimization of their Coulomb potential energy. The crystals rotate, and we present numerical studies that determine optimal operating parameters for producing low temperature, stable 2-dimensional crystals with Doppler laser cooling and a rotating wall potential. Our qubit is the electron spin-flip transition in the ground state of 9 Be+ and is sensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Through mitigation of part-per-billion, vibration-induced magnetic field fluctuations we demonstrate T2 coherence times longer than 50 ms. We engineer long-range Ising interactions with spin-dependent optical dipole forces, and summarize recent measurements that characterize the entanglement generated through single-axis twisting. Supported by: JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PHY-1521080, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  7. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue: One hundred years of PVI, the Fuchs Painlevé equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, P. A.; Joshi, N.; Mazzocco, M.; Nijhoff, F. W.; Noumi, M.

    2005-10-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General entitled `One hundred years of Painlevé VI, the Fuchs Painlevé equation'. The motivation behind this special issue is to celebrate the centenary of the discovery of this famous differential equation. The Editorial Board has invited P A Clarkson, N Joshi, M Mazzocco, F W Nijhoff and M Noumi to serve as Guest Editors for the issue. The nonlinear ordinary differential equation, which is nowadays known as the Painlevé VI (PVI) equation, is one of the most important differential equations in mathematical physics. It was discovered 100 years ago by Richard Fuchs (son of the famous mathematician Lazarus Fuchs) and reported for the first time in Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Paris 141 555 8 (1905). Gambier, in his seminal paper of 1906, included this equation as the top equation in the list of what are now known as the six Painlevé transcendental equations. The Painlevé list emerged from the work on the classification of all ordinary second-order differential equations whose general solution are `uniform', in the sense that there are no movable (i.e. as a function of the initial data) singularities (meaning branch points) worse than poles. The latter is known as the Painlevé property. As the top equation in the Painlevé list of transcendental equations, the importance of PVI can be appreciated by recognizing that this is a universal differential equation, which is the most general (in terms of number of free parameters) of the known second order ODEs defining nonlinear special functions. As such, parallels can be drawn between the role played by PVI transcendents in the nonlinear case and the hypergeometric functions at the linear level. In fact, the monograph From Gauss to Painlevé by K Iwasaki, H Kimura, S Shimomura and M Yoshida (Vieweg, 1991), draws very clearly the line stretching over more than 150 years of special function theory in which PVI is

  8. Time- and state-dependent analysis of autonomic control in narcolepsy: higher heart rate with normal heart rate variability independent of sleep fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meijden, Wisse P; Fronczek, Rolf; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J Gert; Thijs, Roland D

    2015-04-01

    Narcolepsy with hypocretin deficiency is known to alter cardiovascular control during sleep, but its aetiology is disputed. As cardiovascular control differs between sleep states, and narcolepsy affects sleep architecture, controlling for both duration and transitions of sleep states is necessary. This study therefore aimed to assess heart rate and its variability in narcolepsy during sleep taking these factors into account. The study included 12 medication-naïve patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency (11 male, 16-53 years old), and 12 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (11 male, 19-55 years). All subjects underwent 1-night ambulatory polysomnography recording. Cardiovascular parameters were calculated for each 30-s epoch. Heart rate was significantly higher in patients with narcolepsy than in controls in all sleep states and during wakefulness prior to sleep. Groups did not differ in heart rate variability measures. The effects of sleep state duration on heart rate and its variability were similar between patients and controls. In conclusion, heart rate was consistently higher in patients with narcolepsy than controls, independent of sleep stage and sleep fragmentation. A direct effect of hypocretin deficiency therefore seems probable.

  9. Shortened time interval between colorectal cancer diagnosis and risk testing for hereditary colorectal cancer is not related to higher psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsbergen, K.M.; Prins, J.B.; Brunner, H.G.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2011-01-01

    Current diagnostic practices have shortened the interval between colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis and genetic analysis for Lynch syndrome by MSI-testing. We studied the relation of time between MSI-testing since CRC diagnosis (MSI-CRC interval) and psychological distress. We performed a

  10. [Longer waiting time and higher mortality in older people with traumatic brain injuries. Mapping of emergency prehospital management and hospital management in Västerbotten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Martin; Bylund, Per O; Degerfält, Lisa; Carlsson, Axel C; Wändell, Per; Ruge, Toralph

    2015-10-06

    The main purpose was to study the prehospital and early intrahospital treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the county of Västerbotten 2011-2012. In total, 162 patients were included. The main finding was that a large proportion of TBI patients were older men who fell in the same or from a different level. Older patients had higher mortality and had to wait longer for diagnostic imaging compared to younger patients. Furthermore, most patients were initially relatively unaffected by the injury and around 1/5 of the patients were transported to hospital by private transport. Finally, we observed that most patients were admitted to hospital and computer tomography scan of the head was performed within 4 hours.

  11. Higher order perturbations of Anti-de Sitter space and time-periodic solutions of vacuum Einstein equations arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Rostworowski, Andrzej

    Motivated by the problem of stability of Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime, we discuss nonlinear gravitational perturbations of maximally symmetric solutions of vacuum Einstein equations in general and the case of AdS in particular. We present the evidence that, similarly to the self-gravitating scalar field at spherical symmetry, the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of globally regular, asymptotically AdS, time-periodic solutions of vacuum Einstein equations whose frequencies bifurcate from linear eigenfrequencies of AdS. Interestingly, our preliminary results indicate that the number of one parameter families of time-periodic solutions bifurcating from a given eigenfrequency equals the multiplicity of this eigenfrequency.

  12. Higher risks when working unusual times? A cross-validation of the effects on safety, health, and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greubel, Jana; Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Lombardi, David A

    2016-11-01

    Replication and cross-validation of results on health and safety risks of work at unusual times. Data from two independent surveys (European Working Conditions Surveys 2005 and 2010; EU 2005: n = 23,934 and EU 2010: n = 35,187) were used to examine the relative risks of working at unusual times (evenings, Saturdays, and Sundays) on work-life balance, work-related health complaints, and occupational accidents using logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders such as demographics, work load, and shift work. For the EU 2005 survey, evening work was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor work-life balance (OR 1.69) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.14), Saturday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.49) and occupational accidents (OR 1.34), and Sunday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.15) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.17). For EU 2010, evening work was associated with poor work-life balance (OR 1.51) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.12), Saturday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.60) and occupational accidents (OR 1.19) but a decrease in risk for work-related health complaints (OR 0.86) and Sunday work with work-related health complaints (OR 1.13). Risk estimates in both samples yielded largely similar results with comparable ORs and overlapping confidence intervals. Work at unusual times constitutes a considerable risk to social participation and health and showed structurally consistent effects over time and across samples.

  13. Higher percentage of in vitro apoptotic cells at time of diagnosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia indicate earlier treatment requirement: Ten years follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić-Stevović Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL has an extremely variable clinical course. Biological reasons for that wide variation in clinical course and survival rates in CLL patients are not fully understood. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of spontaneous apoptosis of CLL cells in vitro determined at presentation of disease, in prediction of treatment requirements and evolution of the CLL. Methods. Malignant B cells were isolated from the whole blood of 30 newly diagnosed CLL patients and cultured for 24 hours in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% of serum obtained from the same CLL patient. Cells were later fixed and processed for embedding in Epon, or cell smears were prepared and stained with TUNEL technique. Results. Ten-year follow-up revealed that patients with lower percentage of cells in apoptosis at presentation of disease had significant longer time treatment initiation (log rank test p0.05. Conclusion. The results of this study emphasize the importance of apoptosis of CLL cells at the time of the initial diagnosis in pathobiology of this disease. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41025

  14. Benchmarks on automated system and software generation higher flexibility increased productivity and shorter time-to-market by ScaPable software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlich, Rainer

    2002-07-01

    "ScaPable" is an acronym derived from "scalable" and "portable". The attribute "scalable" indicates that specific application software can automatically be built from scratch and verified without writing any statement in a programming language like C, thereby covering a large variety of embedded and/or distributed applications. The term "portable" addresses the capability to automatically port parts of such an application from one physical node to another one - the processor and operating system type may change - only requiring the names of the nodes, their processor type and operating system. This way the infrastructure of an embedded / distributed system can be built just by provision of literals and figures which define the system interaction, communication, topology and performance. Moreover, dedicated application software like needed for on-board command handling, data acquisition and processing, and telemetry handling can be built from generic templates. The generation time range from less than one second up to about twenty minutes on a PC/Linux platform (800 MHz). By this extremely short generation time risks can be identified early because the executable application is immediately available for validation. A rough estimation shows that one hour of automated system and software generation is equivalent to about 5 .. 50 man years. Currently, about 50% of a typical space embedded system can be covered by the available automated approach. However, the more it is applied, the more can be covered by automation. A system is constructed by applying a formal transformation to the few information as delivered by the user. This approach is not limited to the space domain, although the first industrial application was a space project. Quite different domains can take advantage of such principles of system construction. This paper explains the approach, compares it with other approaches, and provides figures on productivity, duration of system generation and reliability.

  15. Evaluation of higher-order time-domain perturbation theory of photon diffusion on breast-equivalent phantoms and optical mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, D; Kummrow, A; Macdonald, R; Schlag, P M; Rinneberg, H

    2007-12-01

    Time-domain perturbation theory of photon diffusion up to third order was evaluated for its accuracy in deducing optical properties of breast tumors using simulated and physical phantoms and by analyzing 141 projection mammograms of 87 patients with histology-validated tumors that had been recorded by scanning time-domain optical mammography. The slightly compressed breast was modeled as (partially) homogeneous diffusely scattering infinite slab containing a scattering and absorbing spherical heterogeneity representing the tumor. Photon flux densities were calculated from densities of transmitted photons, assuming extended boundary conditions. Explicit formulas are provided for second-order changes in transmitted photon density due to the presence of absorbers or scatterers. The results on phantoms obtained by perturbation theory carried up to third order were compared with measured temporal point spread functions, with numerical finite-element method (FEM) simulations of transmitted photon flux density, with results obtained from the diffraction of diffuse photon density waves, and from Padé approximants. The breakdown of first-, second-, and third-order perturbation theory is discussed for absorbers and a general expression was derived for the convergence of the Born series in this case. Taking tumor optical properties derived by the diffraction model as reference we conclude that estimates of tumor absorption coefficients by perturbation theory agree with reference values within +/-25% in only 65% (first order), 66% (second order), and 77% (third order) of all mammograms analyzed. In the remaining cases tumor absorption is generally underestimated due to the breakdown of perturbation theory. On average the empirical Padé approximants yield tumor absorption coefficients similar to third-order perturbation theory, yet at noticeable lower computational efforts.

  16. Magic Realism in Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J Geetha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In his One Hundred Years of Solitude Gabriel Garcia Marquez through the arsenal of magicrealism, deals with war, suffering, and death in the mid-1960 of Colombia which hadwitnessed two hundred thousand politically motivated deaths. The purpose behind portrayingthe politics of the region is to comment on how the nature of Latin American politics is towardsabsurdity, denial, and never-ending repetitions of tragedy. His magical flair is to mergefantastic with reality by introducing to the reader his Colombia, where myths, portents, andlegends exist side by side with technology and modernity. These myths, along with otherelements and events in the novel recount a large portion of Colombian history.

  17. Statistical Time-Resolved Spectroscopy: A higher fraction of short-period binaries for metal-rich F-type dwarfs in SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Hettinger, T; Strader, J; Bickerton, S J; Beers, T C

    2015-01-01

    Stellar multiplicity lies at the heart of many problems in modern astrophysics, including the physics of star formation, the observational properties of unresolved stellar populations, and the rates of interacting binaries such as cataclysmic variables, X-ray binaries, and Type Ia supernovae. However, little is known about the stellar multiplicity of field stars in the Milky Way, in particular about the differences in the multiplicity characteristics between metal-rich disk stars and metal-poor halo stars. In this study we perform a statistical analysis of ~15,000 F-type dwarf stars in the Milky Way through time-resolved spectroscopy with the sub-exposures archived in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We obtain absolute radial velocity measurements through template cross-correlation of individual sub-exposures with temporal baselines varying from minutes to years. These sparsely sampled radial velocity curves are analyzed using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques to constrain the very short-period binary fraction...

  18. Effect of artificial liver support system on patients with severe viral hepatitis:A study of four hundred cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Juan Li; Qian Yang; Jian-Rong Huang; Xiao-Wei Xu; Yue-Mei Chen; Su-Zhen Fu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of artificial liver support system (ALSS) on patients with severe viral hepatitis, who were divided into treatment group and control group.METHODS: Four hundred in-hospital patients enrolled during 1995-2003 who received ALSS therapy were studied as the treatment group. Four hundred in-hospital patients enrolled during 1986-1994 who received other medical therapies served as the control group. The methods of ALSS used included plasma exchange, hemoperfusion,hemofiltration, continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF). The effect of ALSS treatment was studied in patients at different stages of the disease.RESULTS: The cure rate of acute and subacute severe hepatitis in the treatment group was 78.9% (30/38), and was 11.9% (5/42) in the control group. The improved rate of chronic severe hepatitis in the treatment group was 43.4% (157/362), and was 15.4% (55/358) in the control group.We found that patients treated with ALSS in the early or middle stage of the disease had much higher survival rates than patients in the end stage of the disease.CONCLUSION: ALSS is an effective and safe therapy for severe viral hepatitis.

  19. Just-in-Time Teaching教学模式在高职课程改革中的应用%The application of the teaching mode "Just-in-Time Teaching" in higher vocational curriculum reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈扬; 李永红

    2015-01-01

    This paper first introduces the JiTT teaching mode's connotation, features and implementation steps. The higher vocational engineering technology specialized core curriculum "construction technology" as an example, discusses the JiTT teaching mode in higher vocational curriculum reform, the application of information technology and vocational courses deep integration provides the basis of the theory and practice.%本文先介绍了JiTT教学模式的内涵、特征与实施步骤.再以高职建筑工程技术专业核心课程《建筑施工技术》为例,探讨了JiTT教学模式在高职课程改革中的应用,为信息技术与高职课程深层次融合提供了理论和实践的依据.

  20. Arius and the Three Hundred and Eighteen Orthodox Fathers in the Ethiopian Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Noël Pérès

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available What do today’s Ethiopian Christians think about Arius and what do they think about his theology? Naturally, recent studies concerning this topic are terra incognita to them. Arius continues to represent for them the typical arch-heretic. This author bases his study on his research of the Senkessar (the Ethiopian Synaxarion, the Ethiopian liturgical tradition, a number of other texts, as well as the Ethiopian tradition of sacred art. All this permits him to define the image of Arius in today’s Ethiopian Church. The Ethiopian national epos known as the Kebra Nagast or Glory of the Kings places Arius in the company of Nestorius and Ibo of Edessa. For the Ethiopian church which does not accept the Council of Chalcedon, both of these represent hated dia-physite heretics. By associating Arius with them, he becomes the founder of the dia-physite heresy — a movement which historically occurred only after his time and with which he actually had little or nothing to do. In the Ethiopian Synaxarion, Arius is juxtaposed with such heroes of the Ethiopian faith as Peter, Alexander, and Timothy of Alexandria, Athanasius the Great, and the fathers of the Council of Nicaea. Naturally, here just as in the Kebra, Arius is once again portrayed as the arch-heretic, whose teaching represents a pernicious catastrophe for the Orthodox faith. He is compared with Sabellius, Macedonius, Nestorius, and even Mani. He is demonized to the extent that he is actually called a devil. In the Anaphora of the Three Hundred and Eighteen, Arius is not mentioned by name, but the anaphora in question does contain an attack on his heresy. It would seem that the Ethiopian authors make no attempt to even understand the logic which Arius used to define his position. They simply reject it without discussion. The Ethiopian tradition likewise portrays Arius as a new Judas, pointing out similar details in the way both of these figures met their fi nal end. A particular

  1. Dielectric properties of uncooked chicken breast muscles from ten to one thousand eight hundred megahertz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, H; Nelson, S O; Trabelsi, S; Savage, E M

    2007-11-01

    The dielectric properties, consisting of the dielectric constant (epsilon') and loss factor (epsilon''), were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer for uncooked broiler breast muscle pectoralis major and pectoralis minor, deboned at 2- and 24-h postmortem, over the frequency range from 10 to 1,800 MHz at temperatures ranging from 5 to 85 degrees C. The dielectric property profiles of chicken breast muscle are dependent upon the radio-wave and microwave frequencies and temperature. Increasing frequency from 10 to 1,800 MHz results in decreasing values of the dielectric constant and loss factor regardless of temperature in this range, chicken breast muscle type, or deboning time. However, the response to temperature varies with the frequency, muscle type, and deboning time. There are no differences in the dielectric constant and loss factor values at frequencies of 26 or 1,800 MHz between samples deboned at 2- and at 24-h postmortem. However, the muscle type significantly affects the average values of the dielectric constant and loss factor, with pectoralis minor having significantly higher average values. Both the deboning time and muscle type significantly affect the average values of the loss tangent (tan delta = dielectric loss factor/dielectric constant) at 26 and 1,800 MHz, with pectoralis minor having higher values than pectoralis major and 2-h samples having higher values than 24-h samples. Our quality measurements also show there are significant differences in chicken meat quality characteristics, including color, pH, drip loss, water holding capacity, and texture (Warner-Bratzler shear force value) between the different muscle types and between different deboning times in the same test. These results suggest that there is a probable potential for using dielectric property measurements to assess the quality of chicken meat.

  2. Computational evidence for hundreds of non-conserved plant microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Morten; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2005-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small (20-25 nt) non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression through interaction with mRNA in plants and metazoans. A few hundred miRNAs are known or predicted, and most of those are evolutionarily conserved. In general plant miRNA are different from...

  3. The Necessity of the Literary Tradition: Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "One-Hundred Years of Solitude."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that literature from other countries, taught as multicultural literature, must be taught in the context of its own literary tradition in order to provide high-quality academic instruction. Offers an example with Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "One-Hundred Years of Solitude" to show how teaching multicultural literature can live up to…

  4. The Necessity of the Literary Tradition: Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "One-Hundred Years of Solitude."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that literature from other countries, taught as multicultural literature, must be taught in the context of its own literary tradition in order to provide high-quality academic instruction. Offers an example with Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "One-Hundred Years of Solitude" to show how teaching multicultural literature can live up to its…

  5. A Hundred Year (1890 - 1990) Database for Integrated Environmental Assessments (HYDE, version 1.1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Goldewijk CGM; Battjes JJ; CIM

    1997-01-01

    Testing against historical data is an important step in the validation of simulation models. Because of their wide scope and coverage, global change models require a large amount of data for testing. This update of an earlier version of a hundred-year database used to test global change models repor

  6. The Necessity of the Literary Tradition: Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "One-Hundred Years of Solitude."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that literature from other countries, taught as multicultural literature, must be taught in the context of its own literary tradition in order to provide high-quality academic instruction. Offers an example with Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "One-Hundred Years of Solitude" to show how teaching multicultural literature can live up to…

  7. Efficiency in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duguleană, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Education Law establishes the principles of equity and efficiency in higher education. The concept of efficiency has different meanings according to the types of funding and the time horizons: short or long term management approaches. Understanding the black box of efficiency may offer solutions for an effective activity. The paper presents the parallel presentation of efficiency in a production firm and in a university, for better understanding the specificities of efficiency in higher education.

  8. Problems that should be Noticed in the Employment of Part -Time Higher Vocational College Teachers%高职院校聘用兼职教师应注意的若干问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓春江

    2012-01-01

    Higher vocational education is in its vigorous development,so large numbers of part-time teachers are needed as an important teaching staff.However,there still exist some problems in the employment and management of part-time higher vocational college teachers.Starting from the current situation of higher vocational colleges,this paper explores the problems that should be noticed in the employment of part time higher vocational college teachers.%高职教育蓬勃发展,需要聘用大量的兼职教师,兼职教师已成为高职院校教师队伍中重要的一支生力军。目前,许多高职院校对兼职教师的聘用和管理还存在着一些问题。本文从高职院校现状着手,就高职院校聘用兼职教师应注意的几个方面作了探讨。

  9. The Uncertainty Reducing Capabilities of Primary Care Physicians' Video Biographies for Choosing a New Doctor: Is a Video Worth More Than Two Hundred Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Evan K; Silk, Kami J

    2016-12-01

    Choosing a primary care physician for the first time is an important decision, one that health care systems do not make particularly easy for prospective patients to make solely through the limited information provided on their websites. Without knowledge from others, a new patient is likely to have uncertainty about the physician he or she chooses. Three hundred and twenty participants completed an online experiment and were exposed to two biographies of different doctors with different media and either professional or personal information. Predictions generated by media richness theory revealed greater reductions in uncertainty for video biographies than traditional text biographies. Video biographies, and those containing personal information about the physician, were also related to higher levels of anticipated patient satisfaction and care quality. When asked to choose the physicians they would want to visit, participants overwhelmingly chose the physician with whom they perceived the greatest similarity to themselves, as well as the doctor who provided a video biography. Both theoretical and practical implications of this research are discussed.

  10. Association of Higher Maternal Serum Fluoride with Adverse Fetal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy M Sastry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite prevalence of fluorosis in India, previous studies did not emphasize on the effect of maternal fluorosis on fetal outcomes. Objectives: To study the associations of higher maternal serum Fluoride (F with low birth weight and poor APGAR count. Methods: One hundred and eight apparently healthy pregnant women aged 17-36 years were included in the study. Samples collected were maternal and cord blood, placenta and drinking and ground water. The samples were processed and analyzed for Fluoride. Fetal gestational age was measured on ultrasound scan and the birth weight of the baby on a digital scale. Fifth minute APGAR score was measured. Results: A significant negative correlation was found for maternal serum F vs Birth weight, Gestational Age and APGAR score. Significant negative correlations were also found for cord serum F vs Birth Weight, Gestational Age and APGAR score. Fairly negative correlations were also found for birth weight, APGAR score and Gestational age compared to Fluoride concentrations in maternal surface of placenta, fetal surface of placenta and marginal side of the placenta. However, significant positive correlations were observed when Gestational age was compared with Birth weight and APGAR score. When the maternal serum F was greater than 1 ppm, there was 10.58 times higher risk for low birth weight, 8.65 times higher risk for preterm delivery and 3.8 times higher risk for low APGAR score. When the cord serum F was greater than 0.22ppm, there was 2.76 times higher risk for low birth weight, 4.6 times higher risk for preterm delivery and 2.5 times higher risk for low APGAR score. Conclusion: With increased serum F in the mother, there is an inclination towards pre term delivery, low birth weight and poor APGAR count.

  11. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  12. Deployment and optimization of biomacromolecule molecular dynamics simulation process on hundred trillion times clusterto 6 720 CPU cores in this task, the total computing speed accumulated to 2 274 ns/d, which offers a new approach to run the molec...%生物大分子的分子动力学模拟过程在百万亿次集群上的部署优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘龙强; 耿存亮; 慕宇光; 刘鑫; 胡毅; 潘景山; 周亚滨; 龚斌; 王禄山

    2012-01-01

    分子动力学模拟作为研究生物大分子功能和性质的新工具,已广泛应用于蛋白质和核酸等物质的分子动态学行为研究,但目前常规分子动力学模拟时间尺度较小,不能达到生物大分子分子动态行为的有效取样范围。温度副本交换分子动力学可同时运行多个独立模拟,明显提高模拟时间的可及尺度,但需要千核以至万核的计算资源,目前已发表的相关文献其模拟体系使用的计算资源均较小。本文利用国家超算济南中心的神威4000A百万亿次集群,首先进行单副本的分子动力学模拟,然后利用外切纤维素酶催化结构域的模拟体系(约5万原子)进行多达128个温度副本的分子动力学模拟,一次模拟任务最多成功利用6720个CPU核心同时进行计算,最高总运算速度累计达到2274ns/d,这为分子动力学模拟利用上万核心进行计算提供了新的思路。%As a novel tool to study the functions and properties of biomacromolecules, molecular dynamics has been ex- tensively used to investigate the molecular dynamic behavior of proteins and nucleic acids. However, the time scale range of normal molecular dynamics simulation remains relatively narrow, which cannot reach the valid sampling range of biomacromolecules dynamics behavior recently. Temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics can run multiple independent simulations synchronously and effectively increase the simulating speed. Meanwhile, it requires tens of thousands of cores in aspect of the computing resources, yet the simulation systems of published literatures cannot reach such large scale hitherto. By using the 100T Flops cluster of sunway 4000A in National Supercomputing Center in Jinan, we firstly ran the molecular dynamics of single replica and then ran as many as 128 temperature replicas exchange molecular dynamics to simulate the catalytic domain of exocellulases ( about 50 000 atoms). We

  13. Higher GCSE mathematics for CCEA practice book

    CERN Document Server

    Connolly, Anne; Liggett, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Help students build their confidence with hundreds of practice questions covering everything on the course, guiding them towards their target grades . This practice book offers complete support for the Higher tier of the CCEA GCSE Mathematices specification. It has been written to cover all the units of the specification and to accompany the endorsed textbook. It has been written by an experienced teacher and examiner. - Enable students to practice and consolidate what they have learnt throughout the course with hundreds of questions. - Help develop students'skills and prepare them effectively

  14. ZnO Nanowire-Based Corona Discharge Devices Operated Under Hundreds of Volts

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenming; Zhu, Rong; Zong, Xianli

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing the voltage of corona discharges, especially when using nanomaterials, has been of great interest in the past decade or so. In this paper, we report a new corona discharge device by using ZnO nanowires operated in atmospheric air to realize continuous corona discharge excited by hundreds of volts. ZnO nanowires were synthesized on microelectrodes using electric-field-assisted wet chemical method, and a thin tungsten film was deposited on the microchip to enhance discharging perform...

