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Sample records for hunan provinces counties

  1. [Role of socio-economy and management in sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis in Taoyuan County, Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Ming; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yi, Ping; Ren, Guang-Hui; Franziska, Bieri; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Hou, Xun-Ya; Ren, Mao-Yuan; Li, Yi-Yi; Dong, Ru-Lan; Zeng, Jin-Yuan; She, Shu-Ping

    2013-02-01

    To clarify the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis-control in Taoyuan County, an endemic area in hilly region, Hunan Province, China. From 1996 to 2011, the data of socio-economy, the management of schistosomiasis control organizations, environment, and the changes in schistosomiasis prevalence were collected in Taoyuan County where schistosomiasis transmission had been controlled since 2008. A sampling survey of schistosomiasis prevalence of human and bovine was performed in 2011 to verify the current status of schistosomiasis transmission. All the data were analyzed statistically to evaluate the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis control. During the period from 1998 to 2012, the socio-economy including the residents' productive mode and daily life in Taoyuan County improved dramatically, but the recurrence risk of schistosomiasis endemic still existed due to the retuning of out-going workers and the migrating population. Moreover, the introduction of exotic species of plants and animals may increase the risk. The low running cost of schistosomiasis control organization as well as the efficient and adequate resource allocation in the county was in line with the national requirement to strengthen the rural grass-roots public health system. The harmonious development of socio-economy and the scientific and efficient health system in Taoyuan County are the key factors for the sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis.

  2. A survey on the history of developing nuclear power station in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Dexi

    1993-01-01

    Sixteen years ago it was suggested that a nuclear power station should be built in Hunan Province, and a special document was reported to the State Council. Up to now, the idea has still been under consideration. The author discusses the development of nuclear power station in Hunan province. It mainly consists of four parts: the history, the necessity the barriers met in the course and the feasible way of developing nuclear power station in Hunan Province

  3. HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use (IDU is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among detainees and to provide useful information for HIV prevention and intervention strategies in detention centers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 detentions in Hunan province, China, and demographic information along with knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS was collected through standardized interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe HIV knowledge, attitudes, and education services among detainees. Results There were 956 detainees interviewed from 10 detention centers. The male to female ratio was 2.24:1. The majority detainees received nine years of compulsory education, accounting for 51.5%. There were nine questions to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge of detainees, and 35.7% of those surveyed answered all nine questions correctly. There were 92.3% (882/956 who consented to be informed about the HIV antibody test results when tested, and 81% (774/956 elected that their family members were also informed. All detention centers had an organized HIV/AIDS education program. Conclusion This study gives us an overview about HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, and all detention sites in the study provided HIV/AIDS intervention services among detainees that focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and health behaviors.

  4. Problems in Food Safety of Hunan Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanfan; OUYANG; Fangming; DENG

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,serious food safety accidents are of frequent occurrence. Although government has taken many practical and feasible measures to contain food safety accidents,new food safety accidents still emerge in large numbers. In this situation,food safety control is a long-term and arduous task to be performed jointly by many government departments. Finally,it presents corresponding countermeasures and recommendations on the basis of current situations of food safety in Hunan Province,problem causes,in combination with control measures related to food safety both at home and abroad.

  5. [Establishement for regional pelvic trauma database in Hunan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Zhu, Yong; Long, Haitao; Yang, Junxiao; Sun, Buhua; Li, Kanghua

    2017-04-28

    To establish a database for pelvic trauma in Hunan Province, and to start the work of multicenter pelvic trauma registry.
 Methods: To establish the database, literatures relevant to pelvic trauma were screened, the experiences from the established trauma database in China and abroad were learned, and the actual situations for pelvic trauma rescue in Hunan Province were considered. The database for pelvic trauma was established based on the PostgreSQL and the advanced programming language Java 1.6.
 Results: The complex procedure for pelvic trauma rescue was described structurally. The contents for the database included general patient information, injurious condition, prehospital rescue, conditions in admission, treatment in hospital, status on discharge, diagnosis, classification, complication, trauma scoring and therapeutic effect. The database can be accessed through the internet by browser/servicer. The functions for the database include patient information management, data export, history query, progress report, video-image management and personal information management.
 Conclusion: The database with whole life cycle pelvic trauma is successfully established for the first time in China. It is scientific, functional, practical, and user-friendly.

  6. Studies on possibility of building radiation centre in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chuandao

    1987-01-01

    Hunan province is rich in agriculture products and their by-products. The processing and preservation of those products after porduction is an urgent problem to solve. However, radiation techniques can solve the problem of the processing and preservation of part of those products which can not be solved by normal ways. Only in Changsha area, the products such as leather and their products, dried and fresh fruit, medical equipments, industrial chemicals and so on, which can be provided to irradiate, weigh over 1 x 10 5 tons a year. In order to advance the research and application of radiation techniques in the province, over 40 units have been investigated in the province and other provinces. Since 1983, six informal discussions or demonstration meetings were held. 15 pieces of various reports and materials have been put forward. The necessity, possibility, size, place, development aim and united research of building a radiation centre have been scientificly demonstrated and a certain basis have been provided for building radiation centre

  7. Spatiotemporal Risk of Bacillary Dysentery and Sensitivity to Meteorological Factors in Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillary dysentery remains a public health concern in the world. Hunan Province is one of the provinces having the highest risk of bacillary dysentery in China, however, the spatial-temporal distribution, variation of bacillary dysentery and sensitivity to meteorological factors in there are unclear. In this paper, a Bayesian space-time hierarchical model (BSTHM was used to detect space-time variation, and effects of meteorological factors between 2010 and 2015. The risk of bacillary dysentery showed apparent spatial-temporal heterogeneity. The highest risk occurred in the summer season. Economically undeveloped mountainous areas in the west and south of the province had the highest incidence rates. Twenty three (18.9% and 20 (16.4% counties were identified as hot and cold spots, respectively. Among the hotspots, 11 counties (47.8% exhibited a rapidly decreasing trend, suggesting they may become low-risk areas in the future. Of the cold spot counties, six (30% showed a slowly decreasing trend, and may have a higher risk in the future. Among meteorological factors, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed all played a significant role in the spatial-temporal distribution of bacillary dysentery risk. These findings can contribute to the implementation of an early warning system for controlling and preventing bacillary dysentery.

  8. Natural external radiation level and population dose in Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the natural external radiation level in Hunan Province is reported. The measurements were performed with FD-71 scintillation radiometers. On the basis of measurements at about 1,600 locations, the contribution from cosmic radiation is found to be 3.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , and the average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial γ-radiation for outdoors, indoors and roads are determined to be 9.2, 13.1 and 9.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The γ-radiation indoors is markedly higher than that outdoors by a factor of 1.42. The lowest γ-radiation level is found in the sedimentary plain around Donting Lake, while the highest absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation are observed in some areas with exposed granites. The indoor γ-radiation in brick houses is markedly higher than that in wooden houses. Tarred roads have evidently lower radiation level than sand-gravel roads or concrete roads. The annual effective dose equivalents to the population from cosmic and terrestrial sources are 0.256 and 0.756 mSv, respectively, with a total value of 1.012 mSv

  9. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation in Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation of natural penetrating radiation level in Hunan Province are presented. 309 25 x 25 km-netted measuring points were set up uniformly all over the province, with 1007 densely measuring points of different type added. The results showed that: (1) the point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over field was 7.11, 6.90 and 7.07 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over road was 7.05 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 ; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings was 10.43 and 10.56 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 ; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray was 2.67 and 2.66 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings was 13.1 and 13.2 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 , and outside buildings was 10.1 and 9.88 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation was 0.58, 0.24 and 0.82 mSv, respectively, and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent was 3.1, 1.3 and 4.4 x 10 4 man · Sv, respectively

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Goats in Hunan Province, Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi-Feng; Li, Fen; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2018-01-23

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, which can infect animals and human, including goats. However, little information on C. abortus infection is available in goats in Hunan province, subtropical China. To investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in goats in Hunan province, China, a total of 911 goat blood samples were collected randomly from 14 herds having number of goats ranging from 1000 to 3000 from March 2014 to December 2015. Seropositive animals were found in 11 out of 14 (78.57%) goat herds with seroprevalence ranging from 0.00% to 29.94% in individual herds. Overall, the seroprevalence of C. abortus infection was different among regions (southern Hunan: 1.78%; northeast Hunan: 5.47%; and west Hunan: 15.29%), gender (male: 4.58% and female: 9.10%), seasons (spring: 5.97%; summer: 2.61%; autumn: 16.88%; and winter: 10.94%), and ages (year ≤1: 2.39%; 1 3: 17.57%). Risk factors for C. abortus infection were associated with region, season, and age in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first document to demonstrate the existence of C. abortus infection in goats, and the seroprevalence was 8.45% out of 911 goats in Hunan province.

  11. [Characteristics of soil phosphorous loss under different ecological planting patterns in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min; Wen, Shi-Lin; Xu, Ming-Gang; Dong, Chun-Hua; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu

    2013-11-01

    Taking a large standard runoff plot on a red soil slope in Qiyang County, southern Hunan Province as a case, this paper studied the surface soil phosphorus loss characteristics in the hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan under eight ecological planting patterns. The phosphorus loss from wasteland (T1) was most serious, followed by that from natural sloped cropping patterns (T2 and T3), while the phosphorus loss amount from terrace cropping patterns (T4-T8) was the least, only occupying 9.9%, 37%, 0.7%, 2.3%, and 1.9% of T1, respectively. The ecological planting patterns directly affected the forms of surface-lost soil phosphorus, with the particulate phosphorus (PP) as the main lost form. Under the condition of rainstorm (daily rainfall > 50 mm), rainfall had lesser effects on the phosphorus loss among different planting patterns. However, the phosphorus loss increased with increasing rain intensity. The surface soil phosphorus loss mainly occurred from June to September. Both the rainfall and the rain intensity were the factors directly affected the time distribution of surface soil phosphorus loss in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan.

  12. Exploring the Factors Driving Seasonal Farmland Abandonment: A Case Study at the Regional Level in Hunan Province, Central China

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    Zhonglei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmland abandonment, including perennial and seasonal abandonment, is an important process of land use change that matters most to food security. Although there is a great deal of studies on farmland abandonment, seasonal abandonment, which is as serious as perennial abandonment, has attracted little academic attention. This paper takes Hunan Province in central China as its study area and uses a spatial regression model to examine the driving factors of seasonal farmland abandonment at the county level. Our results show that farmland abandonment has striking spatial relativity, and there are two clustering zones with a high index of farmland abandonment (IFA in the Dongting plain and the basin in south-central Hunan, while a clustering zone of low IFA can be found in the mountains of southwest Hunan. Farmland abandonment at the regional level is negatively affected by the land productive potentialities, proportion of mechanized planting, ratio of effective irrigation, and distance to provincial capital, while it is positively associated with the variables mountainous terrain, per capita farmland area, and labor shortage. Additionally, farmland abandonment is also affected by adjacent areas through its spatial dependence. In short, seasonal farmland abandonment is also driven integratedly by the socioeconomic and environmental dimensions and spatial interaction of farm abandonment.

  13. Decommissioning management of pit water at an uranium mine in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the influence of mining on groundwater at an uranium mine in Hunan Province, emphatically discusses the managing principles, methods and research works of pit water in decommissioning, and summaries sealing technique, construction management and the effect achieved in management of pit water

  14. [Quantitative classification in catering trade and countermeasures of supervision and management in Hunan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiulan; Chen, Lizhang; He, Xiang

    2012-02-01

    To analyze the status quo of quantitative classification in Hunan Province catering industry, and to discuss the countermeasures in-depth. According to relevant laws and regulations, and after referring to Daily supervision and quantitative scoring sheet and consulting experts, a checklist of key supervision indicators was made. The implementation of quantitative classification in 10 cities in Hunan Province was studied, and the status quo was analyzed. All the 390 catering units implemented quantitative classified management. The larger the catering enterprise, the higher level of quantitative classification. In addition to cafeterias, the smaller the catering units, the higher point of deduction, and snack bars and beverage stores were the highest. For those quantified and classified as C and D, the point of deduction was higher in the procurement and storage of raw materials, operation processing and other aspects. The quantitative classification of Hunan Province has relatively wide coverage. There are hidden risks in food security in small catering units, snack bars, and beverage stores. The food hygienic condition of Hunan Province needs to be improved.

  15. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  16. Radiation Impact to Environment of Non-nuclear Industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Wei-jie; CHENG; Wei-ya

    2015-01-01

    According to the gas,liquid effluent monitoring and survey results of non nuclear industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi provinces,the radiation effects of which on the surrounding environment were analysis and evaluation.Evaluation industrials includes three coal-fired power plants,two rare earth ores,two cement factories,one

  17. Public Perception of Cadaver Organ Donation in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A J; Xie, W Z; Luo, J J; Ouyang, W

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to (1) survey public' perception and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to donate. We developed a questionnaire, and conducted the survey with stratified random sampling. Overall, 600 residents, aged ≥18 who resided in Hunan, and 600 undergraduates from 3 universities in Hunan were surveyed randomly. For this study, 1085 valid questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 90.4%. Of the 1085 participants, 581 (53.5%) were students, 504 (46.5%) were residents, and 519 (47.8%) were male and 566 (52.2%) female. The mean accuracy rate was 71.96%, and the students' mean accuracy rate was slightly higher than that of the resident population (73.06% vs 70.68%, respectively). The results showed that 82.2% of public support organ donation, and 53.5% were willing to donate their organs after death. Students scored higher than the residents (88% vs 75.6% and 55.6% vs 51.2%). Nearly 1.8% felt that organ donation was against their religion, 14.9% thought it was important to ensure the integrity of the body, 71.7% agreed that organ donation allowed a positive outcome after a person's death, and 61.5% agreed that organ donation represented a continuation of life, to help families cope with grief. Age and gender were related to attitudes. Public knowledge of organ donation and their attitudes were correlated positively (r = 0.666). Public knowledge of organ donation is poor, biased, and incomplete, and based on television, movies, and communication networks. Positive attitudes toward donation displayed in the surveys were not matched by actual organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Shu, Ying; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan

    2013-12-01

    Located in Central South China, Hunan province is rich in mineral resources. To study the influence of mining on Cd pollution to local agricultural eco-system, the paddy soils and rice grain of Y county in northern Hunan province were intensively monitored. The results were as follows: (1) Total Cd (T-Cd) content in the soils of the county ranges from 0.13 to 6.02 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.64 mg kg(-1), of which 57.5% exceed the allowable limit specified by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. T-Cd in the soils varies largely, with the coefficient of variation reaching 146.4%. The spatial distribution of T-Cd in the soils quite matches with that of mining and industries. The content of HCl-extractable Cd (HCl-Cd) in the soils ranges from 0.02 to 2.17 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.24 mg kg(-1). A significant positive correlation exists between T-Cd and HCl-Cd in the soils (r = 0.770, ρ soils (r = 0.091, ρ > 0.05), which suggests that the amount of Cd accumulating in the rice is more affected by its availability in the soils, rather than the total content. (4) The dietary intake of Cd via rice consumption in Y county is estimated to be 179.9 μg day(-1) person(-1) on average, which is far beyond the allowable limit specified by FAO/WHO and the target hazard quotients of Cd much higher than 1, suggesting the high risk on human health from Cd exposure.

  19. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Kiwifruit of Planting Base in Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ren-cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals accumulation in soil and kiwi fruit plant in Western Hunan Province main kiwifruit planting base were analyzed, such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr. The results showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in soil of 6 kiwifruit planting areas were not obvious. The contents of heavy metals in most of areas of Western Hunan Province were below the national standard, except one area where the soil contents of cadmium (4.900 mg·kg-1, mercury (0.634 mg·kg-1were exceeded. At the same time, the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals was less than 0.7 in these areas. There were 5 bases with no pollution of heavy metal, all which the kiwifruit could be safely produced in line with the requirements of the green kiwifruit planting base soil standards. At these areas, the contents of various heavy metals(except cadmium and mercurywere small in the branches and leaves of kiwifruit; kiwifruit had a very well capacity to absorb the cadmium when the cadmium content of its branches reached 12.73%. The heavy metal contents of the kiwifruit in the 6 regions, which belonging to the pollutionfree green fruits, were below or far lower than the national standard. According to the comprehensive analysis, the soil condition of the main cultivated land in Western Hunan Province was good, and the fruit had no heavy metal residues.

  20. Population genetics of 26 Y-STR loci for the Han ethnic in Hunan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weibo; Gong, Zheng; Rong, Haibo; Guan, Hua; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yihe; Fu, Xiaoliang; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Jin, Chuan; Ding, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    To study the population data of Y-chromosome STRs (Y-STRs) of Han population resided in Hunan province, we analyzed haplotypes of 26 Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS635, DYS643, DYS388, DYS449, DYS460, and YGATAH4) in 310 unrelated male individuals using a commercially available Goldeneye® DNA ID 26Y system. The calculated average gene diversity values ranged from 0.4211 to 0.9590 for DYS438 and DYS385a/b loci, respectively. The discriminatory capacity was 96.77 % with 300 observed haplotypes. Population relationships between Hunan Han and eight other populations available from Y-chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD) were compared. The results showed that the Han population resided in the Hunan district is significantly different from other populations. Our results also indicated that these 26 Y-STR loci were highly genetically polymorphic in the Hunan Han population and of great value in forensic application.

  1. [Carbon efficiency of double-rice production system in Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong-du; Wu, Yao; Ti, Jin-song; Chen, Fu; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Improving the carbon efficiency of crop production systems is one of the important ways to realize low-carbon agriculture. A life cycle assessment approach and input-output calculation method was applied for a double-rice production system in the Hunan Province. Based on statistical data of crop yield and investment in the production system in the period from 2004 to 2012, carbon emission, carbon absorption, carbon efficiency and their dynamic changes of the double rice production systems were estimated. The results showed that the average of annual carbon emission from 2004 to 2012 was 656.4 x 10(7) kg CE. Carbon emissions from production and transport of fertilizer and pesticide accounted for a majority of agricultural input carbon emissions, approximately 70.0% and 15.9%, respectively. The carbon emission showed a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2012 in the Hunan Province, with an annual reduction rate of 2.4%, but the carbon emission intensity was in a trend of increase. The average of annual carbon absorption was 1547.0 x 10(7) kg C. The annual carbon absorption also showed a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2012 in Hunan Province, with an average annual reduction rate of 1.2%, and the carbon absorption intensity showed a trend of increase. Furthermore, production efficiency of carbon showed a slow upward trend. The economic efficiency of carbon showed a larger increasing rate with time, with an average annual growth rate of 9.9%. Ecological efficiency of carbon was stable and low, maintained at about 2.4 kg C . kg-1 CE. It indicated that the integrated carbon efficiency of Hunan double rice crop production system improved slowly with time and the key to improve the carbon efficiency of double rice production systems lies in reducing the rates of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide, and improving their use efficiencies.

  2. Gender and regional disparities of tuberculosis in Hunan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mengshi; Kwaku, Abuaku Benjamin; Chen, Youfang; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Wen, Shi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Major efforts have been made to improve the health care system in Hunan province, China. The aims of this study were to assess whether and to what extent these efforts have impacted on gender and regional disparities of Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in recent years, especially for less developed areas. Methods We obtained data from the 2005–2009 China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP)to conduct this study in Hunan province. Counties within the province ...

  3. [Prediction model of health workforce and beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ru; Liu, Jiawang

    2011-12-01

    To construct prediction model for health workforce and hospital beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression. We surveyed 16 counties in Hunan with stratified random sampling according to uniform questionnaires,and multiple linear regression analysis with 20 quotas selected by literature view was done. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on medical personnels in county hospitals included the counties' urban residents' income, crude death rate, medical beds, business occupancy, professional equipment value, the number of devices valued above 10 000 yuan, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, and utilization rate of hospital beds. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on county hospital beds included the the population of aged 65 and above in the counties, disposable income of urban residents, medical personnel of medical institutions in county area, business occupancy, the total value of professional equipment, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, utilization rate of hospital beds, and length of hospitalization. The prediction model shows good explanatory and fitting, and may be used for short- and mid-term forecasting.

  4. Content of [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po in main foods of Hunan province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiaquan, Yan [Hunan Inst. for Labour Hygiene, Propylaxis and Treatment of Occupational Diseases (China); Radiological Health Group collabrated

    1992-03-01

    Investigation results were reported of content of [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po in main foods of Hunan province from 1988 to early 1989. The content of [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po in 17 kinds of foods investigated ranges from 0.02 to 11.8 Bqkg[sup -1] and from 0.04 to 15.6 Bqkg[sup -1] respectively. The estimated committed dose equivalents of residents were 102.6 [mu]Sv and 29.6 [mu]Sv for [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po taken through foods respectively.

  5. Content of 210Pb and 210Po in main foods of Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jiaquan

    1992-01-01

    Investigation results were reported of content of 210 Pb and 210 Po in main foods of Hunan province from 1988 to early 1989. The content of 210 Pb and 210 Po in 17 kinds of foods investigated ranges from 0.02 to 11.8 Bqkg -1 and from 0.04 to 15.6 Bqkg -1 respectively. The estimated committed dose equivalents of residents were 102.6 μSv and 29.6 μSv for 210 Pb and 210 Po taken through foods respectively

  6. Epidemiology of severe mental illness in Hunan province in central China during 2014-2015: A multistage cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxin Wang

    Full Text Available Severe mental illness (SMI represents major social and public health problem in China, especially in low- or middle-income regions. We aim to assess the prevalence and distribution of SMI in Hunan province in central China.Multistage stratified random sampling methods were used to select qualified subjects in 123 districts and counties in Hunan province. 89465 individuals were randomly identified, and 72999 (81.6% completed the supplemental 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and Cue questionnaire of psychiatric abnormal behaviors. 6082 suspected individuals having high or moderate risk, or psychiatric cues, were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I by psychiatrists.720 respondents were definitely diagnosed as SMI. The 1-month and lifetime prevalence was 9.35‰ and 10.10‰, respectively. The most frequent SMI was schizophrenia, followed by bipolar disorder, intellectual disability, epileptic mental disorder, paranoid psychosis and schizoaffective disorders, with 1-month prevalence ranging from 0.11‰ to 6.50‰ and lifetime prevalence ranging from 0.24‰ to 6.86‰. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lower education, farmer occupation, retirees or jobless/unemployed, unmarried or divorced and age of 30-64 years old were major factors that associated with the increased risk of SMI. In addition, only 33.3% of 528 patients who completed questionnaire sought help in psychiatric institutions, and up to 51.7% of 720 patients were not referred to the SMI management system in Hunan province.These findings provided a large-scale prevalence data of SMI in a provincial sample of China. The psychiatric disorders brought economical and psychological burden for family and society, which may shed light on the significance of scaling up province-wide mental health service and strengthening the SMI management.

  7. Population structure and diversity of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in Hunan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cui; Yao, Run-Xian; Li, Fang; Dai, Su-Ming; Licciardello, Grazia; Catara, Antonino; Gentile, Alessandra; Deng, Zi-Niu

    2017-02-01

    Stem-pitting (SP) is the main type of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) that causes severe damage to citrus trees, especially those of sweet orange, in Hunan province, China. Understanding the local CTV population structure should provide clues for effective mild strain cross-protection (MSCP) of the SP strain of CTV. In this study, markers for the p23 gene, multiple molecular markers (MMMs), and sequence analysis of the three silencing suppressor genes (p20, p23 and p25) were employed to analyze the genetic diversity and genotype composition of the CTV population based on 51 CTV-positive samples collected from 14 citrus orchards scattered around six major citrus-growing areas of Hunan. The results indicated that the CTV population structure was extremely complex and that infection was highly mixed. In total, p23 gene markers resulted in six profiles, and MMMs demonstrated 25 profiles. The severe VT and T3 types appeared to be predominantly associated with SP, while the mild T30 and RB types were related to asymptomatic samples. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of p20, p23 and p25, 19 representative CTV samples were classified into seven recently established CTV groups and a potentially novel one. A high level of genetic diversity, as well as potential recombination, was revealed among different CTV isolates. Five pure SP severe and two pure mild strains were identified by genotype composition analysis. Taken together, the results update the genetic diversity of CTV in Hunan with the detection of one possible novel strain, and this information might be applicable for the selection of appropriate mild CTV strains for controlling citrus SP disease through cross-protection.

  8. Preliminary discussion on possible genesis of crustal rotation, its impact on geotectonic evolution and its relation to large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Xiaojing

    2005-01-01

    Hunan province and adjacent regions show ring-form distribution features both on surface geologic structure and geophysical field. Such features might result from the rotation movement of the earth crust and exert serious impact on the geotectonic evolution and large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions. This paper makes a preliminary discussion on the possible genesis of such rotation movement, as well as the associated series of geologic processes and its relation to large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions. (authors)

  9. Study results on estimation of non-specialized physical training university students in Hunan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Highlights the results of the implementation of national standards of physical fitness assessment of students specialized universities Chinese province of Hunan. Discovered that the main negative factors that reduce the effectiveness in this area are the following: lack of unified management of the process of introducing national standards of physical fitness assessment of students; shortcomings in the quality and quantity of equipment for evaluation, the low level of mastery of the teaching staff of the methodology and insufficient use the results of monitoring the health of the students in the further education; misallocation of time for testing and evaluation in terms of physical health. Substantiates the importance of the rational organization of the assessment system, outlined the main directions of improving the effectiveness of the implementation of national standards of physical fitness of students.

  10. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28. Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively. Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  11. Exploring the Factors Driving Seasonal Farmland Abandonment: A Case Study at the Regional Level in Hunan Province, Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhonglei; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Hua; Liang, Jinshe

    2017-01-01

    Farmland abandonment, including perennial and seasonal abandonment, is an important process of land use change that matters most to food security. Although there is a great deal of studies on farmland abandonment, seasonal abandonment, which is as serious as perennial abandonment, has attracted little academic attention. This paper takes Hunan Province in central China as its study area and uses a spatial regression model to examine the driving factors of seasonal farmland abandonment at the ...

  12. Landsat analysis of the Yangjiatan tungsten district, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W.D.; Kiilsgaard, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Yangjiatan tungsten district at latitude 27??28??? N. and longitude 111??54???E. is located about 140 km southwest of the city of Changsha and 35 km northeast of the town of Shaoyang, southeast Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. The deposits, consisting largely of scheelite in veins (Wang, 1975), are contained in highly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age intruded by granitic plutons that are circular in plan view. The major faults and folds trend in a northeasterly direction; whereas, the plutons are clustered in a more easterly trending band across the Landsat image. Landsat image E-2338-02202, acquired December 26, 1975, is number 470 in the "Landsat Image Atlas of the People's Republic of China" printed by the Publishing House of Geology in 1979. A computer-compatible tape of the image was analyzed and used as a demonstration project under a United Nations technical assistance program. Supervised classification of soils, rocks, and vegetation; band ratioing to detect limonite alteration; and edge enhancement were all conducted to demonstrate the flexibility and capability of interactive computer systems. Field evaluation of the results of this work will be conducted by colleagues of the Remote Sensing Center for Geology, Ministry of Geology, in China. ?? 1983.

  13. [Molecular epidemiological survey of hemoglobinopathies in Yongzhou area of Hunan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Tang, Deguo; Yang, Shaohui; Wang, Ju; Ai, Yanmin; Zhang, Miao

    2017-10-10

    To summarize the molecular epidemiology of hemoglobinopathies in Yongzhou area of Hunan province in order to provide a basis for making the guidelines of local thalassemia prevention program. Two thousand and two samples (1001 couples) were randomly recruited based on demographic data and distribution of ethnic groups. All samples were subjected to full blood count and analysis of hemoglobin and 6 common alpha-thalassemia mutations. Known beta-thalassemia mutations were screened in samples with beta-thalassemia trait. The remaining samples with positive phenotype and unknown mutations were subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Two hundred and forty individuals were found to be carriers of hemoglobinopathic mutations, which included 6 common alpha-thalassemia deletions, 9 common beta-thalassemia mutations and 3 common structural hemoglobin variants. One hundred and seventy-four mutant alleles for alpha-thalassemia were detected, which gave a carrier rate of 8.69%, of which 0.1% was due to HbH disease. Seventy mutant alleles for beta-thalassemia were detected, which gave a carrier rate of 3.50%. Seven subjects (0.35%) were identified as carriers of hemoglobin variants. The overall carrier rate for hemoglobinopathic mutations was 12.54% based on detection of 251 hemoglobinopathy mutant alleles. The overall carrier rate for alpha- and beta-thalassemia among ethnic Yaos was 25.00%, which was significantly higher than that of ethnic Han Chinese (11.14%, Phemoglobinopathies in Yongzhou area has been delineated for the first time.

  14. Research on the Mode of Technology Innovation Alliance of the New Material Industry in Hunan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan

    2018-03-01

    One of the main directions of technology development in the 21st century is the development and application of new materials, and the key to the development of the new material industry lies in the industrial technology innovation. The gross scale of the new material industry in Hunan Province ranks the first array in China. Based on the present situation of Hunan’s new material industry, three modes of technology innovation alliance are put forward in this paper, namely the government-driven mode, the research-driven and the market-oriented mode. The government-driven mode is applicable to the major technology innovation fields with uncertain market prospect, high risk of innovation and government’s direct or indirect intervention;the research-driven mode is applicable to the key technology innovation fields with a high technology content; and the market-oriented mode is applicable to the general innovation fields in which enterprises have demands for technology innovation but such innovation must be achieved via cooperative research and development.

  15. Emergency nurses' knowledge and experience with the triage process in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Karen; Peng, Lingli; Anikeeva, Olga; Arbon, Paul; Du, Huiyun; Li, Yinglan

    2017-11-01

    Triage is implemented to facilitate timely and appropriate treatment of patients, and is typically conducted by senior nurses. Triage accuracy and consistency across emergency departments remain a problem in mainland China. This study aimed to investigate the current status of triage practice and knowledge among emergency nurses in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. A sample of 300 emergency nurses was selected from 13 tertiary hospitals in Changsha and a total of 193 completed surveys were returned (response rate=64.3%). Surveys were circulated to head nurses, who then distributed them to nurses who met the selection criteria. Nurses were asked to complete the surveys and return them via dedicated survey return boxes that were placed in discreet locations to ensure anonymity. Just over half (50.8%) of participants reported receiving dedicated triage training, which was provided by their employer (38.6%), an education organisation (30.7%) or at a conference (26.1%). Approximately half (53.2%) reported using formal triage scales, which were predominantly 4-tier (43%) or 5-tier (34%). The findings highlight variability in triage practices and training of emergency nurses in Changsha. This has implications for the comparability of triage data and transferability of triage skills across hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  17. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  18. Magnetite as the indicator of ore genesis for the Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, southern Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, T.; Ma, D.; Lu, J.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, located in southern Hunan Province, China, hosts abundant W-Mo-Pb-Zn mineralization which linked with the skarn system located between late Mesozoic high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic granitoids and the Carboniferous carbonate in this deposit. In this study, concentrations of trace and minor elements of the magnetites from different skarn stages are obtained by in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis, in order to further understand the polymetallic mineralization processes within this deposit. The generally high concentrations of spinel elements, including Mg, Al, Ti, Mn, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Ga, Ge, and Sn, in all magnetites from this deposit suggest that these elements are incorporated into magnetite lattice by substituting Fe3+ and/or Fe2+. However, the various concentrations of Na, Si, K, Ca, and W elements in magnetites, combining the abnormal time-resolved analytical signals of LA-ICP-MS analyses, suggest that these elements are significantly affected by the fluid inclusions in magnetites. Two groups of magnetites can be further distinguished based on their trace and minor elements concentrations: Group-1 magnetites, including those in medium grain garnets and calcite, have obvious lower Na, Si, K, Ca, Sn, W, but higher Mg, Al, Ti, V, Co, Ni, Zn concentrations compared with Group-2 magnetites, which including those in coarse grain garnets, tremolite, and bulk magnetite ores. This suggests that the hydrothermal fluids where Group-2 magnetites precipitated are evolved magmatic fluids which have undergone the crystal fractionation during the early skarn stages (eg. Garnet and tremolite), the high Na, Si, K, and Ca in the hydrothermal fluids probably result from the dissolution of the host rocks, such as limestone, sandstone, and evaporite horizons in this deposit. However, the Group-1 magnetites probably precipitated in the hydrothermal fluids with low salinity, which result the low Na, Si, K, and Ca in these magnitites. Furthermore, these

  19. Cadmium Profiles in Dental Calculus: a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study in Hunan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Tan, Xiaodan; Zhang, Kunlun

    2018-01-24

    We aimed to investigate whether the cadmium concentrations differ in human dental calculus obtained from the residents with no smoking living in the contaminated area and those with no smoking living in noncontaminated area. In total, there were 260 samples of dental calculus from the adults (n = 50) with no smoking living in contaminated area, the adults (n = 60) with no smoking living in mountainous area, and the adults (n = 150) with no smoking living in low altitude area in Hunan province of China. All samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for cadmium levels. The cadmium levels in dental calculus were significantly higher in the adults with no smoking living in contaminated area than those living in mountainous area and in low altitude area (p dental calculus were also higher in the adults with no smoking living in low altitude area than those living in mountainous region (p dental calculus may be a useful noninvasive method for analysis of environmental exposure to cadmium in the human oral cavity. The low altitude region may have an area contaminated with cadmium in Hunan province of China.

  20. Trends and periodicity of daily temperature and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from daily temperature and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, temperature extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 temperature indices, and the nighttime temperature increases faster than the daytime temperature at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme temperature indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all temperature indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme temperature indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 temperature indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide

  1. The effect of drinking water quality on the health and longevity of people-A case study in Mayang, Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Yuan, F.

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water is an important source for trace elements intake into human body. Thus, the drinking water quality has a great impact on people’s health and longevity. This study aims to study the relationship between drinking water quality and human health and longevity. A longevity county Mayang in Hunan province, China was chosen as the study area. The drinking water and hair of local centenarians were collected and analyzed the chemical composition. The drinking water is weak alkaline and rich in the essential trace elements. The daily intakes of Ca, Cu, Fe, Se, Sr from drinking water for residents in Mayang were much higher than the national average daily intake from beverage and water. There was a positive correlation between Ni and Pb in drinking water and Ni and Pb in hair. There were significant correlations between Cu, K in drinking water and Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr in the hair at the 0.01 level. The concentrations of Mg, Sr, Se in drinking water showed extremely significant positive relation with two centenarian index 100/80% and 100/90% correlation. Essential trace elements in drinking water can be an important factor for local health and longevity.

  2. Association between floods and infectious diarrhea and their effect modifiers in Hunan province, China: A two-stage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Feifei; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Xuena; Ding, Guoyong; Zhang, Caixia; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the potential links between floods and infectious diarrhea is important under the context of climate change. However, little is known about the risk of infectious diarrhea after floods and what factors could modify these effects in China. This study aims to quantitatively examine the relationship between floods and infectious diarrhea and their effect modifiers. Weekly number of infectious diarrhea cases from 2004 to 2011 during flood season in Hunan province were supplied by the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Flood and meteorological data over the same period were obtained. A two-stage model was used to estimate a provincial average association and their effect modifiers between floods and infectious diarrhea, accounting for other confounders. A total of 134,571 cases of infectious diarrhea were notified from 2004 to 2011. After controlling for seasonality, long-term trends, and meteorological factors, floods were significantly associated with infectious diarrhea in the provincial level with a cumulative RR of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43) with a lagged effect of 0-1 week. Geographic locations and economic levels were identified as effect modifiers, with a higher impact of floods on infectious diarrhea in the western and regions with a low economic level of Hunan. Our study provides strong evidence of a positive association between floods and infectious diarrhea in the study area. Local control strategies for public health should be taken in time to prevent and reduce the risk of infectious diarrhea after floods, especially for the vulnerable regions identified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C

    1999-12-01

    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%.

  4. Vulnerability to sexual violence and participation in sex work among high-end entertainment centre workers in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Sun, Xiaoming; Mantell, Joanne E; Zhou, Jianfang; Mao, Jingshu; Peng, Yanhui

    2013-11-01

    China has seen a proliferation of entertainment centres that are frequented by business people. Employees at these centres often are young, female rural-to-urban migrants who may be vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation. Data for this study were collected using a self-administered survey among male and female employees in two high-end entertainment centres in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. We used logistic regression to examine predictors of violent and potentially exploitative experiences (partner violence, forced sex and transactional sex). Predictors included gender, ever having a same-sex partner, migration variables and employment characteristics. Participants reported high levels of partner violence (16.0% ever and 9.0% in the past 3 months) and forced sex (13.9% ever and 5.5% in the past 3 months). Nineteen percent reported sex work in the past 3 months. In the multivariate regressions, ever having had a same-sex partner was associated with higher odds of ever having experienced partner violence (odds ratio (OR)=7.8, Pgender nor migration status was associated with any of the outcomes. High-end entertainment centre workers in China are at risk for sexual violence and should be targeted with employment-based interventions.

  5. Gender and regional disparities of tuberculosis in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengshi; Kwaku, Abuaku Benjamin; Chen, Youfang; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Wen, Shi Wu

    2014-04-27

    Major efforts have been made to improve the health care system in Hunan province, China. The aims of this study were to assess whether and to what extent these efforts have impacted on gender and regional disparities of Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in recent years, especially for less developed areas. We obtained data from the 2005-2009 China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP)to conduct this study in Hunan province. Counties within the province were divided into four regions according to quartiles based on the 2007 per capita GDP. Index of Disparity (ID) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were used to measure the disparities of TB incidence in relation to gender and region. Bootstrap technique was used to increase the precision. The average annual incidence of TB was 111.75 per 100,000 in males and 43.44 per 100 000 in females in Hunan. The gender disparity was stable, with ID from 42.34 in 2005 to 43.92 in 2009. For regional disparity, ID, RII (mean) and RII (ratio) decreased significantly from 2005 to 2009 in males (P China, regional disparity in relation to incidence of TB decreased significantly, but the gender disparity remains in the Hunan province.

