Sample records for hunan provinces counties


    KONG Hua; XI Xiao-shuang; JIN Zhen-min; HUANG De-zhi


    @@ Deep xenolith are important samples for us to know composition and nature of the deep crust.There are many new volcanos which can all kinds of xenoliths such as a lower crustal graulite,and upper mantle-derived peridolite and lherzolite.In eastern China,there occured many deep xenoliths in Mesozoic-Cenzoic alkaline basalt.Besides these,some small volcanos eruptions were founded in southern Hunan province,which age is about 132-151 Ma.


    KONG; Hua; XI; Xiao-shuang; JIN; Zhen-min; HUANG; De-zhi


    Deep xenolith are important samples for us to know composition and nature of the deep crust.There are many new volcanos which can all kinds of xenoliths such as a lower crustal graulite,and upper mantle-derived peridolite and lherzolite.In eastern China,there occured many deep xenoliths in Mesozoic-Cenzoic alkaline basalt.Besides these,some small volcanos eruptions were founded in southern Hunan province,which age is about 132-151 Ma.……

  3. [Role of socio-economy and management in sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis in Taoyuan County, Hunan Province, China].

    Luo, Zhi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Ming; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yi, Ping; Ren, Guang-Hui; Franziska, Bieri; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Hou, Xun-Ya; Ren, Mao-Yuan; Li, Yi-Yi; Dong, Ru-Lan; Zeng, Jin-Yuan; She, Shu-Ping


    To clarify the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis-control in Taoyuan County, an endemic area in hilly region, Hunan Province, China. From 1996 to 2011, the data of socio-economy, the management of schistosomiasis control organizations, environment, and the changes in schistosomiasis prevalence were collected in Taoyuan County where schistosomiasis transmission had been controlled since 2008. A sampling survey of schistosomiasis prevalence of human and bovine was performed in 2011 to verify the current status of schistosomiasis transmission. All the data were analyzed statistically to evaluate the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis control. During the period from 1998 to 2012, the socio-economy including the residents' productive mode and daily life in Taoyuan County improved dramatically, but the recurrence risk of schistosomiasis endemic still existed due to the retuning of out-going workers and the migrating population. Moreover, the introduction of exotic species of plants and animals may increase the risk. The low running cost of schistosomiasis control organization as well as the efficient and adequate resource allocation in the county was in line with the national requirement to strengthen the rural grass-roots public health system. The harmonious development of socio-economy and the scientific and efficient health system in Taoyuan County are the key factors for the sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis.

  4. Ecological evolution across the Permian/Triassic boundary at the Kangjiaping Section in Cili County, Hunan Province, China


    The stratigraphic sequence of calcimicrobialite facies at the Permian-Triassic (P/Tr) boundary has well recorded the biotic and environmental transition across the end-Permian catastrophic events. The biostratigraphy, microfacies, carbon isotopes, and fossil records across the P/Tr boundary have been studied at the Kangjiaping Section in Cili County, Hunan Province. Three biostratigraphic zones, Palaeofusulina-Colaniella Zone, Hindeodus parvus Zone, and Isarcicella staeschei Zone, are identified. The excursion of δ13Ccarb exhibits a sharp negative shift in the calcimicrobialite at the P/Tr boundary, which is roughly accordant with the abrupt bioclastic decline. In addition, five types of microfacies are recognized, including algal-foraminifer bioclastic limestone, algal-laminated calcimicrobial limestone, oolitic grainstone, vermiculate limestone, and intraclastic wackstone. The results indicate that the changeover of ecosystem from metazoan reef to calcimicrobialite in Cili is a classic case of marine ecological evolution during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition.

  5. Ecological evolution across the Permian/Triassic boundary at the Kangjiaping Section in Cili County,Hunan Province,China

    WANG QinXian; TONG JinNan; SONG Haidun; YANG Hao


    The stratigraphic sequence of calcimicrobialite facies at the Permian-Triassic (P/Tr) boundary has well recorded the biotic and environmental transition across the end-Permian catastrophic events.The bio-stratigraphy,microfacies,carbon isotopes,and fossil records across the P/Tr boundary have been studied at the Kangjiaping Section in Cili County,Hunan Province.Three biostratigraphic zones,Pa-laeofusulina-Colaniella Zone,Hindeodus parvus Zone,and Isarcicella staeschei Zone,are identified.The excursion of δC exhibits a sharp negative shift in the calcimicrobialite at the P/Tr boundary,which is roughly accordant with the abrupt biociastic decline.In addition,five types of microfacies are recognized,including aigal-foraminifer bioclastic limestone,algal-laminated calcimicrobial limestone,oolitic grainstone,vermiculate limestone,and intraclastic wackstone.The results indicate that the changeover of ecosystem from metazoan reef to calcimicrobialite in Cili is a classic case of marine ecological evolution during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition.

  6. [Characteristics and Inputs of Cd Contamination in Paddy Soils in Typical Mining and Industrial Areas in Youxian County, Hunan Province].

    Zhang, Min; Wang Mei-e; Chen, Wei-ping; Niu, Jun-jie


    In order to explore input pathways and pollution characteristics of Cd contamination in paddy soil in Youxian, Hunan Province, Cd contents in paddy soils, sediments of irrigation canals, typical mineral and industrial products such as coal, gangue and cement were analyzed. It was suggested that the average contents of Cd both in surface paddy soil and the corresponding natural soil were higher than the soil quality standard 0.3 mg x kg(-1). Cd contents in gangue and cement were similar as those in the corresponding natural soils. The atmosphere deposition of Cd was the highest in factory area. The profiles of Cd in 0-100 cm paddy soil and 0-40 cm in natural soils varied significantly from the upper to the lower layer. Cd contents in 0-40 cm layer in paddy soil were much higher than those in corresponding natural soils in mineral and mineral-factory areas. The potentiality for downward movement of Cd in soils in mineral area was the highest among the three studied areas. It suggested Cd contents in surface paddy soil were higher in upwind areas than those in downwind areas in mineral-factory and factory areas. It could be concluded that the main input pathways of Cd in mineral and mineral-factory. areas were from irrigation water, while contribution of atmosphere deposition in mineral-factory and factory areas was also very significant.

  7. Impact of Small-scale Production Mode on Citrus Industry of Hunan Province,China——Based on the Investigation on Citrus Industry in Shimen County


    Small-scale farmer is defined by the domestic and foreign experts and scholars.They point out that since the fragmentation of production and the diseconomy of scale in small-scale farmer is inconsistent with the characteristics of scale and technology of modern agricultural production,it is necessary to eliminate the adverse effects of existing mode in order to provide theoretical references for the relevant researches.Citrus industry in Shimen County,Hunan Province,China is introduced from the aspects of natural geographical condition and socio-economic benefit.Impact of small-scale production mode on citrus production in Shimen County is discussed.Firstly,blindness of small-scale production is the main reason leading to overproduction of citrus.Secondly,small-scale production mode has limitation on the acceptance of new technologies,restricts the operation of geographical trademark,and constraints the enthusiasm of enterprises in entering the agricultural field.Finally,suggestions are put forward,such as encouraging the circulation of rural land,improving the organization degree of farmers,changing the work function of grass-roots government and perfecting the agricultural financial credit system.

  8. Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance in county-level laboratories in Hunan province, China

    Hu Peilei; Bai Liqiong; Liu Fengping; Ou Xichao; Zhang Zhiying; Yi Songlin; Chen Zhongnan


    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF showed high sensitivity and specificity in previous studies carried out in different epidemiological and geographical settings and patient populations in high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries.However,there were little data obtained by validation or demonstration study of the assay in China.In this study,the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF was investigated in two county-level laboratories in Hunan Province,China.Methods Consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and suspicion for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were enrolled.For each patient suspected to have PTB,three sputum specimens (one spot sputum,one night sputum,and one morning sputum) were collected and each sputum was tested with smear microscopy,L(o)wenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture,and Xpert MTB/RIF test.For comparison across subgroups and testing methods,95% confidence intervals were calculated.All analyses were done with SPSS 16.0,and P <0.05 was regarded as significant.Results For case detection,the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF was 100% for smear-and culture-positive TB and 88.6% for smear-negative and culture-positive TB; the overall sensitivity was 94.5% for all culture-positive patients.The specificity was 99.8%.The sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 22.0% in clinical TB patients and the specificity reached 100.0% in the group of patients who are infected with nontuberculous mycobacteria.For the detection of rifampin resistance,the sensitivity of MTB/RIF RIF-resistance detection was 92.9%,and the specificity was 98.7%.Of the 26 Xpert MTB/RIF-positive and RIF-resistant patients confirmed by LJ proportion tests,20 (76.9%) patients were infected by MDR-TB.Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a highly sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of TB and RIF resistance,which will enable it to have the potential to be used in county-level laboratories and lead to the reduction of the infectious pool and improvements in TB

  9. Artifacts Attest to the Glorious Ancient Culture of Hunan Province



    HUNAN is located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and to the south of Dongting Lake. In Chinese, hu means lake and nan, south. The Xiangjiang River valley, which flows through the province from south to north, is the most developed region in the areas of politics, the economy and culture. Thus, Hunan is also called Xiang for short.

  10. 永顺县马尾松干材密度变化特征%Characteristics of wood density variation of Pinus massomiana in Yongshun County, Hunan province

    黄湘南; 张丽云


    采用标准地调查与方差分析、统计假设检验相结合的方法,从整树和相对高度两个角度对湖南省永顺县马尾松干材密度进行分析.结果表明:同一马尾松人工林中被压木干材密度最大,平均木次之,优势木最小;各高度干材密度变化范围为364.73~516.39 kg·m-3,样木内干材密度的变动系数在1.96%~13.36%之间,平均变动系数为7.24%,0.2~0.8H(H为树高)处双样本分析的t检验大于临界值2.042,0.1H处t检验值绝对值最小,为-0.740,在外业调查中可以用树干基部密度代替整株树干密度.样木DBH处密度t检验值为-2.717,因此不能把胸径处的密度等同于整株干材密度,建立胸径密度与整株干材密度的回归模型.采用3种一元回归模型研究干材密度与林分年龄之间的相互关系,增加DBH作为自变量,建立二元回归模型,提高模型模拟的精度.%By combining standard investigation method,variance analysis and statistical hypothesis test,the wood density of Pinus massoniana plantation in Yongshun county,Hunan province was investigated from two aspects,i.e.,whole-tree and relative height.The suppressed trees had the largest wood density,following with the mean trees,while that of the dominant trees was the smallest.The stem wood densities with different height varied from 364.73 kg·m-3 to 516.39 kg·m-3,the variation coefficients of sample trees with different height changed from 1.96% to 13.36%,the average coefficient was 7.24%,and the relative height had not significant effects on the wood density.The absolute values of t-test on the height of 0.2 H to 0.8 H were bigger than the critical value,and that on the height of 0.1 H was-0.740,which was the smallest.When there is a need to estimate wood density in outdoor investigation,the trunk base wood density could be used to replace the wood density of the whole tree.The paired two sample t-test indicated that the density of DBH was not equal to

  11. The PEST Ecological Analysis of County Library in Hunan Province%湖南省县级图书馆PEST生态分析

    刘昆雄; 苏靖靖


    我国公共图书馆网络日趋完善,但县级图书馆一直是其薄弱环节。利用PEST生态分析法从政治、经济、社会和技术四个方面对湖南省县级图书馆的生存和发展进行分析,提出实现县级图书馆的可持续发展需要从法律、资金、宣传和人才四个方面进行完善。%The public library network is gradually improved in China,but the county library has always been the weak link.Using the PEST analytical method,this paper analyses the survival and developmental environment of Hunan county library from four factors: politics,economy,society and technology.In order to achieve the sustainable development of county library,The law,finance,propaganda and qualified staff must be promoted.

  12. RT-PCR test for detecting porcine sapovirus in weanling piglets in Hunan Province, China.

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Li, Run-Cheng; Huang, Ze-Bin; Yang, Jun; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Li, Jing; Li, Man-Xiang; Yan, Yun-Qiu; Yu, Xing-Long


    The prevalence of porcine sapovirus infection in weanling pigs was investigated in Hunan Province, China, between August 2006 and October 2007. A total of 153 diarrheic fecal samples from ten intensive pig farms from ten representative administrative regions in Hunan province were examined for porcine sapoviruses using RT-PCR. Twenty-two of 153 (14.37 %) samples were found to contain porcine sapoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the porcine sapovirus isolates in Hunan Province belonged to the porcine sapovirus genogroup III. The results of the present investigation have implications for the control of porcine sapovirus infection in pigs in Hunan Province, China.

  13. A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophry-idae from the northwestern Hunan Province, China

    Xiaoyang MO, Youhui SHEN, Honghui LI, Xiushan WU


    Full Text Available A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae, Megophrys tuberogranulatus Shen, Mo et Li, sp. nov. (Holotype HNUL 03080902, adult male, SVL: 38.2 mm, from Sangzhi County, Hunan Province, is described. Megophrys tuberogranulatus is closely related to both Megophrys kuatunensis and Megophrys minor. Characters of the new species that differentiate this species from close relatives are skin granulated with big tubercles on the dorsal sides of both thigh and tibia, the bigger inner metacarpal tubercle, upper eyelid wider than the interorbital space, hind limbs longer, overlapping of the left and right calcaneal parts. The type specimens are deposited in the Animal Museum of Life Sciences College of Hunan Normal University [Current Zoology 56 (4: 432–436, 2010].

  14. Agro-ecosystem Emergy Evolution and Trend in Hunan Province


    Using the emergy analysis method, we conduct trend analysis of changes in the total emergy, input and output structure, various emergy indicators of agro-ecosystem in Hunan Province during the period 1999-2008. The results show that during the study period, total emergy input basically remained stable, but the emergy input structure was constantly optimized, of which the input of non-renewable industrial assistant emergy increased by 38.4%, from 4.00E+22 sej to 5.53E+22 sej, and the input of ...

  15. Analysis of an Abrupt Rainstorm Process in Central Hunan Province


    [Objective] The aim is to expound the abrupt rainstorm in the central Hunan Province on May 6 in 2010.[Method] By dint of NCEP 1°×1° reanalysis data,routine observation data,auto-station precipitation and FY-2C satellite data,the large-scale circulation background and physical condition during the large rainstorm period from the night on May 5 to 6 in 2010 were analyzed.The large scale environment,meso-scale characteristics and potential causes for the formation of large precipitation were revealed.By dint ...

  16. Problems in Food Safety of Hunan Province and Countermeasures

    Fanfan; OUYANG; Fangming; DENG


    In recent years,serious food safety accidents are of frequent occurrence. Although government has taken many practical and feasible measures to contain food safety accidents,new food safety accidents still emerge in large numbers. In this situation,food safety control is a long-term and arduous task to be performed jointly by many government departments. Finally,it presents corresponding countermeasures and recommendations on the basis of current situations of food safety in Hunan Province,problem causes,in combination with control measures related to food safety both at home and abroad.

  17. Agro-ecosystem Emergy Evolution and Trend in Hunan Province

    ZHU Yu-lin; LI Ming-jie; HOU Mao-zhang; LI Sha; LONG Yu-zi; WANG Mao-xi


    Using the emergy analysis method,we conduct trend analysis of changes in the total emergy,input and output structure,various emergy indicators of agro-ecosystem in Hunan Province during the period 1999-2008.The results show that during the study period,total emergy input basically remained stable,but the emergy input structure was constantly optimized,of which the input of non-renewable industrial assistant emergy increased by 38.4%,from 4.00E +22 sej to 5.53E +22 sej,and the input of renewable organic emergy declined from 1.32E +23 sej to 1.20E + 23 sej;total emergy yield and yield efficiency of this system were promoted dramatically,and in 2008,the total emergy yield reached 1.69E +23 sej,increasing by 23.8% as against that in 1999,the net emergy yield ratio rose from 0.79 to 0.96;since the environmental loading ratio also tended to rise constantly,from 1.12 to 1.79,the sustainability index of this system also experienced the slow downward trend,from 0.71 to 0.54,always less than 1,indicating that the agriculture in Hunan Province is the high consumption-driven ecosystem in general,with obvious features of extensive development.

  18. [Establishement for regional pelvic trauma database in Hunan Province].

    Cheng, Liang; Zhu, Yong; Long, Haitao; Yang, Junxiao; Sun, Buhua; Li, Kanghua


    To establish a database for pelvic trauma in Hunan Province, and to start the work of multicenter pelvic trauma registry.
 Methods: To establish the database, literatures relevant to pelvic trauma were screened, the experiences from the established trauma database in China and abroad were learned, and the actual situations for pelvic trauma rescue in Hunan Province were considered. The database for pelvic trauma was established based on the PostgreSQL and the advanced programming language Java 1.6.
 Results: The complex procedure for pelvic trauma rescue was described structurally. The contents for the database included general patient information, injurious condition, prehospital rescue, conditions in admission, treatment in hospital, status on discharge, diagnosis, classification, complication, trauma scoring and therapeutic effect. The database can be accessed through the internet by browser/servicer. The functions for the database include patient information management, data export, history query, progress report, video-image management and personal information management.
 Conclusion: The database with whole life cycle pelvic trauma is successfully established for the first time in China. It is scientific, functional, practical, and user-friendly.

  19. Soybean's Scientific Research and Production Development in Hunan Province These 50 years


    @@There are three ecotypes of soybean cultivar in Hunan Province: spring soybean, summer soybean and autumn soybean. Spring soybean has become the leading cultivar used in soybean's commercial production in Hunan these 30-40 years along with the growing improvement of the double-cropping of rice in the province which has reduced the area of the summer and autumn soybean gradually. Soybean produced in the province is almost consumed as processed food.

  20. Estimating health damage cost from secondary sulfate particles - a case study of Hunan Province,China

    HAO Ji-ming; LI Ji; YE Xue-mei; ZHU Tian-le


    China's coal-dominated energy pattern has resulted in large amount of SO2 emissions. Estimate of the sulfur-related health damage cost is necessary to help perform systematic cost-benefit analysis and set national energy and emissions control priorities. Current researches were confined to gaseous SO2 in urban areas; however, secondary sulfate (SO42-) particles can exert serious impact in a wider region. Based on the concept of "intake fraction", CALPUFF long-range dispersion model and 180 sample emission sources, multiple regression equation was obtained with good correlation(r=0.85), which illustrates that populations were key parameters to determine intake fraction but source characteristics were insignificant. Based on the formula and the population distribution data, county-level intake fractions were mapped for Hunan Province(range: 1.1×10-6-3.2×10-6) of China. A combination of county-level SO2 emissions with the intake fractions yields a total 1.98 tons of sulfate(SO42-) inhalation, and resulting total health damage cost to be 0.76(willingness to pay approach) or 0.16(human capital approach) billion USD in 1997, about 2.1% or 0.45% of GDP in Hunan in 1997. Average health damage cost per ton of SO2 emission is 930(willingness to pay approach) or 200 USD(human capital approach). The results demonstrated that more stringent regulation should be forced.

  1. 湖南会同杉木人工林生态系统CO2通量特征%Characteristics of CO2 Flux in a Chinese Fir Plantation Ecosystem in Huitong County, Hunan Province

    赵仲辉; 张利平; 康文星; 田大伦; 项文化; 闫文德; 彭长辉


    利用开路式涡动相关系统与自动气象梯度观测系统2008年12个月的观测数据,研究会同13年生杉木人工林CO2通量特征.结果表明:13年生杉木人工林生态系统CO2通量日变化存在明显的季节差异,晴天平均碳汇持续时间表现为夏>春>秋>冬,平均日较差表现为夏>秋>春>冬,最大碳汇出现时间由早到晚依次为夏、秋、春和冬;1年中,月累积碳通量除1和2月为碳源外,其他各月均表现为碳汇,碳汇最大值出现在6月(-53.0 g C·m-2);13年生杉木林的年碳汇总量为-255.3 g C·m-2.白天CO2通量与光合有效辐射的关系可用Michaelis-Menten模型模拟(P<0.05),但模型参数随温度而异;夜间CO2通量与5 cm土壤温度呈指数关系(P<0.05).%Characteristics of CO2 flux were investigated by using the data collected from an open path eddy covariance system and an automatic weather gradient system in a 13-year-old Chinese fir plantation ecosystem in Huitong County, Hunan Province, in 2008. The results showed that there were pronounced diurnal and annual variations in CO2 flux in the Chinese fir plantation. In clear days, mean duration of negative CO2 fluxes decreased from summer, spring, autumn to winter, and the biggest mean daily carbon dioxide flux range and the earliest time of the average minimum carbon dioxide appeared in summer, followed by autumn, spring and winter. The Chinese fir plantation ecosystem had a negative monthly CO2 flux that acted as a carbon sink except for January and February. The minimum accumulated monthly net carbon ecosystem exchange (maximum carbon sink) was -53.0 g C ? M-2 occurred in June. The annual net carbon ecosystem exchange amounted to - 255. 3 g C ? M-2 . The CO2 flux was closely related to several meteorological factors including photosynthetic active radiation, air temperature and soil temperature. The Michaelis-Menten model could be used to express the relationship between CO2 flux and

  2. Study on the Community of Pteroceltis tatarinowii in the Limestone Mountainous of Jiangyong County of Hunan Province%湖南江永石灰岩山地青檀群落特征研究

    周磊; 顾建忠; 宋云飞; 旷仁平; 李行娟; 刘克明


    The flora composition, geographical composition, the number of species composition characteristics, the life form and species diversity characteristics of the community of Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim in the limestone mountainous of Jiangyong county of Hunan province are studied. The results show that: In the sample plot, 2 800 m2, Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim community have 51 common vascular plants species, belonging to 48 genera and 34 families. Extensive tropical composition, included 13 genera, take up the most plant distribution, 29.54% of the total genera; and the old world tropical distribution types, Temperate types and East Asia and North America discontinuous distribution types take the second place, which both have 5 genera and each account for 11.36%. Plants are most phanphytes in the life form, 70.59%, and annual plants at least, 1.96%. At the community level, shrub layer and herb layer take up a significant share. The species diversity analysis shows that, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index and PIE index all represent Sh>H>T, which reflect dominant species of the tree layer in the Pteroceltis tatarinowii community performance obviously, suggesting that this community at present is relatively stable. Resource protection and problems of sustainable use of the Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim community are discussed.%研究了湖南江永石灰岩山地青檀(Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim)群落的区系组成、地理成分、种类成分的数量特征、生活型及物种多样性特征.结果表明:在2 800 m2青檀群落样方中有维管植物51种,隶属于34科48属.植物地理分布以泛热带成分最多,有13属,占总属数的29.54%;其次是旧世界热带分布类型、北温带分布类型、东亚和北美洲间断分布类型,它们各有5属,各占总属数的11.36%.植物生活型以高位芽植物最多,占70.59%,一年生植物最少,仅为1.96%.群落层次中,以灌木层和草本层物种数所占比例较大.物种多

  3. Characteristics of tailings from metal mines in Hunan Province, China

    LIU Yun-guo; ZHANG Hui-zhi; ZENG Guang-ming; HUANG Bao-rong; LI Xin; XU Wei-hua


    The tailing soils were from 10 mining areas in Hunan Province. To predict the potential impact of tailings on nearby environments, the characteristics such as the pH value, loss on ignition, cation exchange capacity, and the concentration and speciation of heavy metals in the tailings were investigated. Based on these characteristics, the pollution index and danger index were calculated so as to evaluate the priorities of remediation. The results show that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn exceed the tolerable levels of the phytotoxicity in the most tailings. The large proportion of heavy metals exists in the form of residual fraction in most tailings, followed by sulfides/organic and Fe/Mn oxide fractions, and a little in the exchangeable and carbonate fraction. The calculated pollution indices for the tailing samples range from 1.41 to 83.42, which indicates that all the tailings contain heavy metals at a level that causes toxicity to the ecosystem. The danger indices for the tailing samples range from 0.06 to 387.00. The highest value of the danger indices is that of Yongzhou sample, reaching 387.00; the lowest one is that of Xikuangshan sample, only 0.06. Considering the results of pollution index and danger index in combination, the priority of remediation is determined to be Yongzhou, Baoshan, Xiangtan and Lengshuijiang.

  4. Prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    Yin, De-Ming; Lv, Cong-Cong; Tan, Lei; Zhang, Tie-Niu; Yang, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Yi; Liu, Wei


    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. However, little information is available about prevalence of B. coli in pigs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of B. coli in pigs was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China, between January 2012 and August 2014. A total of 3925 diarrheic fecal samples from nine representative administrative regions in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined for the presence of B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites using microscopy after sedimentation with water. The overall prevalence of B. coli in pigs was 36.9 % (1450/3925). The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses potential threats to human health. The results of the present investigation have important implications for the control of B. coli infections in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of B. coli prevalence in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  5. Seroprevalence of porcine cytomegalovirus and sapovirus infection in pigs in Hunan province, China.

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Li, Run-Cheng; Li, Jing; Huang, Ze-Bin; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Luo, Wei; Ge, Meng; Jiang, Da-Liang; Yu, Xing-Long


    The seroprevalence of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and sapovirus (SaV) infections in pigs was investigated in Hunan province, China, between May 2005 and October 2010. A total of 500 pig serum samples collected from 10 representative administrative regions in Hunan province were evaluated for antibodies against PCMV and SaV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of porcine cytomegalovirus and sapovirus in pigs was 96.40% (482/500) and 63.40% (317/500), and the seropositivity of 10 herds we surveyed varied, ranging from 94.74% to 98.48% and 56.36% to 72.50%, respectively. The highest prevalence was found in breeding sows (96.67% for PCMV and 83.33% for SaVs). The results of the present survey indicated that infections with porcine cytomegalovirus and sapovirus are highly prevalent in pigs in Hunan province, China.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Hunan Province Based on Structural Equation

    Naman; YANG


    Using the method of structural equation and balanced scorecard,this paper establishes the evaluation indicators and evaluation model for the performance of 21 rural cooperative economic organizations in X City of Hunan Province,and analyzes the relationship between indicators and dimensions of performance evaluation indicators,in order to find the influencing factors,obstacles and successful experience concerning the development of rural cooperative economic organizations. According to model analysis and conclusions,this paper sets forth the recommendations for promoting the development of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province,in order to provide a scientific basis for the institutional design and mechanism innovation of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province.

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Sows in Hunan Province, China

    Ying Xu


    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of T. gondii has been reported in many animals in China, little is known of T. gondii infection in sows. Antibodies to T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT. Overall, 31.3% (373/1191 of the examined sows were seropositive for T. gondii. Among 11 representative regions of Hunan province, the seroprevalence ranged from 14.8% to 45.1%. In addition, the T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in summer (37.4% and autumn (34.9% than in spring (24.6% and winter (23.9%. Regarding different antibody titers, the seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% (titer ≥ 1 : 1024 to 17.4% (titer = 1 : 64. The findings of the present investigation revealed the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and animals in this province. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis of pigs in this province. This is the first report of the comprehensive survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in sows in Hunan Province, subtropical China.

  8. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan


    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  9. Research on the Consumption Function of Rural Residents in Hunan Province


    Based on literature review,according to relevant consumption data in Hunan Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook during1978-2009,the thesis selects three indexes involving the average income per rural resident,per capita living expenses of rural residents and percapita savings to conduct the unit root and co-integration test on the consumption and net income per rural residents in Hunan Province by adoptingthe generalized difference method and EVIEWS6.0,then according to the Modigliani Hypothesis of Consumption,Duesenberry Hypothesis of Con-sumption and Keynes Absolute Income Hypothesis,the thesis makes a fitting of Hunan consumption function model,aiming to find out the consump-tion function model suitable to Hunan Province.The results show that,Keynesian consumption function based on Absolute Income Hypothesis pas-ses the statistical test and econometric test,while the consumption function model based on Relative Income Hypothesis and that based on Life Cy-cle Hypothesis do not,which proves that the consumption function model based on Absolute Income Hypothesis is better suited for describing the re-lations between rural consumption and income in Hunan Province.Taking into account the low marginal propensity of consumption of the rural resi-dents in Hunan Province,the thesis proposes to expand consumption demand of rural residents:firstly,developing characteristic economy and im-proving the income level of rural residents;secondly,perfecting the social security system in rural areas and maintaining the consumption confi-dence of rural residents;thirdly,ameliorating the circulation system.

  10. MICA/B genotyping of Tujias from Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

    Wang, Y J; Zhang, N J; Chen, E; Chen, C J; Bu, Y H; Yu, P


    One hundred eighty-seven Tujia individuals from Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China were genotyped at the MICA and MICB loci using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming and sequencing-based typing methods. MICA and MCB genotypes are consistent with expected HW proportions. These genotype data are available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database.

  11. Radiation Impact to Environment of Non-nuclear Industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi Provinces

    SONG; Wei-jie; CHENG; Wei-ya


    According to the gas,liquid effluent monitoring and survey results of non nuclear industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi provinces,the radiation effects of which on the surrounding environment were analysis and evaluation.Evaluation industrials includes three coal-fired power plants,two rare earth ores,two cement factories,one

  12. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks.

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying


    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10(-4). The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents.

  13. Detection and Genetic Characteristics of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses from Live Poultry Markets in Hunan Province, China.

    Yiwei Huang

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs are highly prevalent and of low pathogenicity in domestic poultry. These viruses show a high genetic compatibility with other subtypes of AIVs and have been involved in the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses causing severe infection in humans. The first case of human infection with H9N2 viruses in Hunan province of China have been confirmed in November 2013 and identified that H9N2 viruses from live poultry markets (LPMs near the patient's house could be the source of infection. However, the prevalence, distribution and genetic characteristics of H9N2 viruses in LPMs all over the province are not clear. We collected and tested 3943 environmental samples from 380 LPMs covering all 122 counties/districts of Hunan province from February to April, 2014. A total of 618 (15.7% samples were H9 subtype positive and 200 (52.6% markets in 98 (80.3% counties/districts were contaminated with H9 subtype AIVs. We sequenced the entire coding sequences of the genomes of eleven H9N2 isolates from environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences of the H9N2 AIVs exhibited high homology (94.3%-100%. All eleven viruses were in a same branch in the phylogenetic trees and belonged to a same genotype. No gene reassortment had been found. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all the viruses had typical molecular characteristics of contemporary avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Continued surveillance of AIVs in LPMs is warranted for identification of further viral evolution and novel reassortants with pandemic potential.

  14. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China.

    Du, Yan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Shu, Ying; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan


    Located in Central South China, Hunan province is rich in mineral resources. To study the influence of mining on Cd pollution to local agricultural eco-system, the paddy soils and rice grain of Y county in northern Hunan province were intensively monitored. The results were as follows: (1) Total Cd (T-Cd) content in the soils of the county ranges from 0.13 to 6.02 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.64 mg kg(-1), of which 57.5% exceed the allowable limit specified by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. T-Cd in the soils varies largely, with the coefficient of variation reaching 146.4%. The spatial distribution of T-Cd in the soils quite matches with that of mining and industries. The content of HCl-extractable Cd (HCl-Cd) in the soils ranges from 0.02 to 2.17 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.24 mg kg(-1). A significant positive correlation exists between T-Cd and HCl-Cd in the soils (r = 0.770, ρ soils (r = 0.091, ρ > 0.05), which suggests that the amount of Cd accumulating in the rice is more affected by its availability in the soils, rather than the total content. (4) The dietary intake of Cd via rice consumption in Y county is estimated to be 179.9 μg day(-1) person(-1) on average, which is far beyond the allowable limit specified by FAO/WHO and the target hazard quotients of Cd much higher than 1, suggesting the high risk on human health from Cd exposure.

  15. 关于湿地公园湿地保护建设的思考--以湖南新邵筱溪国家湿地公园为例%Consideration on wetland protection and construction of wetland park---The example of Xiaoxi National Wetland Park in Xinshao County of Hunan Province



    以湖南新邵筱溪国家湿地公园为例,在简述其基本情况、湿地保护工程建设的基础上,从加大宣传力度,提高公众对湿地保护重要性的认识;加大湿地公园湿地保护资金投入;加快建立湿地保护生态补偿机制;完善相关湿地保护法律法规;建立健全科技支撑体系,加大创新力度等五个方面提出了湿地公园湿地保护建设的建议。%Taking Xiaoxi National Wetland Park in Xinshao County of Hunan Province as an example,and the basic sit﹣uation and construction of wetland protection of it were measured. The reference for the construction of wetland park wet﹣land protection suggestions are pointed out in five aspects as following:intensify propaganda,raise public awareness of the importance of wetland protection and wetland park wetland protection funds,accelerate wetland conservation ecological compensation mechanism,perfecting the related wetland protection laws and regulations,establish and improve the sup﹣port system of science and technology,and increase the intensity of innovation.

  16. 铁肩担道义——《湖南省县(市、区)公共图书馆服务公约》解读%Understanding The Service Pledge of County ( City, District ) Public Library of Hunan Province



    The Service Pledge of County ( City, District ) Public Library of Hunan Province is declaration issued by director of the grass- roots public library facing "open to public free of charge", the new development environment and opportunities. It reflects advanced concepts of librarians of the grass - roots public library , demonstrates the solemn commitment of the grass - roots public library to society and expresses the brave spirit of librarians of the grass - roots public library.%《湖南省县(市、区)公共图书馆服务公约》是基层公共图书馆馆长面临“免费开放”这一新的发展环境和机遇而发表的宣言,它体现了基层图书馆人先进的理念,昭示了基层图书馆对社会的庄严承诺,表达了基层图书馆人勇敢担当的精神。

  17. Evaluation on the Development of Agricultural Circular Economy in Hunan Province


    By using conceptual model of BPEIR(Behavior-Pressure-Effect-Impact-Response) and Delphi method,we establish the evaluation index system of agricultural circular economy including four indices,namely index of socio-economic development,index of reducing input of resources,index of recycling of resources and index of safety of environment and resources.We conduct comprehensive evaluation on developmental level of agricultural circular economy from 1998 to 2007 in Hunan Province.The analysis results show that the agricultural circular economy of Hunan Province from 1998 to 2007,on the whole,has the tendency of development with annual growth rate of 1.89%.The annual decrease rate of recycling of resources and reducing input of resources from 1999 to 2003 is 25% and 11% respectively,which has become the main factor impeding development of agricultural circular economy.After the year 2003,it is mainly reducing input of resources.

  18. Prevalence and spectrum of thalassaemia in Changsha, Hunan province, China: discussion of an innovative screening strategy



    Hunan province located in the south of China has a high incidence of haemoglobinopathies. In the present study, we surveyed the accurate population frequency data of the local population in Changsha city of Hunan province inChina. The data includes the carrying rate, gene mutation types and their distribution features for thalassaemia. In total, 7500 consecutive samples from five geographical areas of Changsha were analysed for both haematological andmolecular parameters. Therewas a high prevalence of carriers of α-thalassaemia (2.57%), β-thalassaemia (1.9%) and both α-thalassaemia and β-thalassaemia (0.08%). Overall, 4.54% of the population in this area represented heterozygouscarriers of α-thalassaemia and β-thalassaemia. The mutation spectrum of α-thalassaemia and β-thalassaemia and its haematological characterization were fully described for this area. The present study is the first to report the prevalence of thalassaemia in Hunan province population. Both α-thalassaemia and β-thalassaemia carriers are widely distributed in Changsha. The knowledge gained from the present study will allow for an estimation of the projected number of pregnant women at risk for thalassaemia, and the design of a screening strategy for the control of thalassaemia in Changsha.

  19. Regional Division of Production and Development Strategy of Citrus in Hunan Province

    Yu YANG; Wen DENG; Jianquan LI; Weihong WANG; Guolin HUANG; Ping ZHANG


    [Objective] The aim was to research regional division of citrus production and development strategies in Hunan Province. [Method] According to Rural Statisti- cal Yearbook in Hunan Province during 2002-2011, Citrus in Hunan province were divided into three production regions, namely, superior region, sub-superior and non- superior region. On the base of the divisions, the ecological regionalization and brand strategy, Optimization of regional distribution and developing strategy were proposed, with consideration of avoiding frozen zones, in this paper. [Result] Fresh and processing bases of mandarin orange (C.unshiu Marc), and specialty industries of seedless ponkan(C.reticulata Blanco), Bingtang orange (C.sinensis Osbeck Bing- tangcheng), Dayongjuhuaxinyou (Cgrandis (L.) Osbeck Dayongjuhuaxinyou) and An- jiangxiangyou (C.grandis (L.) Osbeck Anjiangxiangyou) should be constructed, where fresh fruit is dominant, supplemented by canned fruit and juice. Industry belt of sat- suma orange, fresh or processing food, is mainly built, for proportion of early and earlier ripe satsuma orange is over 50% of total yield in Xiangzhong citrus zone; in- dustry belt of excellent fresh navel orange and processing sweet orange should be highlighted in Xiangnan. [Conclusion] The research provides references for decision- making for governments, especially on optimization of citrus production regions and development of citrus industry.

  20. Public Perception of Cadaver Organ Donation in Hunan Province, China.

    Luo, A J; Xie, W Z; Luo, J J; Ouyang, W


    Our aim was to (1) survey public' perception and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to donate. We developed a questionnaire, and conducted the survey with stratified random sampling. Overall, 600 residents, aged ≥18 who resided in Hunan, and 600 undergraduates from 3 universities in Hunan were surveyed randomly. For this study, 1085 valid questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 90.4%. Of the 1085 participants, 581 (53.5%) were students, 504 (46.5%) were residents, and 519 (47.8%) were male and 566 (52.2%) female. The mean accuracy rate was 71.96%, and the students' mean accuracy rate was slightly higher than that of the resident population (73.06% vs 70.68%, respectively). The results showed that 82.2% of public support organ donation, and 53.5% were willing to donate their organs after death. Students scored higher than the residents (88% vs 75.6% and 55.6% vs 51.2%). Nearly 1.8% felt that organ donation was against their religion, 14.9% thought it was important to ensure the integrity of the body, 71.7% agreed that organ donation allowed a positive outcome after a person's death, and 61.5% agreed that organ donation represented a continuation of life, to help families cope with grief. Age and gender were related to attitudes. Public knowledge of organ donation and their attitudes were correlated positively (r = 0.666). Public knowledge of organ donation is poor, biased, and incomplete, and based on television, movies, and communication networks. Positive attitudes toward donation displayed in the surveys were not matched by actual organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Database Management System Construction for the Evaluation Results of Intensive Land Use in the Development Areas of Hunan Province

    Mingliang; LIU


    Using spatial data integration and database technology,analyzing and integrating the assessment results in all the development zones at different time in Hunan Province,the paper is intended to construct the database and managerial system for the assessment results of land use intensity in development zones,thus formulating"one map"of Hunan Development zones and realizing the integrated management and application of the assessment results in all the development zones at any time of Hunan above the provincial level.It has been proved that the system has good application effect and promising development in land management for land management departments and development zones.

  2. Preliminary Analysis of Competency Assessment of Organ Donation Coordinators in Hunan Province, China.

    Luo, A; Xie, W; Luo, J; Deng, X

    The organ donation coordinator is indispensable in the process of organ donation and transplantation. The competency of coordinators is closely related to the organ donation rate. 1) To construct a competency assessment system for organ donation coordinators; and 2) to evaluate the competency level of coordinators in Hunan province. We constructed the competency model framework for coordinators based on the McClelland competency model and then extracted and screened the competency indicators by interview and Delphi methods. Next, we determined the weight of the indicators by an analytic hierarchy process method. Finally, we evaluated the competency level of 42 coordinators in Hunan province with the use of our assessment system. 1) We constructed the competency evaluation system for organ donation coordinators, which included 6 dimensions and 21 competency indicators. 2) The average competency score of 42 coordinators was 79.43 ± 8.51. Five coordinators were at qualified level (11.9%), 18 at moderate level (42.9%), 12 at good level (25.6%), and 7 at excellent level (16.7%). 1) This competency evaluation system for organ donation coordinators will provide scientific evidence for human resource management in health institutions. 2) The organ donation coordinators in Hunan were qualified, but their number was insufficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Prediction model of health workforce and beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression].

    Ling, Ru; Liu, Jiawang


    To construct prediction model for health workforce and hospital beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression. We surveyed 16 counties in Hunan with stratified random sampling according to uniform questionnaires,and multiple linear regression analysis with 20 quotas selected by literature view was done. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on medical personnels in county hospitals included the counties' urban residents' income, crude death rate, medical beds, business occupancy, professional equipment value, the number of devices valued above 10 000 yuan, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, and utilization rate of hospital beds. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on county hospital beds included the the population of aged 65 and above in the counties, disposable income of urban residents, medical personnel of medical institutions in county area, business occupancy, the total value of professional equipment, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, utilization rate of hospital beds, and length of hospitalization. The prediction model shows good explanatory and fitting, and may be used for short- and mid-term forecasting.

  4. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of temperature variations from May to July since 1840 in Yanling county of Hunan province, China%利用树木年轮研究湖南炎陵气温变化情况——1840年以来5~7月份气温变化情况重建

    曹受金; 曹福祥; 项文化


    采用树木年轮气候学方法,利用湖南炎陵资源冷杉的年轮宽度资料,建立了该地区1840~2010年的树标准化年表.分析表明,该地标准化年表与当年5~7月平均气温显著相关.在此基础上设计转换方程,重建该地区的5~7月平均气温.重建的温度序列有4个较为明显的冷期(1840~1866年、1879~1902年、1914~1924年1932~1940年):3个明显的暖期(1869~1877年、1905~1913年和1925~1930年).1999年之后升温明显.%By using the method of dendrochronology, a tree-ring width chronology from 1840 to 2010 has been built based on the data of Abies ziyuanemis tree-ring in Yanling county of Hunan province. The calculation results show that the data of the standardization (STD) chronology are significantly correlated with the mean air temperature from May to July in 2010. The mean temperatures of May to July at the sampling site were reconstructed by using the regression method. The reconstructed results indicate that four cold periods (1840-1866,1879-1902, 1914-1924,1932-1940) and three warm periods (1869-1877, 1905-1913,1925-1930) may be occurred. The mean temperature in the area may increased quickly after 1999.

  5. Effects of sea surface temperature anomaly on flooding events in Hunan province

    Hu, Xinjia; Wang, Ming


    This study investigated the effect of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) on flood-season precipitation in Hunan Province (the main grain-producing area in China) and change trend of the related flooding events. Based on the observation data of flood seasons in 44 stations of Hunan province from 1970-2013 and the sea surface temperature (SST) dataset from the Met Office Hadley Center, the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, power spectrum analysis and correlation analytical method have been conducted to identify the key time and marine regions which influence flood-season rainfall distribution. According to these analyses, two main spatial patterns of precipitation have been observed. The first and remarkable pattern is generally distributed uniformly throughout the region and is characterized by a 2-3-year and 20-23-year periods. The decadal variability has a negative correlation with the summer SSTA in the Indian Ocean near the equator, while the interannual variability is associated with the previous autumn and winter SSTA in the eastern Pacific. The second pattern illustrates dry-wet difference, indicating a north-to-south opposite, in a 3-year periods. The key area for influencing this mode is distributed in the Equator Pacific especially in the previous autumn and winter (known as ENSO). Furthermore, based on the EOF results of precipitation, we introduced the historical flooding event records of Hunan province and developed the spatial distribution maps and probability density curves for the direct economic losses in the years of anomaly and normal rainfall. The results reveal that the anomaly years suffer more serious losses and there is a corresponding relationship between north-to-south opposite precipitation mode and regional economic loss differences. With the function of illustrating the variation trend of hazards and the critical influence factor, these results are the data foundation for flood risk assessment. It can be used as a

  6. Current Development Situations and Countermeasures for Tobacco Farmers’ Specialized Cooperatives in Hunan Province

    Xinbin; LUO; Jianqiang; XU


    This paper firstly introduces development history of China’s farmers’ specialized cooperatives and connotation and mechanism of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives. Then, it analyzes current development situations of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives in Hunan Province. On the basis of analysis, it puts forward development countermeasures, including realizing circulation of tobacco land, strengthening propaganda of laws on tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, increasing operation effect of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, enhancing guidance and supervision of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, as well as improving specialized service level.

  7. estimation and Projection of hIV/AIds epidemic and Treatment demand in Beijing and hunan Province with spectrum

    Ning Ma; Guo-wu Liu; and Ning Wang; Min Liu; Min Zheng; Xi Chen; Hong-yan Lu; Hong-guang Chen; Jun Zheng; Gui-ying Li; Juan Wang


    Objective To estimate the HIV/AIDS epidemic and treatment demand and predict the situation in the next ifve years with Spectrum. Methods Using Spectrum (version:3.54) to estimate the number of new HIV infections, number of people living with HIV, need for ART in adults and children, need for PMTCT and cotrimoxazole in Beijing and Hunan Province. Data used in the model including high-risk populations monitoring data and demographic information, was collected from Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hunan Center for Disease Control and Prevention and extracted from statistical yearbooks and published literatures. Results Few new HIV/AIDS were reported in Beijing prior to 1994, however, the number of HIV infections was increasing rapidly from 1995 to 2008, and decreased after that, increased rapidly again after 2012. The number of patients who need antiretroviral treatment was increasing among the group aged between 15-49 years with young patients aged 15-24 years peaked in 2010 and decreased rapidly after that. Few HIV-infected patients were reported before 1997 in Hunan Province, and the number of new infections was increasing rapidly since 1998. The number of patients who need antiretroviral treatment was increasing among the group aged between 15-49 years since 2000 with young patients aged 15-24 years in need of antiretroviral therapy increasing continuously. Conclusions After HIV infection was ifrst founded in Beijing and Hunan Province, there was a slow growth and then a rapid growth of HIV epidemic. According to prediction of Spectrum, the demand for antiretroviral therapy in Beijing would begin to decline since 2011, meanwhile, the HIV epidemic in Hunan Province would enter a rapid growth period with the demand for antiviral therapy continuing to increase. In this study, Spectrum was applied to estimate the HIV epidemic situation and need for treatment in the next ifve years in Beijing and Hunan Province. It provides the basis for health

  8. [Emergy of agro-ecosystem in Hunan Province: evolution and trend].

    Zhu, Yu-Lin; Li, Ming-Jie


    By using emergy analysis method, a trend analysis was made on the total emergy, its input-output structure, and emergy indices of the agro-ecosystem in Hunan Province of South-central China from 1999 to 2008. In the study period, the available total emergy input of the ecosystem was basically maintained at a stable level, but the input structure changed with the input of non-renewable industrial auxiliary emergy increased from 4.00E+22 sej in 1999 to 5.53E+22 sej in 2008, while that of renewable organic emergy decreased from 1.32E+23 sej to 1.20E+23 sej. Both the total emergy output and the output efficiency of the ecosystem had a great increase, with the total output reached 1.69E+23 sej in 2008, which was 23.8% higher than that in 1999, and the net output ratio increased from 0.79 to 0.96. Owing to the ever-increasing trend of the environmental loading ratio which was from 1.12 to 1.79, the sustainable development index of the ecosystem presented a decreasing trend, from 0.71 to 0.54, indicating that the agriculture in Hunan Province was overall belonged to the type of ecosystem driven by high consumption, and had relatively apparent extensive development characteristics.

  9. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology of Indosinian granites in Hunan Province and its petrogenetic implications

    WANG Yuejun; FAN Weiming; LIANG Xinquan; PENG Touping; SHI Yuruo


    The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology of three typically Indosinian granitic plutons with peraluminous and potassium-rich affinities (Tangshi ultraunit for Weishan and Baimashan, and Longtan ultraunit for Guandimiao) is presented in Hunan Province, South China. The analyses of zircons from biotite monozonite granites for Weishan, Baimashan and Guandimiao plutons show the single and tight clusters on the concordia, and yield the weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 244±4, 243±3 and 239±3 Ma, respectively, representing the crystallized ages of these Indosinian granites. These data suggest that the Indosinian granitic plutons as previously thought formed at a narrow age span. In combination with other data, it is inferred that the Indosinian granites within the South China Block probably distributed in Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces as planar shape, and were the derivation of the crustal materials in the intracontinental thickening setting. These precisely geochronological data provide important constraints for better understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of the Indosinian peraluminous granites and early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Block.

  10. 湖南省衡东县吴集古镇的保护及其乡村旅游开发探索%Protection and Rural Tourism Development of Ancient Wuji Town in Hengdong County of Hunan Province

    刘天曌; 杨载田; 刘沛林


    吴集古镇凭借其位于五岳名山衡山之东、古代湘中南地区东西水运大动脉沫水河畔的优越地理位置,特有的历史机遇使其在一个历史时期发展成为商贾云集的工商重镇和沫水中下游地区的政治经济文化活动中心.该镇旅游资源具有山水古镇相融、风景名胜高度集中,市井繁荣、店铺作坊鳞次栉比,祠堂庙宇众多、重大节庆活动不断的历史旅游资源环境特征.笔者认为要保护吴集古镇并进行乡村旅游开发应提高认识、统一思想,进行科学规划、采取整体保护手段,依托于名山名城进行区城组团开发.%Wuji Town, which is located by the east of Mt. Hengshan ( one of the Five Mountains in China), and the side of Mishui River (a principal east-west water transport in ancient central and southern regions of Hunan), once was an important commercial town and a political, economic and cultural center in the lower and middle reaches of Mishui River due to the particular historical opportunities. Its tourist resources are characterized by “integrated natural scenery and ancient town, highly concentrated scenic spots, prosperous business in the history, row upon row of stores and workshops, numerous temples and ancestral halls, and various festivals”. It was proposed that the protection and rural tourism development of Wuji Town should be based on consciousness raising, unification of concepts, scientific planning, application of integrated protection means, and development of regional clusters on the basis of famous mountains and towns、

  11. The Personal Pronouns in the Minjia Dialect-A dialect spoken in the Bai Autonomous Village of Furongqiao in Sangzhi County, Hunan Province%湖南桑植县芙蓉桥白族乡“民家腔”的人称代词



      湖南桑植县芙蓉桥白族乡“民家腔”的三身代词复数分A、B两种形式:A式“ uεn53、连=ȵiεn53、滩=tan31/t‘an31”是由其单数“我、你、他”分别与复数标记“俺ŋan”构成的一个合音词;B式“ 俺uεn53−55ŋan043、连=俺ȵiεn53−55ŋan043、滩=俺tan31−33/t‘an31−33ŋan021”是在A式后面再加复数标记“俺”而成。第三人称单、复数均有新老派两种读音:老派读不送气音,如单数“他ta31”,复数“滩=tan31、滩=俺tan31−33ŋan021”;新派读送气音,如单数“他t‘a31”,复数“滩=t‘an31、滩=俺t‘an31−33ŋan021”。%  The plural form of the three personal pronouns of the“Minjia dialect”(民家腔), a dialect of Chinese spoken by people living in the Bai Autonomous Village of Furongqiao in Sangzhi County, Hunan Province has two forms, A and B. the type of plural A is a sound-combined word which is composed of singular Wo (我), Ni (你), Ta (他) and the plural marker An (俺) respectively. The type of plural B is composed of the type of plural A and the plural marker An (俺) again. The third person pronoun has two pronunciations, new and old, the old pronunciation is unaspirated, while the new pronunciation has an aspirated sound.

  12. 湖南省宁乡县红色旅游景区依托型休闲农业发展探索%Research on Leisure Agriculture Development Based on Red Tourist Area in Ningxiang County of Hunan Province

    刘天曌; 杨载田; 王盛强


    Based on development of leisure agriculture in Ningxiang County, the existing problems had been analyzed, conditions for leisure agriculture development in Ningxiang County had been summarized, which included good natural conditions and abundant leisure agricultural resources; advantageous social economic conditions and excellent transportation, reference from domestic and foreign leisure agriculture. In view of these advantages, development conception had been further proposed and it was considered that it should enhance publicity, build brand and cultivate source market of leisure agriculture; conduct scientific decision and reasonable planning, develop leisure agricultural tourist area at suburb; pay attention to ecology, protect environment and walk sustainable development road. As for leisure agriculture in Ningxiang , four tourist areas should be divided, which were suburban rest tourist area in the north, celebrity hometown tourist area in the east, hot spring recuperation vocation area in the south and landscape religious tourist area in the west.%基于宁乡县休闲农业发展现状分析了其发展中存在的问题,总结了宁乡县休闲农业发展的条件,包括:自然条件优越,休闲农业资源丰富;社会经济条件有利,区位交通优越;国内外休闲农业起步早,可供借鉴.鉴于宁乡休闲农业发展的优势,笔者提出进一步发展构想,认为应:加强宣传、塑造品牌,培育休闲农业客源市场;科学决策、合理规划,发展景区城郊周边型休闲农业旅游区;注重生态、保护环境,走可持续发展道路.将宁乡休闲农业具体划分为北部城郊休憩旅游区、东部名人故里旅游区、南部温泉疗养度假区、西部山水宗教旅游区4个旅游区域.

  13. Study results on estimation of non-specialized physical training university students in Hunan Province

    Wang Lihua


    Full Text Available Highlights the results of the implementation of national standards of physical fitness assessment of students specialized universities Chinese province of Hunan. Discovered that the main negative factors that reduce the effectiveness in this area are the following: lack of unified management of the process of introducing national standards of physical fitness assessment of students; shortcomings in the quality and quantity of equipment for evaluation, the low level of mastery of the teaching staff of the methodology and insufficient use the results of monitoring the health of the students in the further education; misallocation of time for testing and evaluation in terms of physical health. Substantiates the importance of the rational organization of the assessment system, outlined the main directions of improving the effectiveness of the implementation of national standards of physical fitness of students.

  14. 湖南邵东地产黄花菜中微量元素的分析%Analysis of Trace Elements in Daylily in Shaodong County Hunan Province

    张如新; 张振华; 羊卫平; 匡林文


    This paper analyzes the contents of nine trace elements(Ca, Mg ,Zn, Cu ,Fe,Mn, Se, Cr and Cd) in Daylily with FAAS. The contents of Ca,Mg,Zn,Cu,Fe,Mn,Se,Cr and Cd are 4630.384,1250.310,27.352,4.931,165.304,13.732,0.222,3.102, 1.520μg/g respectively, from large to small ,the sequence is Ca 〉 Mg 〉 Fe 〉Zn 〉 Mn 〉 Cu 〉 Cr 〉 Cd 〉 Se.The result shows that the content of Ca of them is the highest and the contents of Mg,Zn ,Cu ,Fe ,Mn,Cr and Cd are higher, but the content of Se is the Lowest. The daylily in shaodong county have rich trace elements, the developnent value is large.%本文采用火焰原子吸收分光光度法测定了湖南邵东地产黄花菜中的钙、镁、锌、铜、铁、锰、硒,铬、镉九种微量元素的含量,钙、镁、锌、铜、铁、锰、硒,铬、镉含量分别为4630.384、1250.310、27.352、4.931、165.304、13.732、0.222、3.102、1..520μg/g,含量大小是Ca〉Mg〉Fe〉Zn〉Mn〉Cu〉Cr〉Cd〉Se.结果表明钙含量最高,镁、锌、铜、铁、锰、铬、镉含量次之,硒含量最低.邵东地产黄花菜中含有较丰富的微量元素,有很大的开发价值.

  15. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

    Hong Qin


    Full Text Available Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28. Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively. Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  16. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China.

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing


    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  17. 南方红壤丘陵区粮食生产的完全成本——以湖南省祁阳县为例%Full Cost of Grain Production in Hilly Red Soil Region of Southern China: A Case of Qiyang County in Hunan Province

    张应龙; 谢永生; 江青龙; 王辉; 李晓


    针对目前我国农业生产中的资源环境问题,指出粮食生产成本核算的不完整性,粮食生产造成的资源耗减和环境降级得不到补偿。运用环境经济学原理和可持续发展理论对粮食生产的完全成本进行分析,提出粮食生产的完全成本除包括直接生产成本外,还应包括粮食生产的资源环境成本。论文以南方红壤丘陵区的湖南省祁阳县为研究对象进行案例分析,研究表明,2008年该区域粮食生产的资源环境成本相当于当年农业总产值的36.55%;早、中、晚稻的完全成本分别达到4.27、3.84和4.40元.kg-1,其中资源环境成本分别为1.38、1.65和%In view of the resources and environmental problems existing in current agricultural production,this paper claims that the main causes for the present problems are the incomplete cost accounting and no compensation for the cost due to the resources depletion and environmental degradation caused by grain production.According to this,environmental economics and sustainable development theories were used to analyze the complete cost of the grain production.The present paper proposed that the complete cost of grain production should include direct costs and resources-environmental cost of grain production.In this paper,the author investigated the full cost of grain production in Qiyang County,Hunan Province,Hilly Red Soil Region of Southern China in 2008.The results showed that resources and environmental damage due to grain production in this region was equivalent to 36.55% of the agricultural output in 2008.Full cost in this region reached 4.27 yuan/kg for early-season rice,3.84 yuan/kg for mid-season rice,and 4.40 yuan/kg for late-season rice in 2008.Among them,resources-environmental cost and direct cost were 1.38 yuan/kg and 2.89 yuan/kg for early-season rice,1.65 yuan/kg and 2.19 yuan/kg for mid-season rice,1.64 yuan/kg and 2.79 yuan/kg for late-season rice.However,unit sales were 1.76 yuan

  18. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying


    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  19. Landsat analysis of the Yangjiatan tungsten district, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China

    Carter, W.D.; Kiilsgaard, T.H.


    The Yangjiatan tungsten district at latitude 27??28??? N. and longitude 111??54???E. is located about 140 km southwest of the city of Changsha and 35 km northeast of the town of Shaoyang, southeast Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. The deposits, consisting largely of scheelite in veins (Wang, 1975), are contained in highly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age intruded by granitic plutons that are circular in plan view. The major faults and folds trend in a northeasterly direction; whereas, the plutons are clustered in a more easterly trending band across the Landsat image. Landsat image E-2338-02202, acquired December 26, 1975, is number 470 in the "Landsat Image Atlas of the People's Republic of China" printed by the Publishing House of Geology in 1979. A computer-compatible tape of the image was analyzed and used as a demonstration project under a United Nations technical assistance program. Supervised classification of soils, rocks, and vegetation; band ratioing to detect limonite alteration; and edge enhancement were all conducted to demonstrate the flexibility and capability of interactive computer systems. Field evaluation of the results of this work will be conducted by colleagues of the Remote Sensing Center for Geology, Ministry of Geology, in China. ?? 1983.

  20. Principles and Strategies of Image Design for Cultural View Spots in Rural Tourism - A Case of View Spots in Shaping Town of Changsha County where the Cradleland of Hunan Embroidery Is%乡村旅游文化景点形象设计的原则和策略——以湘绣发源地长沙县沙坪镇景点为例



    湘绣是湖南的文化品牌.以湘绣发源地长沙县沙坪镇为例证,在分析了该景点形象设计不足的基础上,从乡村旅游文化景点形象设计原则和策略要求出发,对景点理念、视觉和活动形象等,提出了增强景点吸引力的措施,以求将湘绣打造成湖南耀眼的"文化名片"之一,从而推进湘绣文化产业迅速崛起.%Hunan embroidery is a cultural brand of Hunan province. The disadvantages of image design for view spots in Shaping Town of Changsha County, where is the cradleland of Hunan embroidery, were analyzed. Then, in order to promoting the rapid rise of Hunan embroidery culture industry, the image design strategy for view spots of Hunan embroidery culture were proposed, which is making Hunan embroidery to be one of the most dazzling cultural brands in Hunan Province from image of concept, visual and activity factors.

  1. Hunan Cuisine Is Special


    HUNAN cuisine, also called Xiang cai(Xiang is the shorter name of Hunan Province), is one of the famous Chinese cuisines, in this cuisine, much attention is paid to seasoning. By using various condiments and flavorings, even dishes using simple ingredients can have Complex tastes. Banquet meals and recipes for home meals share this feature.

  2. Drug use and its associated factors among money boys in Hunan Province, China.

    Yang, G L; Zhang, A D; Yu, Y; Liu, H; Long, F Y; Yan, J


    To describe drug use, types of drugs and related factors among money boys in Hunan Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2012 and January 2013. Based on respondent-driven sampling, researchers located seven 'seeds' via a gay-dating website: After three waves of recruitment, 234 money boys were enrolled. They were asked to complete a 23-item questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics, drug use, a history of human immunodeficiency virus infection and family environment. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 20.0. In total, 205 valid questionnaires were collected. Based on the data collected, 80 (39.0%) money boys had used drugs within the last 3 months. Rush popper (36.6%) and methamphetamine (12.7%) were used most commonly, and other drugs used were ecstasy (7.8%), ketamine (5.9%), marijuana (2.4%), morphine (1.5%), heroin (1.0%) and cocaine (0.5%). Factors included in the logistic regression were length of service (odds ratio [OR] 0.395, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.175-0.896), being an only child (OR 2.272, 95% CI 1.108-4.659), relationship between parents (OR 0.428, 95% CI 0.213-0.858) and social network (OR 2.387, 95% CI 1.144-4.970). A shorter length of service and a good relationship between parents were protective factors against drug use, while being an only child and having a wide social network were risk factors. Drug use is common among money boys. This study found that length of service, being an only child, relationship between parents and social network are associated with drug use. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Two Rainstorms in the Southwest of Hunan Province

    LV; Xiao-hua; DAI; Jin; YANG; Ke; ZHU; He-xiang


    Using NCEP 1°× 1° reanalysis data within 6 h, conventional observational data, data from regional automatic rainfall stations, satellite cloud pictures and Doppler radar data, we compared the physical conditions, dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of two rainstorms in the southwest of Hunan Province on May 12 and June 15 in 2011. The results showed that the first process was triggered by strong cold air under unstable potential, while the second process was caused by shear line appearing from the east; during the first process, cold air divided into many parts and moved towards south, rainfall was uniform and lasted for a long time, while rainfall was relatively concentrated and strong, and lasted for a short time during the second process; the peak of K index appeared only during the second process; no sign of heavy rainfall was found from satellite cloud pictures and radar echo pictures during the first process, while obvious cloud cluster and echo ribbons could be found from satellite cloud pictures and radar echo pictures during the second process, which were the sign of heavy rainfall; slow movement of echo or little movement resulted in the second rainstorm, and constant echo intensity was the main reason for the occurrence of the second rainstorm. In addition, there was low-level southwest jet during the two processes, which provided favorable conditions for the transportation of water vapor and energy during the two processes. However, there was a great difference between the two rainstorms in the intensity and thickness of low-level jet, that is, the intensity and thickness of low-level jet during the first process were obviously weaker than these during the second process.

  4. Survey on Farming Culture of Ancient Villages and Tourism Development: A Case Study of Hongjiang City in Hunan Province

    Lei; FANG


    The origin of human civilization is based on agriculture and settlement,and the ancient villages preserved up to now can be rated as " museum and historical library of rural lifestyle and rural culture",which are of important historical and cultural value. Through the field survey of farming culture resources of ancient villages in Hongjiang City of Hunan Province,this article classifies and evaluates the farming culture and ancient village resources,and sets forth the following recommendations for the development of ancient village tourism: strengthening the product differentiation development; focusing on the cultivation and integration of resources; enhancing the village environmental remediation.

  5. 湖南省县域水稻的区域比较优势研究%Regional Comparative Advantage of Rice in the Countries of Hunan Province

    邓平洋; 曾福生


    通过综合比较优势指数法构建效率优势指数、规模优势指数以及综合比较优势指数3个指标,对湖南省122个县(市/区)在2000~2011年这12a的水稻比较优势进行了测定,根据综合比较优势指数形成的原因,将各县(市/区)的水稻综合比较优势划为3类:效率型、规模型和平衡型水稻种植优势区域;在优势区域划分的基础上提出了相应的水稻种植发展对策建议.%Using the comprehensive comparative advantage index method,three indicators,including efficiency advantage index,the scale advantages index and aggregated advantage index,were constructed to determine the comparative advantage of rice in 122 counties of Hunan Province from 2000 to 2011.According to the forming reasons of comprehensive comparative advantage indices,the comprehensive comparative advantage of rice in each county (city/district) was divided into three types,efficiency type,scale type and balance type.Then,the corresponding strategies and suggestions were put forward for development of rice planting.

  6. Reasons for Non-Enrollment in Treatment among Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Hunan Province, China

    Xiao, Tao; Li, Yanhong; Yang, Kunyun; Tang, Yi; Bai, Liqiong


    In 2015, only 49% of notified multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients in China were estimated to have initiated treatment, compared with 90% of those worldwide. A case-control study was conducted to identify the reasons for non-enrollment in treatment among MDR-TB patients in Hunan province, China. All detected MDR-TB patients registered in designated MDR-TB hospitals in Hunan province from 2011 to 2014 were included and followed until June 2015 to determine their treatment status. Approximately 33.8% (482/1425) of patients were not enrolled in standardized treatment. Factors associated with lower enrollment rate were: age greater than 60 years, living in rural area, unemployed or occupation unreported. Of those who were not enrolled in MDR-TB treatment, the primary reasons for non-enrollment included economic hardship (23.0%), out-migration for work (18.0%), concerns about work and studies (13.7%), and the belief that they were cured after undergoing drug-sensitive TB treatment (12.4%). Therefore, comprehensive strategies targeting priority populations, especially those enhancing treatment affordability and availability, need to be implemented to improve MDR-TB control. PMID:28114320

  7. Evaluation of Comprehensive Agricultural Production Capacity Based on Factor Analysis:A Case Study of Hunan Province

    Wenzhu; RAO


    Based on the basic connotation of comprehensive agricultural production capacity,this article establishes the comprehensive agricultural production capacity indicator system on the basis of statistics. This indicator system consists of 5 parts ( input scale of factors,output scale of factors,output rate of factors,ability to resist disaster and ensure production,and modern operation level) and 14 specific indicators. Based on factor analysis method,we use this indicator system to conduct systematic empirical analysis of the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity in 14 cities and prefectures of Hunan Province. The results show that although the overall level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity in Hunan Province tends to grow continuously and steadily,there are significant inter-regional differences in the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity; in terms of the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity,there is great room for improvement. Finally the following policy recommendations are put forward: strengthening balanced regional development and improving the overall level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity; strengthening the building of land carrying capacity; strengthening the building of agricultural ecological balance; strengthening the building of the scientific and technological support capacity.

  8. Fixed Ammonium in Major Types of Paddy Soils in Hunan Province,China



    The contents, affecting factors, seasonal changes and availability of fixed ammonium in major types ofpaddy soils derived from different parent materials in Hunan Province, China, were studied using the Silva-Bremner method by laboratory and pot experiments. Results showed that the content of fixed ammoniumin the plough horizons ranged from 88.3 mg kg-1 to 388.1 mg kg-1, with 273.2 ± 77.7 mg kg-1 on average,accounting for 11.2% of total soil N on average. Content of fixed ammonium decreased in the order of newlylacustrine clayey paddy soil > alluvial sandy paddy soil > purple clayey paddy soil > newly alluvial sandypaddy soil > yellow clayey paddy soil > reddish-yellow clayey paddy soil > granitic sandy paddy soil. Therewere four distribution patterns of fixed ammonium in the profiles to 1-m depth, i.e., increase with the depth,decrease with increasing depth, no distinct change with the depth, and abrupt increase or decrease in somehorizon. Percentage of fixed ammonium in total N increased with the depth in most of the soils. Fixationof NH4+ by soil was higher at 30 ℃ than at 20 ℃ and 40 ℃, and continuous submergence benefited thefixation of NH4+ in newly alluvial sandy paddy soil, purple clayey paddy soil and alluvial sandy paddy soil,while alternating wetting and drying contributed to the fixation of NH4+ in yellow clayey paddy soil mostly.Fixed ammonium content in the test paddy soils was significantly correlated with < 0.01 mm clay content(P < 0.05), but not with < 0.001 mm clay content, total N, organic N and organic matter. Fixed ammoniumcontent varied with rice growth stages. Application of N fertilizer promoted fixation of NH4+ by soil, and Nuptake by rice plant promoted release of fixed ammonium from the soil. Recently fixed ammonium in paddysoil after N fertilizer application was nearly 100% available to rice plant, while native fixed ammonium wasonly partly available, varying with the soil type and rice type.

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and its genotype among 1336 invasive cervical cancer patients in Hunan province, central south China.

    Wang, Linqian; Wu, Baiping; Li, Junjun; Chen, Liyu


    Existing data on the genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited in Hunan province, central south China. To evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection and its genotype among women with invasive cervical cancer in Hunan, a total of 1,336 patients were included in this study between July 2012 and June 2013. Eighteen high-risk and eight low-risk genotypes of HPV were detected by Luminex xMAP technology. The results show that HPV prevalence in invasive cervical cancer in Hunan was 75.7%. A single HPV infection was found in 82.3% of the HPV-positive samples, and 91.8% of the cases had high-risk HPV infection. The most common HPV type was HPV 16 (50.6%), followed by HPV 58 (12.4%), HPV 52 (10.9%), HPV 18 (7.3%), HPV 33 (5.5%), HPV 59 (4.2%), HPV 39 (4.0%), HPV 61 (3.4%), HPV 31 (3.3%), and HPV 56 (3.2%). A single infection with HPV 16 was detected in 42.5% of the samples, which was significantly more frequent than any other HPV type in this population. Dual-infection with HPV 16 and HPV 52 were relatively common. The available vaccines for HPV 16 and 18 are therefore expected to have a substantial impact on reducing the burden of cervical cancer in China, even though HPV 18 showed a lower frequency. In addition to HPV 16 and 18, other HPV types including 58, 52, and 33, should be targeted in the next generation HPV vaccines.

  10. Characteristics and Risk factors of Psychosomatic Symp-toms Related to Female Tubal Sterilization in Rural Area in Hunan Province, China: A Prospective Study

    刘破资; 岳伟华; 郝伟; 杨德森; 凌天牖; 张友明; 彭光辉; 武昆; 刘红华; 苏中华; 王厚亮; 谢永标


    Objectives To study characteristics of psychosomatic symptoms related to sterilization,to find out risk factors and their roles ascribed to psychosomatic symptoms, and toestablish a mathematic model for screening out susceptible women.Methods: This study enrolled 776 women in rural area at three counties of Linxiang,Qiyang, Changsha of Hunan province in China between February 1990 and April1992. Brief Neurosis Screening Scale (BNSS), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90),sensitivity to pain, suggestibility were used to indicate subjects' psychological status.Logistic regression model and retrograde discriminant analysis were applied to developa mathematical model.Results: Prevalence of psychosomatic reactions or symptoms was 54. 8% before steril-ization, 26. 6% at three months and 16. 4% at one year after operation respectively.Psychosomatic symptoms were verified to be the result of joint effects of multiple riskfactors. The following risk factors were associated with postoperative symptoms:anger-hostility (RR= 33. 71), high suggestibility (RR= 4. 53), high neuroticism (RR= 3. 44), sensitivity to pain (RR = 2. 14) and operative sites (RR = 2. 05). A mathe-matical model to estimate the probability of developing psychosomatic symptoms in ster-ilization was established.Conclusions: More than half of women suffered from psychosomatic reactions beforeoperation, and some of them did not recover after operation. The postoperative psycho-somatic symptoms are the joint effect of multiple risk factors.