  15. The Development and Validation of Hundred Paisa Pain Scale for Measuring Musculoskeletal Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Anwar, Dilshad; Nezamuddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The reduction in the pain intensity is one of the most important outcome measures in musculoskeletal disorders. The assessment of pain required reliable and valid scale. The aims of this prospective observational study were to develop and evaluate concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of hundred paisa pain scale (HPPS) for measuring musculoskeletal pain. A consecutive 74 patients with musculoskeletal pain with a wide variety of diagnoses were enrolled. Patients reported the...

  16. The Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) Demonstrates Higher Accuracy in Identifying Older Adult Participants With History of Falls Than Do the BESTest, Berg Balance Scale, or Timed Up and Go Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingyongyudha, Anyamanee; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Panichaporn, Wanvisa; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2016-01-01

    Balance deficits a significant predictor of falls in older adults. The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) are tools that may predict the likelihood of a fall, but their capabilities and accuracies have not been adequately addressed. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the capabilities of the BESTest and Mini-BESTest for identifying older adult with history of falls and comparing the participants with history of falls identification accuracy of the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) for identifying participants with a history of falls. Two hundred healthy older adults with a mean age of 70 years were classified into participants with and without history of fall groups on the basis of their 12-month fall history. Their balance abilities were assessed using the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, BBS, and TUG. An analysis of the resulting receiver operating characteristic curves was performed to calculate the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, cutoff score, and posttest accuracy of each. The Mini-BESTest showed the highest AUC (0.84) compared with the BESTest (0.74), BBS (0.69), and TUG (0.35), suggesting that the Mini-BESTest had the highest accuracy in identifying older adult with history of falls. At the cutoff score of 16 (out of 28), the Mini-BESTest demonstrated a posttest accuracy of 85% with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 75%. The Mini-BESTest had the highest posttest accuracy, with the others having results of 76% (BESTest), 60% (BBS), and 65% (TUG). The Mini-BESTest is the most accurate tool for identifying older adult with history of falls compared with the BESTest, BBS, and TUG.

  17. Open Educational Practices in Higher Education: Institutional Adoption and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Open educational resources and open education practices have the potential to lower costs and increase participation in higher education. One hundred and ten individuals from higher education institutions around the world participated in a survey aimed at identifying the extent to which higher education institutions are currently implementing open…

  18. One hundred million years of interhemispheric communication: the history of the corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aboitiz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regional corpus callosum fiber composition reveals that callosal regions connecting primary and secondary sensory areas tend to have higher proportions of coarse-diameter, highly myelinated fibers than callosal regions connecting so-called higher-order areas. This suggests that in primary/secondary sensory areas there are strong timing constraints for interhemispheric communication, which may be related to the process of midline fusion of the two sensory hemifields across the hemispheres. We postulate that the evolutionary origin of the corpus callosum in placental mammals is related to the mechanism of midline fusion in the sensory cortices, which only in mammals receive a topographically organized representation of the sensory surfaces. The early corpus callosum may have also served as a substrate for growth of fibers connecting higher-order areas, which possibly participated in the propagation of neuronal ensembles of synchronized activity between the hemispheres. However, as brains became much larger, the increasingly longer interhemispheric distance may have worked as a constraint for efficient callosal transmission. Callosal fiber composition tends to be quite uniform across species with different brain sizes, suggesting that the delay in callosal transmission is longer in bigger brains. There is only a small subset of large-diameter callosal fibers whose size increases with increasing interhemispheric distance. These limitations in interhemispheric connectivity may have favored the development of brain lateralization in some species like humans. "...if the currently received statements are correct, the appearance of the corpus callosum in the placental mammals is the greatest and most sudden modification exhibited by the brain in the whole series of vertebrated animals..." T.H. Huxley (1.

  19. Part-time teachers team building in adult higher education%药学专业成人高等教育兼职教师队伍构建及教学模式的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾元威; 沈杰; 谢海棠

    2014-01-01

    成人高等教育作为终身教育的重要组成部分,应该成为学习型社会的主力军;兼职教师做为成人高等教育中不可或缺的中坚力量,发挥了越来越多的作用。该文根据本药学专业教学经验,总结成人高等教育的教学特点,并初步的探讨药学专业的兼职师资队伍建设及教学模式优化。%As an important part of lifetime education ,adult higher education should be main force of learning society;part-time teachers as indispensable part and the backbone of adult higher education play more and more important roles .This article,aiming at characteris-tics of pharmacy adult higher education ,made preliminary study of how to construct pharmacy-featured part-time faculties .

  20. Chronic multiple knee ligament injuries: epidemiological analysis of more than one hundred cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalvo Zosimo Bispo Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis and treatment of multiple ligament injuries of the knee remain a real challenge for most surgeons. OBJECTIVE: To find out the epidemiological profile of patients surgically treated at a Reference Service with more than one chronic ligament injury in the knee joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of a total of 978 operated patients, 109 presented at least two associated ligament injuries in the same knee. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated. RESULTS: The anterior cruciate ligament group presented a larger number of cases of ligament injuries related with sports practice and falls, while the posterior cruciate ligament and anterior cruciate ligament + posterior cruciate ligament groups presented more cases related to traffic accidents and trauma with object (weight on the knee (p<0.001. The varus group presented significantly higher values of time since injury (p<0.01. In the group with new anterior cruciate ligament injury (neoligament associated with other ligament injuries the disruption times were higher, showing statistical significance (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior cruciate ligament injury associated with other ligament injuries other than posterior cruciate ligament injury are related to sports practice and falls. Posterior cruciate ligament injury associated to other ligament injuries, including or not anterior cruciate ligament injury, are related to traffic accidents and direct trauma caused by an object on the knee. Significant delay between primary ligament injuries and their reconstructions generates varus deformity of the affected knee. In spite of the large delay in seeking medical treatment, few patients with neoligament anterior cruciate ligament injury and other combined disruptions will develop varus deformity.

  1. The Major Changes in Xinjiang Cities during the Past Hundred Years:Quantity and Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yimin

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the major changes in Xinjiang during the past hundred years from the perspective of the increased number of cit-ies and the expansion of urban scale . 1.The Change in the Quantity of Xinjiang Cities in the 20 th Century 1 ) The Change in the Quantity of Xinjiang Cities in the first half of the 20th Century In the first half of the 20th century, Xinjiang, like other provinces and regions in China , experi-enced dramatic historical changes , including politi-cal change , destruction from wars , social turbu-lences etc . During the ruling period of Yang Zengxin ( from 1913 to 1928 ) in Xinjiang , Xin-jiang experienced its third upsurge in urban devel-opment since the Qianlong period .During that pe-riod, a total number of 21 counties were built up . In 1933 , a political coup occurred in Xinjiang , and Sheng Shicai began his rule (1933-1944) in Xinjiang.During that period , Xinjiang ’ s poli-tics, economy and culture developed and changed dramatically.At the same time, the numbers of cities with administrative power increased .Accord-ing to statistics , in 1947 , there were 82 local ad-ministrative units in Xinjiang .These included 1 municipality , 75 counties , and 6 shezhi bureaus . Most of the administrative seats were set in rela-tively large scale cities (towns). 2) The Change in the Number of Xinjiang Cities during the second half of the 20th Century In the second half of the 20th century, Xin-jiang changed dramatically under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party .The number of cit-ies in Xinjiang increased greatly .The period from 1950 to 1957 ( i.e.just after the founding of New China ) was a preliminary development stage of Xinjiang cities;the period from 1958 to 1964 was a “rising-falling development” stage of Xinjiang cities; and the period from 1978 to 2000 was a“fast development” stage.At the end of the 20th century, Urumchi, in Xinjiang, with a population of more than 2 million, became the biggest city a-mong the

  2. The Great War and All That in A Hundred Doors by Michael Longley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Delattre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Great War has featured regularly in Michael Longley’s poetry, for personal, family, aesthetic and political reasons. His collection published in 2011 under the title A Hundred Doors contains a number of poems relating to his father and the so-called War Poets, in connection with others in which love and nature, life and death are also dominant themes. This article will show how, as elsewhere in his poetry, everything is interrelated, “the nature poetry”, in Longley’s words, “fertilizing the war poetry”.

  3. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation....... This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach....

  4. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  5. Hundred years of environmental change and phytoplankton ecophysiological variability archived in coastal sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Marine protist species have been used for several decades as environmental indicators under the assumption that their ecological requirements have remained more or less stable through time. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that marine protists, including several phytoplankton species, are in fact highly diverse and may quickly respond to changes in the environment. Predicting how future climate will impact phytoplankton populations is important, but this task has been challenged by a lack of time-series of ecophysiological parameters at time-scales relevant for climate studies (i.e. at least decadal. Here, we report on ecophysiological variability in a marine dinoflagellate over a 100-year period of well-documented environmental change, by using the sedimentary archive of living cysts from a Scandinavian fjord (Koljö Fjord, Sweden. During the past century, Koljö Fjord has experienced important changes in salinity linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. We revived resting cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei preserved in the fjord sediments and determined growth rates for 18 strains obtained from 3 sediment core layers at salinity 15 and 30, which represent extreme sea-surface conditions during periods of predominantly negative and positive NAO phases, respectively. Upper pH tolerance limits for growth were also tested. In general, P. dalei grew at a higher rate in salinity 30 than 15 for all layers, but there were significant differences among strains. When accounting for inter-strain variability, cyst age had no effect on growth performance or upper pH tolerance limits for this species, indicating a stable growth response over the 100-year period in spite of environmental fluctuations. Our findings give some support for the use of morphospecies in environmental studies, particularly at decadal to century scales. Furthermore, the high intra-specific variability found down to sediment layers dated as ca. 50 years-old indicates

  6. A Tax for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  7. Environmental changes reflected by sedimentary geochemistry in recent hundred years of Jiaozhou Bay, North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Jicui [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Jinming [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China)]. E-mail: jmsong@ms.qdio.ac.cn; Li Xuegang [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Yuan Huamao [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Li Ning [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zheng Guoxia [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2007-02-15

    Sediment geochemical technique was employed to assess how the sediment records reflect the environmental changes of Jiaozhou Bay, a semi-enclosed bay adjacent to Qingdao, China. In the past hundred years, Jiaozhou Bay has been greatly impacted by human interventions. A dated core sediment by {sup 210}Pb chronology was analyzed for trace metals including Li, Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn together with C, N, P and BSi. Based on the research, the development of Jiaozhou Bay environment in the past hundred years can be divided into three stages: (1) before the 1980s characterized by relatively low sedimentation rate, weak heavy metal pollution and scarce eutrophication; (2) from the 1980s to 2000, accelerating in the 1990s, during which high sedimentation rates, polluted by heavy metals and the frequent occurrence of red tide; (3) after 2000, the period of the improvement of environment, the whole system has been meliorated including the heavy metal pollution and hypernutrification. - Identifying environmental changes by employing geochemical parameters combined with {sup 210}Pb chronology.

  8. A Brief Analysis of the Absurd Element in One Hundred Years of Solitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红英

    2012-01-01

      One Hundred Years of Solitude is a history of the isolated town of Macondo and the Buendia family. In the novel,the town has no contact with the outside world for years, except for the gypsies who occasionally visit there, peddling the so-called technical items like ice and telescopes. The members of the family live in solitude. After outside civilization comes to the town, Macondo changes from an idyllic, magic, and sheltered place to a town irrevocably connected to the outside world. By expressing the wax and wane of Macondo and the description of everybody’s extreme loneliness and hollowness, the essay dissects the reason for Latin America’s poverty and backwardness. Even more broadly, the essay is about Latin America’s struggles with colonialism and its own emergence and modernity. Through the analysis of absurdity in the novel, this essay aims at unfolding a panorama of the diverse cultures, religious beliefs, historical events as well as the national spirits to readers. Thus, readers can enjoy a grand, magic and mysterious painting of Latin America through One Hundred Years of Solitude.

  9. Current situation of team construction for part-time teachers in higher vocational colleges and countermeasures%高职院校兼职教师队伍建设现状及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮浩

    2015-01-01

    Through investigation on current situation of team construction for part-time teachers in 4 higher vocational colleges,we find that problems exist in management policy and system, recruiting and selecting process,and pay satisfaction of part-time teachers.Based on investiga-tion and analysis,this paper puts forward corresponding countermeasures such as providing poli-cy guarantee for team construction for part-time teachers,standardizing access system of part-time teachers,perfecting training system of teachers,strengthening humanistic care for part-time teachers,and promoting joint development of full-time and part-time teachers.%通过对4所高职院校兼职教师队伍建设现状的调查,发现兼职教师管理政策与制度、兼职教师选聘过程、兼职教师的薪酬满意度等方面存在诸多问题。在调查分析基础上,提出了为兼职教师队伍建设提供政策保障、规范兼职教师准入制度、完善兼职教师培训制度、增强对兼职教师的人文关怀、促进专兼职教师共同发展等相应对策。

  10. 新时期高职生课余时间管理特征探析%Analysis on the Management Characteristics of the Higher Vocational College Students' Spare Time in the New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪荣彪; 刘红燕; 方波

    2016-01-01

    通过对某高职学院6个不同专业学生的问卷调查,并利用均值比较、相关分析等方法对统计数据进行验证。研究发现:高职生管理课余时间意识与实际利用情况存在矛盾;高职女生时间管理倾向及课余时间利用效率优于男生;高职生上网时间与自主学习时间之间存在较强的负向影响。指出丰富课余活动内容,提高时间管理训练的针对性,正确引导高职生使用网络,将有益于提高高职生课余时间利用效率。%Conducting a questionnaive survey in 6 different major students in a college, and using the methods of mean comparison and correlation analysis to verify the statistical data. Conclusions are as follows: ( 1) Vocational college students have contradictions between their spare-time management consciousness and their actual utilization of time. (2) Female vocational college students’ time management disposition and spare time utilization efficiency are higher than the males’. (3) There is a strong negative impact between vocational students’ online time and their autonomous learning time. Measures such as enriching extracurricular activities, improving the pertinence of time management training, guiding students to use the network correctly etc, will be beneficial to improve the efficiency of vocational college students’ spare hours.

  11. 新媒体时代下创新高职院校学生工作模式研究%Research on the Innovation of Student Affairs in Higher Vocation Colleges in the Times of New Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闾春飞

    2013-01-01

    高职院校的新媒体学生管理工作要重视搭建有效的管理平台,拓展管理空间,建立平等互助的管理工作氛围,最终实现高职院校学生管理工作的全面创新。本文分析了新媒体概念,总结了高职院校学生管理工作现状,提出了新媒体时代高职学校学生工作模式的创新对策。%Student management in higher vocational colleges in the new media should pay attention to the establishment of an ef-fective management platform, expand management space, and construct an equal and cooperative management atmosphere, so as to ultimately realize the overall innovation of student manage-ment in higher vocational colleges. This paper analyzes the defi-nition of the new media, summarizes the current situation of stu-dent management in higher vocational colleges, and proposes the countermeasures of the innovation of student management in the times of new media.

  12. Experimental higher dimensional entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richart, Daniel L.; Wieczorek, Witlef; Weinfurter, Harald [MPI fuer Quantenoptik, Hans Kopfermannstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Schellingstr. 4, D-80797 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Higher dimensional states (qudits) allow to implement quantum communication schemes of increasing complexity, as e.g. superdense coding. Similarly, qudits allow further research into the fundaments of quantum theory. Here we report on first steps towards the implementation of states with correlated photon pairs in a 2 x 8 dimensional Hilbert space. To this end the photon pairs are prepared in the energy-time basis, as initially proposed in: Using unbalanced interferometers, information can be encoded in the different arrival times of the photon pairs, early and late, as was experimentally realized in. Here, we extend this scheme by proposing and characterizing a scalable multiple time delay interferometer. This interferometer system allows an exponential increase in the dimensionality of the entangled state with only a linear increase in the optical components used. Using the proposed interferometer system, first experimental tests on a two-dimensional state yielded a violation of a Bell inequality by four standard deviations.

  13. An integrative approach for analyzing hundreds of neurons in task performing mice using wide-field calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ali I; Gritton, Howard J; Tseng, Hua-an; Bucklin, Mark E; Yao, Zhaojie; Han, Xue

    2016-02-08

    Advances in neurotechnology have been integral to the investigation of neural circuit function in systems neuroscience. Recent improvements in high performance fluorescent sensors and scientific CMOS cameras enables optical imaging of neural networks at a much larger scale. While exciting technical advances demonstrate the potential of this technique, further improvement in data acquisition and analysis, especially those that allow effective processing of increasingly larger datasets, would greatly promote the application of optical imaging in systems neuroscience. Here we demonstrate the ability of wide-field imaging to capture the concurrent dynamic activity from hundreds to thousands of neurons over millimeters of brain tissue in behaving mice. This system allows the visualization of morphological details at a higher spatial resolution than has been previously achieved using similar functional imaging modalities. To analyze the expansive data sets, we developed software to facilitate rapid downstream data processing. Using this system, we show that a large fraction of anatomically distinct hippocampal neurons respond to discrete environmental stimuli associated with classical conditioning, and that the observed temporal dynamics of transient calcium signals are sufficient for exploring certain spatiotemporal features of large neural networks.

  14. Hundred-Watt-Level, All-Fiber-Integrated Supercontinuum Generation from Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Zilun; Chen, Shengping; Hou, Jing; Lu, Qisheng

    2013-03-01

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based supercontinuum source with hundred-watt-level average power output is presented in this paper. The output delivery fiber of a 120 W picosecond master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) laser with a 15 µm fiber core is directly spliced with a 2.6-m-long PCF to form the all-fiber-integrated SC source. Using the controlled air-hole collapse technique to expand the core diameter of the PCF, a super-low splice loss (˜0.2 dB) between the delivery fiber and the PCF has been demonstrated. A 92.5 W SC spanning from about 700 nm to beyond 1700 nm is obtained.

  15. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope project and its early science opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Di; Pan, Zhichen

    2012-01-01

    The National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science (NAOC), has started building the largest antenna in the world. Known as FAST, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope is a Chinese mega-science project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). FAST also represents part of Chinese contribution to the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Upon its finishing around September of 2016, FAST will be the most sensitive single-dish radio telescope in the low frequency radio bands between 70 MHz and 3 GHz. The design specifications of FAST, its expected capabilities, and its main scientific aspirations were described in an overview paper by Nan et al. (2011). In this paper, we briefly review the design and the key science goals of FAST, speculate the likely limitations at the initial stages of FAST operation, and discuss the opportunities for astronomical discoveries in the so-called early science phase.

  16. Nuclear disaster. Fukushima, hundred years of decontamination; Catastrophe nucleaire: Fukushima, cent ans de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.

    2011-04-15

    This article gives an overview of what will have to be done on the site of Fukushima to decontaminate and to dismantle it. Based on the experience gained in Three Mile Island and in Chernobyl, experts foresee ten years of work within the reactor cores, thirty years around the plant, sixty years of decontamination within the no man's land area around the plant; and centuries as far as scattered spots are concerned more than hundred kilometres away from the plant. Three radionuclides must be surveyed, but with different half lives: iodine 131 (8 days), caesium 137 (30 years), and plutonium 239 (24000 years). The expertise of French companies (Areva, Assystem, Bouygues and Vinci) in reactor dismantling, dismantling procedure design, and public works (protection arch like in Chernobyl) is briefly evoked, as well as the French approach for post-accident management

  17. Beam Patterns of the Five hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope: Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, B

    2013-01-01

    The Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) uses adaptive spherical panels to realize the huge collecting area for radio waves. In this paper, we try to explore the optimal parameters for the curvature radius of spherical panels and the focal distance by comparison of the calculated beam patterns. We show that to get the best beam shape and maximum gain, the optimal curvature radius of panels is around 300m, and a small shift of focal distance of a few cm is needed. The aperture efficiency can be improved by ~10 at 3GHz by this small shift. We also try to optimize the panel positioning for the best beam, and find that panel shifts of a few mm can improve the beam pattern by a similar extent. Our results indicate that the accurate control of the feed and panel position to the mm level is very crucial to the stability of FAST performance.

  18. Lydgate's Danse Macabre and the Trauma of the Hundred Years War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R D

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that the foundational traumatic lacuna behind John Lydgate's Danse Macabre is the social agon between those who wage the Hundred Years War and those who fight in it. Drawing from the insights of trauma theory to discuss the poem's form, the essay uncovers Lydgate's persistent concern with the damage caused by the war and the concomitant political unrest it causes. It argues further that Lydgate theorized this agon using the emergent genre of tragedy, which is beginning to be practiced anew in late-medieval England. Tragic discourse is riven by concerns about the efficacy of human action and the radical contingency of fortune, creating a crisis of agency that can be used as a form of political critique. Ultimately, Lydgate blends the genre of tragedy with the mirror for princes and estates satire genres to argue that, while everyone must eventually dance with death, during war some estates lead the dance.

  19. Layer-by-layer assembly of nanocomposite films with thickness up to hundreds of nanometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ling-de; YAN Yu-hua; YU Hai-hu; GU Er-dan; JIANG De-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte/polyelectrolyte, organic molecule/colloidal CdS and polyelectrolyte/MWCNT films were fabricated via the layer-by-layer assembling technique. The assembled films were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometry,nano profilometer and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the layer-by-layer assembling technique can be used to make the nanoscaled films from polyelectrolytes and thicker composite films from suitable precursor materials. Both organic molecule/colloidal CdS films and PEI/MWCNT films with thickness of hundreds of nanometers were obtained. For the organic molecule/colloidal CdS films, a reasonable explanation for the result is that both the organic molecules and the CdS particles aggregate in the films. For the PEI/MWCNT films, obviously, it is the MWCNT that makes the great contribution to the film thickness.

  20. Nobel Prize nominees hundred years ago: Abraham Jacobi (1830-1919) and Otto Heubner (1843-1926).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Nils; Oommen-Halbach, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt; Fangerau, Heiner

    2017-08-13

    Pediatrics directly and indirectly played an important role in the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. However, the history of the Nobel Prize and pediatrics goes beyond the actual laureates. Based on original files in the archive of the Nobel committee of physiology or medicine at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, this overview aims to shed new light on why the international pioneers of pediatrics Abraham Jacobi (1830-1919) and Otto Heubner (1843-1926) were nominated but never received the prize in 1918. Moreover, Clemens von Pirquet (1874-1929), one of the founders of this journal in 1910 (previously known as Zeitschrift für Kinderheilkunde), also appears in the Nobel records during the first decades of the twentieth century, nominated by Heubner and others. We argue that studies of Nobel nominations give new opportunities to study not only the selection process for Nobel laureates, but also to explore which pioneers were seen as the most outstanding at a particular point in time and why. What is known? • Recent historical research suggests that Nobel Prize nominations can help to reconstruct trends in medicine over time. What is new? • This paper takes a new approach on the history of pediatrics and shows why the internationally famous pediatricians Abraham Jacobi, New York, and Otto Heubner, Berlin, were runners-up for the Nobel Prize hundred years ago.