  6. Follow-up study on management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng YQ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yuqin Zeng,1,* Jianxian Xu,1,* Shan Cai,1 Fen Jiang,1 Anmei Hu,2 Huayun Liu,3 Chengli Bei,4 Ping Chen11Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shenzhen City Baoan District Central Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Yueyang First People’s Hospital, Yueyang, Hunan, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Changsha Central Hospital, Changsha, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: In 2009, our study showed an extreme imbalance and disparity in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels of public hospitals (PHs in Hunan Province of the People’s Republic of China, especially in second-level PHs. Moreover, most Chinese citizens accept their health care services in first- and second-level PHs for economic and geographical reasons, as well as because of the incomplete transfer system in the health care services. To improve diagnosis and treatment ability of pulmonologists in second-level PHs, an intervention that provided training combined with spirometry equipment was carried out in three PHs from six second-level PHs. The aim of this follow-up study was to evaluate the changes associated with COPD-related health resources allocation and the effect of the intervention 4 years later.Methods: The data regarding the availability of spirometers, inhalation agents for COPD, and COPD-related health care education for local residents were collected from 57 PHs in 2009 and 48 PHs in 2013. Pulmonologists working in these PHs were asked to complete a questionnaire individually. Six second-level PHs (three in the intervention group and the other three in the control group [without training and spirometry equipment] that further took part in the survey in 2009 were reevaluated to determine the doubtful diagnostic ratio and the confirmation ratio of COPD. The

  7. [An analysis of status of personnel in occupational disease prevention and treatment institutions in Hunan Province, China, from 1996 to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X L; Xiao, Y L; Tang, H Q; Chen, B L; Yang, L H; Xiao, Y L; Lv, S J

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To analyze the status of personnel in occupational disease prevention and treatment institutions in Hunan Province, China, from 1996 to 2015, to predict staff composition using grey model (GM) (1, 1) , and to provide a scientific basis and reference for optimizing human resource planning of occupational disease prevention and treatment in other provinces and regions and promoting the service capacity of the institutions. Methods: The data of the staff in occupational disease prevention and treatment institutions in Hunan Province, China, from 1996 to 2015 were obtained from the established basic information management system. The descriptive analysis method was used to analyze the dynamic changes in number and composition of the staff and the GM (1, 1) was used to predict the staff composition. Results: The numbers of the staff members in 1996 and 2015 in occupational disease prevention and treatment institutions in Hunan Province, China were 1591 and 1429, respectively. In the twenty years, the main education level of the staff transformed from "technical secondary school education and non-academic qualifications" to "bachelor degree or above and college degree"; the main major of the staff transformed from "other majors" to "public health and clinical medicine"; the proportion of the staff members without professional titles changed from >1/3 to 5%; and the proportions of the staff members with senior, intermediate, and junior professional titles were steadily rising. GM prediction showed that the proportions of highly educated staff members in 2018 and 2020 would be up to 41.00% and 45.61%, respectively; and the proportions of the staff members with a major in public health in 2018 and 2020 would be up to 44.15% and 46.60%, respectively. Conclusion: The staff in occupational disease prevention and treatment institutions in Hunan Province, China, in the twenty years have slight changes in staff size and great improvement in staff quality, which is

  8. [Spatial distribution and ecological significance of heavy metals in soils from Chatian mercury mining deposit, western Hunan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Yong-Hu; Ji, Yan-Fang; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2009-04-15

    Ores, waste tailings and slag, together with three typical soil profiles (natural soil profiles far from mine entrance and near mine entrance, soil profile under slag) in Chatian mercury mining deposit (CMD), western Hunan province were sampled and their concentrations of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) were determined by HG-ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Enrichment factor and correlation analysis were taken to investigate the origins, distribution and migration of Hg, as well as other heavy metals in the CMD. The results show that Hg is enriched in the bottom of the soil profile far from mine entrance but accumulated in the surface of soil profiles near mine entrance and under slag. The soil profiles near mine entrance and under slag are both contaminated by Hg, while the latter is contaminated more heavily. In the soil profile under slag, Hg concentration in the surface soil, Hg average concentration in the total profile, and the leaching depth of soil Hg are 640 microg x g(-1), (76.74 +/- 171.71) microg x g(-1), and more than 100 cm, respectively; while 6.5 microg x g(-1), (2.74 +/- 1.90) microg x g(-1), and 40 cm, respectively, are found in the soil profile near mine entrance. Soil in the mercury mine area is also polluted by Cd, As, Pb, Zn besides metallogenic element Hg, among which Cd pollution is relatively heavier than others. The mobility of the studied heavy metals in soil follows the order as Hg > Cd > As > Zn approximately equal to Pb. The leaching depth of the heavy metals is influenced by total concentration in the surface soil and soil physico-chemical parameters. The origins, distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil profile in the mining area are related to primary geological environment, and strongly influenced by human mining activities.

  9. Differences in nutrient and energy contents of commonly consumed dishes prepared in restaurants v. at home in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofang; Liu, Jiawu; Chen, Bo; Jin, Donghui; Fu, Zhongxi; Liu, Huilin; Du, Shufa; Popkin, Barry M; Mendez, Michelle A

    2018-05-01

    Eating away from home is associated with poor diet quality, in part due to less healthy food choices and larger portions. However, few studies account for the potential additional contribution of differences in food composition between restaurant- and home-prepared dishes. The present study aimed to investigate differences in nutrients of dishes prepared in restaurants v. at home. Eight commonly consumed dishes were collected in twenty of each of the following types of locations: small and large restaurants, and urban and rural households. In addition, two fast-food items were collected from ten KFC, McDonald's and food stalls. Five samples per dish were randomly pooled from every location. Nutrients were analysed and energy was calculated in composite samples. Differences in nutrients of dishes by preparation location were determined. Hunan Province, China. Na, K, protein, total fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate and energy in dishes. On average, both the absolute and relative fat contents, SFA and Na:K ratio were higher in dishes prepared in restaurants than households (P < 0·05). Protein was 15 % higher in animal food-based dishes prepared in households than restaurants (P<0·05). Quantile regression models found that, at the 90th quantile, restaurant preparation was consistently negatively associated with protein and positively associated with the percentage of energy from fat in all dishes. Moreover, restaurant preparation also positively influenced the SFA content in dishes, except at the highest quantiles. These findings suggest that compared with home preparation, dishes prepared in restaurants in China may differ in concentrations of total fat, SFA, protein and Na:K ratio, which may further contribute, beyond food choices, to less healthy nutrient intakes linked to eating away from home.

  10. Assessment of the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges using co-integration analysis: a case study for China's Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

  11. [Analysis of the status and influential factors for prenatal care and postpartum visit among pregnant women based on the First Health Service Survey in Hunan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Xunjie; Zhang, Lin; Ning, Peishan; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-11-28

    To evaluate the status and influential factors for prenatal care and postpartum visit among pregnant women in Hunan Province from 2008 to 2013 based on the data from the First Health Service Survey in Hunan Province.
 Methods: Based on the data of prenatal care and postpartum visit among pregnant women from the First Health Service Survey of Hunan Province in 2013, proportion of pregnant women, who didn't meet the criteria for prenatal care and postpartum visit, were calculated (≥5 times for prenatal care and ≥2 times for postpartum visit, according to the National Basic Public Health Service program, 2009 Edition). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify the influencial factors.
 Results: A total of 1 035 eligible women were included in data analysis. The proportion of pregnant women who did not meet the criteria were 40.12% (95% CI 24.91%-55.33%) for prenatal care and 64.88% (95% CI 39.70%-90.06%) for postpartum visit. After adjusting other confounding factors, pregnant women with middle- and high-income had lower proportions of not meeting the criteria than those with low-income, with adjusted odds ratios of 0.41 and 0.39, respectively. Multiparae had higher proportion of not meeting the criteria than primiparas, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.54, and pregnant women with age 25-34 years and 35-64 years had lower proportions of not meeting the criteria than those with age 15-24 years. In term of postpartum visit, pregnant women with middle- to high-income had lower proportions of not meeting the criteria than those with low-income, with adjusted odds ratios of 0.50, 0.46 and 0.54, respectively; multiparae had higher proportion of not meeting the criteria than primiparas, with the adjusted odds ratio of 2.30.
 Conclusion: Proportions of pregnant women of not meeting the criteria are high in Hunan Province. Local government should strengthen the management to decrease the proportions of pregnant women who do not meet the standard in

  12. Investigation on natural radioactivity levels indoor in Hengyang and Xiangtan in Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yongjun; Xiao Detao; Tang Lingzhi

    2011-01-01

    Investigation showed the level of 222 Rn and 220 Rn in urban houses in the 1950s was less than in the 1960s. Rural houses were built mainly with red brick, shale brick and adobe. The level of 222 Rn are (41±14) Bq·m -3 , (48±18) Bq·m -3 and (52±4) Bq·m -3 respectively. The level of 220 Rn are (58±36) Bq·m -3 , (26±12) Bq·m -3 and (406±24) Bqm -3 respectively. The mean of gamma dose rates in houses in Hengyang is (0.12±0.05) μGy·h -1 in urban area, (0.23±0.02) μGy·h -1 in rural area, and (0.15±0.04) μGy·h -1 in Qingshanqiao town, Xiangtan County. Under a natural ventilation condition, since the 1950s-1960s, the level of 222 Rn and 220 Rn in houses is decreasing. There is no large difference in radon levels between houses in urban and rural area. The level of 222 Rn has significant difference in different houses, varying with materials. (authors)

  13. Research on the Countermeasures for High-end Talent Development in the New Material Industry from the Perspective of Four-dimensional Subject-With Hunan Province as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qiong

    2018-03-01

    In the context of the increasingly severe international economic situation, the new material industry is as one of the seven strategic emerging industries, and its development has become a major strategic decision of China that should be insisted at present and in the future. The implementation of this strategic decision cannot be achieved without talents. Based on the actual situation of Hunan Province, this paper points out the four major problems in high-end talent development of Hunan Province, namely, immaturity of industry development, unreasonable talent structure, imperfect training mechanism and unscientific incentive measures, and purposes the countermeasures in the perspective of four-dimensional subject involving government, enterprises, schools and students.

  14. Correlation analysis of EV71 detection and case severity in hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Hunan Province of China.

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    Li-Dong Gao

    Full Text Available An increase in the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD cases has been observed in the Hunan province of mainland China since 2009 with a particularly higher level of severe cases in 2010-2012. Intestinal viruses of the picornaviridae family are responsible for the human syndrome associated with HFMD with enterovirus 71 (EV71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16 being the most common causative strains. HFMD cases associated with EV71 are generally more severe with an increased association of morbidity and mortality. In this study, the etiology surveillance data of HFMD cases in Hunan province from March 2010 to October 2012 were analyzed to determine if there is a statistically relevant linear correlation exists between the detection rate of EV71 in mild cases and the proportion of severe cases among all HFMD patients. As the cases progressed from mild to severe to fatal, the likelihood of EV71 detection increased (25.78%, 52.20% and 84.18%, respectively. For all cases in the timeframe evaluated in this study, the presence of virus was detected in 63.21% of cases; among cases showing positivity for virus, EV71 infection accounted for 50.14%. These results provide evidence to support the observed higher morbidity and mortality associated with this outbreak and emphasizes the importance of early detection in order to implement necessary prevention measures to mitigate disease progression.

  15. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

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    Yaoqing Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to achieve a high benefit index, inter-subsystem coupling extent, and coordinated development index, the three indices presented an increasing overall trend. This outcome suggested that the sub-systems in this system were developing towards their optimal proportions: the development of these sub-systems (environmental, tourism, and economic was unbalanced in western Hunan. The environment therein sees only slow development although provided with a favorable ecological foundation. Economic development, which has long been lagging, acted as the main factor restricting the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system. To promote its coordinated development in western Hunan, the following recommendations were proposed: strengthen the prediction and warnings on the evolution of the whole system; optimize the industry’s structure; reinforce environmental management.

  16. Comparison of two approaches for measuring household wealth via an asset-based index in rural and peri-urban settings of Hunan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balen Julie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing concerns regarding inequities in health, with poverty being an important determinant of health as well as a product of health status. Within the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, disparities in socio-economic position are apparent, with the rural-urban gap of particular concern. Our aim was to compare direct and proxy methods of estimating household wealth in a rural and a peri-urban setting of Hunan province, P.R. China. Methods We collected data on ownership of household durable assets, housing characteristics, and utility and sanitation variables in two village-wide surveys in Hunan province. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and principal axis factoring (PAF to generate household asset-based proxy wealth indices. Households were grouped into quartiles, from 'most wealthy' to 'most poor'. We compared the estimated household wealth for each approach. Asset-based proxy wealth indices were compared to those based on self-reported average annual income and savings at the household level. Results Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that PCA and PAF yielded similar results, indicating that either approach may be used for estimating household wealth. In both settings investigated, the two indices were significantly associated with self-reported average annual income and combined income and savings, but not with savings alone. However, low correlation coefficients between the proxy and direct measures of wealth indicated that they are not complementary. We found wide disparities in ownership of household durable assets, and utility and sanitation variables, within and between settings. Conclusion PCA and PAF yielded almost identical results and generated robust proxy wealth indices and categories. Pooled data from the rural and peri-urban settings highlighted structural differences in wealth, most likely a result of localized urbanization and modernization. Further research is needed

  17. Geochronological, geochemical and geothermal constraints on petrogenesis of the Indosinian peraluminous granites in the South China Block: A case study in the Hunan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Sun, Min; Liang, Xinquan; Zhang, Yanhua; Peng, Touping

    2007-07-01

    The Indosinian granites in the South China Block (SCB) have important tectonic significance for the evolution of East Asia. Samples collected from Hunan Province can be geochemically classified into two groups. Group 1 is strongly peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.1), similar to S-type granites, and Group 2 has A/CNK = 1.0-1.1, with an affinity to I-type granites. Group 1 has lower FeOt, Al 2O 3, MgO, CaO, TiO 2 and ɛNd( t) values but higher K 2O + Na 2O, Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba and 87Sr/ 86Sr( t) than those of Group 2. Samples of both groups have similar LREE enriched pattern, with (Eu/Eu *) = 0.19-0.69, and strongly negative Ba, Sr, Nb, P and Ti anomalies. Geothermobarometry study indicates that the precursor magmas were emplaced at high-level depth with relatively low temperature (734-827 °C). Geochemical data suggest that Group 1 was originated from a source dominated by pelitic composition and Group 2 was from a mixing source of pelitic and basaltic rocks with insignificant addition of newly mantle-derived magma. Eight granitic samples in Hunan Province are dated at the cluster of 243-235 and 218-210 Ma by zircon U-Pb geochronology. Together with recent zircon U-Pb ages for other areas in the SCB, two age-clusters, including 243-228 Ma just after peak-metamorphism (˜ 246-252 Ma) and 220-206 Ma shortly after magma underplating event (˜224 Ma), are observed. It is proposed that in-situ radiogenic heating from the over-thickened crust induced dehydrated reaction of muscovite and epidote/zoisite to form the early Indosinian granites in response to the isostatic readjustments of tectonically thickened crust. Conductive heating from the underplating magma in the postcollisional setting triggered the formation of late Indosinian granites. Such a consideration is supported by the results from FLAC numerical simulation.

  18. The Growth Periods Responses of Double-season Paddy Rice to Climate Change in Hunan Province, China over the Past Two Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Yi, M.; Ye, T.

    2015-12-01

    The shifts of timing and length of the growing season (TLGS) are important indicators of crop response to climate change. With the help of satellite image data, it becomes feasible to retrieve the TLGS in a spatially continuous manner, which also accommodates local variation of TGSs. In this article, the TGSs of paddy rice in Hunan Province, China since 1995 was retrieved using times-series curves of MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI). The change in TLGS and its connection to regional climate change was discussed. The results showed the advance of TGSs of double-season paddy rice and the reduction of GSL in the past 20 years, which is believed to be linked to the rise in the temperature and precipitation in the growth periods. Understanding the local variation and trend of TLGS influenced by climate change is essential for making agricultural adaptive policies to reduce the risk of crop damaged, also can provide key information for studying how multi-hazards affect crop exposure.

  19. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis.Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care.We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed.There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  20. Reliability, Validity, and Optimal Cutoff Score of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (Changsha Version) in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease Patients of Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiu-yun; Jin, Hui; Ding, Bin-rong; Yang, Xia; Lei, Zeng-hui; Bai, Song; Zhang, Ying-dong; Tang, Xiang-qi

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The goal of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Changsha version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-CS) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients of Hunan Province, China, and to explore the optimal cutoff score for detecting vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND) and vascular dementia (VD). Methods Three hundred and thirty-eight ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients (131 with normal cognition, 111 with VCI-ND, and 96 with VD) and 132 healthy controls were recruited. All participants accepted examination by the MoCA-CS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and other related scales. A detailed neuropsychological battery was used for making a final cognitive diagnosis. SPSS 16.0 statistical software was used for reliability, validity examination, and optimal cutoff score detection. Results Cronbach's α of the MoCA-CS was 0.884, and test-retest and interrater reliability of the MoCA-CS were 0.966 and 0.926, respectively. MoCA-CS scores were highly correlated with MMSE scores (r = 0.867) and simplified intelligence quotients (r = 0.822). The results indicate that 1 point should be added for subjects with less than 6 years of education, and that the optimal cutoff score for detecting VCI-ND is 26/27 (sensitivity 96.1%, specificity 75.6%), whereas the optimal cutoff score for detecting VD is 16/17 (sensitivity 92.7%, specificity 96.3%). Conclusion The MoCA-CS has good reliability and validity, and is a useful cognitive screening instrument for detecting VCI in the Chinese population. PMID:23637698

  1. Reliability, Validity, and Optimal Cutoff Score of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (Changsha Version in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease Patients of Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-yun Tu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The goal of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Changsha version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-CS in ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients of Hunan Province, China, and to explore the optimal cutoff score for detecting vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND and vascular dementia (VD. Methods: Three hundred and thirty-eight ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients (131 with normal cognition, 111 with VCI-ND, and 96 with VD and 132 healthy controls were recruited. All participants accepted examination by the MoCA-CS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and other related scales. A detailed neuropsychological battery was used for making a final cognitive diagnosis. SPSS 16.0 statistical software was used for reliability, validity examination, and optimal cutoff score detection. Results: Cronbach’s α of the MoCA-CS was 0.884, and test-retest and interrater reliability of the MoCA-CS were 0.966 and 0.926, respectively. MoCA-CS scores were highly correlated with MMSE scores (r = 0.867 and simplified intelligence quotients (r = 0.822. The results indicate that 1 point should be added for subjects with less than 6 years of education, and that the optimal cutoff score for detecting VCI-ND is 26/27 (sensitivity 96.1%, specificity 75.6%, whereas the optimal cutoff score for detecting VD is 16/17 (sensitivity 92.7%, specificity 96.3%. Conclusion: The MoCA-CS has good reliability and validity, and is a useful cognitive screening instrument for detecting VCI in the Chinese population.

  2. Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events on crop yield: a case study in Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Zhao; Meng, Yongchang; Luan, Yibo; Wang, Jiwei

    2017-09-01

    Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations and extreme events on crop yield is of paramount importance to climate change adaptation, resilience, and mitigation. Previous studies lack systematic and explicit assessment of these three fundamental aspects of climate change on crop yield. This research attempts to separate out the impacts on rice yields of climatic trend (linear trend change related to mean value), fluctuations (variability surpassing the "fluctuation threshold" which defined as one standard deviation (1 SD) of the residual between the original data series and the linear trend value for each climatic variable), and extreme events (identified by absolute criterion for each kind of extreme events related to crop yield). The main idea of the research method was to construct climate scenarios combined with crop system simulation model. Comparable climate scenarios were designed to express the impact of each climate change component and, were input to the crop system model (CERES-Rice), which calculated the related simulated yield gap to quantify the percentage impacts of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events. Six Agro-Meteorological Stations (AMS) in Hunan province were selected to study the quantitatively impact of climatic trend, fluctuations and extreme events involving climatic variables (air temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration) on early rice yield during 1981-2012. The results showed that extreme events were found to have the greatest impact on early rice yield (-2.59 to -15.89%). Followed by climatic fluctuations with a range of -2.60 to -4.46%, and then the climatic trend (4.91-2.12%). Furthermore, the influence of climatic trend on early rice yield presented "trade-offs" among various climate variables and AMS. Climatic trend and extreme events associated with air temperature showed larger effects on early rice yield than other climatic variables, particularly for high-temperature events (-2.11 to -12

  3. Use of Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry Technique to model Danxia red bed landform slope stability by discrete element modeling - case study at Mt. Langshan, Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Scott; Hua, Peng; Luobin, Yan; Zhi, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Important to the evolution of Danxia landforms is how the rock cliffs are in large part shaped by rock collapse events, ranging from small break offs to large collapses. Quantitative research of Danxia landform evolution is still relatively young. In 2013-2014, Chinese and Slovak researchers conducted joint research to measure deformation of two large rock walls. In situ measurements of one rock wall found it to be stable, and Ps-InSAR measurements of the other were too few to be validated. Research conducted this year by Chinese researchers modeled the stress states of a stone pillar at Mt. Langshan, in Hunan Province, that toppled over in 2009. The model was able to demonstrate how stress states within the pillar changed as the soft basal layer retreated, but was not able to show the stress states at the point of complete collapse. According to field observations, the back side of the pillar fell away from the entire cliff mass before the complete collapse, and no models have been able to demonstrate the mechanisms behind this behavior. A further understanding of the mechanisms controlling rockfall events in Danxia landforms is extremely important because these stunning sceneries draw millions of tourists each year. Protecting the tourists and the infrastructure constructed to accommodate tourism is of utmost concern. This research will employ a UAV to as universally as possible photograph a stone pillar at Mt. Langshan that stands next to where the stone pillar collapsed in 2009. Using the recently developed structure-from-motion technique, a 3D model of the pillar will be constructed in order to extract geometrical data of the entire slope and its structural fabric. Also in situ measurements will be taken of the slope's toe during the field work exercises. These data are essential to constructing a realistic discrete element model using the 3DEC code and perform a kinematic analysis of the rock mass. Intact rock behavior will be based on the Mohr Coulomb

  4. Preliminary Study of Ancient Town Protection and Rural Tourism Development of Caoshi Town in Hengdong County, Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tian-zhao; Yang, Zai-tian; Liu Pei-lin

    2012-01-01

    The typical style and features of mountains and waters in Caoshi Ancient Town, have hitherto been well preserved. Caoshi Ancient Town boasts superior base of the natural eco-environment and deep-rooted background of regional culture, where mountains, waters, shoals, towns and other landscape elements are merged harmoniously, the transportation and geographical conditions have been fundamentally changed. Ancient towns, old temples, ancient forests, ancient wells and ancient piers are unique in...

  5. Geochronology and Genesis of the Xitian W-Sn Polymetallic Deposit in Eastern Hunan Province, South China: Evidence from Zircon U-Pb and Muscovite Ar-Ar Dating, Petrochemistry, and Wolframite Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The recently explored Xitian tungsten-tin (W-Sn polymetallic ore field, located in Hunan province, South China, is one of the largest ore fields in the Nanling Range (NLR. Two major metallogenic types appeared in this ore field, skarn- and quartz vein-type. They are distributed within Longshang, Heshuxia, Shaiheling, Hejiangkou, Goudalan, and so on. Hydrothermal zircons from two altered granites yielded U-Pb ages of 152.8 ± 1.1 Ma, and 226.0 ± 2.8 Ma, respectively. Two muscovite samples from ore-bearing quartz vein yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 156.6 ± 0.7 Ma, 149.5 ± 0.8 Ma, respectively. Combined with the geological evidence, two metallogenic events are proposed in the Xitian ore field, with skarn-type W-Sn mineralization in Late Triassic (Indosinian and quartz vein/greisen type W-Sn mineralization in Late Jurassic (Yanshanian. The relatively low Ce/Ce* ratios and high Y/Ho ratios in zircons from two altered granites indicate that the hydrothermal fluids of two metallogenic events are characterized by low oxygen fugacities and enrichment in F. The similar chondrite-normalized patterns between the skarn and Xitian Indosinian granites and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of wolframite suggest that the metal sources for both types W-Sn mineralization are derived from a crustal source.

  6. Suicide Mortality Risk in Kermanshah Province, Iran: A County-level Spatial Analysis

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    Mehran Rostami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kermanshah province has one of the highest suicide rates in Iran. The aim of this study is to explore spatial variations in the relative risk of suicide across the counties of Kermanshah province. Methods: This is an applied ecological study in which county-level counts of suicide deaths recorded by the forensic medicine organization of Kermanshah province during the period March 21, 2006 to March 20, 2013 have been used. Following a Bayesian approach, Besag, York and Mollie's (BYM model was fitted to the number of suicide deaths of males, females and all persons to make inference about the relative risk of suicide across the counties of the province. Results: Over the study period and based on 95% credible intervals, Kangavar, Harsin and Sonqor counties had significantly lower relative risks of suicide for both males and females, Slas-Babajani, Paveh, Javanrud and Ravansar counties had significantly lower relative risks of suicide only for males and Kermanshah county had a significantly higher relative risk of suicide only for males. The relative risk of suicide for the other counties were not significantly different from the province’s overall risk neither for males nor females. Conclusion: The counties of Kermanshah province can be classified into four categories by the level of relative risk of suicide: low relative risk for both males and females, low relative risk only for males, high relative risk only for males and average relative risk. Findings from this study could be used to specify priority counties for suicide prevention initiatives.

  7. Job dissatisfaction and burnout of nurses in Hunan, China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjuan; He, Guoping; Wang, Honghong; He, Ying; Yuan, Qun; Liu, Dan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we focused on measuring levels of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction in the daily practice of nurses in Hunan province, China, analyzed factors related to nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, and explored the relationship between them. Previous studies have shown a high level of burnout and job dissatisfaction among nurses worldwide. A cross-sectional survey of 1100 nurses was conducted. The nurses worked at 20 hospitals in 11 cities and counties throughout China's Hunan province. Nurse burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Nurse-rated job dissatisfaction was described using a four point scale, and work environment was measured using the Nursing Work Index - Practice Environment Scale. The results showed that nurses had high burnout scores and were dissatisfied with their jobs. Staffing, work environment, and work hours were all significantly associated with nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Adequate staffing, improved work environment, and reasonable work hours are related to decreasing nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. [Comprehensive evaluation of county-level construction land intensive utility in Guangdong province: a case study for Zijin County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Ping; Hu, Yue-Ming; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Su-Ping

    2010-02-01

    Based on the weights and membership values of evaluation indices, a measurement model of construction land intensive utility in Zijin County of Guangdong Province was established, and the basic principles of the greatest compatible class were adopted to classify the intensive utility levels of the construction land based on fuzzy recognition. Additionally, the intensive utility potential of construction land in Zijin County in 2005 was calculated by comparing the per capita construction land in towns, independent industrial and mining areas, and rural residential areas with the latest national land use standards for planning of town launched in 2007. The predicted value of the model was 0.421, suggesting that the construction land utility in Zijin County was still low- effective and extensive. Theoretically, the construction land area could be decreased by 555.69-2197.69 hm2, which meant there was a great potential in the intensive utility of construction land in the county.

  9. Prevalence of trachoma in 3~7 years old children in Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Zhao; Bai-Chao Ren; Yu-Hong Cheng; Qiang Ma; Jun Jia; Yuan He; Li-Ling Zhang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To survey the prevalence of trachoma in children in Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province and provide the basis for the prevention and treatment.METHODS: An epidemiological survey was carried out in Nanzheng County in 2013. Children aged 3~7 years were selected by a cluster sampling. Fifty elementary school children and 1 533 preschool children were selected for rapid assessment and extend screening of trachoma. All children were examined under magnifying glass by oculist. A simplified tra...

  10. Financial standing of counties in the Wielkopolskie province in the years 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Majchrzak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a selection of indexes describing financial standing of local government units based on counties of the Wielkopolskie province. On the basis of their values analysed local government units were classified using Ward’s method to form classes with a similar financial situation.

  11. [Relationships between vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunan Province, South-central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Zou, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Man-Yuan; Hu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Fang-Ping; Song, Guang-Tao; Lin, Zhong-Gui

    2013-01-01

    By using space series to replace time series, this paper studied the relationships between the vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on the slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunnan Province South-central China. There existed obvious differences in the soil physical and chemical properties at different restoration stages. From grassplot, grass-shrub, shrub to shrub-arbor, the soil organic matter, total and available N, and moisture contents increased markedly, soil bulk density had an obvious decrease, soil total and available P contents changed little, and soil pH decreased gradually, but no significant differences were observed among different restoration stages. At different restoration stages, the biomass of plant community had effects on the quantity and composition of soil microbes. The quantities of soil bacteria and fungi had significant positive correlations with the aboveground biomass of plant community, but the quantity of soil actinomycetes had less correlation with plant community's aboveground biomass. At different restoration stages, the activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased with increasing soil layer, and had significant positive correlations with plant community's richness and aboveground biomass.

  12. [Risk assessments and control strategies of plague in five key surveillance counties, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoxiang; Ju, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jimin; Wang, Miaoruo; Zhang, Xiaohe; Ye, Xianming; Zhu, Zhihong; Xing, Jianguang; Liao, Xiaowei; Chen, Zhiping

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the epidemiology data on plague in five counties in Zhejiang province and to evaluate the risk of plague in theses areas. We selected five monitoring stations as a risk assessment (Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, and Ruian city) in Zhejiang province where the plague epidemic more serious in the history. At least one constant site and 1-4 variable sites where plague occurred in history were selected for monitoring. We collected the five counties (cities) surveillance data of indoor rat density, indoor Rattus flavipectus density, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus in 1995-2014. Isolation of Yersinia pestis was conducted among 171,201 liver samples and F1 antibody were detected among 228,775 serum samples. Risk matrix, Borda count method, and Delphi approach were conducted to assess risk of the plague of five counties (cities) in Zhejiang province. Indoor rat density in Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, Ruian city was 1.58%-5.50%, 1.13%-9.76%, 0.56%-3.67%, 2.83%-16.08%, 7.16%-15.96%, respectively; Indoor Rattus flavipectus density of five counties (cities) was 0.08%-2.23%, 0-2.02%, 0-0.54%, 0.71%-5.58%, 0.55%-4.92%, respectively. The Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.011-0.500 and 0.015-0.227, respectively; The Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus of Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.119-3.412 and 0.100-1.430, respectively; Ruian City and Yiwu city cannot collected Xenopsylla cheopis, Long quan city only collected the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in the five years. Yersinia pestis were not isolated in five counties (cities).There were 3 Apodemus agrarius samples positive of plague F1 antibody test, in Longquan city and Yiwu city in 2005. Borda count method to assess the Longquan city, Yiwu (Borda point were both 321) plague risk was higher than three other regions; Delphi approach to

  13. [Epidemiological study of hypertension in Dongxiang population of Dongxiang county in Gansu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Qiao, Y; Xie, P; Ma, H Z; Ma, Y A

    2016-09-24

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension among Dongxiang population of Dongxiang county in Gansu province, and analyze risk factors of hypertension in this population. Methods: A total of 1 879 Dongxiang residents of Dongxiang county in Gansu province aged 18 years and over were selected in one town and eight villages by random cluster method from April to June in 2014. All subjects were interviewed and physical examination including blood pressure measurement was performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of hypertension. Results: Prevalence of hypertension in this population was 21.4%(402/1 879). Prevalence of hypertension increased with aging and was 7.9%(35/441) in 18-39 years old people, and 20.2%(151/749)in 40-59 years old people, and 31.3%(216/689)in ≥60 years old people ( P old group (8.0%(20/249)vs. 7.8%(15/192), P >0.05) and 40-59 years old group (19.8%(78/393) vs. 20.5%(73/356), P >0.05), while the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in male than in female(34.2%(123/360) vs. 28.3%(93/329), P old group. Prevalence of hypertension was also significantly higher in rural area residents than in county town residents (23.4%(255/1 090) vs.18.6%(147/789), P county residents. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, family history of hypertension, high body mass index, less physical activity and more static state were risk factors of hypertension in this population( P county in Gansu province. Hypertension prevention focusing on risk factors control and treatment strategies should be enhanced in this population.

  14. Prevalence of trachoma in 3~7 years old children in Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To survey the prevalence of trachoma in children in Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province and provide the basis for the prevention and treatment.METHODS: An epidemiological survey was carried out in Nanzheng County in 2013. Children aged 3~7 years were selected by a cluster sampling. Fifty elementary school children and 1 533 preschool children were selected for rapid assessment and extend screening of trachoma. All children were examined under magnifying glass by oculist. A simplified trachoma classification system which was recommended by the World Health Organization was adopted in the survey. Statistical significance was calculated using Chi-square tests.RESULTS: For the 50 students aged 6~7 in rural area, there was no active trachoma cases in rapid assessment. In the extended screening in 1 533 children aged 3~6 in country town, no case of active trachoma, trachomatous trichiasis or corneal diseases were examined. CONCLUSION: No active trachoma case was detected in Nanzheng county,which was far below the proportion of 5% in non endemic area according to the WHO criteria and is not a public health problem in Shaanxi province.

  15. Rediscovery of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Yingjiang County,Yunnan Province,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zheng, Xi; Jiang, Xue-Long; Chan, Bosco Pui Lok

    2017-07-18

    The sun bear, Helarctos malayanus (Raffles, 1821), is a forest-dependent bear species distributed in tropical Southeast Asia. The species was previously reported from scattered localities in southwestern China, which is at the northeastern edge of its global range. Due to the scarcity of reliable recent records, some authorities cast doubt on the continued existence of sun bear in China. Here we present the rediscovery of this species in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan Province, China, near the international border with Myanmar's Kachin State.

  16. A Study on the Financial Gap of Environmental Protection Industry in Hunan Province during the 12th Five-Year Plan%“十二五”时期湖南环保产业发展的融资缺口研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺立; 李远航

    2012-01-01

    “十二五”期间,湖南省将环保产业列为重点发展的战略性新兴产业之一。笔者基于经济核算的基本原理,对“十二五”期间湖南省环保产业发展的资金需求、资金供给和资金缺口进行了预测、分析,并针对性地提出了解决融资缺口问题的政策措施。笔者的研究对于保障“十二五”时期湖南环保产业发展的资金支持具有指导作用,对于国内其他地区经济发展的资金缺口预测具有借鉴意义。%During thel2th Five-Year Plan, the environmental protection industry has been listed as one of the strategic emerging industries for Hunan Province. This article is to project and analyze the financial needs, and financial supply and financial gap of the environmental protection industry development during the 12th Five-Year Plan based on the basic principles of economic accounting, and then come up with the policy targeted at the problem on addressing the financial gap. The study has its guiding role for guaranteeing the financial support of the development of environmental protection industry in Hunan Province, and could be used as reference on projecting the funding gap for the economic development in other areas of the country.

  17. Evaluation of Social Vulnerability to Natural Disasters on a County Scale in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanfeng HE; Liping DU; Xiuhua GAO

    2016-01-01

    Social vulnerability evaluation is of important significance to analyzing risks of natural disasters to human society and economy. By using expert investigation and AHP method,12 indicators from four aspects( population,economy,infrastructure and disaster prevention and mitigation capacity) are selected to assess social vulnerability to natural disasters on a county scale in Henan Province. The results show that the population vulnerability and economic vulnerability to natural disasters in the eastern region is generally higher than in the western region,while the areas with high infrastructure vulnerability are mainly located in the northwest; the disaster prevention and mitigation capacity in northwest is higher than in east and south,and this capacity of various districts is obviously higher than that of counties; in terms of the spatial pattern,social vulnerability to natural disasters is roughly higher in a belt from northeast to southwest,and lower on both sides of the belt. The results can provide scientific basis for disaster risk management and disaster prevention and mitigation planning in Henan Province.

  18. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-Ning

    2015-09-09

    Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010-2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010-2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  19. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. Setting and participants 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Outcome measures Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. Results (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010–2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. Conclusions There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010–2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency

  20. A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas X Tan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province.This study uses linear regression and spatial lag regression to determine county-level (n = 97 socio-demographic characteristics associated with a greater burden of syphilis, gonorrhea, and a combined syphilis/gonorrhea index. Data were obtained from the 2005 China Population Census and published public health data. A range of socio-demographic variables including gross domestic product, the Gender Empowerment Measure, standard of living, education level, migrant population and employment are examined. Reported syphilis and gonorrhea cases are disproportionately clustered in the Pearl River Delta, the central region of Guangdong Province. A higher fraction of employed men among the adult population, higher fraction of divorced men among the adult population, and higher standard of living (based on water availability and people per room are significantly associated with higher STI cases across all three models. Gross domestic product and gender inequality measures are not significant predictors of reported STI in these models.Although many ecological studies of STIs have found poverty to be associated with higher reported STI, this analysis found a greater number of reported syphilis cases in counties with a higher standard of living. Spatially targeted syphilis screening measures in regions with a higher standard of living may facilitate successful control efforts. This analysis also reinforces the importance of changing male sexual behaviors as part of a comprehensive response to syphilis control in China.