  11. Study on Development of Cassava Industry in Hunan Province%湖南省木薯产业发展研究

    戴声佩; 刘恩平


    分析湖南省木薯产业的发展现状.发展木薯的可行性及湖南省木薯发展存在的问题,提出湖南省木薯产业的发展策略,为湖南省木薯产业发展提供决策参考。%The current situation of cassava industry, the feasibility of developing cassava industry and the existent problems in the development of cassava industry in Hunan Province are analyzed. The developmental strategy for cassava industry in Human Province is put forward to provide reference for the development of cassava industry in Hunan Province.

  12. Distribution Characteristics of Gold and Other Trace Elements in the Proterozoic Lengjiaxi Group,Northeastern Hunan Province

    刘英俊; 季峰峰; 等


    Systematic geochemical studies of the Proterozoic Lengjiaxi Group in northeastern Hunan Province suggest that the Lengjiaxi Group is a Au-As-Sb-W association-type Au-bearing turbidite formation.The contents of Au,As,Sb,W,Cr,Mn,Pb and Zn in the turbidite formation are more than two times as high as the average contents of trace elements in the upper continental crust.The low abundance of Ag and the close correlation between Au and As are two important characteristic features.In the Au-bearing turbidite formation the enrichment of gold is due to the extensive occurrence of Au-bearing pyrites.Higher contents of Au,W,Sb and Ag in the greywacke indicate that they also exist in the form of heavy minerals.Au,Ag,As,Sb,W and REE in the Au-bearing turbidite formation have a close genetic relation with the chemistry of the gold deposits.

  13. Trends and periodicity of daily temperature and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China

    Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi


    In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from daily temperature and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, temperature extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 temperature indices, and the nighttime temperature increases faster than the daytime temperature at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme temperature indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all temperature indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme temperature indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 temperature indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide

  14. Cesarean section distribution in midwifery institutions in Hunan Province in 2012%2012年湖南省助产机构剖宫产率分布情况分析

    陈小英; 吴颖岚; 王华


    Objective To analyze the distribution characteristics of cesarean section in midwifery institutions in 2012 (3 + 1) in Hunan province and provide some references for controlling cesarean section.Methods The distribution of cesarean delivery in 2012 (3 + 1) in Hunan province were retrospectively analyzed.Results The peaks of cesarean delivery rate in the midwifery institutions most appeared in the first quarter in 2012.That the county or township institutions hadn't properly control cesarean delivery played a key role in cesarean section rate staying at a high level.Conclusions Strengthening the control regulation and midwives training of county or township midwifery organizations will be the breakthrough for controlling cesarean delivery rate in our province.%目的 分析湖南省2012年度(3+1)模式各级助产机构剖宫产率分布情况,为探讨控制剖宫产率的有效途径提供科学依据.方法 对湖南省2012年(3+1)模式各市州剖宫产率分布情况进行回顾性分析.结果 2012年度各市州助产机构剖宫产率峰值大部分出现在一季度;剖宫产率居高不下的关键在于县级、乡级助产机构剖宫产率的控制不当.结论 加强对县级、乡级助产机构剖宫产率控制的监管及助产人员培训,将是我省控制剖宫产率的突破口.

  15. [Virological surveillance of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and its genetic characteristics in Hunan Province, 2009-2011].

    Zhang, Hong; Huang, Yi-Wei; Liu, Yun-Zhi; Li, Fang-Cai; Chen, Zhang; Li, Wen-Chao; Deng, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Shi-Xiong; Gao, Li-Dong


    To understand and master the dynamic variation of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011, and to know the genetic characteristics and drug resistance of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses. Throat swab specimens of influenza-like illness patients were collected from sentinel hospitals and tested for influenza by fluorescent PCR or virus isolation methods. Partial isolates were selected for sequencing. The sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5. 05 software. From the 20th week of 2009 to the 52nd week of 2011, 17 773 specimens were tested. 3 831 specimens were influenza-positive with a positive rate of 21. 6%, of which 1 794 were positive specimens of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, accounting for 46. 8%00 of the influenza-positives. There were 2 epidemic peaks of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, which were in the 41st-53rd week of 2009 and the 1st-12nd week of 2011, respectively. The HA genes of 23 strains that were selected for sequencing had close relationship; the distribution of strains in the phylogenetic tree was basically in chronological order. The complete genome sequence analysis showed that all of 8 gene segments of 7 strains were homologous to the vaccine strain, and there was no gene reassortment. The HA amino acid sites of the 23 strains were highly similar to the vaccine strain (98. 2% - 100. 0% in homology), but all 23 strains had P83S, S203T and 1321V mutations. The 222 site mutation that may lead to enhanced virulence was found in the A/Hunan/YQ30/2009 strain. The mutation was D222E. There was no oseltamivir resistance mutation found in all strains. The pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011 had a bimodal distribution. There was no large-scale variation of virus genes. The clinical use of oseltamivir was still effective. Key words: Pandemic (H1N1) 2009; Surveillance; Genetic characteristics

  16. Emergy analysis of paddy farming in Hunan Province, China:A new perspective on sustainable development of agriculture

    YI Ting; XIANG Ping-an


    The multi-functionality of paddy farming has become a hot issue recently. Paddy farming provides numerous ecosystem services that are crucial to human wel-being. However, evaluation of the contribution of paddy farming to human wel-being usualy focus on its economic value, while its non-market services are usualy ignored. Only evaluating the market proifts or market relative beneifts cannot relfect comprehensively the contribution of paddy farming to people’s wel-being. This wil affect people’s choices for or against paddy farming activities and people’s opt for invest or not invest in it. A compre-hensive evaluation of paddy farming can provide an important reference for the government and society to conserve the multi-functionality of paddy farming and achieve sustainable development. To this end, this paper reports a case evaluation of paddy farming in Hunan, the largest rice producing as wel as rice yield province in China, and uses emergy theory to make a comprehensive evaluation for paddy farming. The emergy evaluation results of the paddy ecosystem in Hunan are as folows: in 2010, the input emergy of the paddy ecosystem in Hunan is 2.51E+22 sej and the output emergy is 6.31E+22 sej. For the input emergy, the part from natural resources is 1.96E+21 sej and the part from human society is 2.32E+22 sej; for the output emergy, the part from products is 2.22E+22 sej, the part from impositive externality is 4.16E+22 sej and the part from negative externality is –7.41E+20 sej. Taking the non-market outputs into consideration, the gains from the human economic society’s 1 $ input in paddy farming, emergy sustainability index (ESI) and emergy proift rate are re-spectively 2.73 $, 3.53 and 151.31%. If the evaluation leave out the non-market output, the three indexes are only 0.96 $, 1.24 and 30.67%. The research results show that non-market services of paddy farming contribute signiifcantly to human wel-being. Therefore, in order to protect the multi

  17. Epidemiology of Birth Defects Based on a Birth Defect Surveillance System from 2005 to 2014 in Hunan Province, China.

    Donghua Xie

    Full Text Available To describe the epidemiology of birth defects (BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan Province, China, between 2005 and 2014.The BD surveillance data of perinatal infants (for stillbirth, dead fetus or live birth between 28 weeks of gestation and 7 days after birth were collected from 52 registered hospitals of Hunan between 2005 and 2014. The prevalence rates of BDs with 95% confidence interval (CI and crude odds ratio (ORs were calculated to examine the associations of infant gender, maternal age, and region (urban vs rural with BDs.From 2005 to 2014, there were a total of 925413 perinatal infants of which 17753 had BDs, with the average prevalence of 191.84 per 10000 PIs (perinatal infants, showing a significant uptrend. The risks of BDs are higher in urban areas versus rural areas (OR = 1.20, in male infants versus female infants (OR = 1.19, and in mothers above age 35 versus those below age 35 (OR = 1.24. The main five types of BDs are Congenital heart defects (CHD, Other malformation of external ear (OMEE, Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of kidney (CMK, and Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTE. From 2005 to 2014, the prevalence rates (per 10000 PIs of CHD and CMK increased significantly from 22.56 to 74 (OR = 3.29, 95%CI: 2.65-4.11 and from 7.61 to 14.62 (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.30-2.84, respectively; the prevalence rates of congenital hydrocephalus and neural tube defects (NTDs decreased significantly from 11.8 to 5.29 (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.31-0.65 and from 7.87 to 1.74 (OR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.13-0.38, respectively.The prevalence rates of specific BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan have changed in the last decade. Urban pregnant women, male perinatal infants, and mothers above age 35 present different prevalence rates of BDs. Wider use of new diagnosis technology, improving the ability of monitoring, strengthening the publicity and education are important to reduce the prevalence of BDs.

  18. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C


    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%.

  19. Long-term variations of estimated global solar radiation and the influencing factors in Hunan province, China during 1980-2013

    Zou, Ling; Lin, Aiwen; Wang, Lunche; Xia, Xiangao; Gong, Wei; Zhu, Hongji; Zhao, Zhenzhen


    Long-term variation of estimated global solar radiation (E g↓) and its relationship with total cloud cover (TCC), low cloud cover (LCC), water vapor content (WVC) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were investigated based on the observations at 21 meteorological stations in Hunan province, China. Long-term variations of all variables were calculated for each station; the Mann-Kendall trend test was used to detect the significant level of temporal development trend for each variable; the Pearson correlation analysis was used to measure their linear relationships. Annual E g↓ generally decreased at the rate of -2.11 × 10-3 MJ m-2 decade-1 in Hunan province during 1980-2013. Seasonal mean E g↓ decreased at the rate of -11.99 × 10-3, -4.71 × 10-3 and -4.51 × 10-3 MJ m-2 decade-1 in summer, autumn and winter, respectively, while the increasing trend was observed in spring (15.74 × 10-3 MJ m-2 decade-1). The annual variation of E g↓ in Hunan province was dominantly determined by the variations of AOD (0.33 × 10-3 decade-1) and LCC (0.24 % p decade-1). But the spatial variation of E g↓ in Hunan province was complex. All 21 stations were divided into four groups according to the long-term trends of E g↓, TCC, LCC, AOD and WVC. An increasing E g↓ was observed at stations in group 1, which was determined by the variability of TCC. The variability of AOD and TCC might contribute to the increasing E g↓ in group 2. There were decreasing trends of E g↓ for the stations in group 3 and group 4, which were largely determined by the increases of AOD and LCC.

  20. Investigation on the Seasonal Trend of Fruit Markets in Changsha, Hunan Province


    This investigation on the seasonal trend of fruit markets in Changsha indicated that the fruit varieties on the market in Changsha were abundant, up to 49 varieties; seasonal fresh fruits were continuously provided around the year; most fruits were domestic produce from all over the country, and about 39% of the varieties were imported mainly from southeast Asia, America, New Zealand and Brazil; the imported fruits and a few kinds of domestic fruits were higher in the quality grades than most domestic fruits, which accounted for approximately half of the total fruit volume; and fruit prices varied markedly with fruit varieties, quality grades and time of marketing. In a word, the Hunan fruit industry must increase fruit quality and diversity in order to achieve a favourable position in the strong international competition.

  1. Productivity analysis in nature reserve: A case study in Hunan Province

    Wang Lan-hui; Tian Shu-rong


    Although there are abundant natural resources in nature reserves, poverty is a common feature of the social economy in the communities surrounding nature reserves. Income from forestry is still the main source for residents living around nature reserves.The structure of inputs and outputs, i.e. productivity, in the forestry sector in nature reserves is quite different from one reserve to another. Productivity can be measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods owing to the characteristics of DEA. The promotion of productivity in nature reserve is an effective way to improve the living condition in areas neighboring nature reserves.Thus, one typical national nature reserve in Hunan is selected in this study with the intent to measure productivity in the area and then to analyze the factors affecting its productivity.

  2. 湖南望城县高砂脊商周遗址的发掘%Excavation at the Gaoshaji Site of the Shang and Zhou Period in Wangcheng County,Hunan

    湖南省文物考古研究所; 长沙市博物馆; 长沙市考古研究所; 望城县文物管理所


    The Gaoshaji site is situated at Gaotangling town in Wangcheng county, Hunan province, lying on a long narrow sandbar on the western bank of the lower Xiangjiang River, at the river mouth where the Weishui flows into the Xiangjiang, and occupies an area of 180, 000 sq m. It was excavated twice in 1996 and 1999, which acquired very important archaeological data, including tombs,ash-pits, kiln-sites and numerous bronzes, pottery objects and stone artifacts. The tombs with bronzes are dated to the time from the later early to the earlier middle stage of Western Zhou; those with pottery and other remains can be divided into two phases: the first phase belongs principally to the early Western Zhou, maybe as early as the turn between the Shang and Zhou, while the second phase to the mid Western Zhou. Containing elements of two cultures,the unearthed objects show the character of a mixed culture with the external elements as the main body. The coexistence of Shang and Zhou bronzes with a pottery culture provides an important clue for solving the puzzle of Hunan bronzes in Shang and Zhou times.

  3. Purification and characterization of an arginine ester hydrolase from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus in Hunan province of China

    YU Xiao-dong; LI Bo; YU Zheng-ping


    Objective: To study the physical and chemical properties of an arginine ester hydrolase from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus in Hunan province of China. Methods :The arginine ester hydrolase (AEH) was isolated from the venom of Chinese Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus by a combination of ionexchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sepharose Cl-6B and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Results: The purified protein named TM-AEH,a glycoprotein with carbohydrate content of 0.5 % neutral hexose and 0. 75 % sialic acid,a relative molecular mass of 29.0 kDa,and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5. 2. It shares with an extinction coefficient (E0.1%/cm) of 1.332 at 280 nm,consisted of 225 amino acid residues ,and migrated as a band under reduced or non-reduced condition in basic PAGE. TM-AEH was a highly thermostable protein and was stable to pH changes between 5 and 9. The optimum temperature and optimum pH were 55℃ and 8. 4 for its catalytic activity respectively,which was inhibited by Fe3+ and Cu2+. Conclusion:This protein can exhibit higher BAEE-hydrolysing activity and fibrinogenolytic activity as compared to that of whole venom.

  4. [Correlativity of subtype B viral transmission among elderly HIV-1 infected individuals in Yongding district, Zhangjiajie city, Hunan province].

    Wu, Y Q; Zou, X B; Qin, R; He, J M; Zhang, P F; Jiang, Y; Chen, G M; Yang, Y J; Chen, X


    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of transmission correlativity regarding subtype B among elderly HIV-1 infected individuals in Yongding district, Zhangjiajie city, Hunan province and to explore a method on its traceability. Methods: A total of 43 newly diagnosed elderly HIV-1 Infected individuals in Yongding district were enrolled in this study. Pol area genes were amplified and sequenced by 'In house' method. Methods used to analyze the relationship related to HIV individuals transmission would include Bayesian phylogenetic tree and other epidemiological ones. Results: A total of 42 valid sequences were successfully obtained, with predominant strain as subtype B (80.95%, 34/42). All the 42 sequences were gathered into eight clusters. In each cluster, the genetic distance was significantly shorter than the average from the 34 subtype B strains (0.058 3). The HIV-1 infected individuals in one cluster had the same high-risk behaviors and the significantly patchy distributions were identified at the sites where the high-risk behaviors existed. Our results indicated that the local elderly HIV-infected individuals had high level of homology between geographical position and related behaviors. Conclusions: The patchy distribution between geographical position and behavior was associated among the elderly HIV-1 infected individuals. Guidance related to epidemic precise positioning and effective interventions was provided through the findings of this study.

  5. [Study on hospitalization expenses of flood disaster areas' residents of Dongting Lake in Hunan province in 1998].

    Meng, Wei; Yang, Tu-bao; Tan, Hong-zhuan; Li, Shuo-qi; Liu, Ai-zhong; Zhou, Jia; Xie, Mei-zhi; Tang, Xue-min; Tang, Sen-lin; Zhang, Xiu-min; Xiang, Bao-lin; He, Hua-xian; Li, Lin-lin


    To study the expenses of hospitalization among the population in the flood disaster areas of Dongting Lake in Hunan province in 1998. Descriptive epidemiologic study were conducted to analyze hospitalization expenses of the residents of 55 villages in flood disaster areas in 1998; single factors analysis and logarithmic linear regression analysis were carried out to explore influencing factors about hospitalization expenses of the residents. The hospitalization rate was 4.59% with an average hospitalization expenses of 667.42 Yuan in the flood disaster areas' residents of Dongting Lake in 1998. Compared with populations without suffering from flood, hospitalization rate and the average hospitalization expenses of flood disaster Areas' residents of Dongting Lake in 1998 were higher and had significant difference. The average hospitalization expenses in 1998 was affected by flood types, family income, gender, age, literacy, occupation, outcome after leaving the hospital and hospital ranks. These results implied that the flood disease aggravated inhabitants' burden of disease in Dongting Lake areas; the factors influencing the average hospitalization expenses were multiple, and synthetic measures should be taken in the prevention and control of flood disaster.

  6. [Lead uptake by plant in soil-plant system at lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province].

    Li, Yong-Hua; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ji, Yan-Fang; Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Hai-Rong; Wang, Wu-Yi


    Contents of lead in several crops as well as its uptake and distribution by paddy in typical lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province were studied based on field systematic sampling and laboratory analysis. The average concentration of lead in rice, maize and soy bean in the deposit was 2.4, 1.2 and 3.3 times higher than that in control area, respectively, suggesting that crops in the deposit were heavily contaminated by the element. Significant difference of the lead concentrations in crops was found among different crop species and different organs of the same crops. The average concentration of lead followed the trend: soy bean > rice > maize (among crop species), and root > haulm > seed (among organs). Paddy root exhibited strong binding and tolerant capacity to lead. Correlation analysis indicated that soil lead was main retention in paddy root, whereas the gaseous lead might be the main source for lead in the aerial part of crop. Heavy metals such as Hg, Cd as well as Pb co-enriched in crops, therefore the mechanism and health risk of the combined pollution of heavy metals in the deposit crops should be paid attention to.

  7. Genetic Polymorphism of Nine Non-CODIS STR Loci in Hu-nan Province-based Chinese Han Population

    GUO Juan-juan; LIU Ying; GUO Ya-dong; YAN Jie; CHANG Yun-feng; CAI Ji-feng; LU Ting; ZHA Lagabaiyila


    Objective To determine the allelic frequency distribution and genetic parameters of nine non-CODIS DNA index systems of the short tandemrepeat (STR ) loci (D2S1772, D6S1043, D7S3048, D8S1132, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D18S1364, and GATA198B05). Methods A total of 353 blood samples were collected, extracted, amplified, and analyzed fromunrelated healthy individuals of Han na-tionality in Hunan Province, China. Results O ne hundred and fourteen alleles were observed in the pop-ulation with corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from0.001 0 to 0.323 0. For all the nine non-CODIS STR loci, the observed genotypic data showed no significant deviations fromthe Hardy-W einberg equi-librium. The Ho, He, PIC, D P, and PE of the studied non-CODIS STR loci ranged from0.108 0 to 0.195 0, 0.805 0 to 0.892 0, 0.770 0 to 0.860 0, 0.925 0 to 0.966 0 and 0.607 0 to 0.780 0, respectively. Conclusion N ine non-CODIS STR loci have high degrees of polymorphisms, which may be useful in in-dividual forensic identification and parentage testing in forensic practice.

  8. Rhenium-osmium isotope constraints on the age and source of the platinum mineralization in the Lower Cambrian black rock series of Hunan-Guizhou provinces, China

    李胜荣; 肖启云; 申俊峰; 孙丽; 刘波; 阎柏琨; 江永宏


    The shale at the bottom of the Lower Cambrian black series in South China is rich in nonferrous metals, noble metals, rare and dispersed elements and radioactive elements, known as "polyelement-rich bed". In order to date and trace the source of the platinum group elements, 6 samples were collected from the Zhongnan region of Guizhou Province, and the Ganzi- ping-Sancha region of Hunan Province. The contents and isotopes of Re and Os were measured. Re and Os are positively correlated with each other and the correlation coefficient between 187Os/188Os and 187Re/188Os is 0.99856. On the 187Os/188Os-187Re/188Os diagram, 6 sample points are well-distributed along the (542±11) Ma fitting isochron in high coincidence and with 0.84±0.12 as the initial 187Os/188Os value. The result displays that the age value of the major mineralization of Re, Os and other platinum group elements is (542±11) Ma, which is identical with the stratigraphical age of the wall rocks; the 'polyelement beds' in Hunan and Guizhou provinces bear high isochroneity; the differences of the forming times of different materials in the 'polyelement bed' of the same area do not surpass the error limit permissible for Re-Os date fitting; there exists no distinct time interval between the formation of the diagenetic veinlets and that of the 'polyelement bed', or the Re-Os isotope composition has not been distinctly changed by the former process; basaltic crust might be the major source of Re, Os, other platinum group and trace elements in the Lower Cambrian 'polyelement bed' of Hunan and Guizhou provinces.

  9. Follow-up study on management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China

    Zeng YQ


    Full Text Available Yuqin Zeng,1,* Jianxian Xu,1,* Shan Cai,1 Fen Jiang,1 Anmei Hu,2 Huayun Liu,3 Chengli Bei,4 Ping Chen11Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shenzhen City Baoan District Central Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Yueyang First People’s Hospital, Yueyang, Hunan, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Changsha Central Hospital, Changsha, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: In 2009, our study showed an extreme imbalance and disparity in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels of public hospitals (PHs in Hunan Province of the People’s Republic of China, especially in second-level PHs. Moreover, most Chinese citizens accept their health care services in first- and second-level PHs for economic and geographical reasons, as well as because of the incomplete transfer system in the health care services. To improve diagnosis and treatment ability of pulmonologists in second-level PHs, an intervention that provided training combined with spirometry equipment was carried out in three PHs from six second-level PHs. The aim of this follow-up study was to evaluate the changes associated with COPD-related health resources allocation and the effect of the intervention 4 years later.Methods: The data regarding the availability of spirometers, inhalation agents for COPD, and COPD-related health care education for local residents were collected from 57 PHs in 2009 and 48 PHs in 2013. Pulmonologists working in these PHs were asked to complete a questionnaire individually. Six second-level PHs (three in the intervention group and the other three in the control group [without training and spirometry equipment] that further took part in the survey in 2009 were reevaluated to determine the doubtful diagnostic ratio and the confirmation ratio of COPD. The

  10. 湖南省耕地及粮食生产变化分析%Analysis of Change of Cultivated Land and Grain Production in Hunan Province

    谢红霞; 谢永红; 王翠红; 杨君; 袁红


    [目的]探求保护耕地和保障粮食安全的对策,为湖南省耕地和粮食相关决策制定提供参考.[方法]以县(区)为单位收集了湖南省1989 ~2008年人口、耕地和粮食等数据,利用地理信息系统平台分析了全省耕地、粮食的变化情况.[结果]全省20年人口持续增加,耕地面积整体减少,粮食总量及人均粮食占有量在一定范围内波动.工业化、城市化等是导致耕地减少的主要原因,耕地在数量和质量上占补不平衡、自然灾害的影响、农业产业结构的调整、品种改良和种粮技术的提高是影响粮食生产的重要原因.[结论]要确保全省粮食安全,必须加强耕地质和量上的保护,通过改善农业基础设施建设提高抵御旱涝灾害能力以保障耕地生产力,通过惠粮等政策提高农民种粮积极性,通过改良品种提高粮食单产,通过提高双季稻种植面积增大粮食播种面积.%[Objective] This paper aimed at exploring the countermeasures for cultivated land protection and food security assurance and providing references for the formulation of policies related to cultivated land and grain production of the whole province. [ Method] Data of population, cultivated land, grain and others in Hunan Province during 1989 to 2008 were collected by county (district). The change of cultivated land and grain production of the whole province were analyzed using Geographical Information System (CIS). [ Result] The population was increasing continuously, the total area of cultivated land was reducing as a whole in spite of increasing in one or two year in one or two county, the total grain production and per capita grain yield was fluctuated within a certain range in recent 20 years of the whole province. The reducing of cultivated land was mainly due to the industrialization and urbanization development. The unbalanced quantity and quality of cultivated land, various natural disasters, readjustment of industry

  11. Viral surveillance on rabies in Hunan province,in 2006%湖南省2006年狂犬病病原学监测

    戴德芳; 张红; 刘运芝; 刘富强; 唐青; 李浩; 陶晓燕


    Objective To understand the source and distribution of rabies virus(RV)in Hunan province with viral surveillance in order to provide scientific measures for prevention and control on rabies.Methods Brain samples from healthy-looking domestic dogs were collected in the agricultural markets at the dist6cLs of high.middle,and lOW incidence rates and detected by direct Immunofluorescence assay (DFA).Positive samples would be further detected by RT-PCR and the surveillance samples were detected bv RT.PCR.The positive samples detected bv RT-PCR were sequenced with N gene.Results The infection rate of thosc healthy-looking domestic dogs with rabies virus was 2.78%in Hunan province in 2005.23 positive samples’N gene were sequenced and their similarities were 88.8%-100.0%.The results indicated that Hunan rabies virus N gene aberrance was mainly synonymous aberrance and did not CKITy obvious regional characteristics.The rabies virus were circulating among different districts in Hunan province,and the neighboring provinces such as Guizhou,Hubei,GuangxiComparison of immunity to measles between floating and local population,Jiangsu and Henan.There were no positive samples detected in salivary,blood and urine samples.There was one positive sample detected in two skin samples.Conclusion There are dogs infected with rabies virus found in Hunan province and this study showed that rabies virus detected in Hunan had a close genetic relationship with those rabies idcntified in other provinces,suggesting that study on the immunity and management of dog related rabies should be strengthened.%目的 了解湖南省狂犬病病毒的分布及来源,从病原学角度分析该省狂犬病疫情高发的原因.方法 采集湖南省人间狂犬病高、中、低疫区市售家犬脑组织及疑似病例、病犬标本,用直接免疫荧光法(DFA)和RT-PCR检测狂犬病病毒,RT-PCR阳性标本进行狂犬病病毒N基因片段核苷酸序列分析. 结果 外观正常犬脑

  12. 基于产业集群湖南省农产品区域品牌策略探讨——以攸县香干为例%Probing into Hunan province agriculture district brand strategy based on industry gathering——take You county smoked bean curd as example



    攸县香干是湖南农业产业集群中发展得较为成功的区域品牌之一,品牌知名度高。它的形成来源于其所具有的悠久历史文化、优质原材料、水质及产品加工工艺等,但是在其发展中也存在一些问题,如没有形成规模化产业集群、恶性竞争、品牌意识不强、缺乏有效管理、集群内"搭便车"现象严重。本文就上述存在的这些问题进行了剖析并基于产业集群视角提出了具体解决对策。%Youxian bean curd is one of the successfu-lly developed regional brands in Hunan agricultural industry clusters with high reputation for its long history,top quality raw material,clear water and special production process,but there are still some problems during development such as no scale industrial cluster,blind competition,little brand consciousness,lack of efficient management and "hitchhike" within the cluster.This paper makes an analysis of those problems and puts forward the corresponding solutions based on the industrial cluster.

  13. Assessment of the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges using co-integration analysis: a case study for China's Hunan Province.

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang


    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

  14. Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province

    Dan Hu


    Full Text Available We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

  15. Fixed Ammonium Content and Maximum Capacity of Ammonium Fixation in Major Types of Tillage Soils in Hunan Province, China

    ZHANG Yang-zhu; HUANG Shun-hong; WAN Da-juan; HUANG Yun-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun; ZOU Ying-bin


    In order to understand the status of fixed ammonium, fixed ammonium content, maximum capacity of ammonium fixation, and their influencing factors in major types of tillage soils of Hunan Province, China, were studied with sampling on fields, and laboratory incubation and determination. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Content of fixed ammonium in the tested soils varies greatly with soil use pattern and the nature of parent material. For the paddy soils, it ranges from 135.4 ± 57.4 to 412.8±32.4 mg kg-1, with 304.7±96.7 mg kg-1 in average; while it ranges from 59.4 to 435.7 mg kg-1, with 230.1 ± 89.2 mg kg1 in average for the upland soils. The soils developed from limnic material and slate had higher fixed ammonium content than the soils developed from granite. The percentage of fixed ammonium to total N in the upland soils is always higher than that in the paddy soils. It ranges from 6.1 ± 3.6% to 16.6 ±4.6%, with 14.0% ± 5.1% in average for the paddy soils and it amounted to 5.8 ±2.0% to 40.1 ± 17.8%, with 23.5 ± 14.2% in average for upland soils. (2) The maximum capacity of ammonium fixation has the same trend with the fixed ammonium content in the tested soils. For all the tested soils, the percentage of recently fixed ammonium to maximum capacity of ammonium fixation is always bellow 20% and it may be due to the fact that the soils have high fertility and high saturation of ammonium-fixing site. (3) The clay content and clay composition in the tested soils are the two important factors influe ncing their fixed ammonium content and maximum capacity of ammonium fixation. The results showed that hydrous mica is the main 2:1 type clay mineral in <0.02 mm clay of the paddy soils, and its content in 0.02-0.002 mm clay is much higher than that in < 0.002 mm clay of the soils. The statistical analysis showed that both the fixed ammonium content and the maximum capacity of ammonium fixation of the paddy soils were positively correlated with

  16. Investigation of hyperbaric oxygenation medicine development in Hunan province of China%湖南省高压氧医学发展现状调查

    杨阿莉; 彭争荣; 祖映翔; 肖平田; 刘敏


    Objective To know the development status of hyperbaric oxygen(HBO)medical discipline in Hunan Province.Methods Questionnaire,field survey,panel discussion,interview and the other methods were used to know human resources,equipments and facilities,medical treatment,teaching,research and other matters related to HBO medicine in this investigation.Results There are totally 288 hospitals at all levels carrying out HBO therapy provincially.Among them,municipal and county hospitals account for 34.0% and 55.9% respectively.The number of healthcare practitioners for HBO is 956.As for physician,junior and intermediate staff take up 41.8% and 35.7% respectively.Approximately two thirds of nurses are intermediate (63.1%).The largest part of technician is occupied by primary (68.8%).74.8% of physicians graduated as bachelor,however,most of nurses(66.0%)and technicians(75.8%)only have diploma below the bachelor level.Among 407 medical oxygen cabins in Hunan Province,air compression chambers (ACC)account for 45.4%.71.5% medical units within our survey use HBO.Annual income achieve 100-200 thousand for HBO therapy in 71.2% hospitals.86.1% hospitals are carrying out less than 5 HBO programs.HBO is established as a independent discipline in 20.83% hospitals.HBO special clinic service is set up in 25.0% hospitals while HBO special ward is not set up in any hospitals.In the recent 5 years,there were 33 research subjects about HBO,and 88 papers were published,and teaching subjects existed in only 6 medical units.The awareness rate of HBO is only 11.2% in non-medical staff.Conclusions The popularization of HBO medicine is fairly limited in Hunan Province presently.Research and teaching of HBO medicine is weak and social awareness is low.At the same time,allocation of human resource in HBO discipline is unreasonable,the distribution and type composition ratio of the HBO equipment are not uniform.For HBO,the configuration of clinical application is not perfect,the application is passive

  17. Pore Geometry Features in Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation Shale, Hunan Province%湖南省下寒武统牛蹄塘组页岩孔隙结构特征

    王晓龙; 蔡宁波


    选取下寒武统牛蹄塘组作为湖南省页岩气勘探开发的目标层位,通过对典型页岩样品的有机碳含量、有机质成熟度、矿物形态、裂缝形态、孔隙结构特征等进行测试分析,结果表明:①从采集的65块黑色页岩样品的有机碳值分析,有机碳含量普遍较高,最高值达到17.7%。其中湘西北高值区主要在大庸、慈利、桃源和常德县等地,含量在6%~15%;湘南高值区主要分布在衡阳、郴州及江永;湘西、常德部分地区、龙山地区等热演化已达到成熟及过成熟阶段。②牛蹄塘组裂缝发育,孔隙类型有原生孔、外生孔、矿物质孔,矿物质含量高,矿物自形程度高。③牛蹄塘组储层微孔较多,且孔隙体积较大,具有较好的储气性。研究认为:湖南省下寒武统牛蹄塘组页岩储层微孔较多,且孔隙体积较大,具有较好的储气性;孔隙和喉道分布均匀,孔隙分布较均匀,有利于页岩气的排出;页岩吸附能力较强。据此得出牛蹄塘组是湖南省页岩气勘探开发的重点目标层位。%Taking the lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation as the target for shale gas exploration and exploitation in Hunan Province has carried out tests and analyses of organic carbon content, organic matter maturity, mineral form, fissure form and pore geometry for typical shale samples. The result has shown that:①Analysis of organic carbon contents from 65 black shale samples has found that the contents are generally higher, the highest can be 17.7%. The higher content areas have Dayong, Cili, Taoyuan and Changde counties in northwestern Hunan;the figure is about 6%~15%;southern Hunan higher content areas have Hengyang, Chenzhou and Jiangyong;the thermal evolution in western Hunan, some parts in Changde area and Longshan area has reached mature and over mature stages.②Fissures are well developed in Niutitang Formation, pore types have primary pore

  18. Research on the Relationship between Income and Consumption of the Urban Residents in Hunan Province on the Basis of Error Correction Model


    By using error correction model, I conduct co-integration analysis on the research of the relationship between the per capita practical consumption and per capita practical disposable income of urban residents in Hunan Province from 1978 to 2009. The results show that there is a co-integration relationship between the per capita practical consumption and the practical per capita disposable income of urban residents, and based on these, the corresponding error correction model is established. Finally, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward as follows: broaden the income channel of urban residents; create goods consuming environment; perfect socialist security system.

  19. 湖南省耕地及粮食生产变化分析%Analysis of Change of Cultivated Land and Grain Production in Hunan Province

    谢红霞; 谢永红; 王翠红; 杨君; 袁红


    [Objective] This paper aimed at exploring the countermeasures for cultivated land protection and food security assurance and providing references for the formulation of policies related to cultivated land and grain production of the whole province.[Methods] Data of population,cultivated land,grain and others in Hunan Province during 1989 to 2008 were collected by county(district).The changes of cultivated land and grain production of the whole province were analyzed using Geographical Information System(GIS).[Results] The population was increasing continuously,the total area of cultivated land was reducing as a whole in spite of increasing in one or two year in one or two county,the total grain production and per capita grain yield was fluctuated within a certain range in recent 20 years of the whole province.The reducing of cultivated land was mainly due to the industrialization and urbanization development.The unbalanced quantity and quality of cultivated land,various natural disasters,readjustment of industry structure and inner readjustment in the agriculture,variety improvement and improvement of cultivated technology mainly affected of the grain production.[Conclusions] The protection of the quantity and quality of cultivated land has to be strengthened to ensure food security.It is important to enhance the ability of resisting drought and flood disasters by improving the construction of agriculture establishment in order to insure the productivity of cultivated land,to increase farmer’s enthusiasm for growing grain with favourable food policy,to improve the per unit area yield of grain by variety improvement and to increase grain sown area by enlarging the double-cropping rice sown area.%[目的]探求保护耕地和保障粮食安全的对策,为湖南省耕地和粮食相关决策制定提供参考。[方法]以县(区)为单位收集了湖南省1989~2008年人口、耕地和粮食等数据,利用地理信息系统平台分析了全省耕

  20. A Study on Integration between Miao and Tujia Ethnic Minorities in Western Hunan Province%当代湘西苗族土家族互化现象探析

    李然; 王真慧


    This paper describes mutual transformation between Tujia and Miao ethnic groups in Fenghong and Mianhuaqi Villages of Baojing County and villages along Shuangxi River banks in Guzhang County in Western Hunan Province. It analyzes reasons of transformation from aspects of ethnic policy, cultural interaction and ethnic intermarriage. Mutual transformation between Mia and Tujia ethnic groups in this area reflects complicated relations of both cooperation and competition between ethnic groups and multiplicity of ethnic group identity.%文章描述了湘西保靖丰宏、棉花旗和古丈双溪河沿岸村落的土家族苗族相互转化的现象,并从民族政策、文化互动和族际通婚等几个角度分析了转化的原因。苗族土家化与土家族苗化反映了湘西各族群既合作又竞争的复杂族群关系,也体现了族群认同的多重性。

  1. Survey and Detection of the Grape Fanleaf Disease in Hunan Province%湖南省葡萄扇叶病调查及检测研究

    周敏; 聂松青; 罗奕凡; 刘昆玉; 舒广平; 邓子牛; 李大志


    The occurrence situation and damages of grape fanleaf disease in main grape production areas in Hunan province, such as northwest Hunan, southern Hunan, middle Hunan and western Hunan, were investigated, and the suspected disease plants from each area were detected by biological method and molecular biological method. The results showed that in main grape production areas of Hunan province, many grape varieties occurred grape fanleaf disease, such as Xiahei-seedless, Red-earth, Jinxing-seedless, Golden-finger, etc., but the Vitis davidii var. davidii from western Hunan showed a certain resistance to the grape fanleaf disease. The symptoms of the grape fanleaf disease generally showed as follows: the leaf was degreening and yellowing; the serrate leaf margin turned to sharpening or out-of-shape; the growth of grape plants was influenced seriously, thus weakening tree vigour, reducing yield and decreasing fruit quality. The biological detection results indicated that among 54 collected samples, 52% samples presented systemic mottle and distortion in Qianrihong and Benshi tobacco varieties. Moreover, the molecular biological detection results revealed that 29 out of 54 samples detected grape fanleaf disease virus, and the detection rate of the Jinxing-seedless and the Red-earth was relatively high.%对湘西北、湘南、湘中和湘西等葡萄主产区的扇叶病发病及危害情况进行了调查,并通过生物学和分子生物学的方法对各地区的疑似病株进行了检测。结果表明:在湖南的葡萄主产区,葡萄扇叶病的感病品种较多,在夏黑无核、红地球、金星无核和金手指等品种上均有发生,但湘西的刺葡萄表现出对葡萄扇叶病有一定的抗性;感病症状总体上表现为叶片褪绿、黄化,叶缘锯齿变尖锐或形状不规则,并严重影响葡萄植株的生长,导致树势减弱、产量下降、果实品质变差;生物学检测结果显示,采集的54

  2. On Attitude Survey to Miao Language in Western Hunan Province%湘西地区苗族语言态度探析



    As a complex social and psychological phenomenon, language attitude profoundly affects people's language behavior and language identity. This paper, based on the survey of Miao people' s attitude towards Miao language in Western Hunan Province, analyzes the cognitive evaluation, the emotional attitude, and the language learning and protection of Miao people towards their native language. It also explains the different social variables that influence the attitude of Miao language, and accordingly proposes some suggestions of how to protect minority language and culture in western region of Hunan Province.%语言态度作为一种复杂的社会心理现象,深刻影响着人们的语言行为与语言认同。本文通过对湘西地区苗族语言态度的调查,分析了苗族对于母语的认知评价,情感态度及学习、保护母语的行为倾向,解释了不同社会变项对苗族语言态度的影响,并据此对在湘西地区开展民族语言文化保护工作提出了建议。

  3. Correlation analysis of EV71 detection and case severity in hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Hunan Province of China.

    Li-Dong Gao

    Full Text Available An increase in the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD cases has been observed in the Hunan province of mainland China since 2009 with a particularly higher level of severe cases in 2010-2012. Intestinal viruses of the picornaviridae family are responsible for the human syndrome associated with HFMD with enterovirus 71 (EV71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16 being the most common causative strains. HFMD cases associated with EV71 are generally more severe with an increased association of morbidity and mortality. In this study, the etiology surveillance data of HFMD cases in Hunan province from March 2010 to October 2012 were analyzed to determine if there is a statistically relevant linear correlation exists between the detection rate of EV71 in mild cases and the proportion of severe cases among all HFMD patients. As the cases progressed from mild to severe to fatal, the likelihood of EV71 detection increased (25.78%, 52.20% and 84.18%, respectively. For all cases in the timeframe evaluated in this study, the presence of virus was detected in 63.21% of cases; among cases showing positivity for virus, EV71 infection accounted for 50.14%. These results provide evidence to support the observed higher morbidity and mortality associated with this outbreak and emphasizes the importance of early detection in order to implement necessary prevention measures to mitigate disease progression.

  4. [Preliminary investigation on Paragonimus in Lvchun county of Yunnan province].

    Yang, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Ben-Jiang; Li, Ru-Qing; Bai, Zhong-Wen; Wu, Ou-Bao; Gao, Xiu-Fang


    69 crabs were collected from Daxing, Gekui and Niukong townships of Lvchun county, Yunnan Province in 2006 and excysted metacercariae were only obtained from crabs of Niukong. The infection rate was 27.6% (8/29) with an average metacercaria number of 2.25 each crab. No encysted metacercariae were found. The excysted metacercariae were morphologically identified as Paragonimus proliferus.

  5. Golf Tourism Industrfs SWOT Analysis and Countermeasure Research of Hunan Province%湖南省高尔夫旅游产业SWOT分析及对策研究

    周华庭; 王湘平


    湖南是中国的旅游大省,具有开发高尔夫旅游的优势条件,但其发展速度较缓慢,发展瓶颈难以突破。本文依据管理学SWOT原理,结合湖南省高尔夫旅游产业发展的现状,对湖南省高尔夫旅游产业的优势、弱势、机遇和威胁进行了详细分析,并按照管理理论提出了相应的对策,为今后湖南高尔夫旅游产业的进一步发展提供参考。%Hunan province is China's tourism, has the advantages of development of golf tourism, but its pace slow, difficult to break through the bottleneck of development. This article based on SWOT theory of management, combined with the current development of golf tourism industry in Hunan province, the golf tourism industry in Hunan province's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats carried out a detailed analysis, and put appropriate countermeasures according to administrative theory, for future reference for the further development of golf tourism industry in Hunan province.

  6. Investigation and Analysis of Construction and Management of Farmland Water Conservancy Facilities of Hengnan County in Hunan Province%湖南省衡南县农田水利设施建设与管理的调查与分析

    肖志成; 刘兰芳; 谷鹏飞


    The agricultural infrastructure of irrigation and water conservancy facilities is one of most important infrastructures which play an important role in improving agricultural production conditions and reducing the cost of agricultural production and water drainage and drought mitigation. They are important guarantees of food safety. By using the field survey method, questionnaire sur-vey, combined with individual interview method, existing problems of water facilities construction and management in Hengnan County are investigated and analyzed. The countermeasures of management are also proposed in Hengnan County.%农田水利设施是农业基础设施中最重要的基础设施之一,对改善农业生产条件,减少农业生产成本,蓄水排涝和缓解旱情有着重要作用,是保障粮食安全的重要保证。以衡南县为例,采用实地考察法、问卷调查法和个别访谈的方法,对衡南县水里设施建设状况进行调查,并对调查结果进行了统计分析。得出了水利建设存在的诸多问题,提出治理和改善这些问题的若干对策。

  7. Development Strategy Analysis of BeiBu Gulf Ports for Hunan Province%面向湖南的北部湾港发展策略探析

    朱念; 李伊; 梁碧兰


    中国—东盟自由贸易区建成后的贸易扩大与溢出效应明显,作为中国与东盟全面合作的桥头堡,广西北部湾经济区拥有西南地区最全面便捷的东盟通道,区位优势更加明显;中南制造业大省湖南外向型经济发达,传统的货物出海模式已经不适应湖南经济快速发展的需要,北部湾港作为湖南异地出海口具有可行性与必要性。北部湾港应因地制宜发展具有湘桂特色的"飞地"港口物流。%The expansion and spillover ettects of international commercial tradeare to be easy seen alter the completion of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area. As the pioneer between China and ASEAN countries cooperation, Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone favours the most convenient channel to ASEAN countries for the Southwest China. Sea ports in the Beibu Gulf are good out- let choices for Hunan province, manufacturing industry province in Middle-South China, whose traditional cargo sea model is no longer suitable for its rapid economy development. This article discusses the feasibility and necessity of the Beibu Gulf ports for I-lunan outlets, and makes a SWOT model analysis, from the view of win-win strategy, and the development of the Beibu Gulf ports, putting forward the construction of upgrading the Beibu Gulf ports by using the leverage the development of Hunan prov-ince.

  8. Emergy Analysis for Agricultural Eco-economic System in Hunan Province%湖南农业生态经济系统能值分析

    吴磊; 向平安


    以湖南农业生态经济系统为研究对象,应用能值理论和方法,对2008年湖南农业生态经济系统运行状况进行了研究,并对反映系统结构功能的能值指标以及系统的可持续发展状况进行了深入分析,结果表明:湖南农业生态经济系统环境贡献率、能值自给率比较低;经济能值投入率、净能值产出率、环境负载率、能值投资率比较高;可持续发展性能比较合理.湖南农业要实现可持续发展应优化能值投入,合理利用辅助能,加快结构调整,提高净能值产出率,降低环境负载率,加强生态环境建设.%The operating status of agricultural eco-economic system in Hunan Province in 2008 was studied by using emergy theory and method, and the emergy index which can reflect system structure and functions and the sustainable developmental status of the system were analyzed deeply. The results showed that the agricultural eco-economic system in Hunan Province has low environmental contribution ratio and emergy self-sufficiency ratio and high economic emergy investment ratio, net emergy yield ratio, environment load ratio and emergy investment ratio, so its sustainable development performances were reasonable. To achieve the goal of sustainable development, the agriculture in Hunan Province should optimize emergy investment, reasonable utilization of auxiliary energy, expediting adjustment of structure, increase of net emergy yield ratio, decrease of environment load ratio, and strengthening construction of eco-environment.

  9. Research on Problems and Countermeasure of Leisure Agriculture Development in Hunan Province%湖南省休闲农业发展的问题与对策



    Characteristics of leisure agriculture were summarized from four aspects of localism , seasonality, versatility and comprehensive profitability.The function of leisure agriculture was mainly educational function, recreational function, social function and economic function. The achievements and advantages of leisure agriculture in Hunan Province were analyzed.It was pointed out that leisure agriculture in Hunan Province preliminarily realized the leisure agriculture diversification, strong development momentum, and gradually improved management. The major advantages were abundant rural landscape resources, improved customer market and the developed road and traffic.The major prob-lems in leisure agriculture of Hunan Province were summarized, such as not scientific planning, talent scarcity, irregular management and service, not perfect industry chain, and lack of marketing consciousness and means.Based on these, countermeasures for leisure agricultural development were put forward, including emphasizing scientific planning, adjusting measures to local conditions, strengthening internal man-agement, enhancing service level, improving comprehensive benefits, promoting industry upgrade, and strengthening the marketing efforts.%从乡土性、季节性、多功能性、综合效益性4个方面总结了休闲农业的特性,认为休闲农业功能主要是教育功能、游憩功能、社会功能、经济功能。分析了湖南省休闲农业的成就和优势,认为湖南省休闲农业初步实现了休闲农业多样化、发展势头强劲、管理逐步完善,其主要优势在于丰富的乡村景观资源、客源市场以及道路与交通的改善。总结了湖南省休闲农业存在的主要问题,即规划不科学、专业人才匮乏、管理与服务不规范、产业链条不完善、营销意识与手段欠缺,在此基础上提出休闲农业发展的对策,强调科学规划、因地制宜,加强内部管

  10. [Status of, and factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China].

    Zhou, X; Fang, J Q; Luo, J Y; Wang, H; Du, Q Y; Huang, G W; Feng, B B


    Objective: To describe the status of, and to identify the factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China. Methods: A total of 8 735 infants and young children aged 6- 23 months from 30 poor rural counties in the Wuling and Luoxiao Mountains in Hunan Province were selected by township-level probability-proportional-to-size sampling in August 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect information on the feeding status of the infants in the previous 24 hours, along with personal/family information. The qualified rate of minimum dietary diversity (MDD), the minimum meal frequency (MMF) and the minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were calculated according to the WHO indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Multi non-conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months. Results: The findings indicated that 73.9% (6 452/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6-23 months received the minimum dietary diversity, 81.6% (7 124/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received the minimum meal frequency and 49.0% (4 276/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received an acceptable diet. Compared with the boys, the OR for the MMF and MAD for the girls were 1.15 and 1.11, respectively. Compared with the 6-11 month group, the OR for the MDD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively; the OR for the MMF for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 1.53 and 2.46, respectively; and the OR for the MAD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.60 and 0.60, respectively. Compared with the Han ethnic group, the OR for the MDD, MMF and MAD for the Miao ethnic group were 1.43, 1.72 and 1.56, respectively; for the Tujia ethnic group were 2.21, 2.02 and 2.11, respectively; and for the Dong ethnic

  11. 湖南省促农增收的实证分析%Empirical Analysis on Promoting Farmers' Income in Hunan Province

    马智利; 邹仁功


    To increase peasant income is the primary issue to balance urban and rural development and to narrow the gap between urban and rural areas.Moreover,it is the core of issue of agriculture,rural and farmer.According to the application of gray mathematical model,the data of the rapid development of agriculture in Hunan province in recent years were analyzed to guide the'12th-Five-Year-Plan' agricultural development and farmers income increasing in Hunan province,and put forward the important approaches to improve agriculture and increase income were adjusting invest direction of rural fixed assets and increasing benefit area of rural fixed assets.%促进农民增收是统筹城乡发展、缩小城乡差距的首要问题,是"三农"问题的核心与根本所在。通过总结湖南省最近几年来农业高速发展的经验数据,应用灰色关联度的数学模型,对"十二五"期间湖南省的农业发展以及增加农民收入的问题进行指导,提出调整农村固定资产投资方向、增大农村固定资产的受益面积是促农增收的重要途径。

  12. Comparison of two approaches for measuring household wealth via an asset-based index in rural and peri-urban settings of Hunan province, China

    Balen Julie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing concerns regarding inequities in health, with poverty being an important determinant of health as well as a product of health status. Within the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, disparities in socio-economic position are apparent, with the rural-urban gap of particular concern. Our aim was to compare direct and proxy methods of estimating household wealth in a rural and a peri-urban setting of Hunan province, P.R. China. Methods We collected data on ownership of household durable assets, housing characteristics, and utility and sanitation variables in two village-wide surveys in Hunan province. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and principal axis factoring (PAF to generate household asset-based proxy wealth indices. Households were grouped into quartiles, from 'most wealthy' to 'most poor'. We compared the estimated household wealth for each approach. Asset-based proxy wealth indices were compared to those based on self-reported average annual income and savings at the household level. Results Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that PCA and PAF yielded similar results, indicating that either approach may be used for estimating household wealth. In both settings investigated, the two indices were significantly associated with self-reported average annual income and combined income and savings, but not with savings alone. However, low correlation coefficients between the proxy and direct measures of wealth indicated that they are not complementary. We found wide disparities in ownership of household durable assets, and utility and sanitation variables, within and between settings. Conclusion PCA and PAF yielded almost identical results and generated robust proxy wealth indices and categories. Pooled data from the rural and peri-urban settings highlighted structural differences in wealth, most likely a result of localized urbanization and modernization. Further research is needed

  13. 多分辨率遥感土地覆被数据质量综合评价 ——以湖南省桃源县为例%Quality Assessment of Multi-resolution Remote Sensing Land Cover Data:A Case Study in Taoyuan County of Hunan Province

    许光明; 杨雅萍; 杨飞; 荆文龙; 常中兵


    The quality assessment of remote sensing land cover data is the premise and guarantee of using it reasonably, and it's helpful to improve remote sensing mapping methods. In this study, the 1:100000 land use data of Taoyuan county in 2010 was used as the reference data to validate four different resolution land cover data: RapidEye_5 m, FROM_GLC (30 m), GlobCover2009 (300 m) and MODIS_V005 (500 m). We evaluated the four different resolution land cover data from three aspects, including area relevance and consistency, spatial consistency, and window analysis based on the conversion of classification systems. The results show that:the overall accuracy of RapidEye_5 m data is the highest, MODIS_V005 and FROM_GLC are intermediate, and Glob-Cover2009 data is relatively lower. The land cover data with higher resolution have a certain superiority for classifications of resi-dence, transportation land, water and other fine material, and the area relevance and the overall consistency of primary types is high-er than secondary types. Producer accuracy and user accuracy of the four types of land cover data in crop land, woodland and water is better, while in the construction land and other unused land is lower. Moreover, the spatial consistency of FROM_GLC and MO-DIS_V005 data is poor in the shrub grassland. The spatial consistency of the four different resolution land cover data is better in the flat areas. Confusion occurred mainly among shrub grassland, woodland and crop land. With the increase of resolution for land cov-er data, more and more land cover types can be distinguished. The number of land cover types separated from RapidEye_5 m and FROM_GLC (30 m) land cover data focuses on the range of 7-16, in contrast, data with lower resolution focuses on the range of 1-5. Furthermore, data with higher resolution are better to distinguish the grand objects in hilly and mountainous areas.%评价土地覆被数据质量是正确、合理使用数据的前提和保障,有助

  14. 湖南安乡县划城岗遗址第二次发掘简报%Secondary Excavation at the Huachenggang Site in Anxiang County,Hunan



    The Huachenggang site lies at Shahukou village in Anzhang township, Anxiang county, Hunan province, and constitutes a very important Neolithic site in the middle Yangtze River. The secondary excavation there was carried out in four areas and revealed rich cultural remains and objects.According to the correlation between the stratigraphical deposits in the areas and the features of the unearthed objects from there, the cultural remains of the site can be divided into four categories respectively belonging to the Tangjiagang, Daxi, Qujialing and Shijiahe cultures, which form a evolutionary sequence in one continuous line. The excavation of the site provides new evidence for further verifying the existence of the Tangjiagang culture, researching into the origin and periodization of the Daxi culture in the Dongting Lake region and understanding the demarcation between the Daxi and Qujialing cultures. The unearthed plentiful painted and white pottery exquisite in workmanship furnishes important clues to studies into the origin and evolution of these types of vessels produced in this area.

  15. Diplomatic Envoys of Four African Countries Visit Hunan


    <正>With Spring warmth awakening the flowers, ambassadors of Madagascar, Mali, Cameroon and Burundi went to Changsha, Hunan Province, for the 8th Lecture Tour of African Diplomatic Envoys. More than 100 people from the Commerce Bureau, the Development and Reform Commission and the Academy of Social Sciences of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University as well as SOEs and private enterprises took part in the activity.

  16. Study on Low Carbon Economic Development in Hunan Province Based on Energy Consumption%基于能源消费的湖南省低碳经济发展研究

    黄元; 朱红梅; 于漳佩; 王乐; 刘文欣; 李沅澍


    The carbon emissions of the three main energies of coal, oil and electricity were accounted by using the general carbon emission formula from 2008 to 2010. According to the analysis results of energy consumption situation and industrial structure in Hunan Province, and the comparation with five provinces of middle - China in GDP energy consumption, it was concluded that the GDP energy consumption of Hunan Province was on the high side. By referencing to the current situation of low carbon economy in Hunan province, the optimization of energy structure and industrial system were studied in this paper.%运用碳排放公式估算2008~2010年湖南省煤、石油、电能三种主要能源的碳排放量,根据估算结果对湖南省能源消费状况和产业结构进行分析,将其与中部五省GDP能耗相比较,得出湖南省GDP能耗偏高的结果.依据湖南省低碳经济发展的基础,从优化能源结构和产业体系两个方面来研究湖南省低碳经济的发展.

  17. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Survey of the actual state and trend of the environmental regulation in China (area for survey: Hunan Province, Sichuan Province and Chongquing City); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku ni okeru kankyo kisei no jittai to doko chosa (Chosa taisho chiiki: Hunan sho, Sichuan sho, Chongquing shi)



    In China where approximately 3/4 of the primary energy depends on coal, the survey focused especially on the area around the Yangtze River and the South area which suffer from the serious acid rain caused by combustion of the coal with much sulfur content. The paper surveyed the air pollution in terms of the actual state and trend of the environmental regulation and aimed at collecting the basic data useful in planning the international cooperation of Japan which supports the promotion of CCT introduction/spread to China. The survey was conducted in Yunnan Province, Guangxi Zhaungze, and Guizhou Province in fiscal 1996, and Hunan Province, Sichuan Province, and Chongquing where the problem is the SOx emission in fiscal 1997. The items for survey are economy and industry, energy supply/demand, the actual state of coal production/consumption and coal flow among provinces, etc., SOx emitted from coal combustion facilities, data on dust emission and the state of damages, emission standards, air environmental standards and the present status and subjects of the execution of air environmental regulation/surcharge system, administrative systems and policies on industry/environment, etc. 16 refs., 17 figs., 75 tabs.

  18. LA-ICPMS Zircon U-Pb Dating for Three Indosinian Granitic Plutons from Central Hunan and Western Guangdong Provinces and Its Petrogenetic Implications

    PENG Bingxia; WANG Yuejun; FAN Weiming; PENG Touping; LIANG Xinquan


    The LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb geochronology of three typically Indosinian granitic plutons yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 214.1±5.9 Ma and 210.3±4.7 Ma for the biotite monzonitic granites from the Xiema and Xiangzikou plutons in Hunan Province, and 205.3±1.6 Ma for biotite granite from the Napeng pluton, western Guandong Province, respectively, showing a similar late Indosinian age of crystallization. In combination with other geochronological data from Indosinian granites within the South China Block (SCB), it is proposed that those late Indosinian granites with an age of ~210 Ma and the early Indosinian granites (230-245 Ma) have the similar petrogenesis in identical tectonic setting. The Indosinian granites within the SCB might be the products of anatexis of the thickening crust in a compressive regime. These data provide a further understanding for the temporal and spatial distribution of the Indosinian granites and the dynamic evolution of the SCB.

  19. Hunan Province College Women's Basketball Athletes’ Physical Training Present Situation and Analysis%湖南省大学生女子篮球运动员体能训练现状与分析



    篮球体能是一种完成,实现技战术或比赛的身体能力。体能训练的具体作用体现在以下诸方面:充分发展身体素质,保证有机体适应大负荷训练和比赛的需要有利于掌握复杂、先进的技术和战术,预防伤病,延长运动寿命。分析湖南省大学生女子篮球体能训练现状,并分析影响湖南省大学生女子篮球体能训练的因素,制定出适合湖南省大学生女子篮球队体能训练自身特点的体能训练计划,为最终改善湖南省大学生女子篮球体能训练的质量提供合理化建议。%Basketball is a complete physical, realize the tactics or match physical skills. Physical stamina training of the specific function reflects in the following aspects:full body quality, ensure organisms to adapt to the big load training and games need helps to grasp complex, advanced technology and tactics prevent injuries, prolong service life movement. Analysis of the college students in Hunan province women's basketball physical training in present situation, and Hunan province of analysis on college students' women's basketball physical stamina training factors, work out the suitable for college students in Hunan province women's basketball team physical stamina training their own characteristics of physical training plan, which improve college students in Hunan province women's basketball physical stamina training quality provide rational Suggestions.

  20. 湖南省碳排放强度与森林碳汇地域差异分析%Research on the regional difference of carbon emission intensity and forest carbon sequestration in Hunan province

    袁立嘉; 唐玉凤; 伍格致


    Carbon emission intensity and forest carbon sequestration are two important indicators to evaluate regional carbon reduction. Researching carbon emission intensity and spatial differences in forest carbon Sequestration were beneficial to reduce the carbon emission in Hunan Province. Based on the 14 indexes of the annual carbon emission intensity and forest carbon sequestration in Hunan Province from 2010 to 2014 , a two dimensional cluster analysis of 14 areas in Hunan Province has been made. The results shows that:(1) Signiifcant regional differences in carbon intensity Hunan regions.(2) Regional distribution pattern of forest carbon sequestration in Hunan Province are Western>Southern>Northern>Central part. (3) According to geographical differences of carbon intensity and forest carbon sinks in Hunan province ,the 14 administrative regions of Hunan Province can be divided into four areas prefectures type.: Zhangjiajie, Xiangxi state , Yongzhou belong to regions of Low Carbon Intensity-High Carbon Sequestration; Zhuzhou and Changsha, Changde belong to regions of Low Carbon Intensity-Low Carbon Sequestration;the central part of Hunan Province belong to the regions of high Carbon Intensity-low Carbon Sequestration;Huaihua, Shaoyang, Hengyang, Chengzhou belongs to high Carbon Intensity-High Carbon Sequestration. Finally, the advice of how to reduce regional carbon emission has been given.%碳排放强度与森林碳汇是评价区域碳减排工作的两项重要指标。对湖南省的碳排放强度与森林碳汇的地域差异进行研究,有利于促进该省的区域碳减排工作。通过对湖南省14个地州市在2010—20145年的年均碳排放强度和森林碳汇进行核算,并基于湖南省各地区碳排放强度与森林碳汇的差异,对14个地州市进行了二维聚类分析。结果表明:(1)湖南省各地区碳排放强度存在明显的地域差异。(2)湖南省森林碳汇的地域分布格局为湘西>

  1. 湖南省绿色建筑评价指标体系构建及应用%Construction and Application of Evaluation Index System of Green Building in Hunan Province



    On the basis of domestic and foreign successful experiences of green buildings and combining with the actual development of Hunan Province ,the article refers to the new version of "Evaluation Standard for Green Building"(GBGBT50378-2014) and constructs the evaluation index system of green building in Hunan province.In addition , analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive analysis method are adopted to do the empirical analysis ,which aims to better promote the development of green building in Hunan province.%在借鉴国内外绿色建筑成功经验的基础上 ,结合湖南省发展的实际 ,参照新版《绿色建筑评价标准》(GBGBT50378-2014) ,构建了湖南省绿色建筑评价指标体系 ,并用层次分析法、模糊综合分析法进行了相关计算做实证分析 ,目的在于更好地促进湖南省绿色建筑的发展.

  2. Research on growth rate of Chinese ifr volume model of Hunan province%湖南省杉木材积生长率模型研究

    陈利; 王福生; 管远保; 陶冀; 林辉


    The volume growth rate plays an important role on dynamic monitoring of forest resources, limitation of forest harvesting and annual updating of forest resources based on it. In this study, the National Forest Resources Inventory in Hunan Province sixth, seventh review ofifxed sample data as data source, after selection ofifxed sampling data, eliminating the unqualiifed sample data ,and according to the different origin, age group were established model of growth rate, which was used of SPSS software to solve the parameter coordination. In order to eliminate the effect of Heteroscedasticity, the author used the weighted least squares method. Buying calculation the parameters of stability index, after evaluation and testing , selection the optimal model. Research shows that: the model accuracy and reliability are high, high, different origin, age group the growth rate of the accuracy of the model is above 97%, the correlation coefifcient ofR2 is above 0.870. The results for the growth of Chinese Fir plantation in Hunan province provides a scientiifc basis for estimation, and it can provide important data support for the Hunan province forest harvesting quota preparation and management of forest resources.%材积生长率是森林资源动态监测的一项重要内容,是森林采伐限额编制和森林资源档案年度更新重要依据。以国家森林资源连续清查湖南省第6次、第7次复查固定样地数据为数据源,对固定样地数据进行筛选,剔除不合格的样本数据,按不同起源、龄组分别建立生长率模型,利用SPSS软件统一协调求解参数,建立杉木材积生长率模型,采用加权最小二乘法进行拟合,以消除异方差的影响。通过计算各模型的参数稳定性指标,对模型进行全面评价和精度检验,确保最优模型的选择。结果表明:不同起源、龄组的生长率模型精度都在97%以上,相关系数R2都在0.870以上,模型的准确性高,

  3. Job dissatisfaction and burnout of nurses in Hunan, China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Zhou, Wenjuan; He, Guoping; Wang, Honghong; He, Ying; Yuan, Qun; Liu, Dan


    In this study, we focused on measuring levels of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction in the daily practice of nurses in Hunan province, China, analyzed factors related to nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, and explored the relationship between them. Previous studies have shown a high level of burnout and job dissatisfaction among nurses worldwide. A cross-sectional survey of 1100 nurses was conducted. The nurses worked at 20 hospitals in 11 cities and counties throughout China's Hunan province. Nurse burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Nurse-rated job dissatisfaction was described using a four point scale, and work environment was measured using the Nursing Work Index - Practice Environment Scale. The results showed that nurses had high burnout scores and were dissatisfied with their jobs. Staffing, work environment, and work hours were all significantly associated with nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Adequate staffing, improved work environment, and reasonable work hours are related to decreasing nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction.

  4. Analysis of Components of Rice Cost in Hunan Province%湖南省稻谷成本构成要素分析

    范丹蓉; 夏卫生; 胡贤辉; 刘业辉; 谢炳庚


    为了充分调动农民的种粮积极性,达到同工同酬的目的,通过大量现场调研并对湖南省典型地区生产成本、销售成本和政府补贴的综合计算和分析提出具有可操作性的直接补贴参考标准。结果表明,早、中、晚稻的生产成本存在明显的类型差异性和地区差异性,特别是地区差异非常显著;最高地区的日工资为71元,还未达到市场工资标准,但已是最低地区的2.6倍;为了达到同工同酬的目标,有必要实施地区差异性补贴。拟将湖南省各地区分为4个梯度,进行差异性补贴,使日工资基本接近,从而缩小农村内部的贫富差距,提高农民生产的积极性。%To stimulate farmers’initiatives effectively and to make sure that people get the same amount of wage for doing the same kind of work,a criterion of direct subsidies was provided on the basis of lots of field work.Calculation and analysis of the typical areas of Hunan Province based on the production cost,cost of sales and government subsidies indicated that in terms of production cost of early,middle and late rice,significant differences in types and areas were found.Differences among areas were especially noticeable.The highest daily wage of some areas,though failed to reach the standard wage set by the market,was 2.6 times that of other areas,which was at the bottom.Therefore,to make sure that people in different areas get the same amount of wage for doing the same kind of work,it is quite necessary to implement the differentiated subsidy policy.And at this stage,in order to narrow the financial gap among farmers and to stimulate farmers' initiatives,this program plans to divide Hunan Province into four districts of various production-cost gradients,so as to implement the differentiated subsidy policy well.

  5. 湖南白族学生体质量指数分析%Analysis on the body mass index of Bai nationality students in Hunan province

    黄大元; 张惠娟; 石慧娟; 龚兴牡; 梁成青


    Objective: To investigate the distribution of body mass index ( BMI) and nutrient status of Bai nationality students aged 6 - 16 years old in Hunan province.Methods: The body height and weight of Bai nationality students were measured by anthropological method, and the BMI was calculated by formula.Results: The averages of BMI gradually increased with age increasing.Before 11 years old, the average of girls'BMI surpassed to that of boys', however, after 12 years old, the average of the boys'exceeded that of girls' The average of Bai nationality students'BMI was higher than that of Han ones of nationwide in 2000, however, was lower than that of Kazak ones in the same period.There was significant difference between boys and girls in nutritional status.Conclusion: The general nutrition status of Bai nationality students in Hunan province is good.However, the phenomena of malnutrition, overweight and obesity still exist in the Bai nationality students, nutrition education should be strengthened in students from primary and middle school.%目的:了解6 ~16岁湖南白族学生体质量指数分布特征及其营养现状.方法:应用人体测量法测量白族学生的身高和体质量,用公式计算体质量指数.结果:白族学生的BMI值随年龄增长呈现逐年增加趋势;11岁以前,女生的BMI均值低于男生,12岁后又高于男生;白族学生的BMI值高于2000年全国汉族学生,低于同期哈萨克族学生,白族男生和女生营养状况差异有统计学意义.结论:6~16岁湖南白族学生总体营养状况良好,但仍有营养不良、超重肥胖现象存在,应继续加强中小学生的营养教育.

  6. The City-site of the Warring States, Qin and Han Periods and the Inscribed Slips and Tablets of the Qin Period Discovered at Liye in Longshan County, Hunan%湖南龙山县里耶战国秦汉城址及秦代简牍



    The Liye city-site lies at Liye Town in Longshan County, Hunan Province, and goes back to the time from the mid Warring States period to the Western Han Dynasty. In April-November 2002, the Hunan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and other institutions carried out there a large-scale excavation, which brought to light the rough layout of an ancient city and cultural deposits of different periods within the city. The No.1 well discovered in the city yielded over 36,000 slips and tablets inscribed with texts in more than 100,000 characters, mostly dated definitely. Being official documents in content, they involve many aspects of social life. This discovery made up a great shortage in historical source, and has important value to studying the history of the Qin Dynasty and ancient China's nationalities. In addition, the Liye pottery of the Warring States period to the Western Han offered a scale to the chronological study of archaeological cultures in this area.

  7. 中部崛起的力量在于扩大开放%The Driver for the Rise of Central China Lies in Enlarging Opening up——Special Interview of He Tongxin, Vice Governor of the People's Government of Hunan Province, by Special Edition of China's Foreign Trade



    @@ Hunan Province refined four advantages in practice, got to know that the driver for the rise of Central China lies in enlarging opening up, and summarized the following points: to open to both domestic and overseas investors, attract both domestic and foreign capital, seek cooperation with both domestic and foreign partners,open up both domestic and international market, face reality, promote and absorb outside investment and encourage private capital is an important motive force, strategic measure and realistic choice for Hunan in quickening the development. This article clearly points out the five important fields that Hunan seeks for domestic and foreign cooperation in.

  8. Ten newly recorded species of spermatophyte in Hunan Province%10种湖南省种子植物新记录种

    周建军; 周电; 黎明; 周辉; 刘应志; 喻勋林


    记述了湖南省种子植物分布新纪录种10种。这些新记录种隶属于7科、10属,分别是山卷耳、思茅厚皮香、迎春樱桃、西桦、嵩明省沽油、山东万寿竹、海南蜘蛛抱蛋、广西柳叶箬、蛊羊茅、卵花甜茅等。%Ten species of spermatophyte reported for the first time in Hunan Province are newly recorded,which belong to seven families and ten genera.including Cerastium pusillum Ser.,Ternstroemia simaoensis L.K.Ling,Cerasus dis-coidea Yu et Li ,Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don,Staphylea forrestii Balf.f.,Disporum smilacina A.Gray , Aspidistra hainanensis W.Y.Chun &F.C.How ,Isachne guangxiensis W.Z.Fang ,Festuca fascinata Keng ex S.L. Lu ,Glyceria tonglensis C.B.Clarke.

  9. Tectonic property and deformation history of Sangzhi-Shimen synclinorium corridor profile in western margin region of Hunan-hubei Province

    郭建华; 王明艳; 朱美衡; 刘学锋; 张或丹; 刘辰生


    The Sangzhi-Shimen synclinorium, which is in the western margin region of the Hunan-Hubei Province and as the southeast part of the middle Yangtze platform, is a second-level tectonics unit in the south of this region.Along the profile, it can be divided into 5 third-level structure belts. By the comprehensive interpretation of seismic data and magnetotelluric (MT) sounding data, it is found that the surface structure is not in accordance with that of the underground, and this un-coordination can be conducted by many decollement surfaces between the layers.There are three periods of deformation in its geo-history in this region: before the early Yanshan stage, during the early Yanshan stage and after the early Yanshan stage, while the main deformation period is during the early Yanshan stage. And the mechanism of deformation is the thrust faults in basement, which are controlled by many decollements, in addition to the decollement of the cap-rock.