  1. The increase in phosphorylation levels of serine residues of protein HSP70 during holding time at 17°C is concomitant with a higher cryotolerance of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Rivera Del Álamo, Maria-Montserat; Bonet, Sergi; Rigau, Teresa; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan-Enric

    2014-01-01

    Boar-sperm cryopreservation is not usually performed immediately after semen collection, but rather a holding time (HT) of 4 h-30 h at 17°C is spent before starting this procedure. Taking this into account, the aim of this study was to go further in-depth into the mechanisms underlying the improving effects of HT at 17°C on boar-sperm cryotolerance by evaluating the effects of two different HTs (3 h and 24 h) on overall boar-sperm function and survival before and after cryopreservation. Given that phospho/dephosphorylation mechanisms are of utmost importance in the overall regulation of sperm function, the phosphorylation levels of serine residues (pSer) in 30 different sperm proteins after a 3 h- or 24 h-HT period were also assessed. We found that a HT of 24 h contributed to a higher sperm resistance to freeze-thawing procedures, whereas mini-array protein analyses showed that a HT of 24 h induced a significant (Psperm cryotolerance was significantly correlated with pSer levels in HSP70. In addition, from all the parameters evaluated before freeze-thawing, only pSer levels in HSP70 resulted to be able to predict sperm cryotolerance. In conclusion, our results suggest that boar spermatozoa modulate its function during HT, at least partially, by changes in pSer levels of proteins like HSP70, and this is related to a higher cryotolerance.

  2. Galaxy redshift surveys selected by neutral hydrogen using the Five-hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Alan R.; Battye, Richard A.; Davies, Rod D.; Moss, Adam; Wilkinson, Peter N.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of performing a substantial spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey selected via the 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen using the Five-hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) to be built in China. We consider issues related to the estimation of the source counts and optimizations of the survey, and discuss the constraints on cosmological models that such a survey could provide. We find that a survey taking around two years could detect ~107 galaxies with an average redshift of ~0.15 making the survey complementary to those already carried out at optical wavelengths. These conservative estimates have used the z = 0 HI mass function and have ignored the possibility of evolution. The results could be used to constrain Γ = Ωmh to 5 per cent and the spectral index, ns, to 7 per cent independent of cosmic microwave background data. If we also use simulated power spectra from the Planck satellite, we can constrain w to be within 5 per cent of -1.

  3. Electroweak Domain Wall by Hawking Radiation Baryogenesis and Dark Matter from Several Hundred kg Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagatani, Y

    2001-01-01

    We show that a spherical electroweak domain wall is formed around a small black hole and this is a general property of the Hawking radiation in the vacuum of the Standard Model. The wall appears not only for the first order phase transition in the electroweak theory but also for the second order one because the black hole heats up its neighborhood locally by the Hawking radiation in any case. We propose a model for unifying the origin of the baryon number and the cold dark matter in our universe by using properties of the primordial black hole with a mass of several hundred kilograms. The interaction between our wall and the Hawking-radiated-particles can create a baryon number which is proportional to the mass of the black hole as well as the CP broken phase in the extension of the Standard Model. Our model can explain both the baryon-entropy ratio B/S \\sim 10^{-10} and the energy density of the dark matter, provided that the following three conditions are satisfied: (i) the primordial black holes dominate i...

  4. Simultaneous measurement of hundreds of liver proteins: application in assessment of liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N L; Taylor, J; Hofmann, J P; Esquer-Blasco, R; Swift, S; Anderson, N G

    1996-01-01

    Proteins implement most biological functions at the molecular level. As one might expect based on this fact, it appears that the altered functional states associated with toxic effects involve changes in the abundance or structure of proteins. Although numerous specific assays exist to measure changes in the abundance of individual proteins, practical limitations have prevented widespread use of multiple protein assays for the global characterization of toxicity. Recent developments in protein analytical technology are rapidly changing this picture. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, a technique capable of resolving and quantitating hundreds of proteins simultaneously, is becoming an automated, high-throughput tool. In parallel, techniques have been developed that allow the resulting deluge of protein measurements to be organized into a prototype Molecular Effects Database describing xenobiotic effects in rodent liver. This database can detect, classify, and characterize a broad range of liver toxicity mechanisms. It currently contains approximately 10 million protein measurements, including data on the liver effects of 43 compounds, with a further 50 compounds to be added in 1995. Observed effects range from very broad (sex steroids alter levels of 45% of all liver proteins) to very specific (e.g., hepatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors). Companion 2-dimensional databases describing rodent brain and kidney have been initiated, as have linkages to the genomic sequence databases. Assimilation of this approach into research and regulatory toxicology poses an interesting challenge--one that is likely to lead to a radically more sophisticated understanding of toxicity and its biological basis.

  5. Cross-Cultural Industrial Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior: A Hundred-Year Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Aycan, Zeynep; Erez, Miriam; Leung, Kwok

    2017-02-16

    In celebration of the anniversary of the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP), we take a hundred-year journey to examine how the science of cross-cultural industrial/organizational psychology and organizational behavior (CCIO/OB) has evolved, both in JAP and in the larger field. We review broad trends and provide illustrative examples in the theoretical, methodological, and analytic advances in CCIO/OB during 4 main periods: the early years (1917-1949), the middle 20th century (1950-1979), the later 20th century (1980-2000), and the 21st century (2000 to the present). Within each period, we discuss key historical and societal events that influenced the development of the science of CCIO/OB, major trends in research on CCIO/OB in the field in general and JAP in particular, and important milestones and breakthroughs achieved. We highlight pitfalls in research on CCIO/OB and opportunities for growth. We conclude with recommendations for the next 100 years of CC IO/OB research in JAP and beyond. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. ZnO Nanowire-Based Corona Discharge Devices Operated Under Hundreds of Volts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Zhu, Rong; Zong, Xianli

    2016-02-01

    Minimizing the voltage of corona discharges, especially when using nanomaterials, has been of great interest in the past decade or so. In this paper, we report a new corona discharge device by using ZnO nanowires operated in atmospheric air to realize continuous corona discharge excited by hundreds of volts. ZnO nanowires were synthesized on microelectrodes using electric-field-assisted wet chemical method, and a thin tungsten film was deposited on the microchip to enhance discharging performance. The testing results showed that the corona inception voltages were minimized greatly by using nanowires compared to conventional dischargers as a result of the local field enhancement of nanowires. The corona could be continuously generated and self-sustaining. It was proved that the law of corona inception voltage obeyed the conventional Peek's breakdown criterion. An optimal thickness of tungsten film coated over ZnO nanowires was figured out to obtain the lowest corona inception voltage. The ion concentration of the nanowire-based discharger attained 1017/m3 orders of magnitude, which is practicable for most discharging applications.

  7. The coilin interactome identifies hundreds of small noncoding RNAs that traffic through Cajal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machyna, Martin; Kehr, Stephanie; Straube, Korinna; Kappei, Dennis; Buchholz, Frank; Butter, Falk; Ule, Jernej; Hertel, Jana; Stadler, Peter F; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2014-11-06

    Coilin protein scaffolds Cajal bodies (CBs)-subnuclear compartments enriched in small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)-and promotes efficient spliceosomal snRNP assembly. The molecular function of coilin, which is intrinsically disordered with no defined motifs, is poorly understood. We use UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) to determine whether mammalian coilin binds RNA in vivo and to identify targets. Robust detection of snRNA transcripts correlated with coilin ChIP-seq peaks on snRNA genes, indicating that coilin binding to nascent snRNAs is a site-specific CB nucleator. Surprisingly, several hundred small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were identified as coilin interactors, including numerous unannotated mouse and human snoRNAs. We show that all classes of snoRNAs concentrate in CBs. Moreover, snoRNAs lacking specific CB retention signals traffic through CBs en route to nucleoli, consistent with the role of CBs in small RNP assembly. Thus, coilin couples snRNA and snoRNA biogenesis, making CBs the cellular hub of small ncRNA metabolism.

  8. The dJ/dS Ratio Test Reveals Hundreds of Novel Putative Cancer Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Xing, Ke; He, Xionglei

    2015-08-01

    Computational tools with a balanced sensitivity and specificity in identification of candidate cancer drivers are highly desired. In this study, we propose a new statistical test, namely the dJ/dS ratio test, to compute the relative mutation rate of exon/intron junction sites (dJ) to synonymous sites (dS); observation of dJ/dS ratio larger than 1 in cancer indicates positive selection for splicing deregulation, a signature of cancer driver genes. Using this method, we analyzed the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and identified hundreds of novel putative cancer drivers. Interestingly, these genes are highly enriched in biological processes related to the development and maintenance of multicellularity, paralleling a previous finding that cancer evolves back to be unicellular by knocking down the multicellularity-associated genetic network. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A Cost-Effective Approach to Sequence Hundreds of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Joaquin C B; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2016-01-01

    We present a cost-effective approach to sequence whole mitochondrial genomes for hundreds of individuals. Our approach uses small reaction volumes and unmodified (non-phosphorylated) barcoded adaptors to minimize reagent costs. We demonstrate our approach by sequencing 383 Fundulus sp. mitochondrial genomes (192 F. heteroclitus and 191 F. majalis). Prior to sequencing, we amplified the mitochondrial genomes using 4-5 custom-made, overlapping primer pairs, and sequencing was performed on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. After removing low quality and short sequences, 2.9 million and 2.8 million reads were generated for F. heteroclitus and F. majalis respectively. Individual genomes were assembled for each species by mapping barcoded reads to a reference genome. For F. majalis, the reference genome was built de novo. On average, individual consensus sequences had high coverage: 61-fold for F. heteroclitus and 57-fold for F. majalis. The approach discussed in this paper is optimized for sequencing mitochondrial genomes on an Illumina platform. However, with the proper modifications, this approach could be easily applied to other small genomes and sequencing platforms.

  10. Political Ecology in Gabriel Garcia Marquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Mohammed ElSherief

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The roots of ecology prolong profoundly within earlier phases of history, when the naturalistic fabric was first evinced.  Bringing out his On the Origin of Species in 1859, Darwin not merely engendered a biological culmination but also heralded the revolutionary critical canon of naturalism that was virtually a stone thrown in the vast stagnant lake of traditional literature. Via the naturalistic lens, the whole bulk of man’s behavioral attributes are being expounded in terms of milieu and heredity. The mid-1990s witnessed the publication of The Environmental Imagination by Lawrence Buell in 1995, and The Ecocriticism Reader edited by Cheryll Gloffelty and Harold Fromm in 1996, which palpably underpinned ecocriticism as revolving around the inextricable liaison between literature and the physical environment. The political ecology term was coined to further scrutinize relations among people that pertain to nature. The present paper is an endeavor to pursue the ecological tenor of Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s landmark novel, One Hundred Years of Solitude, and how it was admirably exploited to address precarious postcolonial issues. Keywords: Political ecology, Marquez, naturalism, ecocriticism, post-colonialism.

  11. ZnO Nanowire-Based Corona Discharge Devices Operated Under Hundreds of Volts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Zhu, Rong; Zong, Xianli

    2016-12-01

    Minimizing the voltage of corona discharges, especially when using nanomaterials, has been of great interest in the past decade or so. In this paper, we report a new corona discharge device by using ZnO nanowires operated in atmospheric air to realize continuous corona discharge excited by hundreds of volts. ZnO nanowires were synthesized on microelectrodes using electric-field-assisted wet chemical method, and a thin tungsten film was deposited on the microchip to enhance discharging performance. The testing results showed that the corona inception voltages were minimized greatly by using nanowires compared to conventional dischargers as a result of the local field enhancement of nanowires. The corona could be continuously generated and self-sustaining. It was proved that the law of corona inception voltage obeyed the conventional Peek's breakdown criterion. An optimal thickness of tungsten film coated over ZnO nanowires was figured out to obtain the lowest corona inception voltage. The ion concentration of the nanowire-based discharger attained 10(17)/m(3) orders of magnitude, which is practicable for most discharging applications.

  12. The Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Nan, Rendong; Jin, Chengjin; Wang, Qiming; Zhu, Lichun; Zhu, Wenbai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yue, Youling; Qian, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. Its innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realize a huge single dish in the most effective way. FAST also represents Chinese contribution in the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Being the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jump-start many science goals, for example, surveying the neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way and other galaxies, detecting faint pulsars, looking for the first shining stars, hearing the possible signals from other civilizations, etc. The idea of sitting a large spherical dish in a karst depression is rooted in Arecibo telescope. FAST is an Arecibo-type antenna with three outstanding aspects: the karst depression used as the site, which is large to host the 500-meter telescope and deep to allow a zenith angle of 40 degrees; the active main re...

  13. Combination of a higher-tier flow-through system and population modeling to assess the effects of time-variable exposure of isoproturon on the green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Denis; Schaefer, Dieter; Dorgerloh, Michael; Bruns, Eric; Goerlitz, Gerhard; Hammel, Klaus; Preuss, Thomas G; Ratte, Hans Toni

    2012-04-01

    A flow-through system was developed to investigate the effects of time-variable exposure of pesticides on algae. A recently developed algae population model was used for simulations supported and verified by laboratory experiments. Flow-through studies with Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under time-variable exposure to isoproturon were performed, in which the exposure patterns were based on the results of FOrum for Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS) model calculations for typical exposure situations via runoff or drain flow. Different types of pulsed exposure events were realized, including a whole range of repeated pulsed and steep peaks as well as periods of constant exposure. Both species recovered quickly in terms of growth from short-term exposure and according to substance dissipation from the system. Even at a peak 10 times the maximum predicted environmental concentration of isoproturon, only transient effects occurred on algae populations. No modified sensitivity or reduced growth was observed after repeated exposure. Model predictions of algal growth in the flow-through tests agreed well with the experimental data. The experimental boundary conditions and the physiological properties of the algae were used as the only model input. No calibration or parameter fitting was necessary. The combination of the flow-through experiments with the algae population model was revealed to be a powerful tool for the assessment of pulsed exposure on algae. It allowed investigating the growth reduction and recovery potential of algae after complex exposure, which is not possible with standard laboratory experiments alone. The results of the combined approach confirm the beneficial use of population models as supporting tools in higher-tier risk assessments of pesticides.

  14. One Hundred Years of New York City's "Urban Heat Island": Temperature Trends and Public Health Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Goldberg, R.; Kinney, P. L.

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between the historical development of New York City and its effect on the urban climate. Urban "heat islands" (UHI) are created principally by man-made surfaces, including concrete, dark roofs, asphalt lots and roads, which absorb most of the sunlight falling on them and reradiate that energy as heat. Many urban streets have fewer trees and other vegetation to shade buildings, block solar radiation and cool the air by evapotranspiration. The historical development of the NYC heat island effect was assessed in terms of average temperature differences of the city center relative to its surrounding 31-county metropolitan region, comprised of parts of New York State, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Monthly maximum and minimum temperatures for 1900-1997 were obtained from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, the NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University for 24 weather stations within the region that are part of the U.S. Historical Climatology Network. Analysis of annual mean temperatures shows an increasing difference between NYC (Central Park weather station) and its surrounding region over the twentieth century. Analysis of the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization show a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20\\deg C to 3.02\\deg C. A difference of at least 1\\deg C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. There was a significant decrease in the monthly and seasonal variability of the UHI effect over the century. Temperature extremes and summertime heat can create heat stress and other health

  15. Spinal posture and pelvic position in three hundred forty-five elementary school children: a rasterstereographic pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimm Christoph Furian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s posture has been of growing concern due to observations that it seems to be impaired compared to previous generations. So far there is no reference data for spinal posture and pelvic position in healthy children available. Purpose of this pilot study was to determine rasterstereographic posture values in children during their second growth phase. Three hundred and forty-five pupils were measured with a rasterstereographic device in a neutral standing position with hanging arms. To further analyse for changes in spinal posture during growth, the children were divided into 12-month age clusters. A mean kyphotic angle of 47.1°±7.5 and a mean lordotic angle of 42.1°±9.9 were measured. Trunk imbalance in girls (5.85 mm±0.74 and boys (7.48 mm± 0.83 varied only little between the age groups, with boys showing slightly higher values than girls. The trunk inclination did not show any significant differences between the age groups in boys or girls. Girls’ inclination was 2.53°±1.96 with a tendency to decreasing angles by age, therefore slightly smaller compared to boys (2.98°±2.18. Lateral deviation (4.8 mm and pelvic position (tilt: 2.75 mm; torsion: 1.53°; inclination: 19.8°±19.8 were comparable for all age groups and genders. This study provides the first systematic rasterstereographic analysis of spinal posture in children between 6 and 11 years. With the method of rasterstereography a reliable three-dimensional analysis of spinal posture and pelvic position is possible. Spinal posture and pelvic position does not change significantly with increasing age in this collective of children during the second growth phase.

  16. Research on the Characteristics of Full-time Higher Education Researchers in China%我国高等教育学专职研究人员特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 胡颖

    2013-01-01

    对21所高校的246名高等教育学专职研究人员进行调查分析,发现高等教育学专职研究人员在21所院校的数量分布严重不均,年龄分布以中年为主、研究方向呈现院校特色化和宏观化、教育背景多元化和国际化程度普遍较低的特征。为了促进高等教育研究队伍的持续健康发展,需要加强院校之间的沟通交流、提倡微观研究、保持研究人员教育背景的多元化和提高国际化程度。%The investigation and analysis on the 246 full-time higher education researchers of 21 universities show that the number distribution are seriously uneven, and most of researchers are middle-aged. In addition, their research interests present institution ’s characteristics and are macro-oriented, and the diversification of their educational background and the internationalization is not high.In order to promote the sustained and healthy development of higher education research team, it is necessary to strengthen the communication between the institutions,encourage micro research,promote the diversification of the researchers ’educational background and increase the level of internationalization.

  17. The increase in phosphorylation levels of serine residues of protein HSP70 during holding time at 17°C is concomitant with a higher cryotolerance of boar spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Yeste

    Full Text Available Boar-sperm cryopreservation is not usually performed immediately after semen collection, but rather a holding time (HT of 4 h-30 h at 17°C is spent before starting this procedure. Taking this into account, the aim of this study was to go further in-depth into the mechanisms underlying the improving effects of HT at 17°C on boar-sperm cryotolerance by evaluating the effects of two different HTs (3 h and 24 h on overall boar-sperm function and survival before and after cryopreservation. Given that phospho/dephosphorylation mechanisms are of utmost importance in the overall regulation of sperm function, the phosphorylation levels of serine residues (pSer in 30 different sperm proteins after a 3 h- or 24 h-HT period were also assessed. We found that a HT of 24 h contributed to a higher sperm resistance to freeze-thawing procedures, whereas mini-array protein analyses showed that a HT of 24 h induced a significant (P<0.05 increase in pSer (from 100.0±1.8 arbitrary units in HT 3 h to 150.2±5.1 arbitrary units in HT 24 h of HSP70 and, to a lesser extent, in protein kinases GSK3 and total TRK and in the cell-cycle regulatory protein CDC2/CDK1. In the case of HSP70, this increase was confirmed through immunoprecipation analyses. Principal component and multiple regression analyses indicated that a component explaining a percentage of variance higher than 50% in sperm cryotolerance was significantly correlated with pSer levels in HSP70. In addition, from all the parameters evaluated before freeze-thawing, only pSer levels in HSP70 resulted to be able to predict sperm cryotolerance. In conclusion, our results suggest that boar spermatozoa modulate its function during HT, at least partially, by changes in pSer levels of proteins like HSP70, and this is related to a higher cryotolerance.

  18. 'The quicksand of forgetfulness': semantic dementia in One hundred years of solitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascovsky, Katya; Growdon, Matthew E; Pardo, Isela R; Grossman, Scott; Miller, Bruce L

    2009-09-01

    This multidisciplinary article compares the pattern of memory loss described in Gabriel García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude to that exhibited by patients with semantic dementia (SD). In his renowned novel, García Márquez depicts the plight of Macondo, a town struck by the dreaded insomnia plague. The most devastating symptom of the plague is not the impossibility of sleep, but rather the loss of 'the name and notion of things'. In an effort to combat this insidious loss of knowledge, the protagonist, José Arcadio Buendía, 'marked everything with its name: table, chair, clock, door, wall, bed, pan'. 'Studying the infinite possibilities of a loss of memory, he realized that the day might come when things would be recognized by their inscriptions but that no one would remember their use'. The cognitive impairments experienced by Macondo's inhabitants are remarkably similar to those observed in SD, a clinical syndrome characterized by a progressive breakdown of conceptual knowledge (semantic memory) in the context of relatively preserved day-to-day (episodic) memory. First recognized in 1975, it is now considered one of the main variants of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Writing within the realm of magical realism and investigating the power of language as a form of communication, García Márquez provides beautiful descriptions of the loss of 'the name and notion of things' typical of the syndrome. He further speculates on ways to cope with this dissolution of meaning, ranging from 'the spell of an imaginary reality' to José Arcadio's 'memory machine', strategies that resonate with attempts by semantic dementia patients to cope with their disease. Remarkably, García Márquez created a striking literary depiction of collective semantic dementia before the syndrome was recognized in neurology. The novel also provides an inspiring and human account of one town's fight against 'the quicksand of forgetfulness'.

  19. Functional characterization of fifteen hundred transcripts from Ziarat juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Abdul Wahid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziarat juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb is an evergreen and dominant species of Balochistan juniper forests. This forest is providing many benefits to regional ecosystems and surrounding populations. No functional genomics study is reported for this important juniper plant. This research is aimed to characterize the Ziarat juniper functional genome based on the analyses of 1500 transcripts. Methods: Total RNA from shoot of Juniperus excelsa was extracted and subjected for transcriptome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 2000 with the service from Macrogen, Inc., South Korea. The Illumina sequenced data was subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Quality assessment and data filtration was performed for the removal of low-quality reads, ambiguous reads and adaptor sequences. The high-quality clean reads data was deposited in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA at NCBI, and used for downstream processes. Fifteen hundred transcripts were randomly chosen and used for functional characterization. Results: As a result of homology search 80.3% transcripts showed significant similarities and were placed in significant similarities category, 19.3% transcripts showed low similarities and assigned to the ‘‘unclassified’’ category while 0.4% transcripts are defined as no hits. The functional characterization results showed that most (18% of the transcripts are involved in metabolism, followed by 11.7% in transcription and 11.5% as structural protein. 8.8% transcripts are engaged in stress response, whereas the transcripts involved in growth and development constituted 6.7%. Transcripts involved in signal transduction represented 5.6%, while 3.5% facilitating transport and 34.1% are involved in hypothetical functions. Conclusion: The functional annotation data produced in this study will be very useful for future functional genome analysis of Juniperus excelsa.

  20. Vygotsky's Principle "One Step in Learning - One Hundred Steps In Development": From Idea To Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaretsky V.K.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews Lev Vygotsky’s published works to trace the evolution of his understanding of child development. The authors believe that his assumption that one step in learning may mean one hundred steps in development, is as important as the two other key postulates of the cultural-historical theory: the principle that learning precedes development and the concept of zone of proximal development. The authors provide a rationale for utilization of these assumptions in the practice of development-facilitating psychological and educational assistance. A mechanism of this learning-development relationship is hypothesized. The article outlines a multidimensional model of the zone of proximal development illustrating the above mechanism. This model is one of the conceptual tools of the Reflection and Activity Approach helping children overcome learning difficulties and promoting their development. Having given the account of how they proceeded “from the idea to the problem” and “from the idea to the mechanism”, the authors provide case studies showing how this mechanism allows working with learning difficulties to trigger simultaneous improvement in multiple developmental dimensions. The article reports on the experience of running special Summer Schools for children with learning difficulties, implementing the “Chess for General Development” Project, and assisting orphaned children with severe somatic conditions. A case study of a female college student displaying signs of the learned helplessness syndrome is presented. The authors infer that Vygotsky’s idea of a specific relationship between learning and development may be of fundamental theoretical and practical value, especially for working with children with special needs.

  1. Modern Sound of Themes “War” and “Peace” in the Poem "Two Hundred Ten Steps" By R. I. Rozhdestvenskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ya. Sipkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the thematic content of the poem "Two hundred and ten steps" by R.I. Rozhdestvenskiy in the context of the literary process of the 1970s. The scientific novelty of the test material is the first time in the domestic literary study one of the most important poems in the work of R.I.Rozhdestvenskiy. Chapter explores the poem on the themes of war and peace. The article reveals the moral and aesthetic principles of the poet, his attitude to topical issues of global importance.