  1. Public knowledge and attitudes towards the 60Co incident in Qixian County, Henan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Cuiping; Cheng Xiaojun; Zhang Qinfu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiation risk perception and nuclear acceptance after the 60 Co stuck source incident in June 2009 in Qixian County, Henan Province. Methods: From March to April 2010, 23 hamlets and 2 schools from 5 towns in Qixian County were selected, while 3 hamlets and 2 schools from 3 towns were used as control in Huixian County, 135 km away where no any impact of the incident was found. Face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among three groups including mass public, elite public (representatives of public opinion, such as physicians, teachers, governmental officials, administrative personnel, private entrepreneurs), and middle school students (the third grade students in junior middle schools and the first grade students in senior middle schools). Results: A total of 1 340 valid questionnaires were collected. The public knowledge levels about radiation and nuclear power were low among all groups in two areas and public knowledge levels in Qixian County were higher than those in Huixian County. In both areas.the knowledge levels of the students were higher than those among the elite public, and that among the general public were the lowest. The knowledge levels of males and those with higher educational levels were higher than those of females and those with lower educational levels. More than 40.0% of the respondents supported the idea to build nuclear power plants in China, but only a small part of them supported to build nuclear power plants in their own areas. The percentages of opponents against local nuclear power plant construction were especially higher among the students and those with higher educational levels. More than 60% of the mass public and elite public believed the explanation of the government. More than 80% of the respondents held negative attitudes towards the performance of the Qixian County Government in dealing with this incident. The student gave the lowest evaluation of the credibility and the specific performance

  2. THE RELIGIOUS STRUCTURE OF THE ROMANIAN POPULATION IN 2011 BY COUNTIES AND GEOGRAPHICAL-HISTORICAL PROVINCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. P. POP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Religious Structure of the Romanian Population in 2011 by Counties and Geographical-Historical Provinces. Our study addresses the issue of religion, which is one of the essential geo-demographic structures in the study of the Romanian population. We were motivated by the fact that it was not possible to study this issue in the period of 1948-1989 since censuses did not include data on religion. The situation of religion has become more visible and individualized only since the last decade of the last century and afterwards once with the censuses of 1992 and 2002 up to present day. More broadly, this study examines the key aspects of denominational structure of the Romanian population, based on the census conducted on 20 October 2011 at national level, data being provided by the National Institute of Statistics. Our research work consisted in the collection and processing of statistical data, subsequently synthesised in tables and graphical material (three tables and three figures. Table 1 provides key comparative data on the general religious structure of the Romanian population registered at the censuses in 2002 and 2011. Table 2 is the main source of information of this study, revealing the religious structure and territorial distribution of the Romanian population in the geographical – historical provinces and counties in 2011. Table 3 is a synthesis in which we present the total population at county and provinces level as absolute data (digits and rates in case of the five main religious denominations (i.e. Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Reformed, Pentecostal and Greek-Catholic, the remaining religious denominations being grouped into the category of Other religions and Atheists. The research results are also highlighted by three charts and maps, allowing for the easy tracking of the subject as a whole and territorially, at county level and in the geographical-historical provinces. In a brief presentation of the topic addressed it can be

  3. Epidemiological and radiological study of skeletal fluorosis of Minzhu Town, Longli County, Guizhou Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.S.; Duan, R.X.; Wang, S.Q.; He, G.Y.; Li, P.; Nie, Z.X.; Wen, T.G. [Guizhou Province Health and Antiepidemiology Station, Guiyang (China)

    1999-05-01

    A study was carried out on an area of endemic fluorosis based on the relation between detection rate or incidence, classification and severity of skeletal fluorosis, and sex-age distribution. The results show that Minzhu Town of Longli County is a moderate and typical epidemic area of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution in Guizhou Province, China. Five features characterize the skeletal fluorosis of the residents: Osteosclerosis is significantly more prevalent than osteoporosis; no mixed type of skeletal fluorosis and no osteomalacia were found in the subjects examined; no cases with moderate or severe osteoporosis were found; the severity of osteosclerosis in females was significantly milder than in males; and the rate of osteoporosis caused by fluoride in females showed no difference from that in males. These observations provide new parameters for assessing collective conditions of epidemic regions of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution.

  4. [The application of National AIDS spending assessment in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Duo; Sun, Jiang-ping; Yakusik, Anna; Chen, Zhong-dan; Yuan, Jian-hua; Li, Tao; Duan, Song; Yang, Xing; Wei, Mei; Michael, Sante; Ye, Run-hua; Xiang, Li-fen; Yang, Yue-cheng; Ren, Da

    2012-11-01

    To calculate the actual expenditures in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China by using the method of National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) in 2010. Data were collected through NASA data collection form based on adapted NASA classification in the county of Dehong prefecture from October to December, 2011, and complemented by semi-structured interview with 16 well trained programmatic and financial representatives in 8 spending units. Data were entered in Resource Tracking Software (RTS) V 2009.3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used for data processing and analysis. The NASA estimations showed that the county spent a total of ¥16 235 954 on HIV/AIDS in 2010. Public funds constituted 96.3% of the total expenditure (¥15 630 937), followed by Global Fund which accounted for 3.0% (¥484 585) and private sources which accounted for 0.7% (¥120 432). Findings based on NASA categories showed that AIDS spendings were mainly on 4 areas, and expenditure on Care & Treatment was ¥12 401 382 (76.4% of total expenditure), followed by Prevention which accounted for 14.3% (¥2 325 707), Program Management & Administration which accounted for 7.8% (¥1 268 523) and human resources which accounted for 1.5% (¥240 342). The most beneficial population group was People Living with HIV (PLHIV), accounting for 84.7% of total expenditure. (¥13 753 428), followed by 4.8% for high risk population, including female sex workers and their partners (¥297 333), injection drug users and their partners (¥293 143), men having sex with men and their partners (¥185 136) and 1.5% (¥241 429) for the general population. The local funds for HIV/AIDS in this county was insufficient. The local government should increase corresponding funds based on central government funding. Care and treatment was the first spending priority in the county and the investment of prevention services needs to be increased. Prevention and treatment and care should be combined to ensure the effectiveness of

  5. [Epidemiological investigation on fascioliasis and its risk factors in population of Binchuan County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Liu, Yu-hua; Yang, Hui; Duan, Yii-chun; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Yin-jiao; Hao, Ming-ming; Pan, Li-juan; Deng, Yin-ju; Shi, Ya-nan; Chen, Fu-ling; Zhang, Jian-guo; Luo, Jia-jun

    2015-08-01

    To understand the infection status of Fasciola and related risk factors in population of Binchuan County, Yunnan Province. In February and March, 2014, 6 natural villages from 2 administrative villages in Zhoucheng Town were selected as investigated sites, and the permanent residents aged ≥ 5 years were examined by ELISA for the serum antibody detection, and then the positive ones were examined by Kato-Katz technique and the hatching method for Fasciola egg detection. Meanwhile, the fascioliasis cases that checked out by the above methods were further surveyed, and the residents who with the same gender, similar age and negative results in the blood examination were selected as the controls, then the risk factors were explored through a case control study. Totally 1 207 people were included in the blood examination, and 36 positives were found with a positive rate of 2.98%. Though the differences between the positive rates of the serum antibody in people with different genders and age were not statistically significant (χ2 = 1.686, 7.106, both P > 0.05) , those between the rates of people in different administrative villages and natural villages were statistically significant (χ2 = 4.103, 13.181, both P 0.05). There is still sporadic Fasciola infection in Binchuan County. Eating raw vegetables and drinking unboiled water which are contaminated by Fasciola metacercariae may be the infection routes of local people, and to find out the exact entrance way is the key points for the infection control.

  6. Spatial risk profiling of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian spatial risk profiling holds promise to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, and to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. Here, we present findings from a study using Bayesian variogram models to map and predict the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China, including risk factor analysis. Questionnaire and serological data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey carried out in 35 randomly selected villages with 3,220 people enrolled. Remotely-sensed environmental data were derived from publicly available databases. Bivariate and non-spatial Bayesian multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between the local seroprevalence and demographic (i.e. age and sex, environmental (i.e. location of village, altitude, slope, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index and socio-economic factors. In the spatially-explicit Bayesian model, S. japonicum seroprevalence was significantly associated with sex, age and the location of the village. Males, those aged below 10 years and inhabitants of villages situated on steep slopes (inclination ≥20° or on less precipitous slopes of >5° above 2,150 m were at lower risk of seroconversion than their respective counterparts. Our final prediction model revealed an elevated risk for seroconversion in the plains of the eastern parts of Eryuan county. In conclusion, the prediction map can be utilized for spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions in Eryuan county. Moreover, S. japonicum seroprevalence studies might offer a convenient means to assess the infection pressure experienced by local communities, and to improve risk profiling in areas where the prevalence and infection intensities have come down following repeated rounds of praziquantel administration.

  7. New discovery of Permian belemnoids in Hunan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Su, L. [Xiangtan Mining Institute, Hunan (China). Dept. of Geology

    1999-06-01

    The fossil belemnoids described here were discovered from the Upper Permian Dalong Formation in Hunan province. There are nearly one hundred specimens, including one genus and one species. The diagnosis of the species is as follows: Genus: palaeobelemnopsis Chen, 1982; Species: Palaeobelemnosis sp. The guard is small and slender, about six times the maximum transverse diameter in length, with outline slightly hastate or fusiform. The maximum transverse diameter locates the border between the apical region and the stem region, and is nearly cycloid or slightly compressed in the anterior of the alveolus. The apical angle is about 70{degree}. The median ventral groove is wide and shallow, and is sometimes absent. Two dorso-lateral grooves are apparent and extending from the alveolus to the apex. The Phragmocone is slender. The outer shape of the guard is very similar to that of P. sinensis and P. minor. Nevertheless, this species differs from the two latters in having many transverse lines covering on the whole surface of the guard. Because all of these specimens are fossils of external mold and no inner structures have been preserved except a piece of siphuncle remains, the species is not given a new species name. Permian belemnoids are rarely found and the Palaeobelemnopsis is a primitive genus of belemnoids, therefore these specimens have important significance for research on the origin of COLEOIDEA. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Road infrastructure, spatial spillover and county economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Luo, Shuang

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial spillover effect of road infrastructure on the economic growth of poverty-stricken counties, based on the spatial Durbin model, by using the panel data of 37 poor counties in Hunan province from 2006 to 2015. The results showed that there is a significant spatial dependence of economic growth in Poor Counties. Road infrastructure has a positive impact on economic growth, and the results will be overestimated without considering spatial factors. Considering the spatial factors, the road infrastructure will promote the economic growth of the surrounding areas through the spillover effect, but the spillover effect is restricted by the distance factor. Capital investment is the biggest factor of economic growth in poor counties, followed by urbanization, labor force and regional openness.

  9. [Malaria epidemiologic characteristics in Wuhe County of Anhui Province from 2009 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Mei; Xia, Li-Huan; Fang, Qiang; Tao, Zhi-Yong; Jiao, Yu-Meng; Xia, Hui; Sun, Xin

    2013-02-01

    To understand the malaria epidemiologic characteristics in Wuhe County, Anhui Province from 2009 to 2011, so as to provide the evidence for formulating effective malaria control and prevention interventions. The data of malaria cases from the reporting system and malaria epidemiological investigations were collected and analyzed statistically in Wuhe County from 2009 to 2011. The total number of malaria cases was 349 in Wuhe County from 2009 to 2011, and the incidence showed a downtrend. The sex ratio of patients was 1.42: 1 (205 males vs. 144 females). The ranks of patient age groups were 11-20 years old at the first and 31-40 at the second, and the youngest was 1 year old, and the oldest was 100 years old. The seasonal factor was observed clearly, malaria cases were rare during the period of January to March, the case numbers increased in April and reached the peak during the period of June to September, and the cases from November to December accounted for only 2.01% of the total cases. Among the 349 patients, there were only 2 patients (0.57%) living in urban areas and the rest 347 patients (99.43%) all living in rural areas. The incidence of the urban population was 0.08/10 000, and it was significantly lower than that of the rural population (1.78/10,000, P Town and Xiaoxi Town, the annual incidences were 5.53/10,000 and 4.78/10,000, respectively. The cases in hill townships accounted for 36.10% of the total cases. The most patients in these areas lived in brick or cement buildings without mosquito-proof doors or windows. They preferred sleeping outside during summer, and were generally lack of the malaria prevention knowledge. In Wuhe County, the malaria incidence is decreasing year by year, and the epidemiologic factors are related to the living conditions, mosquito-proof facility using, sleeping habit, and malaria awareness of the residents.

  10. [Experimental intervention study of safe injection in basic-level hospitals in Hunan by medical staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Li, Yinglan; Long, Yanfang; Zhou, Yang; Lu, Jingmei; Wu, Ying

    2013-07-01

    To experimentally intervene safe injection by medical staff in basic-level hospitals and observe the recent and long-term effect after the intervention and to provide practical measures to improve safe injection. We used random sampling methods to set up groups in county hospitals and township hospitals of Hunan Province, and offered lectures, delivered safe injection guide, brochure and on-site guidance in the experimental group. We surveyed the 2 groups after the intervention at 1 month and 6 months to compare the effect of unsafe injection behaviors and safe injection behaviors. One month after the intervention, the unsafe injection rate in the experimental group decreased from 27.8% to 21.7%, while in the control group injection the unsafe injection rate rose from 26.0% to 27.9%, with significant difference (Pinjection rate in the experimental group declined to 18.4% while the unsafe injection rate in the control group also dropped to 22.4%, with significant difference (Pinjection rate was decreased in the experimental group at different intervention points, with significant difference (Psafe injection behavior scores in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group after the intervention of 1 month and 6 month intervention (Psafe injection, distribution of safe injection guide, and comprehensive intervention model can significantly change the primary care practitioners' behaviors in unsafe injections and it is worth promoting.

  11. [A population survey of the Yi nationality in Meigu County, Sichuan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Zhang, G

    1984-01-29

    In 1980, 95.35% of the 129,819 inhabitants of Meigu County in Faxin District of the Jinshan Yi autonomous district, Sichuan Province, were of Yi nationality. Agriculture is the primary mode of production and animal husbandry is an important secondary industry. Prior to Liberation, slavery was an integral part of Yi society. The standard of living was low, mortality high, and population growth slow. After Liberation from 1956-1980, the population grew 47.1%, 90% of which was a natural increase. The primary reason for the growth was a post-1960s annual average birth rate of 46/1000 and a mortality rate that fell from 35/1000 before Liberation to 13.3/1000 in 1976. The age structure also became younger. The average age in 1964 was 24 years, with a median age of 21.8 years, as compared to a 1980 average age of 23.8 years and a median age of 17 years. 47.2% of the population were aged from birth to 14 years; 2.9% were over 65 years. At the same time, 28% of the female population were of childbearing age. By 2000 Meigu County's population will reach 259,000. Although the primary reasons for the relatively rapid population increase are due to the destruction of the slave system and a higher standard of living, factors peculiar to Yi society are also significant: 1) the destruction of the slave system permitted the population to grow without the restraints of strict codes of class stratification; 2) the high value placed on having many offsprings, and of favoring male children still prevails; 3) the attitude of early marriage and the custom of widows marrying a relative of her deceased husband still prevail; 4) and infant mortality and the mortality rate of fertile women have declined. Elements which influence the population development of Meigu County include economic factors such as the need to support the old and the young, or the inability to produce enough food to keep up with the needs of an expanding population.

  12. The Way to Entrepreneurship: Education and Work Experience for Female Entrepreneurs, Jiaocheng County, Shanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglu Chen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the education background and work history of a newly emerged group of entrepreneurs in the People’s Republic of China (PRC—women. Based on interviews with 62 women entrepreneurs in the north China county of Jiaocheng, Shanxi Province, conducted between October 2003 and May 2004, it compares and analyzes the situation of women enterprise owners, wives of male enterprise owners and those who take leadership positions in the enterprises as workshop leaders, share holders, managers and defacto managers. The results suggest that higher education is not an important element in the making of these women entrepreneurs, but literacy still matters for those who are seeking higher positions in private enterprises or setting up their own business. The interviewees’ work experience corresponds to their education background, as most of them used to be engaged in jobs requiring less education. This paper also reveals the situation of one specific group formed by widowed women taking over their husbands’ enterprises after their death. It suggests that these women had experienced considerable hardship in running the business.

  13. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (soil physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots.

  14. [Thallium content in adults older than 45 ages at Hezhang County of Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Yao, Dancheng; Feng, Jiali; Zeng, Dong; Fan, Di; Shang, Qi

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the feature of Thallium content in adults of heavy metal contaminated district due to mining of Hezhang County, Guizhou Province. METHODS The subjects older than 45 ages were randomly recruited from the mineralized district (Magu village) and no-mineralized district (Salaxi viillage) , urine of villagers were collected and thallium content in urine were detected with ICP-MS. The average thallium contents in urine of Magu villagers were higner than those of Salaxi villagers,The urinary thallium contents of female were higner than those of male. The urinary thallium contents of residents in two districts were mostly under the upper limit of exposure in human bodies. There was no villager suffered from chronic poisoning of thallium in the two observing districts, the 95% upper limits of urinary thallium content for nonoccupational women older than 45 ages in Magu village was 8 microg/gCr and those for other nonoccupational subjects older than 45 ages was 5 microg/gCr.

  15. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from 50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect.

  16. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Fascioliasis in Yaks, Bos grunniens, from Three Counties of Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Yin, Ming-Yang; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of fascioliasis in yaks, Bos grunniens , from 3 counties of Gansu Province in China. A total of 1,584 serum samples, including 974 samples from white yaks from Tianzhu, 464 from black yaks from Maqu, and 146 from black yaks from Luqu County, were collected and analyzed using ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica . The overall F. hepatica seroprevalence was 28.7% (454/1,584), with 29.2% in white yaks (284/974) and 27.9% in black yaks (170/610). The seroprevalence of F. hepatica in yaks from Tianzhu, Luqu, and Maqu was 29.2%, 22.6%, and 29.5%, respectively. Female yaks (30.9%) had higher F. hepatica seroprevalence than male yaks (23.4%). Also, F. hepatica seroprevalence varied by different age group from 24.1% to 33.8%. Further, the seroprevalence ranged from 21.8% to 39.1% over different seasons. Interestingly, the season and age of yaks were associated with F. hepatica infection in yaks in the investigated areas. These findings provided a basis for further studies on this disease in yaks from 3 counties of Gansu Province in northwestern China, which may ultimately support the development of effective control strategies of fascioliasis in these areas.

  17. Genetic diversity analysis of Amomum tsao-ko in Jinping County of Yunnan Province using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mengli; Wang, Tiantao; Lei, En; Meng, Hengling; Xie, Linyan; Zhu, Kunlong; Duan, Shaoze; Li, Wenqiang; Lu, Bingyue

    2017-08-01

    Genetic diversity analysis is very important for germplasm resources conservation and utilization. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity among 44 individuals of Amomum tsao-ko from Jinping County of Yunnan Province using 5 selected SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. A total of 23 polymorphic loci were detected among these germplasms, with an average of 4.6 polymorphic loci per SSR primer combination. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 100%, whereas the mean effective number of alleles (Ne), observed heterozygosity(Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), Shannon's information index (I), and the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) were 3. 410, 0. 491, 0. 679, 1.266 and 0. 672, respectively, indicating that the Amomum tsao-ko germplasms from Jinping County had high genetic diversity.

  18. Investigation of the age and geological thermal history of the strata containing dinosaurs fossil in Tianzhen county of Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Tiesheng; Wang Lanfen; Wang Shicheng; Cheng Zhengwu

    1996-01-01

    The age and thermal history of the strata containing dinosaurs fossil in Tianzhen County of Shanxi Province have been studied using apatite and zircon fission track analysis. It is shown that the burial age of dinosaurs skeletons is not earlier than Late Cretaceous. The provenance area of the strata had experienced heating events with temperature higher than 200-250 degree C 73 Ma ago. But the strata has been at environmental temperature and never been affected by heating events since the dinosaurs skeletons were buried

  19. Investigation of the age and geological thermal history of the strata containing dinosaurs fossil in Tianzhen county of Shanxi Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiesheng, Kang; Lanfen, Wang; Shicheng, Wang [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Qiqing, Pang [Hebei College of Geology, Shijiazhuang (China); Zhengwu, Cheng [Institute of Geology, MGMR, Beijing (China)

    1996-10-01

    The age and thermal history of the strata containing dinosaurs fossil in Tianzhen County of Shanxi Province have been studied using apatite and zircon fission track analysis. It is shown that the burial age of dinosaurs skeletons is not earlier than Late Cretaceous. The provenance area of the strata had experienced heating events with temperature higher than 200-250 degree C 73 Ma ago. But the strata has been at environmental temperature and never been affected by heating events since the dinosaurs skeletons were buried.

  20. The Evaluation of Land Use Status in Mountainous Counties of Southwest China Based on Comprehensive Evaluation Models: A Case Study of Baoxing County, Sichuan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengtian; Shen, Jundi; Chen, Zhehua

    2018-06-01

    In mountainous areas of Southwest China, the land resources are scarce, and the ecological environment is fragile, so it is particularly important to carry out the evaluation of land use status for the sustainability of land development. Taking Baoxing County in Sichuan Province, the typical mountainous county in Southwest China, as an instance, this study refers to the existing research frameworks to establish the evaluation system of land use status. Meanwhile, the comprehensive evaluation models are used to evaluate land use status. As indicated from the results, in Baoxing County, the comprehensive evaluation score of the overall status of land use, the evaluation score of the development degree of land, the evaluation score of the intensive management degree of land and the evaluation score of the comprehensive benefits of land were 83.5, 108.24, 72.25 and 80.77, respectively. Land use status is generally at the relatively rational use stage, and the main problems are the lack of land investment and the low mechanization level of agricultural production. It is suggested to increase the financial investment in land and enhance the intensive degree and comprehensive benefits of land in the future.

  1. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; He, Mingguang; Zhao, Jialiang; Fang, Min; Ellwein, Leon B; He, Ning; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 531 individuals aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County from September 2006 to January 2007. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated using village registers followed by door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and thirty-one individuals were enumerated and 4 589 persons were examined, the response rate was 82.97%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.38% (109/4 589) and 9.44% (433/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.68% (123/4 589) and 18.15% (833/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 1 239.34, P blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is higher among older adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County. Cataract remains as the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.

  2. Patterns of HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in the cross-border area of Lang Son Province, Vietnam, and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Tran V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess patterns of injecting drug use and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs in an international border area along a major heroin trans-shipment route. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of IDUs in 5 sites in Lang Son Province, Vietnam (n = 348 and 3 sites in Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China (n = 308. Respondents were recruited through peer referral ("snowball" methods in both countries, and also from officially recorded lists of IDUs in Vietnam. A risk behavior questionnaire was administered and HIV counseling and testing conducted. Results Participants in both countries were largely male, in their 20s, and unmarried. A majority of subjects in both countries were members of ethnic minority groups. There were strong geographic gradients for length of drug injecting and for HIV seroprevalence. Both mean years injecting and HIV seroprevalence declined from the Vietnamese site farthest from the border to the Chinese site farthest from the border. 10.6% of participants in China and 24.5% of participants in Vietnam reported crossing the international border in the 6 months prior to interview. Crossing the border by IDUs was associated with (1 distance from the border, (2 being a member of an ethnic minority group, and (3 being HIV seropositive among Chinese participants. Conclusion Reducing the international spread of HIV among IDUs will require programs at the global, regional, national, and "local cross border" levels. At the local cross border level, the programs should be coordinated on both sides of the border and on a sufficient scale that IDUs will be able to readily obtain clean injection equipment on the other side of the border as well as in their country of residence.

  3. [Investigation on satisfaction of replacement of bovine with machine for schistosomiasis control of residents in Jiangling County, Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, De-Gao; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Li, Shi-Zhu

    2012-12-01

    To understand the satisfaction and the awareness rate of the replacement of bovine with machine for schistosomiasis control among residents in Jiangling County, Hubei Province. Three villages, Yugu, Jinqi and Huazhang, were chosen randomly to be investigated, each family filled a questionnaire, and 363 questionnaires were obtained at the end of the survey. The data were analyzed with SPSS 11.5. Among 363 households, 210 (68.0%) households raised bovine during the last 3 years. There were no significant differences in the awareness rates of the replacement of bovine with machine and the knowledge of schistosomiasis control between the bovine-raising families and non-raising families (P > 0.05), while the satisfaction rates between the bovine-raising families and non-raising showed a statistically significant difference (P replacement of bovine with machine of residents in schistosomiasis endemic areas are relatively perfect.

  4. Cluster and principal component analysis based on SSR markers of Amomum tsao-ko in Jinping County of Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mengli; Lei, En; Meng, Hengling; Wang, Tiantao; Xie, Linyan; Shen, Dong; Xianwang, Zhou; Lu, Bingyue

    2017-08-01

    Amomum tsao-ko is a commercial plant that used for various purposes in medicinal and food industries. For the present investigation, 44 germplasm samples were collected from Jinping County of Yunnan Province. Clusters analysis and 2-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) was used to represent the genetic relations among Amomum tsao-ko by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Clustering analysis clearly distinguished the samples groups. Two major clusters were formed; first (Cluster I) consisted of 34 individuals, the second (Cluster II) consisted of 10 individuals, Cluster I as the main group contained multiple sub-clusters. PCA also showed 2 groups: PCA Group 1 included 29 individuals, PCA Group 2 included 12 individuals, consistent with the results of cluster analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to provide information on genetic relationship of Amomum tsao-ko germplasm resources in main producing areas, also provide a theoretical basis for the protection and utilization of Amomum tsao-ko resources.

  5. [Epidemiological investigation of fascioliasis and analysis of a chronic human fascioliasis case in Binchuan County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Yu-hua; Duan, Yu-chun; Yang, Jing; Cui, Yu-hua; Yang, Li-qun; Yang, Qiong; Zhang, Jian-guo; Luo, Jia-jun

    2014-12-01

    From February to March 2014, six natural villages in Zhoucheng Town, Binchuan County of Yunan Province, were randomly selected by cluster sampling. Serum anti-fascioliasis IgG was detected by ELISA. The sero-positive individuals were further tested for Fasciola infection using sediment detection with nylon bag (260 meshes) and Kato-Katz method. Among 1207 sampled persons, the sero-positive rate was 3.0% (36/1207). The rate in males and females was 2.3% (12/530) and 3.6% (24/677) (u=1.46, P>0.05). The sero-positive rate in Zhoucheng Village and Baizhuang Village was 4.0% (24/616) and 2.0% (12/591), respectively (u=2.07, Pfascioliasis.

  6. [Study on the relationship between Terra-MODIS image and the snail distribution in marshland of Jiangning county, Jiangsu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-ying; Xu, De-zhong; Sun, Zhi-dong; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Gong, Zi-li; Liu, Shi-jun; Liu, Cheng; Xu, Bin; Zhou, Yun

    2003-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the snail distribution in marshland of Jiangning county in Jiangsu province, and to explore the utility of Terra-MODIS image map in the small scale snail habitats surveillance. NDVI were extracted from MODIS image by vector chart of the snail distribution using ArcView 8.1 and ERDAS 8.5 software. The relationship between NDVI and the snail distribution were Investigated using Bivariate correlations and stepwise linear regression. The snail density on marshland was positively correlated with the mean NDVI in the first ten-day of May and the maximum NDVI (N(20max)) in the last ten-day of May. Incidence of pixel with the live snail on marshland was positively correlated with the mean NDVI (N(2mean)) in the first ten-day of May. An equation Y(1) = 0.009 47 x N(20max) (R(2) = 0.73), Y(2) = 0.018 6 x N(2mean) (R(2) = 0.906) was established. This study showed that the Terra-MODIS satellite images reflecting the status of the vegetation on marshland in Jiangning county could be applied to the study to supervise the snail habitat. The results suggested that MODIS images could be used to survey the small scale snail habitats on marshland.

  7. [Spatiotemporal variation of typical red soil eroded landscape pattern: a case study in Changting County of Fujian Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-sheng; Lin, Hui-hua; Zhu, He-jian; Sha, Jin-ming; Dai, Wen-yuan

    2011-07-01

    Based on the 1988, 2000, and 2007 remote sensing images of a typical red soil eroded region (Changting County, Fujian Province) and the digital elevation model (DEM), the eroded landscape types were worked out, and the changes of the eroded landscape pattern in the region from 1988 to 2007 were analyzed with the spatial mathematics model. In 1988-2007, different eroded landscape types in the region had the characteristics of inter-transfer, mainly manifested in the transfer from seriously eroded to lightly eroded types but still existed small amount of the transference from lightly eroded to seriously eroded types. Little change was observed in the controid of the eroded landscape. In the County, Hetian Town was all along the eroded center. During the study period, the landscape pattern index showed a tendency of low heterogeneity, low fragmentation, and high regularization at landscape level, but an overall improvement and expansion of lightly eroded and easy-to-tackle patches as well as the partial improvement and fragmentation of seriously eroded and difficult-to-tackle patches at patch level.

  8. Disparities in health system input between minority and non-minority counties and their effects on maternal mortality in Sichuan province of western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Qian, Ping; Duan, Zhanqi; Zhao, Ziling; Pan, Jay; Yang, Min

    2017-09-29

    The maternal mortality rate (MMR) markedly decreased in China, but there has been a significant imbalance among different geographic regions (east, central and west regions), and the mortality in the western region remains high. This study aims to examine how much disparity in the health system and MMR between ethnic minority and non-minority counties exists in Sichuan province of western China and measures conceivable commitments of the health system determinants of the disparity in MMR. The MMR and health system data of 67 minority and 116 non-minority counties were taken from Sichuan provincial official sources. The 2-level Poisson regression model was used to identify health system determinants. A series of nested models with different health system factors were fitted to decide contribution of each factor to the disparity in MMR. The MMR decreased over the last decade, with the fastest declining rate from 2006 to 2010. The minority counties experienced higher raw MMR in 2002 than non-minority counties (94.4 VS. 58.2), which still remained higher in 2014 (35.7 VS. 14.3), but the disparity of raw MMR between minority and non-minority counties decreased from 36.2 to 21.4. The better socio-economic condition, more health human resources and higher maternal health care services rate were associated with lower MMR. Hospital delivery rate alone explained 74.5% of the difference in MMR between minority and non-minority counties. All health system indicators together explained 97.6% of the ethnic difference in MMR, 59.8% in the change trend, and 66.3% county level variation respectively. Hospital delivery rate mainly determined disparity in MMR between minority and non-minority counties in Sichuan province. Increasing hospital birth rates among ethnic minority counties may narrow the disparity in MMR by more than two-thirds of the current level.

  9. Receptivity to malaria in the China-Myanmar border in Yingjiang County, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianmu; Zhang, Shaosen; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Wang, Xuezhong; Luo, Chunhai; Zeng, Xucan; Guo, Xiangrui; Lin, Zurui; Tu, Hong; Sun, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-11-21

    The re-establishment of malaria has become an important public health issue in and out of China, and receptivity to this disease is key to its re-emergence. Yingjiang is one of the few counties with locally acquired malaria cases in the China-Myanmar border in China. This study aimed to understand receptivity to malaria in Yingjiang County, China, from June to October 2016. Light-traps were employed to capture the mosquitoes in 17 villages in eight towns which were categorized into four elevation levels: level 1, 0-599 m; level 2, 600-1199 m; level 3, 1200-1799 m; and level 4, > 1800 m. Species richness, diversity, dominance and evenness were used to picture the community structure. Similarity in species composition was compared between different elevation levels. Data of seasonal abundance of mosquitoes, human biting rate, density of light-trap-captured adult mosquitoes and larvae, parous rate, and height distribution (density) of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis were collected in two towns (Na Bang and Ping Yuan) each month from June to October, 2016. Over the study period, 10,053 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from the eight towns, and 15 Anopheles species were identified, the most-common of which were An. sinensis (75.4%), Anopheles kunmingensis (15.6%), and An. minimus (3.5%). Anopheles minimus was the major malaria vector in low-elevation areas (malaria in the China-Myanmar border in Yingjiang County.

  10. Monitoring of Heavy Metal Concentration in Groundwater of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, the quality of water is a very important concern. High levels of heavy metals in drinking water may cause some health problems such as cancer. The aim of this study is determination of some heavy metal concentrations in groundwater of some parts of Qorveh county, Kurdistan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study 25 water samples were analyzed, using Inductively Coupled Plasma for determining the concentrations of iron, chromium, copper and zinc. As a case study, the groundwater contamination in some parts of Qorveh county, Kurdistan, Iran, was investigated and compared to the maximum contaminant level specified by the World Health Organization (WHO and Iranian Standard Institute (IS: 1053, using ANOVA test. Results: Obtained results showed that in some cases the concentration of heavy metals were above WHO and IS: 1053. Conclusions: Heavy metals contamination can enter the food chain and cause various health problems. Thus, according to the obtained results, it is necessary to launch water management programs in the study area.

  11. Data on water quality index for the groundwater in rural area Neyshabur County, Razavi province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yousefi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health is at risk from physical and chemical contaminants in the drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. The data from the current study was evaluated for groundwater quality in the rural villages of Neyshabur County in Iran. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, water samples were collected from 30 randomly-selected water wells during 2013 and 2014. The samples were tested in situ to measure physical parameters of pH and electrical conductivity and chemical parameters of total dissolved solids, total hardness and levels of calcium, magnesium, carbonates, bicarbonates, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfates. The APHA method was applied to determine the physicochemical parameters of the water samples. Keywords: Ground water quality index, Rural area, Neyshabur, Iran

  12. Quantitative analysis of burden of bacillary dysentery associated with floods in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuena; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-03-15

    Jishou and Huaihua, two cities in the west of Hunan Province, had suffered from severe floods because of long-lasting and heavy rainfall during the end of June and July 2012. However, the Disability Adjusted of Life Years (DALYs) of bacillary dysentery caused by the floods have not been examined before. The study aimed to quantify the impact of the floods on the burden of bacillary dysentery in Hunan, China. A unidirectional case-crossover study was firstly conducted to determine the relationship between daily cases of bacillary dysentery and the floods in Jishou and Huaihua of Hunan Province in 2012. Odds ratios (ORs) estimated by conditional logistic regression were used to quantify the risk of the floods on the disease. The years lived with disability (YLDs) of bacillary dysentery attributable to floods were then estimated based on the WHO framework to calculate potential impact fraction in the Burden of Disease study. Multivariable analysis showed that floods were significantly associated with an increased risk of the number of cases of bacillary dysentery (OR=3.270, 95% CI: 1.299-8.228 in Jishou; OR=2.212, 95% CI: 1.052-4.650 in Huaihua). The strongest effect was shown with a 1-day lag in Jishou and a 4-day lag in Huaihua. Attributable YLD per 1000 of bacillary dysentery due to the floods was 0.0296 in Jishou and 0.0157 in Huaihua. Our study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risks of bacillary dysentery in the study areas. In addition, a sudden and severe flooding with a shorter duration may cause more burdens of bacillary dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Public health preparation and intervention programs should be taken to reduce and prevent a potential risk of bacillary dysentery epidemics after floods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Data on microbiological quality assessment of rural drinking water supplies in Tiran County, Isfahan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Khadijeh; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Heidari, Zahra; Asghari, Farzaneh Baghal; Radfard, Majid; Yousefi, Mahmood; Shams, Mahmoud

    2018-06-01

    A lack of access to safe drinking water can lead to adverse health effects such as infection, disease, and undesirable aesthetic problems. The current study focused on the investigation of groundwater quality in Tiran's villages (Isfahan province, Iran). To determine essential microbiological quality, water samples were collected from 46 randomly-selected water wells during a one-year period. The parameters of pH and chlorine were measured on-site. Turbidity was measured at 420 nm using a DR5000 spectrophotometer. Microbiological tests including general thermoforms, Escherichia coli , and thermophiles were carried out according to the National Iranian Standard Method 3759. Data showed that 1.8% of the villages under study had contaminated water resources. The turbidity values for 94.5% of the resources were within recommended limits (<5NTU). In 20.6% of the samples, the residual free chlorine was in the range of 0 to 0.2 mg/L, 8.79% of samples had values greater than the recommended limits, and18.5% had no free residual chlorine.

  14. Modeling the dynamics of urban growth using multinomial logistic regression: a case study of Jiayu County, Hubei Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Yu; Du, Qingyun; Wang, Kun; Miao, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei

    2008-10-01

    Urban growth modeling, one of the most important aspects of land use and land cover change study, has attracted substantial attention because it helps to comprehend the mechanisms of land use change thus helps relevant policies made. This study applied multinomial logistic regression to model urban growth in the Jiayu county of Hubei province, China to discover the relationship between urban growth and the driving forces of which biophysical and social-economic factors are selected as independent variables. This type of regression is similar to binary logistic regression, but it is more general because the dependent variable is not restricted to two categories, as those previous studies did. The multinomial one can simulate the process of multiple land use competition between urban land, bare land, cultivated land and orchard land. Taking the land use type of Urban as reference category, parameters could be estimated with odds ratio. A probability map is generated from the model to predict where urban growth will occur as a result of the computation.

  15. Study on the pre-qin pottery and proto-porcelain from boluo county, Guangdong province with INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianping; Chen Tiemei

    2003-01-01

    Seventy-seven pottery and proto-porcelain sherds collected from Meihuadun, Yingang and Henglingshan sites of Boluo County, Guangdong Province were studied with INAA. These sherds are of Western Zhou to Warring States Period. Concentrations of 27 elements were measured, then principal component analysis and other statistical procedures were applied to the data set in order to classify these sherds. This study shows: (1) Though these 3 archaeological sites are located close to each other within an area of about 1000 km 2 , ancient potters of these sites might use raw materials of different origins for pottery production, as pottery sherds of these 3 sites show different chemical compositions. Such differentiation is also observed for the proto-porcelain samples, indicating that proto-porcelain samples found at Meihuadun and Henglingshan might be of different provenance; (2) In each site during the Western Zhou to Spring-Autumn Period the same raw material was used for both hard pottery and soft pottery manufacturing, while during the Warring States Period no similarity in chemical compositions was observed between hard pottery and soft pottery samples. It is wondered if this phenomenon means an advancement of ceramic technology

  16. A floristic study of Kuh-e Khom in Tang Shekan region of Arsanjan county in Fars province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Zare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A floristic study was done in Kuh-e Khom in east of Arsanjan county as part of the southern Zagros in Fars province. Altitude of the region is ranged from 1740 to 3270 m above sea level. The flora of the region with an emphasis on identifying habitats and the effect of altitude on vegetation were studied and sampling was done from 2010 to 2012. Totally, 440 plant specimens of vascular plant were collected which were belonging to 50 families, 198 genera and 287 species. The angiosperm plants were dominant and from them the dicot plants with 37 families, 167 genera and 246 species had the most diversity. The monocots plants with 9 families, 27 genera and 37 species were the second diversely group in the region. Gymnosperms and Pteridophyte each with two species had the lowest number of species. In respect to species richness, Asteraceae (43 species was the largest family and after that Breassicaceae (33 species, Poaceae (24 species, Fabaceae (24 species, Lamiaceae (22 species, Caryophyllaceae (19 species and Boraginaceae (13 species had the most species diversity. Half of species were therophyte and 68% of species were belonging to Irano-Turanian region.