  10. A land use-based spatial analysis method for human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil and its application in Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province, China

    王振兴; 虢清伟; 杨志辉; 孙国庆; 叶万生; 胡习邦


    A land use- and geographical information system-based framework was presented for potential human health risk analysis using soil sampling data obtained in Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province, China. The results show that heavy metal content in soil significantly differs among different land use types. In total, 8.3% of the study area has a hazard index (HI) above the threshold of 1.0. High HIs are recorded mainly for industrial areas. Arsenic (>87%) and the soil ingestion pathway (about 76%) contribute most to the HI. The mean standardized error and root-mean-square standardized error data indicate that the land use-based simulation method provides more accurate estimates than the classic method, which applies only geostatistical analysis to entire study area and disregards land use information. The findings not only highlight the significance of industrial land use, arsenic and the soil ingestion exposure pathway, but also indicate that evaluating different land use-types can spatially identify areas of greater concern for human health and better identify health risks.

  11. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming


    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs.

  12. Development of County Economy in Hubei Province Based on Factor Analysis


    According to the 2008 Statistics Bulletin of the National Economic and Social Development of Hubei Province, factor analysis method is used to study on the development of county economy in Hubei Province. Result shows that there are great differences in the economic development and the development is imbalanced. The 76 counties (cities, districts) in Hubei Province are divided into three types of F>1, 0county economy, areas with medium developed county economy and areas with less developed county economy. Finally, countermeasures to accelerate the development of county economy are put forward, such as adhering to the reform of market economy, developing private economy, speeding up the process of industrialization, making efforts to support leading enterprises, promoting the industrialized operation of agriculture, further attracting foreign investment, carrying out industrialization during the development of projects and enterprises, changing soft environment by measures, and promoting the development of county economy by innovation.

  13. The Press in Hunan Province and the News Reports of Local Lords and Evil Gentry(1926-1927)%湖南报纸与“土豪劣绅”的报道(1926-1927)



    "土豪劣绅"是湖南农民运动时期的革命对象,当时湖南地区的两份大报湖南《大公报》和《湖南民报》中有不少这方面的报道,报纸对"土豪劣绅"的指称,描述了"土豪劣绅"的一些基本特征。湖南报纸关于土豪劣绅的报道,既是土豪劣绅民间形象的自然反映,也应视为报纸"塑造"的结果。这些报道与《湖南民报》和湖南《大公报》的自身立场、时局变换以及社会风气的转移有关,而且在大革命时期的两湖地区以及两湖以外的地区,产生了不同程度的影响。%Local lords and evil gentry were the objection of revolution during Hunan Peasant Movement.Hunan Ta-kung Daily and Hunan People’ Daily reported lots of news reports about local lords and evil gentry in 1926-1927,and represented their character,which were the reflection of their local image and the result of the press’ molding.Those news reports were connected with the standpoint of the press,the change of political situation and the shift of social temper,then,influenced in and beyond Hunan Province and Hubei Province in varying degrees.

  14. Rural sewage treatment processing in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province

    Wang, W. H.; Kuan, T. H.


    Issues regarding water pollution in rural areas of China have garnered increased attention over the years. Further discussion on the circumstances and results of existing domestic sewage treatment methods may serve as an appropriate reference in solving these important issues. This article explored the current conditions of water contamination in rural areas of China, introduced the characteristics and effects of applicable sewage treatment technology, and summarized the results of the planning, installation, and operation of rural sewage treatment facilities in Yongjia County in Zhejiang Province. However, relying on a single technical design rule is not adequate for solving the practical problems that these villages face. Instead, methods of planning rural sewage treatment should be adapted to better suit local conditions and different residential forms. It is crucial, ultimately, for any domestic sewage treatment system in a rural area to be commissioned, engineered, and maintained by a market-oriented professional company.

  15. A dynamic analysis on University students' physical fitness in Hunan province%湖南省大学生体质动态分析

    刘锋; 郭玉凤; 周鸿雁


    为了探讨湖南省大学生体质长期变化趋势,从1985-2010年6个《中国学生体质与健康调研报告》中摘录了湖南省19~22岁大学生的身体形态、生理机能和运动素质指标,进行了动态分析。结果显示:1985年后的25年,湖南省大学生身高、体重等身体形态指标持续增高;肺活量持续降低,且2005年后降速增大;50m跑、立定跳远、引体向上等成绩下降,速度、力量素质减退;1000m和800m跑成绩持续下降,与全国大学生的变化趋势不同,2010年也未见降幅缩小、降速降低的迹象。大学生体育锻炼的时间和强度不足是影响其呼吸机能、身体素质下降的直接原因。建议学校深化体育教学改革,加强健康教育,培养学生终身体育意识,开展多种形式的课外体育活动,增强学生体质。%In order to explore the long-term change trends of university students' physical fitness in Hunan province, the test results of the 19~22 years old students’ body shape, physical function and sports quality in this province were extracted from six reports on the physical fitness and health surveillance of Chinese school students from 1985 to 2010, and were dynamically analyzed. The results showedthat during the 25 years after 1985, the students’ body shape such as height and weight continued to increase in Hunan province;the lung capacity continued to reduce, and the decline speed increased after 2005;the results of 50 m running, standing long jump and pull-ups were lower, the speed and strength qualities decreased;the results of 1 000 m and 800 m running continued to decline, no significant reduction about this decrease and no the same change trend with the national college students in 2010. The lack of students physical exercise time and intensity were the direct reason for decline in respiratory function and physical quality. It were suggested that school should deepen physical education reform, strengthen health

  16. 省级尺度国土空间生态保护红线划定--以湖南省为例%Delimitating Red Line of Ecological Protection for Territorial Spatial Planning:A Case Study of Hunan Province

    马世发; 马梅; 蔡玉梅; 念沛豪


    , which are especially the transitional zones to plain, are the areas accompanied with frequent water and soil erosion. With the consideriation of evaluation results above, the red line of ecological protection in Hunan Province was generated. Approximately 50%of the total area is classified into the scope of the red line, which plays important roles in ecological security. The red line breaks the administrative boundaries of counties to some extent, but keeps the integrality of physical geographic boundaries and particularly lays stress on ecological protection. The delimited region of the red line presents a network pattern in the space and conforms to the strategic layout of“one lake, three mountains and four rivers” of the province. The delimitation results of Hunan Province demonstrate that the method can obtain a reasonable spatial pattern for ecological protection at provincial scale.%划定生态保护红线是国土规划的一项重要内容。文章将生物多样性保护、洪水调蓄、水土保持、水源涵养和荒漠化防治等作为省级尺度国土空间核心生态问题,从生态安全格局维持角度,通过“自上而下”的国土空间生态安全骨架分析和基于遥感与GIS的“自下而上”定量评价,以湖南省为案例探索国土空间生态保护红线划定。通过单要素低、中、高3种划分情景分析发现,湖南省生物多样性保护格局需要在现有保护区的基础上加强生态廊道的保护;洪水调蓄主要以洞庭湖及其淹没区为主;水源涵养能力较强的地区主要是东部、西部和南部的大型山脉地带,中北部的丘陵平原地区相对较弱;水土流失强度较大的区域主要集中于西部的武陵、雪峰、罗霄等山脉,尤其是大型山脉向丘陵平原过渡地带。基于单要素生态评价的综合划分结果显示,湖南省约有50%的国土空间具有重要生态安全维持功能,且红线范围打破了县级行政区

  17. Present Situation Investigation of Pollination for Asian Sacred Lotus in Jiangxi Province, Hunan Province and Hubei Province%赣湘鄂三省荷花授粉现状调查报告

    张旭凤; 颜志立; 邵有全


    In order to realize present situation of Asian sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) in Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei Provinces, beekeepers who collected lotus pollen and lotus growers were interviewed with following aspects on July 5-11, 2012: ways of beekeeping and managing bees, income of beekeepers and lotus growers, necessity of bee pollination for lotus, meanwhile numbers and species of wild pollinators for lotus among three provinces were investigated. Results indicated that, there were fewer numbers and species of wild pollinators for lotus in three provinces, main wild pollinators were Hymenoptera insects as follows: Xylocopa sinensis Smith, Xylocopa valga Gestaecker, Xylocopa appendiculata Smith, Halictus aerarius Smith, Halictus subopacus Smith and so on, so high yield of lotus seed should be depended on bee pollination, bee pollination was more conducive to beekeepers and lotus growers to obtain higher yields. The best time of bee collecting lotus pollen was 5:00-8:00; temperature and wind-force were the main factors which affect the bee collection lotus. The price fluctuation of lotus pollen was influenced by natural disaster, marketing channel and supply-demand relationship. Beekeepers’age structure presented aging trend.%  为掌握赣湘鄂三省荷花(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn)授粉现状,2012年7月5—11日在江西、湖南、湖北三省对采收荷花粉蜂农以及当地荷花种植户进行了采访调查,针对蜂农放蜂和蜂群管理方式,蜂农和荷花种植户收益,蜜蜂为荷花授粉的必要性开展调查,同时在三省进行了荷花野生传粉昆虫数量和种类的资源调查。调查表明:三省荷花野生传粉昆虫种类和数量均较匮乏,经鉴定,荷花野生传粉昆虫主要为膜翅目昆虫,包括中华木蜂(Xylocopa sinensis Smith)、紫木蜂(Xylocopa valga Gestaecker)、黄胸木蜂(Xylocopa appendiculata Smith)、铜色隧蜂(Halictus aerarius Smith)、尖肩隧蜂(Halictus subopacus

  18. 湖南省农业野生植物资源现状与保护管理对策%Status Quo of Agricultural Wild Plant Resources in Hunan Province and Its Protecting and Administrating Strategies

    肖顺勇; 陈欣欣; 徐阜良; 周建成; 张梦; 尹丽辉


    Agricultural wild plant resources and its endangered status quo in Hunan province were introduced at first. Then, the progresses in the protection of agricultural wild plants in Hunan province were expounded, and then the problems existing in its protection and management were analyzed, including protecting cognition needs to be improved; scientific research needs to be strengthened; financial input should be increased. Based on these, some countermeasures and suggestions for protection of agricultural wild plant resources in Hunan province were put forward, such as carrying out general survey and knowing resources; doing a good advertising and improving cognitions; doing monitoring and warning and understanding dynamics; making a layers of protection and establishing a grading area;perfecting system and strengthening supervision; scientifically researching and rationally using.%介绍了湖南省农业野生植物资源及其濒危现状,阐述了湖南省农业野生植物保护工作进展,分析了湖南省农业野生植物保护管理存在保护意识有待提高、科学研究有待加强、财政投入有待加大等问题,在此基础上,提出了开展普查,掌握家底;抓好宣传,提升意识;监测预警,掌握动态;层层保护,分级建区;完善制度,强化监管;科学研究,合理利用等湖南省农业野生植物资源保护的对策和建议。

  19. Heavy metal pollution of soils and vegetables in the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province%湘江中下游农田土壤和蔬菜的重金属污染

    王莉霞; 郭朝晖; 肖细元; 陈同斌; 廖晓勇; 宋杰; 武斌


    A total of 219 agricultural soil and 48 vegetable samples were collected from the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River (the Hengyang-Changsha section) in Hunan Province. The accumulation characteristics, spatial distribution and potential risk of heavy metals in the agricultural soils and vegetables were depicted. There are higher accu- mulations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural soils, and the contents of Cd (2.44 mg kg-1), Pb (65.00 mg kg-1) and Zn (144.13 mg kg-1) are 7.97, 3.69 and 1.63 times the corresponding background contents in soils of Hunan Province, respectively. 13.2% of As, 68.5% of Cd, 2.7% of Cu, 2.7% of Ni, 8.7% of Pb and 15.1% of Zn in soil sam- ples from the investigated sites exceeded the maximum allowable heavy metal contents inthe China Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995, Grade II). The pollution characteristics of multi-metals in soils are mainly due to Cd. The contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in vegetable soils are significantly higher than the contents in paddy soils. 95.8%, 68.8%, 10.4% and 95.8% of vegetable samples exceeded the Maximum Levels of Contami- nants in Foods (GB2762-2005) for As, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations, respectively. There are significantly positive correlations between the concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in vegetables and the concentrations in the corresponding vegetable soils (p<0.01). It is very necessary to focus on the potential risk of heavy metals for food safety and human health in agricultural soils and vegetables in the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province of China.

  20. 湖南省疟疾发生的时空演化过程分析%Analysis of Temporal-spatial Evolution Process About Malaria in Hunan Province

    殷俊华; 曾绍琴; 李光强


    Objective To study the evolutionary pattern of malaria in Hunan Province from 1983 to 1992. Methods Using the quantitative expression method of the temporal - spatial evolution pattern based on the barycenter pattern and the data distribution of onset space as weighting factor, the annual barycentric coordinates of malaria were calculated, the barycenter transfer curve of malaria was generated, and then the temporal - spatial evolution process of malaria in Hunan Province was expressed quantitatively. Results After the analysis, the transfer curve of malaria evolution in Hunan Province during the period of 10 years was concluded, and it mainly showed a shifting process from northwest to southeast. Conclusions The feasibility and accuracy of the quantitative expression method of the temporal - spatial evolution pattern are proved through the contrast experiment. The results suggest that there is no correlation between the process pattern of malaria evolution and the spatial scale of statistical analysis.%目的 研究湖南省1983 - 1992年疟疾发展演化模型.方法 利用基于重心模型的时空演化模型定量化表达方法,并以发病空间分布数据为权重,通过计算每年度疟疾重心坐标,生成疟疾重心转移曲线,从而定量地表达湖南省疟疾的时空演化过程.结果 分析得出了全省10年间疟疾演化转移过程曲线,大致表现为由西北向东南转移.结论 通过对比实验证明方法的可行性与正确性;疟疾演化过程模型与统计分析的空间尺度无关.

  1. 湖南省全科医生转岗培训效果评价%Position Transition Training for General Practitioners in Hunan Province

    李君; 晏强; 谭晓东; 贺晓华; 方亦兵


    Objective To evaluate the effect of position transition training for general practitioners ( GPs ) in Hunan Province. Methods A survey was conducted among GPs who had participated in position transition training programs in 2010 in six randomly selected training bases of Hunan Province. Totally 420 questionnaire copies were distributed and 398 valid copies were collected. Results The subjects' sex ratio was 2. 06 : 1 ( male: female ), average age ( 34. 8 ±11. 2 ) years old, and average work experience ( 13. 0 ±6. 7 ) years. The proportion of assistant doctor, resident doctor, chief physician and above was 52.0% , 35.2% , and 12. 8% , respectively. The proportion of subjects with secondary technical diploma, junior college degree, and bachelor's degree was 16. 8% , 56. 8% , and 26. 4% , respectively. The proportion of full - time trainee and part -time trainee was 44. 2% and 55. 8% respectively. The average economic loss during the training program was ( 7 274. 7 ± 632. 9 ) yuan RMB. The subjects were good at clinical knowledge and skills, but poor at preventive healthcare knowledge and skills and auxiliary examination results. Conclusion Position transition training policies and measures, trainee selection criteria, training base construction, and teaching management should be improved and enhanced.%目的 评价湖南省全科医生转岗培训工作效果,为今后全科医生培养提供政策参考.方法 随机抽取6个全科医生转岗培训基地,对2010年度的培训学员进行整群抽样调查,发放问卷420份,回收有效问卷398份.结果 学员男女性别比为2.06:1,平均年龄(34.8±11.2)岁,平均工作年限(13.0±6.7)年;职称结构:助理医师占52.0%,执业医师占35.2%,主治以上职称医师占12.8%;学历结构:中专占16.8%,大专占56.8%,本科占26.4%.全脱产参与培训者占44.2%,半脱产参与培训者占55.8%;培训期间平均经济损失为(7 274.7±632.9)元.学员对临床知识技能的掌握情况较好,预

  2. Emergy of agro-ecosystem in Hunan Province: Evolution and trend%湖南省农业生态系统能值演变与趋势

    朱玉林; 李明杰


    应用能值分析方法,对1999-2008年湖南省农业生态系统的能值总量、投入和产出结构以及各能值指标的变化进行趋势分析.结果表明:研究期间,湖南省农业生态系统总能值使用投入量基本保持平稳,但能值投入结构有变化,其中,不可更新工业辅助能值投入量由4.00E+22 sej增至5.53E+22 sej,可更新有机能值投入量由1.32E+23 sej降至1.20E+23 sej;系统能值产出总量和产出效率均有较大幅度的提高,2008年总能值产出达1.69E+23 sej,比1999年提高23.8%,净能值产出率由0.79升至0.96;由于环境负载率也呈不断上升的趋势(由1.12上升到1.79),可持续发展指数呈缓慢下降趋势,由0.71降至0.54,说明湖南省农业总体属于高消费驱动型生态系统,具有较明显的粗放式发展特征.%By using emergy analysis method, a trend analysis was made on the total emergy, its input-output structure, and emergy indices of the agro-ecosystem in Hunan Province of South-central China from 1999 to 2008. In the study period, the available total emergy input of the ecosystem was basically maintained at a stable level, but the input structure changed with the input of non-renewable industrial auxiliary emergy increased from 4. 00E+22 sej in 1999 to 5. 53E+22 sej in 2008, while that of renewable organic emergy decreased from 1.32E+23 sej to 1.20E+23 sej. Both the total emergy output and the output efficiency of the ecosystem had a great increase, with the total output reached 1. 69E+23 sej in 2008, which was 23.8% higher than that in 1999, and the net output ratio increased from 0. 79 to 0.96. Owing to the ever-increasing trend of the environmental loading ratio which was from 1.12 to 1.79, the sustainable development index of the ecosystem presented a decreasing trend, from 0.71 to 0.54, indicating that the agriculture in Hunan Province was overall belonged to the type of ecosystem driven by high consumption, and had relatively apparent extensive

  3. 湖南图书馆学专业教育概述%A Summary of Library Science Education in Hunan Province

    刘意; 龚蛟腾


    湖南图书馆学专业教育从无到有、从弱到强,历经发轫、兴起、调整与提升四个阶段。1949-1978年为发轫阶段,图书馆事业不断发展致使图书馆学专业教育崭露头角。1978-1989年为兴起阶段,图书馆事业欣欣向荣促使图书馆学专业教育茁壮成长。1989-1998年为调整阶段,图书馆事业遭遇困境导致图书馆学专业教育面临变革。1998年至今为提升阶段,教科文事业日益繁荣推动图书馆学专业教育重新焕发生机。%The library science professional education has experienced a process from weak to strong in Hunan province, which can be divided into four stages:the initial stage of 1949-1978 , the arisen stage of 1978-1989 , the adjustment stage of 1989-1998 and the improving stage after 1998.At first, the library science education appeared as the librarianship rose, and had thrived rapidly with the development of librarianship.Subsequently, it had experienced an adjustment stage of 1989-1998 because of the stagnant librarianship.Since 1998 , the library science education has improved greatly again due to the prosperity of education, sci-ence and culture.

  4. Predicting Reoffending Using the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY): A 5-Year Follow-Up Study of Male Juvenile Offenders in Hunan Province, China

    Zhou, Jiansong; Witt, Katrina; Cao, Xia; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiaoping


    Background Juvenile violent offending is a serious worldwide public health issue. Objective The study examined whether the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) can be used to predict violent reoffending in Chinese male juvenile offenders, and to determine which risk/protective domains (items) are associated with violent recidivism. Methods A total of 246 male juvenile offenders were recruited. SAVRY domains were scored by trained raters based on file review and interviews with participants and their legal guardians. Information on further arrests, charges, or convictions for violent offences were collected from police records over a five year follow-up. Results Over the course of the five year follow-up periods, 63 (25.6%) juvenile offenders were re-arrested for a further violent reoffence. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses showed Areas Under the Curve (AUCs) ranging from 0.60 to 0.68 for the SAVRY total, risk and protective score domains. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that 7 of the 30 SAVRY items were significantly associated with reoffending; explaining 36.2% of the variance. Backward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed the independently predictive items were items 2 (‘history of non-violent offending’), 17 (‘negative attitudes’), 18 (‘risk-taking/impulsivity’), and 20 (‘anger management problems’). Together these four items explained 25.0% of the variance in reoffending. Conclusions The results suggested that the SAVRY can be meaningfully used to inform the development and evaluation of effective violence risk assessment and management approaches for male juvenile offenders detained in a Youth Detention Center in Hunan province, China. PMID:28076443

  5. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis.Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care.We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed.There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  6. The Development Situation and Prospects of Dairy Industry in Hunan Province in 2012%2012年湖南省奶业的发展状况与前景展望

    朱丹; 张婷; 张佩华; 王加启; 沈维军; 兰欣怡; 刘海林; 覃春富; 柴宇光


    为促进湖南省奶业发展,本文对2012年湖南省奶业信息进行了监测.监测结果表明,2012年湖南省奶牛存栏数比2011年下降59.8%.生鲜乳价格持续走低,而奶牛饲料价格普遍上涨.生鲜乳质量安全状况一般,防治费用较高,部分乳制品加工企业拖欠奶款严重,使奶牛养殖面临困境.%In order to promote the development of dairy industry in Hunan province,some information of dairy industry in this province was monitoned in this essay.The results showed that the total number of dairy herds in 2012 was 59.8% lower than which in 2011 in Hunan Province.Raw milk price declined continuously while the prices of dairy cattle feedstuffs generally rose.The quality of raw milk was mediocreby with the higher cost in prevention.Dairy farming was in trouble due to some of the dairy processing factories were seriously in arrears.

  7. A Study on Suicide Cognition of Medical Students in Hunan Province of China%湖南部分医学院学生自杀认知水平的调查研究

    冯珊珊; 肖水源; 白丽琼


    Objective:To study the knowledge about suicide among medical students in Hunan province of China and to provide scientific basis for preventing suicide. Methods:A total of 446 students were selected by random cluster sampling techniques and their knowledge of suicide was assessed by the Suicide Knowledge Questionnaire. Results, The correctness rates of three schools were 58.29%, 59.14% and 57.94% respectively. School teaching was the main channel for medical students to obtain suicide knowledge. Conclusion: Medical students have not received adequate education on suicide, and have some severe misunderstanding about suicide.

  8. 湖南省1808例犯罪精神病人司法精神病学鉴定资料分析%Study on the Forensic Psychiatric Assessment of 1808 Criminal Insanes in Hunan Province

    陈伟华; 周亮; 邬力祥; 肖水源; 黎芝


    目的:探讨湖南省司法精神病学鉴定结果为无/限定刑事责任能力的犯罪精神病人的特征.方法:利用自编档案资料采集表,对湖南省2005 -2009年经司法精神病学鉴定为无/限定刑事责任能力的1808例犯罪精神病人进行资料收集.结果:1808例犯罪精神病人中,生活在农村的未婚中青年男性占绝大多数,受教育程度较低,职业以农民为主,犯罪类型中以故意杀人罪(39.0%)和故意伤害罪(31.1%)分布最多,精神障碍诊断类型中以精神病性障碍(79.1%)最多,接受强制治疗者有284(15.7%)例.结论:湖南省犯罪精神病人大多数为农村中青年男性,接受强制治疗的比例很低.%Objective: To describe the characteristics of forensic psychiatrics expertise of criminal insanes in Hunan province. Methods: Data on 1808 criminal insanes in Hunan province from 2005 to 2009 were collected by self-compiled archive-collected table. Results: From 2005 to 2009, a total of 1808 criminal insanes were identified in Hunan Province. The majority of the 1808 cases were male, young and middle-aged, lived in rural area, and had low education level. The main types of the criminal cases were homicide and intentional injury, and psychotic disorder ranked the first mental illness diagnosis. Conclusion: Only a small proportion of criminal insanes had received compulsory treatment in Hunan province.

  9. 湖南省蚱总科的调查(直翅目)%A survey of Tetrigoidea from Hunan province (Orthoptera)



    5 families,19 genera and 36 species of Tetrigoidea from Hunan province are recorded in the present study,among them three species are new to science,i.e.Mazarredia hupingshanen-sis sp.nov.,Mazarredia hunanensis sp.nov.and Aalatettix hupingshanensis sp.nov. Mazarredia hupingshanensis allied to Mazarredia convexa Deng,Zheng & Wei, 2007,but differs in:1)width of frontal ridge which between antennae is wider than that of first segment of antenna;2)upper margin of pronotum with slightly wave-like in profile;3)hind process of pronotum reaching the top of hind femur;4)lower margin of midfemur straight;5) lower outer side of hind femur with no black;6)hind tibia with brown. Length of body:♂6 mm;length of pronotum:♂6 mm;length of hind femur:♂5 mm. Holotype ♂,Hunan:Shimen(Hupingshan),17-Sept.-2004,collected by Wang Ji-Liang. Mazarredia hunanensis allied to Mazarredia platynota Zheng et Ou,2010,but differs in:1 )vertex and frontal ridge forming an obtuse rounded in profile;2)frontal ridge slightly concave before lateral oculus in profile;3)lateral oculus being in the middle of the anteri-or margin of eyes;4)upper margin of pronotum slightly wave-like before shoulders and straight behind it in profile;5)width of midfemur is narrower than the width of tegmina;6)lower outer side of hind femur with no black;7)hind tibia brown. Length of body:♀9 mm;length of pronotum:♀10 mm;length of hind femur:♀5.2 mm. Holotype ♀,Hunan:Yuangling,1-Sept.-2004,collected by Wang Ji-Liang. Aalatettix hupingshanensis allied to Aalatettix leshanensis Zheng,Cao & Chen, 2011 and Aalatettix cangshanensis Zheng,Lin & Zhang,2013.It differs from both in:1)vertex and frontal ridge forming a rounded in profile;2)upper margin of pronotum nearly straight in profile;3)hind process of pronotum reaching knee of hind femur.The new species also differs from A.cangshanensis in:1)vertex protruding before the anterior margin of eyes in dorsal view;2)lower margin of midfemur

  10. Cognition on Emerging Infectious Diseases of Rural Doctors in Hunan Province%湖南省3个县乡村医务人员对新发传染病认知水平调查

    邓常青; 杨倩; 钟贵良


    目的:了解湖南省3个县乡村医生对新发传染病认知水平,为农村新发传染病防治提供科学依据。方法应用自行设计的调查表,采用多级抽样的方法,抽取湖南省3个县(长沙县、平江县、邵东县)9个乡卫生院的乡村医生共209名作为调查对象,了解乡村医生基本情况、对新发传染病相关知识的知晓情况、对几种常见和不常见新发传染病知识知晓情况、对新发传染病政策相关知识知晓情况、新发传染病知识知晓主要途径等。结果本组调查对象对严重急性呼吸综合征(severe acute respiratory syndromes, SARS)、甲型H1N1流感等常见新发传染病的相关知识有一定程度的了解,尤其是SARS和甲型H1N1流感的传播途径知晓率达80.9%;对不常见的新发传染病,如埃博拉出血热病毒、莱姆病的相关知识知晓率偏低;对于新发传染病政策相关知识正确率较低,最低的是“甲类传染病未实行网络直报报告时间”一项,知晓率仅为4.3%。对新发传染病知识知晓途径通过培训获得的仅占5.3%。结论应加大乡村医生新发传染病防治相关知识、政策及操作技能的培训力度,扩大培训方式,提高其新发传染病防治能力。%Objective To understand the cognition on emerging infectious diseases of rural doctors in Hunan province, to provide a scientific basis for preventing emerging infectious diseases in rural areas. Methods With multistage sampling, totally 209 doctors from rural hospitals in 9 towns of 3 counties (Changsha County, Pingjiang County, Shaodong County) in Hunan Province were investigated by self-designed questionnaires to understand the basic information of rural doctors, their basic knowledge on emerging infectious diseases, the understanding of the policies regarding emerging infectious diseases, the way to know emerging infectious diseases, etc. Results Most of the respondents knew much on

  11. Investigation of anaplasmosis in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China

    Lijuan Zhang; Feng Cui; Lingling Wang; Lingling Zhang; Jingshan Zhang; Shiwen Wang; Shuxia Yang


    Objective:To investigate the situation of anaplasmosis in Yiyuan county, Shandong Province. Methods:A total of 26 blood samples from febrile patients suspected of anaplasmosis,48 blood samples from healthy farmers,8 from dogs, and10 from goats and170 ticks were collected in the same area during2005-2007, and detected by serological and molecular methods.Results:Eight confirmed cases and6probable cases were determined using serologic and molecular methods. The seroprevalence ofAnaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum) was26.7%in healthy cases. Nine out of10sheep samples and7 out of8 dog samples reacted positively to theA. phagocytophilumantigen.PCR amplification and sequencing of the16SrRNA ofA. phagocytophilum gene showed that some samples from patients, goats and ticks were100% identical. The seroprevalence ofRickettsia typhi was22.9%,Orientia tsutsugamushi6.3%, Rickettsia sibirica27.1%,Coxiella burnetii18.8%,Bartonella henselae31.3%, andBorrelia burgdorferi41.6%.Conclusions: It is important to make differential diagnosis of febrile patients and to apply treatment with specific antibiotics. It is needed to enforce essential prevention and control measures including tick control and to improve sanitation conditions.


    GE Ying; PU Ying-xia; YAO Shi-mou


    Agglomeration economies are the important factors for the regional development. However, the common indicators to measure them, such as Gini Coefficients neglect the spatial ingredient of data, leading to a-spatial estimates. In order to assess spatial neighbor effects of agglomeration economies, this study makes the new attempts by applying a series of techniques of spatial autocorrelation analysis, specifically, measuring the economies of urbanization and localization at the county level in the secondary and tertiary industries of Jiangsu Province in 1999 and 2002. The conclusions in this study reveal that on the whole, the localization effects on the economies of the secondary industry might be stronger than urbanization effects for that period, and highly agglomerative economies were limited within the southern Jiangsu and parts of middle along the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. Moreover, the tertiary industry has been strong urbanization rather than localization economies in the whole Jiangsu. Unlike the secondary industry, the tertiary industry held the high levels of agglomeration economies can be also found in the poor northern Jiangsu, and then the spatial clusters of trade and services might be basically seen in each of urban districts in 13 cities. All in all, spatial autocorrelation analysis is a better method to test agglomeration economies.

  13. Analysis on the Assessment and Influencing Factors of Food Security in Hunan Province%湖南省粮食安全评价及影响因素分析



    Hunan province is China's major grain producing areas,and its food security situation has an important influence on the regional and national food security.Considered of the factors of food supply,food consumption,food reserves and food redeployment,this paper builds food security index to measure the regional food security situation,and estimates it in Hunan province.The results show that the food security level of Hunan is in above the basic safety from 1996 to 2009.The amount of cultivated land per capita and level of output per unit of cultivated land is the main factors affecting food security in Hunan province.The food consumption,food reserves and food redeployment is relatively stable,which impact on food security is not obvious.But in the foreseeable future period,the extent of the impact of these factors will significantly enhance.We need to formulate the scientific and reasonable food security policy.%湖南作为我国粮食主产区,其粮食安全状况对区域乃至全国粮食安全具有重要的影响。综合考虑粮食供给、粮食消费、粮食储备和粮食外调因素,构建"粮食安全指数"来衡量区域粮食安全状况,并对湖南省的粮食安全状况进行测算,结果表明:湖南省1996—2009年的粮食安全水平处于基本安全及以上等级。人均耕地数量、单位耕地产出水平是影响湖南省粮食安全的主要因素,粮食消费量、粮食储备量和粮食外调量相对稳定,对粮食安全的影响不明显,但在未来可预见的时期内,这些因素的影响程度将明显增加,需要制定科学合理的粮食安全保障政策。

  14. 湖南柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的危害特点研究初报%The Damage Characteristics of Tetradacus citri Chen on Different Citrus Varieties in Hunan Province

    林文力; 杨水芝; 潘美山; 陈海玲; 黄泽培; 龙建国; 肖伏莲


    采用定点观察和普查的方式对湖南省吉首市、麻阳县柑橘大实蝇的危害特点进行了研究.结果表明:柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的危害时间由早到晚依次为:脐橙>温洲蜜柑>冰糖橙≥大红甜橙=广柑>椪柑;其危害最严重的品种是脐橙,虫果率达63%,其次是早熟温洲蜜柑和冰糖橙,达22%,再次是椪柑,达6%;同时还发现,柑橘不同品种果皮表面存在产卵假痕迹现象.这些结果可为柑橘大实蝇的防治提供理论参考依据.%The damage characteristics of Tetradacus citri Chen in Mayang County, Jishou City, Hunan Province were investigated by fixed-point observation method and general survey method. The results indicated that the harm time of Tetradacus citri Chen on different varieties of citrus ordered as navel orange>satsuma mandarin>Citrus sinensis ^Citrus sineasis Osbeck cv. Dahong= Citrussinensis (L.) Osbeck >Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan; the damage level of Tetradacus citri Chen on different varieties of citrus ordered as navel orange>early mature satsuma mandarin and Citrus sinensis >dtrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan, and the insect infestation ratio of navel orange, early mature satsuma mandarin, Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan was 63%, 22%, 22% and 6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the research also showed that there are fake oviposition traces of Tetradacus citri Chen on the Peels of different varieties of citrus. These results above can provide the theory basis for the control of Tetradacus citri Chen.

  15. The Development Current Situation and Prospects of Dairy Industry in Hunan Province in 2013%2013年湖南省奶业发展现状与前景展望

    韩奇鹏; 李松励; 张养东; 张佩华; 朱丹; 张婷; 刘海林


    To regain the people's confidence in the dairy industry in Hunan province, this article in 2013 conducted an investigation on the development status of dairy industry. Survey results showed that, although the number of dairy cows in Hunan province in 2013 fell 0.96% over 2012, but raw milk prices continued to rise, and dairy feed was used more scientific and rational. Meanwhile, the quality and safety situation of raw milk had been greatly improved. Through government support and corporate restructuring, some dairy products processing enterprises have pay off the milk of dairy farmers. By the introduction of domestic and foreign advanced equipment and the management idea, there will be new development for dairy breeding in Hunan.%本文对2013年湖南省奶业的发展现状进行了调研,调研结果表明,虽然2013年湖南省奶牛存栏数比2012年下降0.96%,但是生鲜乳价格持续上涨,而且奶牛饲料使用更加科学合理。同时,生鲜乳质量安全状况得到了很大改善。通过政府的支持和企业改组,部分乳制品加工企业拖欠奶农的奶款已经基本还清,同时引进国内外先进设备和管理思路,使湖南奶牛养殖业进入新的发展阶段。

  16. Vulnerability Assessment of Snow Disaster Based on Traffic System: A Case Study of Chenzhou City in Hunan Province, China

    Xu Xiaoge; Wang Jingai


    The article establishes the patterns of urban snow di-saster system and disaster chain based on the theory of regional disaster system. The patterns indicate that urban snow disaster is exacerbated mainly through the traffic system. In addition, the paper sets up the vulnerability assessment index system and synthetically vulnerability assessment model of urban snow disaster which are mainly based on traffic system, and applies them in Chenzhou City. The results of assessment indicate that obvious geographical differences exist in the vulnerability of snow disaster bearing bodies: vulnerability of Chenzhou section of the Beijing-Zhuhai expressway is the highest in Chenzhou City, and the southeastern counties are more vulnerable than the northwest region. Furthermore, according to the snow disaster vulnerability dynamic process analysis, the vulnerability of Chenzhou City obviously increased in 2008 winter compared with that in 2007. Finally, the paper presents some suggestions for the locations of the emergency commands and the reserves of relief materials based on the evaluation results, and points out that disaster monitoring and relevant technical level should be strengthened for the minimization of traffic system's vulner-ability.

  17. The pteridophyte diversity of the Danxia landform in Hunan Province, China%湖南丹霞地貌区蕨类植物多样性

    严岳鸿; 何祖霞; 马其侠; 周喜乐; 陆奇勇


    丹霞地貌是有别于石灰岩地貌和花岗岩地貌的特殊地貌类型,发育着较为独特的植被类型和植物区系.我们于2007-2010年间对湖南新宁崀山、茶陵浣溪、平江石牛寨、资兴程江口、浏阳达浒、通道万佛山、沅陵五强溪夸父山、溆浦思蒙等地丹霞地貌的蕨类植物进行了广泛调查,报道了湖南丹霞地貌区蕨类植物31科66属183种的详细名录.其中,无腺姬蕨(Hypolepis polypodioides)、隐囊蕨(Notholaena hirsuta)、仙霞铁线蕨(Adiantum juxtapositum)、百山祖短肠蕨(Allantodia baishanzuensis)、肉质短肠蕨(A.succulenta)、骨碎补铁角蕨(Asplenium ritoerse)、钝齿耳蕨(Polystichum deltodon var.henryi)、无盖耳蕨(P.gymnocarpium)、单羽耳蕨(P.simplicipinnum)、二型肋毛蕨(Ctenitis dingnanensis)等9种为湖南新记录种.湖南丹霞地貌的蕨类植物种类组成主要有鳞毛蕨科、蹄盖蕨科、水龙骨科、金星蕨科、卷柏科、铁角蕨科等较大科及鳞毛蕨属(Dryopteris)、卷柏属(Selaginella)、铁角蕨属(Asplenium)、短肠蕨属(Allantodia)和凤尾蕨属(Pteris)等较大属.生态适应特点分析表明丹霞地貌既有喜钙质土的种类,也有喜酸性土的种类,仙霞铁线蕨和无盖耳蕨可能是丹霞地貌的特有植物,因而具有石灰岩地貌蕨类植物区系和花岗岩地貌蕨类植物区系之间的过渡性特点.建议将垫状卷柏(Selaginella pulvinata)、福建观音座莲Angiopteris fokiensis)、仙霞铁线蕨、骨碎补铁角蕨、鞭叶蕨(Cyrtomidictyum lepidocaulon)、无盖耳蕨等种类列为丹霞地貌蕨类植物中的优先保护种类,将通道万佛山三十六湾、湖南沅陵夸父山列为丹霞地貌蕨类植物的优先保护地区.%The Danxia landform is a unique landscape type with a high level of floral endemism. Herein, we report the fern flora of Danxia landform in Hunan Province. We complete comprehensive surveys of pteri-dophytes in the Danxia landform

  18. Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events on crop yield: a case study in Hunan Province, China

    Wang, Zhu; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Zhao; Meng, Yongchang; Luan, Yibo; Wang, Jiwei


    Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations and extreme events on crop yield is of paramount importance to climate change adaptation, resilience, and mitigation. Previous studies lack systematic and explicit assessment of these three fundamental aspects of climate change on crop yield. This research attempts to separate out the impacts on rice yields of climatic trend (linear trend change related to mean value), fluctuations (variability surpassing the "fluctuation threshold" which defined as one standard deviation (1 SD) of the residual between the original data series and the linear trend value for each climatic variable), and extreme events (identified by absolute criterion for each kind of extreme events related to crop yield). The main idea of the research method was to construct climate scenarios combined with crop system simulation model. Comparable climate scenarios were designed to express the impact of each climate change component and, were input to the crop system model (CERES-Rice), which calculated the related simulated yield gap to quantify the percentage impacts of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events. Six Agro-Meteorological Stations (AMS) in Hunan province were selected to study the quantitatively impact of climatic trend, fluctuations and extreme events involving climatic variables (air temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration) on early rice yield during 1981-2012. The results showed that extreme events were found to have the greatest impact on early rice yield (-2.59 to -15.89%). Followed by climatic fluctuations with a range of -2.60 to -4.46%, and then the climatic trend (4.91-2.12%). Furthermore, the influence of climatic trend on early rice yield presented "trade-offs" among various climate variables and AMS. Climatic trend and extreme events associated with air temperature showed larger effects on early rice yield than other climatic variables, particularly for high-temperature events (-2.11 to -12

  19. An Outbreak Investigation of Brucellosis in Hunan Province%湖南省一起布鲁氏菌病疫情的爆发调查

    谭庆辉; 曹琰; 熊德友


    2015年11月,湖南省娄底市动物疫病预防控制中心实验室在秋季动物疫病抗体水平监测过程中发现了一起布鲁氏菌病疫情。本次疫情共有确诊病例89例,袭击率为25%(89/356)。其中,确诊牛4例,袭击率为33.3%(4/12);确诊羊85例,袭击率为24.7%(85/344)。阳性户数为7户,群流行率为41.2%(7/17)。经调查,该起疫情由不规范引种引起,并通过传统放牧、配种等行为,导致出现一定程度的扩散。通过采取监测、扑杀、消毒等措施,有效控制了该起疫情。%An outbreak of Brucellosis in Hunan Province was discovered in the process of monitoring animal diseases antibody levels in autumn by the laboratory of Loudi Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center in November 2015. The results showed that 89 cases were confirmed,and the attack rate was 25%(89/356). Among them,the cattle attack rate was 33.3%(4/12),the goats attack rate was 33.3%(4/12). The number of positive livestock farms was 7 and the herd prevalence rate was 41.2%(7/17). According to the investigation,this outbreak was caused by non-standard breeding stock introduction,and then was spread via traditional grazing and mating. Finally,it was in the effective control of the local bureau of animal husbandry and veterinary by the measures of monitoring,culling and disinfecting.

  20. 湖南省公路交通暴雨风险评价研究%Assessment of rainstorm risk to highway in Hunan Province

    武永峰; 张勇; 陈鲜艳; 尚赞娣; 刘布春


    Supported by geographic information system (GIS) technique and gray comprehensive assessment meth- od, this study set up a rainstorm risk evaluation model of highway based on the raster data, through which the rain- storm risk of the highways in Hunan Province were evaluated. The risks of the rainstom were graded into low, mid- dle, relatively high, high and very high. The results of the risk evaluation are validated using the local disaster los- ses and shows that the regions with the serious road washouts are mainly distributed in Yueyang, Yongzhou, Chenz- hou, Changde, Zhangjiajie, Xiangxi and Loudi, and their rainstorm risks are greater than that of other regions. The mostly damaged highways locate in the high risk areas and above it. It is proved that the risk model is effective for the assessment on the rainstorm risk of the highways. boundaries and reveals the spatiotemporal patterns of the support forecasts of the rainstorm disaster of highways. The model breaks through the limitation of administrative rainstorm risk of the highways, even supplies a technical%以湖南省为例,在地理信息系统技术和灰色综合评价方法的支持下,建立了基于栅格数据的公路交通暴雨风险评价模型,对湖南省公路交通暴雨风险状况进行了评价与分析。结果表明:公路水毁情况严重的岳阳、永州、郴州、常德、张家界、湘西以及娄底等地,其暴雨风险水平亦较高;受灾国道和省道几乎均处于较重度以上暴雨风险区。说明本风险评价模型具有一定的可信度。基于栅格数据层建立的公路交通暴雨风险评价从空间上突破了行政界限的制约,突出显示了公路受灾风险的时空格局,为公路暴雨灾害预报提供了技术支持。

  1. Use of Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry Technique to model Danxia red bed landform slope stability by discrete element modeling - case study at Mt. Langshan, Hunan Province, China

    Simonson, Scott; Hua, Peng; Luobin, Yan; Zhi, Chen


    Important to the evolution of Danxia landforms is how the rock cliffs are in large part shaped by rock collapse events, ranging from small break offs to large collapses. Quantitative research of Danxia landform evolution is still relatively young. In 2013-2014, Chinese and Slovak researchers conducted joint research to measure deformation of two large rock walls. In situ measurements of one rock wall found it to be stable, and Ps-InSAR measurements of the other were too few to be validated. Research conducted this year by Chinese researchers modeled the stress states of a stone pillar at Mt. Langshan, in Hunan Province, that toppled over in 2009. The model was able to demonstrate how stress states within the pillar changed as the soft basal layer retreated, but was not able to show the stress states at the point of complete collapse. According to field observations, the back side of the pillar fell away from the entire cliff mass before the complete collapse, and no models have been able to demonstrate the mechanisms behind this behavior. A further understanding of the mechanisms controlling rockfall events in Danxia landforms is extremely important because these stunning sceneries draw millions of tourists each year. Protecting the tourists and the infrastructure constructed to accommodate tourism is of utmost concern. This research will employ a UAV to as universally as possible photograph a stone pillar at Mt. Langshan that stands next to where the stone pillar collapsed in 2009. Using the recently developed structure-from-motion technique, a 3D model of the pillar will be constructed in order to extract geometrical data of the entire slope and its structural fabric. Also in situ measurements will be taken of the slope's toe during the field work exercises. These data are essential to constructing a realistic discrete element model using the 3DEC code and perform a kinematic analysis of the rock mass. Intact rock behavior will be based on the Mohr Coulomb

  2. Hunan Concentrated on Improving Development Quality and Performance of Nonferrous Metalslndustry


    The Working Conference of Hunan Province Nonferrous Metals Industry was recently held in Changsha.Chen Quanxun,Counselor of theState Council,and President of China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association,said that under the economic new normal stage,Hunan Province nonferrous metals industry

  3. 湖南省物流装备制造业集群构建分析%The Build Analysis of Logistics Equipment Manufacturing Industry Cluster in Hunan Province

    邓爱民; 小平; 文慧; 田流


    分析了我国物流业快速发展下的物流装备制造业及其产业集群带来的发展机遇,湖南省作为装备制造业大省有优势和实力发展物流装备制造业。本文在波特-珰宁模型的基础上,首次引入装备制造业中的龙头(核心)企业作用,构建基于核心企业的装备制造业集群竞争力模型,由此从生产要素、需求条件、龙头(核心)企业、相关产业和支持产业的表现、企业战略、结构和竞争对手、国际合作与跨国公司、政府行为和机遇等八个方面,进行具有竞争力的湖南物流装备制造业集群构建分析,以期为湖南物流装备制造业集群发展提供决策依据。%the author analyzes the development opportunity of the logistics equipment manufactur-ing industry and its cluster with the logistics industry rapid development in our country under, Hunan province, as a powerful province of equipment manufacturing industry, has advantages and strength to development of logistics equipment manufacturing industry. Based on Porter-Dangning model in this pa-per, firstly introducing the role of a leading (core) enterprise in equipment manufacturing industry, con-structs a competitive model of equipment manufacturing industry cluster, on this basis, from the factors of production, demand conditions, leading (core) enterprises, the performance of the relevant industry and support industry, enterprise strategy, structure and competition, international cooperation and multina-tional companies, government behavior and the opportunity, such as eight aspects to analyze a competi-tive building of logistics equipment manufacturing industry cluster of in Hunan province,in order to provide a basis for decision-making in logistics equipment manufacturing industry cluster development of Hunan province.

  4. A Research of Industrial Structure Optimization under Low-Carbon Constrains in Hunan Province%低碳约束下湖南省产业结构优化研究

    谢锐; 刘岑婕; 屈晓翔


    在湖南省“十二五”规划工业产业节能减排的背景下,如何在碳减排目标的基础上,实现产业结构优化,成为湖南省面临的重大挑战.本文构建低碳约束下湖南省主导产业选择指标体系,计算并选取湖南省无低碳约束和有低碳约束下的主导产业.进一步,本文设计无低碳约束、弱低碳约束和强低碳约束三种情景模拟,分析不同的低碳约束条件对湖南省主导产业选择的影响.本文结论如下:1)无低碳约束条件下,湖南省主导产业包括有色金属冶炼及压延加工业等碳生产力较低的行业,低碳约束条件下,湖南省主导产业包括食品制造业等碳生产力较高的行业.这表明,考虑低碳约束条件,湖南省主导产业由碳生产力较低的行业向碳生产力较高的行业转变.2)情景模拟结果表明,一些传统支柱型产业仍是湖南省产业结构优化中需重点发展的产业,且随着低碳政策的深化和节能减排目标的扩大,战略性产业如医药制造业成为主导产业,在产业结构优化中发挥中坚作用.%In the background of industrial energy conservation in the Hunan “Twelfth Five Year Plan”,how to achieve the industrial structure optimization on the basis of carbon reduction becomes a major challenge in Hunan Province.We devel-oped the leading industries index system under low carbon constraint.Then,we selected the leading industries without carbon constraint or with low carbon constraint.This paper also designed three scenario simulation———without carbon constraints, weak carbon constraint and strong carbon constraint———to analyze how different carbon constraints influence the choice of the leading industries in Hunan Province.The conclusions are as follows:1 )Without carbon constraint,the leading industries in Hunan are industries with lower carbon productivity like non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing industry

  5. 湖南省某县医院门诊病人满意度及影响因素分析%Analysis of Satisfaction and Determinants Among Out-patients of a County Hospital in Hunan

    张权义; 秦家碧; 杨土保


    Objective To investigate the basic situation of out- patients end the current status of satisfaction in a county hospital of Hunan Province, and to analyze the determinants of satisfaction for the out- patients. Methods Using a random sampling method, the satisfaction of the out- patients in a county hospital wes surveyed with a self- designed questionnaire. The questionnaire wes developed to collect the information about the besic characteristics of the out- patients, such as age, gender, occupation, educational level, medical visiting and household income. The 7 questions about satisfaction survey included treatment effect, medical procedure, service attitude of medical staff, waiting time, hospital enviroment, medical cost and others. Cronbach's α coefficient wes calculated to evaluate the internal consistency of the satisfaction questionnaire.Means, median value and frequencies were used to describe the data. T- rank test and analysis of variance ranked, rank correlation analysis were used for the univariate analysis. The multiple Logistic regression models were performed to estimate the determinants of satisfaction in the out- patients. Results The questionnaire with 0.96 of Cronbach's αlpha for total items,end ranging from 0.64 to 0.90 for each item showed a high level of internal consistence. The satisfaction rates of out - patients varied from 96.4% to 98.4% among various items, and the total satisfaction rate was 97.3%. The satisfaction of outpatients associated with annual household income, medical expenses and the reasons of medical visiting. Conclusions There is a high level of out- patient satisfaction with those medical services in rural areas of this county.%目的 了解湖南省某县门诊病人的一般基本情况以及满意度现状,并分析患者满意度的影响因素.方法 采用随机抽样方法 对某县医院就诊的门诊病人进行满意度问卷调查.采用自制调查问卷,内容包括患者的一般情况如年龄

  6. Agricultural Vocational Education Development Research under the Background of Modern Agriculture--Take Hu'nan Province as an example%现代农业背景下的农业职业教育发展研究--以湖南省为例



    This paper through the development of modern agriculture situation in Hunan Province, looking for development opportunities under the background of modern agricultural development of vocational education, professional development of Hunan agricultural proposed tasks and requirements.%文章通过对湖南省现代农业发展形势分析,寻找现代农业发展背景下职业教育的发展机遇,提出了湖南农业职业发展的任务和要求。

  7. 湖南省城市健身广场舞的发展现状及策略研究%Development Status of Urban Fitness Square Dancing in Hunan Province and Strategy Research

    赵琼霞; 李佳川; 覃玉琴; 岳丽丽; 潘莉君


    Through randomly conducting questionnaire among 1200 urban fitness square dancers in Hunan province and with methods of literature and mathematical statistics,the paper carries out study on development status of urban fitness square dancing in Hunan province and discovers such problems as imbalance of gender, concentrated age structure,insufficient professional guidance in square dancing development.The paper also analyzes major attributing reasons and gives an all -round and multi -angle analysis of urgent problems brought by square dancing such as noise pollution and space occupation.The paper comes up with corresponding strategies for solution from the perspective of sustainable development with the aim to provide certain theoretical basis for construction of urban community sports culture,the development and promotion of square dancing in Hunan province.%本文通过随机抽取1200名湖南省部分城市广场舞参与者进行问卷调查,结合文献资料法和数理统计等研究方法,对现阶段湖南省城市健身广场舞的开展现状进行研究,发现广场舞开展中存在性别比例失调、年龄结构过于集中、缺少专业指导等问题,并分析形成此现状的主要原因,全方位、多角度剖析广场舞所带来的“噪音污染”、“占用场地”等亟待解决的问题,从可持续发展角度提出相应的解决策略,为湖南省城市社区体育文化建设,广场舞的发展及完善提供一定的理论参考依据。

  8. 湖南水稻生产风险信息采集标准化体系研究%Information Collection Standardization System for Rice Production Risk in Hunan Province

    李丹; 张焕裕; 彭新德; 汪翔


    Food security is a worldwide major problem, so establishing an early warning system for rice production risk is very important. The position and importance of rice production in Hunan agriculture were described at first, and then the principles of information collection standards, the methods of device information collection and manual information collection and the layout and the construction of information collection websites for rice production risk in Hunan province were analyzed. In the end, the countermeasures and advices were discussed for the future works.%粮食安全问题一直是世界性重大问题,建立水稻生产风险预警体系至关重要.阐述了水稻生产在湖南农业中的地位和重要性,分析了湖南水稻生产风险信息采集标准的原则、设备信息采集和人工信息采集的方法、信息采集网点的布局和建设等,并讨论了后续工作的对策和建议.

  9. 基于钻石模型的湖南省农业产业集群分析%Analysis of Agricultural Industry Cluster in Hunan Province by Diamond Model

    郭菁; 胡麦秀


    基于波特的钻石模型,从生产要素,需求状况,相关与辅助产业,企业战略、结构和同业竞争等4个关键因素,及机会和政府行为2个辅助因素,对湖南省农业产业集群的现状进行了简述和相关分析,提出在当前大力推进现代化农业建设的背景下,湖南应大力发展农业产业集群,促进现代农业建设.%Based on Michael Porter's Diamond Model, the status quo of agricultural industry cluster in Hunan Province was reviewed and analyzed from four key factors (production factors, demand status, related and assistant industry,strategy and structure of enterprise and horizontal competition) and two assistant factors (opportunity and government behavior).It proposed that under the background of vigorously promoting modem agricultural construction at present,Hunan should greatly develop agricultural industry cluster and promote modem agricultural construction.

  10. Analysis of agricultural grey water footprint in Hunan Province based on different receiving water bodies%基于不同受纳水体的湖南省农业灰水足迹分析

    王丹阳; 李景保; 叶亚亚; 谭芬芳


    提出基于不同受纳水体的灰水足迹,引入水环境荷载指数,计算1985—2013年湖南省农业生产造成的灰水足迹,比较该省地表和地下水的污染状况。并使用IPAT模型,将灰水足迹与农业经济发展和技术进步结合分析,为湖南省的水环境保护和农业可持续发展决策提供参考。结果表明:近29年来湖南省农业生产造成的灰水足迹呈递增趋势,地表与地下水灰水足迹之比约为7︰3;地表水环境荷载指数较低,环境状况优于地下水,但两水体的环境状况都呈现恶化趋势;湖南省农业可持续发展经历了3个阶段,初期技术进步占据主导,中后期农业经济发展加速,而农业技术则在经过瓶颈阶段后重获发展。%A concept of the grey water footprint based on different receiving water bodies is proposed, and the water environment load index is introduced. We calculated the grey water footprint caused by agricultural production in Hunan Province during the period from 1985 to 2013 , and compared the statuses of surface water pollution and groundwater pollution in this province. Using the IPAT model, we analyzed the grey water footprint jointly with the agricultural economy and agricultural technology, providing references for water environment protection and agricultural sustainable development in Hunan Province. The results show the following:over the last 29 years, the grey water footprint caused by agricultural production in Hunan Province has shown an increasing trend;the ratio of the grey water footprint of surface water to the grey water footprint of groundwater has been about 7 ︰ 3; and the surface water environment load index has been lower than the groundwater environment load index, indicating that the environmental condition of surface water was better than that of groundwater, but both showed a deteriorating trend. The sustainable development of agriculture in Hunan Province has experienced

  11. Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factor of County-level Industrial Development in Liaoning Province of China

    GAO Xiaona; MA Yanji


    County-level industrial development and structure upgrade is one of the most important issues of revitaliz-ing old industrial base of China. ARer the cluster analysis on GDP per capita and GDP per area of each county inLiaoning Province, this paper finds the similarity of population size, land use intensity, and economic development ofeach county. Location quotient reflects the specialization intensity of industries in each county, and it also reflects thespatial differences of county-level industrial development. Economic development level is higher in the southeast thanin the northwest of Liaoning, and the industry driving effect on county-level economy is apparent. The main influenc-ing factors include location, industrial foundation and economic system reform, capital input level, knowledge andtechnology dissemination, conditions of domestic and overseas markets, population and labor force transfer. Industri-alization is an important approach to urbanization for the counties in Liaoning Province. The proportion of agricultureis much higher in the northwest than in the southeast of Liaoning, so it will be take longer time for counties in thenorthwest of Liaoning to make industrialization, urbanization and modernization.


    莫宏伟; 李少青; 陶建军; 刘晗; 肖志坤


    Risk zoning of flood disaster is the base of flood risk management.The advance in resolution of data can guide flood control,and flood insurance in a macroscopic view is available.Taking the catchment area along Xiangjiang River in Hunan Province as an example,and on the basis of elementary principles of natural disasters risk assessment,calculative model was established to obtain comprehensive flood disaster risk value which was computed by the integrated dangerous degree and comprehensive socio-economic vulnerability.Based on 30 m ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model(GDEM) data,climate data from 37 meteorological stations during 1971 to 2006,and 2008 socioeconomic statistic data,with the support of ArcGIS and quantitative geo-science methods,the regionalization map of comprehensive risk of flood disaster in study area was drawn by calculating proportion of risk areas.The regionalization map divided general risk assessed results mainly into four grades,that is,the lower risk region,moderate risk region,higher risk region and the highest risk regions.The results show that the highest integrated dangerous degree of flood disaster areas are mainly distributed in Xiangyin and Chang-Zhu-Tan region which along the lower reaches of Xiangjiang River.The highest comprehensive socioeconomic vulnerability areas is distributed in urban that in high population density.Xiangyin,Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan and Hengyang belong to the highest comprehensive flood disaster risk areas.The results can provide quantitatively theoretic basis for environmental management and ecological risk decision-making.%以湘江湖南段河流沿线地区为例,基于自然灾害风险评价的基本原理构建了洪水灾害综合风险值计算模型,即综合危险度和综合社会经济易损度的叠加。利用研究区全球数字高程模型(GDEM)数据、1971~2007年地面气象站观测数据和2008年社会经济统计数据等,借助地理信息系统(GIS)技术和地学

  13. Early-warning of Land Ecological Security in Hunan Province Based on RBF%基于RBF的湖南省土地生态安全动态预警

    徐美; 朱翔; 刘春腊


    基于1996-2010年湖南省土地生态安全的相关数据,从压力、状态、响应3方面构建湖南省土地生态安全预警指标体系,运用RBF模型对2011-2015年湖南省土地生态安全演变趋势进行预测,并结合预警指数和警度标准对1996-2015年湖南省土地生态安全警情状况进行分析,结果表明:①RBF模型有较高的模拟精度,能够较好地拟合2011-2015年湖南省土地生态安全各系统的发展趋势.②就各子系统的安全警度而言,1996-2010年湖南省土地生态安全的压力和状态系统的警度呈波动上升趋势,响应系统的警度呈下降趋势,2011-2015年,压力系统将逐步由“中警”(黄灯)转变为“重警”(橙灯),状态系统将处于“中警”(黄灯)状态,响应系统将处于“无警”(绿灯)状态.③总体而言,1996-2010年,湖南省土地生态安全警度呈略有下降态势,2011-2015年,预警指数将处于0.42左右,警度将处于“中警”(黄灯)状态.④影响湖南省土地生态安全的主要因素包括农业经济比重、建设占用耕地面积量、自然灾害受灾面积比重、人均建设用地面积、第三产业比重、自然保护区面积比重等,是今后调控的重点.%Based on the related data of land ecological security of Hunan Province from 1996 to 2010, this paper constructed a land ecological security early-warning index system for Hunan Province from three aspects which were pressure, state and response. And then it used the RBF model to make a prediction for land ecological security development trend of Hunan Province in 2011-2015, and at last made a warning analysis of the land ecological security of the province from 1996 to 2015 according to the early-warning index and warning degree standards. The results are shown as follows. (1) RBF model has a relatively high simulation accuracy, which can well fit the land ecological security system's development trends of Hunan Province in 2011-2015. (2) In terms of

  14. Analysis on Current Situation of Gymnastics Resources in the "Two - Oriented Society" of Hunan Province%“两型社会”建设中湖南竞技体操资源现状的研究

    张国清; 向运游


    Under the background of developing two - oriented society in Hunan province, based on condition of human resource, physical resource and financial resource, this paper makes deeply analysis and puts forward suggestions. The main purpose is to promote the sustainable development of gymnastics.%在湖南省全面建设“两型社会”的背景下,针对湖南省竞技体操的人力资源、物理资源、财力资源现状,进行深入分析并提出相应的建议,营造“两型社会”新极点,促进湖南竞技体操的可持续发展。

  15. 湖南省两型产品认定标准的研究与实践%Research and Practice of Identification Standards for Resource-saving and Environment-friendly Products in Hunan Province



    从两型产品的定义、分类及主要特征等方面,分析研究了湖南省两型产品认定的标准理论体系,并介绍了湖南省两型产品认定及政府采购支持的开展情况。%The paper introduces the definition, classification and main characteristics of resource-saving and environment-friendly products (two-oriented products), analyzes the standard theoretical system of two-oriented products, and presents the identification of two-oriented products as well as the government procurement support in Hunan province.

  16. 湖南省餐饮业量化分级现状及监管对策%Quantitative classification in catering trade and countermeasures of supervision and management in Hunan Province

    刘秀兰; 陈立章; 何翔


    Objective: To analyze the status quo of quantitative classification in Hunan Province cateringindustry, and to discuss the countermeasures in-depth.Methods: According to relevant laws and regulations, and after referring to Daily supervision andquantitative scoring sheet and consulting experts, a checklist of key supervision indicators was made.The implementation of quantitative classification in 10 cities in Hunan Province was studied, andthe status quo was analyzed.Results: All the 390 catering units implemented quantitative classified management. The largerthe catering enterprise, the higher level of quantitative classification. In addition to cafeterias, thesmaller the catering units, the higher point of deduction, and snack bars and beverage stores werethe highest. For those quantified and classified as C and D, the point of deduction was higher in theprocurement and storage of raw materials, operation processing and other aspects.Conclusion: The quantitative classification of Hunan Province has relatively wide coverage. Thereare hidden risks in food security in small catering units, snack bars, and beverage stores. The foodhygienic condition of Hunan Province needs to be improved.%目的:分析湖南省餐饮业量化分级现状,深入探讨量化分级管理对策.方法:根据相关法律法规,参考餐饮业日常监督量化评分表,咨询专家后,制成关键指标监督检查表,在湖南省10个市州城区实地调研餐饮单位执行量化分级的情况,分析执行现状.结果:调研的390家餐饮单位均进行了量化分级;规模越大的餐饮企业,量化分级的等级越高;从关键指标扣分情况看,除食堂外,餐饮单位规模越小,扣分越高,其中小吃店和饮品店扣分最多;量化分级为C和D级的,在原料采购与储存、加工操作等方面扣分较多.结论:湖南省餐饮行业的量化分级工作已经有了较宽的覆盖面;但是小型餐饮单位、小吃店、饮品店食品安全隐患

  17. Relationship between Sports Injury and Sports Scene of Gymnasts in Hunan Province%湖南省体操运动员运动损伤与运动场景的关系



    本文运用问卷调查法为主要研究方法,以湖南省体操运动员运动损伤者为研究对象,探讨我省体操运动员运动损伤成因与运动场景的关系,旨在最大限度地预防运动损伤的发生。结果显示:运动场景是导致运动员运动损伤的重要原因之一;在运动损伤的运动员中,由于运动场景的原因,城与乡、一线队与二线队、男与女的受伤人数比例成显著差异。而一线队与二线队运动员因“情景回顾”受伤人数比例无明显差异。%Through using the method of questionnaire, taking the sports injury of gymnasts in Hunan province as research subject, this paper discusses the relationship between sports injury and sports scene of gymnasts in Hunan province, the main purpose is to maximize the prevention of sports injuries. The result shows that sports scene is one of the main factors caused the sports injury. In the sports injury of athletes, because of sports scene, city and countryside, the first team and second team, male and female number wounded proportion have significant diffe - rence. While the first team and second team players for "episodic recall" the number of injured ratio was not sig- nificantly different.

  18. 湖南省金融发展与经济增长的关系研究%Research on Relationship Between Financial Development and Economic Growth in Hunan Province

    李立辉; 曾琳


    介绍Granger因果检验的相关原理,利用湖南省1978年-2009年的统计数据,对湖南省金融发展与经济增长的关系研究进行了实证分析,实证结果表明湖南省经济增长是金融相关率变化的Granger原因,但金融相关率变化并不是经济增长变化的Granger原因;湖南省金融业总产值的变化是湖南省金融相关率变化的原因,因此能对存贷款的变化产生影响。针对实证结果,给出湖南省经济增长过程中金融支持方面的对策与建议。%Using the sample data in Hunan Province from 1978 to 2009,based on Granger causality test,the research on relationship between financial development and economic growth in Hunan province is analyzed.The empirical result shows that the economic growth is the Granger causality of financial interrelations ratio,but the financial interrelations ratio is not the the Granger causality of economic growth.It also shows that the GDP of finance is the Granger causality of financial interrelations ratio,so the GDP of finance can impact on the changes in deposits and loans.Finally,some countermeasures and suggestions to the financial support for economic growth are addressed.

  19. 湖南省绿色建筑全寿命周期成本的现实案例分析%Reality Case Analysis of Life Cycle Cost of Green Building in Hunan Province

    李运; 屈瑜君; 廖晓玲; 阳玉香


    The green building keeps up with the trend of the times,it can make the sustainable development of environment and economy more harmony and create conditions for the realization of“two-type-society”in Hunan province.But due to insufficient understanding of the cost of the green building,it is difficult to push the green building.This paper introduces the current situa-tion of green building in Hunan province,analyzed the specific reality case with the method of whole life cycle cost,and com-pared visually the differences of the incremental cost between green building and common building.The popularization of the whole life cycle cost of green building is proposed to promote the development of green building cause.%绿色建筑顺应时代潮流,它可以使环境与经济持续发展更加和谐,从而为湖南省实现“两型社会”创造条件。但由于各方对绿色建筑的成本情况认识不足,造成绿色建筑推行困难。该文从介绍湖南省绿色建筑的现状入手,用全寿命周期成本法对具体的现实案例进行分析,并直观的对比绿色建筑与普通建筑之间的增量成本差异,对绿色建筑全寿命周期成本的推广提出建议,进而推动绿色建筑事业的发展。

  20. 湖南省体育产业统计指标体系设置与实施研究%Research on Statistical Indicators System and the Implementation of Sports Industry in Hunan Province

    刘少英; 王美芬


    In the rapid development of sports industry in Hunan Province,the urgent need for management and decision-making as comprehensive and accurate sports industry statistics.Sports industry statistics includes three levels and 8 categories.The core index system should include industrial development,industrial spending,social benefits,management and integrated development and evaluation and so on.Statistics in the implementation and protection of the sports industry,the relevant government departments should strengthen the statistical work of great importance to the sports industry,strict implementation of national standards and to develop "Sports Industry in Hunan Province Statistical plan" to further clarify the division of labor statistics,the important of the sports industry to improve the quality of statistics And authority.%由于湖南省体育产业快速发展,迫切需要为管理和决策提供全面准确的体育产业统计数据。体育产业的统计范畴包括三个层次,八个大类,其核心指标体系包括产业发展、产业支出、社会效益、经营管理、综合发展与评价等。在体育产业统计实施与保障中,应该加强政府部门对体育产业统计工作的重视,严格执行国家标准和制定《湖南省体育产业统计工作实施方案》,进一步明确体育产业统计工作的重要性,提高统计质量与权威性。

  1. 湖南省青少年竞技武术套路现状调查与对策研究——以湖南省第11届运动会青少年武术比赛为例%Analysis on Current Condition of Youth Competitive Wushu Routine --Taking the Youth Wushu Competition of 11th Sports Meeting of Hunan Province as Example



    Through making field technical and rank statistics on Wushu competition of the 11 th Sports Meeting of Hunan Province, and by using the questionnaire, this paper analyzes the coach condition of different regions of Hunan province. The main purpose is to provide the countermeasures for youth Wushu talent cultivation and competitive level promotion in Hunan province.%通过对湖南省第11届运动会武术比赛的现场技术和名次的统计,同时发放问卷,调查分析湖南省各个地区教练员的现状,为湖南省青少年竞技武术人才的培养和竞技水平的提高提出相应对策。

  2. An Empirical Research on Local Legislation and Institutional Construction of Corruption Prevention:a Case Study of Hunan Province and Guangdong Province%预防腐败地方立法实证考察与制度构想——以湖南、广东为例

    贺志军; 袁艳霞; 马晓云


    The implemention of CPC's policy on corruption prevention leads to the tasks of local legislation on corruption prevention.The analysis of typical local legislative documents on corruption prevention sheds some lights on the enactment of Hunan Province Provisions on Corruption Prevention.%落实党预防腐败的政策就提出了预防腐败地方立法任务.解读预防腐败地方立法典型文本,可为制定《湖南省预防腐败条例》这一地方性法规提供经验.

  3. 我省武术运动发展现状与对策思考%Reflections on the Status Quo of Martial Arts Development in Hunan Province and Countermeasures



    Martial art is a traditional sport in China.Hunan province developed from a weak province in sports in the early 20th century to a strong one 1980s and 1990s.The development of the past 10 years shows that the important factors of affecting the development of Martial arts includes emphasis on leadership,management of team leader and abilities of coach.The future development of martial arts in our province is to emancipate the mind,develop more games,expand our influence,and strengthen the construction of the professional team.%武术是中华民族的传统体育运动项目。我省的武术运动从20世纪初的强省,到八、九十年代的大省,到近10年来的弱省的发展过程说明,领导重视,领队的管理能力和教练执教能力,是影响发展的重要因素。今后我省武术运动发展要解放思想,开发赛事,扩大影响,加强专业队建设。

  4. Financial standing of counties in the Wielkopolskie province in the years 2004-2006

    Anna Majchrzak


    Full Text Available The article presents a selection of indexes describing financial standing of local government units based on counties of the Wielkopolskie province. On the basis of their values analysed local government units were classified using Ward’s method to form classes with a similar financial situation.