  2. 安徽省高职高专院校护理专职教师临床实践现状调查分析%Status Quo of Full-time Nursing Teachers' Clinical Practice in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 张秀军; 汪洪杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand status quo of full-time nursing teachers' clinical practice in higher vocational colleges in Anhui province and to provide scientific basis for enhancing quality of teachers' clinical practice. Methods A self-designed questionnaire was applied to survey 124 full-time nursing teachers from 12 higher vocational colleges in Anhui province. Results Of the total, 97 (78.2%)full-time nursing teachers had participated in clinical practice in recent two years. Teachers' cumulative clinical practice time in different age groups in recent two years indicated statistical significance (P=0.010) and they expected to participate in much more clinical practice such as medical treatment, professional study, clinical teaching, nursing management and scientific research besides clinical nursing. Though 90.7% of the teachers were engaged in clinical practice for several months without undertaking teaching task at present, only 43.5% of the teachers preferred this approach. Most teachers expected more factors would be taken into consideration as for practical place. While 94 (96.9%) teachers believed that clinical practice was beneficial to teaching, 123(99.2%) interviewees recognized the necessity of clinical practice, however, only 42 (33.9%) actively participated in the practice. Conclusion There are still many problems existing in clinical practice of full-time nursing teachers in higher vocational colleges. It is important to arrange clinical practice reasonably and scientifically and enhance the teachers ' enthusiasm and initiative so as to ensure the quality of clinical practice.%目的 了解安徽省高职高专院校护理专职教师临床实践现状,为提高教师临床实践质量提供依据.方法 采取自行设计的调查问卷,对安徽省12 所高职高专院校124 名护理专职教师进行调查.结果 近2 年已参加过临床实践的教师有97 名(78.2%).在近2 年临床实践的累计时间上,不同年龄段教师实践时

  3. Survey on animal welfare in nine hundred and forty three Italian dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Peli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The final results of a survey on welfare of dairy cows in 7 Italian Regions are presented. The study has been performed on 943 farms in southern and central Italy to highlight critical and strong points concerning animal welfare in dairy systems, by using direct and indirect criteria. To assess animal welfare, a checklist based on 303 parameters has been used; indirect criteria have been organised in 5 general areas concerning Farm management, Farming and housing systems, Environment, Feeding, Health and hygiene; other resource-based criteria were considered in 5 specific areas for the different productive categories (lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, cows comeback, calves up to 8 weeks and calves between 8 weeks and 6 months; finally, an Indicators section focused on animal based criteria. Parameters have been valued as conforming or not conforming on the basis of the current lesgislation on animal welfare, and in the other cases by the use of a semi-quantitative scale such as poor, satisfactory, good or very good referring to scientific literature and reports by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare panel of the European Food Safety Authority. Among the 249 examined parameters (54 criteria have been valued as descriptive, 15 showed a failure prevalence inferior to 1%; for the remaining parameters, the overall non-compliance prevalence on the whole sample ranged from a maximum of 67% to a minimum of 2%, showing an inverse proportionality correlation with the herd size. One hundred and ten parameters were judged as poor (96 or not in compliance with the rules in force (14 in more than 10% of the examined herds. The most common non-compliance aspects detected in the different areas concern calves management, staff training and prophylaxis programmes; staff training levels were inversely related to failure prevalences in almost all areas. The combination of direct and indirect criteria has allowed to fully embrace recommendations on the

  4. ‘The quicksand of forgetfulness’: semantic dementia in One Hundred Years of Solitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growdon, Matthew E.; Pardo, Isela R.; Grossman, Scott; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    This multidisciplinary article compares the pattern of memory loss described in Gabriel García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude to that exhibited by patients with semantic dementia (SD). In his renowned novel, García Márquez depicts the plight of Macondo, a town struck by the dreaded insomnia plague. The most devastating symptom of the plague is not the impossibility of sleep, but rather the loss of ‘the name and notion of things’. In an effort to combat this insidious loss of knowledge, the protagonist, José Arcadio Buendía, ‘marked everything with its name: table, chair, clock, door, wall, bed, pan’. ‘Studying the infinite possibilities of a loss of memory, he realized that the day might come when things would be recognized by their inscriptions but that no one would remember their use’. The cognitive impairments experienced by Macondo's inhabitants are remarkably similar to those observed in SD, a clinical syndrome characterized by a progressive breakdown of conceptual knowledge (semantic memory) in the context of relatively preserved day-to-day (episodic) memory. First recognized in 1975, it is now considered one of the main variants of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Writing within the realm of magical realism and investigating the power of language as a form of communication, García Márquez provides beautiful descriptions of the loss of ‘the name and notion of things’ typical of the syndrome. He further speculates on ways to cope with this dissolution of meaning, ranging from ‘the spell of an imaginary reality’ to José Arcadio's ‘memory machine’, strategies that resonate with attempts by semantic dementia patients to cope with their disease. Remarkably, García Márquez created a striking literary depiction of collective semantic dementia before the syndrome was recognized in neurology. The novel also provides an inspiring and human account of one town's fight against ‘the quicksand of forgetfulness’. PMID

  5. From Napoleon to Sarkozy: Two Hundred Years of the "Baccalaureat" Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Atia, Samira

    2008-01-01

    In March 17th, 2008, the Baccalaureat exam in France celebrates 200 years since its establishment. The Baccalaureat is the French national examination to complete secondary education and determine admission to higher education. A byproduct of several factors: the strict educational philosophy of the Jesuits, the radical reforms of the French…

  6. Hundred years of history and the future of the Foundation 'Willie Commelin Scholten Phytopathological Laboratory'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, B.; Roosje, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    The past More than a century ago, on December 18th, 1894, the Foundation 'Willie Commelin Scholten Phytopathological Laboratory', in short 'WCS-Foundation' (WCS) , was established in Amsterdam. It was one of the first institutes in the world dedicated to scientific research and higher

  7. After Five Hundred Years...A Significant New Look at Quadratic Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, John W.

    This paper describes "The Migration Method," a new technique for graphing a quadratic function (one of the major foundations of undergraduate mathematics) and finding its zeroes. The method promotes a higher degree of conceptualization, reinforces the concept of symmetry, encourages mental visualization, and strengthens the ability to…

  8. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS IN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS): A REVIEW OF ONE HUNDRED CASES AT "ARZOBISPO LOAYZA" HOSPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe M, Rosario; Valdivia R, Mario; Carrasco E, Juan

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, one hundred health histories of HIV serum positive patients were reviewed using the Elisa and Western Blot techniques at the Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital. Such cases were defined according to Case Definition 1987 CDC/WHO. 70% of HIV serum positive patients showed gastrointestinal symptoms according to the first medical examination. 57% of the patients were younger than 30 years old, most of them were men (men/ women ratio: 2.7/1). 59% of the patients were heterosexual, 26% bisexual, and 15% homosexual. Chronic diarrhea was the main symptom, characterized by watering depositions over 10c/d. Giardia lamblia was isolated in 32% of the cases, while Isospora Belli in 16% and Criptosporidium in 12.5%. The laboratory findings of 7 patients (12.5%) were negative. Patients showed more than 10% weight loss. 10% of the patients had an anorectal disease while 7 of the patients (10%) had an hepatic-billiary disease. The odynophagia and dysphagia were explained by oropharyngeal candidiasis. 2.8% of the patients had acalculous cholecystitis; 2.8% suffered from acute pancreatic disease and 1.4% ascitis. The hepatic biochemistry was affected by the serum albumin reduction, the transaminases increase over 2-3 times compared to normal levels and the alkaline phosphatase, bilirrubina was about 5 mg. The high endoscopic diagnostic was in connection to the candida esophagitis and inflammatory pathology. In proctoscopy, condyloma acuminatum and perianal fistula were the most usual findings. The counting of CD4 leukocytes in 20 patients showed a great reduction of CD4 lymphocytes, in values lesser than 200 cel/mm3. The relation CD4/CD8 goes from 0.01 to 0.91 rates.

  10. Characteristics of perfluorinated amine media for stimulated Brillouin scattering in hundreds of picoseconds pulse compression at 532 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wuliji Hasi; Hang Zhao; Dianyang Lin; Weiming He; Zhiwei Lü

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in perfluorinated amine media and the experimental structure used in hundreds of picoseconds pulse compression at 532 nm are demonstrated.A two-stage SBS pulse compression structure is adopted for this work.The compact double-cell SBS compression structure and the scattering media FC-70 are chosen to compress the incident light from 9.5 to about 1 ns in the first stage.Then,the light is used as the pumping source for the second pulse compression.In the second stage,using a single-cell SBS structure in a pulse compression system,perfluorinated amine media with different phonon lifetimes,such as FC-3283,FC-40,FC-43,and FC-70,are chosen to run the comparative experimental study.The narrowest compressed pulse times obtained are 294,274,277,and 194 ps;they respectively correspond to the above listed media.The average width of the compressed pulse width is 320 ps for FC-3283,with a fluctuation range of 87 ps.For FC-40,the average pulse width is 320 ps,with a fluctuation range of 72 ps.And for FC-43,the average pulse width is 335 ps,with a fluctuation range of 88 ps.However,the average pulse width is only 280 ps for FC-70,with a fluctuation range of 57 ps.The highest energy reflectivity is more than 80% for all of the media.The experimental results show that a two-stage SBS pulse compression system has lower pump energy requirements,thus making it easier to achieve a compressed pulse waveform.The results also show that the shorter the phonon lifetime of the medium,the narrower the obtained compressed pulse width.

  11. Hundred-year changes in the avifauna of the Valley of Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    A. Townsend PETERSON; Adolfo G. Navarro-Sigüenza

    2006-01-01

    Species lists were compiled for the Valley of Mexico from the nineteenth century and from 1950-present. Of a total of 401 species, 228 were documented to be present in both time periods, 111 were detected only in recent observations, and 62 were detected only in the nineteenth century. Composition of species detected in one time period and not the other was similar (aquatic, montane, migratory); however a number of records for the nineteenth century indicate the presence of an aquatic avifaun...

  12. Faculty Satisfaction in Higher Education: A TQM Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Uzma; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Syed, Makhdoom Ali; Rahman, Farah

    2010-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the levels of satisfaction among faculty members in higher education in Pakistan. Five hundred faculty members were surveyed from leading public and private universities through an instrument developed by the authors and 450 were completed and returned. Percentage method was used to analyze and interpret data.…

  13. Faculty Satisfaction in Higher Education: A TQM Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Uzma; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Syed, Makhdoom Ali; Rahman, Farah

    2010-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the levels of satisfaction among faculty members in higher education in Pakistan. Five hundred faculty members were surveyed from leading public and private universities through an instrument developed by the authors and 450 were completed and returned. Percentage method was used to analyze and interpret data.…

  14. Proteomic analysis of a pleistocene mammoth femur reveals more than one hundred ancient bone proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Szklarczyk, Damian Milosz

    2012-01-01

    We used high-sensitivity, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry to shotgun sequence ancient protein remains extracted from a 43 000 year old woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) bone preserved in the Siberian permafrost. For the first time, 126 unique protein accessions, mostly low-abundance...

  15. Hundreds of Area Residents Visit the National Lab Booth at the Annual In The Street Festival | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light-up yo-yos, brightly colored portion plates, and a fast spinner game lured hundreds of area residents to the Frederick National Lab booth at this year’s In The Street festival, where they also heard a message from the lab: Stay healthy through healthy habits.

  16. One hundred years of solitude, accumulation and violence: A comparative historical analysis of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Bedoya Arias (María Eugenia )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis is an analysis of two moments in the Colombian history within a century of difference, where isolation, accumulation and violence interact in a region brought into the worlds’ imaginary by the Colombian novelist Gabriel García Márquez in One Hundred years of Solitude. A valley

  17. One hundred years of solitude, accumulation and violence: A comparative historical analysis of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Bedoya Arias (María Eugenia )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis is an analysis of two moments in the Colombian history within a century of difference, where isolation, accumulation and violence interact in a region brought into the worlds’ imaginary by the Colombian novelist Gabriel García Márquez in One Hundred years of Solitude. A valley betw

  18. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; Wende, van der Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education i

  19. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  20. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  1. Hundred years of genetic structure in a sediment revived diatom population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haernstroem, Karolina; Ellegaard, Marianne; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research on the genetic structure and diversity of populations of a common marine protist and their changes over time. The bloom-forming diatom Skeletonema marinoi was used as a model organism. Strains were revived from anoxic discrete layers of a 210Pb-dated sediment core...... accumulated over more than 100 y, corresponding to >40,000 diatom mitotic generations. The sediment core was sampled from the highly eutrophic Mariager Fjord in Denmark. The genetic structure of S. marinoi was examined using microsatellite markers, enabling exploration of changes through time...... and of the effect of environmental fluctuations. The results showed a stable population structure among and within the examined sediment layers, and a similar genetic structure has been maintained over thousands of generations. However, established populations from inside the fjord were highly differentiated from...

  2. Korean War Logistics, The First One Hundred Days, 25 June 1950 to 2 October 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-16

    delay along the 38th Parallel with subsequent defensive lines along the Ban, Taejon and Andong Rivers. Once the North Koreans attacked, ROK Army...officers soon realized that they had insufficient time to implement their defensive plan due to the swift, tank led, North Korean thrust. The ROK Army was...North Korean attack and asked the United States to appoint the commander for United Nations forces and form a unified command to repel aggression in Korea

  3. THE HUNDRED BILLION DOLLAR BONUS: Global Energy Efficiency Lessons from India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Seema; Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-03-01

    At a time when India and other nations are grappling with myriad energy-related challenges, including unstable, costly power sources and growing greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency offers an alternative at a fraction of the cost of other new sources of energy. A consortium of leading Indian regulators, nongovernmental organizations, and international experts has recognized this opportunity and is working to develop effective policies that will bring significant domestic benefits to India while accelerating the global transition to energy efficiency.

  4. Hundreds of automatic drip counters reveal infiltration water discharge characteristics in Australian caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Coleborn, K.; Mahmud, K.; Markowska, M.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the timing and character of cave drip water discharge is crucial for our understanding of speleothem climate proxies. Since 2010, we have established a long-term, national monitoring program of drip water infiltration onto cave stalagmites using automated Stalagmate© loggers. Five karst regions, from semi-arid to sub-tropical climates, have been instrumented. Over 200 loggers (between 10 and 40 per cave) have collected data on the timing and amount of drip water infiltration, from sites of contrasting limestone geology. Here, we present results demonstrating the timing and characteristics of drip water discharge from 2010 to present. At the semi-arid Cathedral Cave, with a range of depths from 0-40 m, there is a decreasing frequency of recharge events with depth below ground surface. High-intensity, long-duration rainfall events are confirmed to be the primary driver of infiltration events at semi-arid sites, whereas annual rainfall amount is the primary driver at a Mediterranean climate site with high primary porosity. Inter-annual variability in the frequency and relative amount of drip water infiltration is compared to climate forcing variables such as the ENSO and surface temperature. Our cave observatory system helps improve our understanding of the drip water recharge process, drip-water related speleothem proxy records, and provides a baseline monitoring network for diffuse groundwater recharge during a period of climate change.

  5. The needle in the hundred square degree haystack: The hunt for binary neutron star mergers with LIGO and Palomar Transient Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, Leo P

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO and Virgo experiments are poised to detect gravitational waves (GWs) directly for the first time this decade. The ultimate prize will be joint observation of a compact binary merger in both gravitational and electromagnetic channels. However, GW sky locations that are uncertain by hundreds of square degrees will pose a challenge. I describe a real-time detection pipeline and a rapid Bayesian parameter estimation code that will make it possible to search promptly for optical counterparts in Advanced LIGO. Having analyzed a comprehensive population of simulated GW sources, we describe the sky localization accuracy that the GW detector network will achieve as each detector comes online and progresses toward design sensitivity. Next, in preparation for the optical search with the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF), we have developed a unique capability to detect optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Its comparable error regi...

  6. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  7. A Bayesian method to incorporate hundreds of functional characteristics with association evidence to improve variant prioritization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Gagliano

    Full Text Available The increasing quantity and quality of functional genomic information motivate the assessment and integration of these data with association data, including data originating from genome-wide association studies (GWAS. We used previously described GWAS signals ("hits" to train a regularized logistic model in order to predict SNP causality on the basis of a large multivariate functional dataset. We show how this model can be used to derive Bayes factors for integrating functional and association data into a combined Bayesian analysis. Functional characteristics were obtained from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE, from published expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL, and from other sources of genome-wide characteristics. We trained the model using all GWAS signals combined, and also using phenotype specific signals for autoimmune, brain-related, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. The non-phenotype specific and the autoimmune GWAS signals gave the most reliable results. We found SNPs with higher probabilities of causality from functional characteristics showed an enrichment of more significant p-values compared to all GWAS SNPs in three large GWAS studies of complex traits. We investigated the ability of our Bayesian method to improve the identification of true causal signals in a psoriasis GWAS dataset and found that combining functional data with association data improves the ability to prioritise novel hits. We used the predictions from the penalized logistic regression model to calculate Bayes factors relating to functional characteristics and supply these online alongside resources to integrate these data with association data.

  8. Detecting one-hundred-year environmental changes in Western China using seven-year repeat photography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai Chen

    Full Text Available Due to its diverse, wondrous plants and unique topography, Western China has drawn great attention from explorers and naturalists from the Western World. Among them, Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 -1930, known as 'Chinese' Wilson, travelled to Western China five times from 1899 to 1918. He took more than 1,000 photos during his travels. These valuable photos illustrated the natural and social environment of Western China a century ago. Since 1997, we had collected E.H. Wilson's old pictures, and then since 2004, along the expedition route of E.H. Wilson, we took 7 years to repeat photographing 250 of these old pictures. Comparing Wilson's photos with ours, we found an obvious warming trend over the 100 years, not only in specific areas but throughout the entire Western China. Such warming trend manifested in phenology changes, community shifts and melting snow in alpine mountains. In this study, we also noted remarkable vegetation changes. Out of 62 picture pairs were related to vegetation change, 39 indicated vegetation has changed to the better condition, 17 for degraded vegetation and six for no obvious change. Also in these photos at a century interval, we found not only rapid urbanization in Western China, but also the disappearance of traditional cultures. Through such comparisons, we should not only be amazed about the significant environmental changes through time in Western China, but also consider its implications for protecting environment while meeting the economic development beyond such changes.

  9. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANTIT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrences of non-indigenous marine molluscs in Tunisia are reviewed, based booth on a literature survey and on original material. Species are accepted as established if there are two independent reports, either geographically separate or at least one month apart in time. On these grounds, 14 species are accepted (12 alien and 2 expanding their range from elsewhere in the Mediterranean, 3 aliens need confirmation but are likely to meet the standards for acceptation on a short future, and 5 records are rebutted or questioned. Two more species may be considered as cryptogenic, the reports are reliable but it is not clear indication that they are not indigenous. Two of the alien species are reported for the first time in Tunisian waters: the nudibranch Polycerella emertoni qualifies as established, and the bivalve Anadara transversa is tentatively identified from a juvenile live-taken specimen, which awaits further confirmation.The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  10. Happiness in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms ‘happiness’ and ‘satisfaction’ interchangeably as if one were tantamount to the other, such conflation being due to the move towards consumerism within higher education and the marketization of the sector. Wh...

  11. American Higher Education in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at…

  12. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

  13. Higher physics for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Chmabers, Paul; Moore, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Higher Physics for CfE provides complete coverage of the latest SQA syllabus for the Revised Higher (for examination 2012 onwards), and is also tailored specifically to the extended requirements, teaching approaches and syllabus outlines detailed in the Higher revisions for Curriculum for Excellence. It will therefore be appropriate for all new Higher Physics syllabus requirements from 2012 onwards. Each section of the book matches a unit of the CfE syllabus; each chapter corresponds to a content area. The text is composed of three units: Our Dynamic Universe, Particles and Waves, and Electric

  14. Higher Topos Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lurie, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Higher category theory is generally regarded as technical and forbidding, but part of it is considerably more tractable: the theory of infinity-categories, higher categories in which all higher morphisms are assumed to be invertible. In Higher Topos Theory, Jacob Lurie presents the foundations of this theory, using the language of weak Kan complexes introduced by Boardman and Vogt, and shows how existing theorems in algebraic topology can be reformulated and generalized in the theory's new language. The result is a powerful theory with applications in many areas of mathematics. The book's firs

  15. Introns in higher plant genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The intron is an important component of eukaryotic gene. Extensive studies have been conducted to get a better understanding of its structure and function. This paper presents a brief review of the structure and function of introns in higher plant genes. It is shown that higher plant introns possess structural properties shared by all eukaryotic introns, however, they also exhibit a striking degree of diversity. The process of intron splicing in higher plant genes involves interaction between multiple cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors, such as 5′ splicing site, 3′ splicing site and many protein factors. The process of intron splicing is an important level at which gene expression is regulated. Especially alternative splicing of intron can regulate time and space of gene expression. In addition, some introns in higher plant genes also regulate gene expression by affecting the pattern of gene expression, enhancing the level of gene expression and driving the gene expression.

  16. ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF PUBLIC COMPANIES IN URUGUAY: THEIR EVOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bertino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines two interrelated approaches to examine the evolution of the state as entrepreneur in Uruguay over its century of existence. One of them uses qualitative sources to reconstruct its development, identifying two periods in this evolution; these coincide with the different development models that the country and the world have adopted since the Thirties. During the first one the state progressively expanded its functions and the expansion of public companies played an important role. Since the Seventies, a liberal model has predominated, based on the reform of the companies (or the privatization placing more importance on efficiency and profitability. The second approach analyzes the time series of several important variables regarding the performance of the primary non-financial public companies (NFPC (employment, production, labor productivity, value-added as a proportion of GDP and profit results versus net transfers from the government.

  17. Generation of Nanoliter Droplets on Demand at Hundred-Hz Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Jakiela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a precision micropump for generation of precisely metered micro-aliquots of liquid at high rates. The use of custom designed piezoelectric valves positioned externally to the microfluidic chip allows for on-demand formation of micro-droplets with online control of their individual volumes from nLs to μLs at frequencies up to 400 Hz. The system offers precision of administering volumes of 1% and of time of emission of <0.5 ms. The use of a piezoelectric actuator provides two distinct vistas for controlling the volume of the droplets—either by digital control of the “open” interval or by analogue tuning of the lumen of the valve. Fast and precise generation of droplets make this system a perfect constituent module for microfluidic high-speed combinatorial screening schemes.

  18. Sto godina Teorije redova čekanja / A hundred years of the Queueing Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša V. Nikolić

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan nastanak i razvoj Teorije redova čekanja, poznate i kao Teorija masovnog opsluživanja. Opisan je i istorijsko-tehnološki kontekst vremena u kojem je došlo do publikovanja prvih radova u oblasti koja će se kasnije razviti u samostalnu naučnu disciplinu. U 2009. godini Teorija redova čekanja navršava čitav vek od svog nastanka. / The paper presents a short review of histrorical development of the Queueing Theory, also known as Theory of Waiting Lines or Theory of Mass Servicing. We described historical and technological conditions at the time when first Queueing Theory papers were published. The motivation for this report comes from fact that the year 2009 is the 100th birthday of this theory.

  19. A political project by instruction: a hundred years of the Pastoral Letter of D. Leme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Corrêa Martins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rereading of the centennial Pastoral Letter of greeting from D. Leme to diocesans in the Archdiocese of Olinda, in 1916, allows to understand, from historical and historiographical aspects, the composition between ultramontanism and traditionalism in the text of strong politicalbias, in which the archbishop intended a project of religious instruction for the catholicpeople. The analysis points out some aspects of the text in the educational and ideological issues of the period of its production, highlighting the separation between education and instruction in the text. The theoretical framework in the concept of temporality of Paul Ricoeur, beyond the beddings of the philosophy of the history of this author, for its phenomenological entail, allowed a specific understanding of proposals of the archbishop. It was about a bibliographical study in which the Pastoral Letter is a document and a vestige of that time, studied along with some papal encyclicals, also treated documentarily.