  17. [Disparities of sex on cancer incidence and mortality in Jiashan county, Zhejiang province,1990-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X Y; Hu, Y Q; Ye, D; Li, Q L; Chen, K; Jin, M J

    2017-06-10

    Objective: This study aimed to describe the sex disparities on cancer incidence and mortality in Jiashan population. Methods: All data concerning incident and death cases of cancers were gathered from the database of Cancer Registry in Jiashan county. Data from the 2010 China census was used as the standard population. Sex-specific age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 persons for all cancers and types of each cancer were calculated for the years of 1990 to 1999, 2000 to 2009, 2010 to 2014, and 1990 to 2014. In addition, the corresponding male-to-female incidence rate ratios ( IRRs ) and mortality rate ratios ( MRRs ) were also calculated. Results: The ASIR of all cancers was 226.13/10(5) for the whole period of 1990 to 2014, with 266.04/10(5) for males and 187.22/10(5) for females, respectively. The corresponding IRR was 1.42 (95 %CI : 1.39-1.46), with significant difference noticed in the incidence rates between males and females ( P ASMR of all cancers was 155.39/10(5), with 206.55/10(5) for males and 104.98/10(5) for females, respectively. The corresponding MRR was 1.97 (95 % CI : 1.91-2.03), with significant difference between males and females ( P <0.05). Among all the cancer types, only gallbladder cancer and thyroid cancer showed female predominance in both incidence and mortality, with male predominance in all the remaining cancers. Conclusion: Finding from our study suggested that a male predominance in both incidence and mortality for a majority of cancers in Jiashan population.

  18. Determination of Mosquitoes Fauna (Culicidae: Diptera in Poldokhtar County of Lorestan Province, 2015

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    Zahirnia A H

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insects as the largest category of arthropods include numerous groups and families that the most important of them belong to order Diptera, family Culicidae. Because of feeding on the human's blood, a number of species of this family have been known as responsible for the transmission of pathogens for many diseases such as malaria, filariasis, encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue fever in the world. Given that no research has been conducted to determine the fauna of existing mosquitoes in the city of Poldokhtar, Lorestan Province, the present study aimed to exactly determine the mosquitoes' fauna in this city to perform appropriate prevention measures. Methods: In this faunistic and cross-sectional descriptive study, four urban areas and four rural areas in four geographic directions in the city of Poldokhtar were determined. In each urban area, two places and in each designated rural area, four places including two human places and two animal places were selected. From the early of April 2015 to the early of January 2016, larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes of the Culicidae family were collected. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and mature were ladling, night catch, total and hand catch with an aspirator. Characteristics including the name of the collector, date of collection, code related to habitat, habitat status (permanent or temporary, type of vegetation cover, type of substrate, and the situation of sunlight were recorded in the related form. The samples were identified by resources and valid identification keys. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally, 5392 mosquito adults of the Culicidae family including 1818 mosquito adults and 3574 larvae in designated areas in the city as well as four rural areas were collected. The three genera Anopheles (21.9%, Culex (64.6%, and Culiseta (13.5% were diagnosed. Also, from three genera, 12 species were identified as follows: Culex theiler, Cx

  19. Depressive symptoms and social support among people living with HIV in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghong; Zhang, Caihong; Ruan, Ye; Li, Xianhong; Fennie, Kristopher; Williams, Ann B

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment and poor treatment outcomes. Our study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms in PLWH in one Chinese province. Data were collected from 496 PLWH between July 2009 and July 2010 at two HIV treatment sites in Hunan Province, China. Sixty-two percent (n = 309) of participants scored 16 or more on the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression scale, indicating moderate to high levels of depressive symptoms. Independent predictors of depressive symptoms included active heroin use, lack of a stable job, female gender, and limited social support. These data suggest that interventions addressing depressive symptoms should be included in HIV care programs provided by the Chinese government, with a special focus on PLWH who are heroin users, female, unemployed, or socially isolated. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Hard Ticks (Acari: Ixododae Infesting Domestic Ruminants in Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran

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    F. Fayazkhoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae are one of the most important obligate ectoparasites of vertebrates, belonging to class Arachnida, which transmit a wide range of pathological agents such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites to humans and animals in Iran and around the world. Identifying the distribution of hard ticks in a region is important to monitor their control program, and thereby prevent disease transmission. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, sampling was carried out from different parts of the livestock body during four seasons in four geographical directions and five villages of Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran, during 2015-2016. The ticks were initially stimulated by using chloroform solution and then separated from domestic ruminants by forceps. The collected ticks were sent to a laboratory, and then their sex and species were identified by using valid diagnostic keys. Results: We studied 800 domestic ruminants, including cattle, sheep, and goats, and found 150 (18.7% cases of infestation. A total of 274 ticks were collected, 259 of which were hard ticks including four genera of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Repicephlus, and Haemaphysalis. The greatest diversity of species, including Hyalomma scopens (Hy. deteritum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Hyalomma anatolicum belonged to the genus Hyalomma. The frequency rates of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Hemaphysalis genera were 73.74%, 15.05%, 10.03%, and 1.15 %, respectively. The highest abundance of ticks was observed in spring (152. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the diversity of hard ticks in the region and the highest abundance of ticks in spring. Considering the importance of ticks in disease transmission among humans and domestic ruminants, health authorities and respective organizations should take appropriate health measures to control and combat these external parasites.

  1. PIXE analysis of proto-porcelain excavated from the Huoshaoshan kiln site in Deqing County, Zhejiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Cheng Huansheng; Zheng Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zhejiang Province is an important producing area of proto-porcelain. Huoshaoshan kiln site in Deqing County is the only kiln known currently for firing proto-porcelain from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the late Spring and Autumn Period. Also it is the earliest kiln site unearthed for only firing proto-porcelain so far. It is of great significance for the exploration of Chinese early celadon firing technology. Purpose: The aim is to disclose the elemental characteristics of these proto-porcelains and study the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains. Methods: We selected 18 samples made at the early period (from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the early Spring and Autumn Period), 15 samples made at the middle and last period (the last period of the middle Spring and Autumn Period), and 17 samples made at the last period (the last period of the late Spring and Autumn Period). Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to analyze these samples and measure the chemical compositions of these proto-porcelains. The factor analysis is used to study the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains made in the different periods. Results: The results show that for the raw materials of body and glaze, the proto-porcelains at the last period are different from those at the early period, while the same as those at the middle and last period. Conclusion: PIXE combining with factor analysis can be used to study effectively the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains. (authors)

  2. The economic support index evaluation study on the pig breeding scale of the six provinces in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Le, Xi-lin; Yuan, Gang; Ji, Xue-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Shanxi province, Anhui province, Jiangxi province, Henan province, Hubei province and Hunan province are located in the central part of China. They are playing an essential role in China’s economic and social development. In this article, we use analytic hierarchy process(AHP), on the basis of the statistical yearbook data of 2016, conduct an appraisal research about the economic support index of the pig breeding scale in the six provinces of central China. The evaluation shows that Hubei tops all of the provinces on the economic support index, followed by Hunan, Anhui, Henan, Jiangxi. The lowest index is in Shanxi province. It indicates the economic conditions in Hubei province is the most capable for it to support the pig breeding scale, Shanxi province is the opposite.

  3. Analysis of regulatory uses and its connection with flood prone areas. The case of 23 counties on the coastline of the province of Buenos Aires

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    María Inés Botana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an analysis of the land and soil use regulations in the 23 counties of the basin of the rivers Paraná and de la Plata, which make up the area of study of the project in which this is framed1, bearing in mind the specific treatment of the affected areas as well as flood prevention. In order to do this, we have taken into account the following: a the analysis of the evolution of State regulations as regards soil occupancy in the greater Buenos Aires; b the updated registry of regulations connected with land demarcation and use of soil validated by the Executive Power (Regulation N§ and Validating Decree N§; c the specific regulation (Regulation N§ / Executive Power decree N§ by municipality / by content. The data to perform the study of regulatory soil use was obtained from the new Interactive Land Demarcation Map of the Province of Buenos Aires created by the Ministry of Government of the Province of Buenos Aires, Subsecretariat of Municipal Affairs. The analysis of current regulations in each of the 23 counties comprised in the study will allow us to define future intervention strategies, which will act as instruments in connection with land regulation for each municipality's management.

  4. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae from Hunan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xu

    Full Text Available A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16 confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella.

  5. Protest Leadership and Repertoire: A Comparative Analysis of Peasant Protest in Hunan in the 1990s

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    Wu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed ethnographic fieldwork, this paper compares two cases of peasant protest against heavy taxes and fees in a northern Hunan county in the 1990s. It argues that peasant protest did not arise spontaneously. Rather, it erupted when leaders emerged who used central policy documents on lowering peasant taxes and fees to mobilise peasants. Protest leaders were articulate and public-spirited peasants who had received political training from the local party-state. Furthermore, the number of leaders, their education level, and their relationship with the local party-state explain why the repertoire and the scope of the two protests varied. Protests led by less educated veteran Communist Party cadres tended to be milder and smaller than those led by better-educated peasants more distant from the local party-state. This paper helps us to understand the process of peasant mobilisation in contemporary China and explains why peasant protest varies across cases.

  6. [Depressive symptoms and related factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province:a two-year longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Linsheng; Chen, Mingchun; Chen, Jian; Lyu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yuhong; Sun, Ying; Sun, Yehuan

    2014-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms, trends on its longitudinal development and related influencing factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province. Through cluster sampling methods, all students from 3 to 9 grades in 5 primary schools and 3 middle schools in Changfeng county of Anhui province were investigated through questionnaire as subjects of baseline survey in December 2009. Subjects of this longitudinal study were students in grades 3, 4 and 7 at the time of the baseline survey and were contacted once a year for two years. At last, a total of 816 students participated in all the three surveys. A structured questionnaire including Children's Depression Inventory, socio-demographic characteristics and some potential influential factors was employed for this study. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to evaluate the related influencing factors of children's depressive symptoms in the longitudinal study. Prevalence rates of depressive symptoms were 11.3% , 10.4% and 8.5% , respectively, at the baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-up studies, among primary and middle school students. Scores on depressive symptoms of total subjects and children who had always been left at home in the follow-up process showed significant differences at the three surveys (F = 13.423, P students who showed depressive symptoms at the baseline survey remained those depressive symptoms at the 1-year follow-up study and 87 percent of the 23 students who had depressive symptoms at the baseline and 1-year follow-up surveys still showing depressive symptoms at the 2-year follow-up study. Results from the GEE program indicated that grade 3 students, having syblings, family with dysfunction or at low level of self-esteem etc., were prone to development while sex and parents' educational level were not correlated with depressive symptoms. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county

  7. China Report, Agriculture Hunan Agricultural Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-13

    small leaf li ji mu [1420 5509 2929 2606 4949 2606 Loropetalum chinense], black dye trees [Platycaria strobilacea], Chinese sweet gum [Liquidambar...conservancy projects, guar - anteeing of project safety, strengthening of management, and improvement of irrigation ditch utilization coefficients, in...for farm machines. In addition 214 Xiangtan, Liuyang, and Youxian counties produced some native pesticides, powdered phosphate, ammonium humic

  8. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Luxi County of Yunnan Province: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ning; Yuan, Yuan-sheng; Zhao, Jia-liang; Zhong, Hua; Ellwein, Leon B; Chen, Miao-miao; Dan, Ai-hua; Sun, Peng; Luo, Ting-hao; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County of Yunnan Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5575 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and seventy-five individuals were enumerated and 5151 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 4.95% (255/5151) and 9.51% (490/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 5.40% (278/5151) and 15.84% (816/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (χ(2) = 1349.21, P = 0.000) , illiterate (χ(2) = 203.55, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is highest in China Nine-Province Survey among older adults aged ≥ 50 years

  9. [Repeated cross-sectional studies on urinary iodine and iodine content of salt among school-aged children from 2012 to 2014 in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meifang; Wang, Congyun; Li, Songtao; Ying, Xuhua; Zhao, Qi; Fu, Chaowei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the iodine status and its change among school-aged children in their morning urine and eating salt from 2012 to 2014 in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province, China. Three repeated cross-sectional studies were carried out at a same primary school in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. Three classes were randomly selected from each of 3 to 5 grade by the cluster-stratified sampling every year. Totally, 1343 out of 1350 eligible children aged 8 to 10 years old were involved into this study. Their morning urine and salt eating at home were collected and tested. The overall median of urine iodine was 116.0 μg/L, and no significant change was found over year. The overall proportions of subjects with urine iodine iodine from 1343 salt samples was 0.0 mg/kg and no year difference was statistically observed. The proportions of subjects consumed iodized salt significantly decreased from 25.1% in 2012 to 21.8% in 2013 and to 14.2% in 2014. There was a significant difference in urine iodine between subjects taken iodized salt or not and also a weak positive correlation between salt iodine and urine iodine. The nutritional status of iodine is overall stable, proper and safety in recent 3 years among school children in Yuhuan County. The coverage rate of iodized salt is very low.

  10. Effects of County Public Hospital Reform on Procurement Costs and Volume of Antibiotics: A Quasi-Natural Experiment in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuqing; Liu, Chaojie; Liu, Junjie; Zhang, Xinping; Zuo, Keyuan

    2018-04-18

    The overuse of antibiotics has become a major public health challenge worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries, including China. In 2009, the Chinese government launched a series of measures to de-incentivise over-prescription in public health facilities, including decoupling the link between facility income and the sale of medicines. We evaluated the effects of these measures on procurement costs and the volume of antibiotics in county public hospitals. The study was undertaken in the Hubei province of China, where 64 county public hospitals implemented the reform in sequence at three different stages. A quasi-natural experiment design was employed. We performed generalised linear regressions with a difference-in-differences approach using 22,713 procurement records of antibiotics from November 2014 to December 2016. The regression results showed that the reform contributed to a 14.79% increase in total costs for antibiotics (p = 0.013), particularly costs for injectable antibiotics (p = 0.022) and first-line antibiotics (p = 0.030). The procurement prices for antibiotics remained largely comparable to those in the control group, but the reform led to a 17.30% increase in the procurement volume (expressed as defined daily doses) of second-line antibiotics (p = 0.032). County public hospitals procured more antibiotics and greater numbers of expensive antibiotics, such as those administered via injection, to compensate for the loss of income from the sale of medicines, leading to an increased total cost of antibiotics.

  11. [Current situation on the treatment modules of diarrhea cases in 12 counties/cities of Guangdong, Henan and Gansu provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Min

    2008-10-01

    To understand the situation of diarrhea cases treatment modules in the areas and to provide reference data for setting up national strategies for treatment and control of diarrhea diseases. Using the method of multistage and cluster random sampling, we selected twelve counties/cities and 60 streets communities/villages from Guangdong, Henan and Gansu provinces that representing three kinds of economic development. According to the definition of diarrhea case published by World Health Organization, we conducted a four-time investigation at the community level in four different seasons. The overall incidence of diarrhea within two weeks was 0.79% (95%CI: 0.74% - 0.84%) in the residents from twelve counties/districts in Guangdong, Henan and Gansu. The incidence rate within two weeks under the 5 years old was 2.30% (95%CI: 1.96% - 2.67%), obviously higher than the incidence rates seen in other age groups. The average percentage of visiting a doctor seeking for help on diarrhea within the two weeks was 55.89% for the three provinces. The highest percentage was 79.88% in the age group under 5 years old. 35.38% of the patients with diarrhea in urban area went to the community or street clinics for treatment, but 75.04% of the diarrhea cases in rural areas went to see village or private rural doctors. Factors influencing the behaviors of visiting a doctor seeking for help were found by logistic Regression method. It was found that factors as: when diarrhea cases with voluminous or soft-rice like watery stools or with dark blood stools; when a patient was with fever, more episodes per day or with longer duration, the patients would turn more to the doctors for help. Diarrhea cases from the rural areas would see doctors more often than the cases from the urban areas. People having had partial 'new rural medical insurance' would see doctors more often than those without medical insurance. We studied the modules of diarrhea case treatment between the urban and rural area in

  12. [Estimation of Topsoil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Cropland Through Different Methods: A Case Study in Zhuanglang County, Gansu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen-di; Xu, Ming-xiang; Qiu, Yu-jie

    2016-03-15

    By analyzing the sampled data and the SOC data of the second national soil survey by the mid 80s and the national cultivated land quality evaluation in 2006 in Zhuanglang County, the article studied the cropland topsoil organic carbon sequestration potential estimation using several different methods. The results showed that: (1) There was no significant difference among different estimation methods about cropland carbon sequestration potential in the same region. Taking cropland carbon sequestration potential in Zhuanglang County for example, the theoretical values estimated by maximum value method and classification grading method were 1. 13 Mt and 1.09 Mt, respectively. (2) The real values estimated by classification grading method, saturation method, weighting method were 0.37 Mt, 0.32 Mt, 0.28 Mt, respectively, which were about 1/3 of the theoretical value. (3) The SOC density increments to reach the real level of carbon sequestration potential estimated by classification grading method, saturation method and weighting method were 6.76 t · hm⁻², 5.21 t · hm⁻², 4.56 t · hm⁻² respectively. According to the topsoil carbon sequestration rate of cropland in Zhuanglang county in the recent 30 a, it would need about 24-34 a to achieve the real level. (4) At the county scale, the weighted method was superior to the saturation value method, and the saturation value method was better than the classification grading method in the actual carbon sequestration potential estimation. The classification grading method was better than the maximum value method in the ideal carbon sequestration potential estimation.

  13. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Longyao County of Hebei Province:the China Nine-Province survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jian-hua; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Shan-yu; Han, Dong; Yan, Zhong-yang; Zhang, Hong-bin; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County, Hebei Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5527 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and twenty-seven individuals were enumerated and 5051 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.05% (53/5051) and 3.46% (175/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.48% (75/5051) and 7.94% (401/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 897.27, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 30.32, P = 0.000), illiterate (trend χ(2) = 83.20, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness. Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe

  14. A Study of the Effects of Converting Villages into Cities on the People’s Lifestyle Case Study: Khaf and Roshtkhar Counties in the Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Mohajerani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various socio-cultural and economic factors change the lifestyle of the people due to the changes of villages into cities. Lifestyle preferences of the people are demonstrated in leisure activities, clothing, nutrition, body management, architecture and interior design of houses. This study is aimed to examine social, cultural and economic factors that may have an impact on the lifestyle of the residents of the villages that have been converted into cities in the Khorasan Razavi Province, namely Khaf and Roshtkhar counties. According to available information between the years 2002 -2004, three suburbs called Nashtifan, Salami and Jangal were converted into cities. Theoretical research based on the theories of Ibn-Khaldun, Weber, Veblen, Simmel, Bourdieu, Giddens and Cheney have been developed. The research method was based on a survey, and a questionnaire was developed to collect data. The results show that more changes in the lifestyles of the people in the cities Salami and Nashtifan were caused by cultural factors and those in the Jangal have been caused by economic factors. Also the results show that there is a significant relationship between social participation, political and administrative organizations, ways and means of communications, individualism, identity and relationships, indirect and secondary classes as factors of social, cultural and educational facilities, wasteful  consumption and cultural capital as cultural factors, consumerism, shopping, tendency towards speculative interests, fading support of joint economic prosperity as economic factors and lifestyle.

  15. Epidemiological survey of school-age children with low vision in Zhouqu County of Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Xin Yang,

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To have a detailed picture of school-age children's eyesight status, and the main factors that caused their low vision in Zhouqu County of Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu province. METHODS: The census work of knowing school-age children's eyesight status was implemented through visual inspection, conventional ophthalmic examination, optometry checks, etc. The results were compared with other domestic epidemiological data. RESULTS: Altogether 536 people with low vision were identified through survey and the rate was 21.12%. Among those people, the number of myopia patients accounted for 80.59% and the prevalence rate was 17.02%. Besides, the prevalence rate of presbyopia was 2.05%, amblyopia 2.76%, strabismus 1.02%, ocular trauma 0.95%, and congenital eye disease 0.71%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of low vision was related with several factors such as gender and nationality. The rate increases with age and the myopia is the primary element that causes low vision.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye syndrome among senior high school students in a county of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Hongmei; Wu, Xinyi

    2012-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors for dry eye syndrome (DES) among senior high school students in Shouguang, a county of Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2010, and 1902 senior high school students were selected by multi-stage sampling to answer a questionnaire assessing the prevalence and risk factors for DES. DES was defined as the presence of a previous clinical diagnosis of DES or severe symptoms (both dryness and irritation constantly or often). Risk factors associated with DES were evaluated with a χ(2) test and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of DES was 23.7%. In univariate analysis, myopia (P sleep quality (P = 0.007) were significantly associated with DES. In multivariate analysis, inadequate refractive correction (P sleep quality (P = 0.001, OR 1.342; 95% CI 1.054-1.709) were significant risk factors for DES. Senior high school students are a neglected population with a high prevalence of DES. Preventive measures directed against risks factors for DES among senior high school students may help reduce the prevalence and provide a positive impact on students' health.

  17. Contaminant Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Lead-Zincs Melting Plant in Huize County, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xiao-yan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore history environmental problems of lead-zinc smelting, Huize County, Yunnan Province, forty-two surface soil samples were collected randomly from 14 sampling sites surrounding lead-zinc smelting plant. Heavy metals(Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg in all samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. Contamination characteristics of heavy metals in soils were observed on the basis of background values of comprehensive pollution index method. Potential risk was evaluated by using the geoaccumulation index(Igeo, potential ecological risk index(RI and health risk assessment method. The results indicated that the average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg were 92.25, 226.81, 1 567.45, 65.16, 394.66, 1 451.63, 11.16, 43.81, 0.47 mg·kg-1, respectively. Based on the Environmental Quality Standard for Soil, the multiple super scale of Cd concentration was highest, more than 274 times. According to the Igeo, Cd ranged from partial severity to serious degree. The RI indicated that the soils around lead-zinc smelting plant were at the serious ecological hazard level. Health risk assessment showed that Pb and Cd in soils surrounding old site had potential health risk to children.

  18. Assessing the Sustainability of Farm-land Management in the Eastern Azerbaijan Province (Case of Malekan County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Nabizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess sustainable farmlands management in the Malekan County. The target population consisted of wheat growers among which 162 farmers were selected according to the multistage cluster selection method. The research tool used was a questionnaire whose face validity was confirmed by comments from faculty members and experts in the Malekan Agri- Jihad and its reliability was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha (average 0.71. Sustainability was measured by establishing composite index for six components of sustainable land management. The results of assessing sustainable land management revealed that 19.1% of the farmers were in an unsustainable situation, 34% of them were in a fairly unsustainable situation, 26.5% of them were in a fairly sustainable situation and 20.4% of them were in a sustainable situation. The results of correlation coefficient showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between age and farming experience with “stability and acceptability”, land size and farm income with “stability, acceptability and technical knowledge”, wheat yield and consumed fertilizer with “security”, land plots with “acceptability” and using farm machinery with “productivity, stability, acceptability and technical knowledge”. There is also a negative and significant relationship between non-farm income and “productivity” and consumed fertilizers and “security”.

  19. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-west China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, M.; Xuemei, S.; Yin, Z. Y.; Xu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  20. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-West China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Li

    Full Text Available Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom. from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of olive production using Life Cycle Assessment: A case study, Tarom county, Zanjan province

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    ehsan khodarezaie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Horticulture industry consumes a significant part of the energy and materials and release pollutants into the environment. Olive (Olea europaea L. is one of the most cultivated plants in Iran, so the environmental impact assessment of these production systems is important. However, the consequences and environmental impacts of olive production systems have not been studied in Iran. Tarom County is one of the most important olive production centers in Iran. So, this study is performed to evaluate environmental impacts of olive production in Tarom region. Materials and Methods In this study, the LCA approach is used to assessment of environmental impacts of olive production. This study is conducted in Tarom County in 2012-2013. The aim of this study was to determine hot spots of olive life cycle and offering appropriate Solutions to reduce the related environmental impact in Tarom region. In this research, one ton of Olives was considered as functional unit. System boundary is defined as “from cradle to farm gate”. Primary data were collected through observation, sampling and questionnaires completing method. The climate and soil data were collected from the "Olive Research Center" located in the Tarom County. Data for the production of used inputs (Secondary data were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database, and SimaPro software was employed to analyze primary data. Impact categories were analyzed based on CML 2 baseline 2000 V2.04/ world, 1995/ characterization and SimaPro 7.2 software. CML 2 baseline 2000. Results and Discussion The obtained data from inventory are presented in the table 1. These data includes Inputs and outputs of olive production system in Tarom olive systems. Table 1- Inputs and outputs of olive production system (per 1 ton olive. Amount\tUnit\tInputs 48.04\tkg\tDiesel fuel Chemical fertilizer 62.8\tkg\tUrea 53.9\tkg\tTriple Super Phosphate 46.4\tkg\tPotassium sulphate 5.6\tkg\tPesticides 1222\tkg

  2. Socio-Ecological Adaptation of Agricultural Heritage Systems in Modern China: Three Cases in Qingtian County, Zhejiang Province

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    Wenjun Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, on rural restructuring in China, focuses on the ability of agricultural heritage systems to adapt to modernizing conditions in the rural economy. Since 2002, when FAO initiated the protection of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS, the value of agricultural heritage has been widely acknowledged, as has the importance and urgency to protect the systems in which they are embedded. However, such complex systems have not been fully assessed for their contribution to food security, ecosystem services and cultural preservation, as well as their ability to adapt to the demands of modernization. In fact, they have not been effectively evaluated as whole systems, largely because we have not yet devised satisfactory ways of studying complex systems, nor have we been able to assess them fully for their multi-faceted contributions to sustainability. This paper accepts the premise that such systems are sustainable in that they have survived as agro-ecosystems for many hundreds of years, having endured the predations of droughts, famines, plagues, floods and wars. This ability to sustain a rich diversity of biological and human systems is considered, in the theory of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS, to be a form of resilience, meaning that these systems have either formed a new normal or returned to the old normal after a period of environmental or social stress. In effect, ancient agricultural heritage systems can be seen to represent what has been traditional and normal in China, but which today are faced with the overwhelming forces of modernization. Taking three examples from Qingtian County in Southern China, where physical and political conditions are consistent, the paper shows how similar rice-fish systems adapt differently and sustain themselves in the face of modernization, and particularly to the loss of youth and labor to urbanisation. One system self-adjusts by using remittances from abroad to sustain the system: an

  3. [Impact of rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference: A case study of Xingguo, Shangrao, and Yujiang County in Jiangxi province ecologically vulnerable districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tai-Yang; Huang, Xian-jin

    2006-02-01

    The paper analyzed the farm households' decision-making progress of soil & water conservation and its two-stage conceptual model. It also discussed the impacts of rural land market on the farm households' behavior of soil & water conservation. Given that, the article established models for the relations between the land market and soil & water conservation, and the models' parameters were estimated with Heckman's two-stage approach by using the farm household questionnaires in Xingguo, Shangrao and Yujiang counties of Jiangxi province. The paper analyzed the impact o f rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference with the result of model estimation. The results show that the perception of soil & water loss and the tax & fee on the farm land have significant influence upon the soil and water conservation from the view of the population; however, because of different social and economic condition, and soil & water loss, there are differences of the influence among the three sample counties. These differences go as follows in detail: In Xingguo County, the rent-in land area and its cost have remarkable effect on the farm households' soil & water conservation behavior; In Yujiang County, the rent-in land area, rent-in cost and rent-out land area remarkably influence the farm households' behavior of soil and water conservation, with the influence of the rent-in land area being greater than Xingguo County; In Shangrao County, only rent-out land area has significant influence on the behaviors of soil & water conservation; In all samples, Xingguo County and Yujiang County samples, the rent-out income has no significant influence on the farm household's decision-making behavior soil and water conservation. Finally, the paper put forward some suggestions on how to bring the soil & water loss under control and use land resource in sustainable ways.

  4. An Input–Output Energy and Economical Analysis of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Production Systems in County of Zarand, Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R Amiri Deh Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. is one of the most important export crops of Iran which has an important role in non-petroleum exports and has over $800 million benefit per year. However, production of this crop faces many problems in main production centers, especially in energy efficiency and productivity. The pistachio is a native crop of Iran and Syria. The major producers of pistachio are Iran 55%, America 20%, Turkey 10%, Syria 9% and the other countries with 6%. Iran is the major producer of pistachio in the world with more than 60 % of global exports. Kerman Province with more than 270,000 ha under cultivation produces 77 percent of this crop. Moreover, Zarand county with more than 45,000 ha under cultivation plays a major role in the production of pistachio. Energy flow is one of the topics of agro-ecology in the world and energy output to input ratio is calculated in various agro-ecosystems. One of the indicators of agricultural development is energy flow. So, different studies in the world have been done to evaluate the energy efficiency in the agro-ecosystems. Studies on apricot (Armeniaca vulgris Lam. showed that energy efficiency can increase with appropriate management practices with minimum dependence on non-renewable energies. Energy consumption is divided into two parts in agriculture: direct and indirect energy. Direct energy is the fuel, machinery, electricity, energy required for cooling, heating, and lighting. Indirect energy includes the energy used in the production of fertilizers, seed production, machinery, and pesticides. Energy efficiency is an important factor in increasing productivity, especially in agricultural economy of developing countries. Although, many studies have been carried out on energy consumption in the agricultural systems, the analysis of the energy input required to produce pistachio is very low. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to determine the input and output energy

  5. [Estimation of Hunan forest carbon density based on spectral mixture analysis of MODIS data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-ping; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guang-xing; Chen, Zhen-xiong

    2015-11-01

    With the fast development of remote sensing technology, combining forest inventory sample plot data and remotely sensed images has become a widely used method to map forest carbon density. However, the existence of mixed pixels often impedes the improvement of forest carbon density mapping, especially when low spatial resolution images such as MODIS are used. In this study, MODIS images and national forest inventory sample plot data were used to conduct the study of estimation for forest carbon density. Linear spectral mixture analysis with and without constraint, and nonlinear spectral mixture analysis were compared to derive the fractions of different land use and land cover (LULC) types. Then sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm with and without the fraction images from spectral mixture analyses were employed to estimate forest carbon density of Hunan Province. Results showed that 1) Linear spectral mixture analysis with constraint, leading to a mean RMSE of 0.002, more accurately estimated the fractions of LULC types than linear spectral and nonlinear spectral mixture analyses; 2) Integrating spectral mixture analysis model and sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm increased the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density to 81.5% from 74.1%, and decreased the RMSE to 5.18 from 7.26; and 3) The mean value of forest carbon density for the province was 30.06 t · hm(-2), ranging from 0.00 to 67.35 t · hm(-2). This implied that the spectral mixture analysis provided a great potential to increase the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density on regional and global level.

  6. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP: Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence drawn from a case study in Cangxian County, Hebei Province. First-hand data were collected for this study from 350 households in 35 villages, using semistructured one-on-one questionnaires. Five types of irrigation water sources were defined and identified at the level of individual land plots: “ground and surface water”, “just groundwater”, “just rivers”, “just reservoirs”, and “no irrigation”. These levels correspond to a decreasing trend in the overall frequency of irrigation and thus provide a clear proxy indicator for IWA. The results from a series of multilevel multinomial models show that the higher the IWA, the less likely it is for a land plot to abandon winter wheat. Specifically, using “no irrigation” cases as a control group, the results show that land plots with more sources of irrigation water also tend to be characterized by greater IWA, including “ground and surface water” and “just groundwater”, and also have lower probabilities of abandoning winter wheat. In contrast, land plots with less IWA (less irrigation water sources, including “just reservoirs” and “just rivers”, are more likely to abandon winter wheat. The results also show that, in addition to IWA, soil quality and plot size at the plot level, as well as demographic characteristics, farm equipment, and land fragmentation at the household level and irrigation prices at the village level, all play additional significant roles in the cropping

  7. Based on a multi-agent system for multi-scale simulation and application of household's LUCC: a case study for Mengcha village, Mizhi county, Shaanxi province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai; Liang, Xiaoying; Li, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) offer a conceptual approach to include multi-actor decision making into models of land use change. Through the simulation based on the MAS, this paper tries to show the application of MAS in the micro scale LUCC, and reveal the transformation mechanism of difference scale. This paper starts with a description of the context of MAS research. Then, it adopts the Nested Spatial Choice (NSC) method to construct the multi-scale LUCC decision-making model. And a case study for Mengcha village, Mizhi County, Shaanxi Province is reported. Finally, the potentials and drawbacks of the following approach is discussed and concluded. From our design and implementation of the MAS in multi-scale model, a number of observations and conclusions can be drawn on the implementation and future research directions. (1) The use of the LUCC decision-making and multi-scale transformation framework provides, according to us, a more realistic modeling of multi-scale decision making process. (2) By using continuous function, rather than discrete function, to construct the decision-making of the households is more realistic to reflect the effect. (3) In this paper, attempts have been made to give a quantitative analysis to research the household interaction. And it provides the premise and foundation for researching the communication and learning among the households. (4) The scale transformation architecture constructed in this paper helps to accumulate theory and experience for the interaction research between the micro land use decision-making and the macro land use landscape pattern. Our future research work will focus on: (1) how to rational use risk aversion principle, and put the rule on rotation between household parcels into model. (2) Exploring the methods aiming at researching the household decision-making over a long period, it allows us to find the bridge between the long-term LUCC data and the short-term household decision-making. (3) Researching the

  8. Occurrence and partitioning of cadmium, arsenic and lead in mine impacted paddy rice: Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul N; Lei, Ming; Sun, Guoxin; Huang, Qing; Lu, Ying; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2009-02-01

    Paddy rice has been likened to nictiana sp in its ability to scavenge cadmium (Cd) from soil, whereas arsenic (As) accumulation is commonly an order of magnitude higher than in other cereal crops. In areas such as those found in parts of Hunan province in south central China, base-metal mining activities and rice farming coexist. Therefore there is a considerable likelihood that lead (Pb), in addition to Cd and As, will accumulate in rice grown in parts of this region above levels suitable for human consumption. To test this hypothesis, a widespread provincial survey of rice from mine spoilt paddies (n = 100), in addition to a follow-up market grain survey (n = 122) conducted in mine impacted areas was undertaken to determine the safety of local rice supply networks. Furthermore, a specific Cd, As, and Pb biogeochemical survey of paddy soil and rice was conducted within southern China, targeting sites impacted by mining of varying intensities to calibrate rice metal(loid) transfer models and transfer factors that can be used to predict tissue loading. Results revealed a number of highly significant correlations between shoot, husk, bran, and endosperm rice tissue fractions and that rice from mining areas was enriched in Cd, As, and Pb. Sixty-five, 50, and 34% of all the mine-impacted field rice was predicted to fail national food standards for Cd, As, and Pb, respectively. Although, not as elevated as the grains from the mine-impacted field survey, it was demonstrated that metal(loid) tainted rice was entering food supply chains intended for direct human consumption.

  9. Mini-hydropower development in human province of China and its position in the national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daogao, L.

    1991-01-01

    Hunan province is situated in the southern part of the middle reaches of Yangtze River. With a population of 61 million, it covers an area of about 211,800 km 2 , equivalent to forty percents of the territorial area of France. Throughout the province, there are more than 5300 rivers and 13000 reservoirs completed before 1991, of which over 7300 mini-hydropower stations are under operation. The theoretical hydropower potential is 15320 MW among them 12990 MW can be exploited with a total installed capacity of 1320 MW and an annual generation output of 4150 GWh. The paper will describe the general condition of the hydropower resources, development of mini-hydropower in Human province and its positive role in the national economy. Additionally, the standard of classification, the type of equipment for the medium and small-sized hydropower plants and market conditions in Hunan will be also involved in the paper. 5 tabs

  10. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tea Leaves and Potential Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study from Puan County, Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruidong; Chen, Rong; Peng, Yishu; Wen, Xuefeng; Gao, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This study features a survey of the concentrations of aluminum (Al) and heavy metals (Mn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn) in tea leaves and the corresponding cultivation soils (0–30 cm), carried out in Puan County (Guizhou Province, China). The average concentrations of Al, Mn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the soil were 106 × 103, 214, 20.9, 0.09, 0.12, 17.5, 121, 27.8, 131.2, and 64 mg·kg−1, respectively. The heavy metals’ pollution indexes in the soil can be ranked as follows: Cu > Cr > Hg > As > Ni > Zn > Pb > Mn > Cd. The soil was moderately polluted by Cu because of the high geochemical background value of Cu in the area. The potential environment risk index (RI) showed that 7.69% out of the total sample sites were within the moderate level. Moreover, the ranges of Al, Mn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations in young tea leaves were 250–660, 194–1130, 0.107–0.400, 0.012–0.092, 0.014–0.085, 0.073–0.456, 0.33–1.26, 6.33–14.90, 14.90–26.10, and 35.8–50.3 mg·kg−1, respectively. While in mature tea leaves, they were 4300–10,400, 536–4610, 0.560–1.265, 0.040–0.087, 0.043–0.089, 0.189–0.453, 0.69–2.91, 3.43–14.20, 6.17–16.25, and 9.1–20.0 mg·kg−1, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cd, and Cr in young tea leaves and mature tea leaves were all lower than the standard limit values (5.0, 30, 2.0, 0.3, 1.0, and 5.0 mg·kg−1 for Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cd, and Cr, respectively) in China. Besides, the accumulation ability of tea leaves to Mn was the strongest, and the average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Mn in mature tea leaves was 12.5. In addition, the average target hazard quotients (THQ) were all less than one for the young tea leaves and the average aggregate risk hazard index (HI) to adults was 0.272, indicating that there was not a potential health risk for adults through the consumption of the infusions brewed by young tea leaves. However, for mature tea

  11. Analysis on geological setting of uranium mineralization and prospecting strategy in Lujing area, Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongye; Huang Sidong; Cai Songfeng

    2008-01-01

    Lujing area is an important uranium metallogenic zone in China. Based on summarizing the geological background of Lujing uranium ore-field, it is analyzed that deep origin metallogenesis, deep-seated strike-slip faults, thermal metamorphic belt and granite-porphyry play important roles in uranium mineralizatiom. It is pointed out that the NNE to NE-trending Suichuan-Reshui left-handed strike-slip fault controls directly the sedimentary characteristics, tectonic framework and uranium metallogenesis. For the discovered deposits and occurrences, it needs to study in the view of deep origin metallogenesis and ore-control by deep-seated strike-slip fault, do more further research on their evolutionary features and coupling types. It also needs to explore new types, discover new favorable area, predict and optimize the break-through prospecting target so as to make scientific assesment on the uranium resources potentialities of the ore-field and its peripheral area. (authors)

  12. Application of ASP Technology to Realize the Online Administrative License of the earthquake in Hunan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongliang; Kang, Chengxu; Tian, Youping

    2018-01-01

    Realizing the online handling of administrative approval of earthquakes is an important measure to improve work efficiency and facilitate people’s convenience. Based on the analysis of the characteristics and processes of the administrative licensing in the earthquake industry, this paper proposes an online processing model based on ASP technology and an online processing system based on B/S architecture. This paper presents the design and implementation methods. The application of the system shows that the system is simple in design and full in function, and can be used on mobile platforms such as computers and mobile phones, and has good practicability and forward-lookingness.