  5. Effect evaluation on tobacco control propaganda of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Hunan Province%湖南省肺结核患者控烟宣传效果评价

    马艳; 刘二勇; 成诗明; 简学武; 白丽琼


    Objective To understand the smoking and quitting smoking and smoke-free families established of pul-monary TB patients by intervening in Hunan Province.Methods To use unified designed questionnaire,collected and ana-lyzed information of 35 567 pulmonary tuberculosis patients which went to TB center for medical treatment include smoking, awareness of the harm caused by active smoking,quit smoking and smoke-free families in 7 prefectures and 68 counties CDC during 1 July 2008 to 1 July 2010.Results 35 567 pulmonary TB patients were registered of which 13 304 is smokers,to-tal smoking rate was 37.41%,6289 smokers have quit smoking by intervening;awareness rate of smoking harm has in-creased from 88.67% to 96.90%;4320 smoking families have become new smoke-free families,increased 42.24%.Con-clusion Publicity on smoking harm should be strengthened to TB patients,raise awareness,reduce smoking rates,im-prove TB cure rate,promote the dual goal of TB control and tobacco control.%目的:评价湖南省在肺结核患者中开展控烟宣传活动的效果。方法应用统一设计的调查问卷,对湖南省7个地市及其所隶属68个县级结核病防治中心2008年7月1日—2010年7月1日所有前来就诊登记的所有的35567例肺结核患者吸烟、吸烟危害知晓情况、戒烟情况及无烟家庭建立等内容进行调查分析。结果共登记35567例肺结核患者,其中13304例患者吸烟,总吸烟率为37.41%,通过戒烟指导有6289例患者戒烟;对于前来就诊的肺结核患者,肺结核患者吸烟危害的知晓率由原来的88.67%上升到96.90%;4320例吸烟肺结核患者家庭转为新无烟家庭,无烟家庭新增加了42.24%。结论应加大对肺结核患者吸烟危害的宣传力度及深度,提高吸烟危害知晓率,降低吸烟率,提高治愈率,促进控制结核病和控烟的双重目标。

  6. 湖南省社会林业工程区域评价指标体系研究%Study on the Regional Evaluation Indexes for Hunan Provincial Social Forestry Project



    Centred around 37l indexes including natural environment, human activities, condition of society, economic situation,forest resources, forestry organizations, technology, management and administration, we have investigated 105 counties(cities,districts) in Hunan Province. Eighty three counties out of them were designated for our research objects. For each county,we selected 28 indexes which had directly bearing on our social forestry project such as natural environment, social economy, forest resources. Then through Cluster Analysis and Factor Analysis, we used a social science statistical analysis software(SPSS) to analyze the impact of natural, environmental, social, economical and forest resources' factors on community forestry activities. Based on such work, we have established a set of indexes system for Hunan provincial social forestry project' s regionaleval uation. According to the cluster analysis results and the current situation of the project implementation, Hunan provincial social forestry project could be divided into five types, the results will provide a scientific basis for Hunan provincial social forestry project' s implementation.

  7. Preliminary Study of Ancient Town Protection and Rural Tourism Development of Caoshi Town in Hengdong County,Hunan Province


    The typical style and features of mountains and waters in Caoshi Ancient Town,have hitherto been well preserved. Caoshi Ancient Town boasts superior base of the natural eco-environment and deep-rooted background of regional culture,where mountains,waters,shoals,towns and other landscape elements are merged harmoniously,the transportation and geographical conditions have been fundamentally changed. Ancient towns,old temples,ancient forests,ancient wells and ancient piers are unique in different ways,with characteristics of tourism resources such as long history and ancient folklore. It should seize the historical opportunity of China vigorously developing rural tourism based on the construction of the new socialist countryside,to make characteristic agricultural economy gain ground; assume the leading role to drive the development of tourism economy in surrounding areas; correctly handle the relationship between development and protection to walk the path of sustainable development of tourism.

  8. 2014年湖南省血吸虫病流行区风险监测结果分析%Analysis on the surveillance over risks of schistosomiasis endemic areas in Hunan Province in 2014

    李广平; 周杰; 胡本骄; 汤凌; 李以义; 杨建平; 任光辉


    Objective To make an accurate knowledge on the risk status of schistosomiasis transmis⁃sion in endemic areas in Hunan Province in 2014 for evidences to plan scientific strategies for control and prevention of this disease. Methods Twenty-five administrative villages in 13 counties (cities, districts, farms) were selected as risk surveillance sites, and hatching test(1 aliquot of feces subjected to 3 tests) was used to determine the schistosome infection status in all livestock and feces collected in open fields. Sys⁃tematic sampling method was used to measure the status of snail prevalence, and modified crushing-cer⁃cariae escaping method and loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) technique were applied to detecting the infected snails. Activities of humans and livestock were also observed in the susceptible zones within the 25 surveillance villages. Results Livestock were being fed in 92%of surveillance villages. The infection rate was 1.10%, 1.00%, 1.00% and 0.93%, respectively in Qingang village under Quyuan administrative district, Jichang village and Beihu village of Yueyang county, Kangling village of Yuanji⁃ang city. Sails were found in marshlands within the 25 surveillance villages, and no positive snails were seen in 23 samples obtained in even number frames and tested with crushing-cercariae escaping method. How⁃ever, 6 positive samples(collected in the odd number frames from the marshland in Mingxing, Hanshou county;Zhongxin, Jinshi city;Yuantan and Dongfanghong, Xiangying county;Baota, Quyuan administrative district and Dingshan, Yunxi district) were detected with LAMP method. Livestock were pastured in 56%of risk areas, and the livestock were over 50 in 4 the susceptible areas(the marshland in Baota;Qingang, Quyu⁃an administrative district; Dingshan and Xinshe, Yunxi district). Human actives(totally 43 people being seen) were found in 44% of risk areas. 607 aliquots of livestock feces, including 592 aliquots of feces from cattle and

  9. 基于自组织理论的湖南旅游系统演化分析%Study on the Evolution of the Tourism System in Hunan Province Based on the Self-organization Theory

    阎友兵; 张颖辉


    Based on the factor analysis and grey relation analysis, the paper came up with conclusions, which contains low overall development level of Hunan tourism,weak synergy effect within the system, low cyclic utilization rate and diffieult to realize catastrophe in short time. In order to improve the structure and the functions of the tourism system in Hunan province and realize the transition of the organization ,the paper put forward the measures and suggestions containing increasing the government guidance,improving the synergy effect within the area and the departments,building the containable development mode and quickening the amalgamation of the tourism industry and the information industry.%因子分析和灰色关联分析的结果表明:湖南省旅游系统综合发展水平总体不高,系统内部协同效应不强,系统循环利用率低,短期内难以实现整体“突变”;只有充分发挥政府协调机制作用,提高区域和部门的协同发展效应,创建湖南旅游系统可持续循环发展模式,加快旅游产业和信息产业融合步伐,才能促进湖南旅游系统结构与功能的提升,实现组织层次的跃迁。

  10. [Risk assessments and control strategies of plague in five key surveillance counties, Zhejiang province].

    Shi, Guoxiang; Ju, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jimin; Wang, Miaoruo; Zhang, Xiaohe; Ye, Xianming; Zhu, Zhihong; Xing, Jianguang; Liao, Xiaowei; Chen, Zhiping


    To analyze the epidemiology data on plague in five counties in Zhejiang province and to evaluate the risk of plague in theses areas. We selected five monitoring stations as a risk assessment (Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, and Ruian city) in Zhejiang province where the plague epidemic more serious in the history. At least one constant site and 1-4 variable sites where plague occurred in history were selected for monitoring. We collected the five counties (cities) surveillance data of indoor rat density, indoor Rattus flavipectus density, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus in 1995-2014. Isolation of Yersinia pestis was conducted among 171,201 liver samples and F1 antibody were detected among 228,775 serum samples. Risk matrix, Borda count method, and Delphi approach were conducted to assess risk of the plague of five counties (cities) in Zhejiang province. Indoor rat density in Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, Ruian city was 1.58%-5.50%, 1.13%-9.76%, 0.56%-3.67%, 2.83%-16.08%, 7.16%-15.96%, respectively; Indoor Rattus flavipectus density of five counties (cities) was 0.08%-2.23%, 0-2.02%, 0-0.54%, 0.71%-5.58%, 0.55%-4.92%, respectively. The Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.011-0.500 and 0.015-0.227, respectively; The Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus of Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.119-3.412 and 0.100-1.430, respectively; Ruian City and Yiwu city cannot collected Xenopsylla cheopis, Long quan city only collected the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in the five years. Yersinia pestis were not isolated in five counties (cities).There were 3 Apodemus agrarius samples positive of plague F1 antibody test, in Longquan city and Yiwu city in 2005. Borda count method to assess the Longquan city, Yiwu (Borda point were both 321) plague risk was higher than three other regions; Delphi approach to

  11. On Chinese Taekwondo Hall Management Trend from South Korea Taekwondo Hall Management Mode——Taking Hunan Province as an Example%从韩国跆拳道馆管理模式看中国跆拳道馆管理趋势——以湖南省为例

    张继生; 喻业


    Based on the situations of Taekwondo in China energy development reality,through using the methods of literature,field survey,interview and logical analysis and other research methods,in cultural studies and sociology perspective,the paper does the investigation of Taekwondo Gymnasiums in Hunan province about their current situations of management modes,and summarizes the lessons from Korea Taekwondo Center Management mode merit,of Hunan province Taekwondo tendency,with purpose of providing some practical data and theoretical support for Hunan province and China's Taekwondo Development.%文章基于跆拳道运动在我国劲势发展的现实情况,采用文献资料法,实地考察法,访谈法和逻辑分析法等研究方法,在文化学和社会学的视角下,调查湖南省跆拳道馆管理模式现状,并总结借鉴韩国跆拳道馆管理模式的可取之处,展望湖南省跆拳道馆趋势,以期为湖南省及我国跆拳道馆的发展提供一些现实数据和理论支持。

  12. Recommendations for Private Rubber Industry in Mengla County of Yunnan Province

    Wanzhen; ZHANG; Haolun; HUANG; Huide; HUANG


    This paper discussed the area and yield of private rubber industry in Mengla County of Yunnan Province. The private rubber industry in Mengla County has such problems as lack of specialized technical personnel,poor technical training effect,and short production life of rubber trees. Finally,it came up with recommendations,including establishing and improving specialized technical service stations in townships,strengthening specialized technical management organizations,providing specialized technical management personnel,realizing specialization of technical training,and establishing standard rubber farmer cooperatives.

  13. The survival analysis of small and medium -sized enterprises-based on the industry of Hunan Province%中小企业生存分析—以湖南省工业企业为样本

    曹裕; 陈晓红; 王傅强


    A detailed analysis on the Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) survival and its determinants are conducted,based on a sample of 54,573 new- registered industrial SMEs in Hunan Province, whichs capitals are all below 10 million Yuan and establish during the period of 1998 -2007.The main research methods used are life table method and accelerated failure time model, they are mostly used in the survival analysis.The empirical results show that the risk of enterprise death follows a U - shape pattern relationship with the time for SMEs in Hunan Province, and the death risk begins to increase after nine and half years since the establishment of enterprises.The indicators, such as the original size of enterprises, industrial sector size, industrial added value rate, sales margin and profit tax rate of output value, all have significant positive impacts on business survival.However, the industry growth, liquidity capital turnover rate, and all - personnel labor productivity have no signifieant correlation with the business survival; Monopoly enterprises have better living conditions, the SMEs with high intensive technology have worse living conditions, SMEs located in agglomerate regions have greater risk of death.The interest rate has a significant negative impact on the survival of SMEs.While the GDP growth rate based on the city - level has a significant positive impact on the survival of SMEs.Vis - a - vis private enterprises, the survival pe.rformance of state - owned enterprises and foreign - funded enterprises in Hunan Province are even worse.%本文运用湖南省1998-2007年新成立的54573家注册资本在1000万以下的工业中小企业数据具体分析了我国中小企业的生存状况及影响因素.主要的研究方法为生命表方法和加速失效时间模型等生存分析方法.研究主要发现:我国湖南省地区中小企业死亡危险随时间呈"U"型关系,企业在成立9.5年左右时死亡危险开始增大;企业原始规模

  14. Protection of Intellectual Property Right for Geographical Indications of the Traditional Specialty in Hunan Province%湖南传统特产的地理标志知识产权保护思考

    孙志国; 王树婷; 熊晚珍; 钟学斌


    There are 27 national geographical indication products, 39 national geographical indication brands and 24 national agro-products geographical indications in Hunan Province at present, and there were two national origin marks in Hunan Province in the past. At first, the status quo of protection of intellectual property right for geographical indications of the traditional specialty in Hunan Province was analyzed from protection of geographical indication products, registration of geographical indication brand, registration of agro -products geographical indication and management of origin mark. Then, some suggestions were put forward as follows: (1) To mine, sort out and protect the traditional specialty -related intangible cultural heritage, especially the traditional craft, traditional art, traditional medicine and minority. (2) To study the characteristics of geographical indications deeply from natural factors and human factor of specialty. (3) To strengthen protection of intellectual property right for geographical indications of traditional specialty in order to enhance international competitiveness of it. (4) To make full use of special mark of geographical indication product and heritage of agricultural brand, and to integrate traditional specialty brands from the protecting area of geographical indication. (5) To combine safeguarding intangible cultural heritage of traditional specialty with building of eco-cultural protection area or eco-cultural preservation area, especially with the national eco-cultural protection area for Tujia and Miao nationalities in Wulin mountain area.%湖南现有27种国家地理标志产品、39件国家地理标志商标、24种国家农产品地理标志,原有2种国家原产地标记.文章从地理标志产品保护、地理标志商标注册、农产品地理标志登记、原产地标记管理等方面,分析该省传统特产的地理标志知识产权保护现状,并建议:(1)挖掘、整理、保护与传统名优

  15. Discovery of Corallina fossil from the Middle Cambrian of Taijiang County,Guizhou Province,China


    Abundant and well-preserved macroalgae fossils have been discovered in silty mudstones and shales from the Middle Cambrian of Taijiang County,Guizhou Province,China.Corallina Paraamphiroa siniansis the Kaili Fm.,is the earliest Corallina fossil,which usually coexists with other carbonaceous macroalgae fossils on the bedding planes of mudstone and shale and is different from the calcareous and phosphatized Precambrian-Cambrian thallus discovered in the Lower Cambrian of Siberia and the Doushantou phosphate rocks of Weng'an County,Guizhou Province,China.The discovery of calcified thallus in the Kaili Fm.bears great importance on the study of phylogeny and evolution of early calcareous macroalgae.


    邓运员; 郑文武; 刘沛林


    随着全球气候变化的不断加剧,区域气温、降水、辐射等都发生了重大变化,其对农业发展也具有重要影响,研究气候变化对湖南农业水旱灾害的影响及适应性对策有利于减小灾害性天气及气候系统对湖南省农业的影响,适时找出适合湖南区域特点的应对措施,并进一步完善当前全球气候变化对农作物生长研究的不足.基于英国哈德莱气候中心的区域气候模式PRECIS系统的区域尺度气候情景模拟结果,借助于GIS技术运用EPIC和SWAT模型分别模拟未来不同气候情景下湖南水稻产量和水资源的变化,通过对过去50年气候变化及其对水稻模拟产量的影响研究,可以总结湖南省应对气候变化引发的水旱灾害的策略和方法,并进一步提出未来气候变化情景下的适应性对策,可以为政府和相关决策部门应对未来水旱灾害的适应性对策提供参考依据.%With the growing global climate change, regional temperature, precipitation, radiation and so on has undergone major changes ,and it also has an important effect on agricultural development. Study on impacts and adaptation measurements of climate change on flood and drought disasters of agricultural can not only help reduce the impact of disasters weather and climate system on agriculture in Hunan Province, but also help find suitable responses to regional characteristics of Hunan and further improve the research deficiencies in current global climate change on crop growth. Based on the regional-scale climate scenarios simulation results of UK's Hadley Climate Center regional climate model PRECIS system, using GIS technology, EPIC and SWAT model to respectively simulate the changes on rice yield and water resources under different climate scenarios in the future in Hunan, through the study of climate change and its impact on rice simulation yield during the past 50 years,strategies and methods to address flood and drought

  17. The Fungitoxicity of Four Fungicides to Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Hunan Province%4种杀菌剂对湖南省黄瓜霜霉病菌的毒力作用

    任磊; 张松柏; 张德咏; 张胜平; 彭静; 刘勇


    [Aims] The aim is to clarify the fungitoxicity of the fungicides with different action modes against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Hunan province- [Methods] The fungitoxicity of four fungicides to Pseudoperonospora cubensis of Hunan province was tested by leaf disc floating method. [Results] The results showed the fungitoxicity (EC50) in metalaxyl, cymoxanil, azoxystrobin and dimethomorph to Pseudoperonospora cubensis were 15,613-17.266, 10.13-13.465, 3,834-5.444 and 9.122-9.915 mg/L, respectively. [Conclusions] The resistance ratio to azoxystrobin was high, and the resistance ratios to the other three fungicides were lower. However, the index of relative toxicity of azoxystrobin was significantly higher than that of the other three fungicides.%[目的]明确不同作用机理的杀菌剂对湖南省黄瓜霜霉病菌的毒力.[方法]采用叶盘漂浮法测定4种不同作用机理的杀菌剂(甲霜灵、霜脲氰、嘧菌酯、烯酰吗啉)对湖南省不同地区黄瓜霜霉病菌的毒力.[结果]湖南省黄瓜霜霉病菌对甲霜灵、霜脲氰、嘧菌酯、烯酰吗啉的毒力(EC50)分别为15.613~17.266、10.313~13.465、3.834~5.444、9.122~9.915 mg/L.[结论]湖南省黄瓜霜霉病菌对嘧菌酯的抗性倍数较高,其他3种杀菌剂抗性倍数均较低;但是嘧菌酯相对毒力指数显著高于其他3种杀菌剂.

  18. Discovery of Epimedium franchetii Stearn (Berberidaceae) in Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces%木鱼坪淫羊藿江西和湖南的新分布记录

    许瑛; 李风琴; 徐艳琴


    木鱼坪淫羊藿Epimedium franchetii Stearn被认为狭域分布于湖北神农架和贵州贵阳,在花期开展的箭叶淫羊藿E.sagittatum ( Zucc.) Maxim野外调查中发现,原本记载为箭叶淫羊藿的部分居群经鉴定为木鱼坪淫羊藿,为江西和湖南的新分布。导致这种鉴定错误的主要原因有:1)花部特征对淫羊藿属物种鉴定极其关键,但该属腊叶标本,尤其是早期标本,多缺乏花部特征。2)淫羊藿属植物花期较短,多数物种尚未开展花期的野外调查。因此,淫羊藿属的分类学研究应尽量以花期的居群为对象。木鱼坪淫羊藿的新分布记录扩充了其分布范围和生境需求,对淫羊藿属系统地理与区系研究和资源利用具有重要意义。%Epimedium franchetii Stearn ( Berberidaceae ) ,a species native to Shonnongia Forest of Hubei and Guiyang of Guizhou,was discovered in Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces .These populations have previously been considered as E.sagittatum ( Zucc.) Maxim.The main reasons for this misclassification were:1) Floral characters of the genus Epimedium are most important for its taxonomy .However ,these features are often lacking in most herbarium specimens due to the fact that the Epimedium species have very short flowering peri-od.2) Most species are lack of field investigation ,especially that during the full-bloom stage.Therefore,the au-thers suggest that plant taxonomists should use the populations during flower season in their plant taxonomy , which can not only provide fundamental data for its classification , but also conduce to understanding plant a-daptability and probe into its evolution mechanism .The discovery of E.franchetii in Jiangxi and Hunan Prov-inces would provide the foundation for the study of resource utilization and phylogeography of Epimedium.

  19. A Study on Gender Wage Gap and Its Influence Factors in Hunan Province Based on the Perspective of Housework Time%湖南省性别工资差异及其影响因素研究基于家务劳动时间的视角∗

    钟波; 楚尔鸣


    Based on the theoretical model and research data from 20 urban-rural communities of 5 counties in Hunan Province in 2014,the paper analyzes influencing factors of gender wage differentials in Hunan labor market from the angle of housework time.Research results show that housework time is an important factor that affects the gender wage gap of Hunan labor market,and there also exists other influ-encing factors like monthly income,education level,vocation and so on.However,the effect of positional title on gender wage differential shows uncertainty.Therefore,the government should vigorously develop family services,and establish a sound service system covering urban and rural families,basically meeting service requirements and freeing women from housework.At the same time,the government should ensure the proportion of women in vocational training and strengthen their employment competitiveness through policy support.Labor contract should also be strictly regulated,safeguarding the legitimate right of women in employment,social security and so on in private enterprises.%通过建立理论模型,并用2014年湖南省5县区20个城乡社区的调查数据,从家务劳动时间的视角分析湖南劳动力市场的性别工资差异及其影响因素。结果发现,家务劳动时间是影响湖南劳动力市场性别工资差异的重要因素,同时其他影响因素还有月工资收入、受教育程度、行业等,但职务职称对性别工资差异的影响存在不确定性。因此,政府应大力发展家庭服务业,建立健全覆盖城乡的家庭服务体系,基本满足家庭的服务需求,使女性从家务劳动中解脱出来,同时应通过政策倾斜确保女性培训比例,增强就业竞争实力;规范劳动合同,维护私有及民营企业女性从业者在劳动就业、社会保障等方面的合法权益。

  20. 湖南省内中医院辨证施护实施状况调查分析%Investigation and analysis of application of syndrome- differentiated nursing care in the hospitals of TCM in Hunan Province

    潘晓彦; 胡利民; 陈燕; 李东雅; 陈偶英


    目的 调查分析湖南省内中医院辨证施护实施情况.方法 自设问卷对省内116家中医院485名主管护师以上护理人员针对辨证施护实施情况进行调查,并对结果进行分析.结果 90.93%的护理人员认为辨证施护有利于患者健康;32.37%的护士不熟悉辨证施护,省市级中医院护士辨证施护熟悉率高于县区级中医院护士;开展辨证施护率>70%的中医院占12.37%,省市级中医院高于县区级中医院.结论 中医院辨证施护现状令人担忧,要从管理模式、培训机制、政策法规等方面进行改革,督促护士对患者辨证施护.%Objective To investigate and analyze application of syndrome-differentiated nursing care in the hospitals of TCM in Hunan. Methods A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate and analyze 485 nurses-in-charge or higher positions in 116 hospitals of TCM in Hunan. Results 90.93% of nursing staff hold that syndrome-differentiated nursing care benefits patients' health; 32.37% of nurses were not familiar with syndrome-differentiated nursing care, and the rate of familiarity was higher among the nurses in municipal and provincial hospitals of TCM than those in county and district hospitals of TCM; hospitals of TCM that carry out syndrome-differentiated nursing care exceeding 70% accounted for 12.37%, with municipal and provincial hospitals of TCM higher than county and district hospitals of TCM. Conclusions Application of syndrome-differentiated nursing care in the hospitals of TCM is of concern. Reform of management model, training system, regulations and laws is needed to encourage nurses' application of syndromedifferentiated nursing care.

  1. 湖南省妇幼保健机构保健工作现状调查%Investigation on health status of maternal and child care institutions in Hunan province

    刘智昱; 杜其云


    To observe the health status of maternal and child care institutions in Hunan province, provide scientific ev-idence for decision-making on maternal and child care. Methods: A survey was conducted through national management information web-based reporting system of women and children health facilities, 137 maternal and child health care institutions were investigated, including a provincial-level agency, 14 state-level agencies and 122 county-level agencies. The contents included basic status of maternal and child health care, human resources, health services and medical technologies, group health care work. The data were analyzed via SPSS 15.0 and Excel 2003. Results: ①Basie status: the average amount of people participating in maternal and child health care was 15, with 124 of pro-vincial-level, 17 of state-level and 14 of county-level. ②Healtheare clinic: the average person-time of the out-patients receiving ma-ternal health care was 6 475, while the average person-time of the out-patients receiving child health care was 7 821. ③The development of health care: the proportions of maternal health care management, prenatal diagnosis management, reproductive health and family plan-ning, assisted reproductive health were 98.5%, 12. 4%, 84. 7% and 6. 6%, respectively; more than 70% of the institutions carried out growth and development of children , child nutrition, child development and the promotion of high-risk infants; training courses were con-dueted for 6 times, 429 people-times were trained and 26 people-times were received for further education, 646 people-times went to grass roots. Conclusion: The investment of government agencies is inadequate and the human resources should be strengthened, at the same time, group health should be further in-depth, and information management should be improved.%目的:了解湖南省各级妇幼保健机构保健工作现状,为各级卫生行政部门的决策提供科学依据.方法:采用全国妇幼卫

  2. On Improving College Graduates' Employment of Hunan Province Based on Entrepreneurship Education%以创业教育带动我省大学生就业工作的探讨

    张应军; 王幼凡


    In light of the serious employment situation for undergraduates of the whole nation,prompting undergraduates' employment through entrepreneurship education has become the important strategy for dealing the undergraduates' nationwide serious employment situation.Recently the undergraduates in Hunan province facing many difficulties in enterprise,and strengthen the entrepreneurship education is very crucial for them to improve their abilities in enterprise.In author's view,positive results can be attained only by building enterprise stage,expanding job-obtaining channels,improving employment environment,enhancing graduates' job opportunities and guiding undergraduates' entrepreneurship.%全国大学生就业形势严峻,以创业带动就业成为从中央到地方应对大学生就业难题的重大战略。当前我省大学生创业面临着许多困难,迫切需要通过加强创业教育提高大学生的创业能力。只有通过搭建创业平台,拓展创业途径,改善创业环境,增加大学生的创业机会,积极引导大学生创业,才能取得实效。

  3. Research on Development Status and Strategy of Rural Highways in Hunan Province%湖南省乡村公路发展现状及对策研究

    王中莉; 王忠伟


    乡村公路是公路网的重要组成部分,是保障农村社会经济发展最重要的基础设施之一,是农村地区最主要甚至是一些地区唯一的运输通道.文章在分析当前湖南省乡村公路的发展现状及存在问题的基础上,从养护、资金、客运和规划等方面提出乡村公路发展的一些对策建议.%As an important part of road network, rural highway is one of the most important infrastructures ensuring social and economic development of rural areas, and the most critical transport channel in rural areas even the only one in some areas.Based on the analysis of development status and existing problems of rural highway in Hunan Province, some strategy and sugges-tion of rural highway development was proposed, including aspects of maintenance, funds, passenger transport, planning and so on.

  4. 湘北丘岗地区红壤和水稻土微量元素的有效性研究%Micro- nutrient availability of red soil and paddy field in North Hunan province

    向万胜; 李卫红


    本文对湘北丘岗区土壤微量元素Cu、Zn、B、Mo、Mn和Fe的有效性进行了研究.结果表明,该区大面积土壤缺Zn、缺B,也有部分土壤缺Cu和Mo,而有效Mn含量较为丰富.微量元素有效性与成土母质的关系极为密切,土壤pH、有机质含量及土壤质地也是影响微量元素有效性的重要因素.%We investigated the availability of soil micronutrients, Cu, Zn, B, Mo, Mn and Fe, in the hilly area of North Hunan province.It was found that most of the soils in this area are lacking of Zn and B and some soils are poor in Cu and Mo. However, the soils are rich in Mn. Availability of the micronutrients depends closely on the parent materials. Soil pH and organic matter are also important factors influencing the availability of the micronutrients.

  5. Study on the Sense of Teaching Efficacy of PE Teachers in Hunan Province%湖南省体育教师教学效能感现状调查研究



    Through the method of questionnaire, sense of teaching efficacy of hunan PE teachers was studied in this paper. The result showed that in Hunan province, most of the PE teachers' sense of teaching efficacy level was in the medium standard and even better, and the PE teachers' personal sense of teaching efficacy was better than general sense of teaching efficacy. The PE teachers thought that they could do better in the "teaching goal, content design" and the "teachers and students associates" than doing in the aspects of "teaching strategy methods" and "classroom management" in their teaching; The Changsha local PE teachers' sense of teaching efficacy were significantly better than any other districts ; The PE teachers' teaching efficacy's differences were not significant in gender; but the elementary school PE teachers' sense of teaching efficacy were significantly better than the college and middle school PE teachers', etc.%采用问卷调查法对湖南省体育教师教学效能感进行分析研究,结果表明:湖南省大多数体育教师教学效能感水平处于中等以上;湖南省体育教师个人教学效能感明显优于一般教学效能感.湖南省体育教师认为在自己的教学当中,对于“教学目标、内容设计”和“师生交往”这一环节可以做得比“教学策略方法运用”和“课堂管理”这两个方面要好;长沙市体育教师教学效能感明显优于其它区域;湖南省体育教师教学效能感不存在显著的性别差异;小学体育教师教学效能感显著高于大、中学体育教师等.

  6. Prevalence of trachoma in 3~7 years old children in Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province

    Lin Zhao


    Full Text Available AIM: To survey the prevalence of trachoma in children in Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province and provide the basis for the prevention and treatment.METHODS: An epidemiological survey was carried out in Nanzheng County in 2013. Children aged 3~7 years were selected by a cluster sampling. Fifty elementary school children and 1 533 preschool children were selected for rapid assessment and extend screening of trachoma. All children were examined under magnifying glass by oculist. A simplified trachoma classification system which was recommended by the World Health Organization was adopted in the survey. Statistical significance was calculated using Chi-square tests.RESULTS: For the 50 students aged 6~7 in rural area, there was no active trachoma cases in rapid assessment. In the extended screening in 1 533 children aged 3~6 in country town, no case of active trachoma, trachomatous trichiasis or corneal diseases were examined. CONCLUSION: No active trachoma case was detected in Nanzheng county,which was far below the proportion of 5% in non endemic area according to the WHO criteria and is not a public health problem in Shaanxi province.

  7. 基于能值理论的湖南环洞庭湖区域农业产出研究%Study on the Agricultural Output of Dongting Rim in Hunan Province Based on the Theory of Emergy

    侯茂章; 朱玉林


      为了研究湖南环洞庭湖区域的农业生态经济系统的产出效率。本研究利用能值理论研究了2001—2010年期间该区域的农业产出情况。结果表明:该区域农业能值产出增长了44.68%,达到了6.50E+22 sej,但是低于非农产业产出增长速度。与2001年相比,2010年农业内部主要表现为种植业能值产出(4.10E+22) sej,占总能值产出比为63.09%,提高了2.93个百分点,而畜牧业则下降了2.87个百分点;渔业无论是能值总量还是所占比例都位居增幅第二,但其增幅不符合洞庭湖区域特征;农业能值产出集中度高,谷物、油料、猪肉和水产品占比之和超过90%。从农业能值产出与经济产出对比看,种植业和渔业的经济回报率低于林业和畜牧业,且前两者仍处于收益率下降态势,而后两者则呈现收益率上升趋势。这说明湖南环洞庭湖区传统优势产业种植业和渔业的经济效益有待提高。%To analyze the efficiency of the agro-ecosystem of Dongting Rim in Hunan Province, this paper adopted the emergy theory to study the agricultural output of this region during 2001 to 2010. The results showed that the value of regional agricultural emergy output increased by 44.68% to (6.50 E+22) sej, but lower than the growth of non-agricultural industry output. Compared with 2001, the emergy output of planting industry was (4.10E+22) sej in 2010 which occupied 63.09% of the total agricultural emergy output and got an increase of 2.93 percentage points, while the emergy output of stock farming got a decrease of 2.87 percentage points. The growth of fishery emergy output was not in conformity with the characteristics of Dongting Rim in Hunan. From the contrast between emergy output and economic output, we could find that the economic return ratio of planting industry and fishery industry were lower than those of forestry industry and stock farming industry, which indicated that

  8. Analysis on test results of thiocyanate in domestic dairy products in Hunan province%湖南省市售国产乳制品中硫氰酸盐检测结果分析

    卢超; 秦丹


    目的:掌握湖南省市售国产乳制品中硫氰酸盐含量,有效指导消费者科学消费。方法利用离子色谱法对湖南省388批次市售国产乳制品硫氰酸钠进行检测。结果388批次乳制品硫氰酸钠检出率为93.3%,折算为生乳后的含量均在国家食药监总局风险监测参考值10 mg/kg范围内。其中,307批次液体乳制品硫氰酸盐检出率为91.5%,按系数折算为生乳后含量在1.0~6.9 mg/kg之间的为86.98%;81批次奶粉检出率为100%,按系数折算为生乳后含量在0.1~5.9 mg/kg之间的为97.35%。结论经过分析原料乳中硫氰酸盐的可能来源,认为湖南省市售国产乳制品中硫氰酸盐主要来源于原料生鲜乳本底,非法添加的可能性较小,有必要立刻全面开展生乳中硫氰酸盐本底值调查,系统地为乳制品硫氰酸盐监测提供有效依据。%ABSTRACT:Objective To determine the content of thiocyanate in domestic dairy products marketed in Hunan and guide consumer consumption.Methods The thiocyanate in 388 domestic dairy products marketed in Hunan was determined by ion chromatography.Result The detection rate of 388 dairy products was 93.3%, thiocyanate content converted into raw milk was in the range of 10 mg/kg formulated by China Food and Drug Administration. Among them, the detection rate of 307 liquid milk products was 91.5%, content converted into raw milk between 1.0~6.9 mg/kg was 86.98%; the detection rate of 81 milk powder was 100%, content converted into raw milk between 0.1~5.9 mg/kg was 97.35%.Conclusion By analyzing the possible sources of thiocyanate in the raw milk, it is believed that thiocyanate in the domestic dairy products in Hunan province mainly come from the raw milk, and the potential of illegal addition is less likely, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive investigation of thiocyanate background in raw milk immediately and provide efficient reference for thiocyanate monitoring of dairy product.

  9. 湖南武陵山片区农民收入多样性特征及其对贫困的影响%The Characteristics and Influence on Poverty of Farmers’Income Diversity in Wuling Mountain Area of Hunan Province

    丁建军; 宁燕


    Applying the exploratory and confirmatory quantitative research methods, this article measured and analyzed the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics and influence on poverty of farmers’income diversity in Wuling Mountain Area of Hunan Province during the period of 2000 to 2012. The results showed that, first-ly, the diversity degree was low and followed the“U”shape trace, and the diversity gaps between different counties were narrowing gradually. Secondly, the counties which had the similar degrees of farmers’income diversity were clustered in a few years while scattered randomly in most of other years. Thirdly, the farmers who lived in the subareas of Loushao, Zhangjiajie had more diverse sources of income than those who lived in subareas of Huaihua and Xiangxi, and the farmers who lived in Huaihua subarea had the lowest income diversi-ty degrees and those who lived in Xiangxi subarea experienced the fastest increase of income diversity, general-ly, more and more counties in the subareas of Loushao and Xiangxi had high diversity of farmers’income sources. Fourthly, during the period of 2000 to 2012, the local spatial patterns of HH(High-High) and LH (Low-High) had moved dramatically from counties to counties, while the other patterns of HL and LL were sta-ble relatively and stayed in Huaihua subarea in most of years, and the counties which belong to Xiangxi subar-ea changed their local spatial patterns more frequently. Lastly, the diversity of income had obviously and signif-icantly influence on increasing farmers’income and reducing poverty.%应用探索性和验证性定量分析方法,测度并探讨了2000~2012年间湖南武陵山片区农民收入多样性的时空演变特征及其对贫困的影响。研究发现,湖南武陵山片区农民收入的多样性程度不高且呈现“先降后升”的趋势,不同县市区间农民收入多样性程度差距不断缩小;多样性程度相似县市区在少数年份呈现出空间集

  10. A GIS-based Framework for Improving the Rural Settlement System in Dancheng County of Henan Province

    Keshuai XU; Weiguo CUI


    Abstract [Objective] This study formulated a technical framework for key settlement selection in Dancheng County of Henan Province. [Method] The location set cover- ing model (LSCM) provided by ArcGIS 10.0 was used in this study. [Result] After reconstruction, the settlement system in Dancheng County is composed of 2 county centers, 7 key towns and 122 key villages. [Conclusion] This study provides sugges- tions for the development of key settlements in Dancheng County, which contributes to improving the level of rural public services and ensuring social justice.

  11. Sugarcane Pernicious Organisms Hunan


    @@ There are more than 2000 species of sugarcane pernicious organisms in the world, and over 400species axe in China. In order to make sure the sugarcane pernicious organisms in Hunan, we had a detailed investiga tion in several main sugarcane - producing regions during 1996- 1998.

  12. Comprehensive Benefit Analysis on Development Models of Circular Agriculture in Wangcang County of Sichuan Province

    Yuanyuan; CHU; Shunqiang; SUN


    Taking Wangcang County of Sichuan Province as an example,this paper made comprehensive benefit analysis on models of circular agriculture in Wangcang County. Major models include " pig- biogas- fruit", " pig- biogas- vegetable",and " pig- biogas- tea". It made cost benefit analysis of economic,social and ecological benefits. Through benefit analysis charts,it obtained that the net present value of each household building biogas pool is 6029 yuan. In this way,it significantly improved ecological environment and social benefits,and the agricultural economic development model gradually changes to sustainable development model. However,there are still problems of insufficient government input and single model of agricultural circular economy. Therefore,government should increase input and develop diversified agricultural circular economical models in accordance with local situations,to realize sustainable agricultural development.

  13. Measurement and Analysis of Production Performance of Rural Households in Jinzhai County, Anhui Province

    Liu Can


    Using a multi-input multi-output production technology and survey data from Jinzhai County, western Anhui Province, China, the author first measured the production performance of rural households - their efficiency, economy of scale, and productivity during 1978-1997, and then related the measured production performance with institutional change, market access, and other factors. Preliminary results show that: 1) performance differs a great deal across households and over time; 2) institutional changes and market accessibility have played a major role in improving performance; 3) depending on the specific resources, their effects are variable.

  14. The Genetic Types of Baiyun Cave in Lincheng County of Hebei Province

    Yanping; SUN; Jian; WANG; Xiaoman; ZHANG; Qianhua; ZHENG; Huafang; HUANG


    Baiyun Karst Caverns in Lincheng County,Hebei Province,is a rare karst caverns in subhumid climate region of the north.It was developed in carbonatite strata,particularly in Zhangxia formation of the Middle Cambrain series.Erosion-corrosion landscape and chemical deposition landscape are abundant,They are various shapes,curtain drapery,cave flag,cave shield,stalactite,stalagmite,cave flowers,botryoid,soda straw are developed,especially heligmite,soda straw,cave flowers are the most characteristic.

  15. Wheat Generation Adding in Xundian County of Yunnan Province in Summer

    Kong Zhi-you; Liu Ye-ju; Qin Peng


    Local climate conditions and sowing time are very important to the vernalization and summer reproduction of the wheat. Xundian County is located in Yunnan Province of China, at latitude 25.56° north and longitude 103.25° east. Xundian County is situated 1 873 m above sea level, and is conducive for the summer reproduction of the wheat. To investigate the optimal sowing time, 11 spring wheat cultivars and one semi-winter wheat cultivar were sown 10 times at an interval of five days from May 26, 2012, and the strong winter wheat Suyin 10 was treated in a vernalization room at 2℃ with different concentrations of the gibberellin and 5-azacytidine. The results showed that Suyin 10 should be vernalized at 2℃ for 30 days in summer, and the growth periods of strong winter wheat plants could been shortened if treated with a specific concentration of the gibberellin and 5-azacytidine at a low temperature. The growth period of the spring wheat in summer reproduction was delayed, and their agronomic traits gradually decreased with the passage of the sowing time. Thus, spring wheat should be sown at the earliest time possible for better yield. June 25 should be the latest date for summer reproduction of the wheat, but the semi-winter wheat cultivars in Xundian County should be added generation in summer after being treated at 2℃ for 10 days. Xundian County is a suitable location for summer reproduction of the wheat in China.

  16. 湘西地区农村留守儿童体格发育状况调查分析%Investigation of Physical Development among Left-behind Children in Rural Areas in Western Hunan Province

    李春梅; 杨娜; 张惠娟; 胡蕖; 唐莹


    Objective To investigate the physical development among left - behind children ( whose parents are working in other areas or provinces ) in rural areas in western hunan province, China, with an attempt to provide evidence for policy - making. Methods The physical development and its influencing factors of 1 527 left - behind children and 738 non - left -behind children in western hunan province were mvestigated from July to Auguts, 2009. These children, aged 3 - 6 years, belonged to Han Nationality and two minority ethnic groups ( Tujia and Miao ). Results The Z scores of age - specific weight and age - specific height showed significantly difference between the left - behind children and non - left - behind children ( both P <0. 01 ). The incidence of low hody weight and growth retardation was 11. 7% among left - behind children and 4. 7% among non - left - behind children ( P <0. 01 ). It was notable that the incidence of low body weight and growth retardation was significantly higher among Miao children than among Han children ( P <0. 01 ) . while so such difference was found between Tujia children and Han children ( P > 0. 05 ). The incidence of low body weight was significantly lower in Tujia children than in Miao children ( P <0. 05 ). The hemoglobin level and prevalence of anemia showed significant differences among children of different ethnic groups ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The left - hehind children in western Hunan Province have poorer nutritional status than non - left - behind children. Local health authorities should pay more attention to this population and provide essential guidance and supports.%目的 了解湘西土家族、苗族、汉族3~6岁留守儿童体格发育状况,为促进留守儿童生长发育提供依据.方法 2009年7-8月对湘西地区土家族、苗族、汉族1 527名3~6岁留守儿童(留守组)及738名非留守儿童(非留守组)的体格发育水平及影响因素进行调查,并比

  17. 旅游业发展与经济增长关系的实证研究——以湖南省为例%Empirical Research on Relationship between Tourism Development and Economic Growth- A Case Study of Hunan Province

    窦银娣; 杨森; 胡凯玲; 李伯华


    通过建立国内旅游收入、入境旅游外汇收入与GDP之间的经济计量模型,运用协整理论及格兰杰(Granger)因果检验,研究湖南省是否存在"旅游主导"经济,或者"经济带动"旅游业发展,并通过模型检验研究了湖南省国内旅游收入、入境旅游外汇收入对经济增长的贡献额度。研究结果表明:湖南省存在旅游主导经济增长,国内旅游收入对经济增长的贡献度较高于入境旅游外汇收入。经济增长对入境旅游业发展有显著影响,但对国内旅游发展影响较小。%By building econometric models among domestic tourism income, inbound tourism revenue and GDP, and using co-in tegration theory and Granger Causality Tests, this article tries to find out it "tourism-leading" economy or "economy-drive- tourism development" existed in Hunan Province. Then it studies the contribution of domestic tourism income and inbound tourism revenue to economy growth in Hunan Province by model checking. The results show that there is "tourism-leading" e conomy existed in Hunan Province. The contribution of domestic tourism income to economy growth is higher than inbound tourism revenue. Economy growth has a significant impact on inbound tourism hut less impact on domestic tourism.

  18. Study on the somatotype of Han in rural areas in Ningxiang country,Hunan province%湖南宁乡县乡村汉族体型分析

    傅媛; 李玉玲; 陆舜华; 李咏兰; 李永霞; 孔祥薇; 李传刚; 郑连斌


    The Heath-Carter somatotyping method was used to study the somatotype of Han among 418 adults(197 males,221 females) in rural areas in Ningxiang country,Hunan province.The results showed that,① The mean somatotype values of the male and female are 3.5-5.3-1.8 and 4.9-4.9-1.4 in rural districts respectively,which represent the endomorphic mesomorph category in male and endomorph mesomorph category in female.② The age of 30 is the cutoff point of somatotype of adult males in rural.Before the age of 30,male muscles is more developed and fat content is relatively low.After the age of 30,with increasing age,accumulation of subcutaneous fat is increasing,but the somaotype does not change obviously.The age of 40 is the cutoff point of somatotype of adult females in rural.Before the age of 40,with the growth of age,muscles become more developed and linear declined in body.After the age of 40,body muscle and fat content has declined,but the somatotype does not change obviously.③ The somatotype of rural adults of Han in in Ningxiang country,Hunan province shows significant differences between genders.Compared with the other groups,the mean somatotype of males in rural area is most close to that of Ewenki(SAD=0.36) and that of Han in rural areas of Shandong(SAD=0.37).The mean somatotype of rural females was most close to that of Ewenki(SAD=0.36).%运用Heath-Carter体型法,对湖南宁乡县乡村418例(男197例,女221例)汉族成人体型进行了分析.研究发现:①湖南宁乡县乡村汉族男性平均体型值为3.5-5.3-1.8,属于偏内胚层的中胚层体型;女性平均体型值为4.9-4.9-1.4,属于内胚层中胚层均衡体型.②男性以30岁为体型分界点,30岁前男性肌肉较发达而体脂相对菲薄,30岁后随年龄增长皮下脂肪积累量增加但体型变化不大;女性以40岁为体型分界点,40岁前随年龄增长肌肉渐趋发达,身体线性度下降.40岁后肌肉和脂肪含量呈下降趋势但体型

  19. TRMM卫星降雨数据在湖南省的精度和可靠性评定%Evaluation of accuracy and reliability of TRMM satellite precipitation data in Hunan Province

    杨雨蒙; 杜鹃; 程琳琳


    卫星降雨数据的高时空分辨率使其在洪涝灾害监测、流域水文模型模拟等方面得以广泛应用,而对卫星降雨数据的精度评定和可靠性分析仍然是当前重要的研究课题.采用中低纬度旱涝灾害频发的湖南省23个国家基准气象站的降雨数据作为地面验证数据,对最新一代TRMM卫星降雨产品(3B42V7)的精度和误差特征进行了全面评估.从日、月、年和季节的不同时间尺度以及空间分布和高程等不同的空间要素方面对比分析了1999-2012年该卫星降雨产品在湖南地区的适应情况.研究表明:TRMM卫星反演降雨数据在日尺度上与地面气象站数据的匹配情况较差,相关系数仅为0.31;而在月尺度上有显著提高,相关系数为0.88.在干旱季节(11、12、1、2月)的表现要优于湿润季节(5、6、7、8月).3B42卫星反演降雨数据存在比较明显的空间变异性,空间要素如高程、位置分布等对卫星降雨数据可靠性的影响强于降雨量的影响.%The high spatial-temporal resolution of satellite precipitation data can be widely used in flood disaster monitoring and hydrological modeling.The accuracy assessment and reliability analysis of the satellite precipitation data are still the important research issues.The paper overall evaluated the performance of TRMM satellite precipitation product 3B42V7 in Hunan Province by using the gauged precipitation data from 23 meteorological stations as the benchmark data.From the different time scales of daily,monthly,seasonal and annual,and different space elements such as spatial distribution and elevation,the paper compared and analyzed adaptation situation of satellite rainfall products from 1999 to 2012 in Hunan Province.The results show that the performance of satellite precipitation data on daily scale is not satisfactory,the correlation coefficient is only 0.31.But it goes to be much better on monthly scale with the correlation coefficient of 0

  20. Evaluation of Social Vulnerability to Natural Disasters on a County Scale in Henan Province

    Shanfeng HE; Liping DU; Xiuhua GAO


    Social vulnerability evaluation is of important significance to analyzing risks of natural disasters to human society and economy. By using expert investigation and AHP method,12 indicators from four aspects( population,economy,infrastructure and disaster prevention and mitigation capacity) are selected to assess social vulnerability to natural disasters on a county scale in Henan Province. The results show that the population vulnerability and economic vulnerability to natural disasters in the eastern region is generally higher than in the western region,while the areas with high infrastructure vulnerability are mainly located in the northwest; the disaster prevention and mitigation capacity in northwest is higher than in east and south,and this capacity of various districts is obviously higher than that of counties; in terms of the spatial pattern,social vulnerability to natural disasters is roughly higher in a belt from northeast to southwest,and lower on both sides of the belt. The results can provide scientific basis for disaster risk management and disaster prevention and mitigation planning in Henan Province.

  1. Iron and manganese emission standard for industrial wastewater discharge in Hunan province%湖南省工业废水中铁锰排放标准研究

    张青梅; 马超; 向仁军; 刘湛; 陈灿


    The production process, waste water treatment technology, current situation of pollutant discharge of enterprises involving iron or manganese are investigated. The water of current polluted rivers in typical iron or manganese contaminated area of Hunan province is sampled and analysized. With reference to the international iron and manganese limits in the discharged waste water, this standard prescribes the limit of iron in wastewater discharged from existing enterprises is 10 mg/L; the limit of iron in wastewater discharged from new enterprises is 5 mg/L; the limit of manganese in wastewater discharged from enterprises is 1 mg/L.%通过对湖南省典型铁锰污染区域的钢铁、有色金属、电解锰及化工企业生产工艺、废水处理技术与污染物排放现状及受污染河流环境质量现状进行调查的基础上,参照国外废水中铁锰污染物排放限值,规定湖南省工业废水中现有企业总铁的排放标准限值为10 mg/L,新建企业废水中总铁排放标准限值为5 mg/L;湖南省工业废水中总锰的排放标准限值为1 mg/L.

  2. A relative study on assets structure and firm performance of listed companies in Hunan Province%湖南省上市公司资产结构与公司绩效的相关性研究



    以2003-2012年间湖南省上市公司为样本,采用多元线性回归对其资产结构与公司绩效之间的关系进行了实证研究。结果表明,湖南省上市公司流动资产比率与公司绩效呈微弱的正相关关系,固定资产比率对公司绩效的影响不显著,总资产周转率与公司绩效呈显著正相关关系。研究还发现,公司规模与公司绩效呈显著正相关关系,资产负债率与公司绩效呈显著负相关关系。%In recent years, the capital structure is increasingly concerned by scholars, and becomes a hot issue. But study of the relationship between capital structure and corporate performance is not enough, and the object of current study in China is mainly the whole of listed companies or an industry, instead of in a provincial area. Based on the listing corporations in Hunan Province from 2003 to 2012, this paper uses multiple linear regression to study the relationship between the assets structure and Firm Performance. The results show that there is weak positive correlation between current assets ratio and corporate performance, the effect of fixed assets ratio on corporate performance is not significant, and that there is significantly positive correlation between the total assets turnover and the company performance. The study has also found that there is significantly positive correlation between the scale of the company and company performance, and significantly negative correlation between debt ratio and corporate performance is found as well.

  3. 湖南花岩溪国有林场野生动物分布现状及保护对策%Wildlife Distribution and Conservation Strategy in Huayanxi State Forest Farm of Hunan Province

    郜二虎; Schindele Werner; 包源; 栾慎强; 戴振华


    The Huayanxi State Forest Farm of Hunan Province has rich wildlife resources,of which Ardei-dae birds are representative.Based on the composition,distribution and habitats of the wildlife in Huay-anxi State Forest Farm,we suggest firstly the rare species and Ardeidae birds should be taken as the key species,secondly conservation of the key species and their habitats enhanced,thirdly the farm divided into protection area,conservation area and production area according to the distribution of the key species and different measures taken in different divisions,and finally sustainable forest management methods used to reduce disturbance to wildlife and their habitats in forest management in Huayanxi State Forest Farm.%湖南花岩溪国有林场野生动物丰富,尤其鹭科鸟类是林场的代表性动物。根据花岩溪林场野生动物组成、分布状况及栖息地特点,建议:将珍稀野生动物及鹭科鸟类作为关键物种,加强关键物种及其栖息地的保护;将林场划分为保护区域、保持区域和生产区域进行经营管理;采用可持续的森林经营技术,减少对野生动物及栖息地的干扰破坏。

  4. The Development of Old-age Care Service Industry in Hunan Province:Dilemma and Its Solutions%湖南省养老服务业发展:困境与破解



    湖南省老年人口规模迅速膨胀,高龄、空巢现象日益严重,养老服务潜在需求旺盛。但是,有效需求和供给不足。养老服务支付能力不足、行业标准缺失、长期护理服务和专业护理人员欠缺、投资运营效率不高诸多因素严重制约着目前湖南养老服务业的发展。因此,面对发展困境,我们应从提高老年人收入水平、完善行业标准、构建长期护理保险制度以及提高养老服务业的市场化程度等方面来寻求突破口。%In Hunan province, the potential demand of old-age care service is increasingly growing due to the elderly population scale expanded rapidly and serious phenomena of older age, empty nest of people. However, in fact, effective demand and supply are insufficient. Many factors seriously restrict the development of old-age care service industry, such as lacking of the ability to pay pension services, industry standards, long-term care services and professional nurses and the low efficiency of investment operating. Therefore, faced with a dilemma, we should improve the level of income in the elderly, improve industry standards, build long-term care insurance system, and increase the degree of marketization for old-age care services in order to boost the development of old-age service industry.

  5. Analysis on Status and Development Strategy for National Fitness System in Hunan Province%湖南省全民健身体系的现状及发展策略



    Due to the regional and social economic development, the national fitness movement in Hunan province has strong representative feature. Although, the sports clubs, social sports chieved certain scale and level, the national fitness system mainly affected instructor team and sports facility have aby the economic basis, the fitness ideas, organization and sports playgrounds and facilities. Therefore, we should perfect this system, such as making a wholly plan for the system, expanding fitness propaganda, strengthening the social sports instructor team, improving the organization management system and enlivening the sports market economy.%由于地域和经济社会发展的特殊性,湖南全民健身运动具有较强的代表性。其体育社团、社会体育指导员队伍和体育场地设施都已具备一定规模和水平,但全民健身体系的完善也受到了经济基础、健身观念、组织机构和体育场地设施等因素的制约。要完善这个体系,需要统筹规划,加大健身宣传力度,加强社会体育指导员队伍建设,完善组织管理体制和搞活体育市场经济。

  6. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China.

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-Ning


    Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010-2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010-2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  7. 湖南省1996-2010年狂犬病流行趋势和防治现状%Epidemic Trend and Control of Rabies in Hunan Province During the Period of 1996~ 2010

    彭琦; 刘运芝; 张斯钰; 高立冬; 蔡亮; 王世清; 张红; 刘富强; 胡世雄; 曾舸


    Objective To analyze the epidemic trend and current status of rabies control in Hunan Province from 1996 to 2010. Methods Rabies case reports were collected to retrospectively analyze the epidemic trend. Direct immunofluores-cence assay (DFA) and nested PCR were employed to detect the monitoring samples, including brain tissues of dogs and saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, serum or urine which were collected from the rabies patients from 2008 to 2010. Genetic characteristics of rabies virus were also analyzed. We investigated the current situation of disposal after exposure to rabies among rural residents by sampling survey. Results The rabies case reports in Hunan Province were increasing continuously from 1996 until reaching to the peak in 2004, and decreasing since 2007. Of the 2,437 tissue samples from the dogs' brain, 72 were positive under DFA and the positive rate was 2.95%. The DFA positive samples were redetected by RT- PCR and the positive rate was 0.94% (23/72). 104 samples of saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, serum and urine were detected by RT- PCR from the rabies patients, with 11 positives and the positive rate was 10.58%. All the isolated rabies viruses belonged to genotype I. More than 90 % rural residents knew about rabies, but only 20.1 % knew the high risk behaviors of rabies and 17.3% knew the prevention measures after exposure to rabies. 89.09% of the patients with level III exposure did not use rabies passive immune agents. Conclusions The epidemic situation of rabies in Hunan Province has been decreasing with the implementation of a series of measures. Lack of correct understanding of rabies and the poor economic condition are the main reasons for nonstandard disposal after exposure to rabies.%目的 分析1996 -2010年湖南省狂犬病的流行趋势及防治现状.方法 利用疫情报告资料回顾分析狂犬病的流行趋势;采用直接免疫荧光法(DFA)和巢式PCR等方法对监测标本进行病原学检测及病毒基因特征分析

  8. Etiological Characteristics and Traceability of Vibrio cholerae in Hunan Province in 2010%2010年湖南省霍乱弧菌病原学特征及溯源分析

    覃迪; 湛志飞; 夏昕; 胡世雄; 邓志红; 刘运芝; 黄一伟; 龙智钢; 张红


    目的 分析2010年湖南省霍乱弧菌分离株的病原学特征,比较霍乱疫情分离株与常规监测分离株之间的克隆相关性,追溯传染源. 方法 对疫情与监测分离到的42株霍乱弧菌进行常规生物分型和PCR检测毒力基因,对23株代表株进行药敏试验,对18株代表株通过脉冲场凝胶电泳( PFGE)获得电泳图谱,利用BioNumerics软件对图谱进行聚类分析,探讨菌株间的相关性. 结果 2010年从湖南省霍乱疫情中分离10株霍乱弧菌均为O139群,ctxA阳性率100%.常规监测分离霍乱弧菌32株,其中O1群15株,全部为ctxA阴性株;O139群17株,ctxA阳性率94.11%.23株霍乱弧菌耐药结果显示强力霉素、复方新诺明的耐药率分别为47.83%、56.52%,发现1株对诺氟沙星、环丙沙星耐药.PFGE方法显示有5种脉冲场凝胶电泳图谱,相似率在82% ~ 100%之间,甲鱼中分离的O139群霍乱弧菌与霍乱疫情分离菌株之间高度同源. 结论 湖南省霍乱弧菌存在紧密相关的流行克隆群;被O139群霍乱弧菌污染的甲鱼很可能是湖南省霍乱疫情发生的主要传染来源,海冰产品的监测是霍乱防控的重点;要密切关注对诺氟沙星、环丙沙星的耐药变化.%Objective To analyze the pathogenic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Hunan province in 2010, to compare cholera epidemic strains with routine monitoring strains in homology, and to trace the source of infection. Methods Forty-two strains isolated from epidemic and routine monitoring were tested for conventional biotyping and virulence gene by PCR. Twenty-three representative strains were tested for drug susceptibility. Electrophoresis maps were obtained from 18 representative strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and analyzed for clusters and correlations by BioNumerics software. Results All of the 10 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae outbreaks in Hunan province belonged to 0139 group. The

  9. A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.

    Nicholas X Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STI have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study uses linear regression and spatial lag regression to determine county-level (n = 97 socio-demographic characteristics associated with a greater burden of syphilis, gonorrhea, and a combined syphilis/gonorrhea index. Data were obtained from the 2005 China Population Census and published public health data. A range of socio-demographic variables including gross domestic product, the Gender Empowerment Measure, standard of living, education level, migrant population and employment are examined. Reported syphilis and gonorrhea cases are disproportionately clustered in the Pearl River Delta, the central region of Guangdong Province. A higher fraction of employed men among the adult population, higher fraction of divorced men among the adult population, and higher standard of living (based on water availability and people per room are significantly associated with higher STI cases across all three models. Gross domestic product and gender inequality measures are not significant predictors of reported STI in these models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although many ecological studies of STIs have found poverty to be associated with higher reported STI, this analysis found a greater number of reported syphilis cases in counties with a higher standard of living. Spatially targeted syphilis screening measures in regions with a higher standard of living may facilitate successful control efforts. This analysis also reinforces the importance of changing male sexual behaviors as part of a comprehensive response to syphilis control in China.

  10. Designing and Realization of Database Platform of County Agricultural Production Technology in Yunnan Province


    According to the objective reality in Yunnan Province,such as great difference of weather,a great proportion of minorities,technological backwardness of agricultural production,low conversion rate of research accomplishments,and a limited number of agricultural technical personnel,ASP.NET technique and SQL Server 2005 database technique are adopted.Database platform of county agricultural production technology in Yunnan Province is established by using B/S structure.This platform includes presentation layer,application layer,and data layer,involving regional information,technology column information,technology classification information,technology content and other databases.It has six functional modules,namely information browse,system management,regional maintenance,technical section maintenance,category maintenance and technical information release,integrating crop cultivation,livestock breeding,economic forest management,plant protection,agricultural products processing,agricultural machinery use and other agricultural technical information.This platform can exchange information dynamically with the client,perform the query request from users,and send the result to users.This database platform has friendly interface,profuse information,high pertinency and so on,which offers rich and reliable information resources to farmers,agricultural technical personnel,and government.At present,this platform has been popularized in some areas of Yunnan Province and has obtained good results.

  11. Analyses of cosmetic sanitary quality in Hunan Province in 2010%2010年湖南省化妆品卫生质量检测结果分析

    刘艳红; 孙振球; 史静琤; 沈敏学; 胡婧璇; 雷世岳; 胡明


    Objective: To establish a scientific foundation for cosmetic supervision and administration based on the analysis of the sanitary quality of cosmetics in Hunan Province during 2010.Methods: According to Cosmetic Sanitary Standards (set by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China), 150 random samples of cosmetics in Hunan were assayed both for microbial items (including total plate count, fungus and yeast, fecal coliform, staphylococcus aureus,pseudomonas aeruginosa) and chemical items (including 17 kinds of prohibited substances and 14 kinds of restricted substances).Results: The total rate of cosmetics failing to meet the standards was 22.0% of the 150 samples;specific rates for failing perfumes, skin care products (eye cream) and deodorant products were, relatively, 70.6%, 60.00%, and 44.4%. Four kinds of prohibited substances, including diethylphthalate, acrylamide, asbestos and neodymium, as well as 2 kinds of restricted substances, including triclosan and formaldehyde, were found to exceed standards. None of microbial items exceeded standard levels.Conclusion: The sanitary quality control of cosmetics is lax. Administrative departments should not only reinforce their post-production supervision with respect to cosmetics, but also consolidate their control over the process of cosmetic production in order to solve the problem of toxic residues or illegal and intentional adulterations.%目的:评价2010年湖南省化妆品卫生质量状况,为更好地进行监督管理提供科学依据.方法:依据中华人民共和国卫生部《化妆品卫生规范》,随机抽取150份2010年湖南省市售化妆品并对其进行卫生学检验,包括微生物指标(菌落总数、霉菌和酵母菌、粪大肠菌群、金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌)和化学指标(17种禁用物质和14种限用物质).结果:抽检化妆品的总体不合格率为22.0%,其中香水类,护肤类(眼部用)及除臭类化妆品不合格率较高,分别为70.6

  12. 湖南莽山国家级自然保护区两栖动物资源调查与分析%Amphibian Resources in Mangshan National Nature Reserve of Hunan Province

    傅祺; 杨道德; 费冬波; 莫吉炜; 宋玉成


    为掌握野生动物资源现状,促进自然保护区的有效管理,2008~2011年,作者每年在湖南莽山国家级自然保护区(以下简称莽山自然保护区)对10条调查样带(长3~6km,单侧宽5m)内的两栖动物资源进行实地调查,同时将该保护区海拔400~1800m的区域按200m均匀地分为7个海拔小带,对两栖动物垂直分布特点进行研究.结果显示,莽山自然保护区现已记录两栖类36种,隶属2目7科.其中以蛙科17种和角蟾科6种为多;其动物区系组成以34种东洋界种类占明显优势,并以17种华中区与华南区共有种为主;有国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物1种,中国特有种12种.寒露林蛙(Ranahanluica)、棘腹蛙(Paaboulengeri)和中国雨蛙(Hylachinensis)为莽山自然保护区两栖动物新纪录.莽山自然保护区两栖动物垂直分布现象较明显,大致以海拔1400m为分界点,两栖动物物种组成有较大变化;海拔600~800m小带的物种数最多.最后基于历史资料,分析了两栖动物多样性的历史变迁.%In order to understand the situation of wildlife resources and promote the effective management of nature reserve,we surveyed the amphibian resources 3 times by 10 transects (3—6 km length, 5 m unilateral width) in Mangshan National Nature Reserve of Hunan Province once a year from 2008 to 2011. The vertical distribution patterns of amphibians were analyzed by every 20 meters elevation change between the range of 400 - 1 800 m. Total of 36 species of amphibians belonging to 7 families of 2 orders were recorded in the field survey. The amphibian fauna was dominated by oriental species (34 species) , of them 17 species distributed in both Central and South China. The vertical distribution of amphibians was obvious in the range 400 - 1 400 m in altitude. Moreover, the elevation with most species richness ranged of 600 m to 800 m. Rana hanluica, Paa boulengeri, and Hyla chinensis were firstly recorded in Hunan Mangshan

  13. 非税收入对经济增长有贡献吗?--基于湖南省非税收入结构视角的经验证据%Do Non-tax Revenue Have the Contribution to Economic Growth?---Empirical Evidence Based on the Perspective of the Structure of Non-tax Revenue of Hunan Province

    张亚斌; 彭舒


    Previous studies of non-tax revenue were generally based on the macro-analysis and the conlusions were al-so different.By using the panel data of ten counties of Hunan Province between 2007 and 2012,this paper starts from the internal structure of non-tax revenue,uses the fixed effect model and conducts an empirical analysis of the relationship be-tween non-tax revenue and economic growth.The results indicate that two types of non-tax revenue have a promoting effect on economic growth,including the income from use of state-owned resources (assets)and penalty receipts and revenue from government-controlled funds.Among them,the income from use of state-owned resources (assets)makes the greatest contribution to economic growth.However,the charge of administative and insitutional units has no significant effect on e-conomic growth.%以往对非税收入与经济增长关系的研究大多是基于总量分析,且结论也存在诸多分歧。本文利用湖南省2007~2012年10个县市的面板数据,从非税收入内部结构出发,运用固定效应模型对非税收入与经济增长间的关系进行实证分析。结果表明:国有资源资产类使用收入、罚没收入和政府基金类收入总体上对经济增长具有促进作用,且以国有资源类收入对经济增长的贡献程度最大,而行政事业性收入对经济增长则无显著影响。

  14. An Effect Analysis of Comprehensive Treatment of Groundwater Over-Exploitation in Cheng'an County, Hebei Province, China.

    Shao, Weiwei; Zhou, Jinjun; Liu, Jiahong; Zhang, Haixing; Wang, Jianhua; Xiang, Chenyao; Yang, Guiyu; Tang, Yun


    The comprehensive treatment project of groundwater over-exploitation in Hebei Province has been implemented for more than a year, and the effect of exploitation restriction is in urgent need of evaluation. This paper deals with Cheng'an County of Hebei Province as the research subject. Based on collected hydro-meteorological, socioeconomic, groundwater, and other related data, together with typical regional experimental research, this study generates the effective precipitation-groundwater exploitation (P-W) curve and accompanying research methods, and calculates the quantity of groundwater exploitation restriction. It analyzes the target completion status of groundwater exploitation restriction through water conservancy measures and agricultural practices of the groundwater over-exploitation comprehensive treatment project that was implemented in Cheng'an County in 2014. The paper evaluates the treatment effect of groundwater over-exploitation, as well as provides technical support for the effect evaluation of groundwater exploitation restriction of agricultural irrigation in Cheng'an County and relevant areas.

  15. [Epidemiological investigation on the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in Ninghai County of Zhejiang Province].

    Liu, Jian-Fa; Wu, Yan; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Meng, Dan; Yang, Shu-Juan; Jiang, Wen-Wen


    Freshwater crabs and snails were collected from Ninghai County in Zhejiang Province, and examined respectively for Paragonimus metacercariae and cercariae. Among 97 freshwater crabs found, the prevalence was 11.3% (11/97) with a mean intensity of 1 metacercariae per crab. It was 10.2% (5/49) and 20.2% (4/20) in the groups weighted 5-15 g and 15-25 g respectively, with an average intensity of 1, and no metacercariae were found in weight group of 25-35 g. Two positive crabs were found from 20 crabs with a low weight (< 5 g). Male to female crabs ratio was 2.5:1, and there was no significant difference in prevalence between males [12.7%(7/55)] and females [9.1% (2/22)]. No cercariae or metacercariae were found in 200 snails (Semisulcospira libertino).

  16. Domain Structure in Calcium-Cerium Fluorocarbonate Minerals, Mianning County, Sichuan Province, China


    The domain structures in calcium-cerium fluorocarbonate mineral series from a rare earth mineral deposit within an aegirine alkali granite massif in Mianning County, Sichuan Province, China, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. Many categories of domain structures in this mineral series were observed and investigated, including the microtwin domains of parisite-6R2 and B2S-6R, the antiphase domains of B2S-2H. The results show that the antiphase domains which are faults along crystal plane (0001) are formed by the displacement of crystal lattice in c* direction and the displacement is 0.471 nm. A new polytype (B4S2-3R) of regular mixed-layer structure with B4S2 type is found in the domain region of mixed-layer structure.

  17. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W


    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China.

  18. Epidemiological and radiological study of skeletal fluorosis of Minzhu Town, Longli County, Guizhou Province, China

    Li, D.S.; Duan, R.X.; Wang, S.Q.; He, G.Y.; Li, P.; Nie, Z.X.; Wen, T.G. [Guizhou Province Health and Antiepidemiology Station, Guiyang (China)


    A study was carried out on an area of endemic fluorosis based on the relation between detection rate or incidence, classification and severity of skeletal fluorosis, and sex-age distribution. The results show that Minzhu Town of Longli County is a moderate and typical epidemic area of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution in Guizhou Province, China. Five features characterize the skeletal fluorosis of the residents: Osteosclerosis is significantly more prevalent than osteoporosis; no mixed type of skeletal fluorosis and no osteomalacia were found in the subjects examined; no cases with moderate or severe osteoporosis were found; the severity of osteosclerosis in females was significantly milder than in males; and the rate of osteoporosis caused by fluoride in females showed no difference from that in males. These observations provide new parameters for assessing collective conditions of epidemic regions of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution.

  19. Mantle-derived magmatic gas releasing features at the Rehai area, Tengchong county, Yunnan Province, China

    上官志冠; 白春华; 孙明良


    This paper deals with the chemical and isotopic compositions of escaped gases from the Rehai geothermal area in Tengchong county of Yunnan Province. Results indicate that there is the mantle-derived magmatic intrusion in shallow crust at this area. Modern mantle-derived mag-matic volatiles are being released currently in a steady stream by way of active faults. The escaped gases are mostly composed of CO2, together with subordinate amounts of H2S, N2, H2, CH4, SO2, CO and He. At the studied area, the north-south directed fault is the deepest, and it may be interlinked with the deep-seated thermal reservoir that would be directly recharged by the mantle-derived magmatic volatile. The He, C isotopic evidence reveals that the modern active magma beneath Rehai area may originate from the historical mantle-derived magma which caused the latest eruptive activity of volcanoes in that region.

  20. The strategy of ecosystem construction in Huanren Manchu Autonomous County, Liaoning Province

    Wu Nansheng; Chen Jiancheng; Zhai Mingpu


    The common topic the mankind faces in the 21st century is to strengthen the ecosystem construction and support the ecological security.It is also the needs of establishing socialist harmonious society in China. It is an arduous systemaatic project in ethnic group regions of China to realize the economic and social sustainable development, promote the harmony between man and nature and realize the coordination among the economic development, population, natural resources and environment. To develop ecosystem construction and the green industry well is the basic path to realize the above goals. Huanren Manchu Autonomous County in Liaoning Province is abundant in forests, especially local products, medicinal materials, tourism resources, water resources and culture resources. In order to develop its ecosystem construction, the strategies should be focused on enhancing protection consciousness, brand consciousness, science and technology consciousness and market consciousness. The ultimate purpose is to create the top-ranking ecosystem environment, industry system, policy system and district civilization.

  1. [Relationships between vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunan Province, South-central China].

    Yang, Ning; Zou, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Man-Yuan; Hu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Fang-Ping; Song, Guang-Tao; Lin, Zhong-Gui


    By using space series to replace time series, this paper studied the relationships between the vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on the slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunnan Province South-central China. There existed obvious differences in the soil physical and chemical properties at different restoration stages. From grassplot, grass-shrub, shrub to shrub-arbor, the soil organic matter, total and available N, and moisture contents increased markedly, soil bulk density had an obvious decrease, soil total and available P contents changed little, and soil pH decreased gradually, but no significant differences were observed among different restoration stages. At different restoration stages, the biomass of plant community had effects on the quantity and composition of soil microbes. The quantities of soil bacteria and fungi had significant positive correlations with the aboveground biomass of plant community, but the quantity of soil actinomycetes had less correlation with plant community's aboveground biomass. At different restoration stages, the activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased with increasing soil layer, and had significant positive correlations with plant community's richness and aboveground biomass.