  20. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running - Past trends and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Newman, Alexandra; Whitmore, Ceri; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Sprint and distance running have experienced remarkable performance improvements over the past century. Attempts to forecast running performances share an almost similarly long history but have relied so far on relatively short data series. Here, we compile a comprehensive set of season-best performances for eight Olympically contested running events. With this data set, we conduct (1) an exponential time series analysis and (2) a power-law experience curve analysis to quantify the rate of past performance improvements and to forecast future performances until the year 2100. We find that the sprint and distance running performances of women and men improve exponentially with time and converge at yearly rates of 4% ± 3% and 2% ± 2%, respectively, towards their asymptotic limits. Running performances can also be modelled with the experience curve approach, yielding learning rates of 3% ± 1% and 6% ± 2% for the women's and men's events, respectively. Long-term trends suggest that: (1) women will continue to run 10-20% slower than men, (2) 9.50 s over 100 m dash may only be broken at the end of this century and (3) several middle- and long-distance records may be broken within the next two to three decades. The prospects of witnessing a sub-2 hour marathon before 2100 remain inconclusive. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as forecasting human behaviour is intrinsically uncertain. The future season-best sprint and distance running performances will continue to scatter around the trends identified here and may yield unexpected improvements of standing world records.

  1. Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-12-01

    The capture of transient scenes at high imaging speed has been long sought by photographers, with early examples being the well known recording in 1878 of a horse in motion and the 1887 photograph of a supersonic bullet. However, not until the late twentieth century were breakthroughs achieved in demonstrating ultrahigh-speed imaging (more than 105 frames per second). In particular, the introduction of electronic imaging sensors based on the charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology revolutionized high-speed photography, enabling acquisition rates of up to 107 frames per second. Despite these sensors' widespread impact, further increasing frame rates using CCD or CMOS technology is fundamentally limited by their on-chip storage and electronic readout speed. Here we demonstrate a two-dimensional dynamic imaging technique, compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), which can capture non-repetitive time-evolving events at up to 1011 frames per second. Compared with existing ultrafast imaging techniques, CUP has the prominent advantage of measuring an x-y-t (x, y, spatial coordinates; t, time) scene with a single camera snapshot, thereby allowing observation of transient events with temporal resolution as tens of picoseconds. Furthermore, akin to traditional photography, CUP is receive-only, and so does not need the specialized active illumination required by other single-shot ultrafast imagers. As a result, CUP can image a variety of luminescent--such as fluorescent or bioluminescent--objects. Using CUP, we visualize four fundamental physical phenomena with single laser shots only: laser pulse reflection and refraction, photon racing in two media, and faster-than-light propagation of non-information (that is, motion that appears faster than the speed of light but cannot convey information). Given CUP's capability, we expect it to find widespread applications in both fundamental and applied sciences, including biomedical

  2. Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V

    2014-12-04

    The capture of transient scenes at high imaging speed has been long sought by photographers, with early examples being the well known recording in 1878 of a horse in motion and the 1887 photograph of a supersonic bullet. However, not until the late twentieth century were breakthroughs achieved in demonstrating ultrahigh-speed imaging (more than 10(5) frames per second). In particular, the introduction of electronic imaging sensors based on the charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology revolutionized high-speed photography, enabling acquisition rates of up to 10(7) frames per second. Despite these sensors' widespread impact, further increasing frame rates using CCD or CMOS technology is fundamentally limited by their on-chip storage and electronic readout speed. Here we demonstrate a two-dimensional dynamic imaging technique, compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), which can capture non-repetitive time-evolving events at up to 10(11) frames per second. Compared with existing ultrafast imaging techniques, CUP has the prominent advantage of measuring an x-y-t (x, y, spatial coordinates; t, time) scene with a single camera snapshot, thereby allowing observation of transient events with temporal resolution as tens of picoseconds. Furthermore, akin to traditional photography, CUP is receive-only, and so does not need the specialized active illumination required by other single-shot ultrafast imagers. As a result, CUP can image a variety of luminescent--such as fluorescent or bioluminescent--objects. Using CUP, we visualize four fundamental physical phenomena with single laser shots only: laser pulse reflection and refraction, photon racing in two media, and faster-than-light propagation of non-information (that is, motion that appears faster than the speed of light but cannot convey information). Given CUP's capability, we expect it to find widespread applications in both fundamental and applied sciences, including

  3. "I Don't Make out How Important It Is or Anything": Identity and Identity Formation by Part-Time Higher Education Students in an English Further Education College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmond, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers in England have recently, in common with other Anglophone countries, encouraged the provision of higher education within vocational Further Education Colleges. Policy documents have emphasised the potential contribution of college-based students to widening participation: yet the same students contribute in turn to the difficulties of…

  4. Demonstration of an ultraviolet stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse compressed hundred picosecond laser in LiB3O5 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenxu; Wang, Yulei; Lu, Zhiwei; Jiang, Li; Yuan, Hang; Liu, Zhaohong

    2017-08-01

    A hundred picosecond ultraviolet (UV) laser is demonstrated with a pulse duration of less than 200 ps and peak power of 0.6 GW. With a hundred picosecond stimulated Brillouin scattering compressed pulse as the fundamental light, the UV output at 355 nm is obtained by extra-cavity sum-frequency-mixing in two LiB3O5 crystals. Maximum UV energy was 100 mJ when the incident energy was 280 mJ, yielding an optical-to-optical efficiency of 35.7%. This result is of interest for the generation of high energy sub-nanosecond UV lasers which finds applications in shock ignition and industrial processing.

  5. On means of transport of Danish veterinarians during the last two hundred years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Ivan; Kristiansen, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    For almost 20 years the authors have been selecting and editing the material referring to the means of transport which Danish veterinarians used in the 18th, 19th and 20th century. The source material contains memoirs, advertisements from veterinary medical journals, obituaries and other sources, based on which a 210-page book in the Danish language has been published. The article presents an abridged version of this book. In Denmark, the first veterinarians rendered their services at the time when this profession had not yet established itself. They were relatively poor and very often they had to walk even 15 to 20 km per day in order to visit two or three farms, where their professional help was needed. In the first half of the 19th century, the economic situation of Danish veterinarians improved, so they could afford a horse of their own. From the second half of the 19th century, the gig, a light two-wheel vehicle drawn by one horse, was in use. At the end of the 19th century, bicycles and motor-bicycles were slowly gaining ground. The gig, however, continued to be the main means of transport, because it was cheap and safe. In the 20th century, the automobile era began, but World War I prevented the widespread use of cars due to the shortage of petrol, rubber parts and the like. After the war, automobiles came into common use both in medical and veterinary practice. Only in hard winters with much snow, horses and sledges were coming to the fore again. World War II once again created the shortage of petrol and rubber tyres, so horses and gas generators were in demand. After the war, various car models completely dominated the veterinary practice, cars with built-in shelves for medicines, instruments and other medical supplies in particular. The telephone was a great help and of service to veterinarians, because many of long trips to clients were not necessary any more, thanks to the simple communication over the phone. Veterinarians were often among the first

  6. [1913: A hundred years ago, the Society of the History of Pharmacy was born].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Thierry

    2014-10-01

    The "Société d'histoire de la pharmacie" was chronologically the first society for the history of pharmacy in the world. It was initiated by a triumvirate : Eugene-Humbert Guitard (1884-1976), a young graduate of the "Ecole des chartes", Charles Buchet (1848-1933), director of an important pharmaceutical cooperative named "Pharmacie central de France", and Paul Dorveaux (1851-1938), the librarian of the Superior School of Pharmacy of Paris. Those three men were perfectly complementary: the pharmacist Buchet was the "financial", the doctor Dorveaux was the "strategist" and Guitard was in charge of the practical realization. To carry out this project, they appealed to men of good will. Finally, on February 1, 1913, seventy founding members gave birth to the "Societe d'histoire de la pharmacie". These founders came from diverse backgrounds. Some of them, such Dorveaux, belonged to the "Société française d'histoire de la medecine", founded ten years ago. Others were members of the Supervisory Committee of the "Pharmacie centrale de France". A third group consisted of university teachers, as Leon Guignard, the former director of the Superior School of Pharmacy of Paris. There was also some archivists and writers, for example Camille Bloch, Ferdinand Brunot and, of course, Eugene-Humbert Guitard. The largest contingent was made up of French historians and collectors, like Antoine Balland and Charles-Henri Fialon. There was also four foreign founders: the Danish John William Schibbye Johnsson (1868-1929), the American Edward Kremers (1865-1941), and the Germans Hermann Emil Schelenz (1848-1922) and Karl Sudhoff (1853-1938). All of them were correspondents and friends of Paul Dorveaux. As Guitard wrote in 1938, Dorveaux office was, at that time, the "world center" of the studies ofhistory of pharmacy. Morever, according Guitard, the new group could have be called "Societe internationale d'histoire de la pharmacie". The term "international" seemed unfortunately too

  7. First-trimester transabdominal multifetal pregnancy reduction: a report of two hundred completed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, R L; Lynch, L; Lapinski, R; Bergh, P

    1993-07-01

    Multifetal pregnancy reduction has been proposed as a way to reduce the risk of preterm delivery in women who conceive three or more fetuses. This communication presents the outcome of 200 consecutive multifetal pregnancies in which reduction to a smaller number of fetuses was accomplished. All of the procedures were performed in the first trimester by the transabdominal injection of potassium chloride into the thoraces of those fetuses that underwent feticide. All of the pregnancies have been completed and outcome data have been obtained in every case. At the time of the procedure 88 women had triplets, 89 had quadruplets, 16 had quintuplets, and 7 had from 6 to 9 fetuses. These pregnancies were reduced to 189 sets of twins, 5 sets of triplets, and 6 singletons. Reductions to triplets were done at the patient's request, and reductions to singletons were only done for medical indications. There were no cases of chorioamnionitis or other maternal complications attributable to the procedure. A total of 181 women were delivered of one or more live infants after 24 weeks' gestation, and 19 (9.5%) lost all of their fetuses before that time. The mean gestational age for all women delivered after 24 weeks was 35.7 weeks. The mean gestational age at delivery varied inversely with the initial number of fetuses, from 36.1 weeks for women who presented with triplets to 33.8 weeks for those who had 6 or more fetuses, and this trend was statistically significant. Sixteen of the 19 complete pregnancy losses occurred > 4 weeks after the reduction procedure had been performed. The loss rates were 7.9% for those who presented with 3 or 4 fetuses, 12.5% for those with 5, and 42.9% for those with > or = 6. This trend was statistically significant. Two neonates died in the first week of life and one died at 10 months of age as a consequence of the sequelae of severe prematurity. Only two surviving infants have shown evidence of chronic morbidity related to early delivery, and all of

  8. Higher Education's Caste System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  9. Hypermedia and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Jay L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses changes in higher education that are resulting from the use of hypermedia. Topics addressed include the structure of traditional texts; a distributed model for academic communication; independent learning as a model for higher education; skills for hypermedia literacy; database searching; information retrieval; authoring skills; design…

  10. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  11. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  12. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  13. Consumerism in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mark

    1973-01-01

    In considering consumerism in higher education, the student becomes the consumer,'' the university the corporation,'' and higher education the education industry.'' Other members of the education fraternity become investors, management, workers, direct consumers, and indirect consumers. This article proposes that it behooves the student to…

  14. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, J. I. Burgos; Feliu, Elisenda

    2012-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov co...

  15. One-hundred-nm-scale electronic structure and transport calculations of organic polymers on the K computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imachi, Hiroto; Yokoyama, Seiya; Kaji, Takami; Abe, Yukiya; Tada, Tomofumi; Hoshi, Takeo

    2016-12-01

    One-hundred-nm-scale electronic structure calculations were carried out on the K supercomputer by our original simulation code ELSES (http://www.elses.jp/) The present paper reports preliminary results of transport calculations for condensed organic polymers. Large-scale calculations are realized by novel massively parallel order-N algorithms. The transport calculations were carried out as a theoretical extension for the quantum wavepacket dynamics simulation. The method was applied to a single polymer chain and condensed polymers.

  16. Effect of conductive screens on the stabilization of plasma channels with currents of hundreds kAmps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, V. D.; Bochkov, D. V.; Krivosheev, S. I.; Adamian, Yu. E.

    2016-12-01

    Based on experimental data, we analyzed the results of the influence of external conductive shield on stabilization of plasma channels in high-power pseudospark switches—thyratrons TDI-type. Both no-ferrous and ferrous shields are tested. The research is a part of a work on improvement of switching capabilities of thyratrons capable of transferring currents up to hundreds kA with switching energy more than 50 kJ.

  17. One hundred years of population ecology: Successes, failures and the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Charles J

    2015-05-01

    Population ecology is the most mature of the three subdisciplines of ecology partly because it has a solid mathematical foundation and partly because it can address the primary questions of distribution and abundance with experimental protocols. Yet there is much left to do to integrate our population knowledge into community and ecosystem ecology to help address the global issues of food security and the conservation of biodiversity. Many different approaches are now being developed to bring about this integration and much more research will be necessary to decide which if any will be most useful in achieving our goals of explaining the changes we see in the distribution and abundance of animals and plants. Food web ecology would appear to be the best approach at present because it uses the detailed information of the population ecology of particular species in combination with data on consumer-resource interactions to apply to the applied problems of biodiversity conservation, food security, pest management and disease prevention. If we can use our understanding of population ecology to address the practical problems of our time in a creative way, we will benefit both the human population and the Earth's biodiversity. Much remains to be done. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. One Hundred Years of the Journal of Applied Psychology: Background, Evolution, and Scientific Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chen, Gilad; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-02-16

    To launch this Special Issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology celebrating the 1st century of the journal we conducted a review encompassing the background of the founding of the journal; a quantitative assessment of its evolution across the century; and an examination of trends examining article type, article length, authorship patterns, supplemental materials, and research support. The journal was founded in March of 1917 with hopeful optimism about the potential of psychology being applied to practical problems could enhance human happiness, well-being, and effectiveness. Our quantitative content assessment using both keyword frequencies and latent semantic analyses of raw content, in both bottom-up (corpus driven) and top-down modes (analyst driven), converged to document an evolution ranging from a broad and exploratory applied psychology to a more focused industrial psychology to an industrial and organizational psychology to an organizational psychology. With respect to other trends, during the first 4 decades 20 to 30% of journal items were book reviews, which then abruptly ceased in the mid-1950s. Articles have grown increasingly longer over time. Author teams are increasingly larger, and sole authored articles are vanishingly small in frequency. The use of supplemental materials and articles reporting research support have surged dramatically in the most recent period. Across the various foci we examined, our review portrays the evolution of the journal as reflecting the development of a mature, focused, and cumulative scientific discipline addressing psychological science applied to work and organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Trampoline training injuries--one hundred and ninety-five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, A.; Schwartzbach, A. L.; Paulev, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    In 198 people 201 trampoline injuries are analysed. All except three adults were re-examined, following an observation period of one to four years. School children (145) represented the major part of the 195 persons re-examined. Handling the large trampoline injured 21 of the 145 school children and six children at clubs. Injuries of a permanent nature were found in 49 of the 195 who were re-examined. The biomechanics and physiology of trampoline jumping is evaluated. Mismatch of a multitude of sensory impulses (visual, tactile, others) with impulses from the vestibular apparatus converging towards the orientation centres of the brain, may result in disorientation and then in the inadequate motor reactions actually seen at the time of the trampoline accidents. A G-induced split second loss of consciousness is another possible explanation of the trampoline accident. More secure procedures than trampolining as a school-sport and recreational activity are recommended. Images p151-a p151-b p151-c PMID:7272659

  20. Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Sun, Jessica Y; Bonnevie, Erika; Cummins, Sharon E; Gamst, Anthony; Yin, Lu; Lee, Madeleine

    2014-07-01

    E-cigarettes are largely unregulated and internet sales are substantial. This study examines how the online market for e-cigarettes has changed over time: in product design and in marketing messages appearing on websites. Comprehensive internet searches of English-language websites from May-August 2012 and December 2013-January 2014 identified brands, models, flavours, nicotine strengths, ingredients and product claims. Brands were divided into older and newer groups (by the two searches) for comparison. By January 2014 there were 466 brands (each with its own website) and 7764 unique flavours. In the 17 months between the searches, there was a net increase of 10.5 brands and 242 new flavours per month. Older brands were more likely than newer brands to offer cigalikes (86.9% vs. 52.1%, pproduct versatility. These results can serve as a benchmark for future research on the impact of upcoming regulations on product design and advertising messages of e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Bevacizumab for advanced breast cancer: hope, hype, and hundreds of headlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Michael; Ray, Monali; Fung, Christina; Booth, Christopher M; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Clemons, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    On February 22, 2008, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval for the use of bevacizumab (Avastin) in metastatic breast cancer. Based on subsequent clinical trials, this approval was revoked on November 18, 2011. In this study, we categorize and analyze the newspaper reports related to bevacizumab's use in advanced breast cancer. Methods. Using the Factiva media database, we reviewed all newspaper reports published in North America from January 4, 2002, to January 4, 2013, containing the words "breast cancer" and "Avastin," or "bevacizumab." Articles were classified as pre-approval (January 4, 2002-February 21, 2008), approval (February 22, 2008-November 17, 2011), or post-approval loss (November 18, 2011-January 4, 2013). Information regarding benefits, side effects, costs, interviewees, and article tone and theme were abstracted from each article by two independent reviewers. Differences among the three study phases were compared using the chi square analysis. Results. A total of 359 articles met study inclusion criteria. The number of reports having a positive headline tone and/or positive article tone declined with each study period. The proportion of articles discussing side effects and financial costs increased, whereas those discussing efficacy decreased with each study period. Drug representatives were most likely to be quoted in newspaper articles prior to bevacizumab's approval. Conclusion. Media reports are a common source of medical information for patients, practitioners, and policy makers. We observed substantial fluidity of media reports over time.

  2. One hundred years of discrimination research in the Journal of Applied Psychology: A sobering synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Adrienne; Hebl, Mikki; King, Eden

    2017-03-01

    Employment discrimination-a legal, social, moral, and practical problem-has been a persistent focus of narrow scholarship in the Journal of Applied Psychology since its inception. Indeed, this article identifies the environmental characteristics, conceptual underpinnings, dominant methodologies, research questions and findings across 508 articles published on discrimination in the journal over the last 100 years. Emergent themes document signs of stability and change in 3 eras: an era wherein discrimination research was itself discriminatory (1917-1969), the heyday of discrimination research (1970-1989), and an era of unsteady progress (1990-2014). This synthesis suggests that, although increasingly sophisticated methodological approaches have been applied to this topic, the targets of focus and theories driving research have largely been static. Additionally, research published on discrimination in the Journal of Applied Psychology has often trailed too far behind the times. Specific recommendations for advancing the psychological study of employment discrimination in applied contexts are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    . With regard to quality assurance and accountability in higher education special attention should be given to the values pursued and be careful to balance between immediate, single-value efficiency and sustainable development and a wider-range of values that higher education serves.......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  4. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...... requires higher education institutions to continuously demonstrate and improve performance, and which also provides new systems of rewards and sanctions. However, the complex impacts of quality assurance policies have shown a need to further understand the quality issue in higher education. This book...

  5. Review and Reflection on the Religious Studies of the Qiang during the Past One Hundred Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linrong

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews more than 150 articles and books which research Qiang religion , and divides research of Qiang religioninto three pe-riods. Ⅰ.1910-1949:research on polytheistic be-liefs The period from 1910 to 1949 was a time dur-ing which Western anthropologists were searching for the Qiang ’ s religious culture .Characterisitc of this period was a bias towards descriptive eth-nography ;doing fieldwork related to religious cul-ture; and describing , recording or even recon-structing Qiang religious culture . Ⅱ.1950-1980: a time when fieldwork re-lated to religious customs stagnated From 1950 to 1980, almost all the research on the Qiang ’ s religious beliefs was based on the theoretical principle that “Religion is the opiate of the people”.We can see that all the works pro-duced during this period illustrated this principle . Ⅲ.1981 -2010: a period for investigation and sorting out the white stone belief system and scriptures 1.Research on the belief system of the white stone The representative work of this period was the Mysterious Worship of the White Stone by Wang Kang et al. in 1992. The authors transformed Qiang myths related to Heaven , Earth , nature , and hero into the origin of the religious belief sys-tem, and confirmed their social function .This pro-vided a new way of thinking in the studies on Qiang religion.In addition, there were archaeolog-ical interpretations regarding the study of the origin of the “white stone worship”. 2) Studies on religious rituals The Qiang between the Han and Tibetan by Wang Mingke discusses the relationship between the religious rituals and power , and the relation-ship between powers .It could be said that Wang Mingke ’ s research has expanded and deepened the vision of studies on the workshop of the moun-tain god. 3 ) Studies on community religion In the Study on Qiang History and Culture ed-ited by Lu Ding and Gong Tengyuan , there is a chapter that specially focuses on a discussion of Qiang

  6. Safety of over twelve hundred infant male circumcisions using the Mogen clamp in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa R Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several sub-Saharan African countries plan to scale-up infant male circumcision (IMC for cost-efficient HIV prevention. Little data exist about the safety of IMC in East and southern Africa. We calculated adverse event (AE rate and risks for AEs associated with introduction of IMC services at five government health facilities in western Kenya. METHODS: AE data were analyzed for IMC procedures performed between September, 2009 and November, 2011. Healthy infants aged ≤ 2 months and weighing ≥ 2.5 kg were eligible for IMC. Following parental consent, trained clinicians provided IMC services free of charge under local anesthesia using the Mogen clamp. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to explore AE risk factors. FINDINGS: A total of 1,239 IMC procedures were performed. Median age of infants was 4 days (IQR=1, 16. The overall AE rate among infants reviewed post-operatively was 2.7% (18/678; 95%CI: 1.4, 3.9. There was one severe AE involving excision of a small piece of the lateral aspect of the glans penis. Other AEs were mild or moderate and were treated conservatively. Babies one month of age or older were more likely to have an AE (OR 3.20; 95%CI: 1.23, 8.36. AE rate did not differ by nurse versus clinical officer or number of previous procedures performed. CONCLUSION: IMC services provided in Kenyan Government hospitals in the context of routine IMC programming have AE rates comparable to those in developed countries. The optimal time for IMC is within the first month of life.

  7. [Over one hundred year sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea, Malaysia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xin-Hong; Li, Yong-Yu; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Li, He-Yang; Yin, Ming-Duan

    2009-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment core collected from Langkawi Island of the Andaman Sea, Malaysia were determined by GC/MS, the vertical variations of concentration and distributions of PAHs were investigated. In combining with 210Pb-dating, the PAHs sedimentary record in the last 100 years was reconstructed and their possible sources were also discussed. The sigmaPAH concentration ranged from 13.2-60.1 ng x g(-1) in the whole sedimentary section (0-56 cm) with the dominant compounds of phenanthrene, naphthalene and perylene. The sediments contaminated to a lesser extent comparing with the surrounding waters. Before the 1920s, the concentrations of PAHs were considered to be the background level, which was implied from the natural inputs. The historical records of PAHs in the core showed that two distinct peaks which represented the input time of 1960s and 1980s, respectively, inferred that there were some relatively dramatically land-based inputs, and human activities leaded a clear impact to these waters during these periods. Furthermore, PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated that PAHs in the core sediments were mainly of pyrolytic origin (combustion), accompanied with minor petroleum origin. These were related with agriculture, industry, ocean import and export, and shipping activities in the surrounding regions. Meanwhile as the vital communication line, the marine transportation of the Strait of Malacca had influenced the environmental quality of the Andaman Sea. Meanwhile, based on the sedimentary record, PAHs concentrations were found to correlate positively with humanism activities and socioeconomic development (Gross Domestic Production) in the surrounding regions.