  13. Correlates of Condom Use among Chinese College Students in Hunan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to test an integrated model of condom use with a sample of 490 sexually active Chinese college students. A number of variables in the integrated model were predictors of condom use, explaining 33.4% of the variance in use. Partner communication was the strongest predictors (beta = 0.317, SE = 0.038, p less…

  14. Why Chinese farmers obey the law: Pesticide compliance in Hunan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, H.

    2014-01-01

    While China’s legal system has been increasingly perfected, the implementation of laws in China remains challenging. Simply strengthening law enforcement is not sufficient to improve compliance. It is necessary to bring in a regulatory compliance perspective. This book intends to explore compliance

  15. An Investigation on Moving Rural Secondary Schools to Town in New Countryside Construction: Taking Ling County in Shandong Province as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang

    2010-01-01

    Based on some problems lying in current rural secondary education taking Ling County as an example, this paper proves the necessity and feasibility of moving rural secondary schools to town in the current condition: it is an objective demand by the changes in students; it is a necessary demand to optimize resource allocation and to improve…

  16. The Technological Mineralogical Research of Molybdenum in Skarn-type Ore of Huangshaping Polymetallic Mining Area, Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. H.; Pan, J. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Huangshaping is one of the most important polymetallic deposits in the south of Hunan Province. Through field investigation, chemical analysis, observation under the optical microscope, energy spectrum analysis of the SEM and X-ray diffraction, the author made a technological mineralogical research of molybdenum on skarn-type ore, and the result shows that the ore containing molybdenum is mainly on the contact of the granite porphyry and the impure limestone in the lower carboniferous Shidengzi group. Besides molybdenum, the ore minerals contain scheelite, native bismuth, bismuthinite, magnetite and so on; and the gangue minerals are mainly andradite, fluorite and wollastonite. Part of the molybdenum exists in the scheelite in form of isomorphism, and there is an obvious negative correlation between MoO3 and WO3. The molybdenite granularity is mainly located in the 0.04~ 0.08mm area, which accounts for 29.5% of the total and is the finely disseminated ore. For samples of 70%, 90%, and 100% with the particle size of more than 200 meshes, the maximum recovery of the molybdenite are 75.15%, 86.45% and 91.25% respectively. So there will be a better use of molybdenum if we properly improve the grinded particle size of the comprehensive samples. As part of the molybdenum is distributed in the scheelite lattice, the actual recovery rate in this area may decline compared with the ideal value.

  17. Evaluation of the antioxidant property and effects in Caenorhabditis elegans of Xiangxi flavor vinegar, a Hunan local traditional vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Run-Ting; Huang, Qing; Wu, Gen-Liang; Chen, Chun-Guang; Li, Zong-Jun

    Xiangxi flavor vinegar (XV) is one of Hunan Province's traditional fermented vinegars. It is produced from herb, rice, and spring water with spontaneous liquid-state fermentation techniques. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant property of XV by analyzing its antioxidant compounds, its free radical scavenging property in vitro and in vivo, and its effects on antioxidant enzyme activity and apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that XV is rich in antioxidants. In particular, ligustrazine reached 6.431 μg/ml. The in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH • ), hydroxyl radical ( • OH), and superoxide anion radical (O 2 •- ) scavenging rates of XV were 95.85%, 97.22%, and 63.33%, respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in XV-treated C. elegans decreased significantly (Pantioxidants and scavenges radicals in vitro efficiently. XV inhibits apoptosis in C. elegans probably by scavenging ROS and increasing the activities of its antioxidant enzymes.

  18. A Survey of the Problem of Unbalanced High School Educational Resource Allocation within the County Region in Gansu Province--Using Seven High Schools in Three Counties as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Liu; Gaofu, Du

    2015-01-01

    The imbalance in allocating high school educational resources within the county region has expanded the imbalances in local high school educational development. This has caused "diseconomies of scale" in high schools, aggravated the "expansion impulse" in building model high schools, limited the growth of effective demand by…

  19. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in fractured-rock aquifers of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, Bedford County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Kurt J.; White, Bradley A.; Yager, Richard M.; Harlow, George E.

    2015-09-11

    An annual groundwater budget was computed as part of a hydrogeologic characterization and monitoring effort of fractured-rock aquifers in Bedford County, Virginia, a growing 764-square-mile (mi2) rural area between the cities of Roanoke and Lynchburg, Virginia. Data collection in Bedford County began in the 1930s when continuous stream gages were installed on Goose Creek and Big Otter River, the two major tributaries of the Roanoke River within the county. Between 2006 and 2014, an additional 2 stream gages, 3 groundwater monitoring wells, and 12 partial-record stream gages were operated. Hydrograph separation methods were used to compute base-flow recharge rates from the continuous data collected from the continuous stream gages. Mean annual base-flow recharge ranged from 8.3 inches per year (in/yr) for the period 1931–2012 at Goose Creek near Huddleston (drainage area 188 mi2) to 9.3 in/yr for the period 1938–2012 at Big Otter River near Evington (drainage area 315 mi2). Mean annual base-flow recharge was estimated to be 6.5 in/yr for the period 2007–2012 at Goose Creek at Route 747 near Bunker Hill (drainage area 125 mi2) and 8.9 in/yr for the period 2007–2012 at Big Otter River at Route 221 near Bedford (drainage area 114 mi2). Base-flow recharge computed from the partial-record data ranged from 5.0 in/yr in the headwaters of Goose Creek to 10.5 in/yr in the headwaters of Big Otter River.

  20. Certified Organic Agriculture as an Alternative Livelihood Strategy for Small-scale Farmers in China: A Case Study in Wanzai County, Jiangxi Province

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Yuhui; Martin, Friederike; Cook, Seth

    2018-01-01

    (> 1 ha land), the proportion of income from farming was higher (56% in 2007 and 77% in 2014), leading to average farm incomes of USD16,108 in 2014. Among organic farmers, cooperatives members performed better economically than those not in cooperatives. Organic agriculture can ensure stable...... in 2007 and 2014 in Wanzai, Jiangxi Province China, where organic farming started in 2000. The results show that organic farming did contribute to higher farm incomes for small-scale farmers (... is measured on a per land unit or per household basis. The annual farmers household net income increased from 2007 to 2014, however, the farm income of small-scale farmers only makes up a minor part of total household income and its percentage becomes less and less over time. For medium-scale organic farmers...

  1. [Theories and methodologies of engineering designs on sustainable agricultural land consolidation project--a case study of Xuemeiyang land consolidation project in Changtai County, Fujian Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanmei; Wu, Cifang; Cheng, Chengbiao; Qiu, Lingzhang; Huang, Shengyu; Zheng, Ruihui

    2002-09-01

    The concept and characteristics of engineering designs on sustainable agricultural land consolidation project were discussed in this paper. Principles, basic methods and procedures of engineering designs on agricultural land consolidation project were put forward, which were successfully adopted for designing agricultural land consolidation in Xuemeiyang region of Changtai County, including diversity designs of sustainable land use, engineering designs of soil improvement, roads, ditches, and drains for protecting existent animal environments, and design of ecological shelter-forests in farmland. Moreover, from sustainable economic, ecological and social points, the results of these engineering designs were evaluated based on fouteen important indexes. After carrying out these engineeringdesigns, the eco-environments and agricultural production conditions were significantly improved, and the farm income was increased in planned regions.

  2. [Soil organic carbon sequestration rate and its influencing factors in farmland of Guanzhong Plain: a case study in Wugong County, Shannxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Ming-Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Take Wugong County as an example, soil carbon storage and soil carbon sequestration rate were calculated, the change law of farmland soil organic carbon was explored, and the relationship of farmland soil organic carbon and natural factors, human factors was further revealed. The results of the study showed that: (1) The soil organic carbon contents in 80% of the sampling sites were in the range of 8.0-12.0 g x kg(-1), and the organic carbon contents in 0-20 cm soils showed a normal distribution. (2) In 2011, the organic carbon density of the 0-20 cm farmland soil was 26.3 t x hm(-2), below the national average soil organic carbon density (33.45 t x hm(-2)) of the arable layer. In the last 30 years, the soil carbon sequestration rate in the 0-20 cm layer was 71.3 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), and in the past five years, the carbon sequestration rate was 480 kg x (hm x a)(-1). The recent carbon sequestration rate was higher than the national average soil carbon sequestration rate of the arable layer [380.78 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1)]. (3) In the semi-humid plain region, soil organic carbon was mainly affected by soil types, landform types, organic fertilizer. Soil types accounted for 30.2% of the organic carbon variability; the landform types and the organic fertilizer could explain 37.7% and 32.1%, respectively. The results of the comprehensive analysis showed that the farmland soil organic carbon density of Wugong County in the past 30 years is increasing, and this probably relies on the utilization of chemical fertilizer and the returning straw. Further study should be conducted on the impact of the chemical fertilizer and returning straw.

  3. County Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes County spending data for Montgomery County government. It does not include agency spending. Data considered sensitive or confidential and will...

  4. [Situation on 'eating out' and its related risk factors among 1013 Chinese adults in 3 provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Wen-wen; Su, Chang; Wang, Hui-jun; Wang, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Ji-guo; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hong-ru; Zhang, Yao-guang; Zhang, Bing

    2013-12-01

    To examine the characteristics of 'eating out' behavior among Chinese adults and to explore it related risk factors. Data in the present study was from the China Health and Nutrition Study(CHNS), including those from Liaoning, Henan and Hunan as sample provinces. 2 cities and 2 counties from each province and 2 urban communities and 2 suburban communities from each city plus communities from 1 township and 3 villages from each county were chosen. A final 1013 Chinese adults aged 18 to 59 years old who participated in the 2011 CHNS with complete individual information and were available in the present study period were involved in the study. 'Eating out behavior' was estimated through face-to-face interview on the items as:frequency, cost, ways of transportation and distance between restaurants, eating at fast food restaurants/Chinese full service restaurants/Chinese fast food restaurants/mobile food carts/cafes/canteens or other restaurants during the last week. Information on the amount of food intake was collected through three '24 h recalls'. We described the eating out behaviors by types of restaurants they had gone to and comparing eating out eaters and non-eating out eaters for a set of nutritional indicators in order to explore the risk factors related to 'eating out' behaviors. 'Eating out' was defined as individuals who consumed at least once in restaurants per week. In all the 1013 adults, 51.72% from urban and 39.14% from rural were defined as having 'eating out' experiences. Proportions of eating out in western fast food restaurants, Chinese full service restaurants, Chinese fast food restaurants, mobile food carts, cafes, canteens and other restaurants were 1.68%, 23.49%, 12.93%, 10.37%, 1.09%, 10.07% and 4.34%, respectively. Energy, Ca, Fe and Zn intake were substantially higher among eaters eating at Chinese full service restaurants than those who had not,Energy, protein, fibers, Ca and Zn intake were higher among canteens eaters than those who did

  5. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of the paddy soils near a zinc-lead mining area in Hunan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Teng, Yanguo; Yu, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Soil pollution by Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn was characterized in the area of the mining and smelting of metal ores at Guiyang, northeast of Hunan Province. A total of 150 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected in May 2012 with a nominal density of one sample per 4 km(2). High concentrations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in many of the samples taken from surrounding paddy soil, indicating a certain extent of spreading of heavy metal pollution. Sequential extraction technique and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to study the mobility of chemical forms of heavy metals in the soils and their ecological risk. The results reveal that Cd represents a high ecological risk due to its highest percentage of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The metals of Zn and Cu pose a medium risk, and the rest of the metals represent a low environmental risk. The range of the potential ecological risk of soil calculated by risk index (RI) was 123.5~2791.2 and revealed a considerable-high ecological risk in study area especially in the neighboring and surrounding the mining activities area. Additionally, cluster analyses suggested that metals such as Pb, As, Hg, Zn, and Cd could be from the same sources probably related to the acidic drainage and wind transport of dust. Cluster analysis also clearly distinguishes the samples with similar characteristics according to their spatial distribution. The results could be used during the ecological risk screening stage, in conjunction with total concentrations and metal fractionation values to better estimate ecological risk.

  6. [Study on the situation regarding endoscope cleaning and disinfection in the department of otolaryngology in Hunan hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Wei; Li, Rong; Tan, Guolin; Luo, Dan

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the situation regarding the cleaning and sterilization of endonasal endoscopes in department of otolaryngology in Hunan Province, and to provide strategy for improving the level of sterilization and management of endonasal endoscopes.
 A total of 100 medical institutions were investigated by spot assessment, check and sampling. Data was analyzed by multivariate analysis.
 The qualified rate of rules and regulations for endoscopy was 28.8% in the second-class hospitals and 45% in the top-class hospitals. The qualified rate of environment for endoscopy cleaning and sterilization was 36.3% in the second-class hospitals and 85% in the top-class hospitals. The main problems include lack of independent disinfection room, the space not large enough, and/or lack of ventilation system. The qualified rate of bacterial detection for post-sterilized endoscopes and biopsy forceps was 93.8% in the second-class hospitals and 95.0% in the top-class hospitals, and the main pathogenic bacteria was gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli. The multivariate analysis showed that the influencial factors for endoscope cleaning and disinfection are as follows: staffs responsible for the cleaning and sterilization of otolaryngology endoscopes, the standard for cleaning and disinfection process, and the frequency of endoscope use.
 The present situation of cleaning and sterilization for otolaryngology endoscopes is better in the top-class hospitals than that in the second-class hospitals. The sterilization and management of otolaryngology endoscopy are needed to be improved, and the staff training is needed, especially in the primary hospitals.

  7. Heavy metals and metalloids in the surface sediments of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan, China: distribution, contamination, and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Liyuan; Li, Huan; Yang, Zhihui; Min, Xiaobo; Liao, Qi; Liu, Yi; Men, Shuhui; Yan, Yanan; Xu, Jixin

    2017-01-01

    Here, we aim to determine the distribution, ecological risk and sources of heavy metals and metalloids in the surface sediments of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province, China. Sixty-four surface sediment samples were collected in 16 sites of the Xiangjiang River, and the concentrations of ten heavy metals and metalloids (Mn, Zn, Cr, V, Pb, Cu, As, Ni, Co, and Cd) in the sediment samples were investigated using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and an atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), respectively. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the ten heavy metals and metalloids in the sediment samples followed the order Mn > Zn > Cr > V > Pb > Cu > As ≈ Ni >Co > Cd. The geoaccumulation index (I geo ), enrichment factor (EF), modified degree of contamination (mC d ), and potential ecological risk index (RI) revealed that Cd, followed by Pb, Zn, and Cu, caused severely contaminated and posed very highly potential ecological risk in the Xiangjiang River, especially in Shuikoushan of Hengyang, Xiawan of Zhuzhou, and Yijiawan of Xiangtan. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) indicated that the ten heavy metals and metalloids in the sampling sediments of the Xiangjiang River were classified into three groups: (1) Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu which possibly originated from Shuikoushan, Xiawan, and Yijiawan clustering Pb-Zn mining and smelting industries; (2) Co, V, Ni, Cr, and Al from natural resources; and (3) Mn and As. Therefore, our results suggest that anthropogenic activities, especially mining and smelting, have caused severe contamination of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu and posed very high potential ecological risk in the Xiangjiang River.

  8. Radiation hygiene survey of radon in non-uranium mines in Hunan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xingyuan; Liu Hanqin; Xiao Renyi

    1989-01-01

    The 222 Rn daughter concentrations in 20 nonuranium mines in Hunan was described. The mean concentrations ranged from 0.21 ∼ 1107 μJm -3 , the highest levels being from 0.26 ∼ 5720 μJm -3 . In 65% of the mines, the mean concentration of radon daughters exceeded the permissible level for miners (8.3 μJm -3 ) set by Chinese hygiene standards. The cumulative exposure doses to miners ranged from 0.15 ∼ 765.7 WLM in these mines. The incidences of lung cancer among the miners in 9 mines were observed

  9. Investigation and Analysis on Ground Cover Plants Resources of Urban Green Space in Hunan%湖南城市园林绿地地被植物资源调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖姣娣

    2014-01-01

    为筛选出湖南省优良乡土地被植物,采用现场实地调查与查询相关文献资料的方式对湖南省典型城市园林绿地地被植物种类及利用形式进行研究。结果表明:湖南省共有地被植物243种,隶属77科177属,其中低矮灌木类地被植物87种、草本类地被植物103种、矮竹类地被植物10种、藤本地被植物33种、蕨类地被植物8种,主要以花坛、花境、色带、绿篱的形式应用在城市公共空间,疏林、密林、园林道路边界,坡地、水岸、建筑及围墙周边。%In order to screen native ground cover plants of Hunan province ,species and application form of typi-cal groundcover plants of urban greenspace were investigated by field investigation and consulting relevant lit-eratures .The results showed that there were 243 species of ground cover plants in Hunan province ,which be-longed to 77 families and 177 genus ,including 87 species of low bush ,103 species of herb ,10 species of bam-boo ,33 species of liana and 8 species of fern .They were applied in urban public space ,open forest ,dense forest , garden road boundary ,slope ,water-front and surrounding ground of buildings and walls with the form of flower bed ,flower border ,ribbon and hedge .

  10. Integrated Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Suxian County, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daping Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess soil heavy metal contamination and the potential risk for local residents in Suxian county of Hunan Province, southern China. Soil, rice and vegetable samples from the areas near the mining industrial districts were sampled and analyzed. The results indicate that the anthropogenic mining activities have caused local agricultural soil contamination with As, Pb, Cu and Cd in the ranges of 8.47–341.33 mg/kg, 19.91–837.52 mg/kg, 8.41–148.73 mg/kg and 0.35–6.47 mg/kg, respectively. GIS-based mapping shows that soil heavy metal concentrations abruptly diminish with increasing distance from the polluting source. The concentrations of As, Pb, Cu and Cd found in rice were in the ranges of 0.02–1.48 mg/kg, 0.66–5.78 mg/kg, 0.09–6.75 mg/kg, and up to 1.39 mg/kg, respectively. Most of these concentrations exceed their maximum permissible levels for contaminants in foods in China. Heavy metals accumulate to significantly different levels between leafy vegetables and non-leafy vegetables. Food consumption and soil ingestion exposure are the two routes that contribute to the average daily intake dose of heavy metals for local adults. Moreover, the total hazard indices of As, Pb and Cd are greater than or close to the safety threshold of 1. Long-term As, Pb and Cd exposure through the regular consumption of the soil, rice and vegetables in the investigated area poses potential health problems to residents in the vicinity of the mining industry.

  11. Integrated Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Suxian County, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Daping; Zhuang, Dafang; Jiang, Dong; Fu, Jingying; Wang, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess soil heavy metal contamination and the potential risk for local residents in Suxian county of Hunan Province, southern China. Soil, rice and vegetable samples from the areas near the mining industrial districts were sampled and analyzed. The results indicate that the anthropogenic mining activities have caused local agricultural soil contamination with As, Pb, Cu and Cd in the ranges of 8.47–341.33 mg/kg, 19.91–837.52 mg/kg, 8.41–148.73 mg/kg and 0.35–6.47 mg/kg, respectively. GIS-based mapping shows that soil heavy metal concentrations abruptly diminish with increasing distance from the polluting source. The concentrations of As, Pb, Cu and Cd found in rice were in the ranges of 0.02–1.48 mg/kg, 0.66–5.78 mg/kg, 0.09–6.75 mg/kg, and up to 1.39 mg/kg, respectively. Most of these concentrations exceed their maximum permissible levels for contaminants in foods in China. Heavy metals accumulate to significantly different levels between leafy vegetables and non-leafy vegetables. Food consumption and soil ingestion exposure are the two routes that contribute to the average daily intake dose of heavy metals for local adults. Moreover, the total hazard indices of As, Pb and Cd are greater than or close to the safety threshold of 1. Long-term As, Pb and Cd exposure through the regular consumption of the soil, rice and vegetables in the investigated area poses potential health problems to residents in the vicinity of the mining industry. PMID:26114243

  12. Superior Effects of Antiretroviral Treatment among Men Who have Sex with Men Compared to Other HIV At-Risk Populations in a Large Cohort Study in Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Su

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses association between CD4 level at initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART on subsequent treatment outcomes and mortality among people infected with HIV via various routes in Hunan province, China. Over a period of 10 years, a total of 7333 HIV-positive patients, including 553 (7.5% MSM, 5484 (74.8% heterosexuals, 1164 (15.9% injection drug users (IDU and 132 (1.8% former plasma donors (FPD, were recruited. MSM substantially demonstrated higher initial CD4 cell level (242, IQR 167–298 than other populations (Heterosexuals: 144 IQR 40–242, IDU: 134 IQR 38–224, FPD: 86 IQR 36–181. During subsequent long-term follow up, the median CD4 level in all participants increased significantly from 151 cells/mm3 (IQR 43–246 to 265 cells/mm3 (IQR 162–380, whereas CD4 level in MSM remained at a high level between 242 and 361 cells/mm3. Consistently, both cumulative immunological and virological failure rates (10.4% and 26.4% in 48 months, respectively were the lowest in MSM compared with other population groups. Survival analysis indicated that initial CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm3 (AHR = 3.14; CI, 2.43–4.06 significantly contributed to HIV-related mortality during treatment. Timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV patients are vital for improving CD4 level and health outcomes.

  13. Mineralogical Characteristics of "Yueweizi" (Purple Larderite) from Shoushan County, Fujian Province%福建寿山石“月尾紫”的矿物学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文; 洪汉烈; 陈涛; 殷科; 吴钰; 赵从华

    2012-01-01

    针对采自福建寿山地区的寿山石“月尾紫”品种进行了光学显微镜、X射线粉末衍射、拉曼光谱和扫描电子显微镜等仪器的系统分析测试。结果显示,“月尾紫”呈显微微晶结构,主要矿物组成为地开石,基质中可见大量的紫红色矿物赤铁矿。赤铁矿呈浸染状分布,是致使“月尾紫”整体呈现紫色的原因。由于赤铁矿本身色调和富集程度不同,导致“月尾紫”的紫色调有深有浅,同时由于赤铁矿浸染分布于地开石颗粒间,使得“月尾紫”呈现不透明状。扫描电子显微镜下可见地开石颗粒主要呈假六方板状,棱角清晰,厚度均匀,呈叠瓦状、书册状排列,能谱测试结果显示扫描电子显微镜下微米级球状矿物颗粒为二氧化硅。%This paper investigates the mineralogical characteristics of "Yueweizi" (purple larderite) from Shoushan County, Fujian Province by using optical microscope, X-ray power diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (with energy dispersive spectrome- ter, EDS). The results show that "Yueweizi" shows microcrystalline structure, that its main min- eral composition is dickite, and that there is a lot of purple-red hematite in the matrix. The purple colouration of "Yueweizi" is due tohematite. Because of the different amount of hematite, the purple colours have various saturations, and hematite also influences the transparency of the stone. The scanning electron microscope results show that the dickite particles appear as pseudohexagonal platy, have clear edges and almost the same thickness, and overlap with each other. The EDS test results show that the spherical particles are silicon dioxide.

  14. [Prediction method of rural landscape pattern evolution based on life cycle: a case study of Jinjing Town, Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Liu, Li-Ming; Li, Hong-Qing

    2014-11-01

    Taking Jinjing Town in Dongting Lake area as a case, this paper analyzed the evolution of rural landscape patterns by means of life cycle theory, simulated the evolution cycle curve, and calculated its evolution period, then combining CA-Markov model, a complete prediction model was built based on the rule of rural landscape change. The results showed that rural settlement and paddy landscapes of Jinjing Town would change most in 2020, with the rural settlement landscape increased to 1194.01 hm2 and paddy landscape greatly reduced to 3090.24 hm2. The quantitative and spatial prediction accuracies of the model were up to 99.3% and 96.4%, respectively, being more explicit than single CA-Markov model. The prediction model of rural landscape patterns change proposed in this paper would be helpful for rural landscape planning in future.

  15. Chinese rural development and agricultural technology extension in Hunan province : analysis based on value chain and farmer participation perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Bin; Herman, Joost; Zhao, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    As the Chinese rural development has made remarkable achievements in the past forty years, which is shown in agricultural productivity increase and poverty reduction, the administrative agricultural technology extension system is an important factor for those outcomes. However, in recent years, the

  16. Knowledge and willingness toward living organ donation: a survey of three universities in Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, Y; Zhou, J; Miao, X; Wang, G; Li, D; Nielson, K; Long, Y; Li, J

    2007-06-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the knowledge and attitudes of Chinese university students regarding living organ donation and analyze the determinants impacting their decisions. A questionnaire was delivered to college students chosen by random assignment. The data was analyzed by Statistics Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Of 434 participants, 49.8% indicated they would be willing to be living organ donors, 58.4% believed living organ donation could ease the organ shortage, 48.2% thought that the recovery rate of recipients of living organ donors transplants was equal to or even better than deceased donation, 62.4% designated relatives as their most probable recipients, 48.0% argued that partial compensation was an effective method to increase live organ donation, and 53.7% wished to donate through transplantation centers. According to univariate analysis, attitudes regarding the value of life, relationship between body integrity and health as well as body integrity and conventional culture were factors that impacted on an individual's decision. Students' knowledge of the value of living organ transplantation and their economic background were considered to be determinants of individual willingness. Furthermore, the operation's impact on quality of life and postoperative complications were additional concerns. Multivariate analysis indicated that other factors influencing students' willingness to donate included attitudes toward the relationship between body integrity and health, beliefs regarding body integrity and conventional culture, value of living donor organ transplantation, economic background of students, and anxiety about the impact on postoperative complications. Numerous students were willing to participate in living organ donation. At the same time, social education and advertisements for living organ donation were far from adequate, having little or no influence on the decision-making process.

  17. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jida; Wu Zongmei; Kong Lingli; Shi Jinhua; Li Ying; Jiang Shan; Zhang Liang

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993, the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui Province, respectively, where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve. The average of γ radiation dose rate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC) and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h, 400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields, roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300 nGy/h respectively. It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots. (authors)

  18. Malachite green and chloramphenicol in aquatic products from regions around Dongting Lake in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic products are important sources of animal proteins in human diet, especially in developing countries. As such, the safety of aquatic products is of primary concern. In this study, a standard method is used to detect malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and to analyse the contents of these banned chemicals in turtle, mandarin fish and grass carp sampled from the region surrounding Dongting Lake area in Hunan, China. Results showed that 10.6% of the samples were MG-positive, most of them turtles. CAP was found in 8.3% of the samples, mostly in mandarin fish. These data indicated that these banned substances are still used in the surveyed area. Hence, adequate strategies must be implemented by the local government to control these banned substances.

  19. INVESTIGACIONES ARQUEOLÓGICAS EN EL FORTÍN PESCADO, PARTIDO DE BENITO JUÁREZ, PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES / Archaelogical research at Fortin Pescado, Benito Juárez county, Buenos Aires province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Natalia Bagaloni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados del estudio de los materiales recuperados en la localidad arqueológica Fortín Pescado, ubicada sobre la margen izquierda del arroyo Pescado Castigado, en el partido de Benito Juárez (provincia de Buenos Aires. Esta localidad se compone de dos sitios arqueológicos (Fortín Pescado 1 y Fortín Pescado 2 donde se efectuaron excavaciones y recolecciones en superficie y en el perfil de barrancas aledañas. El conjunto arqueológico de ambos sitios incluye restos faunísticos (mayormente animales domésticos, materiales vítreos (botellas cuadradas y cilíndricas, frascos, tarros y damajuanas, fragmentos de gres (botellas de ginebra y/o agua mineral, lozas (tazas y bowls ingleses, metales (clavos, botón, cuchilla y arma, ladrillos y un fragmento de bola de boleadora. Según diversos documentos escritos procedentes del Servicio Histórico del Ejército, del Archivo General de la Nación y del departamento de Geodesia, este fortín se instaló en 1858 y funcionó por lo menos hasta fines de 1863, cuando pasó a ser usado como posta militar hasta el fin de la década. A partir de las intervenciones arqueológicas y el relevamiento de las fuentes escritas se pudieron determinar áreas de actividades específicas (vivienda, descarte pautado y no pautado, corral dentro de esta localidad.  AbstractIn this paper the first results of the materials recovered at the Fortin Pescado archaeological locality are presented. This locality is situated on the left bank of Pescado Castigado stream (Benito Juárez County, Buenos Aires Province. It is composed by two sites (Fortin Pescado 1 and Fortin Pescado 2 where excavations and surface surveys were developed. Surface surveys were also conducted on the profiles of the surrounding canyons. The archaeological assemblages of both sites include faunal remains (mostly of domestic fauna/animals, glassy materials (square and cylindrical bottles, flasks, jars and jugs

  20. [Policy recommendations based on SWOT analysis for agricultural industrialization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials--a case study of uncariae ramulus cum uncis from Jianhe county in Guizhou province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Huo, Ke-Yi; Xiang, Hua

    2013-09-01

    This thesis reviews the historical background of agricultural industrialization, and analyzes the major theories of agricultural industrialization. It also utilizes SWOT analysis method to discuss the industrialization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jianhe county, and finally it puts forward the recommendations for its further development.

  1. Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period of Hunan, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi-Ping; Donoghue, Philip C J; Cheng, Hong; Liu, Jian-Bo

    2004-01-15

    Comparative embryology is integral to uncovering the pattern and process of metazoan phylogeny, but it relies on the assumption that life histories of living taxa are representative of their antecedents. Fossil embryos provide a crucial test of this assumption and, potentially, insight into the evolution of development, but because discoveries so far lack phylogenetic constraint, their significance is moot. Here we describe a collection of embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period (500 million years ago) of Hunan, south China, that preserves stages of development from cleavage to the pre-hatching embryo of a direct-developing animal comparable to living Scalidophora (phyla Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera). The latest-stage embryos show affinity to the Lower Cambrian embryo Markuelia, whose life-history strategy contrasts both with the primitive condition inferred for metazoan phyla and with many proposed hypotheses of affinity, all of which prescribe indirect development. Phylogenetic tests based on these embryological data suggest a stem Scalidophora affinity. These discoveries corroborate, rather than contradict, the predictions of comparative embryology, providing direct historical support for the view that the life-history strategies of living taxa are representative of their stem lineages.

  2. Comparisons of family environment between homeless and non-homeless individuals with schizophrenia in Xiangtan, Hunan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinliang; Chen, Jindong; Li, Shuchun; Liu, Jun; Ouyang, Guohua; Luo, Wenxuan; Guo, Xiaofeng; Li, Ting; Li, Kaijie; Li, Zhenkuo; Wang, Gan

    2015-06-25

    Homelessness is an increasingly important problem for individuals with serious mental illness in China. Identify the characteristics of families that are associated with homelessness among individuals with schizophrenia. Participants were 1856 homeless individuals with schizophrenia (defined as those who had no place of residence or involved caregivers for 7 consecutive days) and 1728 non-homeless individuals with schizophrenia from Xiangtan, Hunan. The self-completion Family Environment Scale-Chinese Version (FES-CV) was administered to these participants after their acute psychotic symptoms resolved. Compared to individuals in the non-homeless group, those in the homeless group were older and more likely to be non-locals (i.e., from outside of Xiangtan), be residents of rural (versus urban) communities, have temporary (versus permanent) jobs, be married, and have a low level of education. After controlling for demographic differences using multivariate logistic regression models, homelessness was independently associated higher scores in the FES-CV intellectual-cultural orientation, organization, achievement orientation, and control subscales and with lower scores in the FES-CV cohesion, moralreligious emphasis, independence, and active-recreational orientation subscales. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, certain aspects of the family environment areassociated with being homeless among patients with schizophrenia in China. Further work is needed to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of homelessness in high-risk individuals.

  3. Geology and ground-water resources of Linn County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    Linn County, in east-central Iowa, covers about 713 square miles and lies in the Western Young Drift section of the Central Lowlands physiographic province. The normal annual rainfall in the county is about 33 inches and the annual mean temperature is about 48°F. The population in 1960 was 136,899, of which 75 percent was urban.

  4. The Countermeasures of State-owned Banks to Expand Their Business in Counties a ease of Jiangxi province%国有银行拓展县域业务的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单克强

    2012-01-01

    According to panel data analysis of 63 county-level sub-branches of an inland state owned bank from 2007 to 2011, there exists the distinct scale benefit for commercial banks, and the contribution of deposit business and personal business are stable. At present, the economic environment of inland counties has improved greatly, and financial market in counties is at the stage of accu- mulating potential development. However, the economic development level in different counties is quite different so that the difference of banking business scale is big. Therefore, state owned banks should actively expand business of their branches in inland counties, pushing differentiated operating strategy and placing their priority on the development of less capital-occupied and low risky business and products according to the local economic environment, their own resources and risk management level.%据对某国有银行63个县(市)支行2007—2011年5个年度的面板数据分析,商业银行呈明显的规模效益特点,存款业务和个人业务的贡献稳定。当前县域经济环境有了很大改善,县域金融市场正处于积聚发展潜力阶段,但县域经济发展水平差异较大,因而银行业务规模差异也较大。国有银行要根据当地经济环境、自身资源状况和风险管理水平,积极拓展内地县域机构的业务,推进差异化经营策略,优先发展资本占用少、风险低的业务和产品。

  5. A study on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder in flood victim parents and children in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhua; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Liu, Aizhong; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Tubao

    2010-06-01

    To explore the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in flood victim parents and children in Hunan, China. Using the method of multistage cluster random sampling, we conducted a retrospective investigation on 3,698 families in Hunan, China who suffered from flooding in 1998. Investigators held face-to-face interviews with the parents and children of the families. The diagnosis of PTSD was made according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. The comparison of rate of PTSD positive in the groups of children with different characteristics was done by chi-square test. In the evaluation of the impact of parent PTSD on PTSD in their children, we used a multivariable logistic regression model to re-estimate the adjusted Odds Ratio and its confidence interval. We did this after the possible confounding variables were adjusted for. Additionally, the Odds Ratio and its confidence interval were estimated under the condition of a single variable. A total of 4,327 children and the parents of 3,292 families were included for analysis; 203 (4.7%) of 4,327 children and 740 (11.2%) of 6,584 parents were diagnosed with PTSD. We found that the PTSD positive rate is significantly higher in the children with disaster-related experience. The rate of beating their children in PTSD positive fathers (54.9%) was higher than that of PTSD negative fathers (51.2%). No correlation was found between mothers' PTSD and beating their children. The risk of developing PTSD is higher for children living in the families with PTSD parents. The rate of PTSD in 7-14-year-old children is 4.7% in areas in Hunan, China, who suffered from flooding in 1998. The possibility for children to develop PTSD is increased in families with PTSD parents.

  6. Calcium content and high calcium adaptation of plants in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaocong; Deng, Xiangwen; Xiang, Wenhua; Lei, Pifeng; Ouyang, Shuai; Wen, Hongfang; Chen, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Rocky desertification is a major ecological problem of land degradation in karst areas. In these areas, the high soil calcium (Ca) content has become an important environmental factor that can affect the restoration of vegetation. Consequently, the screening of plant species that can adapt to high Ca soil environments is a critical step in vegetation restoration. In this study, three grades of rocky desertification sample areas were selected in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China (LRD: light rocky desertification; MRD: moderate rocky desertification; and IRD: intense rocky desertification). Each grade of these sample areas had three sample plots in different slope positions, each of which had four small quadrats (one in rocky-side areas, three in non-rocky-side areas). We measured the Ca content of leaves, branches, and roots from 41 plant species, as well as soil total Ca (TCa) and exchangeable Ca (ECa) at depths of 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm in each small quadrat. The results showed that the soil Ca2+ content in rocky-side areas was significantly higher than that in non-rocky-side areas (p desertification, in the order IRD > MRD > LRD. For all plant functional groups, the plant Ca content of aboveground parts was significantly higher than that of the belowground parts (p 1). The differences in Ca2+ content between the aboveground and belowground parts of the 17 dominant species were calculated, and their correlations with soil ECa content were analyzed. The results showed that these 17 species can be divided into three categories: Ca-indifferent plants, high-Ca plants, and low-Ca plants. These findings provide a vital theoretical basis and practical guide for vegetation restoration and ecosystem reconstruction in rocky desertification areas.

  7. Teleconnection among Asian Summer Monsoon, ENSO and PDO revealed by instrumental and historic records as well as an annual resolution stalagmite record from Lianhua Cave, northwestern Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Yin, J.; Yuan, D.; Li, T.