  2. Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae Mosquitoes in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran

    SH Moosa-Kazemi


    Full Text Available  Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to de­ter­mine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs.Methods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae were collected by dipping tech­nique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, Feb­ru­ary, and March 2007.Results: The collected species included:  Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province, Culex  arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx.  pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus cabal­lus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata.Conclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most use­ful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  3. Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae Mosquitoes in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran

    SH Moosa-Kazemi


    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to de­ter­mine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs."nMethods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae were collected by dipping tech­nique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, Feb­ru­ary, and March 2007."nResults: The collected species included:  Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province, Culex  arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx.  pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus cabal­lus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata."nConclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most use­ful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  4. Ecological footprint analysis on the traditional rice-fish agricultural area: a case study of Qingtian County, Zhejiang Province, China

    Jiao Wenjun; Min Qingwen; Cheng Shengkui; Zhang Dan; Sun Yehong


    Qingtian County of Zhejiang Province, China has maintained the traditional rice-fish agriculture for about 2,000 years and formed exceptional cultural heritage based on this kind of production mode, so it was selected by FAO as a pilot site for the rice-fish agricultural heritage systems in 2005.This research has applied the indicators of ecological footprint and biocapacity to monitor the environmental conditions of Qingtian County, aiming to find the impact that the traditional agricultural production mode and the local inhabitants lifestyle have placed on the local environmental conditions as well as the role they have played in maintaining ecological balance, cultural inheritance and regional sustainable development.Results show that Qingtian County is characterized by a nearly breakeven total ecological balance, as opposed to Zhejiang Province, the world and other agricultural regions.However, compared with another rice-fish agricultural region, Congjiang County which enjoys a considerable ecologtcal reserve, Qingtian County has consumed a greater amount of environmental resources.Specifically about half of the ecological footprint of Qingtian County can be attributed to the cropland (50.8%) while the CO2, area only accounts for 11.2%, which is dramatically different from that of the modern industrialized regions.And a vast of percentage of energy is caused by the combustion of fuelwood which not only requires the land to absorb the CO2 emission it has generated but also occupies the forest where it has been chopped.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of double-rice yield under climate change in Hunan Province%气候变化背景下湖南省双季稻生产的敏感性分析

    刘胜利; 薛建福; 张冉; 陈中督; 陈阜; 胡赛晶; 张海林


    contribute to optimizion of rice cultivation management for adapting to the changing conditions. In this study, we selected the recorded rice phonological observations at 10 agro-meteorological experiment stations, and the corresponding weather and statistical yields from 1980–2012 in Hunan Province, China. These data were used to analyze rice sensitivity to climate change using a panel model combined with multiple regression methods. The relationship of climate and yield trend was computed with the least square method, and the possible relationship between climatic factors and double-rice yield was analyzed by partial correlation analysis. The results showed that the double-rice region in Hunan Province experienced a warming trend over the last three decades, and the average temperature during the early rice and late rice seasons were 0.47 and 0.33 oC/(10a) higher. An increase in temperature of 0.76 oC/(10a) was observed during the vegetative stage of the early rice season, while the late rice season experienced a relatively slower increase in temperature. Precipitation and radiation during the growth stage of early rice tended to increase unnoticeable, but radiation in the vegetative stage and the reproductive stage of early rice changed with the trend-0.40 and 0.40 MJ/(m2·d·10a), while the trend was opposite for the late rice. Yield changes in the early rice were significantly correlated with precipitation and radiation during the ripening stage and the whole growth stage (P<0.01), but only the average temperature was significantly correlated to the yield for the late rice (P<0.05). Whatever the model adopted, the yield sensitivity of double-rice to climate change showed great differences among different growth stages, ranging from -280.11 to 118.20 kg/hm2. Temperature, precipitation and radiation in the vegetative stage were most sensitive to the yield for both the early rice and late rice. The rising temperature increased yield of the early rice, while we observed

  6. The Prevalence of Pediculus Capitis among Primary Schools of Shahriar County, Tehran province, Iran, 2014

    Moniba Alborzi


    Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is a common parasitic infection of children, which has been neglected in many areas as well in Shahriar County, Tehran province. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among pupils in primary schools of Shahriar County.Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Shahriar for the period of 2012 to 2013. Data were collected by questionnaires and direct head inspection. The prevalence rate was determined in three primary schools and 750 girls participated, which were selected by a randomized cluster method. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS16 and Chi-square test.Results: Among the 750 girls who were examined, head pediculosis was observed in 36 cases (4.8%. There was a significant relationship between head lice infestation and two factors, father’s job and using private tools in hair salon.Conclusion: The results showed that pediculosis capitis could be a potentially health threatening problem for school children. It is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in the study areas.

  7. Petrological and geochemical characteristics of Mesozoic granodioritic intrusions in Southeast Hunan Province, China%湘东南中生代花岗闪长质小岩体的岩石地球化学特征

    王岳军; 范蔚茗; 郭锋; 李旭


    湘东南花岗闪长质岩石以高K2O/Na2O, K2O+Na2O>6.0%为特征, 属高钾钙碱性系列岩石, 其形成主要受部分熔融作用制约; 岩石稀土元素富集, 铕负异常不明显, δEu=0.71~0.89; 富集大离子亲石元素, Nb-Ta亏损, P、Ti或亏损或不亏损, 具岛弧型岩浆作用微量元素分配模式, 属板内钾质岩石, 源区可能存在早期俯冲组分改造的岩石圈富集地幔组分, 或是源于软流圈的岩浆与中下地壳混合作用的产物; 其形成与该带中生代早期岩石圈的伸展-减薄作用有关。%Mesozoic granodioritic intrusions occurring in Southeast Hunan Province belong to high-K calc-alkaline series with high K2O/Na2O ratios and K2O+Na2O>6.0%. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by LREE enrichment with weakly negative Eu anomalies (δEu=0.71~0.89), different from those of Mesozoic granitic plutons in which intensely negative Eu anomalies were observed. In the primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams, they are enriched in LILE and LREE with significant Nb-Ta depletion. Additionally, some of the rocks demonstrate a clear Ti and P depletion while it is inapparent for other samples. The geochemical characteristics of the Mesozoic granodioritic intrusions suggest the involvement of an enriched lithosphere mantle that had been modified by ancient recycling continental crust, or source mixing between asthenosphere-derived basalts and the lower/middle crust. Combining with the regional tectonic evolution, it is reasonable that the formation of Mesozoic granodioritic intrusions should be related to the early Mesozoic lithospheric extension and thinning.

  8. Study on the sleep quality and its inlfuencing factors of rural left-behind elderly in Hunan province%湖南省农村留守老年人睡眠状况及其影响因素研究

    周俊; 谢丽琴; 陈晓岗


    目的:了解湖南省农村留守老人的睡眠质量及其影响因素。方法:采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表及一般情况调查表等对566名湖南农村留守老年人进行调查。结果:湖南省农村留守老年人睡眠质量总平均分为(7.50±3.81)分,睡眠质量差者占42.1%。女性、近2周患病、低生活能力为农村留守老人睡眠质量的危险因素;男性、子女返乡天数、高社会支持为农村留守老人睡眠质量的保护因素。结论:湖南省农村留守老年人睡眠质量较差,受生理及心理社会等多重因素的影响,应采取多种方式对农村留守老人进行干预,以提高睡眠质量。%Objective:To explore the sleep quality and its inlfuencing factors of rural left-behind elderly in Hunan province. Methods:To investigate the sleep quality and it's inlfuencing factors of the 566 rural left-behind elderly with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and demographics. Results:The average score of PSQI of the 566 rural left-behind elderly was 7.50±3.81, 42.1%elderlys had bad sleep quality. Female, illness within two weeks, and poor ADL skills are the main risk factors,while strong social support and children return are the positive factors. Conclusion:The overall sleep quality of rural left-behind elderly is poor and can be affected by social-psychological and physical factors. Various means should be taken to improve the overall sleep quality among the elderly.

  9. The Construction of Talents with Regard to the System of Land and Mineral Resources in Hunan Province in the New Period%新时期湖南省国土资源系统人才队伍建设



    人才建设是当前国土资源管理工作的重要内容,高层次专业人才、高素质复合人才、信息化技术人才、法治专门人才成为国土资源部门急需人才。湖南省国土资源系统人才队伍建设虽取得一定进展,但高素质人才不足,专业技术人才和综合性人才占比低,行政机关人员年龄偏大,人才队伍建设缺乏顶层设计。因此,未来应推进全省国土资源人才队伍顶层设计,制定人才发展战略,创新完善人才遴选引进、培育开发、考核激励和人才建设投入等人才工作体制机制,统筹推进人才梯队建设和国土资源人才法治化建设等。%Talent training constitutes important aspects of the management of land and resources. High-level professionals, high qualiifed personnel, information-based talent, and the rule of law talents are becoming urgently needed talents in the ifeld of land resources. Shortage of high quality talent, low proportion of professional and technical personnel and a comprehensive talent, older executive staff, lack of top-level design for building talent team have been the major problems that Hunan province face in land and resource talent construction. Therefore, in the future, top-level design for building talent team must be accelerated. Talent development strategy must be set up. Talent development mechanism in talent selection and introduction, cultivation and development, assessment and motivation, and investment in talent building should be innovated and improved. In addition, echelon construction and building the rule of law related talents should be balanced to be promoted.

  10. [Investigation on the feeding status of infants and young children in poor counties of Gansu Province].

    Wang, Lijuan; Li, Wenxian; Sun, Jing; Huo, Junsheng; Dong, Caixia


    To understand the feeding status and the current situation of complementary food supplement of infants and young children aged 6-23 months in Yongjing County and Yuzhong County, two of poorer counties in Gansu Province. A study was conducted by cluster sampling. The status of breastfeeding and complementary food supplement was surveyed by using questionnaires. A total of 836 infants and young children aged 6-23 months were investigated. The results showed that 18. 2% of infants received breastfeeding in the first hour after birth. The breastfeeding rate reached up to 84.1%, while the percentage of continuous breastfeeding for 12-15 months and 20-23 months was only 29.6% and 8.7%, respectively. The percentage of almost exclusive breastfeeding,mixed feeding and artificial feeding attained 42.7%, 41.4% and 15.9% ,respectively during the first 6 months after birth. Besides, the complementary food not supplemented in time was in 68.7% of infants, among which, 35.2% of infants were supplemented too early and 33.5% not in time. The diversity of complementary foods in 6-11 month-old infants was less than that in 12-17 and 18-23 month-old young children. The situation of complementary food supplement for meeting the minimum acceptable dietary level in breastfeeding infants was lower than that in non-breastfeeding infants. The exclusive breastfeeding rate was relatively low. The inappropriate addition of complementary foods in time, category and frequency were the main issues to be concerned. It was suggested that publicizing knowledge on infant feeding should be strengthened.

  11. On-farm Energy Use (Case of Dire County, Kermanshah Province

    Nashmil Afsharzade


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the amount of diesel consumption as one of the non-renewable energy sources consumed by the agricultural machinery and water pumps in wheat and corn farms in Dire County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. The population of the study was determined by Bartlett et al. (2001’s table. Stratified random sampling method and census was used for the selection of respondents. The sample was composed of 247 wheat growers, 235 corn growers, and 57 tractor drivers selected by Bartlett et al. (2001’s table. Combine drivers as well as farm irrigation diesel owners were selected by census (n=15, n=48, respectively. The data collection tool was a questionnaire and the data were analyzed by SPSS software package. The findings revealed that in wheat farms, soil preparation had the highest consumption of diesel by 49% and in corn farms inter culturing had the highest diesel consumption by 38%. Moreover, the amount of diesel consumed in 3600 ha wheat and a corn farm in Dire County was 403,852.6 lit/year equivalent to 15,346,399 MJ. Burning this amount of diesel produces about 1, 058,094 kg CO 2/year. Overall, farm machinery, water pumping and irrigation for two major crops in the county are extremely reliant on nonrenewable fossil fuel resulting in large amount of CO 2 emission. Hence, an aggressive and innovative policy is required to restructure and redesign energy system in agriculture sector at national and local levels. Finally, it seems that paradigm shift to sustainable agriculture and development of clean and renewable energy in Iran's agricultural sector is unavoidable.

  12. Road infrastructure, spatial spillover and county economic growth

    Hu, Zhenhua; Luo, Shuang


    This paper analyzes the spatial spillover effect of road infrastructure on the economic growth of poverty-stricken counties, based on the spatial Durbin model, by using the panel data of 37 poor counties in Hunan province from 2006 to 2015. The results showed that there is a significant spatial dependence of economic growth in Poor Counties. Road infrastructure has a positive impact on economic growth, and the results will be overestimated without considering spatial factors. Considering the spatial factors, the road infrastructure will promote the economic growth of the surrounding areas through the spillover effect, but the spillover effect is restricted by the distance factor. Capital investment is the biggest factor of economic growth in poor counties, followed by urbanization, labor force and regional openness.

  13. New evidence of deposition under cold climate for the Xieshuihe Formation of the Nanhua System in northwestern Hunan, China

    FENG Lianjun; CHU Xuelei; ZHANG Qirui; ZHANG Tonggang; LI He; JIANG Neng


    Yangjiaping section is located in Hupingshan Town, Shimen County, Hunan Province. The section has been intensively studied since 1980. However, The paleoclimate during the deposition of the Xieshuihe Formation remains controversial. Based on chemical analysis of sedimentary clastic rocks of the unit, the resulting CIA (the chemical index of alteration) values of the Xieshuihe Formation are similar to those of the overlying Gucheng Formation (also called the Dongshanfeng Formation). It indicates that the sedimentary rocks of the Xieshuihe Formation and Gucheng Formation underwent the similar degrees of chemical weathering before deposition. Therefore, the Xieshuihe Formation was also likely to be deposited under a cold climatic condition, which probably belongs to a part of the record of glaciations.

  14. 湖南省中学生交通违规行为现状调查及影响因素分析%Investigation of traffic law violations among middle school students in Hunan province and the influencing factors

    王琦琦; 朱松林; 马苑; 何琼; 谭爱春; 胡国清


    目的:了解湖南省中学生交通违规行为发生情况,探讨不同程度交通违规行为的影响因素.方法:采用分层整群抽样方法随机抽取湖南省16个中学96个班的学生及其家长作为研究对象.由学生回顾最近1年内5种常见违规行为出现情况,影响因素中的家庭支持功能和家长教养方式分别采用家庭功能评定量表和子女教育心理控制源量表进行评价,其他变量通过自编问卷进行调查.采用Kruskal-Wallis H检验和无序多分类logistic回归分析数据.结果:湖南省中学生在过去1年中5种交通违规行为发生率为16.6%~43.3%,"过马路闯红灯或不走人行横道线"回答"经常"或"几乎总是"的学生占8.2%,其他4种交通违规行为的学生所占比例均不到4%.同时出现1~5种交通违规行为学生的比例依次为25.3%,17.8%,10.2%,6.2%和3.4%.Logistic回归发现:出现1种违规行为的影响因素包括地区、初/高中和是否为独生子女;出现2种违规行为的影响因素包括地区、初/高中、性别、是否为独生子女和是否为班干部;出现3种及以上违规行为的影响因素包括学校类别、初/高中、性别、是否为班干部、家庭支持功能和家长教养方式.结论:仅少部分学生经常或几乎每次都出现交通违规行为,或同时出现多种交通违规行为.学校安全教育和干预应将交通违规程度较重学生作为重点.%Objective To determine the incidence of traffic law violations among middle school students of Hunan province and to identify the influencing factors.Methods Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were used to randomly select students from 96 classes of 16 middle schools.Road traffic law violations were measured through recalling the occurrence of 5 common violations in the prior year.Most of influencing factors were collected by self-designed questionnaire except for family support function and parenting that were measured by the family

  15. Risk Assessment of Malaria Prevalence in Ludian, Yongshan, and Jinggu Counties, Yunnan Province, After 2014 Earthquake Disaster.

    Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhigui; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Siyuan; Wang, Rubo


    The objective of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence after the 2014 earthquakes in Ludian, Yongshan, and Jinggu counties, Yunnan Province, China. We collected and analyzed epidemiological data and made a risk assessment of transmission probability. From January 2005 to July 2015, 87 malaria cases were reported in the three counties, most of which (81.6%) occurred between 2005 and 2009, with five cases reported in Jinggu County between January 2014 and July 2015, of which one case was reported after the earthquake. In addition, no local transmission occurred in the three counties from 2010, and 95.5% of imported malaria occurred in patients who had returned from Myanmar. The townships of Lehong, Qingsheng, and Weiyuan were the main endemic areas in the three counties. The probability of malaria transmission in the three counties was low, but Jinggu County had a higher risk due to the existence of infected patients and an appropriate vector. With sporadic cases reported annually, close monitoring should continue to enhance early detection of a possible malaria outbreak.

  16. Complete Path of Rural Poverty Alleviation System in Guizhou Province Based on Empirical Investigation and Analysis of 4 Typical Counties in Guizhou Province

    Wei; WANG


    Guizhou Province has the highest incidence and severity of poverty throughout the country.The investigation on its poverty alleviation is of typical significance for the poverty relief and development of concentrated and continuous destitute areas in the new time.On the basis of in-depth research,the 4 typical counties on poverty relief and development in Guizhou Province- Changshun,Yinjiang,Qinglong and Weining have been studied intensively.In the meanwhile,their common successful experiences and existing problems have been summarized.With regard to the complete path for the next stage of poverty alleviation system in Guizho Province,the following recommendations have been proposed: establish a multi-level system for sending agricultural technicians down to the countryside; improve the autonomy of primary-level organizations,especially the anti-poverty organizations at the county level; standardize the allocation of welfare projects; promote agricultural insurance; and improve the sustainable development capacity and market competition ability of farmer specialized cooperative economy organizations.

  17. Hunan Rare Earth Group Approved


    <正>Following Guangdong,Guangxi,Fujian and Jiangxi,Hunan announced that it would consolidate its rare earth resources-the consolidation plan of Hunan Rare Earth Group has been approved. Consolidation of the rare earth industry of south China is in full swing.According to "Several Opinions of the State Council on Promoting the Sustainable and Healthy Development of Rare Earth Industry"(hereinafter referred to as "Several Opinions")released in 2011,

  18. Farmers’ Cognition of Circular Agriculture and its Influencing Factors: A Case Study of Wannian County in Jiangxi Province

    Ying; YANG; Xiaohua; PAN


    Based on the current situation of agricultural development and agricultural material utilization in Wannian County of Jiangxi Province,we mainly use the form of questionnaire survey and design the relevant questions,to study the farmers’ awareness of circular agriculture and its influencing factors. The study results show that some factors have a significant impact on farmers’ awareness of circular agriculture,such as householders’ age,education level,the proportion of agricultural income to household income,having attended agriculture-related lectures,and whether to be concerned about the information related to agriculture. Through the study in this article,we aim to provide better theoretical reference for the development and study of circular agriculture in Wannian County of Jiangxi Province.

  19. Molecular recognition of Acanthamoeba spp from surface waters in Qaen county, north of Southern Khorasan province

    Mahmoodreza Behravan


    Full Text Available Background& Aims of the Study: Free living amoebae (FLA are frequently distributed in environment, such as air, water, dust and soil. Some strains of Acanthamoebaspp are non-pathogen, while others are pathogenic in immunocompromised patients or even healthy persons. So, due to their medical importance, identification of free living amoeba in water resources, as a source of human infection, is necessary.The aim of this study was to isolate of Acanthamoebaspp from surface waters in Qaen county, north of Southern Khorasan province, during 2015-2016 by Morphological and molecular method. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 40 samples were collected from different localities in Qaen county including surface waters, pools and fountains in parks and squares from November 2015 to April 2016. Each sample was filtered through a nitrocellulose membrane filters and cultured on non-nutrient agar (NNA with Escherichia coli suspension and incubated for 1 week to 2 months at room temperature.The cultures media were microscopically examined for the presence of trophozoitesand cysts ofAcanthamoeba spp. Positive cultures for amoebae were examined by PCR (polymerase chain reaction method using specific primers for the genus of Acanthamoeba. Results: Out of 40 water samples, 13 (32.5% were positive for Acanthamoebatrophozoites and cysts according to morphological criteria. In addition, Acanthamoebaspp was identified by PCR method using genus specific primers pairs in 10 (76.93% cases of positive cultures showing anearly 500bp band. Conclusion:According to prevalent of Acanthamoebaspp in surface stagnant waters in this crowded city to buy the saffron from all over the Iran and the world, more attention to the potential role of such waters in transmission of infection by the regional clinicians and health practitioners is necessary.

  20. Review of Present Collection and Research on Forestry Contracts of Qing Dynasty in Jinping County, Guizhou Province

    Shen Wenjia; Wang Ningwei; Dong Yuan


    Forestry contracts of the Qing Dynasty in Jinping County, southwest China's Guizhou Province, are a unique historical legacy of China. It came into being with the development of society and economy of Jinping. Research on these contracts is becoming widespread domestically and abroad as well. This paper is intended to make a review of the collection and research of forestry contracts in Jinping according to the chronological sequence.

  1. 湖南侗族学生Heath-Carter体型发育特征分析%Characteristics of Heath-Carter somatotype development in Dong students from Hunan province

    皮建辉; 吴亿中; 雷鸣枝


    BACKGROUND: There are many methods for studying the somatotype of adults or children. Among them, Heath-Carter somatotype method is a comprehensive evaluation method. Using this method, 10 items of anthropometric indicators are selected and 3 factors which could be gotten to represent relative content of body fat, growth degree of skeletal muscle and relative height and thinness of body (relative line degree), are calculated, respectively.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the rules and characteristics of somatotype development in Dong students from Hunan province, so as to supplement the essential data for physical anthropology.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A cross-sectional investigation was performed at the Department of Biological Engineering, Huaihua College of Hunan Province in May 2006.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 989 Dong students (boys 492, girls 497), aged 7 to 17 years, were selected from the primary schools or middle schools of Tongdao Dong Nationality Autonomous Country in Hunan province and recruited into the present study. All the selected students were verified healthy by physical examinations at school. The subjects were divided into two groups by gender, and each group was divided into 11 subgroups according to the age.METHODS: By Heath-Carter somatotype method, 10 anthropological indexes were measured. Each indicator was measured twice and the average value was selected. The above-mentioned data were input into the computer to form a database. The following indicators were calculated in turn: 3 factors on somatotype, coordinate values of X and Y on somatotype chart, mean of dimensional distances from the average somatotype to all somatotypes in the sample, difference between the two somatotypes in three-dimensional space and frequency distribution of each somatotype.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, body mass, upper arm circumference, calf circumference, intracondylar diameters of humerus and femur, skinfold of brachial triceps, subscapular skinfold, skinfold of

  2. Analysis of high yield formation of rapeseed in Hunan province and high-yield cultivation measures%湖南高产油菜的产量构成特点及主要栽培措施

    官春云; 谭太龙; 王国槐; 王峰; 官梅


    对2008-2009年参加湖南省油菜高产创建活动的高产田块产量及其形成特点进行分析.结果表明:平均产量为3084 kg/hm2的油菜田块角果数为6.522×107个/hm2,每果粒数为20.5粒,千粒重4.077 g;冬前苗单株绿叶数约10片,单株总叶数16片,最大叶长近45 cm,叶宽18 cm,干物质产量为4 841.85 kg/hm2;盛花期株高为136 cm,主茎总节数31.8节,主茎绿叶数17片,第一片无柄叶长28.8 cm,宽13 cm,10 cm以上分枝数10.6个,干物质产量为11 225.1 kg/hm2;成熟期株高为180 cm,分枝数11个,干物质产量(去角果)为9 118.65 kg/hm2.高产田块主要栽培措施为:9月7-15日播种,培育壮苗,10月10-25 日移栽;土壤肥力中等,精细整地;施用45%高效复合肥450~750 kg/hm2,另加15 kg/hm2硼肥作底肥,苗期适当追施尿素;或施优质农家肥1.5×104kg/hm2,25%复合肥375 kg/hm2,加15 kg/hm2硼肥作底肥,苗期适当追施尿素150~225 kg/hm2;种植密度1.2× 105株/hm2,及时灌排水和防治病虫草害等.%According to the analysis of yield level and yield characteristics of typical block in Hunan province in 2008-2009, preliminary results are obtained. Yield components and physiological index in different growth stages of rapeseed yielded around 3 084 kg/hm2 in Hunan are: number of siliques is 6.522 × 107/hm2, seed number is 20.5/ silique, thousand grain weight of rapeseed is 4.077 g. Green leaf number per plant in seedlings before winter (1/10) is nearly 10, total leaf number is 16, maximum leaf length nearly 45 cm, leaf width 18 cm, dry matter yield before winter is 4 841.85 kg/ hm2. Plant height in florescence stage is 136 cm, nodes number on the main stalk is 31.8, green leaf number on the main stalk is 17, first piece of sessile leaf length is 28.8 cm, width 13 cm, branch quantity (≥10 cm)is 10.6, the total mass of dry matter is 11 225.1 kg/hm2. Plant height in maturity stage is 180 cm, number of branch quantity is 11 and total amount of dry matter (silique

  3. Application of Geothermal Energy to New Countryside Construction——A Case Study of Xiong County, Hebei Province

    WANG; Shu-fang


    Hujiatai Village, Xiong County, Hebei Province was nominated as the experimental unit of new countryside construction by Hebei Province in 2008. In order to make Hujiatai Village become a new countryside model with friendly ecological and environmental conditions, local energy resources should be considered. In this study, a mode of "geothermal energy extraction-heat exchange-space heating-reinjection" was adopted to supply heat to resident houses in Hujiatai Village cooperating with a geothermal development entity based on the abundant geothermal resources, thereby constructing a clean, economic and autarkic new countryside energy system, which avoids utilization of fossil-energy, reduces emission of greenhouse gases and generation of solid coal cinder, protecting air and land environment, improving life quality of the people and building a typical model for Hebei Province and even for the whole country.


    DING Sheng-yan; QIAN Le-xiang; CAO Xin-xiang; LI Shuang; LI Hao-min


    With the help of ARC/INFOR and ERDAS software, based on the information from forest resources distribution maps and TM images, four indices were chosen to analyze spatial pattern changes of forest landscape of Luoning County, Henan Province from 1983 to 1999. The results showed that: 1) The number and total area of patches were rapidly increased with time changes. The fragmentation degree of the landscape was increasing great-ly. 2) The area of some forest patch types, especially shrub forest, economic forest, Populus spp. Forest, Quercus spp. Forest, sparse forest, deserted grassland etc. Had been greatly changed. 3) The fragemation degree of each forest patch type became greater from 1983 to 1999.4) The transition probabilities of deserted forest, economic forest,Pi-nus tabulaeformis forest, Populus spp. Forest exceed 85%,Robinia pseuoacacia forest, deserted grassland, 65% and Quercus spp. Forest, non-forest, shrub forest had smaller ones, which were 26.5%, 29.1% and 45.3%, respec-tively. The main transition trends of various patches were non-forest and Quercus spp. Forest. During the course of transition, the types that 50% of area was remained were Quercus spp. Forest, non-forest and shrub forest. Accord-ing to above analyses, the main driving forces, such as the management policies, market economy factors and influ-ences of human activities etc. Were brought out.

  5. The Way to Entrepreneurship: Education and Work Experience for Female Entrepreneurs, Jiaocheng County, Shanxi Province

    Minglu Chen


    Full Text Available This paper examines the education background and work history of a newly emerged group of entrepreneurs in the People’s Republic of China (PRC—women. Based on interviews with 62 women entrepreneurs in the north China county of Jiaocheng, Shanxi Province, conducted between October 2003 and May 2004, it compares and analyzes the situation of women enterprise owners, wives of male enterprise owners and those who take leadership positions in the enterprises as workshop leaders, share holders, managers and defacto managers. The results suggest that higher education is not an important element in the making of these women entrepreneurs, but literacy still matters for those who are seeking higher positions in private enterprises or setting up their own business. The interviewees’ work experience corresponds to their education background, as most of them used to be engaged in jobs requiring less education. This paper also reveals the situation of one specific group formed by widowed women taking over their husbands’ enterprises after their death. It suggests that these women had experienced considerable hardship in running the business.

  6. The costs and benefits of reforestation in Liping County, Guizhou Province, China.

    Zhou, S; Yin, Y; Xu, W; Ji, Z; Caldwell, I; Ren, J


    Reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is becoming a pressing issue for the global community. Afforestation and reforestation are promoted worldwide as an effective means of sequestering carbon. For its national interest and global concerns, China has made great efforts to protect its existing forests and develop programs of afforestation and reforestation. Based on two surveys recently conducted in Liping County, Guizhou province, this paper investigates the economic changes associated with the implementation of the "Grain For Green" policy. Based on the analytical framework of benefit cost analysis, this paper concludes that the implementation of the reforestation of sloping agricultural land policy would not be possible if there were no government subsidies for the peasants. The short term economic returns of land and labour from forestation are substantially lower than those generated from grain or cash crop production on the steep slope lands. The government subsidies provide great economic incentives for peasants to take part in the project. The subsidies in fact have elevated peasant income in rural Liping. The estimated potential economic returns of plantations over the long run indicate that the removal of the government financial subsidies would not create an economic crisis for the peasants if the current market conditions continue.


    Saliha AĞAÇ


    Full Text Available Traditional Turkish apparels have a distinctive place in Turkish cultural history. Known as an indispensable part of Turkish history and taking part among our historical proofs, our traditional apparels are important sources of data enlightening us about w ear, traditions and customs of our ancestors. Traditional apparels vary in characteristic and form depending on the localities. However, having a crucial place in the cultural richness of Turkish people, who have a rich history, traditional wear has starte d to change and disappear over time due to the factors such as rapid advancement of technology, strengthening of the communication network, different worldviews, life nested within different societies, fashion and affectation. The aim of this research is to reveal our cultural assets that have been sinking into disappearance, to prevent their disappearance and to ensure that they are conveyed to the future generations. The study universe consists of the local women’s appa rels found in chests in Mudurnu county of Bolu province. In the research, a total of 8 traditional apparels including 2 called “üçetek”, 2 called “iç don”, 1 called “göynek”, 1 called “bindallı”, 1 called “top entari” and 1 called “şalvar” were examined in terms of the material used, color, model - pattern and stitching techniques.

  8. [Concentration and speciation of arsenic in greenhouse vegetable soil in Shouguang County of Shandong Province].

    Hu, Liu-Jie; Zeng, Xi-Bai; Bai, Ling-Yu; Li, Lian-Fang


    A sampling survey was conducted in the typical areas in Shouguang County of Shandong Province to study the characteristics of arsenic (As) concentration and speciation in greenhouse vegetable soil. The total As concentration in the surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil was averagely 8.27 and 7.93 mg x kg(-1), being 19% and 23% higher than that of the control (open field soil), and the soluble As (AE-As) concentration was 0.13 and 0.06 mg x kg(-1), 63% and 200% higher than that of the control, respectively. The ratio of residual As (O-As) to total arsenic reached more than 63.0%, and the concentrations of different As speciation decreased in the order of O-As > iron-bound As (Fe-As) > calcium bound As (Ca-As) > aluminum bound As (AlAs) > AE-As. With the increasing planting years, the AE-As concentration enhanced significantly, and the Al-As concentration also increased to some degree. After 15 years planting, the AE-As concentration in surface and subsurface soil increased by 75.0% and 150.0%, and Al-As concentration increased by 51.6% and 190.4%, respectively, while the concentrations of Fe-As and Ca-As all decreased to some degree.

  9. Survey of tick species parasiting domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr county, Mazandaran province, Iran

    Hosseini Vasoukolaei Nasibeh; Telmadarraiy Zakkyeh; Vatandoost Hassan; Yaghoobi Ershadi Mohammad Reza; Hosseini Vasoukolaei Morteza; Oshaghi Mohammad Ali


    Objective:To determine the tick species parasitizing domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr county in Mazandaran, a Caspian province in the north of Iran.Methods:About361 sheep, 54 goats and10cattle of18 herds in several villages in Ghaemshahr were inspected for tick infestation. Separated ticks were preserved in70% alcohol and identified.Results:About323 ticks (207female,116 male) were collected, the occurrence of ticks on sheep, goats and cattle were28.3%, 22.2% and20.0%respectively. The mean number of ticks on each animal was low (3-5ticks per animal).Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Boophilus annulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata andHaemaphysalis numidiana were the tick species we found.Rhipicephalus sanguineus were the most abundant species in the study area. The largest number of ticks were generally present from April to July, mostly in animal ears and tails. Ixodes, Boophilus andHaemaphysalis occurred in mountainous areas of Ghaemshahr, whereas Rhipicephalus were present in both mountains and plains of the study area.Conclusions: The result of this study is a survey of tick species from domestic animals in Iran and implication of possible prevention measures for diseases transmitted by ticks.

  10. Effects of health education and stove improvement in preventing coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province



    Objective To observe the effect of health education and installation of improved stove in control of coal-burn-ing-borne endemic fluorosis in Pingba County of Guizhou Province.Methods Two towns (Shizi and Qibo) of Pingba County that had implemented the health education and

  11. Control Effects of Tianshifu Soil Conditioners on Cd Contamination in Paddy Fields of Hunan Province%“田师傅”土壤调理剂应用于湖南Cd污染稻田的效果研究

    刘兴元; 田发祥; 谢运河; 纪雄辉


    To investigate the effects of Tianshifu soil conditioners on rice growth and their control effects on Cd absorption and accumulation in rice, a test was carried out in the field typical y pol uted by Cd in Hunan Province. The results showed that the Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and the combination of Tian-shifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner al could promote rice growth, im-prove rice yield and reduce significantly Cd content in rice grains. ln Beishan, the Cd contents in rice grains treated by Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial condi-tioner and the combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner were reduced by 37.63% (P combination of Tianshifu soil condi-tioner and soil bacterial conditioner > Tianshifu soil bacterial conditioner. ln addition to reducing Cd absorption in rice, as described in the lime application treatment, the application of Tianshifu soil conditioners also inhibited the transportation of Cd from rice straws to rice grains. The Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner also effec-tively improved the soil acidity, increased the soil pH value and reduced soil avail-able Cd content to some extent.%采取湖南典型 Cd污染的大田试验,研究“田师傅”系列土壤调理剂对水稻生长的影响及降低水稻吸收积累 Cd的效果。结果表明,“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施皆可促进水稻生长,提高水稻产量,并显著降低稻米 Cd含量。北山点“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施的稻米 Cd含量分别比常规施肥下降37.63%(P<0.05)、32.59%(P<0.05)、27.95%(P<0.05);湘潭点则分别下降54.36%(P<0.05)、50.19%(P<0.05)、45.22%(P<0.05),皆达到食品安全国家标准,且"田师傅"系列调理剂的降 Cd效果为土壤调理剂>土壤调理

  12. 湖南临湘贺畈沟灾害性泥石流成因分析和启示%Genesis analysis and enlightenment of catastrophic debris flow in Hefangou Gully of Linxiang, Hunan Province

    卢阳; 陈宁生; 吕立群; 黄祺; 李俊


    In order to find out the genesis of the extraordinary debris flow disaster which took place in Hefangou gully of Hunan Province, where is a wet area of low seismic intensity, on June 10th in 2011, the drought grade of Hefangou Basin before the dis-aster was determined and the effect of lasting drought on the physical and mechanical characters of the granite residual soil was analyzed on the basis of field investigation and laboratory test. Besides, the rainfall quantity and time required to saturate the granite residual soil was calculated. Then the genesis of the debris flow was obtained: the vertical layered characteristic of the granite residual soil determined that the soil can easily start from the surface with high content of fine particles;early long dura-tion drought cracked the soil structure and speeded up the soil weathering along the part with high content of fine particles near ground surface, which increased the permeability of the soil;later heavy rainfall of short duration caused the rainwater to infiltrate along the cracks on the soil surface with fine soil particles moving, enriched and then formed the impermeable layer of soil, the strength of the soil decreased;with the continued heavy rainfall, the pore water pressure above the impermeable layer in the up-per soil soared to some extent, the soil failed and was liquefied to form the debris flow.%2011年6月10日,属湿润、低地震烈度区的湖南临湘贺畈沟暴发了历史罕见的特大泥石流灾害。为探明此次泥石流灾害的成因,在现场勘查工作的基础上,结合室内试验,划分了泥石流发生前贺畈沟流域的干旱等级,分析了长历时干旱对沟内花岗岩残积土物理力学性质的影响,计算了花岗岩残积土饱和所需的降雨量和时间,得出了此次泥石流灾害的成因:源区花岗岩残积土的垂直分层特征,决定了土体极易从细颗粒含量高的表层起动;前期长历时干旱导致土体表

  13. 湖南稻区稗草对二氯喹啉酸的抗性研究%Studies on Resistance of Echinochloa crusglli to Quinclorac in the Rice Plantation Area in Hunan Province

    马国兰; 余柳青; 刘都才; 刘雪源; 陆永良; 柏连阳


    The greenhouse study was carried out to determine the resistance level to quinclorac of 29 barnyard grass bio-types collected from rice planting area in Hunan province. The result showed that the biotype collected from Shaoyang suburb was the most susceptible barnyard grass to quinclorac,the EC50 was 76.3883 g a. i. /hm2. The biotype collected from Shaoyang suburb as the susceptible biotype, the biotypes collected from Zhihukou town in Yiyang and Wangcheng in Changsha presented very high resistance to quinclorac,the EC50 was 1567.164 g a. i. /hm2 and 2477.542 g a. i./hm2 respectively, and its resistance index was riched to 20.52 and 32.43 respectively which indicated the two biotypes had resistance to quinclorac on high level. Among 29 biotypes 10 were resistant to quinclorac with a EC50 value ranged from 155.9318 to 375.114 g a. i./hm2 ,and a resistant index ranged from 2.02 to 4.91. And the susceptibility to quinclorac of the other 16 biotypes was decreasing with the EC50 value ranged from 84.0203 to 151.596 g a. i. /hm2 ,and the resistant index ranged from 1.10 to 1.98.%利用整株测定法,测定湖南省主要稻区29个稗草生物型对二氯喹啉酸的抗性.结果表明,湖南省隆回县的生物型稗草对二氯喹啉酸最敏感,其EC50为76.3883 g a.i./hm2,为敏感生物型.湖南省益阳芷湖口镇和湖南省长沙望城县(直播田)的生物型稗草对二氯喹啉酸的EC50分别为1567.164 g a.i./hm2和2477.542 g a.i./hm2,抗药性指数分别达20.52和32.43,表明这两种生物型稗草的抗药性处于高水平抗性.其中10个生物型稗草的EC50为155.9318 ~375.114 g a.i./hm2,抗药性指数为2.02 ~4.91,表明这些生物型稗草已产生抗性.而其余16个生物型稗草的EC50为84.0203 ~151.596 g a.i./hm2,抗药性指数为1.10 ~1.98,表明这些地方稗草的敏感性正在下降.

  14. 湘西地区城镇居民体育锻炼现状调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Current Situation of Sports Exercises of Urban Residents in the West of Hunan Province



    采用文献资料法、访谈法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等研究方法,随机抽取湘西地区吉首、凤凰、花垣、保靖4个城镇1200名居民为调查对象,从体育锻炼参与者基本特征、体育锻炼动机、时间、频率、强度等方面进行调查与分析,研究结果表明:在参加体育锻炼的居民中,女性所占的比例高于男性,中老年人占多数,参加体育锻炼的主要动机是健美体形,减肥、愉悦身心,缓解压力和娱乐。每周参加3-5次锻炼,每次锻炼的持续时间在30-60分钟,以中等强度为主的人数比例最高,大多数居民以广场、公园、单位或住宅小区体育场所作为锻炼场所,选择体育锻炼的项目主要为户外健身器械、健身走、登山,选择与朋友、同事一起锻炼的形式较多,影响居民参加体育锻炼的主要因素是缺乏时间、缺乏场地设施和没兴趣。%By using the methods of literature, expert interview and questionnaire,the article has randomly selected 1200 urban residents as the research objects from Jishou, Fenghuang, Huayuan, Baojing of the West of Hunan Province, investigated and analyzed the basic characteristics of participants, physical exercise motivation, time, frequency, intensity. The results show that: in the exercise of the residents, the proportion of women is higher than men, the elderly accounts for the majority, the main motivation to participate in the sports exercises is to fit shape, weight loss, mental and physical pleasure, ease the pressure and entertainment. The frequency of them most is 3-5 times every week, the duration of each exercise is in 30-60 minutes, most of their exercises are with medium intensity, most residents in the square, park, units or residential area sports venues as places for exercises, most choose to do outdoor fitness equipment exercises, fitness walking, climbing, most select the form of doing with friends or colleagues, the

  15. Studies on the occurrence and control technique of the Atlas silkworm (Philosamia cyntia) in Hengyang,Hunan province%衡阳地区樗蚕的发生与防治技术研究

    雷玉兰; 林仲桂


    樗蚕(Philosamia cyntia Walker et Felder)是城镇园林植物上的重要害虫.本文研究了该虫在湖南省衡阳地区的生物学特性、发生规律与防治技术.结果表明,该虫在衡阳地区1年发生3代,以蛹在寄主植物上的丝质茧内越冬.5月中下旬是第1代幼虫危害高峰期,也是全年危害最严重的时期,必须采用适当的方法进行防治.在低虫口密度时,采用剪除越冬虫茧的方法,降低越冬代虫口基数.在高虫口密度时,使用高效、低毒、低残留的杀虫剂喷雾防治幼虫,可以迅速压低虫口密度.对于高大树上的樗蚕,可在其幼虫取食期,采用树干打孔注入内吸性杀虫剂的方式,有很好的防治效果.采用克百威、铁灭克等内吸、传导作用强的杀虫剂埋根的方法防治樗蚕幼虫,防效好,药效期长.%Atlas silkworm,Philosamia cyntia;is an important insect pests in city garden plants.Its biological characteristics,occurrence and control techniques was studied in this paper in Hengyang city,Hunan province.The results show that the insect in Hengyang area takes place three generations a year and lives through the winter with pupa in the silk cocoon in host plants.From Mid to Late ten days of May is the first generation larvae hazard peak,also the most serious period of the harm wholethrogh the year,and the appropriate methods for prevention and control this pest must be adopted.At lower population density,cutting off the wintering chrysalis can reduce the overwintering generation population base;When in higher population density,using the high efficiency,low toxicity and low residual insecticide spray to control larvae can quickly lower the population density.Punching on the trunks and injecting the systemic insecticides into the holes to control the atlas larva feeding on the tall trees had a good control effect.Using carbofuran,temix,the pesticides which have strong systemic action and conduction effect,to bury roots to

  16. 湖南省磷肥中重金属含量及形态特征%Content and morphology characteristics of heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers in Hunan province

    张青梅; 向仁军; 刘湛; 万勇; 钟振宇; 尤翔宇; 漆燕


    Phosphate fertilizer and raw material in the existing phosphate fertilizer producers in Hunan Province were sampled. According to the “ecological indexes of arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, mercury in fertilizer” (GB/T 23349-2009), the pollution index was evaluated. The results show that the average contents of arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury in single superphosphate are 26.78 mg/kg, 18.86 mg/kg, 18.51 mg/kg, 1.55 mg/kg and 1.27 mg/kg respectively. The average contents of chromium, lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury in calcium magnesium phosphate are 798.39 mg/kg, 9.78 mg/kg, 6.31 mg/kg, 0.67 mg/kg and 0.11 mg/kg respectively. The arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, mercury content in most phosphorus fertilizer are lower than the standard. The lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium in single superphosphate are mainly from phosphor mine and mercury from sulfuric acid. The lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, chromium in calcium magnesium phosphate are mainly from phosphate. Under acidic conditions potential risks from cadmium in phosphate fertilizer for agricultural product safety exist.%对湖南省现有磷肥生产企业磷肥生产原料和产品进行采样,并按《肥料中砷、镉、铅、铬、汞生态指标》(GB/T 23349-2009)对重金属进行污染指数评价,结果表明:普通过磷酸钙中砷、铬、铅、镉、汞平均含量分别为26.78 mg/kg、18.86 mg/kg、18.51 mg/kg、1.55 mg/kg、1.27 mg/kg.钙镁磷肥中铬、铅、砷、镉、汞平均含量分别为798.39 mg/kg、9.78 mg/kg、6.31 mg/kg、0.67 mg/kg、0.11 mg/kg.绝大部分磷肥产品中砷、镉、铅、铬、汞均未超标.过磷酸钙产品中铅、镉、砷、铬的来源主要为磷矿,汞的来源主要为硫酸;钙镁磷肥产品中铅、镉、汞、砷、铬的来源主要为磷矿.在酸性条件下,磷肥中的镉对农产品安全具有潜在风险.

  17. 水口山水稻土与菜地土中砷的有效性%Availability of arsenic in paddy and vegetable soils in Shuikoushan mining area of Hunan Province, South-central China

    朱雁鸣; 冯人伟; 韦朝阳


    Soil samples were collected from the surrounding areas of Shuikoushan mining area in Hunan Province of South-central China to determine the soil total and available arsenic contents and the soil physical and chemical properties (pH value, organic matter content, and clay content ) , with the differences of the test parameters in two agricultural soils ( vegetable soil and paddy soil) and the relationships between the soil available arsenic content and the soil physical and chemical properties analyzed. The average content of the arsenic in paddy soil and vegetable soil was 72. 01 and 30.71 mg · kg-1, respectively, being close to or exceeding the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard II. There existed significant differences in the soil physical and chemical properties between the two agricultural soils, with the higher contents of clay and organic matter but lower pH value in paddy soil than those in vegetable soil, and the paddy soil being obviously acidified. The total arsenic content in vegetable soil was far higher than that in paddy soil, but the available arsenic content of the two soils had less difference. Except for total arsenic , the available arsenic content in paddy soil was significantly positively correlated with organic matter content, and that in vegetable soil was significantly positively correlated with pH value. In the Shuikoushan mining area, vegetable soil had a higher risk of arsenic pollution than paddy. soil, and thus, necessary remediation strategies or adjustment of land use pattern should be adopted to reduce the health risk of soil arsenic contamination.%对湖南省水口山矿冶周边土壤进行采样分析,以土壤砷总量与有效态砷含量以及土壤基本理化性质(pH、有机质含量、土壤粘粒含量)为参数,研究各参数在两种土地利用类型(菜地土和水稻土)间的差异以及有效态砷与土壤理化性质之间的关系.结果表明,水口山水稻土与菜地土平均砷含量分别达72

  18. Effects of Acid Rain in the Central Area of Hunan Province on the Durability of Concrete%湖南省中部地区酸雨对混凝土耐久性的影响

    唐小林; 王劲松; 薛文韬; 商旭升; 张金勇


    In recent years,acid rain caused by air pollution in China is worsening,and the impact caused by it can not be ignored for our living environment. The project based on the concrete corrosion mechanism studies the degree of acid rain harm to concrete durability in central region of Hunan Province and presents effective protective measures by analyzing trends of acidity,composition,rainfall and simulating the acid rain corrosion of concrete. The studies show that the impact of acid rain on the concrete can not be ignored. Concrete acid corrosion occurs mainly in general under the influence of acid rain,sulfate attack,car_bonation of soft water corrosion and concrete,etc. ,so that the film is formed on the surface of concrete,damage occurs,the deterioration of mechanical properties and neutral,largely influences durability of concrete and makes the concrete compressive reduce significantly. In order to reduce and avoid adverse impacts of acid rain,erosion prevention and treatment of concrete are very significant.%近年来我国大气污染造成的酸雨危害日益严重,对环境造成了不可忽视的影响。本项目分析湖南省中部地区酸雨酸度、成分、降雨量的变化趋势,基于酸雨对混凝土的腐蚀机理,通过模拟酸雨腐蚀的实验方法,研究酸雨对湖南省中部地区混凝土耐久性的危害程度并提出有效的防护措施。试验研究表明:酸雨对混凝土的影响是不容忽视的。混凝土在酸雨的影响下主要发生一般的酸类腐蚀、硫酸盐腐蚀、软水腐蚀和混凝土的碳化作用等,使得混凝土表面生成薄膜,出现损伤,力学性能劣化和中性化,很大程度上影响了混凝土的耐久性。经过试验得出混凝土的抗压性能明显降低。为了减轻和避免工程实际中由于酸雨的危害产生的不良影响,防治混凝土受酸雨侵蚀显得尤为重要。

  19. 湖南宝山矿区煌斑岩的地球化学特征及地质意义%Geochemical characteristics of lamprophyre and its geological significance in Baoshan deposit, Hunan province, China

    孔华; 全铁军; 奚小双; 钟江临; 陈泽峰; 王高; 郭碧莹; 赵志强


    The lamprophyre vein from Baoshan minning area, southern Hunan Province, is a new discovery, the rock sample has typical lamprophyric texture, the phenocryst minerals are pyroxene, feldspar, biotite and quartz. The contents of SiO 2 range from 50.23%to 51.29%, the values of Na 2 O+K 2 O range from 4.65%to 5.63%, the values of K 2 O/Na 2 O range from 1.89 to 7.77. According to figure of TAS and SiO2−Nb/Y, the samples belong to calc-alkaline lamprophyres of alkaline series. Distribution pattern for transitional-metal elements shows enrichment in Ti, Mn and Zn, obvious depletion in Cr, Co and Ni. The characteristics of trace elements show that strong enrichment in Th and LREE, relative depletion in K, Sr, Ba. The zircons collected from lamprophyre are magmatic zircons due to oscillatory zones, U-Pb dating results display the crystal average age of measured zircons is (156±2) Ma, the lamprophyre is derived from metasomatic enrichment lithospheric mantle. The discovery of lamprophyre from Baoshan suggests the trace of Yanhsanian deep basic magma activity, corresponding to regional intra-plate extensional tectonic background in Yanshanian stage.%最近在湖南宝山矿区发现了煌斑岩脉,岩石样品具有典型煌斑结构,斑晶矿物主要为辉石、长石、黑云母及石英。SiO 2含量为50.23%~51.29%,(Na 2 O+K 2 O)为4.65%~5.63%,K 2 O/Na 2 O值为1.89~7.77。根据TAS图解和SiO 2-Nb/Y图解投点,宝山煌斑岩为碱性系列钙碱性煌斑岩。煌斑岩过渡族元素配分型式为“W”形,相对富集Ti、Mn 和Zn,明显亏损Cr、Co和Ni;微量元素表现为Th和LREE强烈富集并伴有K、Sr和Ba相对亏损的特征。煌斑岩中的锆石为岩浆锆石,U-Pb定年结果为(156±2) Ma,煌斑岩浆来源于受到俯冲组分改造的富集地幔。湖南宝山矿区煌斑岩的产出显示了燕山期深部岩浆活动的踪迹,反映燕山期区域陆内伸展的大地构造背景。

  20. 发达国家和地区农业支持政策对湖南现代农业发展的启示%Inspiration from Supporting Policies for Agriculture in Developed Countries and Areas to Development of Modern Agriculture in Hunan Province



    At ifrst, the article compared and analyzed the supporting policies for agriculture in developed countries and areas, such as the USA, the European, the Japan, etc.. Then, some suggestions were put forward for promoting development of modern agriculture in Hunan Province, including construction of multiple capital input system, development of new type farmer cooperative organization, perfecting modern agriculture education system, and promoting sustainable development of agriculture.%对比分析了美欧日发达国家和地区现行农业支持政策,基于此提出湖南应从构建多元化的资金投入体系、发展新型农民合作组织、完善现代农业教育体系、推进农业可持续发展等方面来加快推进现代农业发展。

  1. Correlation of individualeum length with body height in Miao nationality students in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou provinces and Chongqing city%湘鄂渝黔边区苗族学生同身寸与身高的关系

    黄大元; 石慧娟; 梁成青; 吴国运; 熊健


    目的 探索湘鄂渝黔边区苗族学生同身寸与身高的关系.方法 应用人体测量法测量了1896名(年龄6~16岁)苗族学生的同身寸和身高.结果 得出男女生各年龄组同身寸长、身高均值;除16岁女生组外,同身寸长与身高呈正的直线相关.结论 同身寸长和身高有直线相关性,可用同身寸长推算身高.%Objective To explore the correlation of the individualeum length with the body height of Miao nationality students in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou provinces and Chongqing city. Methods The individualeum length and body height of 1896 normal students (aged 6-16) of Miao nationality were measured by anthropological method, and the analysis of the linear regression was done. Results The means that the individualeum length and the body height of different ages and sexes were obtained. The correlation between the individualeum length and the body height of all the male age groups and the female groups except 7 was positively related, and the regression equation was also established. Conclusion The correlation between the individualeum length and the body height was positively related of Miao nationality students in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Cuizhou provinces, the figures of stature can be calculated by the individualeum length.

  2. A Survey of Esophageal Cancer in Cixian County of Hebei Province

    JunHou; ZhifengChen; CuilanGuo; ShaosenLi; WenlongBai; GuolimngJin; YuxiaWang; FanshuMeng; FengGao; XujingLu; ZhifangWang; GangKuang


    OBJECTIVE To characterize the histologic types of esophageal cardiac mucosa by endoscopic survey in a high-risk cancer area of China. METHODS An endoscopic survey with Lugol,s staining was carried out in Cixian County, Hebei Province from December 2001 to May 2002. The data were processed using computer SPSS 10.0 software. RESULTS The incidences of mild esophagitis, moderate esophagitis, and severe esophagitis were for 2013 cases, 34.9%(703), 1.6%(33) and 0.1% (2)respectively; those with mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia of the esophagus were 8.6% (172), 7.8% (157) and 2.6% (53) respectively; those with carcinoma in situ, intramucosal carcinoma, invasive squamous carcinoma of the esophagus were 2.5%(50), 0.2% (4) and 0.7%(14) respectively. The histologic-detecting rates of non-atrophic gastritis, and atrophic gastritis of the cardia were 36.3%(730), 11.5% (232) respectively; those with mild dysplasia, severe dysplasia of the cardia were 2.5%(51), 0.8%(17) respectively; those with intramucosal adenocarcinoma, invasive adenocarcinoma of the cardia were 0.1% (3), 0.8%(17) respectively. The early-detection rate of esophageal cancer was 79.4%(54/68). The survey rate(examined population to covered population) was 73.8% (2013/2725). CONCLUSIONS Esophageal endoscopic screening with Lugol's solution staining has an advantage over esophageal balloon cytology, in that the histological diagnoses of esophageal cardiac diseases can be obtained, thus contributing to the prevention of subsequent disease. In using the staining method the detection rate of early esophageal cancer is higher than that revealed by balloon cytology.

  3. Prevalence rate and epidemiological determinants of animal bite in Ahvaz County, Khuzestan Province, Southwestern Iran

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali Kassiri; Reza Mosavi; Abbas Jashireh; Masoud Lotfi


    Objective:To investigate the prevalence rate and epidemiological aspects of animal bite in AhvazCounty(western part),KhuzestanProvince,SouthwesternIran during the2nd half2003-2007.Methods:In this descriptive cross-sectional investigation a questionnaire was completed for each victim.The questionnaire included questions like, occupation, gender, age group, attacker animal, vaccination type(complete or non-complete), bite place on the body, type of dog bite(stray or domestic dog), residential area(urban or rural).Data analysis was done by SPSS software using descriptive statistics.Results:The total number of4186 cases had been found.The highest number of bitten persons were in2007(1079 cases) and2005(1032 cases). The maximum prevalence rate belonged to2005(2.04/1000 population).Also,Most of the victims were males(80%).Eighty percent of the bites were from urban regions.The majority of cases were related to10-19 years age group(32.8%).The highest frequencies of bites were students(28.9%). Upper extremities were the most common bite place(61.4%).About91.3% of cases were injured by dogs.Furthermore, around83.7% of animal bites treated by incomplete rabies prophylaxis regimen.No cases of human rabies were observed in our study.Conclusions:The dogs were the major attacker animal, affecting mostly the age group10-19 years old and men.Therefore, we should pay more attention about controlling this problem.

  4. Assessment and Management of Oak Coppice Stands (Quercus variabilis) in Shangnan County,Southern Shaanxi Province

    Xiao-lan Wang; Hany El Kateb; Bernhard Felbermeier; Ping-cang Zhang; Reinhard Mosandl


    The present study was conducted within the frame of the Sino-German project " Rehabilitation of degraded land ecosystems in the mountainous area of the Southern Shaanxi Province,China".The study deals with the assessment of the potential of oak coppices as well as the evaluation of the socioeconomic conditions in the Shangnan County.The ulimate objective of the study is to provide recommendations on the sustainable management of forest resources,which does not only aim to improve the environmental situation but also to satisfy the demands of the local rural residents.The study was based on 30 samples of oak coppices stands,which were randomly selected within an area of a size of 20 km × 20 km.In each selected stand,the mature stand and understory regeneration were investigated in depth.For the socio-economic survey,175 households from 11 villages were randomly selected.Results revealed that the stocking capacity of the cork oak coppices reaches 120 m3/ha in average at the older age classes (≥25 years) even after frequent timber harvest.High potential for productivity was indicated by the availability of sufficient vigorous individuals at different age classes.In addition,the understory regeneration was sufficient in density (19,000 ± 133 individual/ha) and consisted of diverse valuable nativespecies (17 species within a survey area of 400 m2).The results of the assessment of the oak coppices provided possibilities for some practices that can be recommended towards sustainable management of such stands.On the other hand,results of the socioeconomic study showed a high degree of acceptance among the local inhabitants (79% of the total households)to change traditional land use,providing an enhancement of their economic situation.

  5. 湖南嘉禾大窝岭剖面吴家坪阶-长兴阶界线牙形石 生物地层及一次碳同位素负偏%Conodont Biostratigraphy and a Negative Excursion in Carbonate Carbon Isotopes across the Wuchiapingian-Changhsingian Boundary at the Dawoling Section,Hunan Province

    叶茜; 江海水


    The research of conodont biostratigraphy and carbon isotope change at the Dawoling section provides basic materials for the exploration of creatures and environment change in the Wuchiapingian-Changhsigian period.The Dawoling section at Yuanjia Town,Jiahe county,Hunan Province,recorded basinal deposition during the Late Permian.The Talung Formation is well-exposed and displays siliceous rock,siliceous limestone,limestone and claystone.Three conodont taxa (one is undeter-mined)of genus Clarkina:C.wangi,C.deflecta and C.sp.are identified,and these enable the tentative assignment of a C. wangi Zone overlain by a C.changxingensis-C.deflecta assemblage Zone.The Wuchiapingian-Changhsingian boundary (Wuchiapingian-Changhsingian boundary,WCB)is placed at the first occurrence (FO)of C.wangi at the base of bed 11 at this Dawoling section.A rapid negative shift from 2.18‰ to -1.39‰ in carbonate carbon isotope in beds 13-15 correlates well with the Changhsingian GSSP(Global Stratotype Section and Point)section at Meishan in Zhejiang and the Shangsi section of Sichuan.Therefore,this negative excursion could be a regionally correlation horizon in south China.%吴家坪阶-长兴阶界线位于这两次生物大灭绝事件之间,科学界对该界线附近是否发生重大地质事件仍然知之甚少,有关该时期的环境变化、碳循环的研究也不深入.嘉禾大窝岭剖面牙形石生物地层以及碳同位素变化的研究,为进一步探讨吴家坪期-长兴期附近的生物及环境事件提供基础材料.晚二叠世时以深水盆地相沉积为主的大窝岭剖面位于湖南省嘉禾县袁家镇附近.该剖面大隆组出露较好,岩性主要为硅质岩、硅质灰岩、灰岩以及泥岩.在大隆组中共识别出牙形石1属3种(含一个未定种):Clarkina wangi,C.deflecta,C.sp.,并识别出牙形石C.wangi带和C.changxingensis-C.deflecta组合带.根据C.wangi的首现,将大窝岭剖面的吴

  6. 精神疾病与农村青年自杀:湖南、辽宁、山东省病例对照抽样调查%Mental disorder and suicide among youths in rural China: a case control study based on consecutive samples from Hunan, Liaoning and Shandong provinces

    张杰; 李子尧; 肖水源; 周亮; 贾存显; 潘国伟


    Objective To study the prevalence of mental disorders among the Chinese youths aged 15-34 years,in rural areas and to identify risk factors related to suicide.Methods A consecutive sampling strategy was used for suicidal cases in 16 randomly selected counties in Hunan,Liaoning,and Shandong provinces.Between 2005 and 2008,a total of 392 suicide cases were recruited with 416 community controls at the same age range,selected from the same areas one family member together with one close friend of each suicidal case were interviewed,using the psychological autopsy (PA) method.The same method with structured instruments was performed on the two informants for each control in the same community.SCID was used for the diagnosis of mental disease.Results 48.0% of the suicides were diagnosed as having at least one mental disorder episode,in comparison with only 3.8% among the controls.It was found that mental disorder was the most important risk factor for the Chinese young suicide cases in the rural areas.Conclusion As seen in the Western countries,mental disorder had also been the number one correlate on suicidal cases in China,with the difference as other social and psychological factors might have played relatively more important roles in China.%目的 探讨精神疾病及其他因素对自杀的影响情况.方法 在湖南、辽宁、山东省随机抽取16个县进行自杀的序贯抽样.2005-2008年共收取并访谈392个自杀案例和416个相同年龄段与自杀案例临村的随机对照.采用心理解剖方法访谈自杀死亡者亲友,同样方法和结构性工具访谈社区对照的2名信息人.利用SCID中文版作为精神科的诊断工具.结果 392例农村青年自杀者中,仅有48.0%自杀前一个月曾患有精神疾病,而416例社区对照组中精神疾病的现患率仅为3.8%.在众多的危险因素和保护因素中,精神疾病仍是中国农村青年自杀最重要的危险因素.结论 精神疾病在中国是自杀的最

  7. 县级政府人力规模与省以下财政体制--基于灰色关联分析%County Government and Human Scale of Fiscal System under Province--Based on the Grey Relation Analysis



    The paper has analyzed the relation between the intra-provincial fiscal system arrangements and the growth of county-level government human size, based on the county-level time series data of Hunan province from 1995 to 2008, using the grey correlation analysis taking the index of the decentralization of fiscal expenditure and revenue、 financial degree of self-sufficiency and average per person net fiscal transfer from the perspective of fiscal decentralization and transfer payment. In this paper, it gets conclusions that there is significant positive correlativity between fiscal decentralization, transfer measured by different indexes and government human size at county level of Hunan province, and the most powerful factor which can explain the growth of county-level government human size is intra-provincial government expenditure division decided by various provinces voluntarily, the second is intra-provincial revenue division system arrangements and finance self-sufficiency degree at county level, the last is transfer payment. It shows that intra-provincial fiscal division system possibly has some kind of gene which encourages county-level government human size to expand. Such phenomenon indicates that establishing sub-national intergovernmental fiscal decentralization and moderate scale of transfer are important approaches to control sudden inflation of county-level government human size.%  利用湖南省1995-2008年的县级数据,以灰色关联度分析作为工具,采用财政支出分权、财政收入分权、财政自给率、人均净财政转移支付指标,从财政分权与转移支付视角对省内财政制度安排与县级政府人力规模之间的关系进行分析。研究发现:不同指标度量的财政分权、转移支付与县级政府人力规模呈现比较显著的正相关关系,并且省内支出分权对湖南省县级政府人力规模的影响最大,其后依次为省内收入分权、县财政自给率和

  8. 诺瓦桔柚在湖南安化引种栽培试验%Introduction of Nova Tangelo into Anhua County in Hunan Province

    刘干生; 贺沸泉; 刘春初; 刘尚泉; 龙安农; 陈辉球; 杨志新; 黄再安; 肖峰



  9. An Effect Analysis of Comprehensive Treatment of Groundwater Over-Exploitation in Cheng’an County, Hebei Province, China

    Shao, Weiwei; Zhou, Jinjun; Liu, Jiahong; Zhang, Haixing; Wang, Jianhua; Xiang, Chenyao; Yang, Guiyu; Tang, Yun


    The comprehensive treatment project of groundwater over-exploitation in Hebei Province has been implemented for more than a year, and the effect of exploitation restriction is in urgent need of evaluation. This paper deals with Cheng’an County of Hebei Province as the research subject. Based on collected hydro-meteorological, socioeconomic, groundwater, and other related data, together with typical regional experimental research, this study generates the effective precipitation–groundwater exploitation (P-W) curve and accompanying research methods, and calculates the quantity of groundwater exploitation restriction. It analyzes the target completion status of groundwater exploitation restriction through water conservancy measures and agricultural practices of the groundwater over-exploitation comprehensive treatment project that was implemented in Cheng’an County in 2014. The paper evaluates the treatment effect of groundwater over-exploitation, as well as provides technical support for the effect evaluation of groundwater exploitation restriction of agricultural irrigation in Cheng’an County and relevant areas. PMID:28054979

  10. An Effect Analysis of Comprehensive Treatment of Groundwater Over-Exploitation in Cheng’an County, Hebei Province, China

    Weiwei Shao


    Full Text Available The comprehensive treatment project of groundwater over-exploitation in Hebei Province has been implemented for more than a year, and the effect of exploitation restriction is in urgent need of evaluation. This paper deals with Cheng’an County of Hebei Province as the research subject. Based on collected hydro-meteorological, socioeconomic, groundwater, and other related data, together with typical regional experimental research, this study generates the effective precipitation–groundwater exploitation (P-W curve and accompanying research methods, and calculates the quantity of groundwater exploitation restriction. It analyzes the target completion status of groundwater exploitation restriction through water conservancy measures and agricultural practices of the groundwater over-exploitation comprehensive treatment project that was implemented in Cheng’an County in 2014. The paper evaluates the treatment effect of groundwater over-exploitation, as well as provides technical support for the effect evaluation of groundwater exploitation restriction of agricultural irrigation in Cheng’an County and relevant areas.

  11. Genetic diversity analysis of Amomum tsao-ko in Jinping County of Yunnan Province using SSR markers

    Ma, Mengli; Wang, Tiantao; Lei, En; Meng, Hengling; Xie, Linyan; Zhu, Kunlong; Duan, Shaoze; Li, Wenqiang; Lu, Bingyue


    Genetic diversity analysis is very important for germplasm resources conservation and utilization. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity among 44 individuals of Amomum tsao-ko from Jinping County of Yunnan Province using 5 selected SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. A total of 23 polymorphic loci were detected among these germplasms, with an average of 4.6 polymorphic loci per SSR primer combination. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 100%, whereas the mean effective number of alleles (Ne), observed heterozygosity(Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), Shannon's information index (I), and the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) were 3. 410, 0. 491, 0. 679, 1.266 and 0. 672, respectively, indicating that the Amomum tsao-ko germplasms from Jinping County had high genetic diversity.

  12. The Quantitative Analysis of Land Use Structure Characteristics of County in Mountainous Areas in Sichuan Province of China——A Case Study of Rong County


    Based on the data concerning detailed survey on land in the year 2009 and land change in the year 2010 in Rong County,a mountainous region of Sichuan Province,by using quantitative geographical model,we conduct quantitative analysis of the status quo of land use in Rong County in terms of land use diversification,land use centralization,land use combination type,land use geographic significance and comprehensive use degree of land use.The results show some characteristics as follows.Firstly,land use in study area displays prominent characteristic of diversification;there is a high degree of completeness land use type;there is a great similarity among towns.Secondly,there is limited combination number of land use type;mostly the combination number of the towns is 2-3;the holistic function of regional land is fragile;the proportion of farmland areas is big,reaching 40.09%;the land use type of 21 towns is farmland.Thirdly,the towns with prominent characteristic of diversification of land use in Rong County,have low degree of centralization of land use and relatively big combination number of land use type,and vice versa.Fourthly,the type and quantity of agricultural land resources with geographical significance are relatively complete with nothing missing;it abounds in untapped land,but the overall index values of land use are all smaller than 300,with low overall use degree of land.

  13. A survey of penis and testicular development on boys in Hunan Province%湖南地区正常男童阴茎睾丸发育的调查

    彭潜龙; 赵夭望; 李艳芳; 刘小青; 殷波; 杜玉开


    the two groups was statistically significant(P 0.05).Penis of children over 8 years old grow faster again.The rule of testicular growth and development:8 years ago slowly, the difference between the two adjacent groups was not statistically significant(P >0.05),Testicles of children over 8 years old go into the rapid growth period,the difference between the two groups was statistically signifi-cant(P <0.01 ). Conclusions Status survey of penis and testicular development to 3 440 children aged 0 to 12 years old can contribute to the understanding of sexual development of boys in Hunan Province.The meas-urement results can be applied to clinical reference for the development of domestic childrenˊs penis.