  8. Six hundred years of agricultural activity in the Gorce Mountains (Polish Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucała, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The role of human activity on agricultural land use were studied in the Ochotnica village (105 km2) with Jaszcze and Jamne catchments (the Gorce Mountains in Polish Carpathians) from the beginning of human settlement to present-day with special emphasise on the period 1846-2009. The visual interpretation of cadastral maps and air photos, combined with palynological and radiocarbon data as well as analysis of historical and census reports indicates more permanent conversion of land-cover of the Gorce Mountains were started by the expansion of Wallachian shepherds at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. In the years 1846-2009, there was an increase in the forest area of Ochotnica by 77%, and in the Jaszcze and Jamne catchment by 29% and 43%, respectively. The arable land decreased in that period by 94% in both catchments. The period of 163 years shows diverging trends and dynamics of land use, referring to the three stages of the socio-economic development observed in the Polish Carpathians. Until World War II, agriculture was the main source of income of the growing rural population. The contribution of the agricultural land was approximately 70% in the 1930s., reaching the highest level in the history of human activity in the Gorce Mountains. After World War II, because of a shortage of food in the communist economy, the pressure on land cultivation resulted in the keep of the land use structure inherited from the past. The transition from the communist economy to a free market after 1989 and the accession of Poland to the European Union, forced a rapid increase in forest area at the expense of the agricultural land. They were the most significant land use changes from the time of the Wallachians' colonization of the Gorce Mountains. The changes in land use contributed to a decrease in the intensity of soil erosion on the slopes and an increase of channel incision in the both streams and Ochotnica river, draining the area of 107.6 km2 of the Gorce Mountains

  9. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    ), an ash content ranging from 0.8 and 7.4%, an average gravimetric water content of 26.6±7.7 gwater gdrypeat-1, and a pH generally increasing with depth (from 4.1 to 7.2). The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±4%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 1.1% (avg., 0.5±0.1%). Main atomic ratios (C/N, H/C and O/C) and FT-IR spectra seem to confirm what found during the visual inspection of the core, i.e., Sphagnum material so well preserved that it is hard to classify it as "peat". In fact, the 14C age dating suggests that the first 110 cm of Sphagnum material accumulated in ca. 55 yrs, thus resulting in an average growing rate of 2 cm yr-1. The remaining 300 cm (from 100 to 400 cm of depth), i.e., the submerged part of the island, consist of peat showing completely different botanical composition (reed-fen peat and silty peat rich in reeds) and physical and chemical properties. In particular, both bulk density (avg., 0.09±0.05 g cm-3) and ash content increase, reaching their maximum at 300-325 cm of depth (0.27 g cm-3 and 17%, respectively), whereas the average gravimetric water content significantly decreases (17.4±9.0 gwater gdrypeat-1). The pH ranges from 6.6 and 7.4. Both C and N along this section of the profile show higher average contents (44±3 and 1.3±0.6%, respectively) compared to those recorded in the upper 100 cm layer; furthermore, the decrease with depth of C/N, H/C and O/C atomic ratios, as well as main absorption bands of FT-IR spectra, clearly indicate the occurrence of an organic matter highly humified. The estimated accumulation rate for the bottom 300 cm of the island is 0.5 cm yr-1. At the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first characterization of a (4 m) deep floating mire profile. At Posta Fibreno, the deep water layer below the base of the island (7 m) and the movement on the water surface probably avoided the transition from floating island to firm land, thus allowing this island to float during the

  10. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, J I Burgos

    2009-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov context, of the higher algebraic Chow groups defined by Bloch. The degree zero group agrees with the arithmetic Chow groups of Burgos. Our new construction is shown to be a contravariant functor and is endowed with a product structure, which is commutative and associative.

  11. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  12. Higher Koszul complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶郁; 张璞

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the Koszul complexes and Koszul algebras, and introduce the higherKoszul (t-Koszul) complexes and higher Koszul algebras, where t ≥ 2 is an integer. We prove that an algebra ist-Koszul if and only if its t-Koszul complex is augmented, i.e. the higher degree (≥ 1) homologies vanish. Forarbitrary t-Koszul algebra , we also give a description of the structure of the cohomology algebra Ext ( 0, 0)by using the t-Koszul complexes, where the 0 is the direct sum of the simples.

  13. 高职学生时间管理现状及对策分析%Analysis of the Current Situation and Countermeasures of the Students' Time Management in Higher Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴轲威

    2015-01-01

    选取江苏城市职业学院331名高职学生作为研究对象,通过问卷调查了解分析目前高职学生时间管理方面存在的问题。结果表明:尽管目前高职学生时间管理主观意识较强,但是时间管理规划欠缺,时间管理控制不足。应当通过多种措施使学生树立时间观念和时间管理意识,制定目标,有计划地完成,引导学生掌握时间管理的技巧和方法等。%The paper analyzes the current problem of vocational college students' time management according to the questionnaire by selecting 331 students in Jiangsu Urban Vocational College as research object. The result shows that currently vocational college students' time management subjective consciousness is strong, but is lack of time management planning and control flexibly that should take a variety of measures to make students set up the concept of time and consciousness of time management, to set goals, to complete designedly, and to lead the students to master skills and methods of time management etc.

  14. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...... for higher education reputation and which relations exist between the included determinants from a theoretical perspective. It is demonstrated how the model and measurement system may be a useful management tool for the improvement of the reputation of a higher education. In this way, the model can help...... leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity...

  15. Higher prequantum geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, Urs

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of motivations, constructions and applications of higher prequantum geometry. In section 1 we highlight the open problem of prequantizing local field theory in a local and gauge invariant way, and we survey how a solution to this problem exists in higher differential geometry. In section 2 we survey examples and problems of interest. In section 3 we survey the abstract cohesive homotopy theory that serves to make all this precise and tractable.

  16. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  17. Numerical relativity in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilhao, Miguel; Herdeiro, Carlos [Departamento de Fisica e Centro de Fisica do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica - CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico - IST, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sperhake, Ulrich [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Gualtieri, Leonardo, E-mail: mzilhao@fc.up.p, E-mail: helvi.witek@ist.utl.p, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.p, E-mail: Leonardo.Gualtieri@roma1.infn.i, E-mail: crherdei@fc.up.p, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.p, E-mail: sperhake@tapir.caltech.ed [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' and Sezione, INFN Roma1, P.A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy)

    2010-05-01

    We give a status report on our project targeted at performing numerical simulations of a head-on collision of non-spinning black holes in higher dimensional non-compact space-times. These simulations should help us understand black objects in higher dimensions and their stability properties. They are also relevant for the problem of black hole formation and evaporation in particle accelerators and cosmic rays. We use the symmetries of the system to reduce the problem to an effective 3+1 problem, allowing the use of existing numerical codes. As a simple application of the formalism, we present the results for the evolution of a five dimensional single black hole space-time.

  18. Noether theorems and higher derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Paul K

    2016-01-01

    A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time; the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of $\\ddot \\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. While $Q=0$ implies a restricted gauge invariance, an unrestricted gauge invariance requires zero Noetherian charges too. Some illustrative examples are considered.

  19. Higher-Order Program Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    This dissertation addresses the challenges of embedding programming languages, specializing generic programs to specific parameters, and generating specialized instances of programs directly as executable code. Our main tools are higher-order programming techniques and automatic program generatio......), using type-directed partial evaluation. Through various back ends, including a run-time code generator, we generate ML code, C code, and OCaml byte code...

  20. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  1. A hundred years of latency: from Freudian psychosexual theory to dynamic systems nonlinear development in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rona

    2014-04-01

    A focus on the latency phase is used to illustrate how theory and developmental research have influenced our psychoanalytic views of development over the past hundred years. Beginning with Freud's psychosexual theory and his conception of latency, an historical overview of the major psychoanalytic contributions bearing on this developmental period over the past century is presented. Recent longitudinal research in latency supports a nonlinear dynamic systems approach to development. This approach obliges us to reconsider our linear theories and how we think about and work with our patients.

  2. Connecting Hundreds of Oceanographic Data Sources from 35 Countries in and around Europe into a Big Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, T.

    2014-12-01

    Until some years ago, oceanographic data in Europe were scattered across dozens of data centres and hundreds of government agencies, research institutes and university groups. As a consequence, it was impossible to get an overview of available data and very difficult to get access to the data. And even if one managed to get access, data were difficult to use because the data came in different formats and were of varying quality.All these issues were successfully addressed in a series of projects culminating in the current SeaDataNet-project. The resulting and operational SeaDataNet infrastructure now connects hundreds of data sources from 35 countries in and around Europe. It was designed to provide a central overview of available data as well as direct access to a distributed system of online data sources. When data are being transferred to the user, the data are converted into a standard format, chosen by the user. Through a joint activity with the MyOcean project, all data within the SeaDataNet infrastructure have been quality controlled.The SeaDataNet infrastructure now offers many possibilities in support of Europe's 'blue economy'. It forms the backbone for the projects under the umbrella of the European Marine Observation and Data Network or EMODNet. The EMODNet projects produce a series of dataproducts on all aspects of the European marine environment. The data for these dataproducts are provided using the SeaDataNet infrastructure.This presentation describes the principles of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and how it connects those hundreds of data sources in Europe. It will explain the strong link, but also the differences, with the MyOcean project and will go on to introduce the EMODNet-programme and -projects as an example of what can be done if one has achieved uniform access to a distributed system of hundreds of data sources. Finally, the presentation will also address the long-term sustainability of the chosen approach.

  3. Higher Order Spreading Models

    CERN Document Server

    Argyros, S A; Tyros, K

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the higher order spreading models associated to a Banach space $X$. Their definition is based on $\\ff$-sequences $(x_s)_{s\\in\\ff}$ with $\\ff$ a regular thin family and the plegma families. We show that the higher order spreading models of a Banach space $X$ form an increasing transfinite hierarchy $(\\mathcal{SM}_\\xi(X))_{\\xi<\\omega_1}$. Each $\\mathcal{SM}_\\xi (X)$ contains all spreading models generated by $\\ff$-sequences $(x_s)_{s\\in\\ff}$ with order of $\\ff$ equal to $\\xi$. We also provide a study of the fundamental properties of the hierarchy.

  4. Advanced higher English

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The only book to support the compulsory Textual Analysis component of Advanced Higher English. Written by subject experts, this book contains short extracts of prose fiction, non-fiction, poetry and drama with analysis and commentary to assist students' understanding and their ability to critically assess their reading of literature. Short writing tasks, linked to the analysis of particular techniques, help to develop aspects of creative writing skills. The Textual Analysis component forms a compulsory section of the Advanced Higher English syllabus and accounts for 20% of the final grade;

  5. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive working guide to the the Critical Reading section of Higher English for CfE - worth 40% of available marks in the exam!. Critical Reading (Scottish text questions and critical essay) is a very significant element of the new Higher English qualification. This book provides you with the support and advice you will need to succeed in this vital area, with a top expert guiding you through the course and suggesting approaches to the exam, so that you achieve the best grades you can. By focusing on specific examples of Scottish texts, this book enables you to increase your knowledge

  6. Financing Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Walter

    1977-01-01

    Argues that, contrary to popular belief, the demand for higher education in the United States has not declined, and suggests that if such a decline does occur, it will be a result of social and political priorities, rather than a result of natural and inexorable forces. Available from: Secretary, The American Economic Association, 1313 21st…

  7. Marketing in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberger, Susan J.

    Educational institutions must seek new approaches to institutional planning because of such factors as shrinking traditional college age populations, eroding grants, governmental and judicial incursion, the tightening economic belt, and concern over the relevance of education to modern day needs. The concept of marketing higher education is…

  8. Creativity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  9. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  10. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  11. Futurism in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of "futurism" in higher education program planning, self-study and goal setting is taking on increasing significance. Two research techniques for "futures forecasting" are discussed: the Delphi and the Scenario. These techniques have been used successfully in institutional self-study and program evaluation.…

  12. Advert for higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Provozin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  13. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy;

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  14. Consumer Markets & Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemsky, Robert

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that one external force, consumerism, is determining what happens in colleges and universities. The new market for higher education is dominated by students who make choices in a very different way from traditional students. Current students seek credentials and want practical knowledge in an easily consumed package. (MSE)

  15. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  16. Pedagogy in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Dahik Cabrera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review determines the factors that should involve the current education from a university pedagogy that addresses sociological, psychological, axiological, cultural and economic conditions; also highlighting the skills to be addressed by the teacher in the knowledge society and the relevant number of functions that higher education institutions should be attributed it.

  17. 高职院校专业课教师兼任辅导员工作的思考%On the Role of Professional Teacher in Part-time Counseling Work in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智豪

    2015-01-01

    Professional teacher,as the part-time counselor,should have passion about the job,be responsible,and be able to make best use of their advantages to keep balance in the work.Professional teacher taking up the counseling work can not only relief the shortage of professional counselors,but can also build the full-time and part-time counselors team as well as the excellent professional teachers’team.Through the counseling work practice, professional teachers would take political and ideological education as one of their job respon-sibilities,which is good for the teaching and education.%辅导员特别是专业课教师兼任辅导员,应具备真正热爱甘愿奉献的思想基础;恪尽职守,勇于担当的职业精神;应有效运用扬长避短,统筹兼顾的工作方法。专业教师兼任辅导员工作不仅是为了解决专任辅导员的不足,而是造就专兼结合的辅导员队伍和培养优秀专业教师队伍的需要。其真谛是:专业教师通过兼任辅导员的工作实践,把对学生进行思想政治教育内化为自己的工作“天职”,外化为教书育人的自觉行动。

  18. Generalized Higher Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Patricia; Schmidt, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    We study a generalization of higher gauge theory which makes use of generalized geometry and seems to be closely related to double field theory. The local kinematical data of this theory is captured by morphisms of graded manifolds between the canonical exact Courant Lie 2-algebroid $TM\\oplus T^*M$ over some manifold $M$ and a semistrict gauge Lie 2-algebra. We discuss generalized curvatures and their infinitesimal gauge transformations. Finite gauge transformation as well as global kinematical data are then obtained from principal 2-bundles over 2-spaces. As dynamical principle, we consider first the canonical Chern-Simons action for such a gauge theory. We then show that a previously proposed 3-Lie algebra model for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory is very naturally interpreted as a generalized higher gauge theory.

  19. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased d...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?......Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  20. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur......, Informationsteknologi, Biologi, Fysik, Medicin, Odontologi og Folkesundhedsvidenskab. NiHE undersøgelsen er gennemført i efteråret 2015 og vinter 2016, og den har til formål at generere data til almen undervisningsudvikling og rummer derfor både faglige, sociale og personlige perspektiver på undervisning....

  1. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  2. Higher Spins in Hyperspace

    CERN Document Server

    Florakis, Ioannis; Tsulaia, Mirian

    2014-01-01

    We consider the Sp(2n) invariant formulation of higher spin fields on flat and curved backgrounds of constant curvature.In this formulation an infinite number of higher spin fields are packed into single scalar and spinor master fields (hyperfields) propagating on extended spaces, to be called hyperspaces, parametrized by tensorial coordinates.We show that the free field equations on flat and AdS-like hyperspaces are related to each other by a generalized conformal transformation of the scalar and spinor master fields. We compute the four--point functions on a flat hyperspace for both scalar and spinor master fields, thus extending the two-- and three--point function results of arXiv:hep-th/0312244. Then using the generalized conformal transformation we derive two--, three-- and four--point functions on AdS--like hyperspace from the corresponding correlators on the flat hyperspace.

  3. Police and higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Hallenberg, K.; Cockcroft, TW

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the relationship between police and higher education is not a new phenomenon. However, in the UK, co-operation between police and the academy has been slow to develop, particularly when compared to the United States and Europe. Nevertheless, a number of police-university partnerships and a variety of courses from Foundation to Masters level aimed at current and aspiring police officers has mushroomed over the last decade, illustrating a recent formalisation of the police-academia ...

  4. Higher-Order Program Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    to the disproportion between general programs that can be executed in several contexts and their specialized counterparts that can be executed efficiently. However, stand-alone partial evaluation is usually too costly when a program must be specialized at run time. We introduce a collection of byte-code combinators...... for OCaml, a dialect of ML, that provides run-time code generation for OCaml programs. We apply these byte-code combinators in semantics-directed compilation for an imperative language and in run-time specialization using type-directed partial evaluation. Finally, we present an approach to compiling goal......This dissertation addresses the challenges of embedding programming languages, specializing generic programs to specific parameters, and generating specialized instances of programs directly as executable code. Our main tools are higher-order programming techniques and automatic program generation...

  5. 辽宁高职院校专任教师职业倦怠量表的构建研究%Scale Construction of Occupational Burnout of Higher Vocational Full-time Teachers in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔莉莉

    2014-01-01

    It is necessary to use scientific and practical vocational burnout assessment tools to reduce and eliminate the psychological pressure, to prevent and reduce occupational burnout, to improve the efficiency and motivation of working and to enhance happiness. Through the analysis of exploratory factors and de-mographic variables, building the scale of occupational burnout about vocational full-time teachers in Liaoning Province can identify the scientific and rationality of the scale. With the actual measurement of the scale, it is able to achieve the purpose of inspecting the status of vocational burnout about full-time teachers. Thus, it would provide the reference and basis for mitigating burnout and improving the mental health of teachers.%科学实用的高职教师倦怠测评工具,对减轻和消除高职教师心理压力、预防与减少职业倦怠、提高工作效率与积极性、增强幸福感具有重要意义。构建“辽宁高职院校专任教师职业倦怠量表”并进行检验,通过探索性因子分析、人口学变量分析,并对测量结果进行系统分析,检验量表的科学性与合理性。力图通过该量表的实际测量,达到检验高职专任教师职业倦怠状况的目的,进而为减轻教师职业倦怠、提高教师心理健康水平提供借鉴和依据。

  6. Charged gravastars in higher dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghosh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We explore possibility to find out a new model of gravastars in the extended D-dimensional Einstein–Maxwell space–time. The class of solutions as obtained by Mazur and Mottola of a neutral gravastar [1,2] have been observed as a competent alternative to D-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild–Tangherlini black hole. The outer region of the charged gravastar model therefore corresponds to a higher dimensional Reissner–Nordström black hole. In connection to this junction conditions, therefore we have formulated mass and the related Equation of State of the gravastar. It has been shown that the model satisfies all the requirements of the physical features. However, overall observational survey of the results also provide probable indication of non-applicability of higher dimensional approach for construction of a gravastar with or without charge from an ordinary 4-dimensional seed as far as physical ground is concerned.

  7. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    . Finally, it must be possible to write generic code that works on every hierarchy derived from the hierarchy for which it was written. This paper presents a language design that supports such a notion of higher-order hierarchies. It has been implemented in context of a full-fledged, statically typed...... be possible to create hierarchies incrementally based on existing hierarchies, such that commonalities are expressed via reuse, not duplication. Second, the hierarchies must themselves be organized into hierarchies, such that their relationships are made explicit and can be exploited in a type safe manner...... language....

  8. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  9. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?......Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...

  10. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...

  11. Review and Outlook of Comparative Higher Education Research in Japan

    Higher Education Studies>

    OpenAIRE

    福留, 東土

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the progress of comparative higher education research and reveals related issues that have been previously discussed. In addition, it notes research trends found in the literature as well as papers written during the past decade.   In the past ten years, there have been more than one hundred and fifty individual pieces of published literature or research papers introduced at major academic journals. The United States has remained to be the primary target area of rese...

  12. High Compact, High Quality Single Longitudinal Mode Hundred Picoseconds Laser Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Pulse Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxu Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high beam quality hundred picoseconds single-longitudinal-mode (SLM laser is demonstrated based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS pulse compression and aberration compensation. Flash-lamp-pumped Q-switched Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG SLM laser with Cr4+:Y3Al5O12 (Cr4+:YAG as a saturable absorber is used as the seed source. By combining master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA, a compact single-cell with FC-770 as working medium is generated as pulse compressor. The 7.8 ns SLM laser is temporally compressed to about 450 ps, and 200 mJ energy is obtained at 1064 nm without optical damage. The energy stability is better than 3% with beam quality factor M2 less than 1.8, which makes this laser system an attractive source for scientific and industrial applications.

  13. Measurement of lattice rotations and internal stresses in over one hundred individual grains during a stress-induced martensitic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachi Younes El

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the properties of polycrystals at a microscopic scale during cyclic mechanical loading we have measured the relationship between grain orientations, their positions inside the sample and their internal stresses. In this work, in-situ 3DXRD technique was performed on over hundred grains during the stress-induced martensitic transformation in a Cu-Al-Be shape memory alloy. Information about the position, orientation, and stress field was obtained for each austenitic grain. These results have been used to develop a procedure that allows automatic processing for a large number of grains, matching them during loading and leads to a quantitative stress field. A strong heterogeneity of stress state between the grains at the surface and in the volume is evident.

  14. [Cavity preparation and restorative therapy in articles, published by the Fogorvosi Szemle in the last hundred years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Júlia; Duhaj, Szilvia; Nyárasdy, Ida

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this review is to overview the development achieved in restorative therapy based on the publications in Fogorvosi Szemle during the past hundred years. The top quality of the restorative therapy was, and still has been the inlay, but nowadays the esthetic inlay -- fixed with adhesive material -- has priority over the gold inlay. The quality of amalgam fillings has been recently improved by using high-copper containing amalgam alloys. The development on the field of adhesive material and methods made it possible to give up the routine use of any conventional base material. The place of gingival wall of the cavity moved from subgingival position into supragingival position. The macro retention has been replaced by micro retention, and nowadays the cavity preparation prefers minimal-invasive techniques.

  15. Hundred-picosecond narrowband chirped-pulse generation in an Yb:YAG regenerative amplifier using transmission gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, SungIn; Tokita, Shigeki; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Nishioka, Hajime; Kawanaka, Junji

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated a seed source for an optical parametric chirped pulse amplification pumping source through a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG regenerative amplifier, which can vary the pulse duration depending on the number of passes and generate a very high chirp rate. The Fourier-transform-limited pulse duration of 10 ps was extended to a few hundred picoseconds (109 to 165 ps) to prevent damage to the gain medium in the subsequent high-pulse-energy pumping source, which was seeded by the regenerative amplifier. This was achieved by inserting a transmission diffraction grating pair inside the cavity of the regenerative amplifier. The variable pulse duration could be set between 109 and 165 ps by electronically adjusting the pass number of pulses inside the cavity. The stretched pulse duration and the spectral width as functions of the pass number were characterized by considering the dispersion from the grating stretcher as well as the gain narrowing effect.

  16. Delaying or advancing higher-order sideband signals with active optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Yafeng; Qian, Jun; Li, Yong; Jing, H

    2016-01-01

    We study the gain-assisted light transmissions in optomechanical systems, especially the nonlinear higher-order sideband process. We find that: (i) in a single active cavity, the efficiency of the second-order process is considerably enhanced, and the accompanying group delay can surpass that of the probe field, which is unattainable for a lossy cavity (i.e. without any gain); (ii) in an active-passive compound system, the second-order process can be further enhanced by approaching to the gain-loss balance, and hundreds of microsecond of relative delay or advance are achievable between the probe and the second-order signal, indicating an active optomechanical modulator both in frequency and time domains.

  17. The role of the verbal periphrasis haber de + infinitive in the temporal structure of the novel One Hundred Years of Solitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Markič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some temporal and aspectual values (past future, imminence of an event intermingled with modal values (epistemic values of obligation, necessity and probability of the Spanish verbal periphrasis haber de + infinitive which convey very special stylistic values and meanings in Gabriel García Márquez´s novel One Hundred Years of Solitude. Haber de + infinitive (in the imperfect tense of the indicative: había de + infinitive introduces the first sentence and activates the events in the novel, giving them a particular temporal and spatial frame. Through the narrative techniques of flashback and flash forward – present in this novel in which the dominant theme is time and the inevitable repetition of history in Macondo – the above-mentioned verbal periphrasis plays an important role in signalling events that can be neither avoided nor stopped. With its strong expressive force, and due to its basic temporal and modal meanings, the verbal periphrasis haber de + infinitive has a premonitory function in the novel: it predicts fatal events in the lives of the inhabitants of Macondo – inhabitants who are controlled by their pasts and the complexity of time – and in the history of the town, which seems to be doomed and predetermined in its very existence.

  18. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  19. Asymptotic vacua with higher derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Cotsakis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We study limits of vacuum, isotropic universes in the full, effective, four-dimensional theory with higher derivatives. We show that all flat vacua as well as general curved ones are globally attracted by the standard, square root scaling solution at early times. Open vacua asymptote to horizon-free, Milne states in both directions while closed universes exhibit more complex logarithmic singularities, starting from initial data sets of a possibly smaller dimension. We also discuss the relation of our results to the asymptotic stability of the passage through the singularity in ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies.