    2013-12-01

    A 33-cm long aragonite stalagmite, LHN-1, from Lianhua Cave (29°09'N, 109°33'E , 459m a.s.l.) in NW Hunan Province of China has been dated by ICP-MS 230Th/U method. The 14 230Th/U dates with less than ×37 years uncertainties yield excellent chronology, showing that the stalagmite grew continuously over the past 3400 years. The 0.1-mm sampling interval for stable isotope analyses provides annual resolution δ18O and δ13C records of the LHN-1 stalagmite. Up-to-dated, a total of 887 measurements for δ18O and δ13C have been made, which reveal detailed monsoonal climatic changes during the past 1000 years. The average values of δ18O and δ13C are -5.83 (‰, PDB) and -3.29 (‰, PDB), respectively. For the youngest part of the δ18O record, we have compared with the instrumentally meteorological records and historical dryness/wetness indexes from the studying area, indicating that stalagmite δ18O on annual-to-decadal scales reflects mainly rainfall change in the monsoonal area, with lighter δ18O reflecting wetter condition. The comparison of the δ18O with the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) index since AD 1850 adopted by IPCC (2007) illustrates that lighter stalagmite δ18O corresponds to stronger EASM. Taking the average δ18O value of the 1000-yr record as an average climatic condition, we have found that the δ18O values during AD 1050~1100, 1125~1225, 1300~1350, 1430~1630 and 1900~1960 are lighter than the average, reflecting stronger EASM and wetter condition. The δ18O values during AD 1100~1125, 1225~1300, 1350~1430, 1630~1900 and 1960 to the present are heavier than the average, indicating weak EASM and drier condition. On decadal-to-centennial scales, the δ13C variations generally follow that of δ18O which probably demonstrates that vegetation above the cave controls the δ13C variations. Further comparisons of the δ18O, EASM, ENSO and PDO show that a negative SOI (El Nino phase) correlates warm PDO phase and higher N. Pacific pressure, resulting

  8. 森林旅游开发与森林资源保护关系的探讨——以福建省泰宁县为例%Discussion on Forest Tourism Development and Forest Resources Protection: A Case Study of Taining County, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈起阳

    2012-01-01

    Under the context of vigorous development of forest ecotourism nationwide, how to coordinate the develop ment of forest tourism and the protection of forest resources is a problem to be solved in all scenic spots. This article took Taining County of Fujian Province as an example to analyze the conditions and advantages enjoyed by Taining County for forest ecotourism development and carried out the research on the carrying capacity of forest resources and environment and the influencing mechanism of ecotourism on forest resources. It was proposed to optimize tourism projects, construct talent teams, strengthen propaganda, and help improve the consciousness of tourist to protect and get close to forest, in bid to realize the sustainable development of forest eeotourism.%在全国大力发展森林生态旅游的背景下,如何协调森林旅游开发与森林资源保护的关系是各个景区亟待解决的问题。文中以福建省泰宁县为例,分析了泰宁县发展森林生态旅游的条件和优势,提出优化森林旅游项目,建设人才队伍,加强宣传、提高游客保护森林、亲近森林的意识3条建议。以实现森林生态旅游事业的可持续发展。

  9. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae from Hunan (China, including thirty-six new species and two new genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xi-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from Hunan (Oriental China are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., C. postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., O. monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. songi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. youi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. zengi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma acuticlypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P.angiclypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. antenervalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. depressiclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. flavisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. nigrisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. protuberator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. rugulifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Li & van Achterberg, P. striatinota Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. vermiculifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis latipennis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. maculosa Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., R. obliqua Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. sculpturator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Utetes longicarinatus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. and Xynobius notauliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. Areotetes van Achterberg & Li, gen. n. (type species: Areotetes carinuliferus sp. n. and Coleopioides van Achterberg & Li, gen. n. (type species: Coleopioides

  10. Calcium content and high calcium adaptation of plants in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rocky desertification is a major ecological problem of land degradation in karst areas. In these areas, the high soil calcium (Ca content has become an important environmental factor that can affect the restoration of vegetation. Consequently, the screening of plant species that can adapt to high Ca soil environments is a critical step in vegetation restoration. In this study, three grades of rocky desertification sample areas were selected in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China (LRD: light rocky desertification; MRD: moderate rocky desertification; and IRD: intense rocky desertification. Each grade of these sample areas had three sample plots in different slope positions, each of which had four small quadrats (one in rocky-side areas, three in non-rocky-side areas. We measured the Ca content of leaves, branches, and roots from 41 plant species, as well as soil total Ca (TCa and exchangeable Ca (ECa at depths of 0–15, 15–30, and 30–45 cm in each small quadrat. The results showed that the soil Ca2+ content in rocky-side areas was significantly higher than that in non-rocky-side areas (p < 0.05. The mean soil TCa and ECa content increased gradually along with the grade of rocky desertification, in the order IRD > MRD > LRD. For all plant functional groups, the plant Ca content of aboveground parts was significantly higher than that of the belowground parts (p < 0.05. The soil ECa content had significant effects on plant Ca content of the belowground parts but had no significant effects on plant Ca content of the aboveground parts. Of the 41 plant species that were sampled, 17 were found to be dominant (important value > 1. The differences in Ca2+ content between the aboveground and belowground parts of the 17 dominant species were calculated, and their correlations with soil ECa content were analyzed. The results showed that these 17 species can be divided into three categories: Ca-indifferent plants, high

  11. Red Genesis: The Hunan First Normal School and the Creation of Chinese Communism, 1903-1921. SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    How did an obscure provincial teachers college produce graduates who would go on to become founders and ideologues of the Chinese Communist Party? Mao Zedong, Cai Hesen, Xiao Zisheng, and others attended the Hunan First Normal School. Focusing on their alma mater, this work explores the critical but overlooked role modern schools played in sowing…

  12. Case study: Khoramdareh County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Riahi Riahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability of rural settlements based on a systematic viewpoint may be defined as a realization of sustainable development in different social, economic and environmental aspects of rural areas. Achieving this goal requires that we pay more attention to effective elements and factors through a set of sustainability indices. This research was meant to analyze sustainable factors of rural settlement in three dimensions: environmental, social and economic context using multi-criteria decision analysis and explanation of the relationships between its active and effective factors in the rural area of the Khorramdarreh County in the province of Zanjan. The research method used is the descriptive analytic approach. Data from 287 households were sampled randomly from a total of 1143 households in the four villages including: Rahmat Abad, Alvand, Baghdareh and, Sukhariz (out of 15 villages in the Khorramdarreh County. In the process of doing this research and after calculating the weights, the difference in the sustainability of environmental, social, economic and physical aspects in rural areas of this county have been determined. Data was collected using library and field research through questionnaires. Data analysis was performed by the One-Sample t Test and the Vikur and path analysis techniques, using statistical software SPSS. The findings show that environmental sustainability in the study area is half desirable. Among the different aspects of environmental sustainability, the most effective factors are physical, economic, social and environmental aspects, respectively. Little attention of policy-making –system to socio-cultural and environmental aspects, especially in practice, and rapid and unplanned utilization of production resources are the most important factors affecting this situation in two given dimensions. Although, in programmed documents the planning system agents emphasize on the socio-cultural sustainability

  13. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  14. Health condition of left-behind children in Dingxi county of Guizhou province%贵州黔西县定新乡留守儿童健康现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱焱; 王凤; 黎芳华; 邓冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the health condition and characteristics of left-behind children in rural area of Guizhou province and to provide evidence for improving physical and psychological health of the children. Methods Totally 1565 students selected from 5 schools were surveyed with a self-designed questionnaire and some of them were surveyed with Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist(CBCL) and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Results The ratio of left-behind students among the students about 35.01%. The average hight of the left-behind and non-left-behind boys were 128.74 cm and 130.46 cm,and the average weight were 27.31 kg and 28.71 kg,respectively. The average hight of left-behind and non-left-behind girls were 128. 52 cm and 131.54 cm and the average weight were 27.26 kg and 28.77 kg,respectively. There were significant differences in height and weight between left-behind children and non-left-behind children of the same gender. The prevalent rate of behavioral problems in the left-behind children were significantly higher than in non-left-behind children. There was no significant difference in the level of intelligence between the left-behind and non-left-hehind children. Conclusion The proportion of left-behind children is high in the rural area of Guizhou province and the growth and development of left-behind children are at a lower level. The status of mental health behavioral problem is different among the children of different age.%目的 了解贵州省农村留守儿童的健康状况.方法 对贵州省定新乡1所中学和4所小学的1565名学生进行自制儿童问卷调查,对部分儿童进行智力、行为测试,对小学生进行体格检查.结果 定新乡留守儿童比例为35.02%;留守与非留守小学男童的平均身高分别为128.74、130.46 cm,平均体重分别为27.31、28.71 kg;留守与非留守小学女童的身高分别为128.52、131.54 cm,平均体重分别为27.26、28.77kg;同性别留守儿童的平

  15. 33 ヤオ族儀礼神画の研究 -広西チワン族自治区恭城ヤオ族自治県蓮華鎮黄泥岡村盤王祭を事例として-

    OpenAIRE

    譚, 静; Tan, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Yao is one of the 55 ethnic groups in China. It is widely distributed in the south part of China, for example, the Hunan province, Yunnan province, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangdong province and the Southeast Asia (Thailand, Laos, Vietnam etc.)This article is emphasized on the Yao in Huangnigang Village, Lianhua Town, Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County, which is located in the northwest part of theGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region neighboring the Hunan province. So far the Yao peopl...

  16. Government Support and Local Industrial Development:Strategic Reflection Effect of Medicine Promotion in Qichun County, Hubei Province%政府支持与地方产业发展研究--湖北省蕲春县“医药兴县”战略效果反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂纯洁; 邹彩芬

    2014-01-01

    湖北省蕲春县依托当地的人文资源以及药材种植、加工的优势提出了“医药兴县”的战略,并在税收、种苗补贴、中医药产业、旅游、中医药人才、中医医疗保险等方面给予政策支持。由于中医药行业本身的问题,影响政府扶持作用的效果发挥。中医药本身的弱质性,中药材作为经济作物的种植,不具有自给自足性,市场的波动容易影响农民种植的积极性。中医药产业对本地药材种植的带动作用效果明显,但深度与广度显著有限。“医药兴县”是一种特色,是一种努力的方向,但是实际中医药产业在整个县域经济体系中占比并不高,对农村农业的发展带动不大,对农民的实际收入贡献度不高。%Relying on the advantages of local human resources, medicine cultivation and process in Qichun county, Hubei province, the government has proposed medicine promotion strategy and policy support for taxes, seed subsidies, the traditional Chinese medicine in-dustry, tourism, professionals and insurance. Owing to the problems for the traditional Chinese medicine industry, the effect of government support has been influenced. As cash crop, the traditional Chinese medicine has fragile nature and does not have the self-sufficiency, so market volatility is easy to affect the farmers' enthusiasm. This industry has a leading role in the effect on local medicine cultivation, but the depth and breadth is limited. Medicine promotion is the feature and the striving direction. However, the traditional Chinese medicine in-dustry has not high proportion of the whole county economy in practice, so it is difficult to promote the development of rural agriculture and increase the real income of farmers.

  17. Investigation of children's intelligence quotient and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area in Pucheng county Shaanxi province before and after drinking water change%陕西省蒲城县饮水型地方性氟中毒病区改水前后儿童智商及氟斑牙患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺明侠; 张崇农

    2010-01-01

    Objective To further understand the effect of anti-fluoride water on intellectual development of children and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area Pucheng county Shaanxi province.Methods Two hundred 8 to 12 years old children were randomly selected in endemic fluorosis area with changed water or unchanged water, in 2009 in Pucheng county Shaanxi province. Intelligence quotient(IQ) of children was measured by Raven's test. Children's dental fluorosis was examined by Dean's classification scheme. Results The rates of child dental fluorosis in changed water and unchanged water endemic fluorosis areas were 28.50%(57/200), 87.88%(203/231) , respectively, the difference was statistically significant(x2 = 159.19, P< 0.01),while dental fluorosis indices were 0.57,1.97, was marginal, moderate epidemic. Children with IQ above 90 was accounted for 89.5% (179/200), 91.5% (183/200) in changed water and unchanged water endemic fluorosis area,respectively, the difference was not significant (x2 = 0.46, P > 0.05). Conclusions Changed water may decrease the incidence of child dental fluorosis, but has no obvious effect on children's IQ development in endemic fluorosis area.%目的 了解防氟改水前后陕西省蒲城县饮水型地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)病区儿童智力发育和氟斑牙患病情况.方法 2009年,在陕西省蒲城县饮水型地氟病病区中,从改水与未改水病区各抽取8~12岁儿童200名,采用瑞文测验进行儿童智商测定,Dean法进行儿童氟斑牙检查.结果 改水和未改水病区儿童氟斑牙检出率分别为28.50%(57/200)、87.88%(203/231),两者比较差异有统计学意义(x2=159.19,P<0.01);氟斑牙指数分别为0.57、1.97,呈边缘、中等流行.改水病区智商≥90的儿童占89.5%(179/200),而未改水病区占91.5%(183/200),两者比较差异无统计学意义(x2=0.46,P>0.05).结论 防氟改水明显降低病区儿童氟斑牙的发生,但对儿童智力发育作用不明显.

  18. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  19. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  20. Allegheny County Addressing Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  1. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  2. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  3. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Ying; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Ji-Cai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Hunan (Oriental China) are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Apodesmia melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Opius monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius songi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius youi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius zengi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma acuticlypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma angiclypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma antenervalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma depressiclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma flavisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma nigrisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma protuberator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma rugulifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Li & van Achterberg,Phaedrotoma striatinota Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma vermiculifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis latipennis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis maculosa Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Rhogadopsis obliqua Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis sculpturator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Utetes longicarinatus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. and Xynobius notauliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. Areotetes

  4. [Application of remote sensing and GIS in study of suitability distribution of Swertia mussotii, a Tibetan medicine in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Bo; Luo, Yao; Zhu, Cong; Peng, Wen-Fu; Xu, Xin-Liang; Fang, Qing-Mao

    2017-11-01

    Swertia mussotii is a kind of rare medicinal materials, the relevant researches are mainly concentrated on its medicinal efficacy and medicinal value till now, researches of adaptive distribution by applying remote sensing and GIS are relatively less. This study is to analyze the adaptive distribution of S.mussotii in Sichuan province by applying remote sensing and GIS technology, and provide scientific basis for the protection and development of wild resources, artificial cultivation and adjustment of Chinese medicine industrial distribution in Sichuan province. Based on literature review and ecological factors such as altitude, annual precipitation and annual average temperature, this study extracted ecological factors, overlay analysis in GIS, as well as combining GPS field validation data by means of remote sensing and GIS, discusses the adaptive distribution of SMF sin Sichuan province. ①The area of adaptive distribution of S. mussotii in Sichuan province is 1 543.749 km², mainly in Dege county, Ganzi county, Daofu county, Kangding county, Barkam, Jinchuan county, Xiaojin county, Danba county, Daocheng county, Xiangcheng county, Xinlong county, Aba county, Muli county and other counties and cities, accounts for about 7.25% in total area. ② Combining statistical information and field validation, this study found that S. mussotii adaptive distribution gained by remote sensing and GIS is in conformity with its actual distribution. The study shows that remote sensing and GIS technology are feasible to obtain the S. mussotii adaptive distribution, they can further be applied to studies on adaptive distributions of other rare Chinese medicinal herb. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. [Evaluation of nutritional status of school-age children after implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program" in rural area in Hunan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (PNutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (PNutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".

  6. Differences in nutrient and energy content of commonly-consumed dishes prepared in restaurants vs. at home in Hunan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofang; Liu, Jiawu; Chen, Bo; Jin, Donghui; Fu, Zhongxi; Liu, Huilin; Du, Shufa; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Eating away from home is associated with poor diet quality, in part due to less healthy food choices and larger portions. However, few studies take into account the potential additional contribution of differences in food composition between restaurant- and home-prepared dishes. This study aimed to investigate differences in nutrients of dishes prepared in restaurants vs. at home. Design Eight commonly consumed dishes were collected in 20 of each of the following types of locations: small and large restaurants, and urban and rural households. In addition, two fast-food items were collected from 10 KFC’s, McDonald’s, and food stalls. Five samples per dish were randomly pooled from every location. Nutrients were analyzed and energy was calculated in composite samples. Differences in nutrients of dishes by preparation location were determined. Setting Urban and rural. Subjects Sodium, potassium, protein, total fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate, and energy in dishes. Results On average, both the absolute and relative fat content, saturated fatty acid (SFA) and sodium/potassium ratio were higher in dishes prepared in restaurants than households (Prestaurants (P restaurant preparation was consistently negatively associated with protein and positively associated with the percentage energy from fat in all dishes. Moreover, restaurant preparation also positively influenced the SFA content in dishes, except at the highest quantiles. Conclusions These findings suggest that compared to home preparation, dishes prepared in restaurants in China may differ in concentrations of total fat, SFA, protein, and sodium/potassium ratio, which may further contribute, beyond food choices, to less healthy nutrient intake linked to eating away from home. PMID:29306339

  7. Mineralogy, fluid inclusion petrography, and stable isotope geochemistry of Pb-Zn-Ag veins at the Shizhuyuan deposit, Hunan Province, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghua; Mao, Jingwen; Yuan, Shunda; Dai, Pan; Wang, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    The Shizhuyuan polymetallic deposit is located in the central part of the Nanling region, southeastern China, and consists of proximal W-Sn-Mo-Bi skarns and greisens and distal Pb-Zn-Ag veins. The sulfides and sulfosalts in the distal veins formed in three distinct stages: (1) an early stage of pyrite and arsenopyrite, (2) a middle stage of sphalerite and chalcopyrite, and (3) a late stage of galena, Ag-, Sn-, and Bi-bearing sulfides and sulfosalts, and pyrrhotite. Combined sulfide and sulfosalt geothermometry and fluid inclusion analyses indicate that the early stage of mineralization occurred at a temperature of 400 °C and involved boiling under hydrostatic pressure ( 200 bar), with the temperature of the system dropping during the late stage to 200 °C. Laser Raman analysis indicates that the fluid inclusions within the studied minerals are dominated by H2O, although some contain carbonate solids and CH4 gas. Vein-hosted sulfides have δ34S values of 3.8-6.3‰ that are interpreted as indicative of a magmatic source of sulfur. The mineralization process can be summarized as follows: an aqueous fluid exsolved on final crystallization of the Qianlishan pluton, ascended along fracture zones, cooled to <400 °C, and boiled under hydrostatic conditions, and with decreasing temperature and sulfur fugacity, sulfide and sulfosalt minerals precipitated successively from the Ag-Cu-Zn-Fe-Pb-Sb-As-S-bearing fluid system.

  8. Metal Exposure and Associated Health Risk to Human Beings by Street Dust in a Heavily Industrialized City of Hunan Province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five urban street dust samples were collected from Zhuzhou, an industrial city in central China and analyzed for a range of toxic elements. Potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects on children and adults due to exposure to street dust were assessed. Concerning the two subgroups, the child cohort is confronted with considerably greater health risks than adults. According to the Hazard Quotient (HQ method, ingestion of dust particles poses primary risk to children and adults, followed by dermal contact and inhalation for all of the metals investigated except Hg, for which inhalation of its elemental vapor constitute a slightly higher risk than ingestion. For children, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Sb exposure were deemed as the highest contributors to non-cancer health risks, while As and Cr represent an enhanced cancer risk for children. For adults, risk indicator values for both cancer and non-cancer effects obtained were within the safety threshold. In a comparison with other locations within and outside mainland China, exposure to arsenic is prominent for the population of Zhuzhou, indicating more attention and preventive actions should been taken.

  9. Association between physical activity and health-related quality of life in elderly individuals with pre-diabetes in rural Hunan Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhao; Gao, Fan; Yang, Yang; Qin, Lulu; Luo, Bang-an

    2018-01-01

    Objectives There are few data on the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity among elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. This study aimed to determine if differences existed in HRQoL between individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active compared with those who were physically inactive in rural China. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the elderly (≧60 years) in rural communities in Yiyang City of China. Multistage cluster random sampling was carried out to select 42 areas, and interviews were conducted among 434 elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes was screened using an oral glucose tolerance test. Main outcome measures The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire was used to measure HRQoL. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to test for differences in HRQoL between the physically active group and the inactive group. Results A total of 434 individuals with pre-diabetes were included in this study. The physical component summary (PCS) score of HRQoL was 42.1±10.2 and the mental component summary score was 46.4±8.9. A median total physical activity of 524 metabolic equivalent-min/week was reported. A significant MANCOVA model (Wilks’ λ=0.962, F(2,423)=8.44, Pphysically active reported higher PCS scores (Mdiff=5.2, Peffective size=0.47) compared with those physically inactive after adjusting for the following covariates: age, gender, marital status, education, smoking, chronic disease, body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Conclusions The HRQoL of elderly individuals with pre-diabetes is poor in rural China. These findings demonstrated that elderly individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active had higher PCS scores than those who were physically inactive. Furthermore, these results support the rationale for developing a physical activity intervention for HRQoL of individuals with pre-diabetes. Trial registration number ChiCTR-IOR-15007033; Results. PMID:29654016

  10. Evaluation of the antioxidant property and effects in Caenorhabditis elegans of Xiangxi flavor vinegar, a Hunan local traditional vinegar*

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUANG, Run-ting; HUANG, Qing; WU, Gen-liang; CHEN, Chun-guang; LI, Zong-jun

    2017-01-01

    Xiangxi flavor vinegar (XV) is one of Hunan Province’s traditional fermented vinegars. It is produced from herb, rice, and spring water with spontaneous liquid-state fermentation techniques. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant property of XV by analyzing its antioxidant compounds, its free radical scavenging property in vitro and in vivo, and its effects on antioxidant enzyme activity and apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that XV is rich in antioxidants. In particular, ligustrazine reached 6.431 μg/ml. The in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH•), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and superoxide anion radical (O2 •−) scavenging rates of XV were 95.85%, 97.22%, and 63.33%, respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in XV-treated C. elegans decreased significantly (P<0.01) compared to the control group. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were remarkably increased (P<0.01) in C. elegans after XV treatment. In addition, XV could upregulate CED-9 protein expression and downregulate CED-3 protein expression in C. elegans. These results prove that XV is rich in antioxidants and scavenges radicals in vitro efficiently. XV inhibits apoptosis in C. elegans probably by scavenging ROS and increasing the activities of its antioxidant enzymes. PMID:28378570

  11. AHP 22: Living and Dying at the Feet of The Snowy Mountains: A Contemporary Childhood in Rural Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Dalong 尹大龙

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children in contemporary rural China have experienced an unprecedented moment; amid radical economic and social transformations that have sent their parents to urban centers to earn cash income, children have been left behind to live with older relatives. This fundamental redefining of place, parenting, and living has rarely been written about by the children themselves in English. Set in rural Hunan in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, this novel vividly describes farm production, the shift from an agricultural way of life to a life financially supported by migrant labor earnings, local religious life, Huagu opera, education, complex and violent relationships between family members and villagers, the deaths of the protagonist's (Maomao mother and paternal grandmother, a wedding, funerals, and local festivals – from the perspective of a child. Refusing to drop out of school and become a migrant worker or a soldier, Maomao eventually achieves his dream of becoming a university student against all odds. This unvarnished and vividly written description of a contemporary rural life in China is uniquely important and appealing to a broad readership.

  12. Molecular Identification of Nosema species in East Azerbaijan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmaraii, N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nosema is a genus of microsporidia, which have significant negative impacts on honeybees. The aim of thisstudy is the epidemiological evaluation and molecular characterization of Nosema spices in various countiesof East-Azerbaijan province (Northwest of Iran. 387 samples were collected from colonies maintained invarious counties of East-Azerbaijan province. Samples after preparation were examined by a lightmicroscope for presence of Nosema spores. PCR method (SSUrRNA gene was used to differentiatebetween Nosema apis (N. apis and N. ceranae. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Totalinfection prevalence of the microscopic evaluation and PCR tests were 225 (58.1% and 260 (67.1%respectively, total validity of PCR test against the microscopic test was computed equal to 1.1 in this case.Disease distribution in various counties of study area was variable and N. ceranae was the only Nosema species found to infect honeybees. The one species presence and different distribution of Nosema positive samples in various counties of East-Azerbaijan province may be due to multiple reasons. Furthermore,epidemiological information helps us to improve disease management practices in the studied area, apply new hygiene policy and reduce extra costs of production.

  13. AHP 21: Architecture in The Bo, 'Brug Chu, and Co Ne Counties, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chos dbyings rdo rje ཆོས་དབྱིངས་རྡོ་རྗེ།

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-nine images of architecture in The bo, 'Brug chu, and Co ne counties (Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China are presented. The author also relates his experiences of travelling through the area in 2010.

  14. Studying Geographical Distribution Map of Weeds of Irrigated Wheat Fields of Ardabil Province

    OpenAIRE

    B Soheili

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the density and abundance of weeds in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil Province, 76 samples of irrigated wheat fields based on cultivation area from all counties of Ardabil province for six years (2001-2006) were selected. The genus and species of weeds from each sampling fields and their population indices density, frequency and uniformity of each species were calculated by using Thomas method. Geographic coordinates of field (Latitude, Altitude and Elevation) were the ...

  15. Re-emerging of rabies in Shaanxi province, China, from 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaofeng; Hao, Xiaoyun; Deng, Huiling; Wu, Rui; Liu, Jifeng; Yang, Yang; Li, Shen; Han, Yifei; Wei, Mingmin; Zhang, Junjun; Wang, Jingjun; Li, Hengxin; Tian, Huaiyu; Xu, Bing; Yu, Pengbo; Wu, Xiaokang

    2017-09-01

    To explore the epidemiological, phylogeographic, and migration characteristics of human rabies in Shaanxi province, China from 2009 to 2015. The collected data were described and the sequenced glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes were implemented to estimate the evolutionary rates and phylogeographic patterns using BEAST v.1.8.2. A total of 269 rabies cases were reported and 70.26% of the cases were male and 61.71% were between the ages of 19-59. The majority of the cases were farmers (83.27%). The estimated evolutionary rate of the N genes was 2.4 × 10 -4 substitutions/site/year and the G genes was 3.4 × 10 -4 . The time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) was estimated around 1990. We detected viral migration paths from Sichuan, Guizhou, and Hunan to Hanzhong prefecture of Shaanxi and then spreaded to Xi'an and other prefectures. The main population affected by rabies virus was male adult farmers. The evolution rate of rabies viruses in Shaanxi was similar with the prior results reported by others and the ancestor virus should be circulating in neighboring province Sichuan around 1990 and then transmitted to Shaanxi. Promptly standard wound treatment and timely post-exposure prophylaxis should be compulsory for the dog-bitten victims. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [ORMDL3 polymorphisms and their relationship with OPN and TGF-β1 levels in children with asthma in Hunan, China: an analysis of 98 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ai-Mei; Huang, Rong; Jin, Shi-Jie

    2016-04-01

    To investigate ORMDL3 polymorphisms in children with asthma in Hunan, China, and to determine the relationship between ORMDL3 polymorphisms and serum osteopontin (OPN) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels. Peripheral blood samples were collected in children with asthma (n=98; astma group) or without asthma (n=30; control group) from Hunan, China. The asthma group was subdivided into atopic (n=62) and non-atopic (n=36) subgroups. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed, and serum OPN and TGF-β1 levels were measured. There were no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of rs7216389 of the ORMDL3 gene between the asthma and control groups. The serum level of OPN in the asthma group was significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Both the atopic and non-atopic subgroups showed increased serum levels of OPN compared with the control group (P<0.05). The serum level of TGF-β1 in the atopic subgroup was significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). The serum levels of OPN and TGF-β1 showed no significant differences in asthmatic children with different genotypes. The serum levels of OPN and TGF-β1 were in a positive linear correlation in the asthma group (r=0.620; P<0.01) and its two subgroups (r=0.734, 0.649 respectively; P<0.01). In children from Hunan, China, the SNP (rs7216389) of ORMDL3 is not related to asthma susceptibility. OPN and TGF-β1 may be involved in the development of asthma, and they are in a positive linear correlation. The SNP (rs7216389) of ORMDL3 does not influence the expression of OPN and TGF-β1, suggesting that it may not be associated with airway remodeling.

  17. Intercambios sobre la noción de paisaje cultural: la experiencia en la ciudad de Daxu [Jianghua County, Hunan] China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Orduña

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo trata de condensar la experiencia fruto del intercambio académico de ideas sobre la incorporación de la noción de "paisaje cultural" como instrumento de planeamiento urbano y territorial en un pequeño pueblo de tradición rural del interior de China llamado Daxu. En el contexto del acelerado proceso de transformación urbana y territorial propio del gran país asiático, se afronta la problemática de incorporar el concepto de "paisaje cultural" como eje de las actuaciones del máster plan de este municipio rural, con el objetivo de ayudar a un desarrollo local sostenible.

  18. [A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis of the current immunization program in Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Han-Qing; Ling, Luo-Ya; Xu, Xu-Qing

    2009-02-01

    To know the status of Immunization program in Zhejiang Province. The investigation on immunization program in zhejiang province was conducted, and the SWOT analysis was corducted to make a comprehensive evaluation. 11 cities, 22 counties and 44 towns were investigated in this study, and the current immunization program in Zhejiang province were explored by SWOT analysis. The SWOT Matrix, includes SO (strength-opportunity), ST (strength-threat), WO (weakness-opportunity) and WT (weakness-threat) can apply to make optimal strategy for the development of expanded program on immunization.

  19. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  20. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  1. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Current asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

  2. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2016. Fields include injury severity,...

  3. Allegheny County Anxiety Medication

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These Census Tract-level datasets described here provide de-identified diagnosis data for customers of three managed care organizations in Allegheny County (Gateway...

  4. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  5. Allegheny County Employee Salaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Employee salaries are a regular Right to Know request the County receives. Here is the disclaimer language that is included with the dataset from the Open Records...

  6. ROE County Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This polygon dataset shows the outlines of states, counties, and county equivalents (Louisiana parishes, Alaska boroughs, Puerto Rico municipalities, and U.S. Virgin...

  7. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  8. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  9. Allegheny County Plumbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — All master plumbers must be registered with the Allegheny County Health Department. Only Registered Master Plumbers who possess a current plumbing license or...

  10. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  11. Allegheny County Greenways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Greenways data was compiled by the Allegheny Land Trust as a planning effort in the development of Allegheny Places, the Allegheny County Comprehensive Plan. The...

  12. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  13. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  14. Allegheny County Depression Medication

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These Census Tract-level datasets described here provide de-identified diagnosis data for customers of three managed care organizations in Allegheny County (Gateway...

  15. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  16. Allegheny County Property Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Real Property parcel characteristics for Allegheny County, PA. Includes information pertaining to land, values, sales, abatements, and building characteristics (if...

  17. Allegheny County Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on health care facilities includes the name and location of all the hospitals and primary care facilities in Allegheny County. The current listing of...

  18. Allegheny County Parks Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size and shape of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  19. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2017. Fields include injury severity,...

  20. Allegheny County Property Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Webmap of Allegheny municipalities and parcel data. Zoom for a clickable parcel map with owner name, property photograph, and link to the County Real Estate website...

  1. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  2. Diversity of the Orchard Species in Iran: A Case Study of Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koocheki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agrobiodiversity is an issue that has been considered for the last decade. There are few reports on diversity of orchard species in Iran and some available reports have not mentioned the relevant indices and analysis results. In the current study, based upon data collected from 29 provinces of Iran along with 23 counties of Khorasan provinces, a comprehensive analysis was made and different diversity indices such as Shanon- Weaver, Evenness index, Margalof richness index as well as two dominance indices including Sympson and Berger-Parker were calculated. The results indicated that Kerman, Fars and Khorasan provinces cover 40% of orchard areas in the country. Species richness in all provinces was relatively high but the evenness index was not so (average evenness for all provinces is 0.55. Therefore, in some provinces such as Boshehr and Kerman, species dominance is observed due to Date and Pistachio, respectively. Also, Stone fruits among Khorasan orchards provided the highest richness and diversity. The highest area of orchards in Khorasan are belonged to nuts including Pistachio, Almond, Walnut and Oleaster. Kashmar district has the highest orchards area in Khorasan province. According to the Shanon-Weaver index, the highest and lowest diversity were observed at Nahbandan- Birjand and Fariman counties. Results also indicated that the Berger-Parker dominance index is highest at Fariman and Shirvan districts of Khorasan because of apple and grape species dominance.

  3. Hemlock woolly adelgid and its natural enemies in Sichuan Province, China, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua Zhou; Yinbo Xiao; Yugui Xiao; Wenhua Lu; Michael Montgomery; Roy Van Driesche; Scott Salom

    2007-01-01

    A partnership of Chinese and American institutions was formed in 2005 to obtain natural enemies for biological control of Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), in the eastern United States. We report here the first 6 months (June-November) of studies done at three sites in Kangding and Baoxing Counties in Sichuan Province.

  4. Sending our child to college. Heilongjiang province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W

    1994-03-01

    An educational program for female farmers in Keshan County, Heilongjiang Province, originally limited to the topics of women's health care and family planning has not only improved health status, but has also helped increase income level among the participants. Keshan County is one of China's grain bases composed of seventeen townships with a total population of 460,000. The education program resulted from the health check-up for women conducted in 1985 which found 62.1% of local women with gynecological diseases, largely ignorant of health care, and too shy to visit doctors. A textbook was subsequently compiled on women's health care and family planning, and lectures were commenced on the topics. Lectures were soon expanded to cover health care for teenagers, newlyweds, pregnant women, young mothers, and middle-aged and elderly people. It was also found after some time that farmers wanted to be wealthier, to secure good educations for their children, and enjoy good health and longevity. Education topics were again expanded to include subjects relevant to farmers' income-production desires. These education sessions are now being replicated in most rural areas countrywide.

  5. [Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of shrubland plants in the rocky desertification area of Southwestern Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yi Ran; Deng, Xiang Wen; Wei, Hui; Li, Yan Qiong; Deng, Dong Hua; Liu, Hao Jian; Xiang, Wen Hua

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we took the leaves of shrubland plants in rocky desertification area in Southwestern Hunan as the research object to analyze the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry characteristics for different functional groups and different grades of rocky desertification, i.e., light rocky desertification (LRD), moderate rocky desertification (MRD) and intense rocky desertification (IRD). The results showed that the average contents of N and P were 12.89 and 1.19 g·kg -1 , respectively, and N/P was 11.24 in common shrubland plants in the study area, which indicated that the growth of most plants were mainly limited by N. The content of N was declined in order of deciduous shrubs > evergreen shrubs > annual herbs > perennial herbs. The content of P and N/P were higher in deciduous shrubs than in perennial herbs. Significant differences were found among the main families of plants in terms of the contents of N, P and N/P in the study sites. The plants of Gramineae had the lowest contents of N and P, andtheir growth was mostly restricted by N, while Leguminosae had the highest content of N and N/P, and their productivity was majorly controlled by P. The contents of N and P in the leaves were significantly higher in dicotyledon plants and C3 plants than in monocotyledon plants and C4 plants, but the N/P was not significantly diffe-rent between these two plant categories. The nitrogen-fixing plants had higher content of N and N/P than the non-nitrogen-fixing plants, but the P content was not significantly different between these two plant groups. There were significant correlations between contents of N and P, N/P and N in all study plots. No significant correlation was found between N/P and P content in the examined rocky desertification sites, except for that in MRD. There were no significant differences of the contents of N, P and N/P under different grades of rocky desertification.

  6. VT Boundaries - county polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BNDHASH dataset depicts Vermont villages, towns, counties, Regional Planning Commissions (RPC), and LEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee)...

  7. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  8. Allegheny County Supermarkets & Convenience Stores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Location information for all Supermarkets and Convenience Stores in Allegheny County was produced using the Allegheny County Fee and Permit Data for 2016.

  9. Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Probst, Anne; Liao, Bohan

    2005-03-01

    In 1985, the collapse of the tailing dam in Chenzhou lead/zinc mine (Hunan, southern China) led to the spread of mining waste spills on the farmland along the Dong River. After the accident, an urgent soil cleaning up was carried out in some places. Seventeen years later, cereal (rice, maize, and sorghum), pulses (soybean, Adzuki bean, mung bean and peanut), vegetables (ipomoea, capsicum, taro and string bean) and the rooted soils were sampled at four sites: (1) the mining area (SZY), (2) the area still covered with the mining tailing spills (GYB), (3) the cleaned area from mining tailing spills (JTC), and (4) a background site (REF). Metal concentrations in the crops and soils were analyzed to evaluate the long-term effects of the spilled waste on the soil and the potential human exposure through food chains. The results showed that the physical-chemical properties of the soils obviously changed due to the different farming styles used by each individual farmer. Leaching effects and plant extraction of metals from some soils were quite weak. Certain soils were still heavily polluted with As, Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. The contamination levels were in the order of GYB>SZY>JTC showing that the clean-up treatment was effective. The maximum allowable concentration (MAC) levels for Chinese agricultural soils were still highly exceeded, particularly for As and Cd (followed by Zn, Pb and Cu), with mean concentrations of 709 and 7.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations exceed the MAC levels by 24 times for As and 13 times for Cd at GYB. Generally, the edible leaves or stems of crops were more heavily contaminated than seeds or fruits. Ipomoea was the most severely contaminated crop. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were 3.30 and 76.9 mg kg(-1) in ipomoea leaves at GYB, which exceeded the maximum permit levels (0.5 mg kg(-1) for Cd and 9 mg kg(-1) for Pb) by 6.6 and 8.5 times, respectively. Taro (+skin) could accumulate high concentrations of Zn and Cd in the edible stem

  10. Caracterización de las comunidades de acridios (Orthoptera: Acridoidea del partido de Benito Juárez, sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acridoidea community structure in Benito Juárez county, in outhern Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura de Wysiecki

    2004-12-01

    que motivaron este cambio en la dominancia ya que no se cuenta con datos históricos, no pueden descartarse entre otros factores, eventuales cambios climáticos, campañas acridianas y contra otras plagas y el cambio en los patrones del uso de la tierra ocurridos en las últimas décadas en el área de estudio.The structure of grasshopper communities was studied at different sites in Benito Juárez county, Buenos Aires province, Argentina, over a six-year period (1997-2002. The sites were classified into five categories of disturbance: native grasslands, halophilous communities, pastures, moderately and highly disturbed pastures. A total of 23 grasshopper species was collected. Melanoplinae was the most abundant subfamily in all sites, except for halophilous communities that were characterized by the presence of one Acridinae species, Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner. Average species richness per site and per year, ranged from 2.10 ± 0.60 species in moderately disturbed pastures to 6.20 ± 0.58 species in halophilous communities. Cumulative species richness was: 17 in native grasslands, 14 in halophilous communities, 19 in undisturbed pastures, 18 in moderately disturbed pastures and 14 in highly disturbed pastures. Mean density was significantly higher in 2001 and 2002 than in the remaining years. The most abundant species were Dichroplus pratensis Bruner and Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos in native grasslands and highly disturbed pastures; C. pallidinota in halophilous communities and D. elongatus - Scotussa lemniscata (Stål in undisturbed and moderately disturbed pastures. Along the study, the taxonomic structure of the grasshopper assemblages was significantly constant in native grasslands, halophilous communities and undisturbed pastures. The pattern of species distribution showed few species widely or intermediately distributed, whereas numerous species were rare. Among the 23 species collected, D. elongatus was the most broadly distributed of all. Historically

  11. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  12. Allegheny County Block Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset overlays a grid on the County to assist in locating a parcel. The grid squares are 3,500 by 4,500 square feet. The data was derived from original...