  14. Study on community of rare and endangered plant Davidia involucrate in Hupingshan Nature Reserve of Hunan province%壶瓶山自然保护区珍稀濒危植物珙桐群落的研究

    刘海洋; 金晓玲; 薛会雯; 张程; 石求辉; 张日清


    The resources and community structure of Davidia involucrata in Hupingshan Nature Reserve of Hunan province were studied by using the sample plot method. The results show that: (1) There were 65 vascular plant species in the community belonging to 37 families and 59 genera. The composition of Davidia involucrata community mainly consists of the East Asia distribution, the rate reached to 27.1% (16 genera), and the next was North Temperate distribution, about 20. 3% (12 genera). The component of species had the typical characteristics that it is from the subtropics to the temperate zone. (2) The community vertical structure was simple, which composed of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and interlayer plant. Herb layer grew better than tree layer and shrub layer. In term of life form, 32. 3% phanerophytes were on the top, the composition of life form was similar to that in subtropical evergreen and deciduous forest. (3) The importance value of Davidia involucrata was 70. 3, The Simpson and Shannon-wiener diversity indices in herb layer were higher than that in tree layer and shrub layer. The Pielou indexs (Jsw and Js) in tree layer were higher than herb layer and shrub layer. (4) According to the age structure.It's indicated that Davidia involucrata community in Hupingshan Nature Reserve had not yet developed into its climax, and the spatial pattern of the whole population was of clumping distribution. Natural regeneration ability of Davidia involucrata was weak and seed germination was low, and seedling rate was less, the forest rehewal was given priorty to shooting.%为了解湖南省壶瓶山自然保护区内野生珙桐资源的分布和植物群落情况,采用样方调查法,对野生珙桐资源的分布、植物群落特点和生境进行了调查研究.结果表明:(1)珙桐群落中共有维管束植物65种,隶属37科59属.植物区系组成以东亚分布最多,达16属,占27.1%.其次是北温带分布,共12属,占20.3%.珙桐群落区系的

  15. 社区护士对社区护理学课程需求的调查%A survey of community nursing curriculum requirements in community nurses in Hunan province

    任森; 肖洁华


    目的:调查了解湖南省社区卫生服务机构中社区护士对社区护理学课程的实际需求,为社区护理学教程提供可靠的教学依据。方法:根据社区护理教材的内容采用自行设计的调查问卷,对湖南省5个城市中189名社区卫生护士进行调查,问卷有效回收率为92.6%。结果:社区护理人员认为较常用的内容依次为:社区营养与膳食管理(85.7%)、突发性公共卫生事件的处理(76.7%)、社区环境评估(69.8%)、人际沟通能力(69.8%)、流行病学与统计学应用(66.7%)、社区康复护理(64.0%)、家庭访视与家庭护理(51.9%);较少使用的内容依次是:社区健康档案管理(54.5%)、社区护理概述(36.0%)、常见传染病慢性病的护理(31.7%)、特殊人群保健(30.2%)、职业病(25.4%);社区护士对社区护理学学时的需要所占比例依次是:56~70节(45.0%)、41~55节占(29.6%)、71节以上(14.3%)、40节以下(11.1%)。结论:社区卫生服务机构中护理人员缺乏,应增加高职高专院校护理学专业学生的社区护理学课程;社区护理学课程应以预防保健为主,适当增加课时数,理论与实践紧密结合,建立实用型社区护理课程体系。%Objective To investigate the actual needs that community nurses have on community nursing courses in community health service organization in Hunan province,to provide a reliable teaching basis for the community nursing courses.Methods Investigations on 189 community health nurses in 5 cities,this is conducted on the self-designed questionnaires based on community nursing textbook content,the effective recovery rates of questionnaire is 92.6%.Results Community nursing personnel think the more important content is:community nutrition and dietary management 85.7%,the handling of sudden public health event 76.7%,and community environment assessment 69.8%,and

  16. Method for Evaluating the Degrees of Land Use Sustainability of Mountainous County and its Application in Yunnan Province, China

    YANG Zisheng; LIU Yansui; TAO Wenxing; XU Jingjing; ZHAO Qiaogui


    The evaluation of sustainable land use is the key issue in the field of studying the sustainable land utilization. In general analysis, the sustainable land use is evaluated respectively from its ecological sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability in China and other countries in recent years. Although this evaluation is an important work, it seems insufficient and hard to comprehensively reflect the whole degree of land use sustainability. Thus, to make up this deficiency, this paper brings forward the evaluation indexes, which make it possible to quantitatively reflect the whole degree of land use sustainability, namely, the concept of "degrees of overall land use sustainability" (Dos), and research and development of the method of measurement and calculation in Dos. Taking the evaluation of the degree of land use sustainability in county regions of Yunnan Province as the actual example for analysis, results are basically as follows: 1) The degree of land use sustainability (Dos) is the ration index to organically and systematically integrate the degree of ecological friendliness (DEF), the degree of economic viability (DEV) and the degree of social acceptability (DSA), able to comprehensively reflect the whole sustainability degree of regional land use. 2) Based on the value of Dos, the grading system and standard for the sustainability of land use may be established and totally divided into five grades, namely, the high-degree sustainability, middle-degree sustainability, low-degree sustainabflity, conditional sustainability and non-sustainability. Meanwhile, the standard for distinguishing sustainability grades has also been confirmed so as to determine the nature of sustainability degrees in different grades. This makes the possibility for the combination of nature determination with ration in research result and provides with the scientific guideline and decision-making gist for better implementation of sustainable land use strategy.3

  17. Exploration of Eco-economic Development in Ecological Fragile Region —— A Case Study on Wuqi County in Shaanx Province

    Bing ZHANG; Dong WANG


    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to explore eco-economy in ecological fragile re- gion with Wuqi County in Shaanxi Province as an example. [Method] Eco-economy development and major environmental problems in Wuqi County in Shaanxi Province were researched based on local social and economic conditions, population of im- poverished people and environment vulnerability. [Result] The areas with vulnerable environment and backward economy should establish a virtuous circle between economy and environment and a sustainable model of economic development. [Con- clusion] It is significant to change the severe situation of environment deterioration and to promote ecological civilization.

  18. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

    Ge, Jian; He, Mingguang; Zhao, Jialiang; Fang, Min; Ellwein, Leon B; He, Ning; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng


    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 531 individuals aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County from September 2006 to January 2007. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated using village registers followed by door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and thirty-one individuals were enumerated and 4 589 persons were examined, the response rate was 82.97%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 2.38% (109/4 589) and 9.44% (433/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 2.68% (123/4 589) and 18.15% (833/4 589) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 1 239.34, P visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is higher among older adults aged 50 years or above in Yangxi County. Cataract remains as the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment.

  19. DNA polymorphism in the partial mitochondrial atp6 gene among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from Hunan Province%湖南省日本血吸虫线粒体atp6基因部分序列的多态性分析

    夏英定; 汪世平; 李娟; 吴昌义; 田智; 尹铁球; 周云飞; 张树菊; 冯其梅


    目的 研究湖南省日本血吸虫不同地域自然隔离群线粒体ATP合成酶F0亚单位6基因(atp6)部分序列的遗传多态性,为湖南不同地域自然隔离群日本血吸虫的遗传特性研究提供实验依据.方法 采用试剂盒抽提基因组总DNA,以特异性引物对线粒体atp6基因进行PCR扩增,通过单链构象多态性技术(SSCP)筛选出差异带型并进行测序,用DNAStar 5.0及Mega 4.0软件进行比对分析.结果 湖南省5个流行区的日本血吸虫PCR扩增后获得了483 bp atp6部分序列,检测出17个变异位点,变异率为3.52%,雌雄虫之间的差异为0.0%~1.3%,不同地理来源虫株间的差异率为0.0%~1.5%.聚类分析结果表明:湖南不同地域自然隔离群日本血吸虫的种系发育不能按照其来源归为相应的系统发育进化树.结论 湖南不同地域自然隔离群日本血吸虫的atp6基因存在明显的个体差异,是否由于生存环境的选择压力造成了同一地理来源日本血吸虫个体之间atp6基因的遗传差异,其原因尚有待于进一步研究.%The aim of this study was to examinc sequence variation in the partial mitochondrial ATP synthase F0 subunit atp6 gene of Schistosoma japonicum and to provide foundation for studying the characterization and genetic structure of S. japonicum from different endemic origins of Hunan province. After extracting genomic DNA, atp6 was amplified with specific primers and screened by SSCP technique. Representative samples with variable banding patterns were selected for sequencing.DNAStar 5.0 and Mega 4.0 were used to analyze the sequences subsequently. Results showed that partial atp6 gene of S. japonicum was 483 bp, and 17 mutation sites were detected (3. 52%). Sequence variations for the partial atp6 were 0.0% -1.3% between male and female parasites, and 0.0%-1.5 % among isolates from different geographical origins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that S. japonicum in Hunan province could not be

  20. 湖南省国培初中体育教师职业倦怠现状调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis on the Nation Training Junior Middle School PE Teachers'Professional Burnout in Hunan Province



    本文通过文献资料调研法、心理测量法、逻辑分析法、数理统计法等研究方法,对湖南省国培初中体育教师职业倦怠现状进行调查分析?结果表明:湖南省国培初中体育教师职业倦怠较为严重,在性别维度差异上,男性体育教师情绪衰竭和非人性化程度高于女性体育教师,而个人成就感低于女性体育教师;在教龄维度差异比较上,教龄11-19年阶段的体育老师情绪衰竭、非人性化维度和低成就感高于其他教龄阶段的教师;在学历维度差异比较中本科学历的体育教师职业倦怠程度高于专科学历的体育教师;在职称维度差异比较上,中教二级职称体育教师职业倦怠程度最为严重,高情绪衰竭、高非人性化和较低的成就感?建议,学校应为体育教师创设一个良好的工作环境,积极主动地关心体育教师的生活,支持?配合体育教师的工作,帮助他们解决一些实际生活困难,协调好教师的工作关系和人际关系,协助体育教师建立一个良好的教学环境。%This essay involves the research and analyze on the laziness of PE teachers in Hunan province junior middle school through literature research,questionnaire survey, logical analytic method,and mathematical statistics techniques. As the result shows: the PE teachers in Hunan province junior middle school,to some extent,are in bad mood for teaching and tired of teaching. In aspect of gender,the masculine gym instructor's non-friendly degree is higher than the feminine gym instructor,but individual sense of achievement is lower than the feminine gym instructor; In the teaching sonority dimension difference comparison,teaching sonority of 11-19 year stage's sports teacher's non-friendly are higher than other teaching sonority stage; The undergraduate course degree's gym instructor's level of tiredness is higher than The college degree's gym instructors. and in the

  1. 工程机械企业国际知名品牌价值评价研究--以湖南省为例%Evaluation on the Value of International Brands in Engineering Machinery Industry--In Hunan Province as an Example

    甘瑁琴; 邓德胜


    Facing the intensified international competition, it is necessary for an enterprise to accelerate the internationalization p-rocess of its brands, which directly determines its globalization. Therefore, quickening the pace of building international brands becomes critical for the enterprise to enhance its international competitiveness, for building international brands is the new growth point of the enterprise. In recent years, engineering machinery industries in Hunan province develops quickly and their brands gradually become influenial to the international market. However, there is a long distance for them to compete with the famous brands. Under this circumstance, it is of great importance for the international brands to build a value evaluation model, which is vital for the effective evaluation of the brands in engineering machinery industries in Hunan province, for the enhancement of the brands' international competitiveness as well as for their exploration of the international market. This paper, based on the previous study on value evaluation, builds a value evaluation system for international brands, analyzes the their values quantitatively with the multi-level fuzzy evaluation model, and verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the model through the value evaluation of the brands in engineering machinery industries in Hunan province.%  在全球竞争的格局下,品牌作为企业的无形资产,其国际化进程直接决定企业的全球化水平,创建国际知名品牌已成为企业新的价值增长点,加快培育国际知名品牌也成为企业提升国际竞争力的必然途径。近年来,湖南工程机械产业发展迅速,其品牌在国际市场已初具影响力,但与国际知名品牌相比还存在较大差距。因此,建立国际知名品牌价值评价指标体系,对当前湖南工程机械企业的品牌价值进行有效评估,以提升品牌国际竞争力、开拓国际市场。本文在国际品

  2. Evaluation on the Quality and Effect of Measles Prevention and Control in Hunan Province, 2009-2011%湖南省2009~2011年预防控制麻疹策略质量及效果评价

    戴德芳; 杨彦华; 李放军; 张淑君; 孙倩莱


    目的 评价湖南省2009~2011年预防控制麻疹策略的质量及效果.方法 通过综合分析湖南省含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)的接种率,包括常规免疫接种率、麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIAs)和查漏补种接种率、疫苗效价监测、人群免疫成功率及抗体水平监测、麻疹监测系统资料,评价2009~2011年预防控制麻疹的效果.结果 2009~2011年,湖南省常规免疫MCV第一、第二剂报告接种率分别为99.52%、99.33%,SIAs报告接种率和调查接种率均>95%,疫苗效价均达到合格滴度,免疫成功率为89.38%,人群麻疹抗体平均阳性(≥1∶200)率78.28%,抗体几何平均滴度为1∶436.2011年发病率与2009年相比下降了97.46%,<8月龄及≥15岁的病例占全部病例的38.38%.结论 湖南省预防控制麻疹措施效果显著,应继续加强麻疹监测,保持高质量的常规免疫,并针对重点人群开展免疫.%Objective To make an evaluation on the quality and effect of strategies fo measles prevention and control in Hunan province during 2009-2011.Methods To evaluate the effects of vaccination of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in Hunan province during 2009-2011 by analyzing the coverage rate,including coverage of routine vaccination,SIAs,catch up vaccination,surveillance of vaccine efficiency,surveillance of antibody and data from the system of Measles surveillance.Results The inoculation rate of first dose and second dose MCV in routine immunization was 99.52%and 99.33% respectively.Both reported and investigated inoculation rate of SIAs are above 95%,all vaccine efficacy reached a qualified titre.The successful immunization rate was 89.38%,average positive rate of antiboday in population was 78.28%,geometric mean titer level was 1 ∶ 436,the incidence decreased 97.46%,and cases under 8 months or above 15 years of age accounted for 38.38



    Remote sensing technique has played an important role in land use dynamic monitoring, but as for the land use dynamic monitoring at county level, traditional remote sensing methods such as satellite imagery visual interpreta tion and computer classification can not meet its demand for accuracy. The result of 1:10 000 land use investigation map has high accuracy, but this method can not be used to dynamically monitor the land use because of its big expenses, long period and difficulty in updating data. In this paper, the characteristics of physiognomy, climate and the status of land use in Dehui County are taken into consideration and a set of method, which takes use of 3S techniques and applids to Northeast China Plain, is come up with. When the land use type of a land parcel changed as a whole, the date updating can be make by changing its land type ID in the attribute table in a GIS. When the land use type of an irregular area changed, GPS receivers are used to position its border. This set of method is characteristic of high accuracy and low expens es. It gets the information of land use change timely and can be used to dynamically monitor the land use.

  4. 长株潭城市圈核心文化产业对湖南省区域经济增长影响的实证分析%The Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Core Cultural Industry at Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration on Regional Economic Growth in Hunan Province



    采用定量研究方法,利用2001—2010年有关面板数据,建立计量经济学模型,分析长株潭城市圈广播电视产业、新闻出版产业、动漫产业、休闲娱乐产业四大核心文化产业对湖南省区域经济增长的影响。根据平稳性检验、协整检验、最小二乘估计、LM检验等模型检验结果,可得出:长株潭城市圈核心文化产业和湖南省区域经济增长呈现正相关的关系,其核心文化产业对湖南省区域经济增长带来了积极的促进作用,但与国内外文化产业发达地区或国家相比,长株潭城市圈核心文化产业的相关弹性并不大,还有进一步提升的空间。%Adopts the method of empirical analysis and uses the panel data from 2001--2010 to establish an econometric model to study the influences of the core cultural industries of radio and television industry, the press and publication industry, animation industry and entertainment industry of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration on the regional economic growth of Hunan province. The results of stationary test, cointegration test, least squares estimation and LM test show that: the cultural industry of the urban agglomeration is positively related to the regional economic growth of Hunan province, which give an impetus to regional economic growth; But compared with the culture industry developed areas at home and abroad, the relevant elasticity of the central cultural industries of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan is not notable and need to improve.

  5. Relationship between Index of Zooplankton Amount in Lake (Reservoir) and Evaluation Standards for Water Quality ---Taking Five Lakes (Reservoirs) in Hunan Province as Example%湖(库)浮游动物数量指标与水质评价标准关系研究--以湖南省5个湖(库)为例

    钟振宇; 陈灿; 宋伟龙; 成应向


    It surveyed the constitute of zooplankton community, the zooplankton amount and the zooplankton dominant species in different representative water qualities and functions lakes (reservoirs) in Hunan province, then using chemical evaluation index Pb/n, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Simpson dominance index to evaluate the pollution degree of surveyed water body. The evaluation results showed that the results of water quality pollution degree evaluated by zooplankton diversity index method was accordant with that evaluated by conventional chemical comprehensive pollution index method; using zooplankton amount to evaluate water quality pollution degree had relatively better reliability, and it also can indirectly reflect water quality pollution degree. Then, the zooplankton amount and dominant species and the limit value for water quality pollution degree in lake (reservoir) in Hunan Province were determined.%对湖南省内不同水质功能代表性湖(库)的浮游动物群落组成,浮游动物数量以及优势种进行了调查研究;采用化学评价指数Pb/n、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson优势度指数分别对目标水体的污染程度进行了评价。评价结果显示:利用浮游动物多样性指数评价湖(库)水质污染程度与常规的化学综合污染指数评价结果基本吻合;利用浮游动物数量评价水质污染程度具有较高的可信度亦能间接反映水质污染程度;在此基础上,界定了湖南省湖库浮游动物数量及优势种与水质污染程度的限值。

  6. 城镇化背景下湖南省农业转移人口市民化存在的问题与对策%Problems and Countermeasures of Citizenization of the Agricultural Transferring Population in Hunan Province in the Background of Urbanization

    王习贤; 贺治方


    推进农业转移人口市民化,逐步把符合条件的农业转移人口转为城镇居民,是党的十八届三中全会做出的重要决定. 近年来,湖南在推进城镇化,提高农业转移人口市民化方面成效显著,但存在的问题不少. 进一步推进湖南农业转移人口市民化,必须加大政府的政策支持,保证经费投入. 具体做好以下几个方面的工作:一是健全农业转移人口权益保障体系;二是促进农业转移人口就地转移;三是有效整合农业转移人口培训资源;四是保障农业转移人口农村土地权益;五是进一步突破户籍与福利合一的社会管理制度;六是增加农业转移人口市民化公共财政投入.%Promoting citizenization of the agricultural transferring population, and changing eligible migrant workers into urban residents gradually are important decisions of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.In recent years, remarkable success has been made in promoting urbanization and improving citizenization of the agricultural transferring population in Hunan Province, but there are still many problems.In order to further promote citizenization of the agri-cultural transferring population in Hunan Province, the government should increase policy support and guarantee the funds.The following action should be taken: firstly, improving rights protection system for the agricultural transferring population;secondly, promoting on-the-spot transfer of the agricultural transferring population;thirdly, effectively integrating training resources of the agricultural transferring population; fourthly, protecting rural land rights for the agricultural transferring population; fifthly, making further breakthrough of unified census register and welfare in social management system;sixthly, increasing public finance investment for citizenization of the agricultural transferrig population.

  7. 湘粤两省货币政策区域效应的差异性研究--基于动态分布滞后模型%Research on the Difference of the Regional Effect of Monetary Policy between Hu'nan and Guangdong Provinces:Based on the Dynamic Distributed Lag Model



    本文选取中部地区和沿海地区中的代表省份湖南省和广东省作为研究对象,基于货币政策的内部与外部传导机制,实证检验并分析了统一货币政策在湘粤两省产生的不同效应。实证结果表明,在货币政策操作中,应考虑区域非均衡因素,提高政策工具的灵活性和可操作性,以提高货币政策的有效性,达到缩小地区经济发展差距的目的。%Selecting two representative provinces of the central area and the coastal area, Hu'nan and Guangdong Provinces, as the research objects, based on the internal and external transmis-sion mechanism of monetary policy, this paper made an empirical test and analysis on the different effects of a uniformed monetary policy in the two provinces. The empirical result shows that re-gional non-equilibrium factors should be considered and flexi-bility and operability of policy should be improved in the opera-tion of monetary policy, in order to improve the effectiveness of monetary policy, and narrow the gap of regional economic devel-opment.

  8. Yanggu County(in Shandong Province) to Build the Largest Copper Industry Base in North China


    <正>Yanggu County is planning to build Xiang-guang Eco-industrial Park led by Xiangguang Copper. Upon completion, annual revenue from main business will exceed RMB 100 billion, and become the largest copper industry base in

  9. 广东怀集下坊话同音字汇%The Homophony Syllabary of Xiafang Dialect in Huaiji County, Guangdong Province



    The paper describes the phonological system and phonetic features of Xiafang dialect in Huaiji county, Guangdong province, and lists its homophony syllabary.%本文描写了怀集下坊话的语音系统,主要内容包括怀集下坊话的声韵调系统及其同音字汇。

  10. Serve the People,Enrich the People——A Story of Yang Zaiqing, CCP Branch Secretary of Hanliang Village,Fugu County, Shaaxi province


    @@ In Fugu County, Shaaxi province,there is a good CCP Branch Secretary whose heart is tightly linked to the local people. He leads the people to pursue the wealthy life and innovation,and has constructed a "milestone" of cariving-out, realizing 60 thousand yuan of industrial production value, 4000 yuan per capita of individual income from a poor village.

  11. Serve the People, Enrich the People——A Story of Yang Zaiqing, CCP Branch Secretary of Hanliang Village, Fugu County, Shaaxi province


    @@ In Fugu County, Shaaxi province,there is a good CCP Branch Secretary whose heart is tightly linked to the local people. He leads the people to pursue the wealthy life and innovation, and has constructed a "milestone" of cariving-out, realizing 60 thousand yuan of industrial production value, 4000 yuan per capita of individual income from a poor village.

  12. Analysis on Current Situation of English Teaching in Rural Primary Schools-Take Tai gu County in Shan Xi Province as an example

    ZHANG Hui


    Nowadays, English education in rural areas draws more attention in the society. However, the current situation of Eng-lish teaching is worrying. Visit and investigated Limeizhuang primary school in Taigu County, Shanxi province and found some problems, so as to promote English teaching in rural primary schools.

  13. 多元线性回归构建湖南省县医院卫生人力和床位预测模型%Prediction model of health workforce and beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression

    凌茹; 刘家望


    目的:应用多元线性回归构建湖南省县医院卫生人力和床位的预测模型.方法:分层随机抽样确立16个样本县,按照统一调查表进行调查,根据文献研究筛选20项指标进行多元线性回归分析.结果:进入卫生技术人员数多元线性回归模型的自变量包括:县域的城镇居民可支配收入、粗死亡率、县域医疗机构的实有床位、业务用房面积、专业设备总值、万元以上设备数、固定资产、长期负债、医疗收入、医疗支出、门急诊人次、出院人次、实际开放总床日、病床使用率;进入县医院床位数多元线性回归模型的自变量包括:县域的65岁及以上的人口数、城镇居民可支配收入,县域医疗机构的卫生技术人员、业务用房面积、专业设备总值、固定资产、长期负债、医疗收入、医疗支出、门急诊人次、出院人次、实际开放总床日、病床使用率、平均住院日.结论:预测模型解释性和拟合程度较好,可以用于短中期预测.%Objective To construct prediction model for health workforce and hospital beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression. Methods We surveyed 16 counties in Hunan with stratified random sampling according to uniform questionnaires, and multiple linear regression analysis with 20 quotas selected by literature view was done. Results Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on medical personnels in county hospitals included the counties' urban residents' income, crude death rate, medical beds, business occupancy, professional equipment value, the number of devices valued above 10 000 yuan, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, and utilization rate of hospital beds. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on county hospital beds included the the population of aged 65 and above

  14. Analysis on Sanitary Quality of Hemodialysis Water in Hospitals of Hunan Province During the Period of 2009 - 2011%湖南省2009-2011年医院血液透析用水卫生质量分析

    庞浩; 吴传业; 黄涛; 陈彦华; 胡冀; 杨新文


    目的 了解近3年湖南省医院血液透析用水的卫生状况,为血透用水卫生质量的规范化管理提供科学依据.方法 于2009-2011年先后采集湖南省的77家不同等级医院的血液透析用水样品,按照《血液透析用水卫生标准》进行理化指标、微生物指标的检测分析和判定.结果 血透用水中氯化物、钙、氯胺、内毒素和菌落总数等超标率分别为11.7%、2.6%、2.6%、23.4%、1.3%,其他项目均合格.三甲医院和非三甲医院透析用水合格率差异无统计学意义.结论 影响湖南省血液透析用水卫生质量的主要因素是氯化物和内毒素,定期监测、及时更换水处理设备组件、加强输配水管路的清洗消毒等措施是提高血液透析用水水质的关键.%Objective To investigate the sanitary quality of hemodialysis water among hospitals of Hunan Province in the past 3 years, and to provide a scientific basis for the standardized management of hemodialysis water. Methods The samples of hemodialysis water were collected from 77 different levels of hospitals in Hunan Province from 2009 to 2011. Physicochemical and microbial indexes of the samples were measured and judged according to Sanitary Standard for Hemodialysis Water. Results The disqualification rates of chloride, calcium, chloramine, esotoxin and total number of bacterial colony were 11. 7%, 2.6%,2.6%, 23.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. The other inspection items were qualified. But the qualified rates showed no statistically significant difference between 3A grade hospitals and other grades hospitals. Conclusions The main influencing factors for sanitary quality of hemodialysis water in Hunan are chloride and esotoxin. The key measures to improve the quality of hemodialysis water are to monitor regularly, replace water treatment device in time, wash and disinfect the water pipes.

  15. Study on Distribution of Scorpions to Provide Prevention and Interventions in Combating Scorpionism in Poldokhtar County, Lorestan Province, Iran

    Hassan, Rastgar


    Introduction Scorpions are arthropods of medical importance classified in the class Arachnida, inhabiting hot and dry environments. All scorpions have a venomous sting and several thousand people die each year from scorpion stings, but this mortality is due to the venom of about 25 species located in northern Africa, the Middle East, India, Mexico and parts of South America. Poldokhtar County belongs to one of the southern cities of Lorestan Province, providing suitable habitats for many different species of scorpions due to its specific climatic conditions. Aim To examine the fauna of scorpion and its distribution in the Poldokhtar County and to provide appropriate preventive and medical interventions in combating scorpionism. Materials and Methods This present study was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. This study was conducted from April 2014 to November 2014 in regions of Poldokhtar County, Lorestan Province, and west of Iran. Cluster sampling methodology was employed in the sampling and scorpion collection procedure. Sampling was undertaken for an eight-month period, in villages and districts, namely, Myankuhe sharqi, Jayedar, Jelogir and Malavi within the county. The Chi-square test and the Fisher-exact test for homogeneity of proportions were used to compare quantitative variables. Results Totally, 393 specimens were captured entailing 193 (49.1%) males and 200 (50.9%) females. There were at least seven species of scorpions belonging to three families; BU= Buthidae, HE = Hemiscorpiidae, SCN = Scorpionidae in Poldokhtar. Out of 393 collected scorpions, seven species, Androctonus crassicauda, Hottentotta (Buthotus) saulcyi, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Compsobuthus rugosulus, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, Scorpio maurus and Hemiscorpius lepturus were identified. The overall sex ratio of females to males was 1:1.03. Conclusion It is crucial to improve the knowledge of residents in this region regarding preventive methods towards scorpion stinging

  16. Pressure on Cultivated Land in Fengxian County,Jiangsu Province,China


    Based on the introduction of the general situation of research region,pressure index model of cultivated land is adopted according to the data of population,cultivated land area,crop sowing area,grain sowing area,and unit grain yield in the Statistical Yearbook of Fengxian County.The change of relevant factors of cultivated land pressure index over time is analyzed,as well as the tension level of cultivated land resources.Research shows that the pressure on cultivated land is relatively great in Fengxian County in the years 1999-2005.Grain supply and demand is still under the unsafe state.There will be more prominent contradiction between supply and demand of cultivated land in Fengxian County in the future,and the grain security will under greater pressure.Several countermeasures are put forward to ease the pressure on cultivated land in Fengxian County,in order to realize the sustainable use of cultivated land resources,to ensure the supply and demand balance of grain and cultivated land,and to stabilize and improve the grain productivity in Fengxian County,such as protecting the current cultivated land resources by the strictest protection system of cultivated land,enhancing the intensity of land development and reclamation,enlarging the area of cultivated land,increasing the agricultural sci-tech input,and improving the grain unit yield.

  17. Connection of Farmland Consolidation Construction Works in Northern Anhui Plain:A Case Study of Si County of Anhui Province

    Wei HE; Zhongxiang YU; Chen YAO


    The connection of farmland consolidation construction works was studied,to provide theoretical and practical basis for bringing into play optimal functions.It employed theoretical analysis method,case analysis method,and experience summary method.Through empirical study of Si County in Anhui Province,it further analyzed connection of four works:land consolidation,irrigation and drainage,field roads,farmland protection,and ecological and environmental protection,to provide methods and possibilities for coordination and connection of four works.It is required to take the land consolidation as a system,take full consideration of all aspects,attach great importance to connection of four works,so as to bring into full play optimal functions and realize sustainable use of land resources and sustainable development of social economy.

  18. Discovery of a Miaohe-type Biota from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation in Jiangkou County,Guizhou Province,China

    ZHAO Yuanlong; CHEN Meng'e; PENG Jin; YU Meiyi; HE Minghua; WANG Yue; YANG Rongjun; WANG Pingli; ZHANG Zhenhan


    @@ A megascopic algal fossil assemblage was first discovered by Ma Guogan and Chen Meng'e in the black shales of the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation in Miaohe Town, Zigui County, Hubei Province in 1978[1]. Formal naming of the Miaohe Biota was proposed by Cheng Meng'e and Xiao Zongzheng in 1991[2], and eleven morphological genera have been previously described, including megascopic algae and putative metazoans[3]. Ding et al.[4] greatly expanded the scope of the Miaohe Biota to 9 phyla consisting of 140 genera, including microphytoplanctons, megascopic algae, metazoans, sponges and trace fossils. Xiao et al.[5] further restudied this fossil assemblage, concluding that only about 18 distinct taxa could be recognized and that many Miaohe taxa are poorly defined or synonymous.

  19. Cluster and principal component analysis based on SSR markers of Amomum tsao-ko in Jinping County of Yunnan Province

    Ma, Mengli; Lei, En; Meng, Hengling; Wang, Tiantao; Xie, Linyan; Shen, Dong; Xianwang, Zhou; Lu, Bingyue


    Amomum tsao-ko is a commercial plant that used for various purposes in medicinal and food industries. For the present investigation, 44 germplasm samples were collected from Jinping County of Yunnan Province. Clusters analysis and 2-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) was used to represent the genetic relations among Amomum tsao-ko by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Clustering analysis clearly distinguished the samples groups. Two major clusters were formed; first (Cluster I) consisted of 34 individuals, the second (Cluster II) consisted of 10 individuals, Cluster I as the main group contained multiple sub-clusters. PCA also showed 2 groups: PCA Group 1 included 29 individuals, PCA Group 2 included 12 individuals, consistent with the results of cluster analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to provide information on genetic relationship of Amomum tsao-ko germplasm resources in main producing areas, also provide a theoretical basis for the protection and utilization of Amomum tsao-ko resources.

  20. Current Situation of Information Demand of Farmers in Taihang Mountain Area: A Case Study of Pingshan County in Hebei Province

    Lipeng; GUO; Haiyan; CAI


    Since the reform and opening-up,economy of mountain areas in China has realized considerable development.However,due to such factors as terrain,traffic,and individual differences,compared with plain and coastal areas,mountain areas still lag far behind.In recent years,informationization construction of China develops rapidly,but it nearly stagnates in mountain rural areas.Information has become an essential factor restricting economic development of rural areas.Based on the survey of current information demand of farmers carried out in Pingshan County in Hebei Province in 2010,this study came up with relevant recommendations,in order to speed up development of rural economic in mountain areas,narrow the regional gap,improve living condition of farmers in mountain areas,and increase income level of farmers in mountain areas.

  1. Analysis on the Result of Virological Surveillance on AFP Cases in Hunan Province from 2006 to 2010%2006-2010年湖南省急性弛缓性麻痹病例病原学监测结果分析

    张帆; 周帅锋; 黄威; 巫森; 刘运芝; 张红


    Objective To analyze the results of surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases in Hunan Province during the period of 2006~2010, and to maintain the polio- free status. Methods All stool specimens from AFP cases from 2006 to 2010 were isolated and identified with L20B and RD cells according to the standard metlod issued by WHO, and all polio- positive strains were sent to National Polio Laboratory for type determination. Results The indicators of the virological surveillance for AFP cases from 2006 to 2010 were reached the requirement of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. Totally 2,566 stool specimens collected from 1,291 AFP cases had been examined, the isolated rates of poliovirus (PV) and non - polio enteroviruses (NPEV) were 3.43% and 12.98%, respectively. Among 52 positive specimens, 45 were identified as vaccine- variant polioviruses, others were identified as vaccine- related polioviruses, and no polio-wild virus was found. The enteroviruses were isolated all over the years, especially from May to July. The positive cases of poliovirus (PV) covered all the areas of Hunan Province except Xiangtan and Zhangjiajie. There were statistically significant differences in NPEV infection rates among different age groups of AFP cases (P<0.01). The isolated rate of PV was descended when the age was increased. There were statistically significant differences in the isolated rate of PV among the AFP cases with different immunization histories (P < 0.01). The more the OPV immunizations the lower the residual paralysis occurred for AFP cases with PV infection. Conclusions The result of surveillance from 2006 to 2010 indicates that the implementation of polio eradication strategy in Hunan Province is effective and the polio wild virus has been successfully intervened. The target of polio- free is achieved in Hunan Province. But the virological surveillance for AFP cases should be also enhanced on the endgame of poliomyelitis free so

  2. Status and Problems of Breeding and Utilization of Insect-resistance and Disease-resistance Rice Varieties in Hunan Province%湖南省主要抗病虫品种选育和利用现状与问题

    侯小华; 李友荣; 周昆; 魏子生; 黄延科; 侯振


    全面分析了湖南省主要病虫灾害的现状、发生趋势,认为随着水稻种植结构和栽培技术的变革以及水稻新品种的应用,病虫害发生种类及其危害性的变化,将使病虫害问题更加突出.在对抗性品种在农业生产中的实际效用进行分析后,提出了抗病虫品种选育和利用中存在的问题及改进意见.%In this paper, the status and occurrence trend of main diseases and insect pests in Hunan province were analyzed. With the reform of planting structure and cultivation techniques and application of new rice cultivars, changes of types of diseases and insect pests and their harmfuiness could deduced to more serious occurrence of diseases and insect pests. After analysis of the actual effect of resistant variety in production, the problems and improvement suggestions about breeding and utilization of insect-resistance and disease-resistance rice varieties were put forward.

  3. Investigation and Strategy Research of Improvement on Rural Primary Physical Education in Central Region of China--Taking T Country of Hunan Province as Example%中部地区农村小学体育教育的现状及改良策略研究——以湖南省T县为例

    骆欣光; 杨林


    Primary education is the beginning of learning phase of adolescent, so it is very important to enhance primary physical education. However, the primary physical education in country of central region of China is in poor condition. Thought investigation on T country of Hunan province, this paper generalize the current status of primary physical education of central region of China and put forward the strategy which can change the current status.%小学是青少年学习阶段的开始,也是养成良好体育习惯和锻炼健康体魄的开端,所以加强小学体育教育十分必要。但当前中部地区的农村小学,体育教育现状令人堪忧。通过对湖南省T县农村小学的田野调查,归纳出中部地区农村小学体育教育的现状,并提出改良的策略。

  4. 基于物联网技术的湖南省农产品供应链管理模型设计%Design of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Management Model Based on Internet of Things Technology in Hunan Province

    彭剑; 肖华茂


    基于物联网技术与农产品供应链管理的特点,寻找出农产品供应链各环节与物联网的结合点,构建物联网技术下湖南省农产品供应链管理模型,并对其生产基地模型、商务流通模型、可追溯模型进行了设计.提出了完整的基于物联网技术的农产品供应链管理模型,为湖南省农业农村信息化建设提供参考.%According to the features of the internet of things technology and agricultural products supply chain management,the integration point of agricultural product supply chain and network was found out,and the agricultural products supply chain management model based on the intemet of things technology was constructed,of which the production base model,business flow model,traceability model were designed.The integrated agricultural product supply chain management model based on the internet of things technology was proposed which could provide references for the agricultural and rural informatization construction of Hunan province.

  5. 地域文化特征对企业家精神与创业活动的影响研究——以湖南与河南两省为例%The Influences of Different Regional Cultural Identity on Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Activities --Case study in Hunan and Henan province

    李杨; 黎赔肆


    This paper took examples of Hunan and Henan, the two provinces which can represent the characteristics of North and South, and analyzed the cause of different entrepreneurships in different north and south regions and cultural characteristics. Then this paper made a further research and interpretation on the relationship between regional culture characteristics and entrepreneurship. On this basis, we can get a more in-depth understanding and research on the relationship of culture and entrepreneurship.%文章以湖南和河南这两个分别能够代表南北特征的省份为例,系统分析了企业家精神在我国南北不同地域与文化特征下的差异与其形成原因,进而对企业家精神与地域文化特征的关系作了进一步的研究与阐释,以便在此基础上对文化与企业家精神的关系有一个更加深入的了解与研究。

  6. On The Present Situation Of Implementation For Students Participating In The Sports Curriculum In Elementary And Middle Schools Of Hunan Province%湖南省小学生参与体育课程实施现状的研究



    运用文献资料、问卷调查、访谈等方法对湖南省小学生参与体育课程实施现状进行了研究。结果表明,学生参与体育课程实施的现状是不尽如人意的。表现为学生体育课学时量得不到保证等因素组成。针对这些因素,提出可行性建议,以促进小学体育与健康课程改革的深入健康发展。%Using the methods of literature material,questionnaire survey,interview participated and so on,the paper researches the present situation for the elementary school students participating in the sports curriculum implementation of Hunan Province.The study indicated that the present situation of the sports curriculum implementation is not entirely as desired,the student physical education study period cannot obtain the guarantee and so on.In view of these factors,proposes the feasibility to suggest that promotes the elementary schools sports and the healthy curriculum reform to healthy development.

  7. IKONOS Image-Based Extraction of the Distribution Area of Stellera chamaejasme L. in Qilian County of Qinghai Province, China

    Jingzhong Li


    Full Text Available Stellera chamaejasme L. (S. chamaejasme is one of the primary toxic grass species (poisonous plants distributed in the alpine meadows of Qinghai Province, China. In this study, according to the distinctive phenological characteristics of S. chamaejasme, the spectral differences between S. chamaejasme in the full-bloom stage and other pasture grasses were analyzed and the red, blue, and near-infrared bands of IKONOS image were determined as the diagnostic bands of S. chamaejasme recognition. Feature indexes related to S. chamaejasme were established using the diagnostic bands, and \\(NDVI_{blue} = (\\rho_{nir} − \\rho_{blue}/(\\rho_{nir} + \\rho_{blue}\\ obtained as S. chamaejasme sensitive index based on the linear regression analysis between the indexes derived from field spectra and the actual cover fraction of S. chamaejasme communities. The distribution area of S. chamaejasme was extracted by using the index \\(NDVI_{blue}\\ derived from IKONOS multispectral image in Qilian County of Qinghai Province, China and the verified result reached an overall accuracy of 90.71%. The study indicated that high resolution multispectral satellite images (such as IKONOS images had significant potential in remote sensing recognition of toxic grass species.

  8. [Carbon storage of Pinus thunbergii and Robinia pseudoacacia plantations on Nanchangshan Island, Changdao County of Shandong Province, China].

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Ai; Shi, Hong-Hua; Peng, Shi-Tao; Gong, Li-Peng; Qin, Xue-Bo


    Using indigenous tree species to transform large area pure plantations has been an effective close-to-nature forest management mode in China islands. By using the biomass allometric equation and combined with the investigation data from sampling plots, the carbon storage of the dominant species Pinus thunbergii and Robinia pseudoacacia in the plantations on the Nanchangshan Island of Miaodao Archipelago in Changdao County of Shandong Province was estimated. The average carbon storage in the arbor layer of P. thunbergii and R. pseudoacacia plantations was 56.81 and 37.26 t x hm(-2), respectively, being higher than the average carbon stock (27.62 t x hm(-2)) of tree plantations in Shandong Province. Slope aspect and stand density were the important environmental and biological factors affecting the tree's carbon stock in the Island, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the average cumulative rate of biomass in the arbor layer of P. thunbergi plantation and the stand age. The P. thunbergii with good carbon sequestration function could be an ideal tree species on Nanchangshan Island.

  9. On the Annual Review Training of Tour Guide Card Holders in Hunan Province Under Distance Education Environment%远程教育环境下的湖南持证导游人员年审培训

    曹守富; 杨恒; 李桂平


    Hunan tour guide annual training is the annual review process of a very important link.Distance education has crossing region,covering the broad characteristics.In the distance education popular times,the traditional tour guider's training are reformed.This article mainly introduced under the environment of distance education,relying on modern education technology for remote tour guider's annual training mode of operation,characteristics,advantages and the training effect.%湖南持证导游人员的年审培训是湖南省导游从业人员年审过程中的一个非常重要的环节。远程教育这种教育方式具有跨区域、覆盖广等特点,在远程教育普及的今天,传统的导游培训方式也在进行着变革。本文主要介绍了在远程教育环境下,依托现代教育技术进行远程导游年审培训的运作方式、特点和优势以及取得的培训效果。

  10. A Preliminary Study on the Evolutionary Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements (REE)in Granitoid Rocks and Their Formation Mechanisms in Xianghualing Region,Hunan Province,China

    杜绍华; 邱瑞照


    Recognized in the Xianghualing region,South Hunan are three major types of granitoids,i.e.,biotite granite,zinnwaldite-albite granite and xianghuagite,which evolved form the same granitic magma,but were formed at different stages.These granitoid rocks constitute a complete magmatic evolutionary series.With the evolution of magma,REE contents and negative Eu anomalies tend to decrease progressively,and LREE become more and more enriched relative to HREE .The facts mentioned above show that the tendency of REE evolution in granitoid rocks in the region studied is different from that in other regions.Evidence indicates that the granitic magma system became more and more depleted in Si(K+Na),but richer and richer in Al,Li,F and H2O+ during the process of its evolution,re-sulting in relatively weak acidity and strong alkalinity .It may be the most important factor leading to a specific REE evolutionary trend for the granitoid rocks in this region.In addition,the changing oxidation-reduction environments at different evolutionary stages of this magma system may be anoth-er important factor which should be taken into consideration.

  11. 湖南西部新生代农民工体育参与现状研究%The Present Study on Sports Participation of New Generation Migrant Workers in Western of Hunan Province

    覃英; 朱福军


    The study made an investigation into sports participation of new generation migrant workers through literature review, questionnaire and interviews. It reflects the reality and features of the purpose , types, time, venues, and sports consumption flow of new generation migrant workers’ sports participation. It also makes an analysis of factors affecting the workers’ sports participation, and proposal of approaches to improving the undesirable reality, to serve as an academic reference for the sustainable development of new generation migrant works’ sports participation in western Hunan.%通过文献资料、问卷调查与访谈等方法调研湖南省西部地区新生代农民工的体育锻炼情况,从新生代农民工在体育锻炼目的、体育锻炼的内容、时间、场所以及体育消费流向等方面的现状和特征入手,分析影响湖南西部新生代农民工参与体育锻炼的因素,提出改善新生代农民工体育锻炼窘迫现状的途径。

  12. Secular trend in age at menarche in China: a case study of two rural counties in Anhui Province.

    Graham, M J; Larsen, U; Xu, X


    There is increasing evidence that age at menarche has decreased in Europe and the United States during the last century and in Japan over the last several decades. Data from a community-based survey conducted in two rural counties of Anhui Province in China indicate a similar, downward secular trend in age at menarche for Chinese women. The present study shows the mean age at menarche decreased by 2.8 years, from 16.5 to 13.7, over an approximate 40-year time interval. This rapid decrease in age at menarche may partly be due to better nutrition and living standards reflected by the improved socioeconomic standards experienced in China over the past few decades. To test this hypothesis, a number of determinants of age at menarche were assessed; year of birth, literacy status, county of residence, amount of physical labour, general health status, pesticide exposure before age at menarche, and drinking water source were all found to be associated with age at menarche.

  13. Prevalence of dental caries among preschool children in Shanghe County of Shandong Province and relevant prevention and treatment strategies

    SHANG Xiao-hong; LI Da-lu; HUANG Yi; CHEN Hui; SUN Ruo-peng


    Background Decayed teeth are harmful to children's growth and development and can severely jeopardize their health.This study was set out to investigate and analyze the prevalence of dental caries in preschool children in Shanghe County in Shandong Province,China,and provide new insights into potential prevention and treatment strategies.Methods Based on the random sampling method,we performed dental examinations of children aged 2 to 6 years in kindergartens of Shanghe County.The prevalence of caries,the average number of decayed teeth per capita as well as the constituent rates of decayed,missing and filled teeth were determined retrospectively.SPSS software was used for data analysis.Results Dental caries were found in 1088 out of 2052 children from 56 kindergartens.The total number of decayed teeth was 4487 with a prevalence of 53.02%.The average number of decayed teeth per capita was 2.187,and the filling rate was 0.29%.There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of caries between boys and girls though there were significant differences between different age groups.The prevalence of decayed teeth as well as the mean number of decayed teeth infected per capita increased with age.In addition,urban children had a higher prevalence than those from rural areas (P <0.01).Conclusions The prevalence of decayed caries among kindergarten children in Shanghe County was high,suggesting that more emphasis should be put on improving oral health education with priority given to prevention.Further efforts should be made to increase the decayed caries filling rate.

  14. Nutrients of Topsoil for Sugarcane Planting in Xinping County of Yunnan Province

    Jiabin; MA; Wanghai; TIAN; Shunfa; LONG; Huazhen; LI; Long; SU; Zhitao; YIN; Yuanyuan; GAO


    To provide reference for fertilizer application of sugarcane planting in Xinping County,this paper analyzed nutrient content of topsoil according to the nutrient indicators established in the Second Soil Census. The results show that 51. 76% soil in sugarcane planting area of Xinping County is faintly acid,50. 88% soil has relatively low organic matter,45. 88% soil lacks alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen( N),26. 47% soil lacks phosphorus( P),50. 29% soil lacks potassium( K),37. 14% soil lacks sulfur( S),12. 86% soil lacks magnesium( Mg),10% soil lacks manganese( Mn),and 31. 43% soil lacks zinc( Zn). In the sugarcane production,it is required to pay attention to increase of application of organic fertilizer,to foster soil fertility,supplement boron fertilizer,to keep balance of soil nutrients.

  15. Lead Zinc Project of Xingwang Mining Commencing Construction in Pingnan County of Guangxi Province


    <正>Lead zinc project of Xingwang Mining Pingnan County formally started its construc- tion.The project is mainly engaged in the min- ing of lead zinc mine in Guancheng Town.The construction will be carried out in 3 phases for the construction of one mine with annual capacity of 200,000 tons of ore,one lead-zinc

  16. 粮食安全视域下的湖南粮食专业合作社发展研究%Discussion on the Development of Grain Cooperative Organizations in Views of Food Security in Hunan Province



    The connotation of food security includes total safety, structural safety, quality security, price security, ecological security and industrial security. Learning from the experience of foreign grain cooperatives to ensure food security, development of the food professional cooperatives in China helps to promote marketization, scalization, intensification and modernization of food production, which is the fundamental way to solve the issue of food security in China. The development of food professional cooperatives in Hunan, which is China's major grain producing areas, is faced with small -scale, poor land transfer, short chain, weakness of water conservancy infrastructure and financing difficulties, and needs to take appropriate measures to resolve and play a positive role in ensuring national food security of food professional cooperatives.%粮食安全的内涵包括总量安全、结构安全、质量安全、价格安全、生态安全和产业安全。借鉴国外粮食合作社保障粮食安全的经验,我国发展粮食专业合作社有利于促进粮食生产的市场化、规模化、集约化和现代化,是解决我国粮食安全问题的根本出路。湖南作为我国粮食主产区,其粮食专业合作社的发展面临着规模小、土地流转不畅、产业链短、农田水利基础设施薄弱及融资难等问题,需要采取相应措施加以解决以发挥粮食专业合作社在确保国家粮食安全中的积极作用。

  17. Rural household energy consumption in Yangzhong county of Jiangsu province in China

    Wang Xiaohua; Feng Zhenming [Nanjing Agricultural University (China). Agricultural Engineering College


    A stratification sampling method has been applied to investigate 384 households in 12 villages of four towns in Yangzhong county. Responses to a questionnaire show that the average annual energy consumption per rural household is 298.7 kgce (we use 7000 kcal/kgce), with average energy of 0.59 kgce per day mainly in the form of straw. The average energy consumption depends on income, stalk yield, and number of persons and of pigs in a family. There is demand for high-quality supplies. (author)

  18. Monitoring of Heavy Metal Concentration in Groundwater of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Nafiseh Yousefi


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, the quality of water is a very important concern. High levels of heavy metals in drinking water may cause some health problems such as cancer. The aim of this study is determination of some heavy metal concentrations in groundwater of some parts of Qorveh county, Kurdistan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study 25 water samples were analyzed, using Inductively Coupled Plasma for determining the concentrations of iron, chromium, copper and zinc. As a case study, the groundwater contamination in some parts of Qorveh county, Kurdistan, Iran, was investigated and compared to the maximum contaminant level specified by the World Health Organization (WHO and Iranian Standard Institute (IS: 1053, using ANOVA test. Results: Obtained results showed that in some cases the concentration of heavy metals were above WHO and IS: 1053. Conclusions: Heavy metals contamination can enter the food chain and cause various health problems. Thus, according to the obtained results, it is necessary to launch water management programs in the study area.

  19. Gender Issues in Household-based Bamboo Industries: A Case Study of Two Villages in Xinping County, Yunnan Province of China

    HUANGShineng; YANGLingyun(ElsieYANG)


    A qualitative gender assessment of household-based bamboo industries was conducted in Zhuyuan and Lagadi villages in Laochang Township, Xinping County in Southwest China's Yunnan Province. Results showed that both women and men were actively involved in the production and marketing of bamboo products in the two villages. There were gender differences in bamboo-based rural industries that were closely associated with the ethnic habits, traditional norms of the rural society, the differences of educational levels that women and men achieved, and the gender blind-spots in the enforcement of laws and policies. It is evident that women were “equal” partners in the production of bamboo products, but “unequal” when the rights of access to and control over resources and personal independence are concerned. Suggestions are made to achieve a gender-balanced production system of bamboo products in rural areas of bamboo producing counties in Yunnan Province, China.


    谭凯旋; 王岳军; 郭锋; 谢焱石


    Large amounts of tailings were produced during mining in the Xiangxi Gold Mine, Hunan. The interaction of tailing with water has caused the release and migration of heavy metals in tailings and the contamination to surfacial environments of water bodies,soils and vegetables. The main contaminating elements are Au, Sb, As, Hg and W, and this is consistent with the elemental enrichment features of tailings. The water migration coefficients of heavy metals in tailings tend to decreased in the order: Au>Cd>W>Sb>Pb>As>Zn>Cu, similar to the pollution severity in soils and vegetable, indicating that the pollution is controlled by tailings-water interaction. The biological absorption coefficients of heavy metals vary in a complex manner and are larger with Au, Sb, Cd, and Zn. The metallic element concentrations in plants are mainly controlled by their concentrations in soils and plants, and absorption coefficients.%湘西金矿在生产过程中产生了大量的尾矿。该区尾矿-水相互作用强烈,并引起了尾矿中重金属元素的释放、迁移和对水体、土壤、蔬菜等表生环境的重金属污染。污染程度较大的元素均为Au、Sb、As、Cd、Hg、W等,与尾矿中元素的富集特征相一致。尾矿中重金属元素的水迁移能力由大至小顺序为Au、Cd、W、Sb、Pb、As、Zn、Cu。元素的生物吸收系数由大至小顺序为Cd、Au、Zn、Hg、Sb、Cu、Pb、As、W。植物中金属元素浓度主要受土壤中的浓度、植物种类和吸收能力的影响。

  1. 安徽当涂湖阳吴语同音字汇%The Homophony Syllabary of Huyang Dialect in Dangtu ,County, Anhui Province

    郑伟; 袁丹; 沈瑞清


    The paper describes the phonological system and phonetic features of Huyang dialect in Dangtu County, Anhui Province, which is a Wu dialect in southern Anhui, and lists its homophony syllabary.%安徽省当涂县湖阳方言属于皖南吴语,本文在田野调查的基础上,描写了该方言的声韵调,并列出详细的同音字汇。

  2. Investigation and Analysis on the Selecting and Obtaining Employment of New Generation Migrant workers - A case of Yudu county, Jiangxi Province

    Qin, Xiuqing; Hu, Qinglin


    The paper conducts an investigation on the new generation migrant workers in view of the selecting and obtaining employment of new generation migrant workers in industrial zone of Yudu County, Ganzhou Province during the period from June 23, 2010 to June 27, 2010. The basic situation of the selecting and obtaining employment of new generation migrant workers, the expectation and career goals is collected. The chief problems confronted by the selecting and obtaining employment of migrant worke...

  3. Investigation of the Agricultural Water Management Mechanisms in Zarindasht County, Fars Province, Iran

    Ali Asadi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Both sequential droughts and lack of water optimal consumption in Zarindasht county, have created scarcity problem that caused agricultural yield's loss in this county. So according to lack of optimal consumption of agricultural water in this county, the main purpose of this study was to investigate agricultural water management mechanisms in three fields of irrigation sources, water transfer and in farm water consumption level. Approach: This study was a sort of survey studies. Questionnaire was used to collect data and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.83, 0.72 and 0.85 in three fields of irrigation resources, water transfer and in farm water consumption level respectively. Questionnaire’s validity was also confirmed by professors of agriculture training department of Tehran University and experts were related to water management. Statistical population of this study consisted of 4648 individuals of Zarindasht farmers. Using Cochran’s formula, sample size was estimated about 150 individuals. To select the samples, the multi-step sampling method was used. Results: The results of priority setting of the agricultural water management mechanisms revealed that most of important mechanisms of agricultural water management such as “feeding underground water”, “farmers’ participation in providing the expenses of electronically wells”, “setting systems of determining the permissible Debby” in field of irrigation resources and “ participation in different fields” as an important mechanism in the field of water transfer channels and also “using agricultural swages”, “land consolidation and consolidation” in water consumption level are the last priorities of farmers point of view. Furthermore, the result of agricultural water management mechanisms’ factor analysis indicated the existence of six factors in irrigation resources field that most

  4. [Variation characteristics of soil moisture in apple orchards of Luochuan County, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    Wang, Yan-Ping; Han, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Lin-Sen; Dang, Yong-Jian; Qu, Jun-Tao


    To have an overall understanding on the soil moisture characteristics in the apple orchards of Luochuan County can not only provide theoretical basis for selecting apple orchard sites, choosing the best root-stock combination, and improving the soil water management, but also has reference importance in increasing the productive efficiency of our apple orchards. In this study, a fixed-point continuous monitoring was conducted on the overall soil moisture environment and the variation characteristics of soil moisture in the County apple orchards differed in age class, stand type, and tree type (standard or dwarfed). For the apple orchards in the County, the rhizosphere (0-200 cm) soils of most apple trees were water-deficient, and the deficit in 0-60 cm soil layer was less than that in 60-200 cm layer. During growth season, the water storage in 0-60 cm soil layer had the same variation trend as the rainfall pattern. The relative soil moisture content in most orchards was less than 60% , and seasonal drought was quite severe. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content decreased with soil depth. With the increasing age of the orchards, soil water storage decreased. At the same planting density, the orchards with dwarfed trees had more water storage in 0-5 m soil layer than the orchards with standard trees. However, when the orchards were planted with dwarfed trees at a higher density, the soil water storage in the orchards with dwarfed trees was lesser than that in the standard orchards. The mature orchards on highland had the highest soil moisture content, followed by the mature orchards on flat land, and on terraced land. Tree density had great effects on the soil moisture content. When the tree density was the same, planting dwarfed trees could decrease the water consumption, and increase the soil moisture content significantly. To decrease the planting density through the removal of trees would be an effective way to maintain the soil water balance of

  5. 基于潜力模型的国土经济空间差异性分析--以湖南省为例%Spatial Difference Analysis of Land Economy Based on Potential Energy Model:A Case Study of Hunan Province

    马世发; 蔡玉梅; 念沛豪


    基于中心地和网络城市理论,利用潜力模型对省级国土经济空间结构进行识别。该模型以百度地图服务为基础,建立时间可达性分析模块,提取网络城市节点之间的时间距离;以 GDP 等指标作为网络城市节点经济实力的综合性度量,并利用双对数 Pareto 交通流模型建立各中心节点影响力势能场衰减模型。以中部地区湖南省为案例,分析了网络城市组织下的国土空间经济结构。结果表明,湖南省当前呈现出多中心组团模式,整体格局表现为单中心圈层式结构,长株潭城市群是整个国土经济空间的增长极;交通网络带动的经济势能场对传统“点-轴”结构认知具有重要影响。国土经济空间结构识别对湖南省国土规划关于经济空间布局具有重要的参考作用。%A potential model is applied to recognize the provincial land economy structure according to the theories of central place and network cities.Based on the Baidu service map,the potential model builds the tool to retrieve the time distance among cities.GDP and some other indices are used to measure the economic effect for different central place.Furthermore,a Pareto model is used to represent the potential attenuation of economy among different urban areas.Hunan province,which is located in the central part of China,is taken as a case study area.The results indicate that the current economic zones of Hunan Province present obvious single-center structure,and the metropolitan area of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan is the core of the whole territorial space.In addition,traffic network is an important factor which has influenced the distribution of economic zones.The economic zones under the background of network cities can help the planners to allocate economic activities more reasonably for territorial spatial planning.

  6. Virulence Gene PCR and PFGE Genotyping analysis of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from cholera epidemics in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010%湖南省2005年-2010年霍乱疫情分离株的毒力基因PCR及PFGE分型分析

    夏昕; 湛志飞; 覃迪; 刘运芝; 高立冬; 胡世雄; 邓志红; 张红


    Objective; To understand the pathogenic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010; to study the colone relations among the strains. Methods: K - B method was employed to test drug sensitivity; ctxAB virulence gene was tested by PCR, and finally molecular typing was carried out by pulsed field gel electrophoresis ( PFGE) for representative strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics. Results; 33 Vibrio cholerae 0139 stains presented a higher drug resistance rate against doxycycline and sulphame -thoxazole of 39. 39% and 75.76% , while a sensitivity of 100% to ciprofloxacin, nor-floxacin and amikacin; The virulence gene PCR results showed all the Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains were cholera toxin genes ctxAB - positive; 24 Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics in 2005 and 2010 showed 3 PFGE banding types,and all the strains were homology of 83% - 100% by cluster analysis. Conclusion; Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from cholera epidemic in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010 were all ctxAB positive. The strains from different years and regions were found the closely related epidemic clone group strains of cholera; Resistance monitoring and further molecular typing analysis of Cholera strains contribute to the efficient surveillance of cholera and infectious source tracking.%目的:了解2005年-2010年湖南省霍乱疫情分离到的O139群霍乱弧菌菌株的病原学特征,研究疫情分离株之间的克隆相关性.方法:采用K-B法进行药敏试验;聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测ctxAB毒力基因;脉冲场凝胶电泳对疫情分离代表株进行PFGE分型分析.结果:33株霍乱弧菌对强力霉素、复方新诺明的耐药率较高,分别为39.39%和75.76%,对环丙沙星、诺氟沙星以及丁胺卡那100%敏感;毒力基因的PCR结果显示为所有疫情分离的O139霍乱弧菌均为产毒株,即

  7. Control Study of Behavior Problems and Self-concept Characteristics of Anxiety Disorders of Students in Primary School and Junior High School of Hunan Province%湖南省中小学生焦虑障碍的行为问题与自我意识特征的对照研究

    胡卫群; 罗学荣; 管冰清; 袁秀洪; 叶海森; 宁志军; 杨伟; 韦臻; 丁军


    [Objective]To understand the behavior problems and self-concept characteristics of anxiety disorders of children and adolescences in Hunan province. [Methods]Totally 242 students aged 6 — 17 years old in primary school and junior high school of Hunan province from Sept. 2005 to Dec. 2005 were investigated. Students accordance with the diagnostic standard of the diagnostic and statistical manual of American mental disorder- Ⅳ (DSM-Ⅳ) and students in normal control group completed the children's self-concept scale (CSCL) by themselves. Achenbach children behavior checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents. [Results]Scores of CBCL were compared. Social ability scores such as social scores and school scores in case group were lower than those in control group, and there was significant difference( P <0. 05). The scores of behavior problems such as recession, body chief complaint, anxiety, depression, social activity, thought, attention, disciplinary violation, aggressive behavior, sex, introversion and extraversion in case group were higher than those in control group, and there were significant differences ( P <0. 01, P <0. 05). Control study of scores of CSCS showed that the scores of case group were lower than those in control group, and there was significant difference( P <0. 01). [Conclusion]Anxiety disorder has adverse effect on the learning, behavior and self consciousness of children, so it should be intervened actively.%[目的]了解湖南省儿童青少年焦虑障碍的行为问题与自我意识特征.[方法]2005年9月至2005年12调查湖南省小学1年级至初三的242名中小学生,年龄为6~17岁.凡符合美国精神疾病诊断与统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)诊断标准的学生和正常对照组学生由学生本人填写儿童自我意识量袁(Children's self-concept Scale,CSCS),由父母填写Achenbach儿童行为量表(Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist,CBCL).[结果]对CBCL各分量表及总分进行比较,在社会能力方面

  8. Investigation on Status of Human Parasitic Infections and the Influencing Factors in Lianyuan,Hunan Province%湖南省涟源市人体肠道寄生虫感染状况调查及影响因素分析

    刘新亮; 肖红军; 周宏大; 周述南


    目的 了解湖南省涟源市人体肠道寄生虫病感染状况及其影响因素,为制订合理的寄生虫病防治措施提供参考依据. 方法 按照《湖南省人体重要寄生虫病现状调查实施细则》的要求和方法,分层整群抽取4个乡镇进行人体重点寄生虫感染情况调查,采用改良加藤法检查虫卵. 结果 共调查1133人,感染者53人,总感染率为4.68%,蛔虫是主要感染虫种;年龄、性别肠道寄生虫感染率差异无统计学意义;农业人口(x2=8.493,P=0.004)、学历较低(x2=9.20,P=0.01)、饮用井水或河水(x2=7.98,P=0.02)、便后不洗手(x2=6.50,P=0.04)及未使用无害化厕所(x2=4.11,P=0.04)是人体肠道寄生虫感染的危险因素. 结论 蛔虫是当地人体肠道寄生虫感染的主要虫种.应加强针对低学历、卫生习惯/卫生设施较差的重点人群、重点地区的寄生虫病的综合防治工作.%Objective To investigate the status of human parasitic infections and the influencing factors in Lianyuan, Hunan Province, and to provide reference for rational developing prevention and treatment measures of parasitic diseases. Methods According to the Implementation Regulations for Survey on Current Status of Human Important Parasitic Diseases, investigations about the status of human important parasitic infections were performed among residents of 4 towns in Lianyuan, Hunan Province. The Kato- Katz method was used to detect parasite eggs. Results Investigations were performed on 1,133 residents, with a total parasitic infection rate of 4. 68% (53/1,133) , and the main parasite species is ascarid. No statistically significant diffidence was found in the parasitic infection rate among different age - groups and between different genders. Single factor analysis indicated that farming population (x2 =8.493, P = 0.004), lower educational level (x2 = 9. 20, P = 0.01), non-purified water drinking (x2 = 7. 98,P = 0. 02) , seldom washing hands after a bowel movement

  9. Socio-economic assessment of aquifer CHANDAB County PAKDASHT Tehran Province from the perspective of villagers

    Habibollah Mahdavivafa


    Full Text Available South East of Tehran's construction of research stations and extension education Chandab water spreading county Pakdasht started in late 1996 and began its implementation activities. According to the objectives of the project, including flooding and power Chandab aquifer groundwater aquifers reports indicate that the gain something in this area. The study, based on survey research and analysis is done. Considering the findings of this research and field studies have been conducted. The results show that satisfaction of rural people downstream the reduction in flood damage to farms and places is desirable. And but for the public participation because the villagers did not participate in this area, is not satisfactory. But they are ready to have had any involvement in this regard.

  10. 农村留守妇女的婚姻稳定感及其影响因素--以湖南省为例%The Sense of Married Stability for the Women Staying Alone in Rural Hometown and Its Affecting factors:An Analysis of Hunan Province



    Based on the data from a survey of the married women staying alone hometown in the rural areas of Hunan province, this study explores the sense of marriage stability of these left-behind married women and its influencing factors. It is found that the sense of marriage stability of these women is still at a high level. The factors affecting the marriage stability includes the bullied experiences, relations with elders, family living satisfaction,communication frequency with husband working far away, the home-visiting frequency of husband, whom her husband transfer his earnings to, worries about fading of marriage commitment, and changes in marital relation with husband working away from home all affect the feeling of marriage stability.%通过对“湖南省农村留守妇女调查”数据的分析,本研究探讨了农村留守妇女的婚姻稳定感及其影响因素。研究发现,农村留守妇女的婚姻稳定感处于较高的水平;就其影响因素而言,有无被欺凌的情况、与家里长辈的相处情况、家庭生活满意度、丈夫打工期间的联系频率、探亲频率、丈夫汇钱时是否直接汇给自己、是否担心婚姻感情会发生变化、丈夫外出打工后夫妻感情的变化等变量对农村留守妇女的婚姻稳定感都有显著的影响。

  11. 多媒体在湖南省普通高校体育院系体育精品课程中运用效果研究%Study on Multimedia Application in Physical Education Course of Sports Departments in University in HunanProvince

    唐金根; 周次保; 李佳川


    Through using the methods of literature review and questionnaire, the selection of student appraisal of teaching, using " first -order nine factors" multimedia teaching college teaching assessment survey, this paper makes analysis on performance of multimedia application in physical education course of sports departments in university in Hunan province. The result shows that the multimedia assisted teaching acquires preliminary achievements, student, but in general good teaching enthusiasm/organization clarity, multimedia information design validity, group interaction in the three basic aspects and practice is better than the basic disciplines%采用文献法和问卷调查法,选取学生评教这一角度,利用“一阶九因素”多媒体教学大学生评教调查量表,对湖南省普通高校体育院系体育精品课程运用多媒体辅助教学效果进行分析和研究。其结果表明,多媒体辅助教学取得了初步成效,学生总体评价良好,但在教学热情(组织清晰度)、多媒体信息设计有效性、群体互动三个方面出现明显差异,基础理论学科比基础实践学科要好。

  12. Study on the Rural-urban Differences of the Opportunities of Receiving Higher Education From the Perspective of Family Factors:Take the W City of Hunan Province as an Example%高等教育入学机会城乡差异的家庭因素分析--基于河南省W市的实证调查

    陶美重; 耿静静


    This thesis takes 784 students from different families in W city of Hunan Province as an ex‐ample to conduct an empirical study of the rural‐urban differences of the opportunities of receiving higher education from the perspective of family factors including the household registration ,children numbers ,the schooling of other children ,the educational level of parents ,the career of parents ,the educational method of parents ,parents'expectations and family economic conditions etc .It has laid a good foundation for fur‐ther study on how to reduce the differences and promote the balanced development of higher education in urban and rural areas .%以河南省W市城乡家庭大学生子女为调查对象,对784位大学生进行高等教育入学机会的实证调查。从家庭因素出发,对河南省城乡子女高等教育入学机会存在的差异现状进行实证研究,探讨造成差异的家庭影响因素,包括户籍、家庭子女人数、其他子女受教育程度、父母受教育程度、父母职业、父母教育方式、父母期望、经济条件等方面,为进一步研究如何缩小城乡高等教育差异,促进城乡高等教育均衡发展奠定了良好的基础。

  13. 湖南省泡状带绦虫线粒体nad1基因的序列测定及分析%Sequence Measurement and Analysis of Mitochondrial NADH Dehydrogenase Subunit 1 of Taenia Hydatigena Collected from Hunan Province



    To analyze the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nadI) gene of Taenia hydatigena collected from Hunan province, one should follow the three steps. Firstly, the partial nadl (pnadl) is amplified from each Taen/a hyclatigena sample. Then pnadl sequences are aligned by using the ClustalX 1.81. Lastly, sequence homology analyfis is conducted by using the Megalign program of the software DNAStar version 5.0. The result shows that the length of pnadl is 391bp. This result has provided a foundation for further studies of molecular identification and molecular genetics of Taenia hydatigena.%以从我国湖南长沙和湘西犬小肠中采集的2条泡状带绦虫作为研究对象,用引物JB11及JB12扩增泡状带绦虫的pnad1片段,应用ClustalX1.81程序对序列进行比对,同时利用DNAscar5.0中的Megalign程序进行同源性分析。结果显示来自湖南长沙和湘西的2条泡状带绦虫的pnad1序列均为391bp。研究结果为泡状带绦虫进一步的分类、鉴定和遗传变异研究奠定了基础。

  14. 英语专业大学生就业现状及对策——基于对湖南省某高校的调查%Study on English Majors'Employment Situation and Countermeasures --Based on the investigation in a university inHunan Province



    英语专业毕业生就业已成为社会的热点,当前就业形势严峻。基于对湖南省某高校的调查为例,发现其工作亮点。第一,提高英语专业学生培养质量是提高就业率的前提;第二,树立优良的学风是提高英语专业大学生就业率的根本保证适时;第三,调整英语专业学生的知识结构是提高就业率的必要条件;第四,优化就业指导,开拓就业市场是提高其就业率的重要途径。通过不断学习借鉴来进一步提高英语专业毕业生就业率。%Now English Major students'employment has become a social problem. The situation of current employment is serious. This article is based on a university of Hunan Province . We try to discover their work highlights. Firstly, Improving the students' English training is to improve the quality of employment rate ; Secondly, Establishing good style of studying is to improve the fundamental of the employment rate;Thirdly,Improving English Major Students'knowledge structure is a necessary way;Fourthly, Developing the employ- ment market is an important way to promote the employment rate. Through these effective ways to improve English Major students' em- ployment rate is very important.

  15. Investigation and Analysis of Ice and Snow Disaster Suffered by Hunan Power Grid in 2008

    Zhang Wenliang; Zhao Donglai; Zuo Songlin; Fu Zhiyang; Qu Qiang; Yu Yongqing; Su Zhiyi; Fan Jianbin; Li Peng; Yuan Dalu; Wu Shouyuan; Song Gao; Deng Zhanfeng


    @@ In January 2008,a sudden disaster caused by icing and snowing happened in large areas of Central China and South China.The equipments of Hunan power grid were seriously damaged during the icing and snowing disaster.An expert group from China Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI) was organized and went to Hunan province for field investigation.As a summary of this investigation,this paper introduces power equipment damages,such as flashover caused by icing,collapse of towers,conductor breakage and damage of substation equipments.The countermeasures adopted for this icing and snowing disaster are also summarized.The analysis shows that the rare meteorological condition is the main reason for large-area damage of Hunan power grid.In the icing disaster of Hunan power grid,the ice thickness greatly exceeds the permissible limit of design,thus it is necessary to improve the design parameters reasonably to against icing of transmission lines,and the design of external insulation and the anti-icing technology for substations are also need to be enhanced.

  16. Research of the Activity of Earthquakes Induced by Water Injection of Salt Mining in Changning County, Sichuan Province

    Ruan Xiang; Cheng Wanzheng; Zhang Yongjiu; Li Jun; Chen Yin


    According to information from on-the-spot investigations, the tectonics of salt mining areas and digital seismic records, we studied the activity of earthquakes induced by water pumping in and out of the salt mines in Shuanghe town, Changning county, Sichuan Province. The study found that the rates of water injection and extraction in the Shuanghe salt mining region were evenly matched before April 2006 and earthquake activity was stable. On the other hand, shallow small and moderate earthquake numbers increased sharply after the water injection rate became much larger than the water extraction rate. Large injection over a long time may causes the permeation of water through pre-existing small fractures and micro-cracks in the Changning anticlinal and accelerate the rupture of micro tectonic formations in nearby regions, inducing small earthquake swarm activity. The Q value calculated by using digital earthquake records indicates a relatively inhomogeneous medium in this area. The results of the accurate location of small earthquakes show that sources are relatively shallow and are concentrated at a depth of 2km to 3km. Focal mechanism solutions reveal a normal dip-slip character of shallow earthquakes. All of these show certain characteristics of earthquake activity induced by water injection.

  17. A Landslide Monitoring Network based on Multi-source Spatial Sensors in Li County, Sichuan Province, China

    Lu, P.