  20. Asymptotic vacua with higher derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotsakis, Spiros, E-mail: skot@aegean.gr [Department of Mathematics, American University of the Middle East, P.O. Box 220 Dasman, 15453 (Kuwait); Kadry, Seifedine, E-mail: Seifedine.Kadry@aum.edu.kw [Department of Mathematics, American University of the Middle East, P.O. Box 220 Dasman, 15453 (Kuwait); Kolionis, Georgios, E-mail: gkolionis@aegean.gr [Research group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, University of the Aegean, Karlovassi 83200, Samos (Greece); Tsokaros, Antonios, E-mail: atsok@aegean.gr [Research group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, University of the Aegean, Karlovassi 83200, Samos (Greece)

    2016-04-10

    We study limits of vacuum, isotropic universes in the full, effective, four-dimensional theory with higher derivatives. We show that all flat vacua as well as general curved ones are globally attracted by the standard, square root scaling solution at early times. Open vacua asymptote to horizon-free, Milne states in both directions while closed universes exhibit more complex logarithmic singularities, starting from initial data sets of a possibly smaller dimension. We also discuss the relation of our results to the asymptotic stability of the passage through the singularity in ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies.

  1. Restructuring Chinese Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhao

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the current remarkable trend of institutional amalgamation and the establishment of cross-institutional consortiums in China are examined. The principal purpose of this study is to explore policy options on issues connected with the trend and the significant implications of the trend for the future development of higher education in China. I discuss the outstanding issues raised in the restructuring, the main factors behind them and proposes policy options to redress the adversities of the trend at the end. The article draws on national data as well as a case study. The research reported here is constructive for comparative and empirical research of similar issues in international perspectives.

  2. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming...... according to the defining representation of the dual gauge group. The resulting conformal windows match the one stemming from the all-orders beta function results when taking the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass to be unity which are also very close to the ones obtained using the Schwinger......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  3. Higher-spin correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Alday, Luis F

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the properly normalized three-point correlator of two protected scalar operators and one higher spin twist-two operator in N=4 super Yang-Mills, in the limit of large spin j. The relevant structure constant can be extracted from the OPE of the four-point correlator of protected scalar operators. We show that crossing symmetry of the four point correlator plus a judicious guess for the perturbative structure of the three-point correlator, allow to make a prediction for the structure constant at all loops in perturbation theory, up to terms that remain finite as the spin becomes large. Furthermore, the expression for the structure constant allows to propose an expression for the all loops four-point correlator G(u,v), in the limit u,v -> 0. Our predictions are in perfect agreement with the large j expansion of results available in the literature.

  4. Regional environmental change and human activity over the past hundred years recorded in the sedimentary record of Lake Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, ZhanJiang; Wang, Qiugui; Wang, Jinlong; Du, Jinzhou; Hu, Jufang; Ma, Yujun; Kong, Fancui; Wang, Zhuan

    2017-04-01

    Environmental change and human activity can be recorded in sediment cores in aquatic systems such as lakes. Information from such records may be useful for environmental governance in the future. Six sediment cores were collected from Lake Qinghai, China and its sublakes during 2012 and 2013. Measurements of sediment grain-size fractions indicate that sedimentation in the north and southwest of Lake Qinghai is dominated by river input, whereas that in Lake Gahai and Lake Erhai is dominated by dunes. The sedimentation rates in Lake Qinghai were calculated to be 0.101-0.159 cm/y, similar to the rates in other lakes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Using these data and sedimentation rates from the literature, we compiled the spatial distribution of sedimentation rates. Higher values were obtained in the three main areas of Lake Qinghai: two in river estuaries and one close to sand dunes. Lower values were measured in the center and south of the lake. Measurements of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus concentrations, and TOC/TN ratios in three cores (QH01, QH02, and Z04) revealed four horizons corresponding to times of increased human activity. These anthropogenic events were (1) the development of large areas of cropland in the Lake Qinghai watershed in 1960, (2) the beginning of nationwide fertilizer use and increases in cropland area in the lake watershed after 1970, (3) the implementation of the national program "Grain to Green," and (4) the rapid increase in the tourism industry from 2000. Profiles of Rb, Sr concentrations, the Rb/Sr ratio, and grain-size fraction in core Z04 indicate that the climate has become drier over the past 100 years. Therefore, we suggest that lake sediments such as those in Lake Qinghai are useful media for high-resolution studies of regional environmental change and human activity.

  5. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    . The research presented in this thesis falls in three parts. In the first part, a first time demonstration of the break of the azimuthal symmetry of the Bessel-like LP0X modes is presented. This effect, known as the bowtie effect, causes the mode to have an azimuthal dependence as well as a quasi...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  6. Learning higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontrjagin, Lev Semenovič

    1984-01-01

    Lev Semenovic Pontrjagin (1908) is one of the outstanding figures in 20th century mathematics. In a long career he has made fundamental con­ tributions to many branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. He has received every honor that a grateful government can bestow. Though in no way constrained to do so, he has through the years taught mathematics courses at Moscow State University. In the year 1975 he set himself the task of writing a series of books on secondary school and beginning university mathematics. In his own words, "I wished to set forth the foundations of higher mathematics in a form that would have been accessible to myself as a lad, but making use of all my experience as a scientist and a teacher, ac­ cumulated over many years. " The present volume is a translation of the first two out of four moderately sized volumes on this theme planned by Pro­ fessor Pontrjagin. The book begins at the beginning of modern mathematics, analytic ge­ ometry in the plane and 3-dimensional space. Refin...

  7. Silica in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, A G; Hodson, M J

    1986-01-01

    Opaline silica deposits are formed by many vascular (higher) plants. The capacity of these plants for silica absorption varies considerably according to genotype and environment. Plant communities exchange silica between soil and vegetation, especially in warmer climates. Silica deposition in epidermal cell walls offers mechanical and protective advantages. Biogenic silica particles from plants are also implicated in the causation of cancer. Recent techniques are reviewed which may aid in the identification of plant pathways for soluble silica movement to deposition sites and in the determination of ionic environments. Botanical investigations have focused on silicification of cell walls in relation to plant development, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. Silica deposition in macrohair walls of the lemma of canary grass (Phalaris) begins at inflorescence emergence and closely follows wall thickening. The structure of the deposited silica may be determined by specific organic polymers present at successive stages of wall development. Lowering of transpiration by enclosure of Phalaris inflorescences in plastic bags reduced silica deposition in macrohairs. Preliminary freeze-substitution studies have located silicon, as well as potassium and chloride, in the cell vacuole and wall deposition sites during initial silicification.

  8. Concordant regulation of translation and mRNA abundance for hundreds of targets of a human microRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Hendrickson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by interfering with a target mRNA's translation, stability, or both. We sought to dissect the respective contributions of translational inhibition and mRNA decay to microRNA regulation. We identified direct targets of a specific miRNA, miR-124, by virtue of their association with Argonaute proteins, core components of miRNA effector complexes, in response to miR-124 transfection in human tissue culture cells. In parallel, we assessed mRNA levels and obtained translation profiles using a novel global approach to analyze polysomes separated on sucrose gradients. Analysis of translation profiles for approximately 8,000 genes in these proliferative human cells revealed that basic features of translation are similar to those previously observed in rapidly growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For approximately 600 mRNAs specifically recruited to Argonaute proteins by miR-124, we found reductions in both the mRNA abundance and inferred translation rate spanning a large dynamic range. The changes in mRNA levels of these miR-124 targets were larger than the changes in translation, with average decreases of 35% and 12%, respectively. Further, there was no identifiable subgroup of mRNA targets for which the translational response was dominant. Both ribosome occupancy (the fraction of a given gene's transcripts associated with ribosomes and ribosome density (the average number of ribosomes bound per unit length of coding sequence were selectively reduced for hundreds of miR-124 targets by the presence of miR-124. Changes in protein abundance inferred from the observed changes in mRNA abundance and translation profiles closely matched changes directly determined by Western analysis for 11 of 12 proteins, suggesting that our assays captured most of miR-124-mediated regulation. These results suggest that miRNAs inhibit translation initiation or stimulate ribosome drop-off preferentially near the

  9. How to pass higher English colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann

    2009-01-01

    How to Pass is the Number 1 revision series for Scottish qualifications across the three examination levels of Standard Grade, Intermediate and Higher! Second editions of the books present all of the material in full colour for the first time.

  10. OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Catherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher…

  11. Is it time to make kids a higher budget priority?

    OpenAIRE

    Steuerle, C. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The children’s share of the federal budget is scheduled to decline from 10% of the federal budget in 2013 to 8% in 2024, despite 1.4 trillion in new annual government spending. Spending on children’s education, tax provisions, income security, and nutrition will decline, and the only federal expenditures on children’s health will increase. C. Eugene Steuerle argues that the next decade presents the opportunity to invest in children by carefully reassessing our current budget priorities.

  12. Decision Time: The Dilemma for Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, A. Thomas; Boone, Larry W.

    1990-01-01

    Changing well-established organizational decision-making processes is difficult but must be undertaken to regain and retain institutional viability. Research on decision making and the rational model used in business offer insights and options for changing the college and university decision process to increase organizational effectiveness. (MSE)

  13. Money counts for a Times Higher Education top-rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, G.; Ritzen, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between a university’s expenditure per student and its position in international university rankings. We take into account other factors that are expected to play a role, such as university mission, size, and productive inefficiency. We formalise these concepts i

  14. Trauma related to falls from trees treated in a specialized trauma centre in Burkina-Faso-one hundred and six cases treated in one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakouré, Patrick W H; Diallo, Malick; Traoré, André-Charles V; Gandéma, Salifou; Barro, Sie Drissa; Traoré, Ibrahim Alain; Zaré, Cyprien

    2015-12-01

    Falls from trees related traumas are rarely reported in literature. They are public health problems in developing countries where their frequency is still important. The aim of the study is to describe falls from trees related trauma patterns and to present preventative measures. An annual ongoing prospective study was held in our trauma emergency department (ED) about all the patients who sustained an injury after a recent fall from tree. A questionnaire related to the patient and to the trauma was established. The data were encoded and analysed by a statistical software. One hundred six patients who sustained a fall from tree trauma, out of a total of 139, were studied. Most patients were under 15 years old (76.4 %); they were injured in fruits season (33 %) after a fall from a fruit tree (mango trees, Shea trees, Néré, etc.) and were received late (86 %). Injuries were polymorphic from traumatic brain injuries (51.8 %) and spine injuries (13.2 %) to thoraco-abdominal (21.6 %) and limbs injuries (46.2 %). Three housewives were pregnant at the time of the trauma with secondary abortions. Patients were managed medically (33.9 %), surgically (19.8 %) or by casting (34.9 %) with good outcome in 59 cases. Twelve patients refused medical care and two died. Education programs must focus on picking fruits and leaves in order to make them safe and prevent injuries related to these traditional or professional activities.

  15. Auguste Comte's blunder: an account of the first century of stellar spectroscopy and how it took one hundred years to prove that Comte was wrong!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2010-07-01

    In 1835 the French philosopher Auguste Comte predicted that we would never know anything about the chemical composition of stars. This paper gives a broad overview of the development of stellar spectroscopy, especially from about 1860. Developments in stellar spectroscopy segregated quite clearly into three main fields of endeavour: spectral classification, radial velocities and spectral analysis. This paper concentrates mainly on spectral analysis, or how stellar spectroscopy one hundred years after Comte showed that quantitative information on the composition of stars was possible. The journey was quite arduous, as it required numerous developments in theoretical physics and in laboratory spectroscopy, which in turn allowed stellar spectral analysis successfully to be undertaken by the mid-twentieth century. The key developments in physics that first had to be understood were in quantum and atomic theory, ionization theory, the concept of the Planck function, local thermodynamic equilibrium, the first stellar model atmospheres, line formation theory, turbulence, collisional broadening of spectral lines and the theory of radiative transfer and of the curve of growth. The close links between stellar spectroscopy and theoretical physics will be emphasized. In addition laboratory physics, to measure line wavelengths and oscillator strengths, was also an essential precursor to quantitative data on the chemical composition of stars. Comte may have been an influential philosopher of science in his time. Perhaps his one small transgression was not to have read the works of Joseph Fraunhofer, which in the early nineteenth century already contained the first small clues that Comte's assertion might be wrong.

  16. The Didactics of Higher Education Didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    Based on a systematic categorization and analysis of a total of 393 contributions in three journals for research and development in higher education, the paper shows how the scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education (SoTL) over time have produced a didactic pattern. We designate...... this pattern “The didactics of higher education didactics”. The analytical framework is found in the didactics of Paul Heimann (Die Lehrteoretische Didaktik) and the empirical basis in the abstracts in Higher Education Research & Development, Uniped and Danish Journal for Teaching and Learning in Higher...... for general didactics and education research. Especially, how the scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education puts itself at the disposal of the on-going didactical professionalization of teachers in higher education....

  17. Electroweak\\/GUT Domain Wall by Hawking Radiation Baryogenesis and Dark Matter from Several Hundred kg Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagatani, Y

    2001-01-01

    A spherical domain wall around a small black hole is formed by the Hawking radiation from the black hole in the symmetry-broken-phase of the field theory, e.g., the Standard Model (SM) and the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) which have a property of the phase transition. We have obtained two types of the spherical domain wall; (a) thermalized wall which is formed by the local heating up near black hole and symmetry restore locally and (b) dynamical wall which is formed by the balance between the pressure from the Hawking radiation and the pressure from the wall tensions. The electroweak wall is formed as a thermalized wall around a black hole with mass of the several hundred kilogram. The GUT wall is formed as a dynamical wall around much smaller black hole. The electroweak wall around a black hole can produce baryon number by the assumption of the CP-broken phase in the wall. The GUT wall can supply charge into the black hole, namely, the wall causes the spontaneous charging up of the black hole. We propose a cos...

  18. L.S. Vygotsky's Principle "One Step in Learning — A Hundred Steps in Development": In Search of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Zaretsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of L.S. Vygotsky's published works the paper attempts to trace the dynamics of his concepts of child development and to provide evidence supporting Vygotsky's statement that one step in learning equals a hundred in development, which is one of the key principles of culturalhistorical theory in its application to child development. This statement is put in a row with two other major principles: one arguing that learning precedes development and the other referring to the zone of proximal development. The paper outlines a multivector model of the zone of proximal development as one of the conceptual tools of the reflective and activity approach to helping children overcome learning difficulties and promoting their development. The paper also describes a case study in which an orphan child with a disability received psychological and educational support that obviously contributed to the child's development. It is argued that L.S. Vygotsky's idea of the specific relationship between learning and development has fundamental theoretical and practical implications, in particular, for working with children with special needs

  19. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF CULTURAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICES ENERATION AND INTAKE USING ONE HUNDRED WAKA POEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takanori; Ikeno, Yuko

    It is needed to evaluate ecosystem services in order to make appropriate decision for ecosystem management. In this background the purpose of this study is to analyze structural processes of human enjoying culture-related ecosystem services. As a database including processes of enjoying cultural ecosystem services, "one hundred waka poems" was selected and coded from the context of symbiotic systems conce pts. To the dataset SOM (self organizational map) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering method, which were kinds of data mining method, were conducted. As the result, seven structures as design knowledge of cultural ecosystem services generation and in take, and for detail, (1) cultural ecosystem services are based on the visual contact to environmental objects, (2) there is a possibility of interaction between ecosystems, climate conditions, weather phenomena and activity modes of human system under the process of generating and taking cultural ecosystem services, and (3) it is possible that not only the presence of ecosystem but also products made of natural resources generate cultural ecosystem services.

  20. “Our vanishing glaciers”: One hundred years of glacier retreat in Three Sisters Area, Oregon Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In August 1910, thirty-nine members of the Mazamas Mountaineering Club ascended the peaks of the Three Sisters in central Oregon. While climbing, geologist Ira A. Williams photographed the surrounding scenery, including images of Collier Glacier. One hundred years later, U.S. Geological Survey research hydrologist Jim E. O’Connor matched those documented photographs with present day images — the result of which is a stunning lapse of glacial change in the Three Sister region. O’Connor asserts that “glaciers exist by the grace of climate,” and through a close examination of the history of the region’s glaciers, he provides an intriguing glimpse into the history of geological surveys and glacial studies in the Pacific Northwest, including their connection to significant scientific advances of the nineteenth century. The work of scientists and mountaineers who have monitored and recorded glacier changes for over a century allows us to see dramatic changes in a landscape that is especially sensitive to ongoing climate change.

  1. Rewriting rural community and dictatorial history through magical realism in Márquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abu Shahid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Márquez was greatly influenced by his grandmother’s story-telling ability, and was highly indebted to the socio-political history of Latin America, particularly Colombia. In One Hundred Years of Solitude, he wants to reconstruct the lost world of childhood by using magical realism which gives expression to the world-view of a rural people who live in isolation from modern world. By retelling the official history from the perspective of the oppressed, he reveals the fact that history is never factual and impartial but serves the interest of those who write it. Through the banana company massacre and the subsequent hide and seek over the number of dead workers, Márquez exposes the way official history becomes fabricated and distorted by authorities, and fails to provide the original occurrences. He was disgusted with the political violence and civil wars which had distraught people; he was also against capitalism, scientific and technological inventions, and so-called modernization, which are the means through which foreign culture brings corruption and brutality, dominates, exploits and oppresses the natives, and threatens the native culture and identity. By employing magical realism, he was able to recreate Colombian history to protest against the way capitalism dominated the socio-political and economic structure of the region.

  2. E/V Nautilus Mapping and ROV Dives Reveal Hundreds of Vents along the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R.; Raineault, N.; Embley, R. W.; Merle, S. G.; Girguis, P. R.; Irish, O.; Lubetkin, M.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Cormier, M. H.; Caldow, C.; Freedman, R.; Gee, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Exploration Vessel (E/V) Nautilus has mapped more than 30,000 km2 of seafloor off the west coast of the United States between July 2015 and September 2016. The 30 kHz EM302 multibeam mapping system collects water column data in addition to bathymetry and backscatter. Examination of the water column data revealed hundreds of distinct vertical features, presumably plumes of methane gas released from the seafloor. While seafloor reservoirs of methane are thought to contribute 5-10% of the global discharge, inventories of seafloor methane seeps are poorly constrained due to the lack of data such as the distribution and abundance of seafloor gas plumes. The results of mapping efforts reveal an unexpected number of methane seeps. ROV dives were then used to provide geological context to the seeps and associated unique biological communities. Altogether these findings contribute significantly to our baseline inventory of seeps along the continental margins of the United States. The presence of unexpectedly large numbers of methane seeps on the US Pacific, Gulf and Atlantic margins may influence the management of human extraction activities on the margin seabed.

  3. Study on the temperature field effect analysis and test of the five-hundred-meter aperture spherical radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-qiang; Wang, Qi-ming

    2016-10-01

    The thermal problem is one of the important research contents of the design and operation about giant radio antenna. This kind of influence to the antenna has been concerned in the astronomy field. Due to the instantaneous temperature load and uncertainty, it is difficult to accurately analysis and effectively control about its effect. It has important significance to analyze the thermal problem of giant radio antenna to its design and operation. The research of solar cookers and temperature field on Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) were preceded in detail. The tests of temperature distribute about 30 meters antenna in Mi-yun observatory station were performed. The research work including the parameters related to the sun, the flow algorithm of telescope site, mathematical model of solar cooker, analysis results of temperature field and corresponding control strategy, the temperature distribution test of 30 meters model. The results showed that: solar cookers could be weakened and controlled effectively of FAST. This work will provide a reference to design and operation of the FAST and same big antenna. It has certain theory significance, engineering significance and application value.

  4. Exploration and Reflection on the Construction of Full-Time Teaching Staff of Adult Higher Education in Col-leges and Universities%普通高校成人高等教育专职教师队伍建设的探索与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This article mainly expounds the necessity of the con-struction of full-time teaching staff of adult higher education in colleges and universities and proposes the main measures of es-tablishing full-time teaching staff.%  本文主要阐述了普通高校成人高等教育建立专职教师队伍的必要性,并提出了建立专职教师队伍的主要措施。

  5. Layer-by-layer assembled highly absorbing hundred-layer films containing a phthalocyanine dye: Fabrication and photosensibilization by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeeva, Alena S., E-mail: alenasergeeva@mail.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Branch Bioanalytics and Bioprocesses (Fraunhofer IZI-BB), Muehlenberg 13, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Volkova, Elena K., E-mail: ekvolkova87@rambler.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Bratashov, Daniil N., E-mail: dn2010@gmail.com [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Shishkin, Mikhail I., E-mail: shishkin1mikhail@gmail.com [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Atkin, Vsevolod S., E-mail: ceba91@list.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Markin, Aleksey V., E-mail: markinav@mail.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Skaptsov, Aleksandr A., E-mail: skaptsov@yandex.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Volodkin, Dmitry V., E-mail: dmitry.volodkin@izi-bb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Branch Bioanalytics and Bioprocesses (Fraunhofer IZI-BB), Muehlenberg 13, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gorin, Dmitry A., E-mail: gorinda@mail.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-29

    Highly absorbing hundred-layer films based on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) of various molecular weights and on sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuPcTs) were prepared using layer-by-layer assembly. The multilayer films grew linearly up to 54 bilayers, indicating that the same amount of CuPcTs was adsorbed at each deposition step. This amount, however, was dependent on the molecular weight of PDADMAC in the range 100-500 kDa: the higher the molecular weight, the more CuPcTs molecules were adsorbed. This can be explained by the larger surface charge number density specific to longer polymer chains. Domains of pure PDADMAC and of the PDADMAC/CuPcTs complex were formed in the films during the assembly. Uniform distribution of CuPcTs over the films could be achieved by thermal treatment, leading to an α → β phase transition in phthalocyanine at 300 °C. Annealing caused changes in the film absorbance spectra, resulting in a 30-nm red shift of the peak maxima and in a strong (up to 62%) decrease in optical density. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed thermodegradation of PDADMAC during annealing above 270 °C, giving rise to micrometer-sized cracks within the films, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • The films exhibit the linear dependence of the adsorption on the bilayer number varied from 2 until 54. • Polyelectrolyte of the highest MW shows the maximal adsorption of copper phthalocyanine molecules. • Annealing of the films causes a red-shift of the maxima in the absorbance spectra. • Cracks and micropores emerged in the multilayer films during the annealing.

  6. Hundreds of Cruises, Thousands of People, Endless Discoveries - Education and Outreach in the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, L.; Niemitz, M.; Boa, S.; Corsiglia, J.; Klaus, A.; Petronotis, K.; Iturrino, G.

    2005-12-01

    For 37 years, scientific ocean drilling programs have sponsored hundreds of expeditions, drilled at over 1,800 sites and recovered over 200 miles of core. The discoveries of these programs have led to important realizations of how our earth works. Past expeditions have validated the theory of plate tectonics, provided unparalleled ancient climate records and recovered evidence of the asteroid impact that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago - and new discoveries occur with every expedition. By producing education materials and programs and encouraging mass media journalists' interest in our news, we strive to fulfill our commitment to communicate our programs' scientific discoveries to the public, in a way that people - not just other scientists - understand. With the advent of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), education and outreach efforts have expanded to pursue new opportunities and engage wider audiences. Through our strategy of Teaching for Science, Learning for LifeTM, our education efforts seek to utilize the interdisciplinary nature of scientific ocean drilling to teach career awareness, scientific methods, teamwork, and problem solving techniques for a lifetime of learning, decision making and good citizenship. In pursuit of this goal, we have implemented professional and resource development programs and expanded our outreach at education-focused conferences to help teachers use IODP science to satiate the student's need to learn the methods of science that apply to everyday life. We believe that this message also applies to life-long learners and thus we have focused our efforts on news media outreach and education opportunities surrounding ports of call of the JOIDES Resolution, permanent and traveling museum exhibits. In addition, our outreach to undergraduate and graduate audiences, through a lecture series, research fellowships and internships, helps to create future generations of science leaders.