  13. LANDSLIDES IN SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zarojanu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the county of Suceava, the landslides are a real and permanent problem. This paper presents the observations of landslides over the last 30 years in Suceava County, especially their morphology, theirs causes and the landslide stopping measures. It presents also several details regarding the lanslides from the town of Suceava, of Frasin and the village of Brodina.

  14. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  15. Investigation on residential radon concentration in Jingchuan county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wan Yihong; Chen Hongxiao; Shang Bin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an investigated result of residential radon concentration in Jingchuan County, Gansu Province, during May 2004 to November 2006. Alpha track detectors were used to measure radon level. Construction types of house and percentages of residents living in the county were also investigated through questionnaires. The result showed that the mean radon concentration in 62 investigated houses was 96.2 Bq·m -3 . The radon concentration in cave dwelling was the highest among all type of dwellings. The average level in cave dwelling is 110.2 Bq·m -3 , which was significantly higher than the national mean value published in literatures, and exceed the WHO recommended value of 100 Bq·m -3 . A considerable number of rural residents are living in cave dwellings in Jingchuan County. Attention should be paid to the radon problem and some proper protection measures taken. (authors)

  16. Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhongjie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Methods Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. Results 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk = 7.52, p  Conclusions This study demonstrated that the geographic range of imported and indigenous dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas.

  17. Predicting the risk of arsenic contaminated groundwater in Shanxi Province, Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Johnson, C. Annette; Xue, Hanbin; Shi Jianbo; Zheng Quanmei; Sun Guifan

    2012-01-01

    Shanxi Province is one of the regions in northern China where endemic arsenicosis occurs. In this study, stepwise logistic regression was applied to analyze the statistical relationships of a dataset of arsenic (As) concentrations in groundwaters with some environmental explanatory parameters. Finally, a 2D spatial model showing the potential As-affected areas in this province was created. We identified topography, gravity, hydrologic parameters and remote sensing information as explanatory variables with high potential to predict high As risk areas. The model identifies correctly the already known endemic areas of arsenism. We estimate that the area at risk exceeding 10 μg L −1 As occupies approximately 8100 km 2 in 30 counties in the province. - Highlights: ► We develop a statistical model to predict arsenic affected areas of Shanxi Province. ► Holocene sediments, TWI, Rivdist, Gravity, remote sensing images are key predictors. ► Area of 8112 km 2 and more than 30 counties are estimated at risk of arsenic hazard. ► Logistic regression model could be widely used to predict other emerging regions. - Explanatory variables from topography, hydrology, gravity, and remote sensing information are benefit to model As risk in groundwater of Shanxi Province.

  18. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  19. Investigation and Analysis of Crop Germplasm Resources in Coastal Areas of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong WANG; Shoujin FAN; Libin ZHANG; Hui ZHANG; Yingjie LIN; Hanfeng DING; Xiaodong ZHANG; Runfang LI; Zhan LI; Yumin MA; Yu ZHANG; Nana LI; Weijing CHEN; Zhongxue FAN

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the investigation of crop germplasm resources in coastal areas of Shandong Province, including 132 villages in 82 towns of 34 counties. The survey collected local varieties and wild resources of grain crops, economic crops, vegetables and fruit trees, and a total of 848 samples were collected, belonging to 54 species of 39 genera in 15 families. In this study, the current situation and growth and decline conditions of crop germplasm resources were investigated, and their botanical classification and utilization importance were analyzed. Furthermore, the conservation, development and utilization of crop germplasm resources in coastal areas of Shandong Province were also discussed in this paper.

  20. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  1. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  2. Allegheny County Sheriff Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List of properties up for auction at a Sheriff Sale. Datasets labeled "Current" contain this month's postings, while those labeled "Archive" contain a running list...

  3. Allegheny County Older Housing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Older housing can impact the quality of the occupant's health in a number of ways, including lead exposure, housing quality, and factors that may exacerbate...

  4. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  5. Allegheny County Housing Tenure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Home ownership provides a number of financial, social, and health benefits to American families. Especially in areas with housing price appreciation, home ownership...

  6. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  7. Durham County Demographic Profile

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — (a) Includes persons reporting only one race.(b) Hispanics may be of any race, so also are included in applicable race categories. D: Suppressed to avoid disclosure...

  8. Allegheny County Vacant Properties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Mail carriers routinely collect data on address no longer receiving mail due to vacancy. This vacancy data is reported quarterly at census tract geographies in the...

  9. Efficiency and Productivity of County-level Public Hospitals Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis Model and Malmquist Index in Anhui, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Nian Li

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In 2010–2015, the relative service efficiency of 12 county-level public hospitals in Anhui Province showed a decreasing trend, and the service efficiency of each hospital changed. In the past 6 years, although some hospitals have been effective, the efficiency of the county-level public hospitals in Anhui Province has not improved significantly, and the total factor productivity has not been effectively improved. County-level public hospitals need to combine their own reality to find their own deficiencies.

  10. Teacher Unions, (Neo) Liberalism and the State: The Perth County Conspiracy of 1885

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaller, Harry

    2004-01-01

    In 1885, following a period of severe economic depression and social unrest in colonial Canada, state teachers in rural Perth County, Ontario met and formed the nucleus of what could clearly be described as a teachers' union. The idea spread quickly, and within six months the founding convention of a province-wide union was held in Toronto.…

  11. Heterogeneity in coal composition and implications for lung cancer risk in Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.; Hu, Wei; Large, David; Veld, Harry; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Rothman, Nat; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties in Yunnan Province, China have among the highest lung cancer rates in the country. This has been associated with the domestic combustion of bituminous coal (referred to as "smoky" coal). Additionally, significant geographical variation in cancer rates among

  12. Agrobiodiversity Indices for Three Cucurbit Species in Khorasan- Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The deterioration of genetic resources of many field crops due to monoculture and other agricultural activities has been well documented. Estimates indicate that the introduction of new varieties has contributed at least 80% of the increase in crop production, yet, these gains have been offset by the loss of 90% of landraces. The importance of biodiversity in enhancing the sustainability of crop production in agroecosystems has been well acknowledged in the literature. This has been achieved by increasing the biodiversity at cropping systems, species, and variety levels, which corresponds to biodiversity at the ecosystem, species, and ecotype levels in natural ecosystems. Conservation of biodiversity is prerequisite for sustainable agroecosystems. In the past, diverse species, genotypes and varieties were used in agroecosystems that ensured their sustainability. At present, this approach has changed and new varieties have replaced old ones and on sustainability of systems has been negatively impacted. In the other word, agrobiodiversity or the variety of species in cropping systems has dropped rapidly. Materials and methods In this research, agrobiodiversity of melon (Cucumis.melo var. Inodorus, watermelon (Citrullus Vulgaris and cantaloupe (Cucumis.melo var. Cantaloupensis were evaluated at the genotype and variety levels. For this purpose necessary data including the number of cultivated genotypes or land races and cultivated area for each of them were collected from 25 counties of Khorasan Razavi province. Accurate data was gathered from the appropriate database and also by filling questionnaire for growing season of 2010-2011. Then spatial biodiversity indices of Simpson and Shannon, evenness, and similarity indices of Sorenson were calculated for three cucurbit crops. Results and discussion The results showed that from total cultivated area of cucurbit species in 2010-2011 growing season, 48, 30, 20 and 2 percent belonged to

  13. Re–Os isotope geochronology of the Shangbao pyrite–flourite deposit in southeastern Hunan, South China: Evidence for multiple mineralization events and the role of crust–mantle interaction in polymetallic deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Cheng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In South China, both crustal reworking and crust–mantle interaction were important geological processes during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. However, the relationships between these two processes and metal mineralization are still unknown. Here we report rhenium and osmium isotopic data for pyrite grains from a pyrite deposit associated with a granite intrusion in the Shangbao area, southeastern Hunan Province (South China. Two pyrite samples, both containing many euhedral pyrite grains, were collected from the same locality, but the samples yield distinct ages. Six euhedral pyrite grains from one sample yield an isochronal age of 279 ± 12 Ma, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.39 ± 0.71, and Re and Os concentrations of 0.12–63.5 ppb and 2.14–185 ppt, respectively. This Early Permian age is in good agreement with the age of the strata that host the pyrite deposit. Five euhedral pyrite grains from the other sample yield an isochronal age of 75.2 ± 4.3 Ma, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.141 ± 0.030 and Re and Os concentrations of 0.15–0.43 ppb and 1.0–39.9 ppt, respectively. If one pyrite grain with the highest 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios is excluded, other four pyrite grains give an isochronal age of 85 ± 13 Ma. The Late Cretaceous age (75–85 Ma is consistent with the zircon U–Pb age of the Shangbao granites (80.1 ± 0.3 Ma to within uncertainties. Considering also the relatively lower radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os ratio of this sample, we suggest that the later stage pyrite ore was probably formed through crystallization from the magmatic hydrothermal fluids. Combined with other geological and associated magmatic data, we propose a skarn-related fluid–ore interaction process to explain the second stage of metallogenesis in the Shangbao pyrite deposit. The Early Permian pyrite ore was deposited in a brine basin with evaporites during the Early Permian. Later magmatic hydrothermal

  14. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure.

  15. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yao

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391 to 0.9617 (DYS385. Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338 to 0.8177 (TPOX, with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51 to 0.2988 (TH01. A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure.

  16. Distribution Map and Community Characteristics of Weeds in Barley Fields of Ardabil Province

    OpenAIRE

    B. Soheili; M. Minbashi; D. Hasanpanah; N. Razmi

    2013-01-01

    Surveying weeds of irrigated barley fields is one of the most important practices in weed management. Based on cultivated areas irrigated barley in all counties of Ardabil province during six years (2000-2005), 46 sample barley fields were selected and weed species were counted in each sampling point and population indices were calculated with Thomas method. By using specific furmula the density, frequency and uniformity of each weed species in fields were calculated. In each field longitude,...

  17. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Cole, Jessica K.; Williams, Amanda J.; Hou, Weiguo; Zhou, Enmin; Li, Wenjun; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3) provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophil...

  18. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  19. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Khoshdel-Nezamiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.

  20. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  1. [Cataract surgery rate and its impacting factors in Jiangsu Province in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-jin; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Zhu, Rong-rong; Yang, Mei

    2013-12-17

    To survey the cataract surgery rate (CSR) according to the report data and its influencing factors of Jiangsu Province in 2012 so as to further improve CSR in China. Through government websites in 2012, gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP per capital of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province and 7 counties of Nantong City reported to the Ministry of Health in China were collected to calculate CSR. The relationship between GDP and CSR of Jiangsu Province and Nantong City were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation, and the differences in the proportion of cataract surgery between government and private hospitals were analyzed by Chi-square test. CSR in Jiangsu Province in 2012 was 939 cases per million population per year. Nantong City had the highest CSR (1362 cases per million population per year) and Suqian City the lowest (129 cases per million population per year). The GDP of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province had a positive correlation with CSR (spearman r = 0.59, P = 0.03), but there was no significant correlation with GDP per capital (spearman r = 0.50, P = 0.08). No significant correlation existed between GDP, GDP per capital and CSR of 7 counties of Nantong City (spearman r = -0.04, P = 0.94; spearman r = -0.29, P = 0.53). The proportion of private hospitals of Nantong was 33.3% and surgery cases were 4557 (45.9%). The CSR of Rugao County in 2012 was 3317 cases per million population per year. Socioeconomic level may be related with CSR. Providing village cataract screening services and lowering surgical costs help to boost CSR in China.

  2. Spatiotemporal trends and climatic factors of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome epidemic in Shandong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qun Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantaviruses. It is endemic in all 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and metropolitan areas in mainland China where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Shandong Province is among the most serious endemic areas. HFRS cases in Shandong Province were first reported in Yutai County in 1968. Since then, the disease has spread across the province, and as of 2005, all 111 counties were reported to have local human infections. However, causes underlying such rapid spread and wide distribution remain less well understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we report a spatiotemporal analysis of human HFRS cases in Shandong using data spanning 1973 to 2005. Seasonal incidence maps and velocity vector maps were produced to analyze the spread of HFRS over time in Shandong Province, and a panel data analysis was conducted to explore the association between HFRS incidence and climatic factors. Results show a rapid spread of HFRS from its epicenter in Rizhao, Linyi, Weifang Regions in southern Shandong to north, east, and west parts of the province. Based on seasonal shifts of epidemics, three epidemic phases were identified over the 33-year period. The first phase occurred between 1973 and 1982 during which the foci of HFRS was located in the south Shandong and the epidemic peak occurred in the fall and winter, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Hantaan virus (HTNV transmission. The second phase between 1983 and 1985 was characterized by northward and westward spread of HFRS foci, and increases in incidence of HFRS in both fall-winter and spring seasons. The human infections in the spring reflected a characteristic pattern of Seoul virus (SEOV transmission. The third phase between 1986 and 2005 was characterized by the northeast spread of the HFRS foci until it covered all counties, and the HFRS incidence in the fall-winter season decreased while it

  3. Distribution Map and Community Characteristics of Weeds in Barley Fields of Ardabil Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Soheili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying weeds of irrigated barley fields is one of the most important practices in weed management. Based on cultivated areas irrigated barley in all counties of Ardabil province during six years (2000-2005, 46 sample barley fields were selected and weed species were counted in each sampling point and population indices were calculated with Thomas method. By using specific furmula the density, frequency and uniformity of each weed species in fields were calculated. In each field longitude, latitude and altitude were recorded by using GPS. These data were used for producing weed maps using GIS. Results showed that Galium tricurnatum, Fumaria vaillantiand Raphanus raphanistrum were dominante broadleaf species in irrigated barley fields of Ardabil province. The dominant grassy weed species in these fields were Avena fatua and Secale cereal. Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense were the most important troublesome plants prior to harvesting in irrigated barley fields of this province.

  4. Well Inventory and Geophysical Logging of Selected Wells in Troup County, Georgia, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael F.; Leeth, David C.; Hamrick, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with the Troup County Board of Commissioners - conducted a well inventory to provide information to help evaluate ground-water resources for Troup County, Georgia. In addition, borehole geophysical logs were collected in selected wells to provide a better understanding of the subsurface geologic and water-bearing characteristics in specific areas of interest. This investigation provides information to help guide future ground-water development and water-management decisions for Troup County while enhancing understanding of the hydrogeology of fractured rocks in the Piedmont physiographic province. This report presents well data compiled from USGS files and from site visits to wells during November and December 2007. Data were entered into the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and made available on the Web at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/inventory. Previous studies of ground-water resources have been conducted in the vicinity, but did not include Troup County. The ground-water resources of Heard and Coweta Counties, located north and northeast, respectively, of Troup County were part of a larger study by Cressler and others (1983) that encompassed the Greater Atlanta Region. That study evaluated the quantity and quality of ground water in the Atlanta region and described the methods that could be used for locating high-yielding wells in the Piedmont Province. The geology underlying the Atlanta area is similar to that underlying Troup County. Clarke and Peck (1990) conducted a similar investigation that included Meriwether and Coweta Counties, located to the east and northeast of Troup County.

  5. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  6. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  7. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  8. 2015 Lowndes County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Lidar for Lowndes County, GA with the option to Collect Lidar in Cook and Tift Counties, GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task...

  9. Allegheny County Fast Food Establishments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Allegheny County Health Department has generated this list of fast food restaurants by exporting all chain restaurants without an alcohol permit from the...

  10. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  11. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  12. Allegheny County Mortgage Foreclosure Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data includes filings related to mortgage foreclosure in Allegheny County. The foreclosure process enables a lender to take possession of a property due to an...

  13. Allegheny County Poor Housing Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This estimate of the percent of distressed housing units in each Census Tract was prepared using data from the American Community Survey and the Allegheny County...

  14. Providing engineering services to counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    An engineer is required by law to safeguard the health, safety and welfare of the public. The current Kansas : statute state, The Board of County Commissioners of each county shall appoint a licensed professional : engineer, whose title shall be c...

  15. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  16. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  17. Allegheny County Summer Food Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set shows the Summer Food Sites located within Allegheny County for children (18 years and younger) for breakfast and lunch during summer recess. OPEN...

  18. Allegheny County Property Sale Transactions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains data on all Real Property parcels that have sold since 2013 in Allegheny County, PA. Before doing any market analysis on property sales, check...

  19. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  20. DOT Official County Highway Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The County Highway Map theme is a scanned and rectified version of the original MnDOT County Highway Map Series. The cultural features on some of these maps may be...

  1. Allegheny County Primary Care Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on health care facilities includes the name and location of all the hospitals and primary care facilities in Allegheny County. The current listing of...

  2. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  3. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  4. Minnesota County Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  5. Geographic distribution of hospital beds throughout China: a county-level econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Shallcross, David

    2016-11-08

    Geographical distribution of healthcare resources is an important dimension of healthcare access. Little work has been published on healthcare resource allocation patterns in China, despite public equity concerns. Using national data from 2043 counties, this paper investigates the geographic distribution of hospital beds at the county level in China. We performed Gini coefficient analysis to measure inequalities and ordinary least squares regression with fixed provincial effects and additional spatial specifications to assess key determinants. We found that provinces in west China have the least equitable resource distribution. We also found that the distribution of hospital beds is highly spatially clustered. Finally, we found that both county-level savings and government revenue show a strong positive relationship with county level hospital bed density. We argue for more widespread use of disaggregated, geographical data in health policy-making in China to support the rational allocation of healthcare resources, thus promoting efficiency and equity.

  6. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  7. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  8. Health-related quality of life in residents aged 18 years and older with and without disease: findings from the First Provincial Health Services Survey of Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-09-03

    Published research has not considered acute diseases and injuries in assessing the impact of varying disease counts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We used Chinese value sets of EQ-5D-3L to examine the relationship between the number of diseases individuals had (including chronic diseases, acute diseases and injuries) and their HRQoL. A total of 19 387 individuals aged 18 years and older were included in the study. Using data from the First Provincial Health Services Survey of Hunan, China, HRQoL was assessed with the EQ-5D-3L scale, a standardized instrument developed by the EuroQoL group. The EQ-5D-3L utility score was calculated using the Chinese EQ-5D-3L value set. This survey coded disease using the list of 133 conditions that was defined by the First Provincial Health Services Survey of Hunan, China, based on the 10th International Classification of Diseases. 126 conditions were disease-related and were therefore included in data analysis. Of 15 245 respondents, urban residents and male constituted 53.0% and 48.2%, respectively. 19.3% of respondents had one disease and 5.0% had at least two diseases. Of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L, the pain/discomfort dimension had the highest proportion of moderate or serious problems among the respondents (14.4%, 95% CI 10.5% to 18.2%). The average Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and utility score were 78.0 (95% CI 76.9 to 79.1) and 0.958 (95% CI 0.946 to 0.970), respectively. Residents with 1 and ≥2 diseases had higher proportions of moderate or serious problems in five dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L scale during the previous 2 weeks than those without disease after controlling for location (urban/rural), sex, age, education level and household income, respectively (adjusted ORs: 3.1-3.7 and 4.4-6.6, respectively). The mean of the EQ VAS score was 8.4 and 13.6 points lower in respondents with 1 and ≥2 diseases than in respondents without disease; the corresponding mean score difference was 0

  9. Studying Geographical Distribution Map of Weeds of Irrigated Wheat Fields of Ardabil Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Soheili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the density and abundance of weeds in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil Province, 76 samples of irrigated wheat fields based on cultivation area from all counties of Ardabil province for six years (2001-2006 were selected. The genus and species of weeds from each sampling fields and their population indices density, frequency and uniformity of each species were calculated by using Thomas method. Geographic coordinates of field (Latitude, Altitude and Elevation were the main coverage and were determined by using GPS. These data were used for producing weed maps using GIS in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province. Results showed that bedstraw (Galium tricurnatum, Fumitory(Fumaria vaillantiand wildradish (Raphanus raphanistrum were dominant broad leaf weed species and wild oats (Avena fatua, rye (Secale cereal and mouse foxtail(Alopecurus myosuroides dominant grassy weeds species in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province. Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Canada thistle(Cirsium arvenseand Acroptilon repens were the most important disturbing plants prior to harvesting in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province.

  10. Limerick, City and County

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Postcard. Colour drawings of maps of Limerick city and county and Foynes - transatlantic air base flying boat, Dromore Castle, Glenstal Abbey, Ardagh Chalice, Askeaton; the Abbey, Gate Loge Adare Manor, Newcastlewest, King John's Castle, St. Mary's Cathedral (Church of Ireland), The Old Custom House, The Hunt Museum, The Old Mill and Bridge croom, The Coll (de Valera) Cottage Buree, Town Gate Kilmallock, Lough Gur Interpretive Centre, Hospital Ancient hostelry and The Treaty Stone. Copyright ...

  11. UNEMPLOYMENT IN HUNEDOARA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment highlights a state of imbalance on the labour market which is characterized by a surplus of workforce in relation to job vacancies. This imbalance has been more apparent in Hunedoara County than in other counties, due to the fact that there are 3 mono-industrial areas that have been restructured over the past two decades. The effects are presented in this paper in the form of a complex statistical analysis. Thus, based on the evolution of the number of unemployed individuals in 1995, one can observe the periods of significant adverse effects upon the degree of employment. Moreover, one can make correlations with periods of international financial crisis and with the number of employees in the County in order to determine significant variables of the unemployment phenomenon. The content of this paper is significant and represents the analysis of the number of unemployed in the Jiu Valley, scattered across towns. As a form of financial protection, the unemployment benefit represents a financial instrument in the cases determined by this negative phenomenon, which is why in conclusion we make a comparison of the ways this aid is granted throughout several years and in various forms.

  12. Mental health and burnout in primary and secondary school teachers in the remote mountain areas of Guangdong Province in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lulu Zhang,1 Jingping Zhao,1 Huaqing Xiao,3 Hongbo Zheng,2 Yaonan Xiao,3 Miaoyang Chen,3 Dingling Chen31Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Guangzhou Brain Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 3Department of Psychiatry, Luoding Dagang Hospital, Luoding, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: A growing number of studies have shown that education is a work context in which professionals (teachers seem likely to suffer from burnout that may be associated with low levels of mental health. Although there is a demonstrated need to improve the mental health and burnout levels among teachers, little is known about their mental health status, particularly with respect to graduating class teachers in remote mountain areas with undeveloped economies. The purpose of this study was to survey mental health and burnout among graduating class teachers in remote mountain areas and to examine the influence of moderating variables.Methods: We conducted a multilevel analysis of 590 graduating class teachers from 42 primary and secondary schools in remote mountain areas of Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. The outcome variable of self-reported mental health was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90, and burnout was measured by the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory for primary and secondary school teachers.Results: The status of both mental health and burnout among the respondents was significantly more troubling than the national norm used as a reference (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Each factor in the SCL-90 had a significant correlation with burnout (P<0.01. All factors of the SCL-90 were entered into the regression equation for each dimension of burnout (P<0.01. The factor having the greatest impact on emotional exhaustion and

  13. Insights of drug zero-profit reform at county-level public hospitals in Zhejiang Province%浙江省推进县级公立医院药品零加成改革的实践与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李显文; 王桢; 徐飞鸿; 郑燕娜

    2013-01-01

    介绍浙江省推进药品零差率改革的做法.对试点县医院在改革前后的医院经济运行、患者医药费用负担、财政补助和医保基金支出等情况进行对比分析.改革取得了预期的成效,主要体现在:医疗服务量、医疗收入、财政补助等大幅增长,药品收入所占比例下降,医疗收入结构发生变化;患者门诊和住院平均费用增长得到控制,药品费用下降显著;医保基金支出虽增加但运行基本平稳;医保补偿比例提高,患者自负费用与县外就医比例均下降.同时也指出仍存在医疗服务价格调整不到位、财政补偿机制不够明确并缺乏可持续性、配套措施不够完善等问题.建议进一步加快支付制度改革,科学、动态调整医疗服务价格,明确财政补偿办法,优化医院内部管理,加快形成能够调动医务人员工作积极性的收入分配新机制.%This paper presented the practice of Zhejiang in introducing the drug zero-profit reform.A comparative analysis was made to the pilot county hospitals regarding their business performance,patients' burden,financial subsidy and medical insurance expenditure.The reform has scored a success as expected with the following outcomes:sharp rise in medical services volume,medical income and financial aid on one hand; drop of the proportion of drug income and changes in the medical income makeup; controlled increase of average cost of outpatient and inpatient care,and significant drop of pharmaceutical costs; increased expenditure yet stable operation of medical insurance funds;proportional increase of medical insurance compensation,with drops of the proportion of both out-ofpocket expenses and visits to doctors out of their county.This reform,however,has such shortcomings as follows:insufficient adjustment toward true costs of medical services,lack of a clear and sustainable financial compensation mechanism,and that of supporting measures.Based on these

  14. Optimization and Flight Schedules of Pioneer Routes in Papua Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronting, Y.; Adisasmita, S. A.; Hamid, S.; Hustim, M.

    2018-04-01

    The province of Papua has a very varied topography, ranging from swampy lowlands, hills, and plateaus up steep hills. The total area of land is 410,660 km2, which consists of 28 counties and one city, 389 districts and 5.420 villages. The population of Papua Province in 2017 was 3.265.202 people with an average growth of 4.21% per year. The transportation services is still low, especially in the mountainous region, which is isolated and could only be reached by an air transportation mode, causing a considerable price disparity between coastal and mountainous areas. The purpose of this paper is to develop the route optimization and pioneer flight schedules models as an airbridge. This research is conducted by collecting primary data and secondary data. Data is based on field surveys; interviews; discussions with airport authority, official government, etc; and also from various agencies. The analytical tools used to optimization flight schedule and route are analyzed by add-in solver in Microsoft Excel. The results of the analysis we can get a more optimal route so that it can save transportation costs by 7.26%.

  15. 青海省囊谦县8~10岁寄宿学生和走读学生碘缺乏病现况调查%Investigation of iodine deficiency disorders among boarding students and commuting students aged 8-10 in Nangqian County, Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘培春; 杨佩珍; 胡兰盛; 蔡生花; 陈勋; 余慧珍; 李亚楠; 张秀丽; 孟献亚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To master epidemiological condition of iodine nutrition among 8-10 years old school children in Nangqian County,and to provide evidence for making prevention and control strategy.Methods In 2012,students aged 8-10 from the center school in 10 towns of Nangqian County were selected,and instant urinary samples were collected and the urinary iodine was detected with As-Ce catalytic spectrophotometry method,the thyroid volume was measured with B ultrasonic method and IQ test with Combined Raven Test-C2 (CRT-C2).Results Urinary iodine of 553 children were detected,the urinary iodine median of 203 boarding students was 133.2 μg/L,among these,under 100 μg/L was 32.0% (65/203); while the urinary iodine median of 350 commuting students was 70.4 μg/L,under 100 μg/L was 71.1% (249/350),and the difference of the urinary iodine median between boarding students and commuting students was statistically significant (Z =-6.947,P < 0.05); among 499 school children,thyroid rate of the commuting students and the boarding students was 2.2% and 2.3%,respectively;220 school children were taken IQ test with Combined Raven Test-C2 (CRT-C2),average points of IQ tests in boarding students was 82.29,and 15.5% (17/110) less than 69 points; average points of IQ tests in commuting students was 82.07,and 12.7% (14/110) less than 69 points.Conclusions The difference of the iodine nutrition level between boarding students and commuting students was statistically significant.Coverage rate of iodized salt,urinary iodine levels and thyroid rate are low in Nangqian County,which highlights the epidemiological features of iodine deficiency disorders in this region.Although,iodine deficiency does not cause obvious goiter,intelligence harm should not be ignored.%目的 了解囊谦县8~ 10岁寄宿学生和走读学生碘缺乏病流行情况,为制定预防控制策略提供依据.方法 2012年抽取青海省囊谦县10个乡镇中心学校的8~ 10岁儿童,采集即时

  16. Health resource allocation and productive efficiency of Chinese county hospitals: data from 1993 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Ruoyan Y; Zhou, Chengchao C; Xu, Lingzhong Z; Zhu, Min; Wang, Xingzhou Z; Li, Shixue X; Zheng, Wengui G; Song, Peipei P; Yang, Xuelai L; Fang, Liyi Y; Zhen, Yancheng C; Tang, Wei

    2010-10-01

    This study aims to assess trends in the productive efficiency of China's county hospitals during the economic transition using data from 1993 to 2005. A data envelopment analysis (DEA) framework was used to calculate the efficiency score of county hospitals in all 31 provinces. A C²R model and a BC² model were devised to respectively calculate overall and scale efficiency and pure technical efficiency at the hospital's current scale. Models included four inputs (number of medical staff; number of beds; value of fixed capital; and hospital expenditures) and three outputs (outpatient and emergency visits, number of inpatients, and hospital revenue) in total. As the results, geographical disparities in health resource allocation and county hospital productivity were noted. From 1993 to 2005, the number of county hospitals increased and their inputs, e.g. fixed capital in particular, grew rapidly. However, the amount of both outpatient and inpatient services declined somewhat especially in the middle and the western regions. The overall efficiency at the national level decreased slightly. County hospitals in the eastern region tended to have better overall, scale, and technical efficiency in comparison to the middle and the western regions. In conclusion, county hospitals are inefficient due to their enlarged scale and the reduced amount of health care services they provide. This issue should be addressed especially in the middle and the western regions, where health resources are far more limited and yet wasted. The effects of ongoing health sector reform on the productivity of county hospitals must be monitored and evaluated.

  17. Survey on risk perception of radiation following an incident involving a stuck 60Co source in Henan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, C.; Sun, Q.; Cheng, X.; Zhang, Q.; Fu, Y.; Chu, C.; Zhao, Y.; Qin, W.; Su, X.

    2012-01-01

    In July 2009, an incident involving a stuck Co-60 source led hundreds of thousands of people to escape Qi County, Henan Province, China, although no medical or environmental consequences were related to the incident. To investigate knowledge about radiation, public risk-perception of radiation, and evaluation of the official response, a survey was conducted in Qi and Hui County (control). Face-to-face questionnaire interviews were conducted among three groups with different educational backgrounds. In total, 1340 valid questionnaires were collected from people interviewed. Knowledge about radiation was low in all groups in both counties, although knowledge in Qi County was higher than that in Hui County (control). More than 40 % respondents supported construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in China, while only a few supported constructing NPPs in their vicinity. The main reasons for the mass escape following the incident were assumed to be lack of knowledge about radiation, misinformation, the government's failure to disclose information in time and imitation of group behaviour. Over 60 % in Group I and II trusted the local government. About 64 % disapproved the response of the Qi County government. After the incident, the population in Qi County still knows little about radiation. Although people trust the government, they are dissatisfied with the response of the local government regarding the incident. (authors)

  18. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Xia, Congcong; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-06-03

    Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes) into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space.

  19. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space.

  20. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katula, Denise [County of Somerset, Somervile, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.

  1. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the Qibaoshan Cu-polymetallic deposit, northeastern Hunan Province: Implications for the metal source and metallogenic evolution of the intracontinental Qinhang Cu-polymetallic belt, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shunda; Mao, Jingwen; Zhao, Panlao; Yuan, Yabin

    2018-03-01

    The recently recognized Qinhang metallogenic belt (QHMB) is an economically important intracontinental Mesozoic porphyry-skarn Cu-polymetallic metallogenic belt in South China. However, the origin of the ore-bearing magma and the major factors controlling the different metal assemblages in the QHMB are still unclear. The Qibaoshan deposit is a large Cu-Au-Pb-Zn-Ag-Fe deposit located at the juncture between the northern and central parts of the QHMB. In this study, new zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopic data, molybdenite Re-Os ages, and whole-rock geochemical data are combined to constrain the timing of the mineralization and the origin and petrogenesis of the ore-bearing porphyry in the Qibaoshan deposit. The ages obtained from both zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os dating fall in the Late Jurassic (between 152.7 and 148.3 Ma), revealing that this deposit is significantly younger than previously estimated (227-184 Ma). The Qibaoshan ore-bearing quartz porphyry shows variable negative zircon εHf(t) values (-14.8 to -5.5), high δ18O values (8.4 to 10.8‰), and high Mg# values (69.1 to 73.0), indicating that it formed via the partial melting of ancient crust triggered by the injection of mantle-derived magma. Zircon Hf-O isotopic modeling of the mixing of two extreme endmembers indicates that the magmatic source comprised 70-80% reworked ancient crustal components and 20-30% depleted mantle components. Based on comparisons with other ore-bearing porphyries in the QHMB, a magmatic source dominated by crust-derived material and relatively low oxygen fugacities (ΔFMQ -1.8 to ΔFMQ +0.8) was responsible for the high (Pb + Zn)/Cu ratio in the Qibaoshan deposit, and the Pb, Zn and Ag were mainly derived from the reworked ancient crust. Although four analyses of inherited Neoproterozoic zircons ( 800 Ma) have variable positive εHf(t) values (0.72 to 11.21), indicating that Neoproterozoic juvenile crust was involved in the formation of the Qibaoshan ore-bearing quartz porphyry, the relatively low oxygen fugacities (ΔFMQ -1.2 to ΔFMQ +0.4) of the parent magma of these inherited zircons suggest that this parent magma could not have provided significant metallic Cu for mineralization in the Qibaoshan Cu-polymetallic deposit. Therefore, the metallic Cu in the Qibaoshan Cu-polymetallic deposit was probably provided by the injection of the mantle-derived magma. Because ore-forming magmas with relatively low oxygen fugacities have low Au solubility, the large Au mineralization in the Qibaoshan deposit may be related to high background values of Au in this area. Our data, integrated with regional petrogeochemical data, indicate that the magmatic source exerted a first-order control on the different metal assemblages in the deposits in the QHMB.

  2. Is soil dressing a way once and for all in remediation of arsenic contaminated soils? A case study of arsenic re-accumulation in soils remediated by soil dressing in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiming; Bai, Lingyu; Wei, Caibing; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Tuo; Wang, Yanan; Li, Lianfang; Wang, Jinjin; Wu, Cuixia; Zeng, Xibai

    2015-07-01

    The investigation of arsenic (As) re-accumulation in an area previously remediated by soil dressing will help in sustainable controlling the risks of As to local ecosystems and should influence management decisions about remediation strategies. In this study, As content in an area remediated by soil dressing and the possible As accumulation risk in agricultural products were investigated. The results indicated that after 7 years of agricultural activities, the average As content (24.6 mg kg(-1)) in surface soil of the investigated area increased by 83.6% compared with that (13.4 mg kg(-1)) in clean soil. Of the surface soil samples (n = 88), 21.6% had As levels that exceeded the limits of the Environmental Quality Standard for Soils of China (GB 15618-1995) and 98.9% of the surface soil samples with As contents exceeding that in clean soil was observed. Soil dressing might be not a remediation method once and for all in some contaminated areas, even though no significant difference in available As content was found between clean (0.18 mg kg(-1)) and surface (0.22 mg kg(-1)) soils. The foreign As in surface soil of the investigated area mainly specifically sorbed with soil colloid or associated with hydrous oxides of Fe and Al, or existed in residual fraction. The upward movement of contaminated soil from the deeper layers and the atmospheric deposition of slag particles might be responsible for the re-accumulation of As in the investigated area. Decreases in soil pH in the investigated soils and the fact that no plant samples had As levels exceeding the limits of the National Food Safety Standards for Contaminants of China (GB 2762-2012) were also observed.

  3. [Perception of residents in world heritage site to the effects of ecological migration: a case study of three migrant resettlement spots in Wulingyuan, Hunan Province of South-central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ou, Yan; Ge, Quan-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Based on the investigation in three typical migrant resettlement spots in Wulingyuan Scenic Area, a demonstration analysis was conducted on the residents' perception to the effects of ecological migration on world heritage site. The residents in the 3 spots had great differences in the positive perception to the economic effects of ecological migration, but less differences in the perception to the negative indices. The residents had high identity with the positive socio-cultural effects, but weak perception to the negative effects. The residents in the 3 resettlement spots had obvious differences in the perception to the effects on resources and environment, but mostly agreed that the negative psychological effects were not so obvious. The negative comments were given to the main migration policies. Age, educational level, monthly income, and proportion of tourism input were the main factors affecting the residents' perception, and the way of resettlement as well as the proportion of tourism input also had important effects on the residents' perception. Migration policy was the dominant factor affecting the integral perception of the residents to ecological migration.

  4. 湖南桃源洞国家森林公园森林的环境效益评价%Appraisements of forest environment benefits of the Taoyuandong National Forest Garden in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨湘桃; 李彩霞

    2003-01-01

    对桃源洞国家森林公园森林所具有的改善小气候、改善水质、净化大气、保护生物多样性、改良土壤、防止水土流失、美学功能等主要环境效益进行了系统评价.

  5. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-12-01

    Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat-mortality associations outside of cities. We investigated whether heat-mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009-2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population risk comparing the 99th vs. 75th percentiles of temperature was 1.43 [95% posterior intervals (PI): 1.36, 1.50] in less urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863-1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204.

  6. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  7. 2015 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  8. Allegheny County Beltway System Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Authoritative dataset of the beltway system in Allegheny County. The system was developed to help motorists navigate through Allegheny County on low-traffic roads....

  9. 2016 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  10. 湘西传统民居节能改造研究∗%ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY RETROFITTING IN TRADITIONAL DWELLINGS IN WEST HUNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盛; 刘益明; 姜彬

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of thermal performance of a traditional dwelling in West Hunan, China, was based on thermal environment test of the typical coldest and hottest day. According to the specific indoor thermal, this paper aims to explore the feasibility of some passive house retrofitting strategies on the premise of protecting their conventional architecture styles, a comprehensive retrofitting strategy:using ordinary insulating glass units(12 mm cavity layer), 0. 2 window-wall ratio improvement, polyurethane foam insulation layer ( 10 mm ) for double-fir external wall envelope, reed foil(50 mm) for clay roof insulation layer, is concluded by indoor thermal environment simulation and CFD simulation and optimized by an orthogonal test.%以湘西传统民居的典型代表“吞口屋”为研究对象,通过对其进行夏季和冬季典型日室内热环境实测,分析湘西传统民居的室内热环境状况;在此基础上,利用全年动态能耗模拟软件和计算流体力学软件,进行能耗和自然通风分析,结合当地经济因素和原有建筑历史风格,探讨被动式节能改造措施在湘西传统民居中的应用,并基于正交试验设计提出湘西传统民居最优的综合改造方案:窗户材料选用普通中空玻璃(中空12 mm)、窗墙比提高到0.2、外墙改造使用10 mm聚氨酯保温板的“呼吸式”杉木墙体、屋面改造使用50 mm芦苇箔厚度的黏土屋面。

  11. AHP 44: THE VITALITY OF KHAMS TIBETAN VARIETIES IN WEIXI COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the multilingual situation of Weixi County, Yunnan Province, in the southeastern Tibetosphere, and discusses the vitality of several Tibetan varieties currently used by Tibetans in Weixi who live alongside Naxi, Lisu, Bai, Yi, and Pumi people. In this borderland area, most Tibetans are multilingual, speaking Lisu and/or Naxi in addition to Yunnanese, a dialect of Mandarin. I focus on two local Tibetan varieties: Gagatang and Tacheng. The former has become ...

  12. Calamagrostis nyingchiensis, a new combination for Deyeuxia nyingchiensis (Poaceae: Agrostidinae, and its first record from Yunnan Province, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszko Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deyeuxia nyingchiensis is here recombined as Calamagrostis nyingchiensis comb. nov. as a result of recent studies of worldwide Agrostidinae. A new record of C. nyingchiensis is reported from Shangri-la (Zhongdian County in Yunnan Province, SW China. Previously, C. nyingchiensis was noted from eastern Xizang and southern Sichuan, SW China. It is compared with the morphologically similar species C. scabrescens. A map with all known geographic records of C. nyingchiensis is presented.

  13. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  14. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  15. 2006 Fulton County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of Fulton County. The Fulton County LiDAR Survey project area consists of approximately 690.5 square...

  16. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Monthly prevalence and diversity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Keshavarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To get new data about the ecology of mosquitoes, which would be valuable to develop programs for future provision of mosquito controls in the study area. Methods: During April to September 2012, larvae of mosquitoes were collected from six counties in south of Fars Province using dipping method. Characteristics of larval breeding places were considered based on water conditions. Species diversity was examined in terms of alpha and beta measures, with the intent of comparing mosquito diversity according to the typology of regions. Results: During this investigation, totally, 5 057 larvae of mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 17 different mosquito species were recognized, namely, Anopheles dthali, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles superpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex mimeticus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex theileri (Cx. theileri, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex sinaiticus, Culex torrentium, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culiseta longiareolata and Aedes vexans (Ae. vexans. This is the first record of Ae. vexans, Culex perexiguus and Culex modestus in the Province. Cx. pipiens (27.3%, Cx. theileri (15.9% and Cx. quinquefasciatus (9.4% were the most abundant species found respectively. Cx. pipiens reached the highest density in August and July, while Cx. theileri, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. vexans were found in high numbers in June. Diversity analysis indicated the highest species diversity in the Mohr County (Margalef index of 1.41 and Shannon index of 1.7 and the lowest species diversity in the Lamerd County (Margalef index of 0.33 and Shannon index of 0.38. Conclusions: Regarding to this research, there are some potential vectors of medical and veterinary importance in Fars Province. Results of the present study may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  19. [Survey on a new case of visceral leishmaniasis in Shanxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui-Xia; Zuo, Su-Jun; Xu, Wen-Xing; Wu, Wei-Ping; Li, Jun; Xu, Ke-Jun

    2012-06-30

    A new case of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) was reported by Changzhi CDC of Shanxi Province in September 2011. The case was investigated clinically and epidemiologically. The patient was a two-year-old boy who lived in Huangnian Town of Changzhi County in Shanxi Province. Clinical examination showed hepatosplenomegaly, consistent decrease of blood cells and Leishman-Donovan body in the bone marrow smear. The rK39 immune diagnosis test showed strongly positive. The case was diagnosed as kala-azar. After one course treatment of sodium stibogluconate, the patient's condition improved markedly. There were no cases of kala-azar in this region historically. Blood samples of 17 individuals and 5 domestic animals including 3 dogs were all negative in the rK39 immunodiagnostic test. It is speculated that the potential risk of kala-azar transmission exists in this region.

  20. Level of natural radiation nuclides in food and water in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Keling; Sun Bangyin; Zhang Xiaozhen; Li Guangming

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the level of natural radiation nuclides in Hubei Province, China. 10 spots were selected in Wuhan, Jiangling etc., 171 samples in 14 kinds of food such as rice, cabbage and tap water, water in Yangtze River and other rivers were analysed.The results show that the values of U, Th, 226 Ra were n x 10 -2 Bq.kg -1 and that of 40 K was n x 10 Bq.kg -1 in food. The values of U, Th, 226 Ra, 40 K were n x 10 -2 Bq.L -1 , and that of 3 H was nBq.L -1 in drinking water. The data investigated indicates that Hubei Province belongs to the region of normal natural radiation. It is found that 226 Ra value in food is higher in general in the county of Tongcheng, and this problem needs further study

  1. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-01-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors. PMID:19353749

  2. [Research on competency building standards of institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control in Hubei Province I Investigation of institution management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-cheng; Zhong, Chen-hui; Liao, Si-qi; He, Hui

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the current situation of management of institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control in Hubei Province, so as to explore the probable competency building standards for these institutions at the county and township levels. By using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, the institutions of schistosomiasis prevention and control at county and township levels were investigated for the institutional setup, staffing and fulfillment functions since the reform of 2004. Among 63 schistosomiasis endemic counties (cities, districts) of Hubei Province, there were 26 independent schistosomiasis control institutions (41.27%), there were 24 institutions which were incorporated into CDC (38.10%), and there were no institutions in 13 counties (20.63%). Among 518 endemic towns, there were 299 institutions (57.72%). The total staffing size were 1 932, but there were 1 586 (82.09%) people actually working in the post, and therefore there were 346 (17.91%) empty positions. The average rates of carrying out the six functions were 91.48%-71.19%, but only 19.23% of the institutions participated in the comprehensive schistosomiasis control management project and its effect assessment. According to the management model for schistosomiasis control institutions under the current institutional mechanisms, we need a rigorous industry standard to constrain, guide and standardize the management and capacity-building of the institutions in different historical periods.

  3. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  4. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  5. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  6. 2009 SCDRN Lidar: Florence County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for Florence County, SC. Utilizing multi-return...

  7. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  8. Allegheny County Property Assessment Appeals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lists property assessment appeals filed and heard with the Board of Property Assessment Appeals and Review (BPAAR) and the hearing results, for tax years 2015 to...

  9. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  10. 2009 SCDNR Charleston County Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoscience completed the original collection and classification of the multiple return LiDAR of Charleston County, South Carolina in the winter of 2006-2007. In...

  11. Allegheny County Certified MWDBE Businesses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — According to the Federal Department of Transportation, Disadvantaged Business Enterprises (DBE) are for-profit small business concerns where socially and...

  12. County Boundaries with Shorelines (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — County boundaries with shorelines cut in (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and...

  13. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  14. 2009 Chatham County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR generated point cloud acquired in spring 2009 for Chatham County, Georgia for the Metropolitan Planning Commission. The data are classified as follows: Class 1...

  15. 2014 Mobile County, AL Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic was contracted to acquire high resolution topographic LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data located in Mobile County, Alabama. The intent was to collect...

  16. Uninsured Young Adults by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data file indicates the estimated number of uninsured individuals ages 19-25 in each U.S. county. These individuals may be eligible to join their parents health...

  17. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  18. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  19. Allegheny County Building Footprint Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  20. County business patterns, 1996 : Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1997 : Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1997 : Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1997 : Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1997 : Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1996 : Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1996 : Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1996 : Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1996 : Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1996 : Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1997 : Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1997 : Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1997 : Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1996 : Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. County business patterns, 1996 : Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1996 : Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1997 : Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1997 : Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1997 : Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1997 : Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1997 : Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1997 : Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1996 : Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1997 : Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1997 : Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1996 : Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1997 : Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1997 : Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1996 : Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1996 : Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1996 : Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1997 : Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1996 : Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1996 : Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. County business patterns, 1997 : Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1996 : Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1996 : Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1997 : Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1996 : Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1996 : Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1996 : Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1996 : Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1997 : Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1997 : Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1997 : Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1996 : Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1997 : Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1997 : Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1996 : Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1997 : Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1997 : Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1997 : Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1997 : Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1997 : Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. County business patterns, 1996 : Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1996 : Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1997 : Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1996 : Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1997 : Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1996 : Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1996 : Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1996 : Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1996 : Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1997 : Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1997 : Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1996 : Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1997 : Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1997 : Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1996 : Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1996 : Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1996 : California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1996 : Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1997 : Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1997 : Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. Allegheny County WIC Vendor Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program vendors. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  15. 2009 SCDNR Horry County Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sanborn Map Company completed the original classification of the multiple return LiDAR of Horry County, South Carolina in 2009. In 2013, Dewberry was tasked with...

  16. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  17. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  18. Allegheny County Illegal Dump Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Illegal Dump Site dataset includes information on illegal dump sites, their type of trash, and the estimate tons of trash at each site. The information was...

  19. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  20. Best Manufacturing Practices. Report of Survey Conducted at Stafford County Public Schools, Stafford County, VA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    During the week of August 8, 1994, a Best Manufacturing Practices (BMP) survey was conducted at the Stafford County Public Schools located in Stafford County, Virginia, considered one of the fastest growing counties in the state...

  1. [Investigation on the current status of oral health care in the disease controls system in Sichuan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Wang; Ying, Deng; Wei, Yin; Xiaoxia, Liu; Yujin, He; Jun, He

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the status and characteristics of dental manpower in the center for disease controls (CDC) in Sichuan Province and to provide more evidence for strengthening the oral healthcare workforce in the CDC system. A mass survey on dental manpower was made in CDCs in Sichuan Province through questionnaire investigation. Data were collected and entered with the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection (EDDC) platform and analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software. Sichuan Province had 0.15 hospitals providing oral health services and 0.38 dentists on average per 10,000 people. About 65.53% (135/206) of the CDCs had one department responsible for the oral health service. However, oral health care personnel comprised only 2.23% (237/10,624) of the personnel of the whole CDC system. About 64.67% (119/184) of county CDCs and 47.62% (10/21) of city CDCs knew well the dental health status of local residents. Less than 5% of the CDCs used the data and assisted in the policy making of public health administrators. The dental care personal deficit exists in the CDC system in Sichuan Province. The distribution and composition of dental manpower are not reasonable. The oral health service ability of CDCs in Sichuan Province should be strengthened and improved.

  2. Geographical distribution patterns of iodine in drinking-water and its associations with geological factors in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-05-19

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors.

  3. 2007 Lake County Board of County Commissioners Topographic LiDAR: Lake County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the LiDAR point data in LAS format produced by Kucera covering the project area of Lake County, FL. The data produced is...

  4. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  5. Under 5 mortality rate and its contributors in Zhejiang Province of China from 2000 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Wen; Yang, Ru-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Objective By analyzing the under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) and its contributors in Zhejiang Province of China from 2000 to 2009, we tried to understand the trend of U5MR change in Zhejiang Province and thus propose strategies to reduce child mortality. Methods Thirty cities/counties/districts from Zhejiang Province were selected using stratified cluster sampling approach. Children under five years in these areas were enrolled as the subjects. The U5MR and its contributors were analyzed in terms of age, migration status of mothers, and other indicators using classic descriptive methods and Chi square test. Results The U5MR in Zhejiang Province showed a declining trend from 14.83‰ in 2000 to 9.49‰ in 2009. In 2009, the U5MR was significantly higher in the rural areas than in the urban areas (9.14‰ vs.6.50‰, Pbirth/low birth weight was the leading cause of U5MR in 2009. More specifically, preterm birth/low birth weight, congenital heart disease, and birth asphyxia were the top three causes of deaths among infants (falls were the leading causes of deaths among children (1-4 years). Conclusion The U5MR in Zhejiang Province in 2009 differed between urban areas and rural areas and between floating populations and local residents. The main causes of death differ between infants and young children. Prevention of preterm birth/low birth weight and congenital anomalies will reduce infant death, while the main intervention for young children is to avoid accidental injuries. PMID:26835282

  6. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  7. Epidemiological and demographic study of acute animal biting in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kassiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence, epidemiology and demography of acute animal bites referred to Abdanan health centers in the years 2009 to 2013.Methods: This study was a descriptive analytical research. Questionnaires for each case of acute animal bite was completed. Data about age, gender, kind of animal, residency, site of bite, etc taken from Abdanan health centers were analyzed. Data were analyzed in SPSS by using descriptive statistics.Results: Total number of exposed persons to acute animal bites was reported 67 in 2009 and 69 in 2013. The average incidence rate was 1.2 per 1 000 population. Bites were frequent among the age group of 20-30 years. Most of the cases were self-employment. Around 83.8% of cases were bitten by dogs. Of total 309 studied patients, 73.8% were male. Feet (71.5% and hands (22.7% were the most common body part affected. About 53.1% of cases were in rural population.Conclusions: Dogs seems to play a very important role in the epidemiology of rabies in Abdanan, Iran. No cases of human rabies were observed in our study. This may be because of increasing public awareness and the upgrading of health and treatment centers, all of which in study region provide post-exposure anti-rabies treatment including vaccination, immunoglobulin and wound washing.

  8. [Study on the vibrational spectra and XRD characters of Huanglong jade from Longling County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jing-cheng; Fan, Lu-wei; Xie, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Based on the conventional test methods, the infrared absorption spectrum, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to study the characters of the vibration spectrum and mineral composition of Huanglong jade. The testing results show that Huanglong jade shows typical vibrational spectrum characteristics of quartziferous jade. The main infrared absorption bands at 1162, 1076, 800, 779, 691, 530 and 466 cm(-1) were induced by the asymmetric stretching vibration, symmetrical stretching vibration and bending vibration of Si-O-Si separately. Especially the absorption band near 800 cm(-1) is split, which indicates that Huanglong jade has good crystallinity. In Raman spectrum, the main strong vibration bands at 463 and 355 cm(-1) were attributed to bending vibration of Si-O-Si. XRD test confirmed that Quartz is main mineral composition of Huanglong jade and there is a small amount of hematite in red color samples which induced the red color of Huanglong jade. This is the first report on the infrared, Raman and XRD spectra feature of Huanglong jade. It will provide a scientific basis for the identification, naming and other research for huanglong jade.

  9. Sustainable Effects of Small Hydropower Substituting Firewood Program in Majiang County, Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower substituting fuel (SHSF is an ecological environment protection program to improve regional ecosystems and alleviate poverty. However, the sustainability of SHSF programs remains controversial due to lingering doubts about its potential for socioeconomic development and its environmental impacts. The sustainability of SHSF was examined based on field investigations and household questionnaire surveys. The results were as follows: (1 Biomass of SHSF protected masson pine (Pinus massoniana and weeping cypress (Platycladus orientalis plantations were 11.06 t·ha−1 and 7.15 t·ha−1 higher than unprotected plantations, respectively. Furthermore, the differences in ecosystem biomass were mainly derived from arbor biomass. While the energy conversion efficiency based on field investigations was merely 1.28 kg (kWh−1, which was only 64% of the empirical value and 54% of the guideline for accounting for the ecological benefit of small hydropower substituting fuel. (2 Households’ total income in SHSF villages was higher than in households with access to a hydropower plant but no substituting fuel or households with no hydropower plant. (3 Most of the households had a positive attitude towards SHSF because of its cheaper electricity and associated ecological environmental improvements. Overall, our results suggest optimistic and sustainable prospects for the SHSF program; however, continued education and policy communications are needed to sustain program success.

  10. [Epidemiological survey of visual impairment in Funing County, Jiangsu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Zhang, J F; Zhu, R R; Kang, L H; Qin, B; Guan, H J

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of visual impairment and factors associated with visual impairment among people aged 50 years and above in Funing County, Jiangsu Province. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Random cluster sampling was used in selecting individuals aged ≥50 years in 30 clusters, and 5 947 individuals received visual acuity testing and eye examination. Stata 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. Multivariate logistic regression was used to detect possible factors of visual impairment such as age, gender and education. Statistical significance was defined as Pvisual impairment classification and presenting visual acuity, 138 persons were diagnosed as blindness, and 1 405 persons were diagnosed as low vision. The prevalence of blindness and low vision was 2.32% and 23.63%, respectively. And the prevalence of visual impairment was 25.95%. Based on the criteria of WHO visual impairment classification and best-corrected visual acuity, 92 persons were diagnosed as blindness, and 383 persons were diagnosed as low vision. The prevalence of blindness and low vision was 1.55% and 6.44%, respectively. And the prevalence of visual impairment was 7.99%. Concerning presenting visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity, the prevalence of blindness and low vision was higher in old people, females and less educated persons. Cataract (46.63%) was the leading cause of blindness. Uncorrected refractive error (36.51%) was also a main cause of visual impairment. Conclusion: The prevalence of visual impairment is higher in old people, females and less educated persons in Funing County, Jiangsu Province. Cataract is still the leading cause of visual impairment. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 502-508) .

  11. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  12. [Effect of agroforestry model on inhibition of Oncomelania snails in plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Hua; Tang, Guo-Yong; Liu, Fang-Yan; Li, Kun

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of agroforestry models on the inhibition of Oncomelania snails in the plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province. The experimental field was established at Sanying Village of Eryuan County, Yunnan Province, where the "Flourishing Forest and Controlling Snails Project" was implemented. Different drought crops (alfalfa, vegetables, broad bean, garlic, lettuce, celery, green onions, and wheat) were intercropped under walnut forest in experimental groups, and the crops were not intercropped under walnut forest in a control group. The growth of forest, the change of snails and short-term income of residents were investigated. Agroforestry models promoted the forestry growth and effectively inhibited the growth of snails. There was a little snail in one of the experimental group that forest was intercropped with alfalfa (the occurrence rate of frames with living snails was 3.33%, the average density of living snails was 0.004/0.1 m2, and the declining rates were both 50.00%). The snails were not found in other intercropped models. The income of residents in the experimental groups increased (900-6 800 Yuan per year) compared with that in the control group. The model of walnut forest intercropped with crops not only has the obvious effect on inhibition of snails, but also has good economic and ecological benefits in the plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province.

  13. Flora, life form and chorology of plants in Jozak – Chaminbid area, North Khorassan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHABAT NADAF

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic study of a region is of great importance as the list of plants represents the genetic resources of the area. The intended region (Jozak-Chaminbid with an area of ca. 3637.81 ha. is located in the western part of North Khorassan Province in the Maneh and Semelghan counties. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Khorassan-Kopet Dagh floristic province of the Irano-Turanian region. The mean altitude is 1415 meter and mean annual precipitation of the area is 559 mm. The plant species of the area were collected and identified according to the Floras. The floristic list of the area and its life forms and endemic species were presented. The results showed the presence of 53 families, 205 genera and 308 species. Among them 13 species were endemic to Khorassan-Kopet Dagh Province. The largest plant family was Asteraceae with 28 genera and 40 species. According to Raunkiaer’s life form categories, the identified species are categorized as hemicryptophytes 35.38%, therophytes 34.74%, cryptophytes (geophytes 12.33%, chamaephytes 11.03% and phanerophytes 6.49%. The high percentage of hemicryptophytes indicated that the area had a cold mountain climate. The chorotype of species was obtained on the basis of the available sources. Irano-Turanian plants were the most frequent chorotype of the area with 59%.

  14. Allegheny County-Owned Roads Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the roads owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  15. Allegheny County Farmers Markets Locations (2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the locations of farmers markets in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  16. Elevation - LIDAR Survey - Roseau County, Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LIDAR Data for Roseau County Minnesota. This project consists of approximately 87 square miles of LIDAR mapping in Roseau County, Minnesota at two sites: area 1,...

  17. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (November 2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  18. Allegheny County Voting District (2016) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  19. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Stops

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — All transit stops within the Port Authority of Allegheny County's service area for the November 20, 2016 - March (TBD) 2017 schedule period.

  20. Allegheny County Particulate Matter 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides information on the particulate matter concentration for Allegheny County that have a diameter greater or equal to...

  1. State of Aging in Allegheny County Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — For more than three decades UCSUR has documented the status of older adults in the County along multiple life domains. Every decade we issue a comprehensive report...

  2. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (May 2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  3. 2010 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Sumter County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Sumter County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Sumter County, SC.

  4. 2010 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Richland County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Richland County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Richland County, SC.

  5. Allegheny County Weights and Measures Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Inspections conducted by the Allegheny County Bureau of Weights and Measures. The Bureau inspects weighing and timing devices such as gas pumps, laundromat timers,...

  6. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  7. Allegheny County Polling Place Locations (November 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of the polling places in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  8. Allegheny County-Owned Bridges Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the location of bridges owned by Allegheny County as centroids. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  9. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  10. 2010 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Kershaw County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Kershaw County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Kershaw County, SC.

  11. Allegheny County Median Age at Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The median age at death is calculated for each municipality in Allegheny County. Data is based on the decedent's residence at the time of death, not the location...

  12. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1937 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  13. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1954 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  14. Statement of Kenneth E. Yager, County Executive, Roane County, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    I am Ken Yager, I am the county executive for Roane County, TN which is the preferred site for the proposed Monitored Retrieval Storage facility, or the MRS. and I am submitting into the record additional written testimony which was written largely by the Honorable Robert Peele, who is sitting here, who is a member of the Roane County Board of Commissioners, our local legislative body. The premise of my remarks is that the Department of Energy proposal for the MRS in our county in unacceptable unless the Congress and the Department of Energy are to be willing partners with the local communities. Our considerations have been limited to: one, can an MRS be operated safely, and if so under what conditions; and what would be the impacts of the facility and how might they be mitigated. Our recommendations on those two points lead me to my earlier comment about being partners with the Congress, because our recommendations can be summed up simply, Mr. Chairman, as local control. We are exceedingly concerned about the prospect of being trapped in a national squeeze play, caught between a recognized need for a way to deal with nuclear waste and intense political efforts to put that problem in somebody else's back yard. And if we are to be that back yard, we would ask that the Congress and the Department of Energy recognize our stake in this national effort. We must have an equal role in the process

  15. [Prediction of potential geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai province with Maximum Entropy model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Hou, Xuexia; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Wei; Wan, Kanglin; Hao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    To predict the potential geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai by using Maximum Entropy model (MaxEnt). The sero-diagnosis data of Lyme disease in 6 counties (Huzhu, Zeku, Tongde, Datong, Qilian and Xunhua) and the environmental and anthropogenic data including altitude, human footprint, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature in Qinghai province since 1990 were collected. By using the data of Huzhu Zeku and Tongde, the prediction of potential distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai was conducted with MaxEnt. The prediction results were compared with the human sero-prevalence of Lyme disease in Datong, Qilian and Xunhua counties in Qinghai. Three hot spots of Lyme disease were predicted in Qinghai, which were all in the east forest areas. Furthermore, the NDVI showed the most important role in the model prediction, followed by human footprint. Datong, Qilian and Xunhua counties were all in eastern Qinghai. Xunhua was in hot spot areaⅡ, Datong was close to the north of hot spot area Ⅲ, while Qilian with lowest sero-prevalence of Lyme disease was not in the hot spot areas. The data were well modeled in MaxEnt (Area Under Curve=0.980). The actual distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai was in consistent with the results of the model prediction. MaxEnt could be used in predicting the potential distribution patterns of Lyme disease. The distribution of vegetation and the range and intensity of human activity might be related with Lyme disease distribution.

  16. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  17. Low-Wage Counties Face Locational Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Robert; Cromartie, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Small populations and remoteness are the most salient features of low-wage counties. These locational attributes coincide with fewer high-wage jobs, yet low wages within industries define low-wage counties more than industry composition. Although adults in low-wage counties have less education and labor force participation overall, the role played…

  18. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  19. Correct county areas with sidebars for Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. McCollum; Dale Gormanson; John Coulston

    2009-01-01

    Historically, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) has processed field inventory data at the county level and county estimates of land area were constrained to equal those reported by the Census Bureau. Currently, the Southern Research Station FIA unit processes field inventory data at the survey unit level (groups of counties with similar ecological characteristics)....

  20. Socio-economic development of Dongguan County promoted by family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, F

    1986-10-01

    Because of its geographical position and its population of over 1.19 million, Dongguan County in Guangdong Province, China occupies an important position in the family planning program of the whole province, and country. In the 1st 10 days of July 1985, the Family Planning Commission of Guangdong Province conducted a survey of Dongguan County. The results show 6 remarkable changes: 1) both rural and urban people are more and more likely to practice family planning on their own accord. (The total fertility rate dropped from 5.9 in the early years of the People's Republic to 2.05 in 1982); 2) women, released from heavy household chores, have become a vital new force for the development of industrial production (The gross industrial output value of the town industry increased by 87.57% from 1987 to 1984.); 3) the living standard of both rural and urban people improved along with more flourishing industrial and agricultural production; 4) educational work and population quality have improved; 5) moral culture has progressed (Family planning is commonly practiced.); and 6) social development has occurred, such as purification of tap water, and the building of cultural, sport, and recreational facilities. The County Family Planning commission achieved its successes by political mobilization policies, scientific birth control, and good services. Their main approaches include 1) associating political mobilization with the local reality; 2) popularizing knowledge of birth control science and life science through special schools, training courses, lectures, and research; 3) rewarding 1-child families with material benefits; and 4) improving living conditions of widowed and childless old people to alleviate worries of sonless households.

  1. Spatial analysis of Schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, China: a GIS-based analysis of Schistosomiasis from 2009 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic areas are located in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, particularly in areas along the middle and low reach of the Yangtze River. Spatial analytical techniques are often used in epidemiology to identify spatial clusters in disease regions. This study assesses the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and explores high-risk regions in Hubei Province, China to provide guidance on schistosomiasis control in marshland regions.In this study, spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including global Moran's I and local Getis-Ord statistics, were utilized to describe and map spatial clusters and areas where human Schistosoma japonicum infection is prevalent at the county level in Hubei province. In addition, linear logistic regression model was used to determine the characteristics of spatial autocorrelation with time.The infection rates of S. japonicum decreased from 2009 to 2013. The global autocorrelation analysis results on the infection rate of S. japonicum for five years showed statistical significance (Moran's I > 0, P < 0.01, which suggested that spatial clusters were present in the distribution of S. japonicum infection from 2009 to 2013. Local autocorrelation analysis results showed that the number of highly aggregated areas ranged from eight to eleven within the five-year analysis period. The highly aggregated areas were mainly distributed in eight counties.The spatial distribution of human S. japonicum infections did not exhibit a temporal change at the county level in Hubei Province. The risk factors that influence human S. japonicum transmission may not have changed after achieving the national criterion of infection control. The findings indicated that spatial-temporal surveillance of S. japonicum transmission plays a significant role on schistosomiasis control. Timely and integrated prevention should be continued, especially in the Yangtze

  2. [Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

    2014-02-01

    According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes.

  3. The Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Ecological Environment of Red Bed Hills in East Sichuan - Taking LU County as a Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Liu, J.

    2018-04-01

    Good ecological environment is the foundation of human existence and development, the development of society and economy must be based on the premise of maintaining the stability and balance of the ecological environment. RS and GIS technology are used in this paper while the red-bed hills of Sichuan Province-Lu County have been taken as an example. According to the ecological environment characteristics of the study areas and the principle of choosing evaluation index, this paper selected six evaluation indicators (elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation cover, land use, gully density) to establish evaluation index system of ecological environment of Lu County. This paper determine the weight of each evaluation index by AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and establishes a comprehensive evaluation model by the weighted comprehensive evaluation method. This model is used to divide the ecological environment quality of Lu County into excellent, good, middle, poor and worse, and to analyze the ecological environment change in Lu County in recent ten years.

  4. A systematic study on the prevention and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuman; Liang, Zhijiang; Du, Qiyun; Li, Zhankui; Tan, Guangming; Nie, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Lv, Xuzai; Zhang, Chunyi; Luo, Xianqiong

    2018-02-14

    To identify the prevention situation, the main factors influencing prevention effects and to develop control measures over retinopathy of prematurity in China. Using stratified random sampling method, we randomly selected 23 provincial and ministerial hospitals (8 in Guangdong province, 5 in Hunan province and 10 in Shaanxi province), 81 municipal hospitals (38 in Guangdong province, 19 in Hunan province and 24 in Shaanxi province), 180 district and county hospitals (76 in Guangdong province, 57 in Hunan province and 47 in Shaanxi province) in China. A total of 284 hospitals were enrolled in the study, with questionnaires distributed investigating the status and constrain factors of ROP presentation. Significant outcomes were analyzed thereafter by SPSS 19.0. The screening rate of ROP in medical institutions from eastern, central and western China were 84.6%, 35.0% and 56.7%, respectively. The screening rate of tertiary and secondary medical institutions were 84.6% and 25.7% in the eastern, 35.0% and 4.9% in the central, 56.7% and 5.9% in the western region. Screening was carried out better in the tertiary than that in the secondary and primary institutions. Treatment for ROP was available in 15.7% of all the tertiary hospitals surveyed. Lack of professionals, equipments and technologies were considered to be major restrain factors for screening. The ROP screening and treatment status have demonstrated significant regional diversity due to uneven distribution of medical resources in China. Developed areas had established intraregional cooperation models, whereas less-developed areas should consider set up a large-scale, three-level ROP prevention network. It is of paramount importance that education and training towards ophthalmologists should be vigorously strengthened. It is strongly recommended that implement ROP telemedicine and integrated ROP prevention and management platforms through the Internet should be established.

  5. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  6. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  7. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  8. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  10. Does providing more services increase the primary hospitals' revenue? An assessment of national essential medicine policy based on 2,675 counties in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    Full Text Available To understand whether the increased outpatient service provision (OSP brings in enough additional income (excluding income from essential medicine for primary hospitals (INCOME to compensate for reduced costs of medicine.The two outcomes, annual OSP and INCOME for the period of 2008-2012, were collected from 34,506 primary hospitals in 2,675 counties in 31 provinces in China by the national surveillance system. The data had a four-level hierarchical structure; time points were nested within primary hospital, hospitals within county, and counties within province. We fitted bivariate five-level random effects regression models to examine correlations between OSP and INCOME in terms of their mean values and dose-response effects of the essential medicine policy (EMP. We adjusted for the effects of time period and selected hospital resources.The estimated correlation coefficients between the two outcomes' mean values were strongly positive among provinces (r = 0.910, moderately positive among counties (r = 0.380, and none among hospitals (r = 0.002 and time (r = 0.007. The correlation between their policy effects was weakly positive among provinces (r = 0.234, but none at the county and hospital levels. However, there were markedly negative correlation coefficients between the mean and policy effects at -0.328 for OSP and -0.541 for INCOME at the hospital level.There was no evidence to suggest an association between the two outcomes in terms of their mean values and dose-response effects of EMP at the hospital level. This indicated that increased OSP did not bring enough additional INCOME. Sustainable mechanisms to compensate primary hospitals are needed.

  11. Prevalence of photodermatosis in four regions at different altitudes in Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Danqi; Hang, Yuntao; Chen, Hao; Li, Hanying

    2006-08-01

    Idiopathic photodermatoses are common diseases in dermatology clinics that are associated with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The group includes a few dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD). The prevalence of PLE and CAD in China has not been previously reported. To investigate the population-based prevalence of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) in six minority groups living in four regions with significantly different altitudes in the Yunnan province, a questionnaire survey was administered to 4899 residents of random villages in Yuanjiang county (Dai and Hani minorities), Kunming city (Han people and Yi minority), Lijiang county (Naxi minority), and Shangri-La county (Zang minority). The altitudes of these counties are 380 m, 1870 m, 2410 m and 3280 m a.s.l., respectively. The results showed that, first, there were 2400 males (49.0%) and 2499 females (51.0%). The prevalence of PLE was 0.65% (32/4899), and the prevalence of CAD was 0.18% (9/4899). PLE was higher among females than males (3.8 vs 1, P 0.05). Second, the prevalence of PLE was increased in higher elevations regions compared to lower elevations (P 0.05). Third, the mean times of sun exposure for PLE and CAD were 6.0 and 6.5 h/day, respectively. The mean durations of PLE and CAD were 5.8 years, and 6.6 years, respectively. The study demonstrated that the prevalence of PLE is higher than that of CAD in Yunnan, and that the prevalence of PLE is correlated with altitude.

  12. Group distribution characteristics of lachrymal duct obstruction diseases in major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Li Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the group distribution characteristics of lachrymal duct obstruction diseases in major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province. METHODS: Totally 5 353 residents were selected and researched by randomized cluster sampling in the major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province. Ocular examination and lachrymal duct flushing were carried out, and questionnaire survey on lachrymal duct obstruction was conducted. The ratio of lachrymal duct obstruction diseases and group distribution characteristics were analyzed based on above research. RESULTS: The prevalence ratios of lachrymal duct obstruction was 4.47% in major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province, with 2.62% in urban area, and 5.93% in rural area respectively. Prevalence ratios of men and women group were 1.69% and 6.39% correspondingly. Difference between the two groups was statistically significant(χ2=67.2821, P=0.0000. The highest prevalence ratio was 40-69 year-old group, second one was 70-79 year-old group, especially for women in these groups. The prevalence ratios of Ledong, Lingshui, Baisha and Changjiang county were higher than those of Baoting, Qiongzhong county and Wuzhishan city. No significant difference was found between both eyes. CONCLUSION: In major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province, lachrymal duct obstruction mainly occurs in 40-79 year-old patients, with specially higher ratio of women. Statistically, significant difference of the prevalence ratio between urban and rural areas exists. The higher prevalence ratio is attributed to age, gender, geographical location, climate condition, health environment and so on. The prevalence ratio is higher in the dry and windy areas than in the humid and less windy areas.

  13. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  14. Preliminary study of the favorability for uranium in selected areas in the Basin and Range Province, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp, G.M.; Leedom, S.H.; Mitchell, T.P.; Kiloh, K.D.; Horton, R.C.

    1977-10-01

    Six uranium areas in Nevada were examined in a reconnaissance fashion to determine their favorability for uranium deposits. The favorable areas are: Virgin Valley, Humboldt County; northern Reese River Valley, Lander County; East Walker River, Lyon County; and Coaldale, Esmeralda County. Areas judged to be unfavorable are: Carol ''R'' prospect, Garfield Hills, Mineral County; and Meadow Valley (Panaca), Lincoln County. In the Virgin Valley area, the Canyon Rhyolite Formation contains as much as 27 ppM U 3 O 8 and is an excellent source rock. Uranium deposits in the underlying Virgin Valley Formation are small, but larger deposits may exist. The northern portion of the Reese River Valley contains several small uranium deposits but none of mineable grade or size. Rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and larger deposits may lie beneath these potential source rocks. The East Walker River area may be part of a larger uranium province. Intrusive and extrusive rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and low-grade supergene deposits were found. Large areas of potential source rocks and host rocks, and two small uranium deposits, were found in the Coaldale area. Many rhyolite plugs were also found. The Carol ''R'' prospect is an isolated uranium occurrence in Tertiary lacustrine rocks. Uranium deposits in Meadow Valley are in the Panaca Formation, a Pliocene lacustrine formation of varied lithology. The uranium deposits are small and low grade. It is unlikely that large-grade deposits will be found in this area

  15. The reforms of the Chinese health care system: county level changes: the Jiangxi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Hillier, S

    1995-10-01

    A survey of the economic performance of county hospitals in middle income counties in Jiangxi province was undertaken in 1989. The survey considered the impact of health policy changes in the P.R.C., especially cost recovery, decentralization, managerial changes and the promotion of traditional medicine. The financial records of county level hospitals and traditional medicine hospitals for the period 1980-89 were examined, as were patient expenditures. Opinions of those responsible for policy execution were surveyed. The data showed that hospitals from which state subsidy had been removed had become dependent on medicine sales and increasing itemization of treatment to recover costs. The insurance status of patients influenced the length of stay and levels of payment. Uninsured peasants had a shorter stay and were charged more for items of treatment. Traditional Medicine hospitals saw more outpatients than County hospitals, but were more likely to have a deficit. They were also very dependent on medicine sales for income. Most officials questioned felt that the changing system caused problems, but at the same time were eager to invest in equipment as a source of revenue.

  16. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.

    1997-01-01

    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  17. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....

  18. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  19. [Construction and operation status of management system of laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions in Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao-Hui, Zheng; Jun, Qin; Li, Chen; Hong, Zhu; Li, Tang; Zu-Wu, Tu; Ming-Xing, Zeng; Qian, Sun; Shun-Xiang, Cai

    2016-10-09

    To analyze the construction and operation status of management system of laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions in Hubei Province, so as to provide the reference for the standardized detection and management of schistosomiasis laboratories. According to the laboratory standard of schistosomiasis at provincial, municipal and county levels, the management system construction and operation status of 60 schistosomiasis control institutions was assessed by the acceptance examination method from 2013 to 2015. The management system was already occupied over all the laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions and was officially running. There were 588 non-conformities and the inconsistency rate was 19.60%. The non-conformity rate of the management system of laboratory quality control was 38.10% (224 cases) and the non-conformity rate of requirements of instrument and equipment was 23.81% (140 cases). The management system has played an important role in the standardized management of schistosomiasis laboratories.

  20. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    the national power of Afghanistan, but continued to challenge each other for control at the provincial level . The Akhundzadek clan dominated...external powers dominating the central government of the province through the capital of Lashkar Gah, but demanded some autonomy at the local level .18...commands in a MAGTF are the ground combat element ( GCE ), air combat element (ACE), and logistic combat element (LCE). Flexibility and tempo are the