    A multi-source spatial sensor network has been established to strengthen the landslide monitoring activities in the mountainous areas in Western China. The focused Xishancun landslide is in Li County in Sichuan Province, located in the upper Minjiang River areas that is thought as very unstable slope areas after the "5.12" Wenchuan Earthquake. This spatial sensor chiefly concentrates on constructing a monitoring network with four hierarchies of observation: (1) space-borne sensors including VHR optical images (P5, IKONOS, WorldView-1,2 and ZY-3) and a series of X-band TerraSAR-X SAR images; (2) aerial observation by a group of UAV scanning schemes with the ground-based controlling platform, the produced the 1:2000 scale DOM mosaic images and the generated high resolution DEM; (3) ground-based sensors involving in-situ sensors such as inclinometers and piezometers with a smart self-forming seamless real-time data communication and terrestrial remote sensing platform of laser scanning and ground-based SAR; and (4) internal investigation from geophysical approaches such as seismological and electromagnetic analyses. This landslide monitoring system based on spatial sensor network is expected to provide solid monitoring data for landslide models and data assimilation for potential landslide hazard prediction and risk assessment.

  18. A floristic study of Kuh-e Khom in Tang Shekan region of Arsanjan county in Fars province

    Masumeh Zare


    Full Text Available A floristic study was done in Kuh-e Khom in east of Arsanjan county as part of the southern Zagros in Fars province. Altitude of the region is ranged from 1740 to 3270 m above sea level. The flora of the region with an emphasis on identifying habitats and the effect of altitude on vegetation were studied and sampling was done from 2010 to 2012. Totally, 440 plant specimens of vascular plant were collected which were belonging to 50 families, 198 genera and 287 species. The angiosperm plants were dominant and from them the dicot plants with 37 families, 167 genera and 246 species had the most diversity. The monocots plants with 9 families, 27 genera and 37 species were the second diversely group in the region. Gymnosperms and Pteridophyte each with two species had the lowest number of species. In respect to species richness, Asteraceae (43 species was the largest family and after that Breassicaceae (33 species, Poaceae (24 species, Fabaceae (24 species, Lamiaceae (22 species, Caryophyllaceae (19 species and Boraginaceae (13 species had the most species diversity. Half of species were therophyte and 68% of species were belonging to Irano-Turanian region.

  19. Bayesian mapping of neural tube defects prevalence in Heshun County, Shanxi Province, China during 1998~2001

    CHI Wen-xue; WANG Jin-feng; LI Xin-hu; ZHENG Xiao-ying; LIAO Yi-lan


    Objective: To estimate the prevalence rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Heshun County, Shanxi Province, China by Bayesian smoothing technique. Methods: A total of 80 infants in the study area who were diagnosed with NTDs were analyzed. Two mapping techniques were then used. Firstly, the GIS software ArcGIS was used to map the crude prevalence rates. Secondly,the data were smoothed by the method of empirical Bayes estimation. Results: The classical statistical approach produced an extremely dishomogeneous map, while the Bayesian map was much smoother and more interpretable. The maps produced by the Bayesian technique indicate the tendency of villages in the southeastern region to produce higher prevalence or risk values. Conclusions: The Bayesian smoothing technique addresses the issue of heterogeneity in the population at risk and it is therefore recommended for use in explorative mapping of birth defects. This approach provides procedures to identify spatial health risk levels and assists in generating hypothesis that will be investigated in further detail.

  20. Farmers' Character and Behavior of Fertilizer Application - Evidence from a Survey of Xinxiang County, Henan Province, China

    HAN Hong-yun; ZHAO Lian-ge


    Agricultural chemical use has caused a public concern over environmental issue while decisions about applying chemicals are made by individual farmers. The critical decision-making role of farmers relative to agricultural chemical use creates a need for accurate information on their perceptions of various chemical-related hazards and the factors that may influence such judgments. Based on data collected from 177 land operators at Xinxiang County in Henan Province of China, an empirical analysis is conducted to examine the relationship between farmers' character and the behavior of fertilizer application. Study findings reveal that: the characteristics of household head and household, and the nature of farming management positively affect the amount of fertilizers applied; information on fertilizers and the knowledge about environmental impact of fertilizer application have negative impacts by contrast. To formulate effective pollution control policies at the farm level, it is imperative for policy-makers to convey information to producers by demonstration projects, technical assistance, and education programs. Under a changed political environment, some combination of education and economic incentives could be lower cost and more effective tools for achieving desired environmental conservative goals.

  1. 湖南省甲型H1N1流行性感冒大流行后乙型流行性感冒病毒的特征%Characterization of influenza B viruses isolated in Hunan Province after pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

    黄一伟; 李俊华; 高立冬; 李芳彩; 张恒娇; 李文超; 刘运芝; 胡世雄; 张红; 陈长


    Objective To analyze the prevalence status and the genetic characterizations of influenza B viruses isolated in Hunan Province after pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009,and to explore possible reasons for the prevalence.Methods Throat swabs were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness in 23 sentinel hospitals of Hunan Province in 2010.Influenza viruses were isolated with Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and identified by haemagglutination inhibition test.The genomes of 10 selected influenza B viruses were sequenced and analyzed for phylogenetic and molecular characterization.Results With the reduction of isolation of pandemic influenza A (H1N1)2009 viruses,influenza B virus became the predominant isolated strain in the first half of 2010.Epidemic viruses mainly belonged to the B/Victoria lineage,and both two lineages co-circulated.Seven out of 11 influenza outbreaks caused by type B.Ten strains were filled into 2 branches of BV and BY which were classified by their lineage types in polymerase (PB2,PB1,PA),hemagglutinin (HA),neuraminidase (NA),NB,membrane protein (M1),influenza B virus membrane protein M2 (BM2),and non-structural protein (NS1,NS2) phylogenetic trees except the NP phylogenetic tree in which 10 strains were all in the BY branch.Compared with World Health Organization (WHO) vaccine strains,the amino acid identity of 11 proteins of the 10 strains was high (97.2%-100.0%).However,some amino acid point mutations were found.No mutation was found in drug resistance mutation sites.Some mutations in NA,NB,PB1,PB2 and NS2 molecules were found in 2 strains isolated from outbreaks compared with strains from sentinel surveillance.Conclusions The point mutations,insertions and genetic reassortment indicate viruses sustaining evolution,which is probably the reason for predominant influenza B viruses after pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan Province.%目的 分析湖南省甲型H1N1流行性感冒(流感)大流行后乙型流感的流行

  2. Study on the Innovation of Poverty Alleviation Model in Wuling Mountain Area:Based on the Case Analysis of Huaihua in Hunan Province%武陵山区深度扶贫模式创新研究--基于湖南怀化个案分析



    The model of poverty alleviation in Huaihua is to explore the depth of lively practice of poverty alleviation precise strategic thinking in Hunan,Huaihua and is typical sample significance for poverty alleviation in poor mountainous areas.The depth of poverty alleviation mode innovation of Huaihua from the policy guarantee mechanism to improve the depth of poverty,poverty alleviation and poverty alleviation in depth industry pay more attention to the key role in the mode of innovation of financial poverty alleviation methods to establish and improve government based diversified investment mechanism,in order to explore the exit mechanism for poor households,poor villages and poor county.%怀化探索的深度扶贫模式是精准扶贫战略思想在湖南怀化的生动实践,对连片贫困山区脱贫攻坚具有典型样本意义。创新怀化深度扶贫模式要从完善深度扶贫的政策保障机制,更加注重产业扶贫在深度扶贫模式中的关键性作用,创新金融扶贫方式建立完善以政府为主的多元化投入机制,探索的贫困户、贫困村、贫困县的有序退出机制。

  3. Integrative effect evaluations on vegetation restoration patterns based on soil vegetation system in watershed, northwest Hunan province%湘西北小流域植被恢复综合效应评价

    漆良华; 张旭东


    Based upon the case of Nverzhai watershed in northwest Hunan, integrative effects of seven typical vegetation restoration patterns had been studied from the scale of soil vegetation system(SVS) in this paper, which included P. massoniana natural forest ( Ⅰ ) , C. lanceolata plantation ( Ⅱ ) , E. ulmoitks plantation ( Ⅲ ) , V. fordii plantation ( Ⅳ ) , M. pingii secondary forest ( Ⅴ ) , P. edulis-C. lanceolata mixed forest ( Ⅵ) , wasteland-shrub ( Ⅶ ) . Firstly, soil health evaluation system had been found which contained 60 indexes belonging to vegetation subsystem, soil subsystem and topographical factors. Secondly, the gray incidence ordinations of vegetation restoration effects on vegetation sub-system, soil sub-system and soil vegetation system were Ⅴ>Ⅱ>Ⅰ >Ⅳ > Ⅵ >Ⅲ > Ⅶ, Ⅴ>Ⅵ>Ⅱ>Ⅶ>Ⅳ> Ⅲ > Ⅰ and Ⅴ>Ⅱ>Ⅵ>Ⅰ>Ⅳ>Ⅲ>Ⅶ respectively, which proved that pattern V was the best and the pattern Ⅶ was the worst. Finally, through the gray incidence arrangement of evaluation indexes, Shannon-Weiner index, capillary porosity, organic matter, sucrase activity had the closest relationship with soil health respectively in vegetation characteristics , soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The contribution rate regularity of topographical factors affecting vegetation restoration was slope position, elevation slope degree, slope direction.%从土壤-植被系统(SVS)尺度研究评价了湘西北女儿寨小流域马尾松天然林(Ⅰ)、杉木人工林(Ⅱ)、杜仲人工林(Ⅲ)、油桐人工林(Ⅳ)、润楠次生林(Ⅴ)、毛竹杉木混交林(Ⅵ)及荒草灌丛(Ⅶ)等7种典型植被模式的综合恢复效应.研究表明:建立了涵盖植被、土壤及地形地貌3类因子60个指标的植被恢复综合效应评价体系;不同模式植被恢复效应总体以润楠次生林最优,荒草灌丛最差,植被子系统、土壤子系统和土壤-植被系统恢复效应灰色关联排序由大到小依次

  4. Geochemistry of Archean Tonalitic—Ganodioritic Gneisses from Chicheng County,Northwestern Hebei Province

    陈岳龙; 陈伟邦; 等


    Detailed geological,chronological,mineralogical,petrological and geochemical studies have been conducted of the Chichent gneissic complex in northwestern Hebei province.The gneissic complex is composed mainly of tonalitic-granodioritic rocks according to O'Connor's classification.The zircou U-Pb age of the gneissic complex is 2468-27+33 Ma.,consistent with that of the rocks in the North Tonalitic-granodioritic Gneiss Belt in the North China Platorm.The Archean Chicheng gneissic complex is part of the belt.No significant difference in composition between early anhedral metasomatic and late semi-euhedral plagiocalases suggests that the gneissic complex is not composed merely of mafic rocks replaced by felsic fiuids.The REE patterns in the complex,in conjunction with major and trace elements data,show that the gneissic complex is the mixture of felsic magma produced by partial melting of FI dacitic granulite and crystallate derived from the magma produced by 50%±partial melting of TH2 tholeiitic granulite and 40%±fractional crystallization of hornblende.

  5. Land use change and its ecological effect in Qian'an County of Jilin Province

    ZHONGLinsheng; ZHANGYongmin; ZHAOShidong; KarlE.Rvavec


    Based on GIS and statistical methods, with the help of searching historical literatures and calculating the landscape indices, the land use changes of Qian'an County in both spatial and temporal aspects from 1945 to 1996 has been analyzed in this paper. And the driving forces of land use changes and their ecological effects are discussed too. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) Land use changed greatly in Qian'an during 1945-1996, characterized by a decrease in grassland, wetland and water bodies, and an increase in cultivated land, saline-alkali land, and the land for housing and other construction purposes. Grassland decreased by 175,828.66 ha, and cultivated land increased by 102,137.23 ha over the half century. Accordingly, the main landscape type changed from a steppe landscape to a managed agricultural ecosystem. (2) Results of correlation analysis show that the land use change in the study area was mainly driven by the socioeconomic factors. (3) The ecological effects of land use change in the area are characterized by serious salinization, degression of soil fertility and the weakening, of landscaoe suitability.

  6. 湖南有机农业营销模式研究%Hunan Organic Agriculture Marketing Model



    食品安全问题已经引起公众的广泛关注,发展有机农业是解决这一问题的重要途径。湖南是我国农业大省,本研究以湖南省为研究对象,首先对湖南省有机农业的营销模式特点进行分析,然后对湖南省现有的有机农业营销模式中存在的问题进行分析,最后提出湖南省构建有机农业营销模式的对策。%Food safety issues has caused wide public concern, the development of organic agriculture is an important way to solve this problem. Hunan is a major agricultural province in this study as the research object of Hunan, first of organic agriculture in Hunan marketing model analysis of the characteristics and organic agriculture in Hunan existing marketing model to analyze the problems, finally Hunan marketing model to build organic agriculture countermeasures.

  7. Determination of Mosquitoes Fauna (Culicidae: Diptera in Poldokhtar County of Lorestan Province, 2015

    Zahirnia A H


    Full Text Available Introduction: Insects as the largest category of arthropods include numerous groups and families that the most important of them belong to order Diptera, family Culicidae. Because of feeding on the human's blood, a number of species of this family have been known as responsible for the transmission of pathogens for many diseases such as malaria, filariasis, encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue fever in the world. Given that no research has been conducted to determine the fauna of existing mosquitoes in the city of Poldokhtar, Lorestan Province, the present study aimed to exactly determine the mosquitoes' fauna in this city to perform appropriate prevention measures. Methods: In this faunistic and cross-sectional descriptive study, four urban areas and four rural areas in four geographic directions in the city of Poldokhtar were determined. In each urban area, two places and in each designated rural area, four places including two human places and two animal places were selected. From the early of April 2015 to the early of January 2016, larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes of the Culicidae family were collected. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and mature were ladling, night catch, total and hand catch with an aspirator. Characteristics including the name of the collector, date of collection, code related to habitat, habitat status (permanent or temporary, type of vegetation cover, type of substrate, and the situation of sunlight were recorded in the related form. The samples were identified by resources and valid identification keys. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally, 5392 mosquito adults of the Culicidae family including 1818 mosquito adults and 3574 larvae in designated areas in the city as well as four rural areas were collected. The three genera Anopheles (21.9%, Culex (64.6%, and Culiseta (13.5% were diagnosed. Also, from three genera, 12 species were identified as follows: Culex theiler, Cx

  8. Comparative Analysis on Factors Affecting Labor Migration in Various Forest Areas:A Case Study in Hebei, Hunan and Fujian Provinces%不同林区劳动力非农转移影响因素比较分析--基于河北、湖南、福建3省的实地调查

    鲁莎莎; 朱厚强; 吴成亮


    农村劳动力非农转移是我国城乡发展过程中的普遍现象,也是实现工业化、城镇化和农业现代化协调发展的重要前提。基于河北、湖南、福建3省林区41个村、290户林农的实地调研数据,利用Logistic回归模型对影响林区劳动力外出务工的因素进行了比较分析。结果表明:研究区劳动力外出务工的农户占样本的比重超过60%,林业劳动力非农转移已成为常态。河北保定林农的流动受个人禀赋影响较大,对家庭因素不敏感;湖南邵阳、福建三明林农的流动多受家庭因素影响;农林业经营情况对3个地区林农的流动影响均较大。针对林区劳动力非农转移的现实状况,认为发展地方特色产业、用科技实现规模效应及培育社会支持体系等是实现林区农村剩余劳动力合理流动、提升人力资源使用效率的重要途径。%Rural farming labor being transferred to non-farming one is not only a common phenomenon in the development of urban and rural areas in China, but also an important prerequisite for the coordinated development of industrialization, urbanization, and agricultural modernization. The article uses the sample data of 290 households from 41 villages in Hebei, Hunan and Fujian provinces, and makes comparative analyses on the factors affecting the migration of forestry labor through the Logistic regression model. The result shows that migrant labor households account for 60% of the sample. Personal endowments have greater influence on the migration than family factors in Baoding city of Hebei, while migrations in Shaoyang city of Hunan and Sanming city of Fujian are mainly affected by family factors. Besides, the operation of agroforestry has widespread impacts on the migration of forest labor in these three cities. According to actual situations in forest regions, it is suggested that developing industries with local characteristics, using science and technology

  9. Research on the Impact of Land Transfer on County Agricultural Industrialized Development——A Case Study of Dali County,Shaanxi Province


    On the strength of the status quo of Chinese land transfer,the changes of the county agricultural production factor market arising from land transfer from four aspects covering land market,agricultural capital market,agricultural labor market and agricultural science and technology.The impacts of land transfer on county agricultural industrialized development are analyzed:in the first place,the large amount of land required by the county agricultural scale production can be effectively supplied;in the second place,a large number of labors required by the county agricultural industrialized production can be effectively fulfilled;in the third place,the innovation of science and technology provides motivation for adjusting the county agricultural industrial structure.On the basis of that,the countermeasures on promoting the county economic development are put forward:firstly,the land transfer market should be standardized to ensure the sustainable and stable development of county agricultural industrialized development;secondly,the commercial value,variations and added value of the county agricultural products should be improved;thirdly,the input on the county agricultural capital should be ensured.


    田修源; 赵永涛


    Guizhou province is a typical old revolutionary base area,minority ethnic area,remote and mountainous area,belonging to the backward regions in regional development of the whole country. Based on e-conomic development statistic data of 88 counties in Guizhou province in 2010,this paper selected 10 representative indicators including Per Capita Gross Domestic Product,Per Capita Annual Net Income of Rural Households,Per Capita Investment in Fixed Assets, Per Capita Budgetary Revenue, Per Capita Total Retails Sales of Consumer Goods, Capital Construction, Rate of Rural Employment, Rate of Secondary and Tertiary Industry,Increase Rate in GDP,Number of Secondary Schools Per 10 Thousands People,and constructed an index system to evaluate the county economic strength of Guizhou province by using AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method. Then according to economic strength scores of 88 counties and average and standard deviation of these scores,the 88 counties were divided into four main categories,suchas developed counties,less developed counties,least developed counties and undeveloped counties. At last,county e-conomic strength was showed through a map by using GIS technology. This can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of regional development in Guizhou Province. The results show that; there is a certain degree of spatial aggregation in the same level of development of the counties in Guizhou province; most parts of central cities do not reflect the role of economy leader,some even develop badly;the level of economic development is significantly associated with transport accessibility; the 11 minority ethnic counties belong to undeveloped ones and generally lag behind the other regions except Yuping;the tourism industry has been developing very quickly,whose role of the dominant industry is beginning to show,but still has a huge space for the development. In view of this,this paper put forward recommendations for future development in Guizhou province

  11. On Urban Marginalization and the Spatial Optimizing Paths---A Case Study of Shaoyang of Hunan Province%城市边缘化现象与空间优化路径--以邵阳市为例



    城市边缘化主要出现在远离行政或经济中心的地理边缘区,这一现象在中国内陆的省际边界城市这一群体身上表现得尤为明显。以典型内陆边缘化城市---邵阳市作为研究对象,认为边缘化特征主要表现为省域地位下降,域内城镇离心发展,人才外流,城市综合竞争力下降等。地理区位、交通条件、政府行为、市场机制和区域剥夺行为是形成边缘化的原因。并由此提出了反边缘化的城市空间优化路径。%Urban marginalization , which is best shown in the inland cities on the provincial border area , occurs mainly in the geographic fringe zone far from political and economic centers . Taking Shaoyang , a typical inland edge city , for instance , the author of this paper argues that the main feature is reflected on the declining status in the province , the centrifugal development of towns , the brain drain and the falling city competitiveness , etc . The author concludes the formation mechanism includes geographical location , traffic conditions , governmental behaviors , market mechanism and regional privation . The spatial optimizing paths for anti -marginalization are put forward .

  12. The Advantages, Difficulties and Suggestions for the Development of Sports Industry in Hunan Province%弯道超车:湖南体育产业发展的优势、困境与对策

    贺培育; 郑自立


    在阐释湖南体育产业发展基本态势的基础上,指出了“十二五”时期湖南体育产业实现“弯道超车”的有利条件和现实困境,并切合实际地提出了加快经济发展,着力提升民众体育消费水平;转变政府职能,健全体育产业管理体制;提升体育产业的自主创新能力和竞争力;加强产业人才队伍建设,重点培养一批高层次复合型人才;改善产业投融资环境,拓展资金融汇渠道;加强和改进体育产业统计工作;重点扶持体育本体产业的发展等方面的对策。%Based on the interpretation of the basic situation of the sports industry in Hu- nan Province, the paper points out its favorable conditions and dilemma for further development during China' s 12th Five-year Plan, and puts forward practical countermeasures: to speed up the economic development and improve the level of public sports consumption; to transform administrative functions and improve the sports industry management system; to promote the independent innovation ability and competition ability of sports industry; to strengthen industrial talent team construction and cultivate a group of high-end talents; to improve the environment of industrial investment and expand fund-raising channel; to improve the statistics work of sports industry; to support the development of sports industry itself, etc.

  13. Research on the Forestry Listed Companies Operating Efficiency Based on the DEA Model---Take the Hunan Province as an Example%林业龙头企业林产品贸易业务经营效率研究--以湖南省为例

    蔡珍贵; 熊曦; 尹少华


    从国家林业重点龙头企业和湖南省首批林业产业龙头企业名单当中选择12个企业,利用二次文献检索和实地调查收集获得的业务数据,应用数据包络分析(DEA)模型,对12个林业龙头企业林产品贸易业务经营效率进行对比分析,构建林业龙头企业林产品贸易业务经营效率的投入产出指标体系。研究结果表明,林业龙头企业林产品贸易业务经营效率整体情况较好,部分DEA无效的林业龙头企业主要受林产品贸易业务的规模效率影响,同时,林业龙头企业的林产品贸易业务产出还有一定的空间,应在贸易扩张上进行深入研究。%From the list of state forestry leading enterprises and forestry industry of Hunan Province the first batch of leading enterprises choose 12 enterprises, use secondary literature search and field survey collecting the business data, employ data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, carry on the contrast analysis to forest products trade business operating efficiency of 12 forestry enterprises, construct the input-output index system of forest products trade business operating efficiency of the forestry enterprises. The results show that forest products trade business operating efficiency is better in forestry leading enterprises, DEA invalid forestry enterprises is mainly affected by the scale efficiency of forest products trade business. At the same time, forest products trade business outcomes there is a certain space in forestry enterprises, which should be in-depth study on the expansion of trade.

  14. Analysis on the Functions that the Government has Played in Sustainable Development of Mining-based Towns-A Case of S Town in Hunan Province%政府对矿业城镇可持续发展作用探析--以湖南S镇为例



    This paper ifrst analyses the problems that a mining town in Hunan province faces in its effort to promote sustainable development. The main problems include the following: the resources are on the verge of depletion; the ecological environment is damaged heavily; the social burden is heavy, and the complex geological mining relations and the compensatory of the beneift results in crisis for economic development. And then this paper points out that in our efforts to promote the transformation of mining town and its sustainable development, the two aspects that we must be taken into account: on the one hand, we desperately need both strong support of national macro-policy, and the policies concerning financial support, industrial support, and environmental protection. On the other hand, we must rely more on the functions that the local government has played, reform the management models that lay emphasis on the management and ignore the service. At the same time, we should make our efforts to break with the thought of reliance on others, attach great importance to the public power, and straighten out political and business relationships.%以矿业城镇湖南S镇为例,其可持续发展面临着资源濒临枯竭、生态环境破坏严重、社会负担沉重、地矿关系复杂和利益外流致经济发展危机重重等困境。矿业城镇的转型与可持续发展一方面迫切需要国家宏观政策的大力支持,需要资金扶持、产业扶持和环境保护等方面的政策;另一方面更离不开地方政府“内化起跳”功能的爆发,需要改革“重管理、轻服务”的管理模式,破除依赖思想,重视公众力量,理顺政企关系。

  15. Role of Sea Level Fluctuation on the Formation of Organic-Carbon-Rich Sediments in the Chihsian Formation in Sangzhi Area, Western Hunan Province%海平面变化在湖南西部桑植地区栖霞组富有机碳沉积物形成中的作用

    韦恒叶; 汪建国; 遇昊; 黄宝华


    The Middle Permian Chihsian Formation in Sangzhi area in western Hunan Province shows remarkable cyclicity, where organic matter cycles also occurred. The study of origin of organic matter accumulation in the Chihsian Formation helps understand the role of sea level fluctuation on the formation of organic-carbon-rich sediments. Using a cycle as the study interval, based on the study of pyrite morphology and geochemical parameters, such as TOC, δ34S, DOP and trace elements, we find out that the variation of ocean surface water primary productivity parameters, such as Ba, Ni, Cu and Zn, are consistent with TOC contents, suggesting organic matter accumulation was controlled by primary productivity. The redox condition in bottom water is related to primary productivity. The ultimate origin for the organic matter accumulation should be the high-frequency sea level fluctuatioa Rapid sea level rising brought rich nutrients, flourishing surface water biologic productivity. The decomposition of organic matter from dead body demanded more oxygen concentration, resulting in dysoxic-anoxic environment in bottom water.%湖南西部桑植地区中二叠统栖霞组地层旋回性明显,有机质也呈周期性变化.研究其有机质聚集堆积控制因素将有助于理解海平面变化在富有机碳沉积物形成过程中的作用.选择其中一个旋回作为研究目的层段,通过黄铁矿形态以及地球化学参数有机碳TOC、硫同位素、DOP以及微量元素的研究发现,初级生产力参数Ba、Ni、Cu和Zn的变化与TOC含量的变化一致,有机质聚集堆积主要受海洋表层初级生产力的控制,底部水体氧化还原条件与初级生产力有关.有机质的堆积最终归因于高频相对海平面变化,海平面快速上升带来丰富的营养物质,提高海洋表层生物生产力,海底有机质的分解消耗大量氧气,氧需求量的增加形成底部水体贫氧厌氧环境.

  16. 乒乓球多球训练法的文献综述——以湖南省各体育院系使用的教材为例%Literature Review of Table Tennis Multi-ball Training——Taking the Textbook of College Sports in Hunan Province as Example

    陈卫东; 黄依慧


    The Chinese table tennis are able to keep strong for decades,the multi-ball training is one of the important method.The author,by refereeing to textbook concerned about multi-ball training of sports colleges in Hunan province,finds out that there are many research on trai-ning method academic definition,historical origin and its importance and the limitation of the qualitative aspects such as the research is more,but the practice teaching and training work in need guidance,such as multi-balls training method of the ball,way and method for teaching organization pertinently used in table tennis movement skill form the different stages of the law,especially used to control the ball size and strength training method of quantitative data,and some training remains to be experts further explained.%中国乒乓球几十年来之所以能够保持长盛不衰,其中多球训练法是重要的训练手段之一,笔者通过查阅湖南省各体育院系所使用的有关多球训练法的教材,发现这些教材中对乒乓球多球训练法的学术界定、历史渊源以及它的重要性与局限性等定性方面的研究比较多,但实践教学与训练工作中所需要指导的,诸如多球训练法的供球方法、方式与组织教法有针对性地运用于乒乓球动作技能形成规律的各个阶段,尤其是用于控制多球训练法的强度大小与量化训练的一些数据资料,还有待专家们进一步的阐述。

  17. Farmers’ satisfaction and influencing factors of irrigation and water conservancy property governance:Based on the analysis of 323 farmers’ data in Hunan province%农田水利产权治理的农户满意度及其影响因素--基于湖南省323份农户数据的分析

    刘辉; 周长艳


    基于湖南省323份农户调查数据,从个人特征、农户家庭特征、农户参与特征及外部环境特征方面选取变量,运用Logistic 模型实证分析了农田水利产权治理的农户满意度及其影响因素。结果表明:农户对农田水利产权治理满意者占35.6%,而不满意者占64.4%。农户年龄、兼业情况、务农收入比重、投资农田水利设施意愿、农田水利维护状况、政府组织动员力度对农田水利产权治理农户满意度有显著的正向影响;性别、土地经营规模、农田水利治理决策参与度对农田水利产权治理农户满意度有显著的负向影响;文化水平、劳动人口、村社凝聚力、对政府的信任度等因素的影响不显著。%Based on the data of 323 households in Hunan province, the author made an empirical analysis on farmers' satisfaction and influencing factors of irrigation and water conservancy property governance by using logistic model.The variables were selected from 5 aspects of farmers’ individual, family, participation characteristics and external environment characteristics. The results showed that farmers' satisfaction with the property governance of irrigation and water conservancy was 35.6%, while the dissatisfaction proportion was 64.4%. In addition, farmers’ farmers’ age, part-time work condition, the proportion of farming incomes, willingness to invest in irrigation and water conservancy, irrigation and water conservancy maintenance, and mobilization of governmental organizations had significant positive effects on farmers’ satisfaction with irrigation and water conservancy property governance. Meanwhile, the gender, the scale of land, participation in governance decisions negatively influenced farmers’ satisfaction. However, the education of farmers, the number of labor force, village community cohesion and farmers’ trust of government had no significant effects on farmers’ satisfaction of

  18. 当前领导干部社会性别意识的调查分析--基于湖南省的数据%Analysis of Gender Consciousness of Leading Cadres--Based on the Data of Hunan Province



    领导干部的社会性别意识在很大程度上决定了他们能否真正贯彻落实“社会性别主流化”的要求。文章基于湖南省领导干部的调查资料,从性别问题的认知、性别关系的评价、性别观念与态度、性别意识的践行四个方面分析了当前领导干部社会性别意识的现状。研究发现,领导干部对男女平等基本国策、社会性别基本概念的认知还有待进一步提高;领导干部的一些性别观念还有待进一步转变;性别意识的践行还存在着诸多缺损的地方。因此,必须通过各种途径,进一步提高领导干部的社会性别意识。%Gender consciousness of leading cadres largely determines whether they can really implement“gender mainstreaming”requirements. Based on the survey data of leading cadres in Hunan province, this thesis analyses the current status of gender consciousness of leading cadres from four aspects:gender cognition, evaluation of gender relationship,gender concepts and attitudes,and practice of gender consciousness. The study shows that leading cadres need to further improve their cognition of“the basic national policy of gender equality”and some basic concepts of social gender;to change some gender consciousness;practice of gender consciousness still exists many defects. Therefore,it’s necessary to further improve the social gender consciousness of leaders through a variety of ways.

  19. Geochronology of the Greisen-Quartz-Vein Type Tungsten-Tin Deposit and Its Host Granite in Xitian, Hunan Province%湖南锡田云英岩一石英脉型钨锡矿的形成时代及其赋矿花岗岩锆石SHRIMPU-Pb定年

    付建明; 程顺波; 卢友月; 伍式崇; 马丽艳; 陈希清


    The Xitian, Hunan Province tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit is one of the newly-discovered ones during the new round exploration in the Nanling range,which possesses a great potential of W+Sn resources. Its tungsten-tin ore bodies occur in the contact zones between complex granite and carbonaceous rock and interior of rock bodies. In addition to dominant mineralization of skarn, altered rock in fractures zone and greisen-quartz vein types also characterize the deposit, respectively. In this work, fluid inclusions Rb-Sr dating and zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating were conducted to constrain the a- ges of the tungsten-tin greisen-quartz vein and its host granite in Xitian. The Rb-Sr isochron result shows greisen mineralization occurred at 153 + 12Ma (MSWD = 0.80) , and zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating indicates that host granite was formed at 147.0+3.5 Ma( M SWD =-0.23 ). Both are consistent in the error range. This work further confirms that the Xitian tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit was formed primarily during the early Yanshanian epoch ( Jurassic -Cretaceous) as suggested by previous studies.%具超大型规模远景的湖南锡田钨锡多金属矿床是1999年开始的新一轮国土资源大调查的重大发现之一。矿床产于锡田复式花岗岩体与碳酸盐岩接触带及岩体内部。矿床类型主要为矽卡岩型,其次为破碎带蚀变岩型和云英岩一石英脉型。采用石英流体包裹体Rb—Sr法和锆石SHRIMPU—Pb法分别获得:云英岩一石英脉型钨锡矿形成年龄为153+12Ma(MSWD=0.80),其赋矿花岗岩形成年龄为147±3Ma(MSWD:0.90),加权平均年龄为147.0±3,5Ma(MSWD=0.23),两者在误差范围内一致;并进一步证实,锡田钨锡多金属矿的主成矿期是燕山早期。

  20. Countermeasures for Stressing Industry but Disregarding Agriculture in Resource-based Counties: A Case Study of Fugu County in Shaanxi Province

    Shaowen; ZHAN; Jing; ZHANG


    Industry re-feeding agriculture is an important strategy to boost agricultural modernization[1]. As to resource-based regions, the key thing is the way to implement the strategy of resource-based industry re-feeding agriculture. In fact, as a typical resource-based county, Fugu County realizes its quick economic development mainly depending on the local resources and industrial development. And the agricultural development is relatively lagging in the county, more people are beginning to denote themselves to industrial development due to high return brought by resource exploitation, which results that the contradiction between industry and agriculture is gradually prominent in the county. Therefore, it is necessary to seek for a new way to develop industry and agriculture in resource-based counties. This article mainly introduces the mode and method of "industry re-feeding agriculture" in Fugu County, analyzes and summarizes the implementation effects and achievements of modes as well as discusses the problems produced in the course of policy implementation and tries to find countermeasures to coordinate the contradiction between industry and agriculture, then further discuss the development perspective of industry and agriculture in Fugu County.

  1. 吉林省县域农村电商发展及对策%An Analysis on Jilin Province County Rural E-commerce Development



    In the “Internet plus” era,the nationwide county rural e-commerce development is very swift and violent.Al-though the start of Jilin Province county rural e-commerce is relatively late,it has already become one of the major powers to revitalize the old industrial base of northeast,transform the economic development mode and optimize the in-dustrial structure.Currently,Jilin Province county rural e-commerce development has shown that the agricultural products transaction momentum is powerful and the volume of trade is increasing substantially,and the situation of farmers partic-ipating in agricultural products e-commerce is full of enthusiasm.But problems like that mode are not clear,products are similar,talents are scanty,etc.still exist.Therefore,it should confirm the industry aggregation development direction;accel-erate talents recruit and cultivation depending on county advantages to realize the fast and healthy development of Jilin Province county rural e-commerce.%在“互联网+”时代,全国县域农村电商发展迅速,吉林省县域农村电商发展虽然起步较晚,但已经成为振兴东北老工业基地,转变经济发展方式,优化产业结构的主要动力之一。目前,吉林省县域农村电商发展已呈现出农产品交易势头强劲,交易额大幅增长,农民参与农产品电子商务热情高涨的态势,与此同时也存在着模式不清晰\\产品雷同,人才匮乏等问题。因此,应明确产业聚集发展方向,依托县域优势,加快人才招揽与培养,以实现吉林省县域农村电商的快速\\健康发展。

  2. [Impact of daily mean temperature, cold spells, and heat waves on stroke mortality a multivariable Meta-analysis from 12 counties of Hubei province, China].

    Zhang, Y Q; Yu, C H; Bao, J Z


    Objective: To assess the acute effects of daily mean temperature, cold spells, and heat waves on stroke mortality in 12 counties across Hubei province, China. Methods: Data related to daily mortality from stroke and meteorology in 12 counties across Hubei province during 2009-2012, were gathered. Distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was first used, to estimate the county-specific associations between daily mean temperature, cold spells, heat waves and stroke mortality. Multivariate Meta-analysis was then applied to pool the community-specific relationships between temperature and stroke mortality (exposure-response relationship) as well as both cold- and- heat-associated risks on mortality at different lag days (lag-response relationship). Results: During 2009-2012, a total population of 6.7 million was included in this study with 42 739 persons died of stroke. An average of 2.7 (from 0.5 to 6.0) stroke deaths occurred daily in each county, with annual average mean temperature as 16.6 ℃ (from 14.7 ℃ to 17.4 ℃) during the study period. An inverse J-shaped association between temperature and stroke mortality was observed at the provincial level. Pooled mortality effect of cold spells showed a 2-3-day delay and lasted about 10 days, while effect of heat waves appeared acute but attenuated within a few days. The mortality risks on cold-spell days ranged from 0.968 to 1.523 in 12 counties at lag 3-14, with pooled effect as 1.180 (95%CI:1.043-1.336). The pooled mortality risk (ranged from 0.675 to 2.066) on heat-wave days at lag 0-2 was 1.114 (95%CI: 1.012-1.227). Conclusions: An inverse J-shaped association between temperature and stroke mortality was observed in Hubei province, China. Both cold spells and heat waves were associated with increased stroke mortality, while different lag patterns were observed in the mortality effects of heat waves and cold spells.

  3. Structural Characteristics and Prospecting Significance of the Xitian Tin-Tungsten Polymetallic Deposit, Hunan Province, China%湖南锡田锡钨多金属矿床成矿构造特征及其找矿意义

    伍式崇; 龙自强; 徐辉煌; 周云; 蒋英; 潘传楚


    The Xitian tin-tungsten deposit,an important deposit discovered recently in the Nanling ore-forming province,occurs in the contact zone of the Late Devonian dolomitic limestone and Jurassic to Cretaceous ( Yans-hanian) granitoids.The main ore types of the deposit are skan-,structural skan-,structural altered rock- and quartz-greisen vein types.There is a SN-trending extensional structure of granite dome,a series of NE-trending multiple folds and NE or NEE-trending strike-slip tectonic system developed in the Xitian deposit.The dome structure is composed of Indosian and Yanshanian granites,Paleozoic strata and Mesozoic discontinuous ring detachment faults,which controls the distribution of skarn orebodies.The complex fold is a NE-trending complicated synclines,which consists of Palaeozoic strata,and is cut by strike-slip faults in the anticlinal core.Some structural fracture zone type ore bodies are controlled by both the coaxial overprinted fold of two periods,which belong to Yantang and Xiaotian complicated syncline,and the ductile brittle shear faults.The strike-slip system consists of the first-order NE-trending right lateral strike-slip faults,secondary P-orientation shear faults,SN-trending left laterial strike-slip faults and NW-trending stretch faults.The strike-slip system controls the distribution of quartz-vein- and greisen vein type tin-tungsten polymetallic orebodies.Zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of the Xitian granites and 40A-39Ar ages of muscovites from the greisenization type tungsten-tin orebodies as well as Re-Os isochron age of molybdenites from the quartz-vein type tin-tungsten ore bodies demonstrate that the time of tectonic activity,mag-matism and metallogenesis in Xitian tin- tungsten deposit is basically consistent with those of the large-scale metal-logeny in Nanling ore-forming province ( ISO Ma ~ 160 Ma).There exist many metallogenic areas favorable for future exploration,such as contact zones of granites and limestones,NEE- or NE

  4. Tree Productivity and Water Potential Productivity in Returning Farmland to Forest Project in Datong County, Qinghai Province

    Yin Jing; Liu Chenfeng; Zhao Wanqi; He Kangning


    From 2002 to 2003, based on the investigation of sample plots and stem analysis of remained plantation communities in the areas of returning farmland to forest in the 1980s in Datong County, Qinghai Province, this paper studies tree productivity and moisture potential productivity of six types of plantations on the land of returning farmland to forest, such as green poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch (Betula platyphylla) and China spruce (Picea asperata) mixed forest, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) pure forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest and so on. The results show that: in sub-humid region of Loess Plateau, 3 000 trees per hm2 is a proper standard of planting density. Under current condition, the productivity index of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch pure forest, China spruce pure forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest with the density of 2 100-3 333 trees per hm2 can serve as potential productivity standard of actual biomass of arbor established forest. In sub-humid area, Thornthwaite Model is adopted to estimate plant climate potential productivity, which is about 8 462 kg·hm-2·a-1. The actual potential water productive efficiency of Purplecone spruce (Picea purpurea) and Asia white birch pure established forest are 17.22 and 22.14 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively, and that of green poplar and shrub mixed established forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed established forest are 21.14 and 19.09 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively. The potential productivity of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest which have grown into forest with the density of 3 000 trees per hm2 have attained or been close to that of local climax community, which is local maximum tree productivity at present. These types of forestation models are the developing

  5. Hunan Huaxingyu Sensing Technology Co., Ltd.


    Hunan Huaxingyu Sensing Technology Co., Ltd., is a national key high-tech enterprise. Approved by the High-tech Industrial Development Center of the Ministry of Science and Technology,it engages in scientific research into sensing technology, and its development, production, and applications.

  6. Study on Viral Pathogen in Hospitalized Children with Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection from 2011 to 2012 in Hunan Province%湖南地区2011~2012年急性下呼吸道感染住院儿童的病毒病原研究

    彭颖; 谢乐云; 钟礼立; 张兵; 段招军; 谢志萍


    [Objective] To understand the viral pathogen in hospitalized children with acute lower respira-tory tract infection(ALRTI) from 2011 to 2012 in Hunan province .[Methods]A total of 727 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples in hospitalized children due to ALRTI from April 2011 to March 2012 were collected .Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Nest-PCR were used to detect 13 kinds of common re-spiratoryvirusesincludinghumanbocavirus(HBoV),adenovirus(ADV),respiratory syncytialvirus(RSV), human rhinovirus(HRV) ,parainfluenza 1-4(PIV1-4) ,influenza virus A(IFVA) ,influenza virus B(IFVB) , human metapneumovirus (HMPV) ,human coronaviruses NL63 (HCoV-NL63) and human coronaviruses HKU1(HCoV-HKU1) .The positive amplification products were confirmed by gene sequencing .[Results]Vi-ruses were detected in 504 of 727 specimens ,and the total detection rate was 69 .3% (504/727) .The first three viruses were RSV(26 .3% ) ,HRV(18 .7% ) and ADV(18 .6% ) .The high detection rate of viruses was found in spring and summer and children aged less than 3 years old ,and there was significant difference . There was no significant difference in the detection rate of viruses between males and females .The mixed in-fection rate of two or more than two kinds of viruses was 38 .9% .[Conclusion]During the study period ,respir-atory syncytial virus and rhinovirus are the main pathogens in hospitalized children with ALRTI of Hunan province .Compared with former years ,the detection rate of adenovirus is obviously increased ,and becomes the third common virus ,and has important significance .The mixed infection rate of viruses is high .%【目的】了解湖南地区儿童急性下呼吸道感染(ALRTI)住院儿童的病毒病原情况。【方法】收集2011年4月至2012年3月因ALRTI住院的儿童鼻咽抽吸物标本727份,采用RT-PCR以及 Nest-PCR方法检测常见的13种呼吸道病毒,包括人博卡病毒(HBoV ),腺病毒(ADV )

  7. 沛县蔬菜生态系统能值分析%Emergy analysis of vegetable ecosystem in Pei County, Jiangsu Province

    付伟; 蒋芳玲; 刘洪文; 吴震


    县蔬菜产业发展迅速;但净能值产出率仅略高于江苏省耕地生态系统净能值产出率,可能由于能值产出较高的先进技术推广不够;沛县蔬菜生态系统环境负荷率为1.43,低于江苏省耕地生态系统环境负荷率(2.83),且农药能值投入仅占0.21%,说明沛县蔬菜产业有较强的可持续发展能力和较大的发展潜力.为促进沛县蔬菜产业综合效益的提高和可持续发展,应进一步加强蔬菜产业基础设施及蔬菜产品加工业的建设,加大蔬菜产业的科学技术推广力度,增强沛县蔬菜生态经济系统的产出能力.%The theory of emergy analysis is based on the premise that all forms of energy are from the sun. Different and incomparable forms of energy are therefore unifiable into solar emjoules. In this study, environmental resources and economic characteristics of vegetable ecosystems in Pei County (one of the main production bases of vegetable in Jiangsu Province) were quantitatively analyzed using the theories and methods of ecosystem emergy analysis. A series of emergy indices were developed for evaluating the environment resources and development characters of the vegetable ecosystem in Pei County. These indices simultaneously provided scientific basis for sustainable development of vegetable industry in Pei County. The study showed that: in 2007, vegetable emergy input in Pei County was 1.22Χ 1021 sej. Industrial auxiliary energy input was 7.18Χ 1020 sej, accounting for 58.85% of the total vegetable ecosystem emergy, which suggested that the development of vegetable industry in Pei County relied mainly on industrial auxiliary energy, and had developed beyond traditional agriculture relied mainly on natural conditions. Vegetable ecosystem output in PeiCounty was 3.20Χ 1021 sej, accounting for 39.65% of total agriculture emergy yield, indicating that vegetable industry was one of the strongest pillars of industries in Pei County. Emergy outputs from

  8. Analysis of regulatory uses and its connection with flood prone areas. The case of 23 counties on the coastline of the province of Buenos Aires

    María Inés Botana


    Full Text Available This paper is based on an analysis of the land and soil use regulations in the 23 counties of the basin of the rivers Paraná and de la Plata, which make up the area of study of the project in which this is framed1, bearing in mind the specific treatment of the affected areas as well as flood prevention. In order to do this, we have taken into account the following: a the analysis of the evolution of State regulations as regards soil occupancy in the greater Buenos Aires; b the updated registry of regulations connected with land demarcation and use of soil validated by the Executive Power (Regulation N§ and Validating Decree N§; c the specific regulation (Regulation N§ / Executive Power decree N§ by municipality / by content. The data to perform the study of regulatory soil use was obtained from the new Interactive Land Demarcation Map of the Province of Buenos Aires created by the Ministry of Government of the Province of Buenos Aires, Subsecretariat of Municipal Affairs. The analysis of current regulations in each of the 23 counties comprised in the study will allow us to define future intervention strategies, which will act as instruments in connection with land regulation for each municipality's management.

  9. Discussion on the Ecological Greening and Construction Quality Management in Urban Residential Areas: Taking the Landscape Engineering Project of Long International ~ Seal of Hunan Province for Example%浅谈城市楼盘的生态绿化和施工质量管理——以湖南省中隆国际·御玺景观工程为例



    This article introduces the construction of a natural ecological green landscape in the residential area by Guangzhou construction team in Changsha city of Hunan Province. Taking the local environmental cinditions into consideration, the project adopts many effective construction techniques including using native tree species, transplanting large trees with whole canopy, tree bark recycling and water purification plants. It maintains the original natural environment while building a residential landscape. It also adopts high standard construction and management is also conducted. It is a good example and may become a new trend for local landscaping construction.%湖南省中隆国际·御玺景观工程是广州施工团队针对湖南长沙的环境条件,采用野生乡土树种大树全冠移植、树皮回收利用和植物水体净化等多项施工技术而建成的自然生态的楼盘绿地景观,并在此基础上进行高质量的园林绿化施工管理,具有较好的示范作用。

  10. 宽甸县卫氏肺吸虫宿主感染情况调查%Investigation of Paragonimus westermani host in Kuandian County of Liaoning province

    黄豫晓; 张帅; 沈燕; 梁姣; 王军; 刘学武; 李英辉; 赵亚


    目的 了解宽甸县卫氏肺吸虫中间宿主蜊蛄和保虫宿主犬的感染现状,为当地肺吸虫病防治工作提供依据.方法 采集蜊蛄,镜检卫氏肺吸虫囊蚴;收集流行区犬粪,镜检卫氏肺吸虫卵.结果 在宽甸县硼海镇和牛毛坞镇采集的中间宿主蜊蛄体内均未检获卫氏肺吸虫囊蚴;当地村庄重要保虫宿主犬粪中也未检出卫氏肺吸虫卵.结论 调查发现宽甸县卫氏肺吸虫病防治已基本达到传播阻断标准.%Objective To identify the present infection status in intermediate hosts and reservoir hosts of Paragonimus westermani in Kuandian county of Liaoning province,providing a guidance for paragonimiasis prevention and treatment.Methods Collected Cambaroides dauricus in Kuandian county,counted Paragonimus westermani metacercariaes.Collected dog feces and counted Paragonimus westermani eggs.Results Detected Paragonimus westermani infection neither in Cambaroides dauricus nor in dogs.Conclusions The paragonimiasis transmission in Kuandian county almost has been interrupted.

  11. Marginalization of Arable Land and its Correlation with Rural Labor Migration——A Case of Tongcheng County,Hubei Province,China


    Based on the introduction of the connotation of marginalization,the index of diagnosing the marginalization degree is put forward.According to the 685 copies of questionnaires on peasant households in Tongcheng County of Hubei Province and the statistical data of local government,marginalization of arable land and its correlation with rural labor migration in Tongcheng County are studied by using aggregative indicator method,clustering analysis method and correlation analysis method.Result shows that marginalization of arable land has happened two times in Tongcheng County since 1985.Dry land has severer marginalization degree than paddy field.There is significant correlation between marginalization degree of arable land and rural labor migration;and the correlation between marginalization degree and rural labor migration in paddy field is greater than that in dry land.Marginalization of arable land will advance the rural labor migration,while in response to the poor current circulation of lands;the rural labor migration will further deepen the marginalization degree.Marginalization of arable land is one of the important factors affecting the labor migration in rural areas.

  12. The Strategic Consideration for Expanding the New Technological Revolution of Agriculture in Hunan


    @@At the birth of the 21st century, the global technological revolution of agriculture has occured. The new breakthroughs of biological technology in agriculture are being obtained on end Information technology, nuclear technology, new-material technology and other new high technologies are being adopted in agriculture on a larger and larger scale. As a big province of agriculture, it is imperative for Hunan to develop the new agricultural high technology,promote the new technological revolution of agriculture and realize the modernization of agriculture by taking the opportunity and facing the challenges in the new century.

  13. Analysis of coalsmoke-borne endemic fluorosis control in Ziyang County, Shaanxi Province from 1991 to 1995

    Liu Xiao Li; Bai Guang Lu; Ma Chang An; Fan Zhong Xue [Shaanxi Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research, Xi' an (China)


    The monitoring data of coal-burning fluorosis during 1991-95, obtained from Ziyang county, Shaanxi, China, were analysed. The level of fluorosis in indoor air and food was still higher than the national standard. 2 ref.

  14. Characteristic Analysis of the Village and Town Structure——A Case of Jinhu County in Jiangsu Province,China


    This thesis gives overview of the connotation of rural spatial structure,indicating 4 kinds of elements,namely nodus,passage,region and flow.Their spatial arrangement and interaction lead to the corresponding rural spatial structure.This thesis also offers panorama of the related theoretical progress of intra-county and rural areas,indicating that the research theories of regional spatial structure at present,mainly focus on macroscopic region or urban space,but there is shortage of researches on county spatial structure,especially microscopic rural spatial structure.On such basis,4 kinds of theoretical models and characteristics of regional spatial structure have been introduced.We build analysis index system of rural structural elements on the basis of 4 elements,and conduct rural spatial structural analysis,taking Jinhu County as an example.The result shows that rural spatial structure in Jinhu County is still at stage of nucleus-cluster development and rural system is not so sound.In addition,the passage network system of infrastructure has not taken shape,and county economy presents diseconomy of scale.The spatial interaction and association among towns in Jinhu County are weak.The characteristic analysis model of spatial structure in this research can objectively reflect regional characteristic of spatial structure.

  15. 河南省新安县和息县2012年蚊传虫媒病毒调查%Surveillance on mosquito-borne arboviruses in Xixian county and Xin’an county, Henan province, 2012

    郑雅匀; 付士红; 唐晓燕; 李幸乐; 尚思远; 徐超; 梁国栋


    Objective To understand the species, distribution and genotype of mosquito⁃borne arboviruses in some regions of Henan province. Methods Mosquito samples were collected from Xixian county and Xin’an county in Henan province from May to August, 2012. After species identification, mosquitoes were inter⁃cells cross cultured for viral isolation. RT⁃PCR using specific primer for common arboviruses was used to identify the positive isolates. Molecular biological analysis were conducted by using software of Clustal X2.1, MegAlign, Genedoc 3.2 and Mega v5.1, and genotype for the virus was identified. Results A total of 7149 mosquitoes which belong to 5 species in 4 genera were collected. The predominant mosquito specie in Xin’an county was Armigeres subalbatus (2055, 51.36%), but the mainly species in Xixian county was Culex pipens pallens (2964, 94.16%). Five strains from Cx. pipens pallens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were identified as genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which caused slightly cytopathic effect (CPE) in C6/36 cells, and no CPE in BHK-21. But severe CPE was observed in BHK-21 when 3 days after inoculating the C6/36 culture of the viruses onto BHK-21 cells. Conclusion In Xixian county and Xin’an county of Henan province, both JEV and its primary vectors exist, and GenotypeⅠJEV is still the mainly JEV circulating in local natural environment.%目的:了解河南省部分地区蚊传虫媒病毒的种类分布及基因型别。方法于2012年5-8月在河南省洛阳市新安县和信阳市息县的居民住房、猪圈、牛棚及树林中采集蚊虫。使用细胞培养法分离病毒,通过反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT⁃PCR)方法进行种属特异扩增鉴定,并用Clustal X2.1、MegAlign、Genedoc 3.2和Mega v5.1生物信息学软件完成病毒核酸序列的分子生物学分析并进行基因分型。结果共采集蚊虫4属5种7149只,其中新安县以骚扰阿蚊居多(2055只,51.36%

  16. 湖南仙人岩与金矿床有关的二长岩锆石U-Pb年龄、Hf同位素及地质意义%Zircon U-Pb Geochronology and Hf Isotopic Compositions of the Monzonite,Related to the Xianrenyan Gold Deposit in Hunan Province and Its Geological Significances

    甄世民; 祝新友; 李永胜; 杜泽忠; 公凡影; 巩小栋; 齐钒宇; 贾德龙; 王璐琳


    The Xianrenyan pluton is located in the south of Shuikoushan ore field, Hunan Province. There develops Au, Cu, Mo and Zn mineralization in inner and outer contact zones of the pluton, which shows the colse relationship between the pluton and the metallic mineralization. Zircon LA - MC - ICP -MS U - Pb age of the monzonite suggests a weighted mean age of (156. 09±0. 46) Ma (MSWD= 1. 4) which implies that the pluton was ernplaced in Early Yanshanian period. The in-situ Hf isotopic analysis reveals 176Hf/177Hf ratios in the zircon range from 0. 282 243 to 0. 282 904, and εHf(t) from —15. 55 to 7. 87 (with peak value around —10) , and the two stage Hf model ages(TDM2) from 703 Ma to 2 188 Ma (with peak value around 1 800 Ma), which indicates that parental magma of the pluton was derived from the mixed sources of the lower crust and mantle. Based on the geochemistry of the rocks, it can be concluded that the monzonite was mainly resulted from remelting of the Mesoproterozoic basement rocks and formed in Middle and Late Jurassic when the crust was in an extension-thinning geodynamic setting. In addition, the authors compare and analyze the lithogeochemical characteristics of the Xianrenyan pluton and the Shuikoushan stock. The fact that the Xianrenyan pluton has a weaker differentiation than the Shuikoushan pluton gives the reason for its unfavorable gold mineralization.%仙人岩岩体位于湖南水口山矿田的南部.岩体内外接触带上均见有不同程度的金、铜、钼、锌等矿化,反映出岩体与成矿存在着内在联系.二长岩中锆石的LA-MC-ICP-MS年代学研究表明,其U-Pb加权平均年龄值为(156.09±0.46)Ma(MSWD=1.4),显示为燕山早期侵位.锆石Lu-Hf同位素原位分析结果表明,176 Hf/177 Hf值为0.282 243~0.282 904,εHf (t)值为-15.55~7.87,峰值在-10左右,Hf同位素二阶段模式年龄(TDM2)为703~2 188 Ma,峰值在1 800 Ma左右,指示岩浆为壳幔混合来源.结合岩体的地球化学特征,认

  17. The Mineral Genesis and Mechanism Research of the Hot Water Exhalative Mineralization of the Lower Cambrian in Hunan and Guizhou Provinces%湘黔地区下寒武统热水喷流成矿矿物成因机制研究



    We carry out research to the temperature,depth,meta and ecological situation of the sedimentary marine water of the silicalite,phosphorite,barite rock,metal rich bed of the upper and lower rock bed of the profiles in Hunan and Guizhou provinces.The paleo-marine water temperature of the sedimentary stage of the silicalite is averaged as 84.81 ℃ or 87.27 ℃,that of the phosphorite is averaged as 42.17 ℃,and the rock-forming temperature of phosphorite is similar to the silicalite,smaller than 100℃,being respectively 37-47 ℃ and 79-98 ℃.The water depths vary within 100-300 m.Silicalite,sulfide-rich black shale (metal rich bed) and barite formed within the weak-alkaline meta environment.But the phosphorite formed within the weakacidic and weak-alkaline meta environment.The rock-formation and mineralization model research thoroughly indicated the existence of the basic-phile elements Ni,Mo,V,Cr and PGE have genetic connections with the basaltic rock and super basic rock.The area belongs to the east Tetheyan sea during the early Cambrian,and the south China plate and the Australian plate formed the deep fault zone during the early Cambrian separation stage,which might be the corridor of the sea water carrying out deep cycle,absorbing the magnesium-iron lower-crust PGE,forming the richmetal hot brine water and depositing in the sea bottom.%对湖南、贵州剖面的上下岩层的硅质岩、磷块岩、重晶石岩、金属富集层的沉积海水的温度、深度、介质条件、生态条件进行研究,硅质岩沉积期古海水温度平均为84.81℃或87.27℃,磷块岩沉积期古海水温度平均为42.17℃,磷块岩的形成温度与硅质岩比较相似,<100℃,分别约为37 ~ 47℃、79 ~ 98℃.研究区水深变化在100~ 300 m之间.硅质岩、富硫化物黑色页岩(金属富集层)、重晶石生成于微碱性的介质环境.而磷块岩生成于微酸性-微碱性的介质环境.成岩成矿模型研究充分揭示亲基性元

  18. 湖南省2所高校护理本科生非技术技能的现状及影响因素研究%Status Quo of Nursing Undergraduates’ Non-technical Skills and Its Influencing Factors in Hunan Province

    佘兰; 曹建平; 倪超; 李潘; 段功香


    Objective To investigate the status quo of non-technical skills of nursing undergraduates and analyze the influencing factors so as to provide scientific basis for improving non-technical skills in higher nursing education. Methods Four hundreds and ninety-eight undergraduates of two universities in Hunan province were recruited by convenient cluster sampling and assessed with non-technical skills scale, and the data were analyzed by SPSS17.0. Results The average score of non-technical skills was 3.64±0.39, which indicated students’ non-technical skill was in moderate or above level;the score of humanistic care was the highest and that of leadership management the lowest. Influencing factors of nursing undergraduates’ non-technical skills included grade, professional interest, social practice participation and mother’s educational background. Conclusion Nursing undergraduates’ non-technical skills is in a moderate or above level and more opportunities to participate in social practice should be offered to students to cultivate their professional interest, thus further improve their non-technical skills.%目的:调查护理本科生非技术技能的现状,分析其影响因素,为提升护理本科生的非技术技能水平提供依据。方法采用整群抽样法抽取湖南省2所高校498名护理本科生采用《护理专业本科生非技术技能测评量表》进行抽样问卷调查,并应用SPSS 17.0对所有数据进行统计学处理。结果护理本科生非技术技能总均分为(3.64±0.39)分,处于中等偏上水平,其中人文关怀技能因子得分最高,领导管理技能因子得分最低;影响护生非技术技能的因素有社会实践、专业兴趣、成绩排名、年级和母亲的文化程度。结论湖南省2所高校护理本科生非技术技能处于中等偏上水平,高校教师应多给学生提供参与社会实践的机会,培养护生的专业兴趣等,从而进一步地提高护理

  19. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical characteristics of Shihama granite pluton in northeastern Hunan province%湘东北地区石蛤蟆花岗岩体SHRIMP U—Pb年龄及地球化学特征

    姚宇军; 马铁球; 周柯军; 柏道远


    分布于湖南东北部的石蛤蟆岩体侵位于新元古代地层中。由微细粒斑状黑云母花岗闪长岩和细粒斑状黑云母二长花岗岩等两期侵入体组成。通过锆石SHRIM PU--Pb法测得岩体侵位年龄为157土2Ma(2d),MSWD=0.98,成岩时代为晚侏罗世。SiO2=68.26%~68.53%,K2O/Na2O=1.37~1.59,岩石属镁质、准铝质-微过铝质、高钾钙碱性-钾玄岩系列;岩石明显富集大离子亲石元素,亏损高场强元素,Rb/Sr较低(0.40~0.56);乏REE较高(171.48~183.81),Eu为弱负异常(δEu=0.86~0.93),(La/Yb)N=27.11~45.87;具较高的eNd值(-5.11)和高T2DM(1.63Ga)。综合研究表明,石蛤蟆花岗岩为混合源高钾钙碱性花岗岩类(KCG),其花岗岩浆有大量幔源物质加入。讨论认为岩体形成于构造体制转换下的地球动力学背景,是造山晚期张弛作用下的产物。%Distributed in northeastern Hunan province and intruded in Neoproterozoic strata, Shihama granite pluton is mainly composed of micro-fine-grained porphyritic biotite granodiorites of early stage and fine- grained porphyritic biotite monzonitic granites of late stage. SHRIMP zircon dating of the granites gives an age of 157±2 Ma which belongs to Late Jurassic. The granites belong to magnesian, metaluminous-weak- ly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline-shoshonite series, with SIO2=68.26% -68.53M and K2O/Na2O= 1.37 - 1.59. The rocks show enriched large-ion lithophile elements, depleted high field-strength ele- ments, low values of Rb/Sr(0.40-0.56), high values of ∑REE (171.48-183.81), with δEu=0.86-- 0. 93, (La/Yb)N=27. 11-45.87, εNd=5.11, T2DM=1. 63 Ga. Studies indicate that the Shihama gran- ites belong to high-K calc-alkaline granites (KCG) originated form the crust-mantled mixed source ivolving large amount of mantle source materials. It is believed that the granite pluton is the result of

  20. 湖南省2008-2009年狂犬病病原学监测及病毒基因特征分析%Surveillance on the etiology and genetic characteristics of rabies in Hunan province, from 2008 to 2009

    高立冬; 唐青; 刘运芝; 蔡亮; 刘富强; 张红; 胡世雄; 陶晓燕; 李浩; 刘佳惠; 王世清


    目的 分析2008-2009年湖南省狂犬病病原学监测结果及新分离病毒的N基因分子特征.方法 采用直接免疫荧光法(DFA)、巢式PCR检测狂犬病监测标本,阳性标本应用ABI3730测序仪对N基因进行全序列测序;运用生物信息学方法分析N基因特征及序列同源性,构建系统进化树,分析新分离病毒株遗传特征并与以往分离株比较.结果 1451份监测犬脑组织标本中DFA初筛阳性31份,阳性率为2.14%;31份DFA阳性标本经巢式PCR复核,17份阳性,阳性率为1.17%;巢式PCR检测疑似狂犬病病例唾液、脑脊液、血清及尿液标本56份,3份阳性,阳性率为5.36%;新分离的阳性株与巴斯德株进行N基因序列比较,核苷酸和氨基酸同源性均在87.2%~ 87.9%之间;成功构建系统进化树,新分离的20株病毒全部属于基因Ⅰ型.新分离病毒株与湖南省内、邻省和国际株比较存在不同的亲缘关系.结论 湖南省狂犬病病例及犬携带病毒的情况较为稳定,流行株仍为基因Ⅰ型,未发生变异.%Objective To analyze the etiology of rabies in Hunan province and the genetic characteristics of rabies N gene isolated from 2008 to 2009.Methods Direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) and nested PCR were employed to detect the monitoring samples including brain tissues of dogs and saliva,serum or urine which were collected in 2008 to 2009,from the rabies patients.Positive samples were sequenced by ABI3730 gene analyzer for the full length of the N gene target.The homology and hpylogeography of the rabies virus were analyzed after the phylogenetic tree was constructed by Blast,Clustal W and Mega 4.0 software.Results Of the 1451 tissue samples from the dogs' brain,31 were positive under DFA and the positive rate was 2.14%.The DFA positive samples were redeteeted by RT-PCR and the positive rate was 1.17%.56 samples of saliva,serum and urine samples were detected by RT-PCR from the rabies patients,with 3 positives

  1. The practice of health care alliance in Huangzhong county, Qinghai province%青海省湟中县医疗联合体改革实践

    张鲁豫; 朱炜明; 马慧芬; 金音子; 何莉; 岳大海; 孟庆跃


    The fragmentation of health care system within a county and serious capacity constraints of health-care services in township health centers are generally the most significant problems facing underdeveloped counties in western China. Under constraints of limited public financial resources, how to increase service capability of township health centers and improve service quality, continuity and convenience of health care system has become one of the most severe challenges in implementing China’s county health care system reform. This paper takes Huangzhong coun-ty, Qinghai province as a case study. It investigates how the locals use health care alliance to vertically integrate county health care resources during reform implementation, analyzes various aspects of reform measures and the corre-sponding structural characteristics such as the integration of administrative management, integration of human re-sources, dual diagnosis referral, interoperability of information systems, sharing of resources and test results, etc. , and provides similar China’s counties with a case study to be used for reference.%我国西部经济相对不发达的县级地区普遍面临着县域内医疗服务体系碎片化,乡镇卫生院医疗卫生服务能力严重不足的问题。在有限的公共财政资源约束下,如何提高乡镇卫生院服务能力,改善医疗服务体系的服务质量、连续性和便利性成为我国县级医疗卫生体系改革的现实挑战。本文以青海省湟中县为典型案例,调研当地通过医疗服务联合体纵向整合县域医疗资源的改革实践,分析其行政管理一体化、人力资源整合、双向转诊、信息系统互联互通以及资源与检查结果共享等方面的改革措施及相应结构特点,为我国类似地区改革提供参考案例。

  2. 湖湘农村体育文化发展之源探究%The Source study of The development of Rural Sports Culture in Hunan



    Rural sports culture in Hunan province is a part of Hunan sports culture, and the sports culture is a part of Hunan culture, the relationship among them three is closely related. Hunan rural sports culture was from the essence of modern Huxiang sports thoughts and modern practice of Hunan athletes;and the rural sports culture will not only enrich the sports culture connotation, will enlarge Huxiang culture influence, and has major effect on guiding the Huxiang sports to make more brilliant victory.%  湖湘农村体育文化是湖湘体育文化的一部分,而湖湘体育文化是湖湘文化的一部分,三者关系紧密相关。湖湘农村体育文化来源于湖湘体育思想精髓和当代湖湘体育健儿的实践;湖湘农村体育文化不仅会丰富湖湘体育文化之内涵,还会扩大湖湘文化之影响,对指导湖湘体育取得更加辉煌的胜利具有重大影响作用。

  3. Empirical Study on the Influencing Factors of Rural Households’ Credit and Loan Demand——Investigation Based on Jianhu County, Jiangsu Province


    By using the relevant data from 273 valid questionnaires of rural households in Jianhu County, Jiangsu Province, this study emphasizes on the factors of rural households’ credit and loan demand by Probit model. The results show that the factors that influencing the credit demand of rural households include the features of the rural households, the economic activities of rural households and so on. Among the factors, the operation expenditure of rural households, the education degree of the household head and the understanding degree of the rural credit policies have great impact on the rural households’ credit and loan demand. In the end, the suggestions on the basis of the research are put forward: developing diversified economy; improving rural households’ income; increasing the reserve of rural labor resources and enhancing farmers’ quality; strengthening the promotion of rural credit cooperative and perfecting the service quality of rural credit cooperative.

  4. The geochemical characteristics and oil-source rock correlation of oilshow from the Majiashan profile, Chaoxian County, South of Anhui Province

    TANG Youjun; WEN Zhigang; ZAN Ling


    In the future time the exploration of marine oil and gas will be one of the significant domains in China. In this paper the biomarker assemblage characteristics of oilshow in the Nanlinghu Formation of the Majiashan profile, which is located in Chaoxian County, south of Anhui Province, are described in the light of gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GCMS) analysis on the qualitative and quantitative basis. Based on the investigation of the biomarker assemblage characteristics of possible source rocks developed in the area studied, a conclusion is drawn that the oilshow was generated from the Nanlinghu Formation source rocks (abbreviated as T1n), instead of the Qixia Formation source rocks (abbreviated as P1q). It is pointed out that the T1n is of strong potential for future oil exploration, and therefore much attention should be paid to it.

  5. Micro-scale characterization of iron ores from a banded iron formation in Yishui county, western Shandong province of North China Craton

    Moon, I.; Lee, I.; Yang, X.


    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are widely distributed in North China Craton (NCC). Yishui BIF is located in Yishui county, western Shandong Province of NCC and is categorized as Algoma-type. The origin of iron and silica of BIFs in this region have been studied extensively for decades. The trace elemental concentrations of magnetite and hematite in iron ores from Yishui BIF are focused in this study to better understand the origins of BIF. To discuss micro-structural signatures of iron ores, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometer, electron microprobe (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized. Overall geochemical data represents abundance of trace elements, oxygen fugacity (fO2) condition during the formation of iron oxides, depositional environment of Yishui BIF, implying the involvement of volcanic eruption and hydrothermal exhalation during the chemical deposition.

  6. Quantitative analysis of burden of bacillary dysentery associated with floods in Hunan, China.

    Liu, Xuena; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Baofa


    Jishou and Huaihua, two cities in the west of Hunan Province, had suffered from severe floods because of long-lasting and heavy rainfall during the end of June and July 2012. However, the Disability Adjusted of Life Years (DALYs) of bacillary dysentery caused by the floods have not been examined before. The study aimed to quantify the impact of the floods on the burden of bacillary dysentery in Hunan, China. A unidirectional case-crossover study was firstly conducted to determine the relationship between daily cases of bacillary dysentery and the floods in Jishou and Huaihua of Hunan Province in 2012. Odds ratios (ORs) estimated by conditional logistic regression were used to quantify the risk of the floods on the disease. The years lived with disability (YLDs) of bacillary dysentery attributable to floods were then estimated based on the WHO framework to calculate potential impact fraction in the Burden of Disease study. Multivariable analysis showed that floods were significantly associated with an increased risk of the number of cases of bacillary dysentery (OR=3.270, 95% CI: 1.299-8.228 in Jishou; OR=2.212, 95% CI: 1.052-4.650 in Huaihua). The strongest effect was shown with a 1-day lag in Jishou and a 4-day lag in Huaihua. Attributable YLD per 1000 of bacillary dysentery due to the floods was 0.0296 in Jishou and 0.0157 in Huaihua. Our study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risks of bacillary dysentery in the study areas. In addition, a sudden and severe flooding with a shorter duration may cause more burdens of bacillary dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Public health preparation and intervention programs should be taken to reduce and prevent a potential risk of bacillary dysentery epidemics after floods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Luxi County of Yunnan Province: the China Nine-Province survey].

    Cai, Ning; Yuan, Yuan-sheng; Zhao, Jia-liang; Zhong, Hua; Ellwein, Leon B; Chen, Miao-miao; Dan, Ai-hua; Sun, Peng; Luo, Ting-hao; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng


    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County of Yunnan Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5575 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Luxi County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and seventy-five individuals were enumerated and 5151 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 4.95% (255/5151) and 9.51% (490/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 5.40% (278/5151) and 15.84% (816/5151) , respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (χ(2) = 1349.21, P = 0.000) , illiterate (χ(2) = 203.55, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is highest in China Nine-Province Survey among older adults aged ≥ 50 years

  8. Survey on Resource of Medicinal Plants in Guiding County of Guizhou Province%贵州贵定县药用植物资源调查

    张天伦; 吴家其; 徐文芬; 何顺志


    Resource of medicinal plants in Guiding County of Guizhou Province were investigated through field survey, sample collection, data study and species identification. More than 693 species of vascular plants belonging to 151 families and 439 genera were found. Based on the fundamental traditional Chinese medicine theory, treat- ments accepted by folk and drug use from clinical practices, all medicinal plants were divided into 18 classes ac- cording to their medicinal functions. Suggestions were made for sustainable development of twenty new medicinal resources and five protected plants in Guiding County.%通过野外考察、标本采集、资料收集与资料考证及标本鉴定,对贵定县药用植物资源进行了调查研究。发现贵定县有药用维管属植物151科439属693余种,根据中医理论基础,民间及临床用药,按其药用功能划分为18类。贵定县有20种药用新资源,5种保护植物,并对该县的中草药资源可持续发展提出建议。




    Great achievements have been made in the folk-custom tourism of Xiaozhuang village in Huzhu County over the past years; however, a variety of problems is still there. Based on the case of Xiaozhuang village, this paper discussed the problems according to the survey; and the possible solutions are also proposed.




    Full Text Available Great achievements have been made in the folk-custom tourism of Xiaozhuang village in Huzhu County over the past years; however, a variety of problems is still there. Based on the case of Xiaozhuang village, this paper discussed the problems according to the survey; and the possible solutions are also proposed.

  11. Study on Fagus lucida community in Mt.Jintongshan of Chengbu County,Hunan Province%湖南城步金童山亮叶水青冈群落研究

    黄孔泽; 喻勋林; 曹铁如


    在金童山森林生态系统中,亮叶水青冈群落是其中最重要的类型.本文用定性和定量的方法对亮叶水青冈(Fagus lucida)群落特征、结构、类型、动态、利用与保护进行初步研究,结果表明:①亮叶水青冈种群重要值达222.472 8,表现为相对纯林;②群落的物种多样性较低;③亮叶水青冈径级株数曲线呈近似正态分布;④亮叶水青冈群落处于"顶极群落"阶段;⑤以保护为前提,加强亮叶水青冈的科学利用和开发.

  12. 湖南通道县侗族村寨风水林树种资源调查%Investigation of Tree Species Resources in Feng-shui Forests of Dong Villages in Tongdao County,Hunan Province

    吴和意; 李屈强; 朱大兴; 肖际亮; 陆安信; 杨昌知; 杨昌岩


    指出了侗族先民们把聚居村寨周围的古树林木封为“风水林”,风水林内任何人都不许砍伐林木,不许开垦,不许放牧,这种保护风水林中古树林木的习俗一直流传至今。对保存较完整的几片风水林中的树种资源进行了调查,发现风水林中的树种资源较丰富,有些属国家重点保护的珍稀濒危树种,对于保护和研究珍稀树种具有较大价值。%The ancestors of Dong people regarded the ancent trees around their villages as Feng -shui forests ,and nobody is allowed to cut down trees ,reclaim and graze in the Feng-shui forests .Such custom of protecting ancient trees in the Feng -shui forests has been maintained in the Dong communities till now .The article investigates tree species in some Feng -shui forests which have been well-protected and finds that there are abundant tree species in the Feng -shui forests ,in which some are rare and endangered species in the national protected species list .The rare tree species are valuable for conservation and further studies .

  13. Study on Sodium Modification of Bentonite in Baitupo, Linli County, Hunan Province%湖南临澧白土坡膨润土钠化工艺研究

    王林江; 宋慈安; 余洋



  14. The investigation on parasitic infections of pigs in Shuangfeng county, Hunan province%湖南省双峰县猪寄生虫感染情况调查



    为了解双峰县猪感染寄生虫的情况,于2001年5~7月对1 265头猪进行了粪便检查,发现有9种寄生虫虫卵,感染率为85.9%.剖检127头屠宰猪内脏,检出虫种7种,感染率为89.0%.

  15. The Morphology and Theology of Zhajiang Chunshe in Hengyang County of Hunan Province%湖南省衡阳县渣江春社的形态及流变




  16. 湖南省衡山县白果古镇乡村旅游开发探析%Primary Exploration about Rural Tourism Development of Baiguo Ancient Town in Hengshan County of Hunan Province

    杨载田; 邓运员; 刘沛林


    The advantages of developing rural tourism in Baiguo Town were analyzed from its traffic location, the development opportunity of constructing Dananyue tourism and the driving force of rural tourism. The characteristics of its tourism resources were the well combination of rural picturesque scenery and Danxia landform, the hometown of outstanding people, the gathering place of celebrities, the legendary colors, and the convergence of three famous red tourism brands. It was emphasized that the rural tourism in Baiguo Town should be based on scientific orientation, cultivate the brands and highlight the theme of countryside so as to realize the sustainable development of rural tourism.%从交通区位条件、建设大南岳旅游的发展契机和乡村旅游发展的推动力方面分析了白果古镇发展乡村旅游的优势.认为其旅游资源的特点在于乡村田园山色与丹霞风光交相辉映;人杰地灵,名人荟萃,且多具传奇色彩;三大红色旅游资源品牌交相辉映.强调了白果古镇乡村旅游开发必须进行科学定位,塑造品牌,突出乡村主题,以实现乡村旅游的可持续发展.

  17. Epidemic situation and risk factors analysis of COPD of residents in Changsha urban area of Hunan province%湖南省长沙市区居民慢性阻塞性肺疾病流行现状和相关危险因素分析

    洪秀琴; 戴爱国; 尹培生; 孔春初; 张伏秀; 胡瑞成; 冉丕鑫


    disease (COPD)in urban areas of Hunan province and relevant risk factors and provide a basis of the prevention and treatment for COPD. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 4248 residents, aged over 15, by a simple cluster random sampling method in Changsha, Hunan, Wulipai street North Station community. All the respondents filled out an unified epidemiological survey questionnaire. All of the respondents received examination for lung function. Those respondents showed FEV1/FVC <70% were further examined by ECG,X ray inspection for differential diagnosis. The data of epidemiological survey was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression method. Results The response rate was 92%. The total prevalence of COPD was 4. 81%.The prevalence of COPD in the males was 6. 6%, and 3. 0% in the females. The prevalence of COPD in the males was significantly higher than that in the females (x2 = 29. 915, P < 0. 01). The prevalence increased with age increasing (P <0. 01). The more the education was, the lower the prevalence of COPD was. Risk factors analyzed with non-conditional logistic were as follow. The odd ratio (OR) for COPD in the age was 1.92(P <0. 01) and the odd ratio (OR) for COPD in the sex was 1.81 (P <0. 01). The weak lighting in house increased the risk with the OR of 4. 25(P <0. 01) and pet feeding further increased the risk with the OR of 12.08(P <0. 01). The odd ratio (OR) for COPD in the smokers was 1.74(P <0. 01) and the prevalence of COPD was related with smoking intensity (branch years of cigarette). Smoking intensity above 500 increased the risk of COPD. The passive smoking increased the risk with the OR of 16. 39(P <0. 01). The odd ratio (OR) for COPD in the paternal family history with chronic pulmonary disease was 2. 13(P <0. 01) and 2. 11 (P < 0. 01) in the maternal family history. The odd ratio (OR)for COPD in the education degree was 0. 52(P < 0. 01). Conclusions The prevalence of COPD was high in Changsha city, which

  18. 山东省县域经济发展的时空动态研究%The Temporal and Spatial Change of Economic Development at County Level in Shandong Province

    刘玉; 潘瑜春; 陈秧分


    以109个县(市)为基本单元,从经济发展水平、发展活力和发展潜力三方面进行县域经济综合发展水平评价,并应用ESDA等分析法揭示1990-2008年山东省县域经济的时空动态。结果表明:山东经济快速发展,县域经济差异先扩大再缩小,但整体变化幅度较小;城市辖区的发展速度明显快于其它地区,平原区经济发展缓慢;鲁东和鲁中地区的经济发展水平高、提升速度快,经济发展重心向东北部偏移;县市经济发展空间自相关显著,高一高集聚区集中分布在山东半岛,低一低集聚区主要分布在鲁西南黄淮平原区和鲁中南山地丘陵区,东西差异仍是导致山东省内经济差异的主要因素。%Regional economic disparity has long been an interesting topic of academic research on regional development economics in every country. Based on economic development statistic data of 109 counties in Shandong province in 1990-2008, this paper selects 15 economic indicators, and constructs index system to evaluate the county economic strength by using factor analysis method, and carries out a preliminary study on spatial-temporal pattern of the county level economies. Some conclusions of this study are summarized as follows: (1) Economic strength has been improved in all counties during 1990 and 2008, and the total economic disparities of county level in Shandong province have enlarged then decreased. (2) The economic development index has a strong spatial autocorrelation and the regional economic difference will increase in the future. The economic formation in Shandong province is "two peaks and two valleys" from east to west, and the economic strength of districts is stronger than that of surrounding counties; There is extreme disparity of the regional economic development at county level, and the counties with higher economic index are clustered in eastern and central Shandong province while

  19. Molecular detection ofLeishmania isolated from Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran, 2008

    Koroush Azizi; Aboozar Soltani; Hamzeh Alipour


    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate on patients leishmanial infections in Jask County.Methods:Impression smears were prepared from patients in2008, all, were chequed for leishmanial infection by microscopy and molecular assays. WholeDNA was extracted using Proteinase K and Phenol/Chloroform/Isoamyl alcohol method. The variable segment on minicircles of kinetoplast DNA was amplified via a Nested-PCR technique using species-specific primers(LIN R4-LIN 17 -Lin 19).Results: A total of40 smears were prepared from20patients, from which, eight samples (40%) were positive for leishman body by microscopic method, while, 18 samples (90%) were positive, molecularly. The parasite was identified asLeishmania major (L. major).Conclusions:Zoonotic or Rural cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Jask County whose pathogen is L. major. Molecular assays using specific primers are very accurate and more sensitive and specific than microscopy which is time consuming and needs master microscopists.

  20. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran).

    Amani, Hamid; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Kassiri, Hamid


    To determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus Anopheles (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County, western Iran. This descriptive cross-sectional research was carried out to study the anopheline larvae ecology in seven rural districts, Aligudarz County, from late April to late November 1997. Larvae were captured using the dipping method. Larval breeding places characteristics were noted according to water situation (turbid or clean, stagnant or running), substrate type, site type (man-made or natural), sunlight situation, site situation (transient or permanent, with or without vegetation). A total of 9 620 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles from 115 breeding places in 22 villages were captured, which belonged to the following species: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles d'thali, Anopheles apoci, Anopheles superpictus (forms A and B), Anopheles marterii sogdianus, Anopheles turkhodi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles claviger. Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles apoci were collected for the first time in this county. Anopheles superpictus (93.18%) was the most prevailed one and dispersed over the entire region. Larval habitats consisted of nine natural and three artificial larval habitats. The most important larval habitats were river edges (54.8%), rice fields (12.2%), and grassland (8.7%) with permanent or transient, stagnant or running and clean water, with or without vegetation, sand or mud substrate in full sunlight area. Regarding this research, river edges and rice fields are the most important breeding places of malaria vectors in Aligudarz County. It is worthy of note in larvicidal programs.

  1. Practical Application of Participatory Approach in Land Conversion Project Planning: A Case in Quxian County, Sichuan Province


    Application of participatory approaches in governmental forestry projects is a bran-new forestry design method. The purpose is to plan the utilization of land correctly, and to determine planting sites, planting species, participating households and management models, based on the projects' requirements and the farmers' demands. Participatory approaches are now practiced in some of the counties in Land Conversion Project. The paper presents the significance and necessity of practicing community mechanis...

  2. Impact of agricultural intensiifcation on soil organic carbon:A study using DNDC in Huantai County, Shandong Province, China

    LIAO Yan; WU Wen-liang; MENG Fan-qiao; LI Hu


    Using the biogeochemical model denitriifcation/decomposition (DNDC), the dynamic changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) of farmland from the 1980s to 2030s were investigated in Huantai County, a typical intensive agricultural region in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. Prior to modeling, validation of the DNDC model against ifeld data sets of SOC from Quzhou Experimental Station in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain was conducted at the site scale. We compared the simulated results with the observed SOC in Huantai County during 1982–2011 under two different classiifcation methods of simulation unit (the ifrst method integrated soil type and land use of Huantai County to form the overlapped modeling units; the second selected the 11 administrative towns as the modeling units), and achieved a high accuracy in the model simulation with the improvement of the model parameters. Regional SOC (0–20 cm) density and stocks for Huantai County in the years 2012–2031 were predicted under different scenarios of farming management. Compared with current management practices, optimized fertilization (20% decrease of mineral N), crop straw incorporation (90%) and appropriate animal manure input (40 kg N ha–1 yr–1) could achieve the highest level of SOC density (56.8% higher than 2011) in the period of 2012–2031. The research highlighted the importance of crop straw incorporation, optimized N fertilization and integration of crop production with ani-mal husbandry on the farmland carbon sequestration for maintaining a high land productivity in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain.

  3. [Estimation of Topsoil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Cropland Through Different Methods: A Case Study in Zhuanglang County, Gansu Province].

    Shi, Chen-di; Xu, Ming-xiang; Qiu, Yu-jie


    By analyzing the sampled data and the SOC data of the second national soil survey by the mid 80s and the national cultivated land quality evaluation in 2006 in Zhuanglang County, the article studied the cropland topsoil organic carbon sequestration potential estimation using several different methods. The results showed that: (1) There was no significant difference among different estimation methods about cropland carbon sequestration potential in the same region. Taking cropland carbon sequestration potential in Zhuanglang County for example, the theoretical values estimated by maximum value method and classification grading method were 1. 13 Mt and 1.09 Mt, respectively. (2) The real values estimated by classification grading method, saturation method, weighting method were 0.37 Mt, 0.32 Mt, 0.28 Mt, respectively, which were about 1/3 of the theoretical value. (3) The SOC density increments to reach the real level of carbon sequestration potential estimated by classification grading method, saturation method and weighting method were 6.76 t · hm⁻², 5.21 t · hm⁻², 4.56 t · hm⁻² respectively. According to the topsoil carbon sequestration rate of cropland in Zhuanglang county in the recent 30 a, it would need about 24-34 a to achieve the real level. (4) At the county scale, the weighted method was superior to the saturation value method, and the saturation value method was better than the classification grading method in the actual carbon sequestration potential estimation. The classification grading method was better than the maximum value method in the ideal carbon sequestration potential estimation.

  4. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran)

    Hamid Amani; Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi; Hamid Kassiri


    Objective: To determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus Anopheles (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County, western Iran.Methods:larvae ecology in seven rural districts, Aligudarz County, from late April to late November 1997. Larvae were captured using the dipping method. Larval breeding places characteristics were noted according to water situation (turbid or clean, stagnant or running), substrate type, site type (man-made or natural), sunlight situation, site situation (transient or permanent, with or without vegetation). This descriptive cross-sectional research was carried out to study the anopheline Results: A total of 9 620 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles from 115 breeding places in 22 villages were captured, which belonged to the following species: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles d’thali, Anopheles apoci, Anopheles superpictus (forms A and B), Anopheles marterii sogdianus, Anopheles turkhodi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles claviger. Anopheles stephensi,Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles superpictus (93.18%) was the most prevailed one and dispersed over the entire region. Larval habitats consisted of nine natural and three artificial larval habitats. The most important larval habitats were river edges (54.8%), rice fields (12.2%), and grassland (8.7%) with permanent or transient, stagnant or running and clean water, with or without vegetation, sand or mud substrate in full sunlight area.Conclusions:Regarding this research, river edges and rice fields are the most important S.L and Anopheles apoci were collected for the first time in this county. breeding places of malaria vectors in Aligudarz County. It is worthy of note in larvicidal programs.

  5. Quantity Calculation of the Land Unsuitable for Farming: A Case Study of Anze County in Shanxi Province

    Kangkang CHANG; Longyi XUE; Tao XUE


    Adhering to the " red line" of 1800 million mu of arable land is China’s arable land protection guideline and policy,and the " red line" places emphasis on both quantity and quality of arable land. Taking Shanxi’s Anze County as an example,based on ecological safety and natural suitability criteria,we select 10 evaluation indicators to evaluate the farming suitability of existing land in the county. Results show that Anze County needs to reuse 48. 7% of the existing arable land for ecological purpose in order to ensure ecological safety. It still retains 51. 3%of existing arable land after abandoning tillage,which can ensure 0. 15 ha of arable land per capita,743. 12 kg of grain per capita and 170%of food self-sufficiency rate,thereby fully ensuring food safety. The farming suitability evaluation of land resources should not only consider the natural suitability of land,but also consider ecological safety. Faced with the new situation of arable land protection,it is necessary to explore new farmland protection theories and indicator systems based on actual conditions,to meet the requirements of sustainable development of population,resources and ecology.

  6. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Longyao County of Hebei Province:the China Nine-Province survey].

    Lü, Jian-hua; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Shan-yu; Han, Dong; Yan, Zhong-yang; Zhang, Hong-bin; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng


    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County, Hebei Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5527 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Longyao County. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands five hundreds and twenty-seven individuals were enumerated and 5051 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.39%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.05% (53/5051) and 3.46% (175/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.48% (75/5051) and 7.94% (401/5051) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 897.27, P = 0.000) , female (χ(2) = 30.32, P = 0.000), illiterate (trend χ(2) = 83.20, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract was still the first leading cause of blindness. Un-corrected refractive error also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe

  7. Landscape Dynamics and Driving Factors in Da'an County of Jilin Province in Northeast China During 1956-2000

    WANG Zongming; ZHANG Yubo; ZHANG Bai; SONG Kaishan; GUO Zhixing; LIU Dianwei; LI Fang


    The landscape pattern of Da'an County,Northeast China has undergone significant changes since the 1950s as a result of climatic change and human activities.The aim of this paper is to quantitatively study landscape pattern and its spatial dynamics of Da'an County at the landscape level over the nearly 50-year span.Patch dynamics were examined according to land use and land cover change processes built from a series of images,as well as topographic maps,and temporal patterns built trom landscape pattern metrics.The transition matrix of landscape patch types and changes of various landscape metrics were applied.The results showed that,from 1956 to 2000,the landscape within the study area had undertaken a complicated evolution in landscape structure and composition.The outstanding characteristic is that saline-alkali land increased and grassland decreased.As some smaller patches amalgamated,the heterogeneity of patch decreased.All those changes were the synthetic result of both climatic and anthropogenic influences,but the predominant factor was different in different parts.In the southern part of the study area,the landscape pattern changes resulted from the modification of climate obviously,while in the northern part,the landscape pattern changes were mainly caused by human activities,such as the conversion between farmland and saline-alkali land.This phenomenon showed that human activities played more important role in the north than in the south of Da'an County.

  8. Groundwater regime and calculation of yield response in North China Plain: a case study of Luancheng County in Hebei Province


    The groundwater table has been declining at a rate of 0.65 m/yr in Luancheng County since large scale groundwater extraction carried out in the 1960s. The drop of precipitation, substantial increase in agricultural output, variations of crop planting structure and construction of water conservancy projects in the headwater area all tie up with the decline of the groundwater table. On the basis of analyzing the hydrogeological conditions and the water resources utilization of Luancheng County, a three-dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to simulate the county's groundwater flow through finite-difference method using Visual Modflow software. We divide the research field into four parts after analyzing the hydrogeological condition. Based on parameter calibration and adjustment using measured data, the hydraulic conductivity and specific yield were simulated. Using the calibrated model, we analyze the agricultural water saving potentiality and its influence on the groundwater. The results are as follows: (1) if we decrease the amount of water extracted by 0.14× 108 m3, the average groundwater table of the five observation wells in December will rise by 0.33 m; (2) if we decrease the water by 0.29×10s m3, the average groundwater table of the five observation wells in December will rise by 0.64 m; and (3) if we increase the water by 0.29× 108 m3, the average groundwater table of the five observation wells in December will decline by 0.45 m. So we can draw a conclusion that controlling the agricultural water use is an important way to prevent the decline of groundwater table.

  9. REE Enrichment in Early Cambrian Gezhongwu Formation Phosphorous Rock Series in Sanjia, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province, China


    Phosphate concretions from the Gezhongwu Formation at Sanjia, Zhijin County, China, were studied systematically in this work. In terms of the rules of variation of REE, trace elements, major elements and oxides, in combination with the concentration characteristics of small shelly fossils, it is considered that small shelly fossils occurring at the bottom of the Cambrian System contribute a lot to the phosphate concretions and that there are two stages of REE and phosphorus minerogenesis. The phosphate concretions have a good correlation with the contents of REE and phosphorus rather than the abundance of small shelly fossils.

  10. Investigation on nurses' adverse events reporting and the influence factors in 3A-grade general hospitals,Hunan Province%湖南省三甲医院护士不良事件的报告现状及影响因素调查

    刘玉娥; 罗敏; 欧阳庆; 王波兰; 王晖; 成放群; 戴利


    Objective To investigate the nursing adverse events reporting status and their influence factors of nurses in 3A-grade general hospitals,so as to provide evidence for the developmental measures to improve nursing adverse events reporting.Methods The questionnaires of Patient Safety Culture Assessment Scale about Clinical Nurses and Nurses' Cognitive of Adverse Event Reporting were used to survey 1 866 nurses from six 3A-grade general hospitals in Hunan Province.Results The rate of nurses reported voluntarily adverse events was 24.71%.There were statistically significant in different groups divided by age,educational background,position,professional title,service years,type of recruitment and department(P < 0.05).Logistic regression analysis showed that nurses' perception of patient safety culture,the cognition of nursing adverse event report and nurses' professional title entered into the regression equation with the values OR were 177.004,1.813,1.533,R2 =0.554,P < 0.01.Conclusions The rate of nurses reported voluntarily adverse events is low.With the age growing,the service years lengthening,the position heightening,educational background and professional title raising,the rate of nursing adverse events reporting is upgrade.The rate of nursing adverse events reporting of head nurse is significantly higher than general nurses,formal recruitment nurse is higher than no formal.The rate of nursing adverse events reporting of outpatient department nurse is the highest,and ICU,emergency department,gynecology and obstetrics department nurse is significantly lower than that of others.Nurses' perception of patient safety culture,the cognition of nursing adverse event reporting and professional titles are the main influence factors of nursing adverse events reporting.%目的 探讨湖南省三级甲等医院护士不良事件报告现状及其影响因素,为制订促进护士自愿报告不良事件的措施提供依据.方法 采用医院护士的患者安全文化

  11. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Analysis of Heavy Metals in PM10 and PM2 .5 in Typical Cities in Hunan Province%湖南省典型城市 PM10和 PM2.5及其载带重金属的污染特征和健康风险研究

    谢忱; 张文杰; 杨文; 李伟; 王歆华; 赵雪艳; 白志鹏


    To investigate the pollution characteristics and health risks of heavy metals in particulate matter in Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan (CTZ) area in Hunan Province, PM10 and PM2.5 filter samples were collected in Changsha, Xiangtan and background site of Hengshan Mountain in August 2014.The concentrations of ten heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.In order to assess the carcinogenic risk of Cr(Ⅵ) on human, Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations were calculated based on the reference ratio of 0.13 for Cr(Ⅵ) to total Cr.The health risk of heavy metals inhaled by respiratory system was assessed by the model recommended by US EPA, coupled by the exposure factors in China.Results showed that the mass concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were respectively 42-155 and 18-119 μg/m3 in Changsha, and were 17-127 and 5-109 μg/m3 in Xiangtan.The concentration of Cr(Ⅵ) in Changsha and Xiangtan was 0.81 and 0.65 ng/m3 in PM10 samples, while that of As was 9.3 and 6.3 ng/m3 , much higher than the relevant Chinese air quality standards.The total non-carcinogenic risk of the each heavy metal was less than 1, within the acceptable level.The carcinogenic risks for Cr(Ⅵ) and As were in the range of 10-6-10-4 , belonging to the range of potential carcinogenic risks.The carcinogenic risks for Cd, Ni and Co were below 10-6 , indicating that the carcinogenic risks of the three metals are acceptable.%为研究湖南省长株潭区域典型城市颗粒物及其载带重金属元素的污染特征和健康风险,于2014年8月在长沙市、湘潭市和区域背景点衡山采集了PM10和PM2.5样品。应用ICP-MS分析样品载带的10种重金属元素浓度,按Cr(Ⅵ)和总Cr比值为0.13估算Cr(Ⅵ)浓度。应用US EPA风险评价技术结合国内人群暴露参数对人体通过呼吸途径暴露的健康风险进行评价。结果表明:采样期间,长沙市PM10和PM2.5的日均浓度分别为42~155和18~119μg/m3,湘潭市为17~127

  12. Study on the correlation between CYP17 polymorphisms of androgen-related gene and the acne cystica of Han people in Hunan province%雄激素相关基因CYP17多态性与囊肿型痤疮的相关性研究

    于军; 杨婷; 田黎明; 胡耀华; 黄振峰


    Objective To explore the correlation of the androgen-related CYP17 gene polymorphism and acne cystica of Han people in Hunan province. Methods Cases studied included patients with acne vulgarisms and acne cystic and healthy people. The polymorphism was investigated by PCR using DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes. The transition (T→C) in the risk allele (A2) produced a new recognition site for the restriction endonuclease MspA1 I. Three genotypes of androgen-related CYP17 genes (A1A1 ,A1A2,A2A2) were determined and confirmed by sequencing. Results The frequency of the A1A2 gene was not significantly different (x2=2.965,P = 0.085,OR=0.590,95% CI 0.323~1.078;x2=0.11,P = 0.74,OR=0.904,95% CI 0.498~1.641 )either from patients with acne vulgarisms and acne cystic or patients with acne vulgarisms and healthy controls. The frequency of the A1A2 gene was significantly different(x2=3.893,P = 0.048,OR=1.875,95% CI 1.001~3.510)between patients with acne cystic and healthy subjects. The frequency of the A2A2 gene was not significantly different(x2=0.015,P = 0.901,OR=0.958, 95% CI 0.490~1.875)between patients with acne vulgarisms and the healthy subjects. The frequency of the A2A2 gene was significantly different (x2=6.383, P = 0.012,OR=2.293,95% CI1.197~4.393;x2=6.42,P = 0.011,OR=2.198, 95% CI 1.189~4.061 )from either patients with acne cystic and acne vulgarisms or patients with acne cystic and healthy subjects. Conclusion The presence of base substitution in androgen-related CYP17 gene -34bp (T→C) can increase the risk of acne cystica.%目的 探讨雄激素相关基因CYP17多态性与湖南汉族囊肿型痤疮的相关性.方法 提取寻常型和囊肿型痤疮患者及正常人的血DNA标本.设计引物通过PCR技术扩增出包括CYP17基因多态位点的片段,用限制性内切酶MspA1 Ⅰ进行酶切,产物在2%琼脂糖凝胶上电泳,确定出CYP17基因的3种基因型,即A1A1、A1A2、A2A2,并经测序证实.结果

  13. Intention of Land Circulation in Reservoirs Resettlements Based on the Logistic Model:An Investigation into Sichuan, Hunan and Hubei Provinces%基于Logistic模型的水库移民安置区居民土地流转意愿分析——四川、湖南、湖北移民安置区的调查

    陈昱; 陈银蓉; 马文博


    Under administrative intervention, land circulation in reservoir immigration resettlements has violated related laws. Examining factors affecting residents' willingness to transfer their land in reservoir migration resettlements is meaningful to promote the land circulation in resettlement areas from a passive mode to a relatively active way. Compared to the general land circulation in rural areas, land circulation in reservoir migration resettlements show unique characteristics in many aspects, such as circulation aim, circulation significance, and government involvement. In this study, 318 questionnaires were obtained, coveting 4 reservoir immigration resettlements within Sichuan, Hunan, and Hubei provinces. The design of the questionnaire took willingness as a dependent variable but other 13 factors as independent variables, e.g., gender, age, occupational type, distance from resettlements to provincial capital, household size, and labor force. By establishing a logistic model, the authors performed an empirical study on the willingness to land circulation of local residents in reservoir resettlements. Conclusions were drawn as follows. 1) With increasing years of farmers' education, they are more inclined to transfer its land. The possible reason is that for migrant workers, the higher level of their education, the more access to work opportunities. Once these people have relatively more stable non-agricultural income, land is no longer its primary living guarantee and thus they are more willing to transfer its land to gain certain compensation. 2) The number of household labor force can result in an opposite effect on land transfer, i.e., the more labor force, the more farmers reluctant to transfer its land. 3) The greater proportion of the agricultural income to the household income, the greater reliance on agriculture farmers, and thus more reluctant to transfer its land. 4) Household size and the number of agricultural population do not accurately reflect

  14. Molecular level’s evaluation on the genetic diversity of pummelo germplasm and their relative species in hunan province based on srap markers%湖南地方柚资源及其近缘种多样性的SRAP分子评价

    李先信; 杨迎花; 邹学校; 邓子牛


    以湖南本地柚类资源为试材,应用SRAP标记对41份柚类资源及5份近缘种的遗传多样性进行分析与鉴定。结果表明:平均每个引物组合可扩增出16.6条谱带,17对SRAP引物共扩增出283条谱带,其中多态性谱带235条,多态率为83.0%,基因多样度变幅为0.4317~0.7700,平均基因多样度为0.5443;获得了21个基因型的37个SRAP特异性标记,不同引物组合可将42个基因型完全分开;柚类及近缘种等位基因平均数、平均杂合位点占比、SRAP表型杂合度(H0)分别为9.02、67.77%和0.343。聚类分析结果显示,41份柚种质及5份近缘种材料在遗传相似系数0.792处可分为6个组群:第1、2组群分别由24个和11个柚的地方品种构成;第3组群为柚的种间杂种类型,包括菠萝香柚、慈利金香柚、慈利甜柚2号和慈利水柚子;第4组群由慈利柚09–1、金瓜两杂种柚和酸橙、臭皮柑两近缘种组成;第5组群包括无核大红甜橙和温州蜜柑;第6组群为柠檬。综合SRAP标记结果与形态特征分析,认为慈利金香柚可能源于以柚类为母本、以橙类(或宽皮橘类)为父本的自然种间杂交后代。%Genetic diversity of 41 pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) germplasms and 5 relative species collected from Hunan province were identified and evaluated using the markers from sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP). The results showed that the average number of 16.6 alleles could be amplified out from every primer combination, and total of 283 alleles were detected from 17 SRAP markers, 235 out of which presented polymorphic, accounted for 83.0%. Gene diversity value changed from 0.431 7 to 0.770 0 with an average of 0.544 3 for each primer, which showed a high level of genetic diversity among the analyzed germplasms. 37 specific SRAP polymorphic bands were scored, and 42 genotypes from the 46 germplasms were completely identified by SRAP markers. The mean

  15. Structure, function, and efficiency of agro-ecosystem around Dongting Lake region of Hunan Province, South-central China based on emergy analysis%基于能值分析的环洞庭湖区农业生态系统结构功能和效率

    朱玉林; 李明杰; 龙雨孜; 王茂溪; 侯茂章; 李晓敏


    In order to explore the eco-efficiency of agro-ecosystem around the Dongting Lake region of Hunan Province, and to reveal the interrelationships among the human, natural resources, and environment in the ecosystem, this paper analyzed the emergy structure, func-tion , and efficiency of the agro-ecosystem, based on the emergy input-output data in 2009 and by using the emergy method of HT Odum. In the study period, this system was comparatively well developed in economy, and had a higher degree of mechanization and modernization. The fertiliz-er emergy and agricultural mechanical emergy accounted for 47. 13% and 10. 62% of the total, respectively, and the emergy density was 8.77×1011sej·hm-2 ·a-1. The system emergy output was unbalanced, planting emergy output was dominant, while forestry and fishery emergy output was comparatively low. The monetary value of per capita emergy output was 31873. 56 yuan, far greater than the per capita gross output value of regional economy in this system (24761. 14 yuan) , which indicated that the product pricing (especially the planting product pricing) of this system was evidently on the low side, and the value of natural resources and environment was not well reflected by the market. The environmental loading ratio was 1. 74, sustainable development index was 1.40, and population bearing capacity was 4. 91×105 (the agricultural population in this region was 3. 15·106) , showing that the system was full of vitality and development poten-tial , the pressure from natural resources and environment was not so high, but the system was un-der too much employment pressure and the population bearing capacity was overloading. In sum, to further reduce the price scissors between industrial and agricultural products, to keep on pro-tecting the market price of planting products, to adjust the agriculture industrial structure and product structure, and to transfer the surplus labor force would be the essential orientation of agri

  16. Investigation of Guizhou Pony in Ziyun County of Guizhou Province%紫云县贵州矮马资源评价

    黄勇; 田松军; 王荣明; 冉雪琴; 雷红梅; 王嘉福; 王三铭


    The population and distribution of Guizhou pony were investigated in Ziyun county, Guizhou Province in the present work. The result showed that total population of ponies was 1421 including 611 males and 810 females. Their coat colors were of bay and chestnut. No significant difference in height, body length, hend length and neck length were observed between sexes, however the cannon circumference of male pony was larger than that of the female. Male contained much more erythrocytes, platelets, intermediate cells, conversely much low level of serum total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterd ( HDL). Female in pregnant decreased the platelet numbers and low density lipoprotein cholesterd ( LDL) levels while increased her carbon dioxide combining power. These characteristics might be related with the susceptibility to respiratory disease in female pony individuals. Guizhou pony was good at loading and climbing in the local mountain region, however, their management and disease prevention were poor. It suggested that the Guizhou pony should need lowering the body height and improving the disease prevention in Ziyun county of Guizhou province.%对贵州省紫云县境内现存的贵州矮马数量及分布进行了调查.全县12个乡镇中,贵州矮马存栏1421匹,其中公马611匹,母马810匹;其毛色以骝毛和栗毛为主.雌雄矮马的体高、体长、胸围、头长和颈长没有明显差异,但雄性个体的管围明显较粗.雄性矮马的红细胞数量较多但体积较小,血小板和中间细胞数量较高,血清总胆固醇和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平较雌性的低;雌性矮马妊娠时血小板数量和低密度脂蛋白水平代偿性下降,但中性粒细胞数量和CO2结合能力升高.雄性矮马与雌性矮马的使役能力没有明显差别.目前贵州矮马混养、无序买卖及疾病预防不足是其死亡率高、体高上升的重要原因.

  17. Changes in Organic Carbon and Nutrient Contents of Highly Productive Paddy Soils in Yujiang County of Jiangxi Province, China and Their Environmental Application

    LI Zhong-pei; ZHANG Tao-lin; CHEN Bi-yun


    Paddy field is an important land use in subtropical China. Development of high soil fertility and productivity is the management goal of paddy field. Fertilization and management practices have not only influenced the status of organic matter and nutrients in the soil but also affected the environmental quality. This article investigates the contents of organic carbon and the nutrients, and the change over the last 20 years in highly productive paddy soils and their environmental application. Field soils were sampled and the analytical results were compared with the corresponding values in the Second Soil Survey in Yujiang County of Jiangxi Province, China. The results showed that surface soils at a depth of 0-10 cm in highly productive paddy fields in Yujiang County of Jiangxi Province had contents of organic carbon (20.2 ± 3.88) g kg-1, total nitrogen (2.09 ± 0.55) g kg-1, and available phosphorus (42.7 ± 32.7) mg kg-1, respectively,which were all at very rich levels. Over the last 20 years, the organic carbon pool of the highly productive paddy soils reached a steady state. Total N and available P significantly increased, whereas available K changed a little. The amount and percentage of P immobilization in the surface soil (0-10 cm) of highly productive paddy fields were (142.7 ± 41.1) mg kg-1and (36.2± 10.4)% of added P, and CEC (7.93 ± 1.32) cmol kg-1. These two parameters were not higher than the mean values of paddy soils and upland red soils in the areas. Results also showed that fertilizer P in highly productive paddy soils had a high mobility and was prone to move toward a water body, which is the main source of nutrients causing eutrophication.Because of a weak K-fixing capacity, the available K content was not high in highly productive paddy soils. This suggests that attention should be paid to the K balance and the increase of soil K pool.

  18. Colon Cancer Risk Factors in Jiashan County of Zhe-jiang Province, the Highest Incidence Area in China

    XianghuiWang; ZhaoyiHe; KaiyanYao; KangChen; QilongLi


    OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer in Jiashan county, the highest incidence area in China and to provide a scientific basis for monitoring and prevention. METHODS With a population-based case-control study, 109 colon cancer patients with 1:7 matched controls were interviewed with uniform questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression was used for univariate and multivariate analysis of colon cancer. RESULTS High monthly pork consumption (OR=1.608), and high monthly animal fat consumption (OR=1.391) over a ten-year period, psychological depression (OR=9.887), negative emotion (OR=1.723), lower digestivetract diseases (OR=4.163), and history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives (OR=3.421) were the main risk factors of colon cancer. During that time, high monthly vegetable consumption was a protective factor for colon cancer (OR=0.422).CONCLUSIONS Colon cancer in Jiashan county was related to dietary factors. The research results support the colon cancer etiological hypothesis of "fat-bile acid" and "deficiency of dietary fibre". Psychological depression, in heritance and lower digestive tract diseases were also correlated with colon cancer.

  19. Occurrence Regularity of Major Damage Generations of Nilaparvata lugens(Stl) in Single Cropping Medium Rice Region in Sandu County of Guizhou Province

    Liu; Tianlei; Jin; Daochao; Yang; Hong; Ai; Zhengxian; Zhou; Zhaoxia


    In order to clarify occurrence regularity of major damage generations of Nilaparvata lugens( Stl) in Sandu Shui Autonomous County( Sandu County for short),Guizhou Province,a karst single cropping medium rice region,the population dynamics of N. lugens were systematically studied using the methods of light trap and systematic field survey from 2009 to 2011. The results showed that the number of immigration generations caught by light trap and the actual population of N. lugens in fields were different among three years. The daily maximum trapping numbers of N. lugens amounted to 6 688 in 2009,which were 15. 3 and 2. 5 times of that in 2010 and 2011,respectively. The peak numbers in prediction nursery were 10 777,4 630 and 1 615 heads per hundred hills in 2009,2010 and 2011,respectively. The forth and fifth generations of N. lugens were the major damage generations in single cropping medium rice fields,and the initial immigration day was significantly related with primary-peak day. The occurrence degree of adults and nymphs of N. lugens varied with years and transplanting periods,and the peak days of N. lugens nymphs were from late July to early August in 2010 and 2011. The occurrence peaks of adults and nymphs in late transplanting paddy field were later than that in the early one. Meanwhile,the coexisted various growth periods of rice,due to time differences of transplanting,were conducive to inhabitation and reproduction of N. lugens. The population dynamics of spiders and Cyrtohinus lividipennis well synchronied with that of N. lugens,but predatory capacity of spiders and C. lividipennis was not enough to control N. lugens.

  20. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China——Take Xinlong County of GanziTibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example



    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken area. Howeve,they were isotated for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The Feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Stchuan Province as an example.

  1. Analysis of Batik Value Chain in Ethnic Minority Areas--A Case Study of Danzhai County in Guizhou Province


    Based on value chain analysis method,we surveyed and interviewed interest groups of batik industry in Danzhai County.From raw material production,product processing,marketing,organization and management,we discussed the supply chain of batik products in ethnic minority areas,and analyzed favorable factors of batik industry development and obstacles to interest groups developing batik industry.Finally,we put forward corresponding policy suggestions,including strengthening farmers’ ability in batik production section,enhancing capability construction of batik cooperatives and associations,increasing cultural value added of batik products,bolster policy and financial support of government departments,and promoting establishment of cooperative mechanism for handicrafts.

  2. Brief Analysis on Causes and Current Situations of Desertification: A Case Study of Tongyu County in Jilin Province

    Jing; WANG; Yuqun; SU; Changlong; XUE


    Land desertification is a complex concept which refers to land degradation in the arid region, semi-arid region and sub-humid arid region caused by various factors including climate variability and human activities. It is not only an environmental problem, but also a social and economic one[1]. Land desertification will reduce the biological and economic production potential of the land and even exacerbate the trend of land desertification, leaving serious impact on the economic, social development and national lives of Jilin. In addition, it will result in ecological environment deterioration, microclimate variability, an increase in natural disaster and high frequency of sand blowing. Taking the special geographic area in western Jilin (especially the Tongyu County) as an example, this paper discusses the natural and social factors for the forming of desertification in the microcosmic level, analyzes the current situations and provides reasonable recommendations.

  3. Occurrence and hydrogeochemical characteristics of high-fluoride groundwater in Xiji County, southern part of Ningxia Province, China.

    Wei, Chao; Guo, Huaming; Zhang, Di; Wu, Yang; Han, Shuangbao; An, Yonghui; Zhang, Fucun


    High-F(-) groundwater is widely distributed in Xiji County, which endangers the safety of drinking water. In order to evaluate the key factors controlling the origin and geochemical mechanisms of F(-) enrichment in groundwater at Xiji County, one hundred and five groundwater samples and sixty-two sediment samples were collected. Fluoride concentration in the groundwater samples ranged from 0.2 to 3.01 mg/L (mean 1.13 mg/L), with 17 % exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and 48 % exceeding the Chinese drinking water guideline value of 1.0 mg/L. High-F(-) groundwaters were characterized by hydrochemical types of Na-HCO3 and Na-SO4·Cl, which were found in Quaternary sediment aquifer and in Tertiary clastic aquifer, respectively. Conditions favorable for F(-) enrichment in groundwater included weakly alkaline pH (7.2-8.9), low concentration of Ca(2+), and high concentrations of HCO3 (-) and Na(+). Calcite and fluorite were the main minerals controlling F(-) concentration in groundwaters. The hydrolysis of F-bearing minerals in aquifer sediments was the more important process for F(-) release in Tertiary clastic aquifer, which was facilitated by long residence time of groundwater, in comparison with Quaternary sediment aquifer. Cation exchange would also play important roles, which removed Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and led to more free mobility of F(-) in groundwater and permitted dissolution of fluorite, especially in Tertiary clastic aquifer. However, evapotranspiration and competing adsorption of B and HCO3 (-) were the more important processes for F(-) enrichment in Quaternary groundwater. Groundwater in Lower Cretaceous aquifer had relatively low F(-) concentration, which was considered to be the potential drinking water resource.

  4. Planting structure adjustment and food security in major food production district: A case study on 10 main food production counties in Gansu Province, China

    Wang, S. J.; Yang, C. L.; Zhou, L. Y.


    This paper made an empirical study on planting structure adjustment and food security, in which main data and information came from the questionnaires of 10 main food-production counties in Gansu Province, China. The investigation results showed that: 1) During 1995 and 2014, the cultivated land area per household dropped by 2.40%, in which food crop area declined by 3.16%, yet cash crop area increased by 129% in the survey area. In the same period, the revenue per household increased by 162.99%, while food income from the revenue only increased by 17.42%; 2) In Hexi and Longzhong districts, mean wheat crop area per household shows a downtrend, while cash crop area increased significantly in the past 20 years. Especially, the household food output and income did not appear a simultaneous increase trend. In Longdong district, the household food output and income showed a simultaneous uptrend, and household income came mainly from miscellaneous grain (e.g. sorghum, bean, buckwheat, etc.); 3) In order to pursue higher economic efficiency of cultivated land, the farmers were forced to adjust planting structure and develop characteristics industries, profitable agriculture and cash crop with comparative advantage, which resulted in few food stock and impacted seriously on regional food security.

  5. Ecological Anthropological Research on the Vertical Agriculture of Lisu People: A Case Study of Tongle Village in Weixi County of Yunnan Province

    Hanbai; HAN; Mingkun; CUI; Qingwen; MIN


    Tongle Village in Weixi County of Yunnan Province,a typical Lisu village in Lancang River basin,is located at the national protection zone of traditional culture of Lisu people and named as the ecological cultural village by UNESCO. Based on the distinctive climatic characteristics at different altitudes,Lisu people have developed an effective vertical agriculture system. They cultivate rice and wheat in the river basin at an altitude of 1 740 m; plant corns,nuts,fruits and vegetables around the village at an altitude of 1 840m and buckwheat,potato, herbs in the upper " swidden land" at an altitude of 2 000 m. They also herd animals in the alpine meadow at an altitude of 2 500 m. Based on a fieldwork,this paper studied the vertical agriculture system by applying the theories of Ecological Anthropology and employing several field work methods such as participant observation and in-depth interviews. According to the research findings,Lisu people have not only properly utilized local natural resources,but also developed a related cultural system to facilitate their agriculture production. But the vertical system also faces great challenges with the economic and social development of local areas. To respond positively,sustainable development is a way for Lisu people to enhance their living standards and maintain their traditional culture.

  6. Epidemiological survey of school-age children with low vision in Zhouqu County of Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu province

    Le-Xin Yang,


    Full Text Available AIM: To have a detailed picture of school-age children's eyesight status, and the main factors that caused their low vision in Zhouqu County of Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu province. METHODS: The census work of knowing school-age children's eyesight status was implemented through visual inspection, conventional ophthalmic examination, optometry checks, etc. The results were compared with other domestic epidemiological data. RESULTS: Altogether 536 people with low vision were identified through survey and the rate was 21.12%. Among those people, the number of myopia patients accounted for 80.59% and the prevalence rate was 17.02%. Besides, the prevalence rate of presbyopia was 2.05%, amblyopia 2.76%, strabismus 1.02%, ocular trauma 0.95%, and congenital eye disease 0.71%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of low vision was related with several factors such as gender and nationality. The rate increases with age and the myopia is the primary element that causes low vision.

  7. The Genetic Types of Baiyun Cave in Lincheng County,Hebei Province%河北省临城白云洞景观成因类型

    孙艳萍; 王健; 张小曼; 郑倩华; 黄华芳


    河北省临城白云洞是我国北方半湿润气候条件下发育形成的罕见溶洞,发育于早古生代中寒武统张夏组碳酸岩为主的地层,洞内侵蚀-溶蚀景观和化学沉积景观类型十分丰富,形态多样,具有石幔、石旗、石盾、石钟乳、石笋、石花、石葡萄、鹅管等景观,尤以卷曲石、鹅管、石花等景观最具特色.%Baiyun Karst Caverns in Lincheng county,Hebei province,is a rare karst caverns in subhumid climate region of the north.It was developed in carbonatite strata,particularly in Zhangxia formation of the Middle Cambrain series.Erosioncorrision landscape and chemical deposition landscape are very abundant.They are in various shapes,have the landscapes of curtain drapery,cave flag,cave shield,stalactite,stalagmite,cave flowers,botryoid and soda straw,especially heligmite,soda straw,cave flowers are the most characteristic landscapes.

  8. [Occurrence dynamics of migratory pest insects Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Sogatella furcifera in transgenic Bt rice field in Xing'an County of Guangxi Province].

    Sui, He; Li, Zhi-Yi; Xu, Yan-Bo; Han, Chao; Han, Lan-Zhi; Chen, Fa-Jun


    An investigation was conducted in Xing' an County of Guangxi Province in 2010 to study the occurrence and damage characteristics of two unique migratory pest insects, rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera), in a transgenic Bt rice (cv. HH1 with dual Cry1Ab+Cry1Ac genes) field, taking the corresponding non-transgenic parent (cv. MH63) field as the control. No significant differences were observed in the abundance of C. medinalis eggs and larvae in the two fields, but the percentage of fold-leaf plants and the fold-leaf rate per plant were significantly lower in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control, suggesting that transgenic Bt rice had higher resistance against the target pest insect C. medinalis. As for S. furcifera, its occurrence dynamics of nymphs, adults (including macro- and brachypterous forms), and whole population had no significant differences between the two fields, but the abundance of the nymphs and brachypterous adults at the peak stage of S. furcifera occurrence was obviously higher in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control, while the macropterous abundance was in adverse. The sex ratio of female of the macropterous adults at the late growth stage of rice was generally lower in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control. These results suggested that under the background of large area commercial production of transgenic Bt rice, the occurrence and harm of the non-target pest insect S. furcifera could become more complicated.

  9. An Economic and Policy Analysis of a District Heating System Using Corn Straw Densified Fuel: A Case Study in Nong’an County in Jilin Province, China

    Shizhong Song


    Full Text Available The development of district heating systems of corn straw densified fuel (CSDF-DHS is an important option to promote the use of bioenergy on a large scale for sustainable development, especially in China. At present, China’s biomass densified solid fuel (BSDF development lags behind previously planned target, main barriers of which are economic and policy support problems. Accurate case studies are key to analyze these problems. This manuscript takes Nong’an County in Jilin Province of China as an example to establish a techno-economic model to evaluate the economic performance of a CSDF-DHS under two policy scenarios. It calculates the economic performance under a benchmark market scenario (BMS and the current policy scenario (CPS and analyzes the influence of various policy instruments, including subsidies, carbon trading, and preferential taxation. The results indicate that: (1 The CSDF-DHS option is not competitive under the BMS or CPS compared to the traditional energy system based mainly on coal and liquefied petroleum gas; (2 Comparatively, the economic performance of corn straw briquette fuel (CSBF is better than that of corn straw pellet fuel (CSPF; and (3 further policy support can make CSDF-DHSs competitive in the market, especially with subsidies for concentrated heating services and CSDF, carbon trading, and economic compensation to reduce the profit margin of enterprises, which can make both CSPF-DHSs and CSBF-DHSs competitive. The research results could provide scientific basis for relevant policy making and project decision.

  10. A study on ecology, morphology and morphometry of Acomys dimidiatus Cretzschmar, 1826 (Rodentia: Muridae in Geno sanctuary and Minab County, Hormozgan Province, Iran

    Mohammad Reza Ashrafzadeh


    Full Text Available In the present study, two populations of Acomys dimidiatus from different locations of Hormozgan Province (Geno sanctuary and Minab County were compared according to their morphometric, morphological and ecological characteristics. Fifty eight specimens of adult A. dimidiatus were collected by live traps (Sherman traps, Havahart traps and locally made traps from these regions. We caught the rodents from the height ranging from 1500 meters. According to our field observations, the studied species was mostly nocturnal. At first, five external and fifteen cranial- dental characters were measured, then ratios of measured characters to head and body length were calculated. The normality of data was analyzed by Kolmogorov- Smironov test. Descriptive statistics were calculated for characters and ratios. The results showed that the average of 14 out of 20 characters in Minab specimens was greater than Geno specimens. Also, the average of all of the ratios (20 ratios in Minab specimens was greater than that of Geno region. Independent Sample T-Test was used to test the statistical significance between length and ratios. The results indicated that there were significance differences in five out of twenty characters and nine out of twenty ratios in two regions(P<0.05. In addition, MANOVA test revealed significant differences among the studied populations (P<0.05. Also, intraspecific variations were assessed with the principal components analysis (PCA. The first two principal components accounted for more than 60% of the total variance and the species were fairly well separated by them.

  11. Characteristics of Late Permian Deep-Water Sedimentary Environments: A Case Study of Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Gao Yongqun; Yang Fengqing; Peng Yuanqiao


    Sediments of carbonate gravity flows and terrigenous debris turbidites, and normal bathyal deposits were found at the Shaiwa Section, Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Through grain-size analysis of some typical sediments at this section, the changing patterns of the grain parameters and the grain-size cumulations were recovered. Results show that the study area was deposited under turbidite control during the Late Permian period, which we also recognized at the outcrop section upon sedimentary characteristics of the sediments. In addition, fossils are abundant in the Upper Permian of the Shaiwa Section, including radiolarians, sponge-spicules, bivalves, brachiopods, ammonoids and trace fossils. Radiolarians and siliceous sponge-spicules are typical deep water assemblages. Bivalves are dominated by genera of Hunanopecten and Claraia, both showing deep water living characteristics. Ammonoids are composed of planktonic types, showing characteristics of smooth and flat shells. Brachiopods are dominated by a small and thin shelled assemblage, which are commonly flat in shape and usually of slight ornamentations on shells. In addition, trace fossils found at the Shaiwa Section are also common types of deep water facies. Thus, the fossil evidence of the Shaiwa Section also suggests a deep water environment, possibly from the bathyal slope to the basin margin facies, of the studied area during the Late Permian period.

  12. Treatment default and death among tuberculosis patients in Hunan, China.

    Abuaku, Benjamin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Li, Xingli; Chen, Mengshi; Huang, Xin


    We used the 2005 and 2006 national surveillance data to elucidate some of the risk factors for treatment default and death among tuberculosis (TB) patients in Hunan, China. Risk of default was higher in males (odds ratio (OR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.44); lowest in patients aged 15-24 y (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.49, 0.75), and generally increased with increasing age; lower in patients living in cities with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of less than 1000 US$ (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49, 0.72), and increased with increasing per capita GDP of city of residence; and higher in patients with previously treated smear-positive pulmonary TB (diagnostic category II according to the World Health Organization definition; OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.22, 3.23). Risk of death was lowest in patients aged 15-24 y (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.05, 0.10), and increased with increasing age; lower in new cases (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.33, 0.76); and highest in patients who treated themselves (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.27, 9.46). We conclude that male TB patients, elderly TB patients, patients resident in cities with higher per capita GDP, and patients receiving category II treatment need special attention to reduce TB treatment default in the province. Furthermore, elderly TB patients and patients with a long history of TB need special attention to reduce mortality. Self-treatment also needs to be discouraged to reduce mortality.

  13. The Influence of Website Type and Design on the Transparency of Government Websites the Empirical Studies Based on the 126 County Government Websites of One Western Province in China

    Ye Zheng


    Full Text Available Taking 126 country government websites of one western province in China as samples, the influence of website type and design on the website transparence was investigated deeply through using the chi-square test and optimal scaling regression, accompanying with the real-time measurement of the website transparence. The study results showed that: obvious differences were observed for transparency of government websites with different types. The transparency of county government official website was higher than that of country education website and county agricultural information website. Two indicators, website columns and the website accessibility have a significant impact on the transparency in website design dimension. However, there was no significant correlation between the website functional navigation and the transparency. In addition, the county economic development (GDP also was identified to have a significant impact on the transparency of websites. Therefore, scientific and reasonable suggestions may be offered for the referenced staff based on the above investigation results.

  14. 湖南保靖县动物产地检疫中存在的问题及解决建议%Problems in Animal Origin Quarantine in Baojing Countyof Hunan and the Countermeasures

    彭清峰; 龙琪琪


    本文阐述了保靖县基层动物产地检疫中存在的权责不清、检疫手段落后、经费不足、认识不深等问题,提出了完善执法体系、加强培训、强化监管、推进无害化处理等方面的建议,以促进基层产地检疫的健康发展,确保畜产品的质量安全.%In this paper,the problems in grassroots animal Origin quarantine in Baojing County,Hunan Province were described,including unclearness of powers and responsibilities,poor quarantine means,budget shortage and less awareness. Some suggestions were put forward to promote the healthy development of grassroots animal origin quarantine and to ensure animal product quality and safety,such as improving the law enforcement system,strength-ening the training and supervision,promoting the bio-safety disposal.

  15. 我国省直管县体制改革的实践挑战及推进建议%The Practical Challenges and Recommendations of the System Reform of County Administrated by Province in China

    寇铁军; 周波


    通过减少财政层级、变革省-市-县政府间财政关系,我国目前实行的省直管县财政改革意在消除县域经济发展滞后、县乡基层政府财政困难和行政管理效率低下等市管县体制弊端。我国省直管县财政改革面临的实践挑战,与财政省直管县仅是省直管县体制改革的中间过渡阶段的特点密切相关,根本上是由降低改革阻力、维持市管县体制前提下仅触动省-市-县政府间财政关系的改革方略决定的。因此,省直管县财政改革必然要求适时推进全面、彻底的省直管县体制改革,提高省直管县改革指导精神的效力层次,直面政府间职责、事权、财权规范化难题,致力于遵循中央、省和市县(市)级政府间事权、财权划分和财力合理配置这一主线。建立政府间财力与事权匹配体制,应对市级政府干部的利益阻力、提高省级政府调控和监管能力、规范政府间事权财权关系等问题。%Through reducing the financial level, changing the Province - City - County intergovemmental fiscal relations, China have currently implemented the reform of county administrated by province fiscal system to eliminate the defects of county administrated by city system, such as county economic development lags behind, financial difficulties of local government in counties and townships and administrative inefficiency, etc. The practical challenges of the reform of county administrated by province fiscal system are closely related to its characterization which only is the intermediate stage of the reform of county administrated by province system, and it determined essentially by the reform strategy of only touching the Province - City - County intergovernmental fiscal relations on the premise of reducing reform resistance and maintain the county administrated by city system. Therefore, there is a necessary requirement to promote a timely, comprehensive and

  16. Epidemiological features, clinical manifestation and laboratory findings of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Genaveh County, Bushehr Province, Southern Iran

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali Kasiri; Hossein Najafi; Masoud Lotfi; Elnaz Kasiri


    Objective: To examine the epidemiological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Genaveh County, Southern Iran.Methods:This descriptive study was conducted during 2004-2008. A questionnaire was completed for each case regarding age, gender, place of residence, the number and location of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions etc. Suspected active lesions were scraped with a sterile blade and the samples smeared onto glass slides, fixed with methanol, stained with Giemsa and examined under a light microscope for the presence of amastigotes.Results:Totally, 135 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis came to the health centers. The highest number of patients catching cutaneous leishmaniasis was found in 2006 (n=54). Most cases (56.3%) occurred during winter. The most highly infected age group was 1 to 10 years .The hands were the most affected parts of the body. About 54% of the patients had one lesion. The most cases (53.3%) occurred in rural areas.Concluions:It is important for the health authorities to take powerful actions to control cutaneous leishmaniasis. Meanwhile, It is significant to prepare quick treatment of cases.

  17. Fauna and some biological characteristics of Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in Kalaleh County, Golestan Province, northeast of lran

    Aioub Sofizadeh; Hamideh Edalat; Mohammad Reza Abai; Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd


    Objective: To determine fauna and some ecological aspects of Anopheles mosquitoes in northeast of Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, 3 villages in Kalaleh County were selected in different geographical zones. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected biweekly from May to October using standard dipping method for larvae, and hand catch, total catch, artificial pit shelter as well as night-biting collections on human and animal baits for adults. Results: Totally 399 larvae and 2 602 adults of Anopheles mosquitoes were collected and identified as 2 species: Anopheles superpictus s.l. (An. superpictus s.l.) and Anopheles maculipennis s.l. The dominant species was An. superpictus s.l. (92.1%). Activity of these mosquitoes found to be started from middle of May and extended till September with two peaks of activity in July and August. Conclusions: An. superpictus s.l. as one of the main malaria vectors in Iran as well as some other parts of the world is the dominant species in the study area. This species has high potential for transmission and possibility of establishing a transmission cycle with low abundance. Other species, Anopheles maculipennis s.l. also has introduced as a malaria vector in northern parts of Iran. As this Anopheles is a complex species, genetic studies are recommended to determine the members of this complex in the study area.

  18. 湖南省怀化市中小学生近视现况调查及影响因素分析%Prevalence and associated factors of myopia in primary and secondary school students in Huaihua City, Hunan Province

    刘琳; 李定梅; 于兰; 吴文洁; 谌绍林; 税永刚; 李妮; 段宣初


    目的 调查湖南省怀化市中小学生近视患病现状并分析其相关因素.设计横断面研究.研究对象湖南省怀化市鹤城区3~12年级学生2103名.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,2014年9~12月对怀化市鹤城区6所学校中小学生进行视力检查非睫状肌麻痹下自动验光和问卷调查.近视定义为等效球镜度(SE)≤-0.50 D.应用非条件Logistic回归模型对可能与近视发生相关的33项因素进行多因素分析.主要指标近视患病率.结果 在入选的2103名学生中,2064名(98.1%)(平均年龄12.5±2.8岁,范围7~18岁)参与了调查.近视患病率为46.3% (95%CI:44.1%~48.5%),小学生为22.1% (95%CI:19.3%~24.9%),初中生为53.8%(95%CI:50.0%~57.6%),高中生为74.4% (95%CI:70.8%~78.1%).近视患病率随着年级增高呈增长趋势(x2=425.626.P--0.000).女生近视患病率50.4%(95%可信区间:47.2%~53.6%)高于男生42.8%(95%可信区间:39.9%~45.7%)(x2=12.043,P=0.001).乡村小学和城区小学的近视患病率无显著性差异(x2=0.140,P=0.708).近视学生中69.2%(660/954)配戴眼镜.Logistic回归分析显示,近视的危险因素为父母近视、更长的近距离用眼时间、更短的近距离用眼距离、更少的睡眠时间、照明过暗.课桌高度合适、户外活动、几乎不看电视或玩电脑、无不良用眼行为和习惯是近视的保护因素.结论 怀化市中小学生近视患病率较高,乡村学校的近视防治工作亦刻不容缓,视力保护的关键年龄在9岁以前.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of myopia and to analyze associated factors in primary and secondary school students in Huaihua City,Hunan Province.Design Cross-sectional survey.Participants 2103 students from Grade 3 to 12 in Hecheng district of Huaihua City.Methods Stratified cluster random sampling approach was conducted to selected 2103 students from September to December in 2014.The students

  19. [Impact of rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference: A case study of Xingguo, Shangrao, and Yujiang County in Jiangxi province ecologically vulnerable districts].

    Zhong, Tai-Yang; Huang, Xian-jin


    The paper analyzed the farm households' decision-making progress of soil & water conservation and its two-stage conceptual model. It also discussed the impacts of rural land market on the farm households' behavior of soil & water conservation. Given that, the article established models for the relations between the land market and soil & water conservation, and the models' parameters were estimated with Heckman's two-stage approach by using the farm household questionnaires in Xingguo, Shangrao and Yujiang counties of Jiangxi province. The paper analyzed the impact o f rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference with the result of model estimation. The results show that the perception of soil & water loss and the tax & fee on the farm land have significant influence upon the soil and water conservation from the view of the population; however, because of different social and economic condition, and soil & water loss, there are differences of the influence among the three sample counties. These differences go as follows in detail: In Xingguo County, the rent-in land area and its cost have remarkable effect on the farm households' soil & water conservation behavior; In Yujiang County, the rent-in land area, rent-in cost and rent-out land area remarkably influence the farm households' behavior of soil and water conservation, with the influence of the rent-in land area being greater than Xingguo County; In Shangrao County, only rent-out land area has significant influence on the behaviors of soil & water conservation; In all samples, Xingguo County and Yujiang County samples, the rent-out income has no significant influence on the farm household's decision-making behavior soil and water conservation. Finally, the paper put forward some suggestions on how to bring the soil & water loss under control and use land resource in sustainable ways.

  20. 湖南省水库移民健康问题及对策建议——基于新化县的田野调查%Health Problems of Reservoir Immigrants in Hunan and Countermeasures

    江彬; 左停; 陆继霞


    Based on the field survey of reservoir immigrants from a village of Xinhua County of Loudi City in Hunan Province, the health conditions of the reservoir immigrants in Hunan Province and the problems were analyzed. The results show that the residents' health condition and its problems have showed from the following aspects: lithiases are common among reservoir immigrants; hypertension, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus are becoming common diseases and frequently-occurring diseases; the health levels of reservoir immigrants are general; the morbidity of incurable diseases, such as cancer show rising trend; mosquito affect the health of migrants seriously. These problems are being caused by several reasons, such as the reservoir immigrants' own factors, living environment and the government' s policy's promulgation and implementation. Based on this, the corresponding countermeasures were proposed, which include further strengthening health education, optimizing the structure of diet, improving people's living condition, completing set of policies, etc.%通过对湖南省娄底市新化县勤二村的实地调查,分析了湖南省水库移民目前的健康状况及其存在的问题,研究表明,目前湖南省水库移民健康状况主要表现为:村民多得结石病;高血压、冠心病及糖尿病等“富贵病”已成常见病与多发病;水库移民健康水平总体一般;癌症等绝症的患病率呈上升趋势;蚊虫等毒害严重影响移民健康水平.引发这些问题的原因是多方面的,有水库移民自身的原因,也与其生活环境及政府的政策实施有着密切的关系.在此基础上提出了相应的对策,即进一步强化健康教育、优化饮食结构、改善人居环境、完善政策配套措施等.


    卢柳叶; 张青峰; 李光录


    山西省作为我国重要的能源化工基地,分析其县域经济发展差异,对促进区域经济协调发展有重大的意义.该文以山西省县域为研究对象,选取反映县域经济差异的15个指标,以2001~2007年份为研究时间截面,采用主成分聚类分析与GIS相结合的方法,对县域经济发展差异进行分析.结果表明:山西省107个县域单元可以分为五类:发达型、较发达型、中等型、落后型、较落后型;2001年至2007年山西省县域经济有了较快的发展,经济差异在逐步缩小.在研究截面里,全省多年人均GDP也有较大的增长趋势,贫富差异缩小.%County economy disparity is a critical problem in coordinating regional economic development.Based on the investigation on economy of the 107 counties (cities) of Shanxi Province,this paper analyzed the county economy disparity using an approach combining GIS with principal component and cluster analysis.15 indicators were selected to reflect economy disparity.The result showed that; 1) 107 counties (cities) of Shanxi province can be divided into five categories,i.e.,advanced developed,less advanced developed,middle developed,backward developed ,and more backward developed counties; 2) county-level economic situation in Shanxi province has developed significantly from 2001 to 2007.Especially,the regional economic differences were narrowed gradually; 3) Per capita GDP in Shanxi also showed a growing trend from 2001 to 2007 and the gap of county - level economy disparity shrank gradually.

  2. Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in Hunan


    Recent agricultural biotechnology research and advances in the province are reviewed. Targets and practices for biotechnological development in depth are discussed, with stress on the talent's training, new techniques' establishment and its industrialization, starting from the existing level and problems in the field in the province.

  3. Socio-Ecological Adaptation of Agricultural Heritage Systems in Modern China: Three Cases in Qingtian County, Zhejiang Province

    Wenjun Jiao


    Full Text Available This paper, on rural restructuring in China, focuses on the ability of agricultural heritage systems to adapt to modernizing conditions in the rural economy. Since 2002, when FAO initiated the protection of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS, the value of agricultural heritage has been widely acknowledged, as has the importance and urgency to protect the systems in which they are embedded. However, such complex systems have not been fully assessed for their contribution to food security, ecosystem services and cultural preservation, as well as their ability to adapt to the demands of modernization. In fact, they have not been effectively evaluated as whole systems, largely because we have not yet devised satisfactory ways of studying complex systems, nor have we been able to assess them fully for their multi-faceted contributions to sustainability. This paper accepts the premise that such systems are sustainable in that they have survived as agro-ecosystems for many hundreds of years, having endured the predations of droughts, famines, plagues, floods and wars. This ability to sustain a rich diversity of biological and human systems is considered, in the theory of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS, to be a form of resilience, meaning that these systems have either formed a new normal or returned to the old normal after a period of environmental or social stress. In effect, ancient agricultural heritage systems can be seen to represent what has been traditional and normal in China, but which today are faced with the overwhelming forces of modernization. Taking three examples from Qingtian County in Southern China, where physical and political conditions are consistent, the paper shows how similar rice-fish systems adapt differently and sustain themselves in the face of modernization, and particularly to the loss of youth and labor to urbanisation. One system self-adjusts by using remittances from abroad to sustain the system: an

  4. Protest Leadership and Repertoire: A Comparative Analysis of Peasant Protest in Hunan in the 1990s

    Wu Zhang


    Full Text Available Based on detailed ethnographic fieldwork, this paper compares two cases of peasant protest against heavy taxes and fees in a northern Hunan county in the 1990s. It argues that peasant protest did not arise spontaneously. Rather, it erupted when leaders emerged who used central policy documents on lowering peasant taxes and fees to mobilise peasants. Protest leaders were articulate and public-spirited peasants who had received political training from the local party-state. Furthermore, the number of leaders, their education level, and their relationship with the local party-state explain why the repertoire and the scope of the two protests varied. Protests led by less educated veteran Communist Party cadres tended to be milder and smaller than those led by better-educated peasants more distant from the local party-state. This paper helps us to understand the process of peasant mobilisation in contemporary China and explains why peasant protest varies across cases.

  5. Investigation and Analysis on the Selecting and Obtaining Employment of New Generation Migrant workers——A case of Yudu County,Jiangxi Province


    The paper conducts an investigation on the new generation migrant workers in view of the selecting and obtaining employment of new generation migrant workers in industrial zone of Yudu County,Ganzhou Province during the period from June 23,2010 to June 27,2010.The basic situation of the selecting and obtaining employment of new generation migrant workers,the expectation and career goals is collected.The chief problems confronted by the selecting and obtaining employment of migrant workers are analyzed.The problems cover substandard employment of enterprises;unsatisfying working and living conditions of new generation migrant workers;the knowledge and technology of new generation migrant workers lag behind the demand of enterprises;the new generation migrant workers lack the spirit of bearing hardships and hard work;new generation migrant workers do not have clear career plan and their demands on studying and training are hard to be materialized;restricted by household registration system,the new generation migrant workers can not enter into their workplace.Countermeasures and suggestions on solving the selecting and obtaining of new generation migrant workers are put forward.Firstly,perfecting the relevant laws and regulations on labors and protecting the each item of labor economic rights of new generation migrant workers;secondly,intensifying vocational training and improving the competitiveness of new generation migrant workers;thirdly,paying attention to the political education and mental health education on new generation migrant workers and launching rich and colorful cultural activities;fourthly,reinforcing the human concern and right protection on new generation migrant workers to enhance their right to say;fifthly,intensifying the reform on household registration and accelerating the process of urbanization.

  6. 云南省镇沅县两栖动物多样性研究%Study on the Diversity of Amphibians in Zhenyuan County of Yunnan Province

    李奇生; 张庆; 周杰珑; 杨丽萍


    Amphibian habitat is divided into residential areas, paddy field, lakes, rivers, woodlands and forest stream in Zhenyuan County of Yunnan Province, and different habitats were surveyed by setting transects. 10m×l000 m belt transects were designed and 50 transects were involved. Finally, 2096 amphibians were recorded, which belongs to 2 orders, 7 families 22 species; the diversity of amphibians in each habitat was evaluated using Shannon-weaver index and Pielou index, and the relationship of the habitat of amphibians and the human activities with amphibian diversity were also discussed.%对云南省镇沅县两栖动物生境的居民区、水田、湖泊、农地溪流、林地以及林区山涧等不同生境进行样带调查,设计样带10m×1000m,共涉及调查样带50条.共记录两栖动物2096只,隶属2目、7科、22种;利用物种多样性测定法(Shannon-weaver index & Pielou index)评价了各生境条件下两栖动物的多样性,并进一步探讨了两栖动物物种多样性与栖息环境的关系及其与人类活动干扰程度