  7. Geochemical records of phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay sediments-Implications for environmental changes in recent hundred years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jicui; SONG Jinming; LI Xuegang; YUAN Huamao; ZHENG Guoxia; LI Ning

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus is a key element and plays an important role in global biogeochemical cycles. The evolution of sedimentary environment is also influenced by phosphorus concentrations and fractions as well as phosphate sorption characteristics of the marine sediments. The geochemical characteristics of phosphorus and their environmental records were presented in Jiaozhou Bay sediments.Profiles of different forms of phosphorus were measured as well as the roles and vertical distributions of phosphorus forms in response to sedimentary environment changes were investigated. The results showed that inorganic phosphorus (IP) was the major fraction of total phosphorus (TP); phosphorus which is bound to calcium, iron and occluded phosphorus, as well as the exchangeable phosphorus were the main forms of IP, especially calcium - phosphorus, including detrital carbonate-bound phosphorus (Det- P) and authigenic apatite-bound phosphorus (ACa- P), are the uppermost constituent of IP in Jiaozhou Bay sediments. Moreover, the lead-210 chronology technology was employed to estimate how much phosphorus was buried ultimately in sediments. And the research showed that the impacts of human activities have increased remarkably in recent years especially between the 1980s and 2000. According to research, the development of Jiaozhou Bay environment in the past hundred years can be divided into three stages: (1) before the 1980s characterized by the relatively low sedimentation rate, weak land-derived phosphorus inputs and low anthropogenic impacts; (2) from the 1980s to around 2000, accelerating in the 1990s, during which high sedimentation rates, high phosphorus abundance and burial fluxes due to the severe human activities impacted on the whole environmental system; (3) after 2000, the period of the improvement of environment, the whole system has been improved including the decreasing sedimentation rates, concentration and the burial fluxes of phosphorus.

  8. Dispersed Web Content Management in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Anne; Gerber, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Higher education institutions often have large, complex websites, necessitated by the many services, divisions, and areas involved in campus operations. The fall 2008 enrollment at Utah Valley University (UVU), for example, was 26,696 students in over 50 different degree areas. UVU also has 1,455 full-time staff and another 3,285 part-time staff.…

  9. 1957-2007: 50 Years of Higher Order Programming Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Lovrenčić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty years ago one of the greatest breakthroughs in computer programming and in the history of computers happened -- the appearance of FORTRAN, the first higher-order programming language. From that time until now hundreds of programming languages were invented, different programming paradigms were defined, all with the main goal to make computer programming easier and closer to as many people as possible. Many battles were fought among scientists as well as among developers around concepts of programming, programming languages and paradigms. It can be said that programming paradigms and programming languages were very often a trigger for many changes and improvements in computer science as well as in computer industry. Definitely, computer programming is one of the cornerstones of computer science.Today there are many tools that give a help in the process of programming, but there is still a programming tasks that can be solved only manually. Therefore, programming is still one of the most creative parts of interaction with computers.Programmers should chose programming language in accordance to task they have to solve, but very often, they chose it in accordance to their personal preferences, their beliefs and many other subjective reasons.Nevertheless, the market of programming languages can be merciless to languages as history was merciless to some people, even whole nations. Programming languages and developers get born, live and die leaving more or less tracks and successors, and not always the best survives. The history of programming languages is closely connected to the history of computers and computer science itself. Every single thing from one of them has its reflexions onto the other. This paper gives a short overview of last fifty years of computer programming and computer programming languages, but also gives many ideas that influenced other aspects of computer science. Particularly, programming paradigms are described, their

  10. Higher Level Orderings on Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Guang Xing ZENG

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate higher level orderings on modules over commutative rings. On the basis of the theory of higher level orderings on fields and commutative rings, some results involving existence of higher level orderings are generalized to the category of modules over commutative rings. Moreover, a strict intersection theorem for higher level orderings on modules is established.

  11. Higher-Order Aberrations in Myopic Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Karimian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between refractive error and higher-order aberrations (HOAs in patients with myopic astigmatism. Methods: HOAs were measured using the Zywave II aberrometer over a 6 mm pupil. Correlations between HOAs and myopia, astigmatism, and age were analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-six eyes of 63 subjects with mean age of 26.4±5.9 years were studied. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error and refractive astigmatism were -4.94±1.63 D and 0.96±1.06 D, respectively. The most common higher-order aberration was primary horizontal trefoil with mean value of 0.069±0.152 μm followed by spherical aberration (-0.064±0.130 μm and primary vertical coma (-0.038±0.148 μm. As the order of aberration increased from third to fifth, its contribution to total HOA decreased: 53.9% for third order, 31.9% for fourth order, and 14.2% for fifth order aberrations. Significant correlations were observed between spherical equivalent refractive error and primary horizontal coma (R=0.231, P=0.022, and root mean square (RMS of spherical aberration (R=0.213, P=0.031; between astigmatism and RMS of total HOA (R=0.251, P=0.032, RMS of fourth order aberration (R=0.35, P<0.001, and primary horizontal coma (R=0.314, P=0.004. Spherical aberration (R=0.214, P=0.034 and secondary vertical coma (R=0.203, P=0.031 significantly increased with age. Conclusion: Primary horizontal trefoil, spherical aberration and primary vertical coma are the predominant higher-order aberrations in eyes with myopic astigmatism.

  12. Engineered two-dimensional Ising interactions in a trapped-ion quantum simulator with hundreds of spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Joseph W; Sawyer, Brian C; Keith, Adam C; Wang, C-C Joseph; Freericks, James K; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J; Bollinger, John J

    2012-04-25

    The presence of long-range quantum spin correlations underlies a variety of physical phenomena in condensed-matter systems, potentially including high-temperature superconductivity. However, many properties of exotic, strongly correlated spin systems, such as spin liquids, have proved difficult to study, in part because calculations involving N-body entanglement become intractable for as few as N ≈ 30 particles. Feynman predicted that a quantum simulator--a special-purpose 'analogue' processor built using quantum bits (qubits)--would be inherently suited to solving such problems. In the context of quantum magnetism, a number of experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach, but simulations allowing controlled, tunable interactions between spins localized on two- or three-dimensional lattices of more than a few tens of qubits have yet to be demonstrated, in part because of the technical challenge of realizing large-scale qubit arrays. Here we demonstrate a variable-range Ising-type spin-spin interaction, J(i,j), on a naturally occurring, two-dimensional triangular crystal lattice of hundreds of spin-half particles (beryllium ions stored in a Penning trap). This is a computationally relevant scale more than an order of magnitude larger than previous experiments. We show that a spin-dependent optical dipole force can produce an antiferromagnetic interaction J(i,j) proportional variant d(-a)(i,j), where 0 ≤ a ≤ 3 and d(i,j) is the distance between spin pairs. These power laws correspond physically to infinite-range (a = 0), Coulomb-like (a = 1), monopole-dipole (a = 2) and dipole-dipole (a = 3) couplings. Experimentally, we demonstrate excellent agreement with a theory for 0.05 ≲ a ≲ 1.4. This demonstration, coupled with the high spin count, excellent quantum control and low technical complexity of the Penning trap, brings within reach the simulation of otherwise computationally intractable problems in quantum magnetism.

  13. Evaluating Turkish Higher Education System within the Framework of New Higher Education Act Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsün ATANUR BASKAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for higher education has been increasing all over the world and universities endeavor to reach international standards. It has been discussed for a long time that it is crucial to restructure the existing higher education system in Turkey to achieve a competitive position in global world. Within this scope, the new higher education act, on which studies have been going on for 1,5 years, has been shaped and broached to stakeholders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the existing higher education system in Turkey within the frame of the new higher education act studies. The weak points of the Law of Higher Education No. 2547 published in 1981, which cannot meet the needs of today's higher education, will be compared to the new draft law for higher education.

  14. Leadership in Higher Education: The CIO Role and the Leadership Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Todd

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I focus on higher education CIOs, their role in the organization, and how this role differs when the CIO is a member of the executive leadership team. Four hundred fifty (450) CIOs of mid-sized, private four-year colleges received a survey, and 51 respondents provided information about their role and perspectives. I interviewed six…

  15. Emigration for Higher Education: The Case of Palestinians Living in Israel Studying in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2010-01-01

    This study explored reasons for the rapid increase in the number of Palestinian Arabs from Israel (PAI) studying higher education (HE) in Jordan. Four hundred and sixty PAI studying in Jordan answered a questionnaire assessing factors related to HE in both countries. Lenient admission requirements and cultural-language similarity explain Jordan's…

  16. Strategies Towards Effective Management of Higher Education for Building a Culture of Peace in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiyai, Romina Ifeoma

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating strategies for effective management of higher education for building a culture of peace in Nigeria. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the investigation. The study is a survey research which adopted the ex-post-facto design. The respondents comprised of one thousand four hundred and eighty…

  17. Summative Self-Assessment in Higher Education: Implications of Its Counting towards the Final Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeiro, Ricardo A.; Gomez-Vallecillo, Jorge L.; Romero, Antonio F.; Pelegrina, Manuel; Wallace, Agustin; Emberley, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Our study aims at assessing the validity of summative criteria-referenced self-assessment in higher education, and in particular, if that validity varies when the professor counts self-assessment toward the final mark. Method: One hundred and twenty-two first year students from two groups in Teacher Education at the Universidad de…

  18. [Emil Kraepelin: a pioneer of modern psychiatry. On the occasion of the hundred and fiftieth anniversary of his birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géraud, M

    2007-09-01

    Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) whose hundred and fiftieth birth anniversary we are celebrating this year, is one of the most renowned figures of psychiatry. His Memoirs published in 1983 provide insight on the individual. In his early career he lived in Würzburg, Munich, Leipzig, Leubus, Dresden, and then in Dorpat in 1886 (as visiting professor) where he stayed for five years, in Heidelberg (as regular professor) from 1891 to 1904, and lastly in Munich. Kraepelin ranks among the great clinical medicine forerunners who followed in Kahlbaum's footsteps. For him, the foremost task of scientific psychiatry was to circumscribe pathological entities. At the foundation of Kraepelin-inspired scientific psychiatry lies the notion of the of disease, as opposed to the approach (5th edition of the Treatise), whereby it is no longer concerned with the study of mental disorder in terms of symptoms but rather in terms of conditions of occurrence, evolution and outcome thereof. This method produced two well-known results: the unification and recognition of , and the definition of (dementia praecox). These results are described in the Treatise of Psychiatry which has had eight editions during the author's lifetime (from 1883 to 1915), and which presents Kraepelin's systematic nosography covering the entire field of mental illness. Such an innovative method required special tools capable of exploring not only the symptoms, as had been done previously, but the pathological process per se: therefore, Kreapelin created a systematic method to conduct psychiatric research and founded a Research Establishment divided into different sections (histopathology, topographic histology, serology, genealogy). Alois Alzheimer and Franz Nissl, among others, were closely associated with his work. Kreapelin's thought was not set, however, and by the end of his career it took a turn toward a more comprehensive type of psychiatry (1920) taking into account the social aspects (). From the therapeutic and

  19. Higher Education and Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  20. Higher Education in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

    2003-01-01

    Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher…

  1. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  2. The impact of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste on humans and the environment over the next one hundred thousand years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Saetre, Peter; Berglund, Sten; Jaeschke, Ben; Nordén, Sara; Brandefelt, Jenny; Keesmann, Sven; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Andersson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the potential radiological risk to humans and the environment from a geological repository for radioactive waste, a safety assessment must be performed. This implies that the release and transfer of radionuclides from the repository into the surface environment are calculated and that the effects in the biosphere are evaluated for an assessment period up to one hundred thousand years according to Swedish regulations. This paper discusses the challenges associated with the modelling of surface ecosystems over such long time scales, using the recently completed assessment for the extension of the existing repository for the low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (called SFR) in Forsmark, Sweden as an applied example. In the assessment, natural variation and uncertainties in climate during the assessment period were captured by using a set of climate cases, primarily reflecting different expectations on the effects of global warming. Development of the landscape at the site, due to post-glacial isostatic rebound, was modelled, and areas where modelling indicated that radionuclides could discharge into the biosphere were identified. Transfers of surface water and groundwater were described with spatially distributed hydrological models. The projected release of radionuclides from the bedrock was then fed into a biosphere radionuclide transport model, simulating the transport and fate of radionuclides within and between ecosystems in the landscape. Annual doses for human inhabitants were calculated by combining activity concentrations in environmental media (soil, water, air and plants) with assumptions on habits and land-use of future human inhabitants. Similarly, dose rates to representative organisms of non-human biota were calculated from activity concentrations in relevant habitats, following the ERICA methodology. In the main scenario, the calculated risk for humans did not exceed the risk criteria or the screening dose rate for non

  3. Invariant functionals in higher-spin theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    A new construction for gauge invariant functionals in the nonlinear higher-spin theory is proposed. Being supported by differential forms closed by virtue of the higher-spin equations, invariant functionals are associated with central elements of the higher-spin algebra. In the on-shell AdS4 higher-spin theory we identify a four-form conjectured to represent the generating functional for 3d boundary correlators and a two-form argued to support charges for black hole solutions. Two actions for 3d boundary conformal higher-spin theory are associated with the two parity-invariant higher-spin models in AdS4. The peculiarity of the spinorial formulation of the on-shell AdS3 higher-spin theory, where the invariant functional is supported by a two-form, is conjectured to be related to the holomorphic factorization at the boundary. The nonlinear part of the star-product function F* (B (x)) in the higher-spin equations is argued to lead to divergencies in the boundary limit representing singularities at coinciding boundary space-time points of the factors of B (x), which can be regularized by the point splitting. An interpretation of the RG flow in terms of proposed construction is briefly discussed.

  4. The Hundred Languages of Children Exhibition: A Unique Early Childhood Education Professional Development Program. Final Evaluation Report (September 15 to December 15, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Shareen; Huggins, Joyce M.

    The "Exhibition of the Hundred Languages of Children" (HLC) was organized in the early 1980s by the early childhood schools in Reggio Emilia, Italy to promote the study of their educational methods and to reveal the potential of young children for learning and creative expression. This report details an evaluation of the exhibition and…

  5. Introduction of Hundred Bamboo Garden in YIyang City%洞庭湖畔的绿色明珠——湖南益阳百竹园

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新明

    2011-01-01

    This paper described the construction, ecological environment, bamboo germplasm of the Hundred Bamboo Garden in Yiyang city, Hunan province.%本文对湖南省益阳百竹园的建设、生态环境、竹类种质等进行了阐述。

  6. One hundred and fifty-seven cases of knee osteoarthritis treated by electroacupuncture%电针治疗膝关节骨性关节炎157例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍则军; LIU Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is manifested by pain,rigidity and functional disturbance of the knee joints,regarded as a kind of retrograde disease.It affects the health and life quality of the patients.One hundred and fifty-seven cases of KOA have been treated by electroacupuncture since 2005.The report is as follows.

  7. Education Regulations: Roadblocks to Student Choice in Higher Education. Hearing before the Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session (March 17, 2011). Serial Number 112-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    US House of Representatives, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the fourth Committee on Education and the Workforce hearing on the federal rules and regulations that undermine the strength of this nation's education system. Congress has purposely never defined the term "gainful employment," despite its presence in the statute for the past 50 years. It was decided that any attempt to define…

  8. 高职院校兼职教师队伍现状调查与对策思考--以轨道交通类专业为例%Current situation investigation and countermeasures of part-time teachers team in higher vocational school---Taking rail transportation professional as example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田金英; 刘让雄

    2014-01-01

    With rapid development of vocational education,part-time teachers’team has become an important part of higher voca-tional schools,but various problems emerge during practice. Because of the special background of rail transportation professional,part-time teachers’employing channel is restricted;the overall quality is not high owing to their low educational level and technical post title. At the same time,lack of educational theory leads to lack of class controlling ability and difficulty of teaching quality control for part-time teachers due to their contradiction between full-time j obs and part-time j obs. Relative countermeasures contain strengthening policy leading,deepening college-enterprise co-operation and improving management system.%随着职业教育的快速发展,兼职教师队伍日益成为高职院校师资队伍的重要组成部分,但在实践中也产生不少问题。高职轨道交通类专业更因其特殊的行业背景,兼职教师聘用渠道受限,学历和职称总体不高,整体质量偏低,同时,由于缺少教育理论素养,课堂把控能力不足,且专兼职矛盾难以调和,教学质量监控困难,应当从加强政策引导,深化校企合作,完善管理制度几个方面着力加以解决。

  9. On higher holonomy invariants in higher gauge theory I

    CERN Document Server

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This is the first of a series of two technical papers devoted to the analysis of holonomy invariants in strict higher gauge theory with end applications in higher Chern--Simons theory. For a flat 2--connection, we define the 2-holonomy of surface knots of arbitrary genus and determine its covariance properties under 1--gauge transformation and change of base data.

  10. Timing earnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghua; Chen; Xiangqin; Qi; Yongjian; Shen; Huimiao; Lin

    2011-01-01

    Since the opening of China’s securities market,there have been a number of bull and bear cycles.This paper discusses how executives use the market timing approach to manage earnings in different cycles to maximize firm value.We find that Chinese listed companies choose to release more earnings during bull markets and this phenomenon is more evident in companies that are more profitable and have higher valuations.We also find that executives who do not release more earnings during bull markets are more likely to be dismissed.

  11. Elite High Schools Breed Higher Risk of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Elite High Schools Breed Higher Risk of Addiction: Study Rates are two to three times higher ... Privilege doesn't necessarily offer protection from drug addiction, new research suggests. Teens at elite U.S. high ...

  12. String Theory as a Higher Spin Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R

    2015-01-01

    The symmetries of string theory on ${\\rm AdS}_3 \\times {\\rm S}^3 \\times \\mathbb{T}^4$ at the dual of the symmetric product orbifold point are described by a so-called Higher Spin Square (HSS). We show that the massive string spectrum in this background organises itself in terms of representations of this HSS, just as the matter in a conventional higher spin theory does so in terms of representations of the higher spin algebra. In particular, the entire untwisted sector of the orbifold can be viewed as the Fock space built out of the multiparticle states of a single representation of the HSS, the so-called `minimal' representation. The states in the twisted sector can be described in terms of tensor products of a novel family of representations that are somewhat larger than the minimal one.

  13. Professionalizing tutors and tutorials in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colunga, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the necessity of professionalizing training of university teachers performing tutorial activities in higher education as a response to the demands of pupils following a part-time model. Permanent training of tutor is emphasized as a way to enhance professional and personal accomplishments. This training gives priority to educative orientation and interventional actions.

  14. Explaining Increases in Higher Education Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Robert B.; Feldman, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The real cost of higher education per full-time equivalent student has grown substantially over the last 75 years, and the rapid rise since the early 1980s is a cause of considerable public concern. Opinion surveys consistently find that how much one has to pay for a college education is a serious national issue. In his July 1996 congressional…

  15. Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation projects are unique to each institution and yet are expensive, time consuming, and result in change across the institution. Five Midwest public and private 4-year higher education institutions were studied to determine the impact of five specific key factors on the overall success of the ERP…

  16. Radical Reform of German Higher Education Imminent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildung und Wissenschaft, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Predictions are made, based on emerging policy and evidence of trends, about likely changes in the German higher education system including changes in funding sources, scope, and timing; faculty incentives to increase workload; changes in program length and graduates' salary levels; promotion of teaching as an occupation; increased labor market…

  17. Higher Education in India: A Geographical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Reena

    2016-01-01

    In the light on the ancient times, there were prominent universities of Nalanda, Takhashila, Vallabhi and Vikramshila which attract the scholars from all over the world in the field of higher education. The first three modern universities were established at Bombay (now Mumbai), Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Madras (now Chennai) in 1857 on the…

  18. Current Trends in Higher Education Technology: Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damewood, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on how technology in use changes over time, and the current trend of simulation technology as a supported classroom technology. Simulation-based training as a learning tool is discussed within the context of adult learning theories, as is the technology used and how today's higher education technology administrators support…

  19. Application of Higher Diploma Program training skills

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPO

    This article examines the application Higher Diploma training skills in classroom instruction as well ... overall education system of Ethiopia and teacher's ... this, instructors plan their lesson based on ... actual setting and this revealed the real .... assessment and time management in their ...... collaboration) and develop deep.

  20. Towards Sustainable Internationalisation of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Roumiana; Beck, Kumari; Waterstone, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This article engages with the question: what does the internationalisation of higher education in times of globalisation sustain and what should it sustain? We first consider, through literature on globalisation and Stier's ("Glob Soc Educ" 2(1):1-28, 2004) work, limitations of currently prevalent perspectives on…

  1. Towards Sustainable Internationalisation of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Roumiana; Beck, Kumari; Waterstone, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This article engages with the question: what does the internationalisation of higher education in times of globalisation sustain and what should it sustain? We first consider, through literature on globalisation and Stier's ("Glob Soc Educ" 2(1):1-28, 2004) work, limitations of currently prevalent perspectives on…

  2. Women’s Higher Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    AT the Huairou NGO Forum on Women, participants in the Workshop on Women’s Higher Education in China were inspired by Chinese speakers to give voice to their own ideas. The line for speaking grew so long as to require Qi Wenying, Workshop Chairwoman and Professor from Beijing University, to announce a new time limit of one

  3. 百年贵州作家的民族书写%The National Writing of Guizhou Writers for One Hundred Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国景

    2012-01-01

    The depiction of the cultural tradition of ethnic minorities through the local narrative has been the sole choice for Guizhou writers for one hundred years. During the "May 4th Movement" there was in Jian Xianai' s novels an intrinsic view of "ethnography" ; while Guizhou writers focused on their rediscovery of the national folk ballads in times of the War of Resistance against Japan, and the national writing of Guizhou writers have witnessed a new model as well as a breakthrough and rewriting of the model from the "17-year" period to the 1980s--an era of economic reform and opening up. Now as for the 4th-generation Guizhou writers active in their creation, their depiction of regionalism and national character is of distinctive reflexivity and postmodernism along with new experiments in texts, including the narration of the oral tradition of ethnic minorities.%以乡土叙事连接少数民族文化传统,是百年贵州作家的不贰选择。“五四”时期蹇先艾的小说有一种内蕴的“民族志”视野,抗战时期则是对民族民间歌谣的重新发现;“十七年”时期到改革开放的80年代,贵州作家的民族书写则出现了新的模式以及对这种模式的突破和改写。目前活跃在创作一线的第四代贵州作家,他们对地域性与民族性的书写,带有明显的反思性和后现代性,并伴有新文本的试验,包括对少数民族口头传统的接续。

  4. Research on Management Mechanism of Higher Vocational College Students' Social Part-time Jobs——Taking Shazhou Professional Technological Institute as an Example%高职学生社会兼职管理机制的研究——以沙洲职业工学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春红

    2015-01-01

    通过对高职在校生和社会提供兼职的用人单位进行问卷调查、座谈与走访等方式,获得了高职学生很愿意到社会兼职,以获得工作经历与对社会的认识,而社会提供兼职的各单位也愿意通过低成本与灵活的工作制度等方式给在校高职学生提供兼职服务项目.由于高职院校在校学生社会兼职管理尚处于逐步完善阶段,今后有必要构建社会化管理为主、学校管理为辅的管理机制,并通过社会力量逐渐开拓学生社会兼职市场,让更多的学生受益.%Through questionnaires, discussing with college students and visiting employers who provided part-time jobs for students, it is known that college students are willing to take part-time jobs to gain working experience and cognition from the society, and employers are quite willing to provide part-time jobs to college students in a way of low cost and flexible working system. Since the management mechanism of higher vocational college students' social part-time jobs has been steadily improved, it is necessary to set up a management mechanism that colleges provide reliable job resources and the society manage the whole progress, and gradually to develop students' part-time jobs scale by social forces to benefit more students.

  5. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  6. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  7. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  8. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  9. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  10. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  11. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  12. Higher Education and School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shirley M.

    1993-01-01

    Higher education has related asynchronously to recent cycles in social movements affecting school reform. Current efforts in Oregon illustrate this pattern in public colleges. Although higher education is not likely to overcome its skepticism of reform dynamics, there is both reason and potential for promising alliances with schools. (Author/MSE)

  13. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  14. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  15. Globalisation and Higher Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Attempts to identify the various interpretations of globalization in general, as well as in higher education research. Identifies four different conceptualizations and broad topics in the field: the changing nature of international linkages, government authority over higher education, threats to diversity, and the loss of national identities. (EV)

  16. Latino Males in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 fact sheet profiles the status of Latino males in higher education, providing information on population, college enrollment, and educational attainment. While college enrollment among Latino males continues to increase, they still lag behind Latino females in college enrollment--a disparity that increases as the level of higher education…

  17. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  18. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  19. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…

  20. Higher Education: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Richard P.; Dietrich, Greta L.; Phillips, Gabriele; McCormack, Kevin A.

    This report provides a review of higher education systems in selected developed countries and compares higher education in the United States and other countries. The report draws on data from the Indicators of National Education Systems Project of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic…